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Sample records for white-spotted eagle ray

  1. Influence of boat noises on escape behaviour of white-spotted eagle ray Aetobatus ocellatus at Moorea Island (French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthe, Cecile; Lecchini, David

    2016-02-01

    The present study tested different sounds that could disturb eagle rays (Aetobatus ocellatus) during their foraging activities at Moorea, French Polynesia. Results showed that artificial white sound and single-frequency tones (40 Hz, 600 Hz or 1 kHz) did not have an effect on rays (at least 90% of rays continued to forage over sand), while playbacks of boat motor sound significantly disturbed rays during foraging activity (60% exhibited an escape behaviour). Overall, our study highlighted the negative effect of boat noises on the foraging activity of eagle rays. These noises produced by boat traffic could, however, have some positive effects for marine aquaculture if they could be used as a deterrent to repel the eagle rays, main predators of the pearl oysters. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  2. Microabrasion: a treatment option for white spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza de Barros Vasconcelos, M Q; Almeida Vieira, K; da Consolação Canuto Salgueiro, M; Almeida Alfaya, T; Santos Ferreira, C; Bussadori, S K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe a clinical protocol for the treatment of white spots with the use of an abrasive material. A four-year-old patient presented with a white spot on tooth 51 and a white spot associated with a carious lesion in the cervical region of tooth 52. Treatment was planned with microabrasion and restoration of the upper right lateral incisor. Prophylaxis was first performed, followed by protection with a dental dam and the application of the abrasive material (silicon carbide and hydrochloric acid 6%). Five applications were needed to remove the spots. The restoration of the upper right lateral incisor was then performed with a resin composite. A good esthetic outcome was achieved and both the patient and her guardians were satisfied with the results. Microabrasion is a conservative treatment option that achieves satisfactory results with regard to tooth color.

  3. White spots on Smoke rings by Bruce Nauman: a case study on contemporary art conservation using microanalytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafalda, Ana Cardeira; da Câmara, Rodrigo Bettencourt; Strzelec, Patrick; Schiavon, Nick; Mirão, José; Candeias, António; Carvalho, Maria Luísa; Manso, Marta

    2015-02-01

    The artwork "Smoke Rings: Two Concentric Tunnels, Non-Communicating" by Bruce Nauman represents a case study of corrosion of a black patina-coated Al-alloy contemporary artwork. The main concern over this artwork was the widespread presence of white spots on its surface. Alloy substrate, patina, and white spots were characterized by means of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Alloy substrate was identified as an aluminum alloy 6,000 series Al-Si-Mg. Patina's identified composition confirmed the documentation provided by the atelier. Concerning the white spots, zircon particles were found on patina surface as external elements.

  4. Can white spot lesions be treated effectively?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Mehmet; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan

    2012-09-01

    To compare the effects of sodium fluoride mouth rinse, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), and the microabrasion technique in treating white spot lesions. The study population consisted of 80 patients (46 females, 34 males; 966 affected teeth) who had developed multiple decalcified enamel lesions after fixed orthodontic therapy. The study population was divided into four groups of 20 patients each. The control group (group I) participants were to just brush their teeth, the fluoride group (group II) participants were instructed to use 20 ml of neutral 0.025% sodium fluoride rinse, the participants in the CPP-ACP group (group III) were instructed to use tooth mousse twice a day in addition to fluoride toothpaste for 6 months, and the participants in the microabrasion group (group IV) were to undergo treatment by the microabrasion technique, which is a commonly used mixture of 18% hydrochloric acid. Data were analyzed with the generalized linear mixed model and Tukey HSD at the P Microabrasion is an effective treatment for cosmetic improvement of long-standing white spot lesions.

  5. Management of white spots: resin infiltration technique and microabrasion

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong-Hye Son; Bock Hur,; Hyeon-Cheol Kim,; Jeong-Kil Park

    2011-01-01

    This case report compared the effectiveness of resin infiltration technique (Icon, DMG) with microabrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent Products, Inc.) in management of white spot lesions. It demonstrates that although neither microabrasion nor resin infiltration technique can remove white spot lesions completely, resin infiltration technique seems to be more effective than microabrasion. Therefore resin infiltration technique can be chosen preferentially for management of white spot lesions and cau...

  6. Management of white spots: resin infiltration technique and microabrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hye Son

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report compared the effectiveness of resin infiltration technique (Icon, DMG with microabrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent Products, Inc. in management of white spot lesions. It demonstrates that although neither microabrasion nor resin infiltration technique can remove white spot lesions completely, resin infiltration technique seems to be more effective than microabrasion. Therefore resin infiltration technique can be chosen preferentially for management of white spot lesions and caution should be taken for case selection.

  7. Treatment of White Spot Lesions with Icon (Resin Infiltration)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    FROM: 59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 8 MAR2017 1. Your paper, entitled T reatment of White Spot Lesions with Icon ( Resin ... Resin Infiltration) 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: Treatment of White Spot lesions with Icon ( Resin In filtration) 7. FUNDING

  8. Characterization of a tailless white spot syndrome virus from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WSSV) but without tail-like extension was identified and characterized from diseased Penaeus vannamei and moribund Procambarus clarkia. Contrary to previous reports, white spots were not observed on the carapace of the diseased P.

  9. Characterization of a tailless white spot syndrome virus from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    , Yangzhou, China. Accepted 15 July, 2011. In this study, a virus similar to the causative agent of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) but without tail-like extension was identified and characterized from diseased Penaeus ...

  10. Duodenal White Spots Mimicking Intestinal Candidiasis: Report of Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Turk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal white spots are mentioned in these nonspecific lesions until recently. Although there is not enough studies about duedonal white spots yet; these lesions described in a separate syndrome. Here now we reported a case that we diagnosed multiple Duodenal white spots mimicking intestinal candidiasis. Clinical manifestation and endoscopic appearance of lesions gave rise to thought intestinal candidiasis histopathological examination revealed us several duodenitis. There was no evidence of fungal infection in PAS staining. Early after endoscopy patient took treatment of Lansoprozole at the 30 mg dose and bismuth salicylate. Patients compliant declined and control endoscopy exposed white duodenal spots cleared away three months later. Duodenal white spots are becoming to be designated as a separate disease even a syndrome. Etiology of duodenal white spots must be determined carefully during endoscopy. Sometimes it is difficult to make the correct diagnosis by appearance of lesion; in such cases histopathological examination can be useful both differential diagnosis of disease and determination of etiological factor. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(4.000: 249-252

  11. Reproductive Biology of the White-spotted Rabbitfish, Siganus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—The reproductive biology of the white-spotted rabbitfish, Siganus canaliculatus, was studied on the Arabian Sea coast of Oman between April 2005 and March 2007. The males matured (L50) at 22.6 cm and females attained maturity at 23.9 cm TL when both were close to one year of age. The population of S.

  12. On the vaccination of shrimp against white spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveldt, J.

    2006-01-01

    More than a decade after its discovery inSouth-East Asia, White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is still the most important (viral) pathogen in the shrimp culture industry. Despite the shift from culturingPenaeusmonodon

  13. Genetic variation among isolates of White Spot Syndrome Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, H.; Goldbach, R.W.; Vlak, J.M.; Hulten, van M.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), member of a. new virus family called Nimaviridae, is a major scourge in worldwide shrimp, cultivation. Geographical isolates of WSSV identified so far are very similar in morphology and proteome, and show little difference in restriction fragment length polymorphism

  14. Reproductive Biology of the White-spotted Rabbitfish, Siganus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive biology of the white-spotted rabbitfish, Siganus canaliculatus, was studied on the Arabian Sea coast of Oman between April 2005 and March 2007. The males matured (L50) at 22.6 cm and females attained maturity at 23.9 cm TL when both were close to one year of age. The population of S. canaliculatus ...

  15. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 38; Issue 5. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in ... Molecular Biology Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Centre for Advance Studies, University of Pune, Pune 411 007, India; These authors contributed equally to this work. National Institute of Virology, Microbial ...

  16. Can white spot syndrome virus be transmitted through the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the aquatic environment by the pathway of phytoplankton through rotifer to artemia and shrimp was investigated. The phytoplankton Alexandrium tamarense and Alexandrium minutum were co-cultured with adult Fenneropenaeus chinensis infected with WSSV and ...

  17. Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The recognition and attachment of virus to its host cell surface is a critical step for viral infection. Recent research revealed that -integrin was involved in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this study, the interaction of -integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV infection was ...

  18. Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... The recognition and attachment of virus to its host cell surface is a critical step for viral infection. Recent research revealed that β-integrin was involved in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this study, the interaction of β-integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV ...

  19. Genomics and transcriptomics of White spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, H.

    2005-01-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a large enveloped DNA virus that infects shrimp and other crustaceans. The virions are approximately 275 x 120 nm in size and have an ovoid to bacilliform shape and a tail-like appendage at one end. Sequencing revealed that the circular, double stranded (ds) DNA

  20. Estimating the potential impacts of large mesopredators on benthic resources: integrative assessment of spotted eagle ray foraging ecology in Bermuda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Ajemian

    Full Text Available Declines of large sharks and subsequent release of elasmobranch mesopredators (smaller sharks and rays may pose problems for marine fisheries management as some mesopredators consume exploitable shellfish species. The spotted eagle ray (Aetobatus narinari is the most abundant inshore elasmobranch in subtropical Bermuda, but its predatory role remains unexamined despite suspected abundance increases and its hypothesized specialization for mollusks. We utilized a combination of acoustic telemetry, benthic invertebrate sampling, gut content analysis and manipulative experiments to assess the impact of spotted eagle rays on Bermudian shellfish resources. Residency and distribution of adult spotted eagle rays was monitored over two consecutive summers in Harrington Sound (HS, an enclosed inshore lagoon that has historically supported multiple recreational and commercial shellfish species. Telemetered rays exhibited variable fidelity (depending on sex to HS, though generally selected regions that supported relatively high densities of potential mollusk prey. Gut content analysis from rays collected in HS revealed a diet of mainly bivalves and a few gastropods, with calico clam (Macrocallista maculata representing the most important prey item. Manipulative field and mesocosm experiments with calico clams suggested that rays selected prey patches based on density, though there was no evidence of rays depleting clam patches to extirpation. Overall, spotted eagle rays had modest impacts on local shellfish populations at current population levels, suggesting a reduced role in transmitting cascading effects from apex predator loss. However, due to the strong degree of coupling between rays and multiple protected mollusks in HS, ecosystem-based management that accounts for ray predation should be adopted.

  1. White spot syndrome virus: an overview on an emergent concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Paz, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous and extremely abundant in the marine environment. One of such marine viruses, the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), has emerged globally as one of the most prevalent, widespread and lethal for shrimp populations. However, at present there is no treatment available to interfere with the unrestrained occurrence and spread of the disease. The recent progress in molecular biology techniques has made it possible to obtain information on the factors, mechanisms and strategies used by this virus to infect and replicate in susceptible host cells. Yet, further research is still required to fully understand the basic nature of WSSV, its exact life cycle and mode of infection. This information will expand our knowledge and may contribute to developing effective prophylactic or therapeutic measures. This review provides a state-of-the-art overview of the topic, and emphasizes the current progress and future direction for the development of WSSV control strategies. © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010.

  2. Management of post-orthodontic white spot lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonesson, Mikael; Bergstrand, Fredrik; Gizani, Sotiria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The management of post-orthodontic white spot lesions is based on remineralization strategies or a minimal-invasive camouflage of the lesions. AIM: The aim of this systematic review was to identify and assess the quality of evidence for the various clinical technologies....... SEARCH METHODS: Four databases were searched for relevant literature published in English between 2011 and 31 October 2015 according to a pre-determined PICO. Only controlled clinical studies were considered. Abstract lists and the selected full-text papers were independently examined by two reviewers...... and any differences were solved in consensus. The Cochrane handbook and the AMSTAR tool were used for grading the risk of bias. The quality of evidence was rated according to GRADE. RESULTS: Out of 280 identified publications, seven studies on remineralization, micro-abrasion and resin infiltration met...

  3. Wear and morphology of infiltrated white spot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Renan; Rahiotis, Christos; Schubert, Edward W; Baratieri, Luiz N; Petschelt, Anselm; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the toothbrush wear resistance of infiltrated artificial white spot lesions following two infiltration strategies, and to assess their ultramorphology. Flat enamel surfaces from freshly extracted bovine teeth were polished and immersed in a Buskes demineralising solution for 30 days to create incipient caries-like lesions (white spots). Two experimental regions on the surface of each tooth were infiltrated with an infiltrant and a commercial etch-and-rinse adhesive. Toothbrush abrasion was applied for 20,000 cycles. Vertical wear loss of the infiltrated areas was measured after 10,000 and 20,000 cycles against unabraded and abraded enamel using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM; multiple t-tests, α=0.05). Each lesion's surface and cross-section were evaluated under CLSM and scanning electron microscopy after etching and infiltration to assess ultramorphology. After 20,000 abrasion cycles, a statistically non-significant difference in vertical wear loss was measured for the infiltrant versus the adhesive compared with the original enamel (42.6±20.7 μm vs. 40.4±18.5 μm, p>0.05). Irregular surface profiles were common for the adhesive-infiltrated group as a result of peeling and blistering of the resin-covering layer. Ultramorphology of the infiltrated lesions revealed different patterns of penetration regarding density and depth. Although both infiltration strategies had equivalent wear resistance to toothbrush abrasion, surface and morphological aspects pointed to improved surface stability and infiltration quality for the infiltrant material. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-destructive management of white spot lesions by using tooth jewelry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jin Kim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although several methods including composite resin restoration and microabrasion have been used for management of white spot lesion, tooth jewelry can be considered as another noninvasive option. This case report describes the management of white spot lesions by using tooth jewelry. This report also highlights the patients' preference for tooth jewelry as an esthetic concern.

  5. Non-destructive management of white spot lesions by using tooth jewelry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Jin; Karanxha, Lorena

    2012-01-01

    Although several methods including composite resin restoration and microabrasion have been used for management of white spot lesion, tooth jewelry can be considered as another noninvasive option. This case report describes the management of white spot lesions by using tooth jewelry. This report also highlights the patients' preference for tooth jewelry as an esthetic concern. PMID:23430292

  6. Prevention and treatment of white spot lesions in orthodontic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khoroushi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decalcification of enamel, appearing as white spot lesions (WSLs, around fixed orthodontic appliances is a major challenge during and after fixed orthodontic treatment by considering the fact that the goal of orthodontic treatment is to enhance facial and dental esthetic appearance. Banded or bonded teeth exhibit a significantly higher rate of WSLs compared to the controls with no braces as fixed appliances and the bonding materials promote retention of biofilms. These lesions are managed in the first step by establishing good oral hygiene habits and prophylaxis with topical fluorides, including high-fluoride toothpastes, fluoride mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, fluoride-containing bonding materials, and elastic ligatures. Recently, other materials and methods have been recommended, including the application of casein phosphopeptides-amorphous calcium phosphate, antiseptics, probiotics, polyols, sealants, laser, tooth bleaching agents, resin infiltration, and microabrasion. This article reviews the currently used methods to manage enamel demineralization during and after orthodontic treatment and the risk factors and preventive measures based on the latest evidence.

  7. Prevention and Treatment of White Spot Lesions in Orthodontic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Kachuie, Marzie

    2017-01-01

    Decalcification of enamel, appearing as white spot lesions (WSLs), around fixed orthodontic appliances is a major challenge during and after fixed orthodontic treatment by considering the fact that the goal of orthodontic treatment is to enhance facial and dental esthetic appearance. Banded or bonded teeth exhibit a significantly higher rate of WSLs compared to the controls with no braces as fixed appliances and the bonding materials promote retention of biofilms. These lesions are managed in the first step by establishing good oral hygiene habits and prophylaxis with topical fluorides, including high-fluoride toothpastes, fluoride mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, fluoride-containing bonding materials, and elastic ligatures. Recently, other materials and methods have been recommended, including the application of casein phosphopeptides-amorphous calcium phosphate, antiseptics, probiotics, polyols, sealants, laser, tooth bleaching agents, resin infiltration, and microabrasion. This article reviews the currently used methods to manage enamel demineralization during and after orthodontic treatment and the risk factors and preventive measures based on the latest evidence. PMID:28566845

  8. Prevention and Treatment of White Spot Lesions in Orthodontic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Kachuie, Marzie

    2017-01-01

    Decalcification of enamel, appearing as white spot lesions (WSLs), around fixed orthodontic appliances is a major challenge during and after fixed orthodontic treatment by considering the fact that the goal of orthodontic treatment is to enhance facial and dental esthetic appearance. Banded or bonded teeth exhibit a significantly higher rate of WSLs compared to the controls with no braces as fixed appliances and the bonding materials promote retention of biofilms. These lesions are managed in the first step by establishing good oral hygiene habits and prophylaxis with topical fluorides, including high-fluoride toothpastes, fluoride mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, fluoride-containing bonding materials, and elastic ligatures. Recently, other materials and methods have been recommended, including the application of casein phosphopeptides-amorphous calcium phosphate, antiseptics, probiotics, polyols, sealants, laser, tooth bleaching agents, resin infiltration, and microabrasion. This article reviews the currently used methods to manage enamel demineralization during and after orthodontic treatment and the risk factors and preventive measures based on the latest evidence.

  9. Deep insight into white spot syndrome virus vaccines: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Badhul Haq

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV, the causative virus of the disease, is found in most shrimp farming areas of the world, where it causes large economic losses to the shrimp farming industry. The potentially fatal virus has been found to be a threat not only to all shrimp species, but also to other marine and freshwater crustaceans, such as crab and crayfish. To date, no effective prophylactic treatment measures are available for viral infections in shrimp and other crustaceans. Due to current aquaculture practices and the broad host range of WSSV, intervention strategies including vaccination against this virus would be pivotal to save and protect shrimp farming. Several achievements have been attained in the search of novel vaccines for WSSV. DNA vaccination, recombinant vaccines, oral vaccination techniques and gene therapy are some of the thrust areas of focus for scientists and researchers. This review article highlights the recent trends in the development of WSSV vaccines either as DNA vaccines or recombinant vaccines and their functioning strategies as suggested by the researchers worldwide.

  10. White-spot Lesions and Gingivitis Microbiotas in Orthodontic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, A.C.R.; Sonis, A.L.; Lif Holgerson, P.; Starr, J.R.; Nunez, Y.; Kressirer, C.A.; Paster, B.J.; Johansson, I.

    2012-01-01

    White-spot lesions (WSL) associated with orthodontic appliances are a cosmetic problem and increase risk for cavities. We characterized the microbiota of WSL, accounting for confounding due to gingivitis. Participants were 60 children with fixed appliances, aged between 10 and 19 yrs, half with WSL. Plaque samples were assayed by a 16S rRNA-based microarray (HOMIM) and by PCR. Mean gingival index was positively associated with WSL (p = 0.018). Taxa associated with WSL by microarray included Granulicatella elegans (p = 0.01), Veillonellaceae sp. HOT 155 (p gingivitis by microarray included: Gemella sanguinis (p = 0.002), Actinomyces sp. HOT 448 (p = 0.003), Prevotella cluster IV (p = 0.021), and Streptococcus sp. HOT 071/070 (p = 0.023); and levels of S. mutans (p = 0.02) and Bifidobacteriaceae (p = 0.012) by qPCR. Species’ associations with WSL were minimally changed with adjustment for gingivitis level. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis yielded good discrimination between children with and those without WSL. Granulicatella, Veillonellaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae, in addition to S. mutans and S. wiggsiae, were associated with the presence of WSL in adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment. Many taxa showed a stronger association with gingivitis than with WSL. PMID:22837552

  11. Fluoride varnish reduces white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Imran

    2008-01-01

    This was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) set in a community dental practice. The test varnish was a commercially available product, Fluor Protector (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), containing 0.1% fluoride as difluorosilane in a polyurethane varnish base. The placebo varnish applied had an identical composition but without fluoride. The incidence and prevalence of white spot lesions (WSL) on the upper incisors, cuspids and premolars were recorded, as scored from digital photographs by two independent examiners. In the case of disagreement, cases were re-examined until a consensus was achieved. The incidence of WSL during the treatment period was 7.4% in the fluoride varnish group compared with 25.3% placebo group (P <0.001). The mean progression score was significantly lower in the fluoride varnish group than in the placebo group, (0.8 +/- 2.0 vs 2.6 +/- 2.8; P <0.001). The absolute risk reduction was 18% and the number-needed-to-treat was calculated to be 5.5 (95% confidence interval, 3.7-10.9). The results strongly suggest that regular topical fluoride varnish applications may reduce the development of WSL adjacent to the bracket base during treatment with fixed appliances.

  12. Treatment of white spot lesions with ACP paste and microabrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliska, Benjamin T; Warner, Gary A; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Larson, Brent E

    2012-09-01

    To examine the effects of application of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste and microabrasion treatment on the regression of white spot lesions (WSLs). Artificially-induced WSLs in bovine enamel were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: CPP-ACP paste only, microabrasion only, microabrasion and CPP-ACP, and a control. Samples were treated with each regimen twice daily for 2 weeks and stored in remineralizing solution between the treatments. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence was used to measure changes in fluorescence, which indicate changes in mineral content of WSLs immediately before (T1) and 2 weeks after treatment (T2). A two-within-subject factor analysis of variance was used to analyze the significance of any changes in mineral content of the lesions from T1 to T2. There was a statistically significant (P microabrasion only, as well as the microabrasion and CPP-ACP treatments. The changes in fluorescence for the CPP-ACP treatment alone were not statistically significant (P  =  .40). CPP-ACP paste alone does not significantly improve the fluorescence value (ie, the mineral content) of WSLs. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, microabrasion treatment with or without CPP-ACP improved the fluorescence and thus reduced WSLs.

  13. Biology of Myliobatis goodei (Springer, 1939), a widely distributed eagle ray, caught in northern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Juan Manuel; Lopez Cazorla, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Chondrichthyans play an important role in structuring marine communities. Myliobatis goodie is an eagle ray reported from South Carolina in the USA (35°N) to Santa Cuz, Argentina (44°S), however little is known about this species, which is considered data deficient by the IUCN. In order to create adequate management strategies for this species, biological information is sorely needed. The objective of this study was to describe the biology of the population of M. goodei and its relationships with season, sex and the geographic features of Anegada Bay, Argentina (from 39.96°S to 40.60°S and from 62.10°W to 62.46°W) in 2008. Specifically, the population structure of M. goodie was studied by sex, seasons and sites, its food habits by seasons and sites, and the reproductive biology by seasons and sex. The results show that M. goodei exhibits seasonal migrations. Young-of-the-year remain in the bay all year long, while adults enter during spring and summer. Juveniles in spring are likely to become first-time mating individuals that migrate into open sea at the end of summer. These individuals would return to give birth for the first time and mate for the second time during the next year at summer. Anegada Bay would then be a mating and nursery area for the species. M. goodei behave as a generalist feeder with a uniform diet composed mainly of bivalves. Seasonal differences in the diet found arise from differences in prey diversity between summer and spring. Spatial differences, however, arise from the different abundances of caprellids and bivalves. Trophic level was 3.2 and it constitutes the first reference for this species, characterizing it as a secondary consumer.

  14. Dual function of the pectoral girdle for feeding and locomotion in white-spotted bamboo sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Ariel L; Scott, Bradley; Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2017-07-26

    Positioned at the intersection of the head, body and forelimb, the pectoral girdle has the potential to function in both feeding and locomotor behaviours-although the latter has been studied far more. In ray-finned fishes, the pectoral girdle attaches directly to the skull and is retracted during suction feeding, enabling the ventral body muscles to power rapid mouth expansion. However, in sharks, the pectoral girdle is displaced caudally and entirely separate from the skull (as in tetrapods), raising the question of whether it is mobile during suction feeding and contributing to suction expansion. We measured three-dimensional kinematics of the pectoral girdle in white-spotted bamboo sharks during suction feeding with X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology, and found the pectoral girdle consistently retracted about 11° by rotating caudoventrally about the dorsal scapular processes. This motion occurred mostly after peak gape, so it likely contributed more to accelerating captured prey through the oral cavity and pharynx, than to prey capture as in ray-finned fishes. Our results emphasize the multiple roles of the pectoral girdle in feeding and locomotion, both of which should be considered in studying the functional and evolutionary morphology of this structure. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Suction generation in white-spotted bamboo sharks Chiloscyllium plagiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilga, Cheryl D; Sanford, Christopher P

    2008-10-01

    After the divergence of chondrichthyans and teleostomes, the structure of the feeding apparatus also diverged leading to alterations in the suction mechanism. In this study we investigated the mechanism for suction generation during feeding in white-spotted bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium plagiosum and compared it with that in teleosts. The internal movement of cranial elements and pressure in the buccal, hyoid and pharyngeal cavities that are directly responsible for suction generation was quantified using sonomicrometry and pressure transducers. Backward stepwise multiple linear regressions were used to explore the relationship between expansion and pressure, accounting for 60-96% of the variation in pressure among capture events. The progression of anterior to posterior expansion in the buccal, hyoid and pharyngeal cavities is accompanied by the sequential onset of subambient pressure in these cavities as prey is drawn into the mouth. Gape opening triggers the onset of subambient pressure in the oropharyngeal cavities. Peak gape area coincides with peak subambient buccal pressure. Increased velocity of hyoid area expansion is primarily responsible for generating peak subambient pressure in the buccal and hyoid regions. Pharyngeal expansion appears to function as a sink to receive water influx from the mouth, much like that of compensatory suction in bidirectional aquatic feeders. Interestingly, C. plagiosum generates large suction pressures while paradoxically compressing the buccal cavity laterally, delaying the time to peak pressure. This represents a fundamental difference from the mechanism used to generate suction in teleost fishes. Interestingly, pressure in the three cavities peaks in the posterior to anterior direction. The complex shape changes that the buccal cavity undergoes indicate that, as in teleosts, unsteady flow predominates during suction feeding. Several kinematic variables function together, with great variation over long gape cycles to

  16. THE ’WHITE SPOTS’ OF THE BRAIN (’BELYE PYATNA’ MOZGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite definite advances, the compilation of a chart of the cerebral cortex still exists in its rudimentary stage: ’ white spots’ as yet occupy a greater area than explored ’territories.’ (Author)

  17. Field-Usable Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Rapid Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)

    OpenAIRE

    Kulabhusan, Prabir Kumar; Rajwade, Jyutika M.; Sugumar, Vimal; Taju, Gani; Sahul Hameed, A. S.; Paknikar, Kishore M.

    2017-01-01

    Background White spot disease (WSD), a major threat to sustainable aquaculture worldwide, is caused by White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The diagnosis of WSD relies heavily on molecular detection of the virus by one-step PCR. These procedures are neither field-usable nor rapid enough considering the speed at which the virus spreads. Thus, development of a rapid, reliable and field-usable diagnostic method for the detection of WSSV infection is imperative to prevent huge economic losses. Metho...

  18. Management of Post-orthodontic White Spot Lesions and Subsequent Enamel Discoloration with Two Microabrasion Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Arezoo Jahanbin; Hamideh Ameri; Mostafa Shahabi; Ala Ghazi

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Demineralization of enamel adjacent to orthodontic appliances frequently occurs, commonly due to insufficient oral hygiene. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare two microabrasion techniques on improving the white spot lesions as well as subsequent enamel discoloration. Materials and Method: Sixty extracted premolar teeth without caries and hypo-plasia were selected for this study. White spot lesions were artificially induced on the buccal surface of e...

  19. The 2010 Saturn's Great White Spot: Observations and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2011-12-01

    On December 5, 2010, a major storm erupted in Saturn's northern hemisphere at a planetographic latitude of 37.7 deg [1]. These phenomena are known as "Great White Spots" (GWS) and they have been observed once per Saturn year since the first case confidently reported in 1876. The last event occurred at Saturn's Equator in 1990 [2]. A GWS differs from similar smaller-scale storms in that it generates a planetary-scale disturbance that spreads zonally spanning the whole latitude band. We report on the evolution and motions of the 2010 GWS and its associated disturbance during the months following the outbreak, based mainly on high quality images obtained in the visual range submitted to the International Outer Planet Watch PVOL database [3], with the 1m telescope at Pic-du-Midi Observatory and the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory. The GWS "head source" extinguished by June 2011 implying that it survived about 6 months. Since this source is assumed to be produced by water moist convection, a reservoir of water vapor must exist at a depth of 10 bar and at the same time a disturbance producing the necessary convergence to trigger the ascending motions. The high temporal sampling and coverage allowed us to study the dynamics of the GWS in detail and the multi-wavelength observations provide information on its cloud top structure. We present non-linear simulations using the EPIC code of the evolution of the potential vorticity generated by a continuous Gaussian heat source extending from 10 bar to about 1 bar, that compare extraordinary well to the observed cloud field evolution. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. The presentation is done on behalf of the team listed in Reference [1]. [1]Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 475, 71-74 (2011) [2]Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 353, 397-401 (1991) [3]Hueso R., et al., Planet. Space Sci., 58, 1152-1159 (2010).

  20. Novel treatment of white spot lesions: A report of two cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanna, Vasundhara; Shivakumar, B

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes a technique used to treat smooth surface white spot lesions microinvasively. It is based on the infiltration of an initial enamel caries lesion with low-viscosity light-curing resins called infiltrants. The surface layer is eroded and desiccated, followed by resin infiltrant application. The resin penetrates into the lesion microporosities driven by capillary force and is hardened by light curing. Infiltrated lesions lose their whitish appearance and look similar to sound enamel. Additionally, the treatment prevents lesion progression. This technique might be an alternative to microabrasion and restorative treatment in treating of white spot lesions of esthetically relevant teeth. PMID:22144817

  1. Virion composition and genomics of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M.C.W.

    2001-01-01


    Since its first discovery in Taiwan in 1992, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused major economic damage to shrimp culture. The virus has spread rapidly through Asia and reached the Western Hemisphere in 1995 (Texas), where it continued its devastating effect

  2. Antiviral property of marine actinomycetes against white spot syndrome virus in penaeid shrimps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.S.; Philip, R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    and are continually being screened for new compounds. In this communication, the results of a study made to determine the effectiveness of marine actinomycetes against the white spot disease in penaeid shrimps are presented. Twenty-five isolates of actinomycetes were...

  3. Treatment of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in penaeid shrimp aquaculture using plant extract

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Desai, U.M.

    The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is causing a serious concern and threat to the shrimp aquaculture production in India since 1994. In this paper, the result of a successful attempt made in formulating a plant extract for treating the WSSV...

  4. Identification and phylogeny of a protein kinase gene of white spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M.C.W.; Vlak, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans, which is unclassified taxonomically. A 2193 bp long open reading frame, encoding a putative protein kinase (PK), was found on a 8.4 kb EcoRI fragment of WSSV proximal to the gene for the major envelope protein

  5. Identification of two major virion protein genes of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M.C.W.; Westenberg, M.; Goodall, S.D.; Vlak, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is an invertebrate virus, causing considerable mortality in shrimp. Two structural proteins of WSSV were identified. WSSV virions are enveloped nucleocapsids with a bacilliform morphology with an approximate size of 275 x 120 nm, and a tail-like extension at one end.

  6. Three functionally diverged major White Spot Syndrome Virus structural proteins evolved by gene duplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M.C.W.; Goldbach, R.W.; Vlak, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an invertebrate virus causing considerable mortality in penaeid shrimp. The oval-to-bacilliform shaped virions, isolated from infected Penaeus monodon, contain four major proteins: VP28, VP26, VP24 and VP19 (28, 26, 24 and 19 kDa, respectively). VP26 and VP24 are

  7. In silico identification of putative promoter motifs of White Spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, H.; Ren, X.Y.; Sandbrink, H.; Hulten, van M.C.W.; Vlak, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: White Spot Syndrome Virus, a member of the virus family Nimaviridae, is a large dsDNA virus infecting shrimp and other crustacean species. Although limited information is available on the mode of transcription, previous data suggest that WSSV gene expression occurs in a coordinated and

  8. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haryadi, D.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Vlak, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina

  9. Evolutionary trajectory of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome shrinkage during spread in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, M.P.; Bui Thi Minh Dieu,; Hemerik, L.; Vlak, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background - White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the sole member of the novel Nimaviridae family, and the source of major economic problems in shrimp aquaculture. WSSV appears to have rapidly spread worldwide after the first reported outbreak in the early 1990s. Genomic deletions of various sizes

  10. [Assessment of antibacterial efficacy of ozone therapy in treatment of caries at the white spot stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeeva, I M; Turkina, A Yu; Margaryan, E G; Paramonov, Yu O; Polyakova, M A

    Effect on cariogenic flora is the key toremineralizing therapy efficacy in treatment of initial caries (at the white spot stage). Ozone in dentistry is used as a highly effective antibacterial agent. Treatment of white spot lesions with the ozone-air mixture leads to significant increase of efficacy in non-invasive treatment of initial caries. clinical and microbiological assessment of antibacterial efficacy of ozone therapy in treatment of caries at the white spot stage. The trial recruited 86 patients for non-invasive treatment of caries at the white spot stage which included the complex of professional oral hygiene, medicamental treatment of white spot lesions with hydrogen peroxide 3% and chlorhexidinedigluconate 0,2%, treatment with the ozone-air mixture and application of hydroxyapatite Са2+. Material for microbiological study was received before the treatment, after the complex of professional oral hygiene and medicamental treatment of white spot lesions conducted as well as after the treatment with the ozone-air mixture. Before the treatment up to 16 kinds of microorganisms on the surface of white spot lesion were detected with the following shares: S. mutans (19.9%), S. salivarius (15.1%), S. epidermidis (8.7%), S. mitis (6.5%), Lactobacillus (6.5%) and different kinds of staphylococci (10.8%). After the complex of professional oral hygiene and medicamental treatment conducted decrease in number of cariogenic microorganisms was indicated as follows: S. mutans - from 1·105 to 1·104, S. salivarius - from 1·107 to 1·106, S. epidermidis - from 1·105 to 1·104, S. mitis - from 1·104 to 1·103, Lactobacillus - from 1·104 tо 1·103. After the treatment of tooth enamel with the ozone-air mixture increase in microorganisms was not observed. The efficacy of ozone on cariogenic microorganisms exceeds significantly the efficacy of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 0,2% chlorhexidinedigluconate. It is strongly advisable to include ozone in protocol of non

  11. Management of Post-orthodontic White Spot Lesions and Subsequent Enamel Discoloration with Two Microabrasion Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbin, Arezoo; Ameri, Hamideh; Shahabi, Mostafa; Ghazi, Ala

    2015-03-01

    Demineralization of enamel adjacent to orthodontic appliances frequently occurs, commonly due to insufficient oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to compare two microabrasion techniques on improving the white spot lesions as well as subsequent enamel discoloration. Sixty extracted premolar teeth without caries and hypoplasia were selected for this study. White spot lesions were artificially induced on the buccal surface of each tooth. Teeth were randomly assigned to three treatment groups, each treated with pumice powder as the control, microabrasion with 18% HCl, and microabrasion with 37% H3PO4. Subsequently, the three groups were daily immersed for five minutes in a tea-coffee solution for a period of one week. Colorimetric evaluation was done before and after formation of white spot lesions, after microabrasion, and after immersion in the colored solution; then the color differences (∆E) were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed by multiple measurement analysis and the Tukey's test. This study showed that ∆E between the stages of white spot formation and microabrasion for H3PO4 was more than other groups and for the pumice powder group it was less than the others. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between ∆E of the three study groups (p= 0.017). Additionally, ∆E after placing the teeth in the colored solution and microabrasion was the highest for the HCl group and the lowest for the pumice powder group. There was also a significant difference between the three groups (p= 0.000). Pumice powder alone had similar effects as 18% HCl on removing the white spot lesions. Nevertheless, 18% HCl makes the enamel susceptible for subsequent color staining more than the other microabrasion methods.

  12. White spot syndrome virus infection: Threat to crustacean biodiversity in Vembanad Lake, India

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Toms C.; James, Roswin; Rajan, L. Anbu; Surendran, P.K.; Lalitha, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Vembanad Lake located on the south-west coast of India, an ecological hotspot is the nursing ground of many economically important crustaceans. The prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) among crustaceans from farmed, estuarine and marine environments surrounding the Vembanad Lake, India was detected using PCR. A total of 308 samples from aquaculture ponds consisting of six species of crustaceans collected from five different farms were tested for the presence of WSSV. Of these, 6...

  13. [Effect of resin infiltration treatment on the colour of white spot lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyi; Gao, Xuejun

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of resin infiltration and fluoride solution on masking different demineralized white spot lesions by assessing color change. Artificial white spot lesions were produced on 60 human molars. Each sample had at least two enamel surfaces opened (named A and B). The samples were randomly divided into groups 1, 2, and 3 according to their time of demineralization (24, 48, and 72 h). After demineralization, the A spot of each sample was treated by resin infiltration. The B spot was treated with 0.1% fluoride solution daily for 30 days. After the remineralization of the B spot, resin infiltration was used again on the B spot of each sample. Color assessment was performed by a spectrophotometer in five distinct stages: baseline, after the production of artificial caries, after resin infiltration of A spots, after 30 days of fluoride solution treatment of B spots, and after resin infiltration of remineralized B spots. Before demineralization, the L* values of spots A and B in all groups were not significantly different (P > 0.05), whereas the L* values of spots A and B were significantly increased after demineralization. The L* values of A spots recovered significantly after treatment by resin infiltration (P 0.05) after fluoride treatment compared with that after demineralization. After resin infiltration on B spots, the L* values recovered but could not reach the baseline nor the level of A spots treated by resin infiltration only. Resin infiltration is a more effective treatment for masking white spot lesions than traditional fluoride treatment. The effect of masking white spot lesions has certain relationships with the degree of demineralization and activity of the lesion.

  14. Microhardness and Penetration of Artificial White Spot Lesions Treated with Resin or Colloidal Silica Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandava, Jyothi; Reddy, Y Shilpa; Kantheti, Sirisha; Chalasani, Uma; Ravi, Ravi Chandra; Borugadda, Roopesh; Konagala, Ravi Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Infiltration of early enamel lesions by materials having remineralizing capacity seems to improve aesthetics and arrests caries progression. To evaluate and compare the surface microhardness and penetration depth of a low viscosity resin and colloidal silica nanoparticle infiltrates into artificially created white spot lesions. Forty extracted human central incisors were embedded in acrylic resin blocks exposing the labial surfaces of the crowns. The specimens were immersed in demineralizing solution for 96 hours to create white spot lesions on labial surfaces. The samples were then divided into two groups (n=20 each), where in Group 1-resin infiltration (ICON DMG, Hamburg, Germany) and Group 2-colloidal silica infiltration (Arrow Fine chemicals, Rajkot, Gujarat, India) was done. Samples were subjected to vicker's microhardness testing at baseline, after demineralization and after treatment with resin or colloidal silica infiltrates. Then, the crowns were sectioned longitudinally and penetration depth of the infiltrants was measured using confocal laser scanning microscope and compared the readings to lesion depth. All the collected data was subjected to statistical analysis using t-test. Resin infiltration group showed significantly greater increase in microhardness compared to colloidal silica infiltration (p=0.001). The percentage of penetration of the resin group was 67.14% and that of colloidal silica group was 54.53% indicating significant difference between the two. Resin infiltrates performed better in regaining the baseline microhardness and penetrating deep into the porous white spot lesions, when compared to colloidal silica infiltrates.

  15. A de novo mutation in KIT causes white spotting in a subpopulation of German Shepherd dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A K; Ruhe, A L; Robertson, K R; Loew, E R; Williams, D C; Neff, M W

    2013-06-01

    Although variation in the KIT gene is a common cause of white spotting among domesticated animals, KIT has not been implicated in the diverse white spotting observed in the dog. Here, we show that a loss-of-function mutation in KIT recapitulates the coat color phenotypes observed in other species. A spontaneous white spotting observed in a pedigree of German Shepherd dogs was mapped by linkage analysis to a single locus on CFA13 containing KIT (pairwise LOD = 15). DNA sequence analysis identified a novel 1-bp insertion in the second exon that co-segregated with the phenotype. The expected frameshift and resulting premature stop codons predicted a severely truncated c-Kit receptor with presumably abolished activity. No dogs homozygous for the mutation were recovered from multiple intercrosses (P = 0.01), suggesting the mutation is recessively embryonic lethal. These observations are consistent with the effects of null alleles of KIT in other species. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. Effect of caries infiltration technique and fluoride therapy on the colour masking of white spot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha Gomes Torres, Carlos; Borges, Alessandra Buhler; Torres, Luciana Marcondes Sarmento; Gomes, Isabela Silva; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Simões

    2011-03-01

    A carious lesion is initiated through the subsurface demineralization of enamel, and presents clinically as a white spot, interfering with the aesthetics. This lesion should not receive restorative treatment because it is capable of remineralization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of different treatments on masking white spot lesions by assessing the colour change. Artificial white spot lesions were produced in bovine enamel of 60 cylindrical-shaped samples. The samples were randomly divided into four groups: CON (control) - immersion in artificial saliva; DF - daily application of 0.05% fluoride solution; WF - weekly application of 2% fluoride gel; and IC - resin infiltration (Icon(®) - DMG). The assessment of colour was performed by a spectrophotometer in four distinct stages: baseline, after the production of artificial caries; after 4 weeks; after 8 weeks; and after a new acid challenge. The ΔL values were calculated at each stage in relation to the baseline colour. The application of RM ANOVA revealed significant differences between the factors' treatment and time (p=0.001). For the interaction between factors there were no significant differences (p=0.27). The Tukey's test (pwhite spot lesions. Also, after a new acid challenge, the group infiltrated with low viscosity resin presented the lowest means of colour change. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Preventive effect of ozone on the development of white spot lesions during multibracket appliance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Otmar; Lussi, Adrian; Ruf, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    To test the null hypotheses: (1) there is no difference in the caries protective effect of ozone and Cervitec/Fluor Protector during multibracket (MB) appliance therapy, and (2) DIAGNOdent and quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) are not superior to a visual evaluation of initial caries lesions. Twenty right-handed patients with a very poor oral hygiene who required full MB appliance therapy were analyzed during 26 months. In a split-mouth-design, the four quadrants of each patient were either treated with ozone, a combination of Cervitec and Fluor Protector, or served as untreated controls. The visible plaque index (VPI) and white spot formation were analyzed clinically. DIAGNOdent and QLF were used for a quantitative assessment of white spot formation. The average VPI in all four dental arch quadrants amounted to 55.6% and was independent of the preventive measure undertaken. In the quadrants treated with Cervitec/Fluor Protector, only 0.7% of the areas developed new, clinically visible white spots. This was significantly (P Fluor Protector during MB therapy was superior to ozone, and a visual evaluation of initial caries lesions was superior to both DIAGNOdent and QLF.

  18. Effect of Repeated Acid Challenges on the Color Stability of Resin-Infiltrated Enamel White Spot Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Gomez J, Lara JS, Cortes A. (2012). Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions: a 3-year randomized clinical trial. Journal of Dental Research, 91...infiltration in masking white spot lesions and inhibiting caries , few studies have examined the durability of resin-infiltration against acid challenges. We...infiltration in masking white spot lesions and inhibiting caries , few studies have examined the durability of resin-infiltration against acid challenges. We

  19. Microhardness and Roughness of Infiltrated White Spot Lesions Submitted to Different Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neres, É Y; Moda, M D; Chiba, E K; Briso, Alf; Pessan, J P; Fagundes, T C

    A white spot lesion is the first clinical sign of a caries lesion and represents mineral loss from the enamel subsurface. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microhardness and surface roughness of white spot lesions after application of a resin infiltrant and subjection to different challenges. Caries-like lesions were induced in bovine enamel discs (n=50), and the specimens were randomly divided into five study groups (n=10): demineralized enamel (negative control, G1), infiltrated enamel (G2), infiltrated enamel submitted to brushing (G3), infiltrated enamel submitted to pH cycling (G4), and infiltrated enamel submitted to artificial aging (G5). Half of each enamel surface was used as its own positive control. Roughness data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Dunn test. Results from microhardness were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey test for multiple comparisons. The level of significance was set at 5%. Microhardness and roughness values obtained from the test side of the specimens were significantly lower compared with the sound enamel for all groups. Microhardness values obtained for G2, G3, and G5 were not significantly different. Values found for G1 were significantly lower compared with those for G2, G3, and G5. The lowest microhardness values were observed for G4, which was significantly different from the other groups. Surface roughness was not significantly different between G2 and G3. The resin infiltrant presented superiority over the unprotected white spot lesions, as they were more resistant to mechanical and aging challenges. However, resin infiltration was not able to reestablish the properties of sound enamel and was not resistant to a new cariogenic challenge.

  20. Increased susceptibility for white spot lesions by surplus orthodontic etching exceeding bracket base area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knösel, Michael; Bojes, Mariana; Jung, Klaus; Ziebolz, Dirk

    2012-05-01

    There is a paucity of information with regard to the susceptibility of iatrogenic white spot lesion formation after inattentive, surplus orthodontic etching with 30% phosphoric acid and the subsequent provision or absence of adequate oral hygiene. Ninety sound enamel specimens were randomly allocated to 6 trial groups (n = 15 each) for etching with 30% phosphoric acid for either 15 seconds and standardized daily enamel brushing or no brushing, etching for 30 seconds with daily brushing or no brushing, or nonetched controls with brushing or no brushing. Nutritive acidic assaults were simulated by demineralization cycles 3 times per day for 1 hour with interim storage in artificial saliva. Lesion depths in terms of percentage of fluorescence loss (delta F, delta Q) and lesion extension compared with the baseline were assessed by using quantitative light-induced fluorescence after 2, 7, 14, 21, and 42 days. Etching duration, trial time elapse, and oral hygiene, as well as the significance of factor interactions, were analyzed with 3-way analysis of variance (α = 5%). The impact of the factors of enamel brushing, trial time elapse, and etching each had a comparably significant effect on lesion progression. The effect of surplus etching on white spot lesion formation was significantly enhanced by the simultaneous absence of enamel brushing and also the progression of trial time. The combination of 30 seconds of surplus etching with inadequate oral hygiene was especially detrimental. Excessive surplus orthodontic etching of the complete labial enamel surface, instead of the bracket bases only, must be avoided to prevent iatrogenic white spot lesions. Etching times not exceeding 15 seconds are favorable. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Increased susceptibility for white spot lesions by surplus orthodontic etching exceeding bracket base area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knösel, Michael; Bojes, Mariana; Jung, Klaus; Ziebolz, Dirk; Renger, Stéphane

    2015-09-01

    There is a paucity of information with regard to the susceptibility of iatrogenic white spot lesion formation after inattentive, surplus orthodontic etching with 30% phosphoric acid and the subsequent provision or absence of adequate oral hygiene. Ninety sound enamel specimens were randomly allocated to 6 trial groups (N = 15 each) for etching with 30% phosphoric acid for either 15 seconds and standardized daily enamel brushing or no brushing, etching for 30 seconds with daily brushing or no brushing, or nonetched controls with brushing or no brushing. Nutritive acidic assaults were simulated by demineralization cycles 3 times per day for 1 hour with interim storage in artificial saliva. Lesion depths in terms of percentage of fluorescence loss (delta F, delta Q) and lesion extension compared with the baseline were assessed by using quantitative light-induced fluorescence after 2, 7, 14, 21, and 42 days. Etching duration, trial time elapse, and oral hygiene, as well as the significance of factor interactions, were analyzed with 3-way analysis of variance (α=5%). The impact of the factors of enamel brushing, trial time elapse, and etching each had a comparably significant effect on lesion progression. The effect of surplus etching on white spot lesion formation was significantly enhanced by the simultaneous absence of enamel brushing and also the progression of trial time. The combination of 30 seconds of surplus etching with inadequate oral hygiene was especially detrimental. Excessive surplus orthodontic etching of the complete labial enamel surface, instead of the bracket bases only, must be avoided to prevent iatrogenic white spot lesions. Etching times not exceeding 15 seconds are favorable. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2015.

  2. Eagle's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro, Thaís Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eagle's syndrome is characterized by cervicopharyngeal signs and symptoms associated with elongation of the styloid apophysis. This elongation may occur through ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, or through growth of the apophysis due to osteogenesis triggered by a factor such as trauma. Elongation of the styloid apophysis may give rise to intense facial pain, headache, dysphagia, otalgia, buzzing sensations, and trismus. Precise diagnosis of the syndrome is difficult, and it is generally confounded by other manifestations of cervicopharyngeal pain. Objective: To describe a case of Eagle's syndrome. Case Report: A 53-year-old man reported lateral pain in his neck that had been present for 30 years. Computed tomography (CT of the neck showed elongation and ossification of the styloid processes of the temporal bone, which was compatible with Eagle's syndrome. Surgery was performed for bilateral resection of the stylohyoid ligament by using a transoral and endoscopic access route. The patient continued to present pain laterally in the neck, predominantly on his left side. CT was performed again, which showed elongation of the styloid processes. The patient then underwent lateral cervicotomy with resection of the stylohyoid process, which partially resolved his painful condition. Final Comments: Patients with Eagle's syndrome generally have a history of chronic pain. Appropriate knowledge of this disease is necessary for adequate treatment to be provided. The importance of diagnosing this uncommon and often unsuspected disease should be emphasized, given that correct clinical-surgical treatment is frequently delayed. The diagnosis of Eagle's syndrome is clinical and radiographic, and the definitive treatment in cases of difficult-to-control pain is surgical.

  3. Ice nucleation activity in Pantoea ananatis obtained from maize white spot lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Vanessa Sauer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Maize white spot lesions caused by Pantoea ananatis has contributed substantially to yield reduction of maize crops in many countries, including Brazil. The initial symptoms of the disease include water-soaked lesions on the leaves, which later become necrotic and straw-colored. Basic knowledge regarding the biology and the infection mechanisms of this pathogen is lacking. In this study, 15 P. ananatis isolates obtained from maize white spot lesions were examined for their ice nucleation activity (INA. The INAs of individual bacterial isolates was determined by tube nucleation tests. Bacterial isolates were grown on tryptic soy broth medium and an aliquot of 0.1 mL of culture was added to test tubes containing 1 mL of sterile distilled water. The tubes were packed in an ice bath, which had a temperature below –10°C, for approximately 2 min. Instantaneous formation of ice in the tube revealed a positive INA phenotype of the isolate. Only 9 of the 15 studied isolates showed the INA+ phenotype. Pathogenicity tests were performed using whole plants and detached leaves. Symptoms were reproduced in both tests, but only for the inoculations using INA+ isolates. Electron microscopy allowed visualization of protein vesicles under outer cell wall of isolates characterized as INA+.

  4. Molecular Mechanisms of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection and Perspectives on Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Bas; Bickley, Lisa K; van Aerle, Ronny; Bateman, Kelly S; Stentiford, Grant D; Santos, Eduarda M; Tyler, Charles R

    2016-01-18

    Since its emergence in the 1990s, White Spot Disease (WSD) has had major economic and societal impact in the crustacean aquaculture sector. Over the years shrimp farming alone has experienced billion dollar losses through WSD. The disease is caused by the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), a large dsDNA virus and the only member of the Nimaviridae family. Susceptibility to WSSV in a wide range of crustacean hosts makes it a major risk factor in the translocation of live animals and in commodity products. Currently there are no effective treatments for this disease. Understanding the molecular basis of disease processes has contributed significantly to the treatment of many human and animal pathogens, and with a similar aim considerable efforts have been directed towards understanding host-pathogen molecular interactions for WSD. Work on the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis in aquatic crustaceans has been restricted by a lack of sequenced and annotated genomes for host species. Nevertheless, some of the key host-pathogen interactions have been established: between viral envelope proteins and host cell receptors at initiation of infection, involvement of various immune system pathways in response to WSSV, and the roles of various host and virus miRNAs in mitigation or progression of disease. Despite these advances, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain; for example, the roles of the majority of WSSV proteins are still unknown. In this review we assess current knowledge of how WSSV infects and replicates in its host, and critique strategies for WSD treatment.

  5. An update on mechanism of entry of white spot syndrome virus into shrimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arunima Kumar; Gupta, Shipra; Singh, Shivesh Pratap; Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao

    2017-08-01

    Host-parasite relationships can be best understood at the level of protein-protein interaction between host and pathogen. Such interactions are instrumental in understanding the important stages of life cycle of pathogen such as adsorption of the pathogen on host surface followed by effective entry of pathogen into the host body, movement of the pathogen across the host cytoplasm to reach the host nucleus and replication of the pathogen within the host. White Spot Disease (WSD) is a havoc for shrimps and till date no effective treatment is available against the disease. Moreover information regarding the mechanism of entry of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) into shrimps, as well as knowledge about the protein interactions occurring between WSSV and shrimp during viral entry are still at very meagre stage. A cumulative and critically assessed information on various viral-shrimp interactions occurring during viral entry can help to understand the exact pathway of entry of WSSV into the shrimp which in turn can be used to device drugs that can stop the entry of virus into the host. In this context, we highlight various WSSV and shrimp proteins that play role in the entry mechanism along with the description of the interaction between host and pathogen proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment of fluorosed and white-spot human enamel with calcium sucrose phosphate in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Besten, P; Giambro, N

    1995-01-01

    A number of treatments have been devised to improve the appearance of fluorosed enamel. However, many of these have been empirically based, and the success of the various treatment regimens have not been quantitated. In this study, the relative whiteness of normal, mildly fluorosed, moderately fluorosed, and carious white-spot lesions on extracted teeth was quantitated by light reflectance using a Minolta Chroma Meter. The color was again determined following a number of treatment regimens to assess the potential use of various agents in treating the enamel lesions. Treatment of the enamel with a 35% hydrogen peroxide gel resulted in a significantly increased whitening, which was not reduced by subsequent treatment (P calcium sucrose phosphate paste and placement in artificial saliva was most successful in returning both white-spot and fluorosed lesions to a normal color. SEM imaging of the calcium sucrose phosphate treated enamel suggests that this treatment filled the porous enamel, resulting in a normal light reflectance from the enamel.

  7. Bonding brackets on white spot lesions pretreated by means of two methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sotero Vianna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS of brackets bonded to demineralized enamel pretreated with low viscosity Icon Infiltrant resin (DMG and glass ionomer cement (Clinpro XT Varnish, 3M Unitek with and without aging. Methods: A total of 75 bovine enamel specimens were allocated into five groups (n = 15. Group 1 was the control group in which the enamel surface was not demineralized. In the other four groups, the surfaces were submitted to cariogenic challenge and white spot lesions were treated. Groups 2 and 3 were treated with Icon Infiltrant resin; Groups 4 and 5, with Clinpro XT Varnish. After treatment, Groups 3 and 5 were artificially aged. Brackets were bonded with Transbond XT adhesive system and SBS was evaluated by means of a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post-hoc test. Results: All groups tested presented shear bond strengths similar to or higher than the control group. Specimens of Group 4 had significantly higher shear bond strength values (p < 0.05 than the others. Conclusion: Pretreatment of white spot lesions, with or without aging, did not decrease the SBS of brackets.

  8. Molecular Mechanisms of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection and Perspectives on Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Verbruggen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its emergence in the 1990s, White Spot Disease (WSD has had major economic and societal impact in the crustacean aquaculture sector. Over the years shrimp farming alone has experienced billion dollar losses through WSD. The disease is caused by the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV, a large dsDNA virus and the only member of the Nimaviridae family. Susceptibility to WSSV in a wide range of crustacean hosts makes it a major risk factor in the translocation of live animals and in commodity products. Currently there are no effective treatments for this disease. Understanding the molecular basis of disease processes has contributed significantly to the treatment of many human and animal pathogens, and with a similar aim considerable efforts have been directed towards understanding host–pathogen molecular interactions for WSD. Work on the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis in aquatic crustaceans has been restricted by a lack of sequenced and annotated genomes for host species. Nevertheless, some of the key host–pathogen interactions have been established: between viral envelope proteins and host cell receptors at initiation of infection, involvement of various immune system pathways in response to WSSV, and the roles of various host and virus miRNAs in mitigation or progression of disease. Despite these advances, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain; for example, the roles of the majority of WSSV proteins are still unknown. In this review we assess current knowledge of how WSSV infects and replicates in its host, and critique strategies for WSD treatment.

  9. A new species of eagle ray Aetobatus narutobiei from the Northwest Pacific: an example of the critical role taxonomy plays in fisheries and ecological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, William T; Furumitsu, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    Recent taxonomic and molecular work on the eagle rays (Family Myliobatidae) revealed a cryptic species in the northwest Pacific. This species is formally described as Aetobatus narutobiei sp. nov. and compared to its congeners. Aetobatus narutobiei is found in eastern Vietnam, Hong Kong, China, Korea and southern Japan. It was previously considered to be conspecific with Aetobatus flagellum, but these species differ in size, structure of the NADH2 and CO1 genes, some morphological and meristic characters and colouration. Aetobatus narutobiei is particularly abundant in Ariake Bay in southern Japan where it is considered a pest species that predates heavily on farmed bivalve stocks and is culled annually as part of a 'predator control' program. The discovery of A. narutobiei highlights the paucity of detailed taxonomic research on this group of rays. This discovery impacts on current conservation assessments of A. flagellum and these need to be revised based on the findings of this study.

  10. A new species of eagle ray Aetobatus narutobiei from the Northwest Pacific: an example of the critical role taxonomy plays in fisheries and ecological sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T White

    Full Text Available Recent taxonomic and molecular work on the eagle rays (Family Myliobatidae revealed a cryptic species in the northwest Pacific. This species is formally described as Aetobatus narutobiei sp. nov. and compared to its congeners. Aetobatus narutobiei is found in eastern Vietnam, Hong Kong, China, Korea and southern Japan. It was previously considered to be conspecific with Aetobatus flagellum, but these species differ in size, structure of the NADH2 and CO1 genes, some morphological and meristic characters and colouration. Aetobatus narutobiei is particularly abundant in Ariake Bay in southern Japan where it is considered a pest species that predates heavily on farmed bivalve stocks and is culled annually as part of a 'predator control' program. The discovery of A. narutobiei highlights the paucity of detailed taxonomic research on this group of rays. This discovery impacts on current conservation assessments of A. flagellum and these need to be revised based on the findings of this study.

  11. Mud crab susceptibility to disease from white spot syndrome virus is species-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sritunyalucksana Kallaya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on a report for one species (Scylla serrata, it is widely believed that mud crabs are relatively resistant to disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. We tested this hypothesis by determining the degree of susceptibility in two species of mud crabs, Scylla olivacea and Scylla paramamosain, both of which were identified by mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal gene analysis. We compared single-dose and serial-dose WSSV challenges on S. olivacea and S. paramamosain. Findings In a preliminary test using S. olivacea alone, a dose of 1 × 106 WSSV copies/g gave 100% mortality within 7 days. In a subsequent test, 17 S. olivacea and 13 S. paramamosain were divided into test and control groups for challenge with WSSV at 5 incremental, biweekly doses starting from 1 × 104 and ending at 5 × 106 copies/g. For 11 S. olivacea challenged, 3 specimens died at doses between 1 × 105 and 5 × 105 copies/g and none died for 2 weeks after the subsequent dose (1 × 106 copies/g that was lethal within 7 days in the preliminary test. However, after the final challenge on day 56 (5 × 106 copies/g, the remaining 7 of 11 S. olivacea (63.64% died within 2 weeks. There was no mortality in the buffer-injected control crabs. For 9 S. paramamosain challenged in the same way, 5 (55.56% died after challenge doses between 1 × 104 and 5 × 105 copies/g, and none died for 2 weeks after the challenge dose of 1 × 106 copies/g. After the final challenge (5 × 106 copies/g on day 56, no S. paramamosain died during 2 weeks after the challenge, and 2 of 9 WSSV-infected S. paramamosain (22.22% remained alive together with the control crabs until the end of the test on day 106. Viral loads in these survivors were low when compared to those in the moribund crabs. Conclusions S. olivacea and S. paramamosain show wide variation in response to challenge with WSSV. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain are susceptible to white spot disease, and S. olivacea is more

  12. Mud crab susceptibility to disease from white spot syndrome virus is species-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somboonna, Naraporn; Mangkalanan, Seksan; Udompetcharaporn, Attasit; Krittanai, Chartchai; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Flegel, Tw

    2010-11-20

    Based on a report for one species (Scylla serrata), it is widely believed that mud crabs are relatively resistant to disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). We tested this hypothesis by determining the degree of susceptibility in two species of mud crabs, Scylla olivacea and Scylla paramamosain, both of which were identified by mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal gene analysis. We compared single-dose and serial-dose WSSV challenges on S. olivacea and S. paramamosain. In a preliminary test using S. olivacea alone, a dose of 1 × 106 WSSV copies/g gave 100% mortality within 7 days. In a subsequent test, 17 S. olivacea and 13 S. paramamosain were divided into test and control groups for challenge with WSSV at 5 incremental, biweekly doses starting from 1 × 104 and ending at 5 × 106 copies/g. For 11 S. olivacea challenged, 3 specimens died at doses between 1 × 105 and 5 × 105 copies/g and none died for 2 weeks after the subsequent dose (1 × 106 copies/g) that was lethal within 7 days in the preliminary test. However, after the final challenge on day 56 (5 × 106 copies/g), the remaining 7 of 11 S. olivacea (63.64%) died within 2 weeks. There was no mortality in the buffer-injected control crabs. For 9 S. paramamosain challenged in the same way, 5 (55.56%) died after challenge doses between 1 × 104 and 5 × 105 copies/g, and none died for 2 weeks after the challenge dose of 1 × 106 copies/g. After the final challenge (5 × 106 copies/g) on day 56, no S. paramamosain died during 2 weeks after the challenge, and 2 of 9 WSSV-infected S. paramamosain (22.22%) remained alive together with the control crabs until the end of the test on day 106. Viral loads in these survivors were low when compared to those in the moribund crabs. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain show wide variation in response to challenge with WSSV. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain are susceptible to white spot disease, and S. olivacea is more susceptible than S. paramamosain. Based on our single

  13. Effect of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri on white spot lesion development in orthodontic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gizani, Sotiria; Petsi, Georgia; Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of daily intake of lozenges containing probiotic bacteria on white spot lesion (WSL) formation as well as on salivary lactobacilli (LB) and mutans streptococci (MS) counts, in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment...... and randomly allocated to a test or placebo group. Subjects in the test group were instructed to take one probiotic lozenge containing two strains of Lactobacillus reuteri once daily. An identical lozenge without active bacteria was used in the placebo group. Dental plaque, WSL, and salivary MS and LB levels....../CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Daily intake of probiotic lozenges did not seem to affect the development of WSL during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances....

  14. Kualitas Lingkungan Tambak Insentif Litapenaeus Vannamei Dalam Kaitannya Dengan Prevalensi Penyakit White Spot Syndrome Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Maimunah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing number of vannamei shrimp (Litapenaeus vannamei ponds are switching from traditional to intensive farming systems, the more impact resulting among other potential environmental pollution. Pollution of the environment can directly degrade water quality cultivation and facilitate access of pathogens to infect the host. In this study examines how the quality of the environment, population and genetic characteristics of shrimp that live in some intensive pond associated with a disease that often affects farmed shrimp is White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV. Acquisition and primary data collection is done by conducting interviews and direct observation in the measurement of water quality parameters of both physics and chemistry and morphology observation of shrimp as well as the ICP11 gene expression detection of WSSV disease in vannamei shrimp DNA in the laboratory.

  15. Binding of white spot syndrome virus to Artemia sp. cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuying; Li, Guangda; Feng, Wenpo; Huang, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Using differential velocity centrifugation, cell membranes of Artemia sp. were prepared, and their binding to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was analyzed in vitro. The results indicated that WSSV can specifically bind to Artemia cell membranes, and that WSSV receptor very likely existed in this membrane, which suggested that Artemia sp. may be a reservoir of WSSV. This study investigated the specific WSSV binding site by performing competitive inhibition experiments using shrimp gill cell membranes to bind WSSV to Artemia cell membranes. The results showed that shrimp gill cell membranes had a distinct inhibition effect on the specific binding of Artemia cell membranes to WSSV. Thus, potentially similar WSSV receptors or binding sites existed on Artemia sp. cell membranes and shrimp gill cell membranes. Taken together, these findings may provide experimental basis for the development of an effective approach to controlling WSSV, and theoretical basis for the study of WSSV receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Blue crabs Callinectes sapidus as potential biological reservoirs for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, James W B; Browdy, Craig L; Burge, Erin J

    2015-03-09

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a virulent pathogen of cultured shrimp and was first detected in farms in South Carolina (USA) in 1997 and subsequently in wild shrimp in 1999. We screened groups of 1808 wild Atlantic white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and 300 blue crabs Callinectes sapidus collected from South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida for the presence of WSSV using the Shrimple® immunoassay-strip test, with all positives and random subsets of negatives tested by TaqMan real-time PCR and in infectivity bioassays. Of 87 shrimp and 11 crabs that tested positive using the Shrimple® test, only a single C. sapidus was confirmed to be infected with WSSV by PCR and the infectivity bioassay. The data indicate that the prevalence of WSSV in these species is low in these southeastern US regions, but that C. sapidus may serve as a biological reservoir.

  17. Current technology and techniques in re-mineralization of white spot lesions: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podray, Susan S.

    White Spot lesions are a common iatrogenic occurrence on patients who are treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. There is a dynamic chemical interaction between enamel and saliva at the tooth surface that allow a lesion to have phase changes involving demineralization of enamel and reminerlization. This is due to calcium and phosphate dissolved in saliva that is deposited onto the tooth surface or removed depending on the surrounding pH. Caseinphosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is gaining popularity in dentistry as a way to increase the available level of calcium and phosphate in plaque and saliva to improve the chemical gradient so that if favors reminerlization. The aim of our investigation is to search the available current literature and formulate a recommendation for use of CPP-ACP in orthodontics. Publications from the following electronic databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Science Direct. Searches from August 2010 to April 1st 2012 were performed under the terms "MI Paste OR Recaldent OR caseinphosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate OR CPP-ACP or tooth mousse". The searches yielded 155 articles, These were reviewed for relevance based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Articles with inappropriate study design or no outcome measures at both baseline and end point were also excluded. 13 articles were deemed of relevance with a high quality study design and were included in this study for evaluation. The current literature suggests a preventative treatment regimen in which MI Paste Plus is used. It should be delivered once daily prior to bed after oral hygiene for 3 minutes in a fluoride tray, throughout orthodontic treatment. It should be recommended for high risk patients determined by poor oral hygiene, as seen by the inability to remove plaque from teeth and appliances. This protocol may prevent or assist in the remineralization of enamel white spot lesions during and after orthodontic treatment.

  18. Field-Usable Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Rapid Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulabhusan, Prabir Kumar; Rajwade, Jyutika M; Sugumar, Vimal; Taju, Gani; Sahul Hameed, A S; Paknikar, Kishore M

    2017-01-01

    White spot disease (WSD), a major threat to sustainable aquaculture worldwide, is caused by White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The diagnosis of WSD relies heavily on molecular detection of the virus by one-step PCR. These procedures are neither field-usable nor rapid enough considering the speed at which the virus spreads. Thus, development of a rapid, reliable and field-usable diagnostic method for the detection of WSSV infection is imperative to prevent huge economic losses. Here, we report on the development of a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) employing gold nanoparticles conjugated to a polyclonal antibody against VP28 (envelope protein of WSSV). The LFIA detected WSSV in ~20 min and showed no cross-reactivity with other shrimp viruses, viz. Monodon Baculovirus (MBV), Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis virus (IHHNV). The limit of detection (LOD) of the assay, as determined by real-time PCR, was 103 copies of WSSV. In a time course infectivity experiment, ~104 WSSV particles were injected in Litopenaeus vannamei. The LFIA could rapidly (~ 20 min) detect the virus in different tissues after 3 h (hemolymph), 6 h (gill tissue) and 12 h (head soft tissue, eye stalk, and pleopod) of infection. Based on these findings, a validation study was performed using 75 field samples collected from different geographical locations in India. The LFIA results obtained were compared with the conventional "gold standard test", viz. one-step PCR. The analysis of results in 2x2 matrix indicated very high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (96.77%) of LFIA. Similarly, Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.983 suggested "very good agreement" between the developed LFIA and the conventional one-step PCR. The LFIA developed for the rapid detection of WSSV has an excellent potential for use in the field and could prove to be a boon to the aquaculture industry.

  19. The hemic response of white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) with inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Amy B; Parkinson, Lily A; Grant, Krystan R; Carlson, Eric; Campbell, Terry W

    2016-05-01

    As elasmobranch medicine becomes more commonplace, there continues to be confusion with techniques and evaluation of the shark hemogram and it remains unknown if they are able to mount an inflammatory hemic response. The aims of this study were to compare two total white blood cell (WBC) count techniques, establish a reference interval for captive white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum), and determine if elasmobranchs are capable of mounting an inflammatory hemic response. Correlation statistics were performed on hematologic results for healthy female bamboo sharks to assess the use of Natt-Herrick's and phloxine methods. Total WBC counts and differentials were obtained from males with severe traumatic clasper wounds and compared to the healthy females. We elected clasper amputation as the preferred treatment intervention and post-operative hematology was performed one month later. There was poor correlation of leukocyte counts between the two WBC count methods. Hematologic values were established for the females and males pre- and post-operatively. Males with wounds had a marked leukocytosis and heterophilia. Post-operative blood work showed a resolution of total WBC count and a trend toward resolution of the heterophilia. This study provides hematologic values for white-spotted bamboo sharks and confirms that the Natt-Herrick's method is preferred for lymphocytic species. Hematologic differences present in males with clasper wounds suggests that elasmobranchs do mount an inflammatory hemic response. Treatment via clasper amputation proved to be a safe and efficient means for clinical treatment that led to a trend toward resolution of the inflammatory leukogram. Zoo Biol. 35:251-259, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Surface pre-conditioning with bioactive glass air-abrasion can enhance enamel white spot lesion remineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, Hussam; Festy, Frederic; Andiappan, Manoharan; Watson, Timothy F; Thompson, Ian; Banerjee, Avijit

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of pre-conditioning enamel white spot lesion (WSL) surfaces using bioactive glass (BAG) air-abrasion prior to remineralization therapy. Ninety human enamel samples with artificial WSLs were assigned to three WSL surface pre-conditioning groups (n=30): (a) air-abrasion with BAG-polyacrylic acid (PAA-BAG) powder, (b) acid-etching using 37% phosphoric acid gel (positive control) and (c) unconditioned (negative control). Each group was further divided into three subgroups according to the following remineralization therapy (n=10): (I) BAG paste (36 wt.% BAG), (II) BAG slurry (100 wt.% BAG) and (III) de-ionized water (negative control). The average surface roughness and the lesion step height compared to intra-specimen sound enamel reference points were analyzed using non-contact profilometry. Optical changes within the lesion subsurface compared to baseline scans were assessed using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Knoop microhardness evaluated the WSLs' mechanical properties. Raman micro-spectroscopy measured the v-(CO3)(2-)/v1-(PO4)(3-) ratio. Structural changes in the lesion were observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX). All comparisons were considered statistically significant if pair-abrasion removed 5.1 ± 0.6 μm from the lesion surface, increasing the WSL surface roughness. Pre-conditioning WSL surfaces with PAA-BAG air-abrasion reduced subsurface light scattering, increased the Knoop microhardness and the mineral content of the remineralized lesions (pconditioning WSL surfaces with PAA-BAG air-abrasion modified the lesion surface physically and enhanced remineralization using BAG 45S5 therapy. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. REGRESSION OF WHITE SPOT ENAMEL LESIONS - A NEW OPTICAL METHOD FOR QUANTITATIVE LONGITUDINAL EVALUATION IN-VIVO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OGAARD, B; TENBOSCH, JJ

    This article describes a new nondestructive optical method for evaluation of lesion regression in vivo. White spot caries lesions were induced with orthodontic bands in two vital premolars of seven patients. The teeth were banded for 4 weeks with special orthodontic bands that allowed plaque

  2. Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Xuan, T.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vlak, J.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood.

  3. Identification of Stressors that Affect White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Infection and Outbreak in Pond Cultured Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendencia Alapide, E.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been a big problem to the worldwide shrimp industry. Exposure to stressors related to physicochemical water parameters affect WSSV infection but not all WSSV infections result in outbreaks. This paper describes a detailed monitoring of important physicochemical

  4. Protein profiling in the gut of Penaeus monodon gavaged with oral WSSV-vaccines and live white spot syndrom virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulkarni, A.D.; Kiron, V.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Brinchmann, M.; Fernandes, J.M.O.; Sudheer, N.S.; Singh, B.I.S.

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a pathogen that causes considerable mortality of the farmed shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Candidate ‘vaccines’, WSSV envelope protein VP28 and formalin-inactivated WSSV, can provide short-lived protection against the virus. In this study, P. monodon was orally

  5. siRNA injection induces sequence-independent protection in Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenberg, M.; Heinhuis, B.; Zuidema, D.; Vlak, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major disease in crustaceans, particularly shrimp, due to the current intensity of aquaculture practices. Novel strategies including vaccination to control this virus would be highly desirable. However, invertebrates lack a true adaptive immune response system

  6. Prevention and Treatment of White Spot Lesions During and After Treatment with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: a Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Lopatiene

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the systematic literature review is to update the evidence for the prevention of white spot lesions, using materials containing fluoride and/or casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate during and after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Material and Methods: Information search for controlled studies on humans published between January 2008 and February 2016 was performed in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, The Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria were: the English language, study on humans, patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances, randomized or quasi-randomized controlled clinical studies fluoride-containing product or casein derivates used throughout the appliance therapy or straightaway after debonding. Results: 326 articles were reviewed (Embase 141, PubMed 129, ScienceDirect 41, Cochrane 15. Twelve clinical studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Use of fluoridated toothpaste had a remineralizing effect on white spot lesions (WSLs (P < 0.05; fluoride varnish and casein supplements were effective in prevention and early treatment of WSLs (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Early detection of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment would allow implementing preventive measures to control the demineralization process before lesions progress. The systemic review has showed that the usage of fluoride and casein supplements in ameliorating white spot lesions during and after fixed orthodontic treatment is significantly effective. However the use of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate can be more beneficial than fluoride rinse in the reduction of demineralization spots.

  7. Ability of quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) to assess the activity of white spot lesions during dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masatoshi; Stookey, George K; Zero, Domenick T

    2006-02-01

    To determine the ability of QLF to assess the activity of white spots using visual examination (VE) as the gold standard. Thirty-four specimens were prepared from extracted human permanent posterior teeth presenting natural white spots on the approximal surface. Fluorescence images were acquired at 1-second intervals for the first 10 seconds and every 5 seconds thereafter to 45 seconds. During image acquisition, specimens were dehydrated with compressed air. QLF variables of fluorescence loss (deltaF [%]), lesion size (S [mm2]), and deltaQ (deltaFxS [% x mm2]), were determined. Change in QLF variables per second (deltaQLF(D): deltaF(D), deltaS(D), deltaQ(D)) was determined using the following equation: (subsequent QLF-variables--baseline QLF-variables)/dehydration time. Five experienced dentists independently conducted VE under standardized conditions using a dental unit's light, compressed air, with an explorer, used only to check surface structure. Prior to VE, examiners had participated in a half-day training seminar on VE. After drying the specimens, examiners graded the lesions according to dullness of surface, roughness and presence of microcavitation. Agreement by at least three of them determined the activity status of lesions. deltaQLF(D) values of Active white spot group (n = 7) were compared with those of Inactive white spot group (n = 27) using a two-sample t-test. In general, the active group presented larger values of deltaQLF(D) than the inactive group; however, there were no differences in deltaF(D) and deltaS(D). There were significant differences in deltaQ(D) up to 6 seconds of dehydration (P < 0.05), and no differences after 7 seconds. The results suggest that deltaQ(D) can differentiate between active and inactive white spot lesions using QLF during the first few seconds of dehydration.

  8. Variability in hematology of white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) in different living environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Lily A; Alexander, Amy B; Campbell, Terry W

    2017-07-01

    Elasmobranch hematology continues to reveal new peculiarities within this specialized field. This report compares total hematologic values from the same white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) housed in different environments. We compared the hemograms one year apart, using a standardized Natt-Herrick's technique. The total white blood cell (WBC) counts of the sharks were statistically different between the two time points (initial median total WBC count = 18,920 leukocytes/μl, SD = 8,108; 1 year later total WBC count = 1,815 leukocytes/μl, SD = 1,309). The packed cell volumes were additionally found to be statistically different (19%, SD = 2.9 vs. 22%, SD = 2.0). Analysis revealed the only differences between the time points were the temperature and stocking densities at which these sharks were housed. This report emphasizes the need for a thorough understanding of the husbandry of an elasmobranch prior to interpretation of a hemogram and suggests that reference intervals should be created for each environment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. White spot syndrome virus infection: Threat to crustacean biodiversity in Vembanad Lake, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toms C. Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Vembanad Lake located on the south-west coast of India, an ecological hotspot is the nursing ground of many economically important crustaceans. The prevalence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV among crustaceans from farmed, estuarine and marine environments surrounding the Vembanad Lake, India was detected using PCR. A total of 308 samples from aquaculture ponds consisting of six species of crustaceans collected from five different farms were tested for the presence of WSSV. Of these, 67% were found to carry the virus. A total of 258 samples of crustaceans from the Cochin backwater system that forms a part of the Vembanad lake viz., Metapenaeus dobsoni, Metapenaeus monoceros, Penaeus monodon and Penaeus indicus were found to contain WSSV in 62% of the samples. Fifteen species of crustaceans caught from the seas off Cochin were also screened for the presence of WSSV. Out of these, twelve species had WSSV incidence levels ranging from 6–23%. WSSV was not detected from three species of deep sea crustaceans tested. The black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon had the highest incidence of WSSV among the species screened in farmed, estuarine and marine environments.

  10. White spot syndrome virus strains of different virulence induce distinct immune response in Cherax quadricarinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meiling; Li, Fang; Xu, Limei; Zhu, Xiaoming

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we identified three white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) strains (WSSV-CN01, WSSV-CN02 and WSSV-CN03) with significant differences in virulence. Among them, WSSV-CN01 caused significant higher and earlier mortality in redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, thus was determined as high-virulent, while WSSV-CN02 and WSSV-CN03 were moderate-virulent and low-virulent. By investigating the total number of the circulating haemocytes and the activity of immune relative enzymes, we demonstrated that the different virulent WSSV strains induced distinct immune response in the host. Notably, a dramatic reduction of circulating haemocytes was observed in the crayfish infected with WSSV-CN01 and WSSV-CN02 but not WSSV-CN03. Further analysis revealed that cell death induced by WSSV-CN01 and WSSV-CN02 might be responsible for the decrease of circulating haemocytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic product response profiles of Cherax quadricarinatus towards white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weiwei; Ye, Yangfang; Chen, Zhen; Shao, Yina; Xie, Xiaolu; Zhang, Weiwei; Liu, Hai-Peng; Li, Chenghua

    2016-08-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most devastating viral pathogens in both shrimp and crayfish farms, which often causes disease outbreak and leads to massive moralities with significant economic losses of aquaculture. However, limited research has been carried out on the intrinsic mechanisms toward WSSV challenge at the metabolic level. To gain comprehensive insight into metabolic responses induced by WSSV, we applied an NMR approach to investigate metabolic changes of crayfish gill and hepatopancreas infected by WSSV for 1, 6 and 12 h. In gill, an enhanced energy metabolism was observed in WSSV-challenged crayfish samples at 1 h, as marked by increased glucose, alanine, methionine, glutamate and uracil. Afterwards, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism as well as osmoregulation were markedly increased at 6 hpi, as shown by elevated glucose, alanine, methionine, fumarate, tyrosine, tryptophan, histidine, phosphorylcholine, betaine and uracil, whereas no obvious metabolites change was detected at 12 hpi. As for hepatopancreas, disturbed lipid metabolism and induced osmotic regulation was found at 6 hpi based on the metabolic biomarkers such as branched chain amino acids, threonine, alanine, methionine, glutamate, glutamine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lactate and lipid. However, no obvious metabolic change was shown in hepatopancreas at both 1 hpi and 12 hpi. Taken together, our present results provided essential metabolic information about host-pathogen interactions in crayfish, which shed new light on our understanding of WSSV infection at metabolic level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. OIE white spot syndrome virus PCR gives false-positive results in Cherax quadricarinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claydon, Kerry; Cullen, Bradford; Owens, Leigh

    2004-12-13

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an intranuclear bacilliform virus (IBV) that is a serious, notifiable crustacean pathogen. The Office International des Epizooties (OIE) PCR protocol for WSSV uses primer sets initially developed by Lo et al. (1996). It yields a first-step PCR amplicon of 1441 bp and a nested PCR amplicon of 941 bp. An amplicon (941 bp) purported to specifically detect WSSV was obtained when using template DNA extracted from Cherax quadricarinatus in a WSSV PCR detection protocol recommended by the OIE. Sequencing and analysis of the 941 bp amplicon and an occasional 550 bp amplicon from C. quadricarinatus revealed no phylogenetic relationship with WSSV, and suggested a possible lack of sufficient primer specificity for WSSV in the OIE test. This suggestion was supported by the fact that the OIE outer primer sequence (146F1) was present in both the forward and reverse position of the 941 bp and the forward position of the 550 bp nested amplicons from C. quadricarinatus. As WSSV is a notifiable pathogen, the consequences of false-positive results are harsh in WSSV-free zones and can lead to incorrect quarantine and unnecessary destruction of animals. Therefore, urgent attention and revision is necessary for the current OIE PCR protocol for WSSV detection.

  13. Increased nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity induces white spot syndrome virus infection in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Fei Liu

    Full Text Available Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK, which has the same sequence as oncoprotein (OP in humans, can induce nucleoside triphosphates in DNA replication by maintenance of the deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP's and is known to be regulated by viral infection in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. This paper describes the relationship between NDK and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection. The recombinant NDK was produced by a prokaryotic expression system. WSSV copy numbers and mRNA levels of IE1 and VP28 were significantly increased in shrimp injected with recombinant NDK at 72 h after WSSV infection. After synthesizing dsRNA-NDK and confirming the efficacy of NDK silencing, we recorded the cumulative mortality of WSSV-infected shrimp injected with NDK and dsRNA-NDK. A comparison between the results demonstrated that silencing NDK delayed the death of shrimps. These findings indicate that NDK has an important role influencing the replication of WSSV replication in shrimp. Furthermore, NDK may have potential target as a new therapeutic strategy against WSSV infection in shrimp.

  14. Transcriptome Analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei in Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuli; Xie, Daxiang; Zhao, Yongzhen; Yang, Chunling; Li, Yongmei; Ma, Ning; Li, Ming; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Zhenping; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is the most extensively farmed crustacean species in the world. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major pathogens in the cultured shrimp. However, the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction remain largely unknown. In this study, the impact of WSSV infection on host gene expression in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei was investigated through the use of 454 pyrosequencing-based RNA-Seq of cDNA libraries developed from WSSV-challenged shrimp or normal controls. By comparing the two cDNA libraries, we show that 767 host genes are significantly up-regulated and 729 genes are significantly down-regulated by WSSV infection. KEGG analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that the distribution of gene pathways between the up- and down-regulated genes is quite different. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are found to be involved in various processes of animal defense against pathogens such as apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, Wnt signaling and antigen processing and presentation pathways. The present study provides valuable information on differential expression of L. vannamei genes following WSSV infection and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large number of transcripts obtained in this study provides a strong basis for future genomic research on shrimp. PMID:23991181

  15. Selection of shrimp breeders free of white spot syndrome and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cesar de Mello Junior

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to select surviving breeders of Litopenaeus vannamei from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV outbreak, adapted to local climatic conditions and negatively diagnosed for WSSV and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV, and to evaluate if this strategy is a viable alternative for production in Santa Catarina, Brazil. A total of 800 males and 800 females were phenotypically selected in a farm pond. Nested-PCR analyses of 487 sexually mature females and 231 sexually mature males showed that 63% of the females and 55% of the males were infected with IHHNV. Animals free of IHHNV were tested for WSSV, and those considered double negative were used for breeding. The post-larvae produced were stocked in nine nursery tanks for analysis. From the 45 samples, with 50 post-larvae each, only two were positive for IHHNV and none for WSSV. Batches of larvae diagnosed free of virus by nested-PCR were sent to six farms. A comparative analysis was carried out in growth ponds, between local post-larvae and post-larvae from Northeast Brazil. Crabs (Chasmagnathus granulata, blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus, and sea hares (Aplysia brasiliana, which are possible vectors of these viruses, were also evaluated. The mean survival was 55% for local post-larvae against 23.4% for post-larvae from the Northeast. Sea hares showed prevalence of 50% and crabs of 67% of WSSV.

  16. NIF Discovery Science Eagle Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jave; Martinez, David; Pound, Marc; Heeter, Robert; Casner, Alexis; Villette, Bruno; Mancini, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    The University of Maryland and and LLNL are investigating the origin and dynamics of the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula and similar parsec-scale structures at the boundaries of HII regions in molecular hydrogen clouds. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Discovery Science program Eagle Nebula has performed NIF shots to study models of pillar formation. The shots feature a new long-duration x-ray source, in which multiple hohlraums mimicking a cluster of stars are driven with UV light in series for 10 to 15 ns each to create a 30 to 60 ns output x-ray pulse. The source generates deeply nonlinear hydrodynamics in the Eagle science package, a structure of dense plastic and foam mocking up a molecular cloud containing a dense core. Omega EP and NIF shots have validated the source concept, showing that earlier hohlraums do not compromise later ones by preheat or by ejecting ablated plumes that deflect later beams. The NIF shots generated radiographs of shadowing-model pillars, and also showed evidence that cometary structures can be generated. The velocity and column density profiles of the NIF shadowing and cometary pillars have been compared with observations of the Eagle Pillars made at the millimeter-wave BIMA and CARMA observatories. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Midwinter Bald Eagle Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Midwinter Bald Eagle survey is to monitor the status of Bald Eagle wintering populations in the contiguous United States by estimating national...

  18. Mutations in MITF and PAX3 Cause “Splashed White” and Other White Spotting Phenotypes in Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter, Marlis; Brooks, Samantha A.; Burger, Dominik; Drögemüller, Cord; Gerber, Vincent; Henke, Diana; Janda, Jozef; Jude, Rony; Magdesian, K. Gary; Matthews, Jacqueline M.; Poncet, Pierre-André; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Tozaki, Teruaki; Wilkinson-White, Lorna; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Rieder, Stefan; Leeb, Tosso

    2012-01-01

    During fetal development neural-crest-derived melanoblasts migrate across the entire body surface and differentiate into melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells. Alterations in this precisely regulated process can lead to white spotting patterns. White spotting patterns in horses are a complex trait with a large phenotypic variance ranging from minimal white markings up to completely white horses. The “splashed white” pattern is primarily characterized by an extremely large blaze, often accompanied by extended white markings at the distal limbs and blue eyes. Some, but not all, splashed white horses are deaf. We analyzed a Quarter Horse family segregating for the splashed white coat color. Genome-wide linkage analysis in 31 horses gave a positive LOD score of 1.6 in a region on chromosome 6 containing the PAX3 gene. However, the linkage data were not in agreement with a monogenic inheritance of a single fully penetrant mutation. We sequenced the PAX3 gene and identified a missense mutation in some, but not all, splashed white Quarter Horses. Genome-wide association analysis indicated a potential second signal near MITF. We therefore sequenced the MITF gene and found a 10 bp insertion in the melanocyte-specific promoter. The MITF promoter variant was present in some splashed white Quarter Horses from the studied family, but also in splashed white horses from other horse breeds. Finally, we identified two additional non-synonymous mutations in the MITF gene in unrelated horses with white spotting phenotypes. Thus, several independent mutations in MITF and PAX3 together with known variants in the EDNRB and KIT genes explain a large proportion of horses with the more extreme white spotting phenotypes. PMID:22511888

  19. Experimental transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from crabs to shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanaphum, P; Wongteerasupaya, C; Sitidilokratana, N; Boonsaeng, V; Panyim, S; Tassanakajon, A; Withyachumnarnkul, B; Flegel, T W

    1998-09-11

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of the black tiger prawn Penaeus monodon is a recently discovered baculo-like virus disease which is currently the cause of very serious and widespread losses in the shrimp industry in Thailand and elsewhere in Asia. Three suspected crab carriers of this virus commonly found in shrimp-rearing areas were investigated. These were Sesarma sp., Scylla serrata and Uca pugilator. All these crabs could be infected with WSSV by injection and they sustained heavy viral infections for up to 45 d (confirmed by normal histology, specific in situ DNA hybridization and PCR amplification) without visible signs of disease or mortality. All of them also transferred the disease to P. monodon via water while physically separated in aquarium cohabitation tests. Transfer of the virus to the shrimp was monitored using in situ DNA hybridization and PCR assay at 12 h intervals after cohabitation began. With U. pugilator, WSSV could be detected in the shrimp cohabitants after 24 h using PCR amplification and after 60 h using in situ hybridization. With S. serrata, the shrimp were positive for WSSV after 36 h using PCR and after 60 h using DNA in situ hybridization. With Sesarma sp. they were positive after 48 h using PCR and 72 h using in situ hybridization. These laboratory studies demonstrated that crab carriers of WSSV may pose a real threat to cultivated shrimp. However, the studies were carried out in containers with a small volume and with relatively clean sea water as compared to shrimp cultivation ponds. Pond-based studies are now needed to determine whether factors such as pond volume, pond water quality and shrimp and crab behavior can influence the rate and success of transfer.

  20. Dynamics of Saturn’s 2010 Great White Spot from high-resolution Cassini ISS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, Ricardo; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; del Río-Gaztelurrutia, T.

    2012-10-01

    On December 5th 2010 a storm erupted in Saturn’s North Temperate latitudes which were experiencing early spring season. The storm quickly developed to a planet-wide disturbance of the Great White Spot type. The ISS instrument onboard Cassini acquired its first images of the storm on 23th December 2010 and performed repeated observations with a variety of spatial resolutions over the nearly 10 months period the storm continued active. Here we present an analysis of two of the image sequences with better spatial resolution of the mature storm when it was fully developed and very active. We used an image correlation algorithm to measure the cloud motions obtained from images separated 20 minutes and obtained 16,000 wind tracers in a domain of 60 degrees longitude per 20 degrees in latitude. Intense zonal and meridional motions accompanied the storm and reached values of 120 m/s in particular regions of the active storm. The storm released a chain of anticyclonic and cyclonic vortices at planetocentric latitudes of 36° and 32° respectively. The short time difference between the images results in estimated wind uncertainties of 15 m/s that did not allow to perform a complete analysis of the turbulence and kinetic spectrum of the motions. We identify locations of the updrafts and link those with the morphology in different observing filters. The global behaviour of the storm was examined in images separated by 10 hours confirming the intensity of the winds and the global behaviour of the vortices. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN project AYA2009-10701 with FEDER funds, by Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07 and by Universidad País Vasco UPV/EHU through program UFI11/55.

  1. A possible influence of the Great White Spot on Saturn kilometric radiation periodicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fischer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The periodicity of Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR varies with time, and its two periods during the first 5 years of the Cassini mission have been attributed to SKR from the northern and southern hemisphere. After Saturn equinox in August 2009, there were long intervals of time (March 2010 to February 2011 and September 2011 to June 2012 with similar northern and southern SKR periods and locked SKR phases. However, from March to August 2011 the SKR periods were split up again, and the phases were unlocked. In this time interval, the southern SKR period slowed down by ~ 0.5% on average, and there was a large jump back to a faster period in August 2011. The northern SKR period speeded up and coalesced again with the southern period in September 2011. We argue that this unusual behavior could be related to the so-called Great White Spot (GWS, a giant thunderstorm that raged in Saturn's atmosphere around that time. For several months in 2011, the visible head of the GWS had the same period of ~ 10.69 h as the main southern SKR modulation signal. The GWS was most likely a source of intense gravity waves that may have caused a global change in Saturn's thermospheric winds via energy and momentum deposition. This would support the theory that Saturn's magnetospheric periodicities are driven by the upper atmosphere. Since the GWS with simultaneous SKR periodicity measurements have only been made once, it is difficult to prove a physical connection between these two phenomena, but we provide plausible mechanisms by which the GWS might modify the SKR periods.

  2. Toll receptor response to white spot syndrome virus challenge in giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinling; Zhao, Lingling; Jin, Min; Li, Tingting; Wu, Lei; Chen, Yihong; Ren, Qian

    2016-10-01

    Toll receptors are evolutionary ancient families of pattern recognition receptors with crucial roles in invertebrate innate immune response. In this study, we identified a Toll receptor (MrToll) from giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). The full-length cDNA of MrToll is 4257 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 1367 amino acids. MrToll contains 17 LRR domains, a transmembrane domain, and a TIR domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrToll was grouped with Drosophila Toll7 and other arthropod Tolls. The transcripts of MrToll are mainly distributed in the heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine. A low level of MrToll expression can be detected in hemocytes and the lymphoid organ. MrToll expression in gills was gradually upregulated to the highest level from 24 h to 48 h during the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The expression levels of the crustin (Cru) genes Cru3 and Cru7 in gills were relatively lower than those of Cru2 and Cru4. The expression levels of Cru3 and Cru7 were inhibited after the RNA interference of MrToll in gills during the WSSV challenge. The anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) genes ALF2, ALF3, ALF4, and ALF5 were also regulated by MrToll in gills during the virus challenge. These findings suggest that MrToll may contribute to the innate immune defense of M. rosenbergii against WSSV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A transcriptome study on Macrobrachium rosenbergii hepatopancreas experimentally challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rama; Bhassu, Subha; Bing, Robin Zhu Ya; Alinejad, Tahereh; Hassan, Sharifah Syed; Wang, Jun

    2016-05-01

    The world production of shrimp such as the Malaysian giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is seriously affected by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). There is an urgent need to understand the host pathogen interaction between M. rosenbergii and WSSV which will be able to provide a solution in controlling the spread of this infectious disease and lastly save the aquaculture industry. Now, using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), we will be able to capture the response of the M. rosenbergii to the pathogen and have a better understanding of the host defence mechanism. Two cDNA libraries, one of WSSV-challenged M. rosenbergii and a normal control one, were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. After de novo assembly and clustering of the unigenes from both libraries, 63,584 standard unigenes were generated with a mean size of 698bp and an N50 of 1137bp. We successfully annotated 35.31% of all unigenes by using BLASTX program (E-value <10-5) against NCBI non-redundant (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway (KEGG) and Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) databases. Gene Ontology (GO) assessment was conducted using BLAST2GO software. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by using the FPKM method showed 8443 host genes were significantly up-regulated whereas 5973 genes were significantly down-regulated. The differentially expressed immune related genes were grouped into 15 animal immune functions. The present study showed that WSSV infection has a significant impact on the transcriptome profile of M. rosenbergii's hepatopancreas, and further enhanced the knowledge of this host-virus interaction. Furthermore, the high number of transcripts generated in this study will provide a platform for future genomic research on freshwater prawns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adhesive Systems as an Alternative Material for Color Masking of White Spot Lesions: Do They Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacerda, Ana Júlia Farias; da Silva Ávila, Daniele Mara; Borges, Alessandra Buhler; Pucci, Cesar Rogerio; Rocha Gomes Torres, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the color masking effect of infiltration treatment of artificial white spot lesions (AWSL) using a dedicated resin in comparison to different adhesive systems. Enamel/dentin specimens were obtained from bovine incisors and baseline color was assessed using a reflectance spectrophotometer, according to the CIE L*a*b* system. AWSL were produced using a buffered acid solution and a new color evaluation was performed. The specimens were divided into 8 groups: control: artificial saliva changed daily for 7 days; IC: infiltrating resin Icon; EC: EquiaCoat; FU: Futurabond U; SBU: Single Bond U; SBMP: Scotchbond MP; OB: OptibondFL; BF: Bioforty. After the treatments, the color was evaluated again and the values for the parameters ΔL (change in lightness), Δa (change in chroma), Δb (change in hue), and ΔE (general color difference) were calculated in relation to baseline. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. After treatment, ANOVA showed significant differences for all parameters (p = 0.001). Tukey's test showed the greatest lightness reduction (ΔL) for the IC group, followed by EC, FU, and SBU. The SBMP, OB, and BF groups were similar to the control. For Δb values, all groups showed differences in relation to the control, with no differences between them. In relation to ΔE, all groups showed differences in relation to the control (ΔE = 5.24), with no significant differences between them. ΔE values after application of all resinous materials were lower than the threshold of 3.7, indicating effective color masking. The Icon infiltrant produced a greater lightness reduction of white lesions (ΔL). For general color difference (ΔE), all the resinous materials tested were able to color mask artificial AWSL.

  5. Molecular immune response of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) to the White Spot Syndrome Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K Fraser; Greenwood, Spencer J; Acorn, Adam R; Byrne, Philip J

    2013-11-01

    The adult American lobster (Homarus americanus) is susceptible to few naturally occurring pathogens, and no viral pathogen is known to exist. Despite this, relatively little is known about the H. americanus immune system and nothing is known about its potential viral immune response. Hundreds of rural communities in Atlantic Canada rely on the lobster fishery for their economic sustainability and could be devastated by large-scale pathogen-mediated mortality events. The White Spot Syndrome Virus is the most economically devastating viral pathogen to global shrimp aquaculture production and has been proposed to be capable of infecting all decapod crustaceans including the European Lobster. An in vivo WSSV injection challenge was conducted in H. americanus and WSSV was found to be capable of infecting and replicating within lobsters held at 20°C. The in vivo WSSV challenge also generated the first viral disease model of H. americanus and allowed for the high-throughput examination of transcriptomic changes that occur during viral infection. Microarray analysis found 136 differentially expressed genes and the expression of a subset of these genes was verified using RT-qPCR. Anti-lipopolysaccharide isoforms and acute phase serum amyloid protein A expression did not change during WSSV infection, contrary to previous findings during bacterial and parasitic infection of H. americanus. This, along with the differential gene expression of thioredoxin and trypsin isoforms, provides compelling evidence that H. americanus is capable of mounting an immune response specific to infection by different pathogen classes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Combined exposure of carps (Cyprinus carpio L.) to cyanobacterial biomass and white spot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palikova, Miroslava; Navratil, Stanislav; Papezikova, Ivana; Ambroz, Petr; Vesely, Tomas; Pokorova, Dagmar; Mares, Jan; Adamovsky, Ondrej; Navratil, Lukas; Kopp, Radovan

    2012-01-01

    Under environmental conditions, fish can be exposed to multiple stressors including natural toxins and infectious agents at the same time. This study brings new knowledge on the effects of controlled exposure to multiple stressors in fish. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that influence of cyanobacterial biomass and an infection agent represented by the white spot disease can combine to enhance the effects on fish. Common carps were divided into four groups, each with 40 specimens for 20 days: control group, cyanobacterial biomass exposed group, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis-infected fish (Ich) and cyanobacterial biomass-exposed fish + Ichthyophthirius multifiliis-infected fish. During the experiment we evaluated the clinical signs, mortality, selected haematological parameters, immune parameters and toxin accumulation. There was no mortality in control fish and cyanobacterial biomass-exposed fish. One specimen died in Ichthyophthirius multifiliis-infected fish and the combined exposure resulted in the death of 13 specimens. The whole leukocyte counts (WBC) of the control group did not show any significant differences. Cyanobacteria alone caused a significant increase of the WBC on day 13 (p≤0.05) and on day 20 (p≤0.01). Also, I. multifiliis caused a significant elevation of WBC (p≤0.01) on day 20. Co-exposition resulted in WBC increased on day 13 and decrease on day 20, but the changes were not significant. It is evident from the differential leukocyte counts that while the increase of WBC in the group exposed to cyanobacteria was caused by elevation of lymphocytes, the increase in the group infected by I. multifiliis was due to the increase of myeloid cells. It well corresponds with the integral of chemiluminescence in the group infected by I. multifiliis, which is significantly elevated on day 20 in comparison with all other groups. We can confirm additive action of different agents on the immune system of fish. While single agents seemed to

  7. Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Gilbert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Mutans streptococci (MS are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC, and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Design: Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3–6 with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs, white spot lesions (WSLs and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10–20 from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ≥50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1–6 strains. In many patients (N=11, single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4, primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Conclusions: Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and

  8. Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kenneth; Joseph, Raphael; Vo, Alex; Patel, Trusha; Chaudhry, Samiya; Nguyen, Uyen; Trevor, Amy; Robinson, Erica; Campbell, Margaret; McLennan, John; Houran, Farielle; Wong, Tristan; Flann, Kendra; Wages, Melissa; Palmer, Elizabeth A; Peterson, John; Engle, John; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A

    2014-01-01

    Mutans streptococci (MS) are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3-6) with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs), white spot lesions (WSLs) and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10-20) from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ≥50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1-6 strains. In many patients (N=11), single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4), primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and the aciduric potential of these strains may influence susceptibility in the

  9. Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kenneth; Joseph, Raphael; Vo, Alex; Patel, Trusha; Chaudhry, Samiya; Nguyen, Uyen; Trevor, Amy; Robinson, Erica; Campbell, Margaret; McLennan, John; Houran, Farielle; Wong, Tristan; Flann, Kendra; Wages, Melissa; Palmer, Elizabeth A.; Peterson, John; Engle, John; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Mutans streptococci (MS) are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Design Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3–6) with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs), white spot lesions (WSLs) and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10–20) from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ≥50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1–6 strains. In many patients (N=11), single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4), primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Conclusions Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and the aciduric

  10. Small trial finds beneficial effect for MI Paste in preventing white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Sam; Greene, Louise; Borrie, Felicity; Lamont, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Double blind randomised controlled trial Sixty patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were randomised to receive either MI Paste Plus (GC America, Alsip III) or a placebo paste (Tom's of Main, Salisbury, UK). To be included, the patients had to be 12 years of age or over, in the permanent dentition, and be considered to be compliant with using the paste. Patients were excluded if they; had been undergoing extensive fluoride regimes, had an impacting medical or dental condition, had been receiving fluoride treatment for white spots, be planning to move within 6 months, or have an allergy to IgE casein. The pastes were self-administered in a fluoride tray for 3 to 5 minutes each night after brushing, for a period of 3 months. Outcomes were measured at baseline, then at 4, 8, and 12 weeks into treatment) using 2 measures. Standardised photographic records were used to assess WSLs using Banks and Richmond's decalcification index score, from first premolar to first premolar in the maxilla and mandible. Three operators scored the photographs independently. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) was used for the labial surfaces of the teeth and the scores (0-6) for surfaces were added together to give an overall score. Five patients refused to participate before the trial began and out of the 60 patients randomised, 50 completed the study (26 MI Paste Plus group 24 in placebo group). There was a 53.5% in the enamel decalcification index score in the MI Paste Plus group but an increase of 91.1% in the placebo group at the end of the 12 week period; ICDAS scores were added together to give an overall score for all teeth; the MI Paste Plus group score was 145 at baseline and 80 after 12 weeks, a 44.8%reduction; in the placebo group, the scores were 116 and 166 respectively, an increase of 43%. MI Paste Plus prevented and decreased the number of WSLs during orthodontic treatment with the placebo paste group having an increase in the number of WSLs

  11. Deproteinization of tooth enamel surfaces to prevent white spot lesions and bracket bond failure: A revolution in orthodontic bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Justus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment success is jeopardized by the risk of development of white spot lesions (WSLs around orthodontic brackets. Unfortunately, the formation of WSLs still remains a common complication during treatment in patients with poor oral hygiene. Nearly 75% of orthodontic patients are reported to develop enamel decalcification because of prolonged plaque retention around brackets. It is the orthodontist′s responsibility to minimize the risk of patients having enamel decalcifications as a consequence of orthodontic treatment. This can be achieved by using hybrid, fluoride-releasing, glass ionomer cement to bond brackets, with deproteinization of the enamel surface before phosphoric acid etching.

  12. Whole genome sequencing reveals a novel deletion variant in the KIT gene in horses with white spotted coat colour phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürig, N; Jude, R; Holl, H; Brooks, S A; Lafayette, C; Jagannathan, V; Leeb, T

    2017-08-01

    White spotting phenotypes in horses can range in severity from the common white markings up to completely white horses. EDNRB, KIT, MITF, PAX3 and TRPM1 represent known candidate genes for such phenotypes in horses. For the present study, we re-investigated a large horse family segregating a variable white spotting phenotype, for which conventional Sanger sequencing of the candidate genes' individual exons had failed to reveal the causative variant. We obtained whole genome sequence data from an affected horse and specifically searched for structural variants in the known candidate genes. This analysis revealed a heterozygous ~1.9-kb deletion spanning exons 10-13 of the KIT gene (chr3:77,740,239_77,742,136del1898insTATAT). In continuity with previously named equine KIT variants we propose to designate the newly identified deletion variant W22. We had access to 21 horses carrying the W22 allele. Four of them were compound heterozygous W20/W22 and had a completely white phenotype. Our data suggest that W22 represents a true null allele of the KIT gene, whereas the previously identified W20 leads to a partial loss of function. These findings will enable more precise genetic testing for depigmentation phenotypes in horses. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  13. NIF Discovery Science Eagle Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jave; Martinez, David; Pound, Marc; Heeter, Robert; Huntington, Channing; Casner, Alexis; Villette, Bruno; Mancini, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    For almost 20 years a team of astronomers, theorists and experimentalists have investigated the creation of the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula and similar parsec-scale structures at the boundaries of HII regions in molecular hydrogen clouds, using a combination of astronomical observations, astrophysical simulations, and recently, scaled laboratory experiments. Eagle Nebula, one of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Discovery Science programs, has completed four NIF shots to study the dense `shadowing' model of pillar formation, and been awarded more shots to study the `cometary' model. These experiments require a long-duration drive, 30 ns or longer, to generate deeply nonlinear ablative hydrodynamics. A novel x-ray source featuring multiple UV-driven hohlraums driven is used. The source directionally illuminates a science package, mimicking a cluster of stars. The first four NIF shots generated radiographs of shadowing-model pillars, and suggested that cometary structures can be generated. The velocity and column density profiles of the NIF shadowing and cometary pillars have been compared with observations of the Eagle Pillars made at millimeter observatories, and indicate cometary growth is key to matching observations. Supported in part by a Grant from the DOE OFES HEDLP program. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. CLUSTER MODEL FOR EXTENSIVE GIANT TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon Fab. TO PREVENT TRANSMISSION OF WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS

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    Arief Taslihan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV has become epidemic in Indonesia and affecting shrimp aquaculture interm of its production. White spot syndrome virus is transmitted from one to other ponds, through crustacean, included planktonic copepode as carrier for WSSV and through water from affected shrimp pond. A cluster model, consist of shrimp grow out ponds surrounded by non-shrimp pond as a role of biosecurity has been developed. The model aimed to prevent white spot virus transmission in extensive giant tiger shrimp pond. The study was conducted in two sites at Demak District, Central Java Province. As the treatment, a cluster consist of three shrimp ponds in site I, and two shrimp ponds in site II, each was surrounded by buffer ponds rearing only finfish. As the control, five extensive shrimp grow out ponds in site I and three shrimp grow out ponds in site II, with shrimp pond has neither applied biosecurity nor surrounded by non-shrimp pond as biosecurity as well considered as control ponds. The results found that treatment of cluster shrimp ponds surrounded by non-shrimp ponds could hold shrimp at duration of culture in the grow out pond (DOC 105.6±4.5 days significantly much longer than that of control that harvested at 60.9±16.0 days due to WSSV outbreak. Survival rate in trial ponds was 77.6±3.6%, significantly higher than that of control at 22.6±15.8%. Shrimp production in treatment ponds has total production of 425.1±146.6 kg/ha significantly higher than that of control that could only produced 54.5±47.6 kg/ha. Implementation of Better Management Practices (BMP by arranging shrimp ponds in cluster and surrounding by non-shrimp ponds proven effectively prevent WSSV transmission from traditional shrimp ponds in surrounding area.

  15. The evidence of bacilliform virus a causative agent of white spot syndrome of white shrimp Penaeus merguiensis

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    Hari Suprapto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The rod-shape virus particles were found in the hyperthrophied nucleus and cytoplasm of diseased white shrimpPenaeus merguiensis naturally infected by White spot syndrome (WSBV. In natural infection cumulative mortality of shrimp werevery high, 95% of population were dead in 3-7 days, and 5% of shrimp population survived. The disease was outbreak in intensiveculture farms used the closed circulation sea water system. Others crustacean such as crabs and bentatos were not infected by WSBVat time of sampling. The virus particle were rod-shape ranging from 78 ± 10 nm in diameter and 280 ± 10 nm in length. The pathogenicbacteria mainly dominated by genus Vibrio sp were isolated from shrimp.

  16. Infiltration, a new therapy for masking enamel white spots: a 19-month follow-up case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirlet, Gil; Chabouis, Hélène Fron; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Enamel white spot lesions are frequent and can impact patients' quality of life. The most conservative treatment in such cases is microabrasion, a technique that presents some drawbacks. The proposed strategy is not based on the elimination of dysplastic enamel, but on masking the lesion by infiltrating the porous subsurface enamel with a hydrophobic resin that has a refraction index closer to that of sound enamel, after permeating the non-porous surface enamel through hydrochloric acid erosion. Erosion-infiltration approaches have been proposed to treat initial caries, but this report suggests extending it to two novel indications: fluorosis and traumatic hypo-mineralization lesions. Four cases were treated by erosion infiltration following the original protocol. They were followed up clinically at several intervals during a period of 19 months of clinical service. The clinical results, although not perfect, satisfied the patients entirely. Erosion infiltration could be a promising alternative for minimally invasive treatment in similar situations.

  17. Hemolymph cells apoptosis in imported shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from Hawaii to Iran, exposed to white spot virus

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    Zeliha Selamoglu Talas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To show hemolymph apoptosis in imported shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from Hawaii to Iran. Methods: One hundred and eighty shrimps [(7.98±0.54 g] which were collected from a research shrimp farm located in Heleh site in north of Bushehr Province were distributed equally to 6 glass aquariums (50 cm×50 cm×60 cm as group A in triplicate (imported batch in 2011, without crossing with other generations with well clean aerated sea water (100 L per aquarium, salinity of 40 ‰ and temperature of 29 °C. Shrimps of group B (produced by crossing the adults of imported batches in 2009 up to 2011 were distributed also among 6 aquariums with the same conditions. Both shrimp groups were injected with concentration of LD50=1×10 5.4 white spot virus. Results: The results showed that in group A, the mortality began approximately 24 h after exposure and reached 100% after 36 h but no mortality was occurred up to 15 d in shrimps of group B. The slide evaluation of hemolymph of group B showed an increasing trend of apoptosis occurrence in all three types of hemolymph cells, hyalinocytes, semi-granulocytes and granulocytes from 24 h to 72 h in contrary to group A that not any apoptosis was observed during the course of the study (15 d. Conclusions: It is concluded that crossing among the specific pathogen free generations could induce the increasing immunity level through apoptosis to protect them against white spot disease.

  18. "BSR Eagle" lendas Tartusse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    8. veebr. Tartus Loodusuurijate Seltsi majas toimunud seminarist "Mida Juku õues ei õpi, seda Juhan vallaametnikuna ei tea", mis toimus Läänemere-piirkonna loodusharidusprojekti "BSR Eagle" raames

  19. Indel-II region deletion sizes in the white spot syndrome virus genome correlate with shrimp disease outbreaks in southern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Tuyet, H.; Zwart, M.P.; Phuong, N.T.; Oanh, D.T.H.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Sequence comparisons of the genomes of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) strains have identified regions containing variable-length insertions/deletions (i.e. indels). Indel-I and Indel-II, positioned between open reading frames (ORFs) 14/15 and 23/24, respectively, are the largest and the most

  20. Effects of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate paste on white spot lesions and dental plaque after orthodontic treatment: a 3-month follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerens, M.W.; van der Veen, M.H.; van Beek, H.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate (CPP-ACFP) paste vs. control paste on the remineralization of white spot caries lesions and on plaque composition were tested in a double-blind prospective randomized clinical trial. Fifty-four orthodontic patients, with

  1. Displacement of native white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis by non-native brown trout Salmo trutta after resolution of habitat fragmentation by a migration barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, K

    2017-06-01

    After resolution of habitat fragmentation by an erosion-control dam, non-native brown trout Salmo trutta invaded the upstream side of the dam and displaced native white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis in Monbetsu stream, Hokkaido, northern Japan. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. White spot lesions after orthodontic treatment assessed by clinical photographs and by quantitative light-induced fluorescence imaging; a retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerens, M.W.; Boekitwetan, F.; van der Veen, M.H.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. White spot lesions (WSL) are an important side-effect of orthodontic multi-bracket (MB) treatment. Standardized monitoring of such WSL may help in caries management. Materials and methods. In this retrospective study the discriminatory power of caries assessment on routine digital oral

  3. 2003 Dead Bald Eagle Specimen

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The specimen report states the Bald Eagle was found along the side of the I-95 by a motorist who contacted Santee National Wildlife Refuge. The Bald Eagle was taken...

  4. Shrimp miR-12 Suppresses White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection by Synchronously Triggering Antiviral Phagocytosis and Apoptosis Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Shu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence has indicated that the innate immune system can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs. However, the mechanism underlying miRNA-mediated simultaneous activation of multiple immune pathways remains unknown. To address this issue, the role of host miR-12 in shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus antiviral immune responses was characterized in the present study. The results indicated that miR-12 participated in virus infection, host phagocytosis, and apoptosis in defense against white spot syndrome virus invasion. miR-12 could simultaneously trigger phagocytosis, apoptosis, and antiviral immunity through the synchronous downregulation of the expression of shrimp genes [PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog and BI-1(transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 6] and the viral gene (wsv024. Further analysis showed that miR-12 could synchronously mediate the 5′–3′ exonucleolytic degradation of its target mRNAs, and this degradation terminated in the vicinity of the 3′ untranslated region sequence complementary to the seed sequence of miR-12. Therefore, the present study showed novel aspects of the miRNA-mediated simultaneous regulation of multiple immune pathways.

  5. Dampak Stres Salinitas Terhadap Prevalensi White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV dan Survival Rate Udang Vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei Pada Kondisi Terkontrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attabik Mukhammad Amrillah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome (WSS adalah penyakit yang secara signifikan menyebabkan tingginya mortalitas dan kerusakan parah pada budidaya udang. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui dampak stres salinitas terhadap prevalensi WSSV dan survival rate udang vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei. Penelitian ini menggunakan udang vannamei ukuran PL 40 yang diinfeksi WSSV dengan konsentrasi virus 20 μg/ml pada tiga rentang salinitas yang berbeda 0-10 ppt, 11-20 ppt, 21–30 ppt dan di rendam selama 4 jam kemudian dilakukan pengamatan selama 7 hari pasca infeksi dan diukur survival rate dan kuaitas airnya. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa seluruh sampel terinfeksi oleh WSSV, ditunjukkan hasil analisa PCR dan gejala klinis yang timbul. Salinitas 0-10 ppt memberikan hasil persentase survival rate terendah jika dibandingkan dengan rentang salinitas yang lainnya yaitu sebesar 7 ekor atau 33% dari jumlah total sampel yang digunakan. Persentase survival rate udang tertinggi pasca infeksi virus WSSV terdapat pada perlakuan salinitas 21-30 ppt yaitu sebesar 13 ekor atau 63% dari jumlah total individu, dan salinitas 11-20 ppt memiliki persentase survival rate medium yaitu sebesar 10 ekor atau 49% dari jumlah total sampel. Stres salinitas mempengaruhi prevalensi WSSV dengan semakin tingginya tingkat infeksi seiring menurunnya rentang salinitas, akan tetapi survival rate semakin tinggi seiring dengan bertambahnya rentang salinitas.

  6. Assessing Virulence and Transmission Rates of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Two Ecologically Important Palaemonid Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C.; Keesee, B.; Philippoff, C.; Curran, S.; Lotz, J.; Powell, E.

    2016-02-01

    Investigators, including three REU interns, conducted an experiment to quantify parameters for an epidemiological model designed to estimate disease transmission in marine invertebrates. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a highly pathogenic disease affecting commercially important penaeid shrimp fisheries worldwide. The virus devastates penaeid shrimp but other varieties of decapods may serve as reservoirs for disease by being less susceptible to WSSV or refractory to disease. Non-penaeid crustaceans are less susceptible to WSSV, and different species have variable resistance to the disease leading to different potential to serve as reservoirs for transmission of the disease to coastal penaeid fisheries. This study investigates virulence and transmission rates of WSSV in two palaemonid shrimp which are keystone members of coastal food webs, and effects of species interactions on transmission rates of WSSV are estimated in a laboratory setting as a proxy for natural habitats. Two species of grass shrimp were exposed to a Chinese strain of WSSV through feeding the test individuals with previously prepared, inoculated penaeid shrimp. Replicated tanks containing 30 animals were exposed to the virus in arenas containing one or both species for 24 hours, then isolated in 1 liter tanks and monitored. During the isolation period moribund individuals were preserved for later analysis. After 7 days all test individuals were analyzed using qPCR to determine WSSV presence and load in DNA. From these data transmission rates, mortality, and viral concentration were quantified and used as parameters in a simple epidemiological model.

  7. An Investigation into Occasional White Spot Syndrome Virus Outbreak in Traditional Paddy Cum Prawn Fields in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Gnana Selvam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A yearlong (September 2009–August 2010 study was undertaken to find out possible reasons for occasional occurrence of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV outbreak in the traditional prawn farms adjoining Cochin backwaters. Physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of water and sediment from feeder canal and four shrimp farms were monitored on a fortnightly basis. The physicochemical parameters showed variation during the two production cycles and between the farms studied. Dissolved oxygen (DO content of water from feeder canal showed low oxygen levels (as low as 0.8 mg/L throughout the study period. There was no disease outbreak in the perennial ponds. Poor water exchange coupled with nutrient loading from adjacent houses resulted in phytoplankton bloom in shallow seasonal ponds which led to hypoxic conditions in early morning and supersaturation of DO in the afternoon besides considerably high alkaline pH. Ammonia levels were found to be very high in these ponds. WSSV outbreak was encountered twice during the study leading to mass mortalities in the seasonal ponds. The hypoxia and high ammonia content in water and abrupt fluctuations in temperature, salinity and pH might lead to considerable stress in the shrimps triggering WSSV infection in these traditional ponds.

  8. Preliminary study on haemocyte response to white spot syndrome virus infection in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Braak, C B T; Botterblom, M H A; Huisman, E A; Rombout, J H W M; van der Knaap, W P W

    2002-08-29

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been a major cause of shrimp mortality in aquaculture in the past decade. In contrast to extensive studies on the morphology and genome structure of the virus, little work has been done on the defence reaction of the host after WSSV infection. Therefore, we examined the haemocyte response to experimental WSSV infection in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Haemolymph sampling and histology showed a significant decline in free, circulating haemocytes after WSSV infection. A combination of in situ hybridisation with a specific DNA probe for WSSV and immuno-histochemistry with a specific antibody against haemocyte granules in tissue sections indicated that haemocytes left the circulation and migrated to tissues where many virus-infected cells were present. However, no subsequent haemocyte response to the virus-infected cells was detected. The number of granular cells decreased in the haematopoietic tissue of infected shrimp. In addition, a fibrous-like immuno-reactive layer appears in the outer stromal matrix of tubule walls in the lymphoid organ of infected shrimp. The role of haemocytes in shrimp defence after viral infection is discussed.

  9. An Elegant Analysis of White Spot Syndrome Virus Using a Graphene Oxide/Methylene Blue based Electrochemical Immunosensor Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Anusha; Devi, K. S. Shalini; Raja, Sudhakaran; Senthil Kumar, Annamalai

    2017-04-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major devastating virus in aquaculture industry. A sensitive and selective diagnostic method for WSSV is a pressing need for the early detection and protection of the aquaculture farms. Herein, we first report, a simple electrochemical immunosensor based on methylene blue dye (MB) immobilized graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE/GO@MB) for selective, quick (35 ± 5 mins) and raw sample analysis of WSSV. The immunosensor was prepared by sequential modification of primary antibody, blocking agent (bovine serum album), antigen (as vp28 protein), secondary antibody coupled with horseradish peroxidase (Ab2-HRP) on the GCE/GO@MB. The modified electrode showed a well-defined redox peak at an equilibrium potential (E1/2), -0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl and mediated H2O2 reduction reaction without any false positive result and dissolved oxygen interferences in pH 7 phosphate buffer solution. Under an optimal condition, constructed calibration plot was linear in a range of 1.36 × 10-3 to 1.36 × 107 copies μL-1 of vp28. It is about four orders higher sensitive than that of the values observed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot based WSSV detection techniques. Direct electrochemical immunosensing of WSSV in raw tissue samples were successfully demonstrated as a real sample system.

  10. Highly Sensitive Detection of Low-Abundance White Spot Syndrome Virus by a Pre-Amplification PCR Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yanfang; Sha, Xuejiao; Wang, Jing; Li, Jing; Dong, Ping; Liang, Xingguo

    2017-03-28

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major threat to the shrimp farming industry and so far there is no effective therapy for it, and thus early diagnostic of WSSV is of great importance. However, at the early stage of infection, the extremely low-abundance of WSSV DNA challenges the detection sensitivity and accuracy of PCR. To effectively detect low-abundance WSSV, here we developed a pre-amplification PCR (pre-amp PCR) method to amplify trace amounts of WSSV DNA from massive background genomic DNA. Combining with normal specific PCR, 10 copies of target WSSV genes were detected from ~1010 magnitude of backgrounds. In particular, multiple target genes were able to be balanced amplified with similar efficiency due to the usage of the universal primer. The efficiency of the pre-amp PCR was validated by nested-PCR and quantitative PCR, and pre-amp PCR showed higher efficiency than nested-PCR when multiple targets were detected. The developed method is particularly suitable for the super early diagnosis of WSSV, and has potential to be applied in other low-abundance sample detection cases.

  11. Novel Insights into Antiviral Gene Regulation of Red Swamp Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, Infected with White Spot Syndrome Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaokui Yi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV, one of the major pathogens of Procambarus clarkii, has caused severe disruption to the aquaculture industry of P. clarkii in China. To reveal the gene regulatory mechanisms underlying WSSV infection, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed among WSSV-infected susceptible individuals (GS, viral resistant individuals (GR, and a non-infected control group (GC. A total of 61,349 unigenes were assembled from nine libraries. Subsequently, 515 and 1033 unigenes exhibited significant differential expression in sensitive and resistant crayfish individuals compared to the control group (GC. Many differentially expressed genes (e.g., C-type lectin 4, Peroxinectin, Prophenoloxidase, and Serine/threonine-protein kinase observed in GR and GS play critical roles in pathogen recognition and viral defense reactions after WSSV infection. Importantly, the glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate pathway was identified to play critical roles in defense to WSSV infection for resistant crayfish individuals by upregulating the chondroitin sulfate related genes for the synthesis of WSSV-sensitive, functional chondroitin sulfate chains containing E units. Numerous genes and the key pathways identified between resistant and susceptible P. clarkii individuals provide valuable insights regarding antiviral response mechanisms of decapoda species and may help to improve the selective breeding of P. clarkii WSSV-resistance.

  12. Molecular modeling and expression of the Litopenaeus vannamei proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) after white spot syndrome virus shrimp infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Re-Vega, Enrique; Muhlia-Almazan, Adriana; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Islas-Osuna, Maria A; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Brieba, Luis G; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2011-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is the eukaryotic sliding clamp that tethers DNA polymerase to DNA during replication. The full-length cDNA of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei PCNA (LvPCNA) was cloned and encoded a protein of 260 amino acids that is highly similar to other Crustacean PCNAs. The theoretical shrimp PCNA structure has all the domains that are necessary for its interaction with template DNA and DNA polymerase. RT-PCR analysis showed that LvPCNA is expressed mainly in muscle and hemocytes and much less in hepatopancreas and gills. LvPCNA mRNA levels are not statistically different in muscle from healthy and challenged shrimp with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In contrast, the mRNA levels of the viral DNA polymerase show a biphasic pattern with expression at 6 h post-infection and later at 24 and 48 h. These results suggest that in shrimp muscle LvPCNA levels are steadily kept to allow viral replication and that WSSV DNA polymerase (WSSV-DNApol) is more responsive towards later stages of infection. More knowledge of the DNA replication machinery would result in a better understanding of the mechanism and components of viral replication, since the WSSV genome does not have all the components required for assembly of a fully functional replisome.

  13. Control of white spot lesion adjacent to orthodontic bracket with use of fluoride varnish or chlorhexidine gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Manuel; Bussaneli, Diego G; Jeremias, Fabiano; Cordeiro, Rita C L; Magalhães, Ana C; Palomari Spolidorio, Denise M; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the effectiveness of fluoride varnish and chlorhexidine gel in controlling white spot lesions (WSLs) adjacent to orthodontic brackets and to compare the ability of Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence (QLF) to measure mineral uptake with that of transverse microradiography (TMR). Thirty premolars with artificially induced WSLs were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) two applications of 5% NaF-varnish (F), with one-week interval, (2) two applications of 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), with one-week interval, and (3) control (CO), no treatment. QLF was used to measure changes in fluorescence before and after caries induction, 1 week after each application and 1, 2, and 3 months after the last application of F or CHX. TMR was performed to quantify lesion depth and mineral content after caries induction to evaluate the effects of F, CHX, and CO 3 months after the last application of agents. The data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test. All treatments increased the mineral content during the experimental period; however, F induced faster remineralization than CHX. The correlation between QLF and TMR was significantly moderate. Two applications of fluoride varnish or 2% chlorhexidine gel at one-week intervals were effective in controlling WSLs.

  14. Control of White Spot Lesion Adjacent to Orthodontic Bracket with Use of Fluoride Varnish or Chlorhexidine Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Restrepo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the effectiveness of fluoride varnish and chlorhexidine gel in controlling white spot lesions (WSLs adjacent to orthodontic brackets and to compare the ability of Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence (QLF to measure mineral uptake with that of transverse microradiography (TMR. Thirty premolars with artificially induced WSLs were randomly assigned to three groups: (1 two applications of 5% NaF-varnish (F, with one-week interval, (2 two applications of 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX, with one-week interval, and (3 control (CO, no treatment. QLF was used to measure changes in fluorescence before and after caries induction, 1 week after each application and 1, 2, and 3 months after the last application of F or CHX. TMR was performed to quantify lesion depth and mineral content after caries induction to evaluate the effects of F, CHX, and CO 3 months after the last application of agents. The data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey’s test. All treatments increased the mineral content during the experimental period; however, F induced faster remineralization than CHX. The correlation between QLF and TMR was significantly moderate. Two applications of fluoride varnish or 2% chlorhexidine gel at one-week intervals were effective in controlling WSLs.

  15. Treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesions with CPP-ACP paste: A three year follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabekiroğlu, Said; Ünlü, Nimet; Küçükyilmaz, Ebru; Şener, Sevgi; Botsali, Murat Selim; Malkoç, Sıddık

    2017-11-29

    To determine the efficacy of topical applications of 10% casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste in reverting white spot lesions (WSLs) after fixed orthodontic treatment. Forty one participants were randomly assigned to either the test group (CPP-ACP) or the control group (only fluoride toothpaste). All patients used regular fluoride-containing toothpaste. CPPACP paste or fluoridated toothpaste was applied on to tooth surfaces with WSLs twice a day during 36-month after de-bonding. The labial/buccal surfaces of teeth were assessed by use of DIAGNOdent pen (DD), Gorelick Index and ICDAS II criteria at baseline (T1) and 36-month (T2) follow-up visits. The total counts of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus were obtained at T1 and T2. DMFT, DMFS, stimulated flow rate and buffer capacity were calculated in two appointments. Daily usage of CPP-ACP paste was not better than normal care for improving the appearance of WSLs after 36 months.

  16. Scaled Eagle Nebula Experiments on NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, Marc W. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2017-03-28

    We performed scaled laboratory experiments at the National Ignition Facility laser to assess models for the creation of pillar structures in star-forming clouds of molecular hydrogen, in particular the famous Pillars of the Eagle Nebula. Because pillars typically point towards nearby bright ultraviolet stars, sustained directional illumination appears to be critical to pillar formation. The experiments mock up illumination from a cluster of ultraviolet-emitting stars, using a novel long duration (30--60 ns), directional, laser-driven x-ray source consisting of multiple radiation cavities illuminated in series. Our pillar models are assessed using the morphology of the Eagle Pillars observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, and measurements of column density and velocity in Eagle Pillar II obtained at the BIMA and CARMA millimeter wave facilities. In the first experiments we assess a shielding model for pillar formation. The experimental data suggest that a shielding pillar can match the observed morphology of Eagle Pillar II, and the observed Pillar II column density and velocity, if augmented by late time cometary growth.

  17. eagle-barrett syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 80 No. II November 2003. EAGLE-BARRETT SYNDROME: OCCURRENCE AND OUTCOMES. M. H. Aliyu, MD, MPH, Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA and Department of Community Medicine, Aminu Kano. Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria, H. M. ...

  18. Virulence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) isolates may be correlated with the degree of replication in gills of Penaeus vannamei juveniles

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M.M; Corteel, M.; Escobedo-Bonilla, C.M.; Wille, M.; Alday-Sanz, V.; Pensaert, M. B.; Sorgeloos, P.; Nauwynck, H J

    2008-01-01

    A standardized inoculation model was used in 2 separate experiments to gauge the virulence of 3 white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) isolates from Thailand and Vietnam (WSSV Thai-1, WSSV Thai-2, and WSSV Viet) in Penaeus vannamei juveniles. Mortality patterns (Expt 1) were compared and WSSV-positive cells quantified (Expt 2) in tissues following intramuscular inoculation of shrimp with the most (WSSV Thai-1) and least (WSSV Viet) virulent isolates as determined by Expt 1. The results of Expt 1 de...

  19. Extract of seaweed Gracilaria verrucosa as immunostimulant to controlling white spot disease in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminatul Zahra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to examine effect of Gracilaria verrucosa extract in diet with different dosages to enhance immune response and resistance against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV in the Pacific white shrimp. The experiment consisted of six treatments in three replicates respectively, namely K- (without extract, K + (without extract + infected WSSV, A (2 g/kg of feed + infected WSSV, B (3 g/kg of feed + infected WSSV, C (4 g/kg of feed + infected WSSV, and D (5 g/kg of feed + infected WSSV. White shrimp with initial body weight of 6.07±0.10 g were reared in the (60×30×30 cm with density of 10 shrimps/aquarium. G. verrucosa was extracted with ethyl acetate. Pacific white shrimp had been fed medicated feed three times daily 3% at satiation for 14 days. At 15th days, white shrimp were challenged with WSSV at 0.1 mL/shrimp intramuscularly. The results showed that the immune response shrimp (total hemocyte count, phagocytic activity, respiratory burst, and phenoloxidase activity fed medicated feed increased significantly compared to positive and negative controls. The best relative percent survival post-challenge test was at 4 g/kg dose of G. verrucosa, i.e 41.07±3.09%. Confirmation of WSSV using PCR showed that shrimps (A, B, C, D, and K+ were positively infected by WSSV. It was concluded that 4 g/kg dose of G. verrucosa gave the best result to enhance immune response and resistance to WSSV infection. Keywords: seaweed, Gracilaria verrucosa, immunostimulant, Pacific white shrimp, WSSV ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh pemberian ekstrak Gracilaria verrucosa melalui pakan dengan dosis yang berbeda untuk meningkatkan imunitas dan resistensi udang vaname terhadap serangan white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Penelitian ini terdiri atas enam perlakuan dan masing-masing tiga ulangan, yaitu K- (tanpa ekstrak, K+ (tanpa ekstrak + infeksi WSSV, A (2 g/kg pakan + infeksi WSSV, B (3 g/kg pakan + infeksi WSSV, C

  20. The Mechanism of Synchronous Precise Regulation of Two Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus Targets by a Viral MicroRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaodong He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, important factors in animal innate immunity, suppress the expressions of their target genes by binding to target mRNA’s 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTRs. However, the mechanism of synchronous regulation of multiple targets by a single miRNA remains unclear. In this study, the interaction between a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV miRNA (WSSV-miR-N32 and its two viral targets (wsv459 and wsv322 was characterized in WSSV-infected shrimp. The outcomes indicated that WSSV-encoded miRNA (WSSV-miR-N32 significantly inhibited virus infection by simultaneously targeting wsv459 and wsv322. The silencing of wsv459 or wsv322 by siRNA led to significant decrease of WSSV copies in shrimp, showing that the two viral genes were required for WSSV infection. WSSV-miR-N32 could mediate 5′–3′ exonucleolytic digestion of its target mRNAs, which stopped at the sites of target mRNA 3′UTRs close to the sequence complementary to the miRNA seed sequence. The complementary bases (to the target mRNA sequence of a miRNA 9th–18th non-seed sequence were essential for the miRNA targeting. Therefore, our findings presented novel insights into the mechanism of miRNA-mediated suppression of target gene expressions, which would be helpful for understanding the roles of miRNAs in innate immunity of invertebrate.

  1. A 3D model of the membrane protein complex formed by the white spot syndrome virus structural proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Shiang Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of white spot disease have had a large negative economic impact on cultured shrimp worldwide. However, the pathogenesis of the causative virus, WSSV (whit spot syndrome virus, is not yet well understood. WSSV is a large enveloped virus. The WSSV virion has three structural layers surrounding its core DNA: an outer envelope, a tegument and a nucleocapsid. In this study, we investigated the protein-protein interactions of the major WSSV structural proteins, including several envelope and tegument proteins that are known to be involved in the infection process. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present report, we used coimmunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid assays to elucidate and/or confirm all the interactions that occur among the WSSV structural (envelope and tegument proteins VP51A, VP19, VP24, VP26 and VP28. We found that VP51A interacted directly not only with VP26 but also with VP19 and VP24. VP51A, VP19 and VP24 were also shown to have an affinity for self-interaction. Chemical cross-linking assays showed that these three self-interacting proteins could occur as dimers. CONCLUSIONS: From our present results in conjunction with other previously established interactions we construct a 3D model in which VP24 acts as a core protein that directly associates with VP26, VP28, VP38A, VP51A and WSV010 to form a membrane-associated protein complex. VP19 and VP37 are attached to this complex via association with VP51A and VP28, respectively. Through the VP26-VP51C interaction this envelope complex is anchored to the nucleocapsid, which is made of layers of rings formed by VP664. A 3D model of the nucleocapsid and the surrounding outer membrane is presented.

  2. Effects of white spot syndrome virus infection on immuno-enzyme activities and ultrastructure in gills of Cherax quadricarinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan-Li; Zuo, Di; Wang, Lan-Mei; Sun, Ting; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Yun-Long

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we explored the pathogenic mechanism of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, by investigating activities of enzymes related to innate immune function during infection. After 6-12 h of exposure to WSSV, the activities of four enzymes, phenoloxidase (PO), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lysozyme (LSZ), increased in the gills of C. quadricarinatus but then sharply decreased during longer infection times. Except for PO, the activities of other enzymes in the WSSV-infected crayfish (Group II) were significantly lower than those of the controls at 72 h post-exposure (P < 0.01). Interestingly, the enzyme activities in the group treated with polysaccharides before challenge with WSSV (Group III) were higher than those in Group II. This phenomenon demonstrated that the polysaccharides could improve the immuno-enzyme activities and enhance the organism's antiviral defenses. Morphological examination by transmission electron microscopy revealed abundant WSSV particles and significant damage in the gills of infected crayfish. WSSV infection caused parts of the gill epithelium and microvilli to be reduced in number and size or damaged; meanwhile, the mitochondria morphology changed, with parts of the cristae diminished leaving large vacuoles. Moreover, electron dense deposits appeared and heterochromatinized nuclei could be seen in blood cells with ruptured nuclear membranes and outflow of nucleoplasm. The findings of this study furthers our understanding of the biochemical alterations induced by viral infections, including changes in the antioxidant status, oxidative stress and lysozyme activity, which could help to advance strategies for control of WSSV in crayfish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Novel Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Participates in White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF signaling pathway is known to play key roles in endothelial cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, vascular permeability, inhibition of apoptosis, and virus infection. In the present study, a novel VEGFR gene (LvVEGFR2 was identified and characterized from Litopenaeus vannamei. The deduced amino acid sequence of LvVEGFR2 possessed typical features of VEGFRs reported in other species, including six IG-like domains, a transmembrane motif, a protein kinase (PK domain, and one tyrosine-PK active site. The transcripts of LvVEGFR2 were mainly detected in hemocytes and lymphoid organ (Oka. Subcellular localization analysis showed that LvVEGFR2 was a membrane protein. Its expression level was obviously upregulated in hemocytes and Oka of the shrimp after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection. Knockdown of LvVEGFR2 gene expression by double-strand RNA mediated interference could lead to a decrease of virus copy number in WSSV-infected shrimp. The interaction between LvVEGFR2 and different LvVEGFs (LvVEGF1, LvVEGF2, and LvVEGF3 in shrimp was analyzed at the transcription level and protein level, respectively. Knockdown of LvVEGF2 or LvVEGF3 could downregulate the expression level of LvVEGFR2, and injection of the recombinant LvVEGF2 or LvVEGF3 could upregulate the expression level of LvVEGFR2. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that LvVEGFR2 could interact with LvVEGF2 and LvVEGF3 directly. The study improved our understanding on the VEGF signaling pathway of shrimp and its role during WSSV infection.

  4. Sequencing and de novo analysis of the hemocytes transcriptome in Litopenaeus vannamei response to white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Xue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is a causative pathogen found in most shrimp farming areas of the world and causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture. The mechanism underlying the molecular pathogenesis of the highly virulent WSSV remains unknown. To better understand the virus-host interactions at the molecular level, the transcriptome profiles in hemocytes of unchallenged and WSSV-challenged shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei were compared using a short-read deep sequencing method (Illumina. RESULTS: RNA-seq analysis generated more than 25.81 million clean pair end (PE reads, which were assembled into 52,073 unigenes (mean size = 520 bp. Based on sequence similarity searches, 23,568 (45.3% genes were identified, among which 6,562 and 7,822 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG, respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG mapped 14,941 (63.4% unigenes to 240 KEGG pathways. Among all the annotated unigenes, 1,179 were associated with immune-related genes. Digital gene expression (DGE analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile was slightly changed in the early infection (5 hours post injection of the virus, while large transcriptional differences were identified in the late infection (48 hpi of WSSV. The differentially expressed genes mainly involved in pattern recognition genes and some immune response factors. The results indicated that antiviral immune mechanisms were probably involved in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided a global survey of host gene activities against virus infection in a non-model organism, pacific white shrimp. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in white shrimp, and help to improve the current understanding of host-pathogen interactions.

  5. [Expression of single chain fragment variable P1D3 antibody against shrimp white spot syndrome virus in Pichia pastoris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Zhang, Min; Yuan, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Dai, He-Ping

    2006-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in aquaculture penaeid shrimp, which caused catastrophic economic losses in the worldwide. No adequate treatments against WSSV are available. In order to study infection mechanism of WSSV, a phage display scFv cDNA library against WSSV was constructed and a neutralizing antibody of scFv P1D3 was selected in our lab previously. In this study, scFv P1D3 was expressed successfully in yeast. Firstly, the original expression vector of P1D3, M13 phagmid, was used as a template to design primers with restriction sites of SnaB I and EcoR I . Then the gene of P1D3 was amplified by PCR. After digested by SnaB I and EcoR I , the fragment of scFv P1D3 with E-tag was inserted into yeast and E. coli shuttle plasmid pPIC9k. The recombinant plasmid pPIC9k-scFv P1D3-Etag was linearized with Bgl II and then transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115 by electroporation. Positive clones were selected and verified by PCR and DNA sequencing. The scFv PID3 was induced to express in yeast by methanol. The results of ELISA demonstrate that scFv P1D3 expressed in yeast still has high specificity to bind on WSSV and the binding activity is higher than that expressed in E. coli TG1. After several optimizing experiments, the results show that the expression amount of scFv P1D3 can reach to 302 mg/L in yeast culture supernatant. This experiment has offered a new source of antibody for the researches on passive immunology for shrimp.

  6. Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyen, N X; Verreth, J; Vlak, J M; de Jong, M C M

    2014-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood. In the current study the dynamics of disease transmission of WSSV were investigated in small, closed populations of Penaeus monodon and Penaeus vannamei. Pair cohabitation experiments using PCR as a readout for virus infection were used to estimate transmission parameters for WSSV in these two species. The mortality rate of contact-infected shrimp in P. monodon was higher than the rate in P. vannamei. The transmission rate parameters for WSSV were not different between the two species. The relative contribution of direct and indirect transmission rates of WSSV differed between the two species. For P. vannamei the direct contact transmission rate of WSSV was significantly lower than the indirect environmental transmission rate, but for P. monodon, the opposite was found. The reproduction ratio R0 for WSSV for these two species of shrimp was estimated to be above one: 2.07 (95%CI 1.53, 2.79) for P. monodon and 1.51 (95%CI 1.12, 2.03) for P. vannamei. The difference in R0 between the two species is due to a lower host mortality and hence a longer infectious period of WSSV in P. monodon. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) co-infection on survival of penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Song, Xiaoling; Huang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an important viral pathogen that infects farmed penaeid shrimp, and the threat of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection to shrimp farming has become increasingly severe. Viral and bacterial cross or superimposed infections may induce higher shrimp mortality. We used a feeding method to infect Litopenaeus vannamei with WSSV and then injected a low dose of V. parahaemolyticus (WSSV+Vp), or we first infected L. vannamei with a low-dose injection of V. parahaemolyticus and then fed the shrimp WSSV to achieve viral infection (Vp+WSSV). The eff ect of V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV co-infection on survival of L. vannamei was evaluated by comparing cumulative mortality rates between experimental and control groups. We also spread L. vannamei hemolymph on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar plates to determine the number of Vibrio, and the WSSV copy number in L. vannamei gills was determined using an absolute quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. LvMyD88 and Lvakt gene expression levels were detected in gills of L. vannamei by real-time PCR to determine the cause of the diff erent mortality rates. Our results show that (1) the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the WSSV+Vp group reached 100% on day 10 after WSSV infection, whereas the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the Vp+WSSV group and the WSSV-alone control group approached 100% on days 11 and 13 of infection; (2) the number of Vibrio in the L. vannamei group infected with V. parahaemolyticus alone declined gradually, whereas the other groups showed significant increases in the numbers of Vibrio ( Pvannamei and vice versa. The combined accelerated proliferation of both V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV led to massive death of L. vannamei.

  8. Colour improvement and stability of white spot lesions following infiltration, micro-abrasion, or fluoride treatments in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetkiner, Enver; Wegehaupt, Florian; Wiegand, Annette; Attin, Rengin; Attin, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    White spot lesions (WSLs) are unwelcome side effects of fixed appliances that compromise the treatment outcome. Recently, infiltration of WSLs has been introduced as a viable treatment alternative. The objective was to evaluate the colour improvement of WSLs and their stability against discolouration following infiltration, fluoride, or micro-abrasion treatments in vitro. Artificial WSLs were created in bovine enamel (N = 96) using acidic buffer solution (pH 5, 10 days) and were randomly allocated to four groups. Specimens were treated with infiltration (Icon, DMG), fluoride (Elmex Caries Protection, GABA), and micro-abrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent) or remained untreated (control). Groups were discoloured for 24 hours in tea or tea + citric acid. Colour components and visible colour change (L*, a*, b*, ΔE) were measured spectrophotometrically on following time points: baseline, after WSL formation, after treatment, and during discolouration (8, 16, and 24 hours). Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. WSL formation increased (L*) in all groups. Only infiltration reduced this effect to baseline. Highest ΔE improvement was obtained by infiltration and micro-abrasion followed by fluoride. This improvement was stable only for infiltration during discolouration. L*, a*, and b* changed significantly during discolouration in all groups except infiltration. Within the same treatment group, discolouration solutions did not differ significantly. In vitro testing cannot replicate the actual mode of colour improvement or stability but can be used for ranking materials and techniques. Infiltration and micro-abrasion treatments were capable of diminishing the whitish appearance of WSLs. Only infiltrated WSLs were stable following discolouration challenge. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Camouflage effects following resin infiltration of postorthodontic white-spot lesions in vivo: One-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Amely; Helms, Hans-Joachim; Knösel, Michael

    2015-05-01

    To assess camouflage effects by concealment of postorthodontic white-spot lesions (WSLs) to sound adjacent enamel (SAE) achieved over 12 months with resin infiltration (Icon, DMG, Hamburg, Germany). Twenty subjects (trial teeth nteeth = 111) who had received resin infiltration treatment of noncavitated postorthodontic WSLs were contacted for a 1-year follow-up assessment of CIE-L*a*b* colors (T12). Color and lightness (CIE-L*a*b*) data for WSLs and SAE were compared to baseline data assessed before infiltration (T0) and those assessed after 6 months (T6), using a spectrophotometer. The target parameter was the difference between the summarized color and lightness values (ΔEWSL/SAE). Intergroup (WSL, SAE) and intertime comparisons (T0 vs T6, T12) were performed using paired t-tests at a significance level of α = 5%. Nine subjects (trial teeth nteeth = 49; male/female ratio 5/4; age range 13-19 years) were available at T12. After the highly significant reduction of ΔEWSL/SAE discrepancies between T0 and T6, analysis of 12-month records revealed color and lightness discrepancy of WSL vs SAE that was significantly decreased compared with baseline, indicating an assimilation of WSL color to SAE appearance after infiltration, while an additional reduction of discrepancies between T6 and T12 was not significant. As color and lightness characteristics of the Icon infiltrant as well as the esthetic camouflage effects achieved by WSL infiltration were not altered significantly or clinically relevant after 12 months, the method of resin infiltration can be recommended for an enduring esthetic improvement of postorthodontic WSL.

  10. Influence of white spot syndrome virus infection on hepatopancreas gene expression of `Huanghai No. 2' shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianhong; Shi, Xiaoli; Kong, Jie; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Cao, Baoxiang; Liu, Ning; Lu, Xia; Li, Xupeng; Deng, Kangyu; Cao, Jiawang; Zhang, Yingxue; Zhang, Hengheng

    2017-10-01

    To elucidate the molecular response of shrimp hepatopancreas to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, microarray was applied to investigate the differentially expressed genes in the hepatopancreas of `Huanghai No. 2' ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis). A total of 59137 unigenes were designed onto a custom-made 60K Agilent chip. After infection, the gene expression profiles in the hepatopancreas of the shrimp with a lower viral load at early (48-96 h), peak (168-192 h) and late (264-288 h) infection phases were analyzed. Of 18704 differentially expressed genes, 6412 were annotated. In total, 5453 differentially expressed genes (1916 annotated) expressed at all three phases, and most of the annotated were either up- or down-regulated continuously. These genes function diversely in, for example, immune response, cytoskeletal system, signal transduction, stress resistance, protein synthesis and processing, metabolism among others. Some of the immune-related genes, including antilipopolysaccharide factor, Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor, C-type lectin and serine protease encoding genes, were up-regulated after WSSV infection. These genes have been reported to be involved in the anti-WSSV responses. The expression of genes related to the cytoskeletal system, including β-actin and myosin but without tubulin genes, were down-regulated after WSSV infection. Astakine was found for the first time in the WSSV-infected F. chinensis. To further confirm the expression of differentially expressed genes, quantitative real-time PCR was performed to test the expression of eight randomly selected genes and verified the reliability and accuracy of the microarray expression analysis. The data will provide valuable information to understanding the immune mechanism of shrimp's response to WSSV.

  11. Comparison of white spot syndrome virus infection resistance between Exopalaemon carinicauda and Litopenaeus vannamei under different salinity stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qianqian; Yu, Ge; Sun, Ming; Li, Jitao; Li, Jian

    2017-12-01

    Exopalaemon carinicauda is one of the important economic shrimp species in China, and can tolerate a wide range of salinities. However, its disease resistance remains to be unclear in comparison with other shrimp species under salinity stress. In this study, the resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of E. carinicauda and Litopenaeus vannamei was determined by comparing their hemocyanin (Hc) and phenoloxidase (PO) activities under different salinity stresses. In E. carinicauda, the PO activity and Hc gene transcript abundance showed a coherent pattern of increase and decrease while Hc content showed a slightly decrease with Vibrio anguillarum and WSSV infections. For both E. carinicauda and L. vannamei under salinity stress, the PO activity showed a positive correlation with the salinity while the Hc content and expression level of its gene increased significantly in salinities of 5, 15 and 25 g L-1. The survival rate of E. carinicauda with WSSV infection was higher than that of L. vannamei in the first 24 h under different salinity stresses. Drastic mortality of E.carinicauda and L. vannamei appeared at 48 h and 3 h post-injection, respectively. Furthermore, compared with L. vannamei, E. carinicauda displayed higher PO activity, Hc content and abundance of Hc gene mRNA. The results collectively indicated that Hc and PO have obviously functional connection in resisting pathogens and tolerating salinity stress, and PO activity and Hc gene mRNA abundance may reflect the resistance of shrimp to disease. E. carinicauda has higher level of immune potential than L. vannamei, suggesting its greater capacity in resisting pathogens under salinity stresses.

  12. Pupil - white spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... especially important in infants. Babies are unable to communicate to others that their vision is decreased. It is ... A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  13. PENETRACIÓN DE TRES ADHESIVOS EN LESIONES INTERPROXIMALES DE CARIES DE MANCHA BLANCA: ESTUDIO IN VITRO/PENETRATION OF THREE ADHESIVES IN PROXIMAL WHITE-SPOT CARIES LESIONS: AN IN VITRO STUDY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olga Lucía Zarta; Alba Lucía Zuluaga Valencia; María Cristina Huertas Díaz; Juan Sebastián Lara; Ingrid Katherine Quintero; Marisol Téllez; Margarita Úsuga; Stefania Martignon

    2012-01-01

    .... One hundred seventeen extracted human premolars with ICDAS 2 white-spot non-cavitated proximal lesions mounted on plaster, to simulate oral cavity conditions, were randomly sorted out in each of the three groups...

  14. Litopenaeus vannamei activating transcription factor 6 alpha gene involvement in ER-stress response and white spot symptom virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai; He, Hong-Hui; Zhang, Chao-Zheng; Li, Xiao-Yun; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2017-11-01

    A previous study found that inositol-requiring enzyme-1-X-box binding protein 1 (IRE1-XBP1) pathway and the protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase-eIF2α (PERK-eIF2α) pathway of shrimp play roles in the unfolded protein response (UPR). And they also be proved that was involved in white spot symptom virus (WSSV) infection. Yet the functions of the third branch in shrimp UPR are still unclear. In this study, we showed that upon UPR activation, activating transcription factor 6 alpha (LvATF6α) of Litopenaeus vannamei was cleaved and transferred from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in 293T cells, indicating that the ATF6 pathway in shrimp is also a branch of UPR. Furthermore, LvATF6α could reduce the apoptosis rate of Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells treated with actinomycin, and knock-down expression of LvATF6α increased the apoptosis rate of shrimp hemocytes. In vivo testing revealed that the short from LvATF6α (LvATF6α-s) was obviously increased after UPR activation or WSSV infection, indicating that the ATF6 pathway was activated in L. vannamei gills under such circumstances. Moreover, knock-down expression of LvATF6α could reduce the cumulative mortality and WSSV copy number in WSSV-infected shrimp. Further study revealed that WSSV may profit from shrimp ATF6 pathway activation in two aspects. First, LvATF6α-s significantly upregulated the expression of the WSSV genes (wsv023, wsv045, wsv083, wsv129, wsv222, wsv249, and wsv343). Second, LvATF6α-s inhibited apoptosis by negatively regulating the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 - (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) pathway. All of these evidences suggested that the ATF6 pathway is a member of the L. vannamei UPR, and it is also engaged in WSSV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Yeast Surface Display of Two Proteins Previously Shown to Be Protective Against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV in Shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorawit Ananphongmanee

    Full Text Available Cell surface display using the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris has been extensively developed for application in bioindustrial processes. Due to the rigid structure of their cell walls, a number of proteins have been successfully displayed on their cell surfaces. It was previously reported that the viral binding protein Rab7 from the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (PmRab7 and its binding partner envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV could independently protect shrimp against WSSV infection. Thus, we aimed to display these two proteins independently on the cell surfaces of 2 yeast clones with the ultimate goal of using a mixture of the two clones as an orally deliverable, antiviral agent to protect shrimp against WSSV infection. PmRab7 and VP28 were modified by N-terminal tagging to the C-terminal half of S. cerevisiae α-agglutinin. DNA fragments, harboring fused-gene expression cassettes under control of an alcohol oxidase I (AOX1 promoter were constructed and used to transform the yeast cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies specific to both proteins demonstrated that mutated PmRab7 (mPmRab7 and partial VP28 (pVP28 were localized on the cell surfaces of the respective clones, and fluorescence intensity for each was significantly higher than that of control cells by flow cytometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA using cells displaying mPmRab7 or pVP28 revealed that the binding of specific antibodies for each was dose-dependent, and could be saturated. In addition, the binding of mPmRab7-expressing cells with free VP28, and vice versa was dose dependent. Binding between the two surface-expressed proteins was confirmed by an assay showing agglutination between cells expressing complementary mPmRab7 and pVP28. In summary, our genetically engineered P. pastoris can display biologically active mPmRab7 and pVP28 and is now ready for evaluation of efficacy in protecting shrimp against

  16. Eagle Feathers, the Highest Honor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaverhead, Pete

    Following his own advice that elders of the tribe share their knowledge so that "the way of the Indians would come back to the children of today," Pete Beaverhead (1899-1975) tells of the traditions of respect and honor surrounding the eagle feather in a booklet illustrated with black and white drawings. The eagle is an Indian symbol of…

  17. Eagle syndrome : A comprehensive review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badhey, Arvind; Jategaonkar, Ameya; Kovacs, Alexander Joseph Anglin; Kadakia, Sameep; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Ducic, Yadranko; Schantz, Stimson; Shin, Edward

    The objective of this report is to summarize the symptoms, diagnostic workup, necessary imaging, and management of Eagle syndrome. A comprehensive literature review was conducted on peer-reviewed publications of Eagle syndrome across multiple disciplines in order to gain a thorough understanding of

  18. 77 FR 42714 - Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Water Resources, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To Intervene... Land Resources, LLC; and Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC. e. Name of Project: Rio Hydroelectric... President-- Operations, Eagle Creek Hydropower, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

  19. Efficacy of fluoride varnish for preventing white spot lesions and gingivitis during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances-a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschneck, Christian; Christl, Jan-Joachim; Reicheneder, Claudia; Proff, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The development of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets and gingivitis is a common problem during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. This prospective randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial investigated the preventive efficacy of a one-time application of two commonly used fluoride varnishes in patients with low to moderate caries risk. Ninety adolescent orthodontic patients with a low to moderate caries risk were prospectively randomized to three groups of 30 patients each: (1) standardized dental hygiene with fluoride toothpaste and one-time application of placebo varnish (control) or (2) of elmex® fluid or (3) of Fluor Protector S on all dental surfaces at the start of fixed therapy. The extent of enamel demineralization and gingivitis was determined with the ICDAS and the gingivitis index (GI) at baseline and after 4, 12, and 20 weeks. Each treatment group showed a significant increase of the ICDAS index, but not of the GI over the course of time with no significant intergroup differences detectable. A one-time application of fluoride varnish at the start of orthodontic treatment did not provide any additional preventive advantage over sufficient dental hygiene with fluoride toothpaste with regard to formation of white spots and gingivitis in patients with a low to moderate caries risk. In dental practice, patients often receive an application of fluoride varnish at the start of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. However, the efficacy of this procedure is still unclear.

  20. Application of Spirulina platensis for prevention of white spot syndrome virus in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemtanon, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the extract of Spirulina platensis were examined in vitro to inhibit white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and application of dry S. platensis in diet for prevention of white spot syndrome (WSS in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. The results showed that the lowest concentration of the extract for inhibiting WSSV was 0.01 mg/ml, while the optimum concentration was found to be 0.1 mg/ ml in which the mortality rate of the shrimp was 4 percents and infection was not detected from survivalshrimp by the immunohistochemistry method.Furthermore, The results showed that the survival rate of the post larvae fed on steamed egg containing dry S. platensis 5 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control (p<0.05 when challenged with WSSV and no WSSV infected shrimp examine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the case of juvenile shrimp, the survival rate of shrimp fed pellets containing dry S. platensis 10 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05 after challenging with WSSV. Moreover percent of WSSV infection in the survival shrimp using the immunohistochemistry method was lower than that of the control group.

  1. 76 FR 22393 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Cancellation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... and Wildlife Service for the proposed Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. This...

  2. 75 FR 27332 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Eagle Creek Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources... Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC.... For the transferee: Mr. Paul Ho, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and...

  3. [Effect of environmental factors and fishing effort allocation on catch of the Spotted Eagle Ray Aetobatus narinari (Rajiformes: Myliobatidae) in Southern Gulf of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Elizabeth; Pérez, Juan Carlos; Méndez, Iván

    2013-09-01

    Aetobatus narinari represents a fisheries target in Southern Gulf of Mexico, and it is currently considered a Near Threatened species by the IUCN red list. The information available of this batoid fish includes some biological and fishery aspects; nevertheless, little is known about the factors influencing on fishing operations and catches. In order to evaluate the effect of environmental factors and the fishing effort allocation by vessels on the target fishery of A. narinari in this area, a daily basis sampling was carried out on four small-scale vessels, from January to July 2009 (the entire fishing season), in two fishing localities (Campeche and Seybaplaya). A total of 896 rays were recorded from 280 fishing trips. A General Linear Model was used to predict the factors effect on the probability that fishing operations occurred, and on the probability for captures of at least one or three or five rays per vessel-trip. The probability that fishing operations occurred off Campeche was predicted by the lunar cycle, with the highest probability in the new moon period (66%) and a probability smaller than 35% for the other periods. The probability that fishing operations occurred off Seybaplaya was predicted by wind velocity, with higher probabilities at low wind velocity than at high wind velocity, and a 50% probability of fishing operations at 12-15 km/h. Catch rates off Seybaplaya were predicted by the vessel's factor (the effect of fishing effort allocation), the North wind season and sea surface temperature. The probability for captures of at least one and three rays per vessel-trip was predicted by the vessel's factor and the North wind season. One vessel had higher catch probability (83% for at least one ray and 43% for at least three rays) than the others (69 and 70% for at least one ray and 26% for at least three rays), and during the North wind season the catch probability was higher (96% for at least one ray and 72% for at least three rays) than out of

  4. Eagle syndrome – An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitaa Nedunchezhian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eagle syndrome represents symptoms brought about by compression of vital neurovascular and muscular elements adjoining the styloid process because of the elongation of styloid process or ossification of the stylohyoid or stylomandibular ligament. It is crucial for dentists, otolaryngologists and neurologists to be aware of the elongation of the styloid process and associated signs and symptoms. This article reviews the aetiopathogenesis, classification, investigative procedures and treatment modalities associated with Eagle syndrome.

  5. Eagle syndrome. A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heber Arbildo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Painful disorders in the maxillofacial region are common in dental practice. Most of these conditions are not properly diagnosed because of inadequate knowledge of craniofacial and cervico-pharyngeal syndromes such as Eagle Syndrome. The aim of this review is to describe the general aspects, diagnosis and treatment of Eagle syndrome. Eagle syndrome or stylohyoid syndrome was first described by Watt W. Eagle in 1937. It was defined as orofacial pain related to the elongation of the styloid process and ligament stylohyoid calcification. The condition is accompanied by symptoms such as dysphonia, dysphagia, sore throat, glossitis, earache, tonsillitis, facial pain, headache, pain in the temporomandibular joint and inability to perform lateral movements of the neck. Diagnosis and treatment of Eagle syndrome based on symptoms and radiographic examination of the patient will determine the need for surgical or nonsurgical treatment. Eagle syndrome is a complex disorder demanding a thorough knowledge of its signs and symptoms to make a correct diagnosis and provide an appropriate subsequent treatment. Disseminating information about this syndrome among medical-dental professionals is essential to provide adequate dental care to patients.

  6. Prevention of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection on Penaeus monodon by Immersion in CEPM Extract of Avicennia sp. and Sonneratia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wahjuningrum

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality and survival rate are still being the problem that hampers the productivity of black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon culture.  Impaired quality of larval shrimp and environmental conditions can confer shrimp be infected by diseases, including viruses such as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV.  Prevention of disease infection using chemicals can offer negative impacts on water, pathogen resistance and consumers.  This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of an alternative prevention compound as liquid mangrove extract (CEPM from Avicennia sp. and Sonneratia sp. By immersion in different dose of CEPM, i.e. 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm, the patogenicity of WSSV was found to be different.  Patogenicity of WSSV decreased after treatment by CEPM, hence this could be used to induce shrimp immunity.  Optimum dose of CEPM was 250 ppm, which could increased survival rate of shrimp after challenging by WSSV, up to 98.4% shrimp survived. Keywrods: WSSV, black tiger shrimp, extract, Avicennia sp., Sonneratia sp.   ABSTRAK Kualitas dan kelangsungan hidup merupakan masalah yang masih membatasi produktivitas budidaya udang windu Penaeus monodon. Kondisi udang dan kualitas lingkungan yang kurang baik dapat menyebabkan udang terserang penyakit, termasuk yang disebabkan oleh virus termasuk white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Upaya pengendaliannya menggunakan bahan kimia secara berlebih dapat menimbulkan dampak negatif bagi lingkungan perairan, kesehatan konsumen dan menimbulkan resistensi patogen. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui efektivitas bahan alternatif berupa cairan ekstrak pohon mangrove (CEPM dari jenis Avicennia sp. dan Sonneratia sp. sebagai upaya pencegahan. Dengan perendaman beberapa konsentrasi yang berbeda (250, 500, 750 dan 1000 ppm penggunaan cairan ekstrak pohon mangrove (CEPM Avicennia sp. dan Sonneratia sp., memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap patogenitas WSSV dan udang uji pada setiap perlakuan. Tingkat

  7. Molecular cloning and recombinant expression of the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region from a brazilian white spot syndrome virus isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Braunig

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fragment of the VP28 coding sequence from a Brazilian WSSV isolate (BrVP28 was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3 pLysS strain in order to produce the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region. The expression resulted in a protein of about 21 kDa, which was purified under denaturing conditions, resulting in a final highly purified BrVP28 preparation. The recombinant protein obtained can be used in several biotechnology applications, such as the production of monoclonal antibodies which could be used in the development of diagnostic tools as well as in the studies on the characterization of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV isolated in Brazil.

  8. Lateral flow assay for rapid detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using a phage-displayed peptide as bio-recognition probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulabhusan, Prabir Kumar; Rajwade, Jyutika M; Sahul Hameed, A S; Paknikar, Kishore M

    2017-06-01

    White spot disease caused by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has a major socio-economic impact on shrimp farming in India. It has been realized that a field-usable diagnostic capable of rapid detection of WSSV can prevent huge economic losses in disease outbreaks. In this work, we explored the possibility of using a peptide as bio-recognition probe in a field-usable device for the detection of WSSV from infected shrimps and prawns. A commercially available random phage-display library was screened against rVP28 (a major structural protein of WSSV, expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli). A bacteriophage clone VP28-4L was obtained, and its binding to purified rVP28 protein as well as WSSV from infected shrimp Litopaeneus vannamei tissue was confirmed by ELISA and western blot. The apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (K d ,app) was calculated to be 810 nM. VP28-4L did not show cross-reactivity with any other shrimp viruses. A 12-mer peptide (pep28, with the sequence 'TFQAFDLSPFPS') displayed on the VP28-4L was synthesized, and its diagnostic potential was evaluated in a lateral flow assay (LFA). Visual detection of WSSV could be achieved using biotinylated-pep28 and streptavidin-conjugated gold nanoparticles. In LFA, 12.5 μg/mL of the virus could be detected from L. vannamei gill tissue homogenate within 20 min. Pep28 thus becomes an attractive candidate in bio-recognition of WSSV in field-usable diagnostic platforms benefitting the aquaculture sector.

  9. Validation of a commercial insulated isothermal PCR-based POCKIT test for rapid and easy detection of white spot syndrome virus infection in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Long Tsai

    Full Text Available Timely pond-side detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV plays a critical role in the implementation of bio-security measures to help minimize economic losses caused by white spot syndrome disease, an important threat to shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. A portable device, namely POCKIT™, became available recently to complete fluorescent probe-based insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR, and automatic data detection and interpretation within one hour. Taking advantage of this platform, the IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system was established to allow simple and easy WSSV detection for on-site users. The assay was first evaluated for its analytical sensitivity and specificity performance. The 95% limit of detection (LOD of the assay was 17 copies of WSSV genomic DNA per reaction (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 24 copies per reaction. The established assay has detection sensitivity similar to that of OIE-registered IQ2000™ WSSV Detection and Protection System with serial dilutions of WSSV-positive Litopenaeus vannamei DNA. No cross-reaction signals were generated from infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV, monodon baculovirus (MBV, and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV positive samples. Accuracy analysis using 700 L. vannamei of known WSSV infection status shows that the established assayhassensitivity93.5% (95% CI: 90.61-95.56% and specificity 97% (95% CI: 94.31-98.50%. Furthermore, no discrepancy was found between the two assays when 100 random L. vannamei samples were tested in parallel. Finally, excellent correlation was observed among test results of three batches of reagents with 64 samples analyzed in three different laboratories. Working in a portable device, IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system allows reliable, sensitive and specific on-site detection of WSSV in L. vannamei.

  10. Effects of Microencapsulated Synbiotic Administration at Different Dosages against heavy co-infection of White Spot Disease (WSD and Vibrio harveyi in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunarty Yunarty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available White spot disease (WSD is one of infectious disease in shrimp caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. This study aimed to determine the dosage immunological effects and growth performances of microencapsulated synbiotic (Bacillus NP5 and mannan oligosaccharide at different dosages on Pacific white shrimp.  The microencapsulated synbiotic   was administered as feed supplementation  against the co-infection of   WSSV and Vibrio harveyi. Synbiotic was encapsulated by spray drying method, further feed supplemented to Pacific white shrimp for 30 days at a  dosages of 0.5% (A, 1% (B, 2% (C and control treatments, i.e. without any microencapsulated synbiotic administration as positive control (D and negative control (E. The challenge test was performed on day 30 after feeding supplementation, then the experimental shrimps were injected by WSSV intramuscularly   at the infective dosage of 104 copies.-ml-1. Afterwards,   24 hours after WSSV injection the shrimps were immersed in water contained cells suspension of V. harveyi  at the cells population dosage of 106 CFU-.ml-1. All synbiotic treatments showed better results with the values of Total Haemocyte Count (THC, Phenoloxidase (PO and Respiratory Burst (RB, were higher (P<0.05 compared to positive control. The specific growth rates (SGR of A, B and C showed higher than both controls of D and E. The feed conversion ratio (FCR value of synbiotic treatments were lower (P<0.05 than both controls. However, the administration of microencapsulated synbiotic have not been able to prevent heavy impact of WSSV and V. harveyi co-infection due to lower SR and mortality pattern which continued to increase.   Keywords: Synbiotic, Litopenaeus vannamei, WSSV, Vibrio harveyi, co-infection

  11. 76 FR 15971 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Eagle Crest Energy as part of its on-going Section 7 Endangered Species Act consultation efforts. e. All... Eagle Crest Energy, via e-mail at: [email protected] ; or via telephone at: 503-697-1478. All...

  12. 76 FR 22699 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... Eagle Crest Energy as part of its on-going Section 7 Endangered Species Act consultation efforts. e. All... Eagle Crest Energy, via e-mail at: [email protected] ; or via telephone at: 503-697-1478. All...

  13. 77 FR 13592 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting... Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC (transferees) filed an...

  14. Dietary ambon lumut banana stem extract Musa cavendishii var. dwarf Paxton as an immunostimulant for white spot disease prevention in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afriani Ramadhan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was aimed to evaluate the dietary ambon lumut banana Musa cavendishii var. dwarf Paxton stem extract on the immune responses, growth, and survival rate of Pacific white shrimp against white spot disease. Ambon banana steam extract was obtained by maceration method using ethanol. The shrimps fed by pellet containing ambon banana stem extracts with different dosages for 29 days, i.e designated as 0.1 (A; 0.3 (B, and 0.5 (C g/kg, the diet treatment without ambon banana stem extract without challenged test (K-, and diet treatment without ambon banana stem extract with challenged test (K+. Each treatment consisted of three replications. Feeding was conducted for 29 days of maintenance (four times a day. The results showed that the immune responses (average total hemocyte count: 45.15×106 cells/mL, phenoloxidase activity 1.03±0.08 OD, respiratory burst 0.95±0.04 OD, phagocytic activity 94.33±1.53%, growth (specific growth rate: 7.79±0.06%/day, feed ratio conversion was 52±0.01, and survival of treatment C (survival rate 100% were higher compared with the treatment K+ (total hemocyte count: 3.83×106 cells/mL, phenoloxidase activity 0.04±0.01 OD, respiratory burst 0.18±0.06 OD,  phagocytic activity 5.67±0.58%, specific growth rate: 2.61±0.08%/day, feed conversion ratio 2.11±0.02, survival rate: 50%. Therefore, banana stem extract at a dose of 0.5 g/kg everyday diet can be used to improve growth and nonspecific immune system against white spot disease on Pacific white shrimp. Keywords: Pacific white shrimp, white spot disease, immune response, Ambon banana stem extract  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji dosis optimal ekstrak batang pisang ambon melalui pakan dalam meningkatkan respon imun, pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup udang putih terhadap penyakit white spot. Ekstrak batang pisang ambon lumut Musa cavendishii var. dwarf  Paxton menggunakan metode maserasi dengan menggunakan pelarut etanol. Pakan

  15. Nesting bald eagles attack researcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    1976-01-01

    Because of the large and relatively stable Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population on Kodiak Island, Alaska, studies on nesting, productivity, and other aspects of the species' life history have been a part of a continuing research program on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge (Hensel and Troyer 1964, Condor 66: 282; Troyer and...

  16. Spatial Epidemiology and Risk Factor Analysis of White Spot Disease in the Shrimp Farming Industry of Sinaloa, Mexico, from 2005 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniesa, A; Mardones, F O; Chávez, M C; Montoya, L; Cabanillas, J A; de Blas, I; Martínez-López, B

    2017-10-01

    White spot disease (WSD), caused by the white spot syndrome virus, is currently one of the primary causes of mortality and economic losses in the shrimp farming industry worldwide. In Mexico, shrimp production is one of the most important primary activities generating an annual income of USD 711 million. However, WSD introduction in 1999 had a devastating impact for the Mexican shrimp industry. The aim of this study was to characterize the WSD spatio-temporal patterns and to identify the primary risk factors contributing to WSD occurrence from 2005 to 2011 in Sinaloa, Mexico. We used data collected by the 'Comité Estatal de Sanidad Acuícola de Sinaloa' from 2005 to 2011 regarding WSD outbreaks as well as environmental, production and husbandry factors at farm level. The spatio-temporal patterns of WSD were described using space-time scan statistics. The effect of 52 variables on the time to WSD outbreak occurrence was assessed using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Results reveal that WSD risk and survival time were not homogeneously distributed as suggested by the significant clusters obtained using the space-time permutation model and the space-time exponential model, respectively. The Cox model revealed that the first production cycle [hazard ratio (HR) = 11.31], changes from 1 to 1.4°C of temperature oscillation caused by 'El Niño'/'La Niña' events (HR = 1.44) and high average daily growths (HR = 1.26) were significantly associated with lower survival (i.e. shorter time to WSD outbreak) on farm. Conversely, shrimp weight at the moment of the outbreak (HR = 0.159), changes from -0.9 to -0.5°C of temperature oscillation caused by 'El Niño'/'La Niña' events (HR = 0.540), high superficial water temperature during the pound stocking (HR = 0.823) and high (>100) number of days of culture (HR = 0.830) were factors associated with higher survival. Results are expected to inform the design of risk-based, intervention strategies to

  17. Host MicroRNA-217 Promotes White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection by Targeting Tube in the Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, a group of small molecule non-encoding RNAs, are key post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that are implicated in many biological processes. In the current study, miR-217 from Eriocheir sinensis was selected for studying its roles during host–virus interaction. Overexpression or silencing of miR-217 led to considerable effects on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV replication, implying that miR-217 played a positive role in WSSV infection. In insect High Five cells, miR-217 significantly inhibited Tube gene expression by binding to the 3′-untranslated region of the Tube. Overexpression of miR-217 in crab led to downregulation of tube expression. Knockdown of Tube in vivo led to significant enhancement of WSSV infection and inhibited the expression of five antimicrobial peptide (AMP genes (Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor ALF1, ALF2, ALF3; Crustin Crus1, Crus2 in WSSV-challenged crabs. Overexpression of miR-217 also led to downregulation of these AMP genes in WSSV-challenged crabs. Our results showed that host miRNA played positive roles in virus infection by regulation of host tube gene, which is the key component of Toll signaling pathway.

  18. Identification of a novel shrimp protein phosphatase and its association with latency-related ORF427 of white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liqun; Kwang, Jimmy

    2004-11-05

    To characterize the role of latency-associated ORF427 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a shrimp cDNA library was constructed to screen interacting proteins of ORF427. Employing the yeast two-hybrid system, a novel shrimp protein phosphatase (named PPs), sharing 93% homology with human protein phosphatase 1, has been identified able to bind ORF427 in yeast. Through co-immunoprecipitation assays, the interaction between PPs and ORF427 was further confirmed both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, the novel shrimp protein phosphatase consists of only 199 aa and contains almost all the functional catalytic domains of human protein phosphatase, while it lacks the corresponding C-terminal non-catalytic sequence. Transcription and translation products of the identified cDNA can be detected in both normal and WSSV-infected shrimps; and PPs was found to localize mainly in the lysosome of shrimp cells. To characterize its function, the PPs cDNA was highly expressed in bacteria and the purified protein showed phosphatase activity when tested against pNPP in a standard phosphatase assay. Our results suggest that the identified protein phosphatase, PPs, may represent a novel member of protein phosphatase family and might be involved in the regulation of WSSV's life cycle through interaction with latency-related ORF427 of WSSV.

  19. The concentration of white spot disease virus for its detection in sea water using a combined ferric colloid adsorption- and foam separation-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Takahiko; Kono, Tomoya; Mekata, Tohoru; Sakai, Masahiro; Itami, Toshiaki

    2011-05-01

    The white spot disease virus (WSDV), which is most virulent in shrimp, is a cause of serious damage in the shrimp production industry. However, it is difficult to track the infection route and behaviour of WSDV in shrimp farms because it is present at extremely low concentrations in culture sea water. In this study, the concentration of WSDV in sea water foam was examined using dispersed bubbles and milk casein as a surface-active protein. WSDV concentrations were assessed using real-time PCR. When ferric colloid adsorption was performed prior to foam separation, WSDV was effectively removed from sea water and concentrated in the generated foam within 5 min. The removal efficiency was greater than 90% at the optimum iron and casein concentrations of 1mg Fe/l and 1mg/l, respectively. Furthermore, to analyse the dissolution of the collected ferric colloid, the WSDV concentration in the colloid-dissolved solution was set to be 200-fold higher than that found in raw water. This represents a novel method of concentrating WSDV for its detection in sea water using a combination of ferric colloid adsorption and foam separation that is easy to perform, rapid and efficient. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Indel-II region deletion sizes in the white spot syndrome virus genome correlate with shrimp disease outbreaks in southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Tran Thi Tuyet; Zwart, Mark P; Phuong, Nguyen T; Oanh, Dang T H; de Jong, Mart C M; Vlak, Just M

    2012-06-13

    Sequence comparisons of the genomes of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) strains have identified regions containing variable-length insertions/deletions (i.e. indels). Indel-I and Indel-II, positioned between open reading frames (ORFs) 14/15 and 23/24, respectively, are the largest and the most variable. Here we examined the nature of these 2 indel regions in 313 WSSV-infected Penaeus monodon shrimp collected between 2006 and 2009 from 76 aquaculture ponds in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. In the Indel-I region, 2 WSSV genotypes with deletions of either 5950 or 6031 bp in length compared with that of a reference strain from Thailand (WSSV-TH-96-II) were detected. In the Indel-II region, 4 WSSV genotypes with deletions of 8539, 10970, 11049 or 11866 bp in length compared with that of a reference strain from Taiwan (WSSV-TW) were detected, and the 8539 and 10970 bp genotypes predominated. Indel-II variants with longer deletions were found to correlate statistically with WSSV-diseased shrimp originating from more intensive farming systems. Like Indel-I lengths, Indel-II lengths also varied based on the Mekong Delta province from which farmed shrimp were collected.

  1. White spot syndrome virus entry is dependent on multiple endocytic routes and strongly facilitated by Cq-GABARAP in a CME-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong-yuan; Shen, Kai-li; Chen, Zhen; Fan, Wei-wei; Xie, Xiao-lu; Meng, Chuang; Chang, Xue-jiao; Zheng, Li-bing; Jeswin, Joseph; Li, Cheng-hua; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng

    2016-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a lethal pathogen of shrimp and many other crustaceans, including crayfish. However, the molecular mechanism underlying its cellular entry remains elusive due to the lack of shrimp cell lines for viral propagation. Crayfish hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cell culture was recently established as a good model for WSSV infection study. Here, we showed that multiple endocytic routes, including clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), macropinocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, were indispensably employed for the viral entry into Hpt cell of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. Intriguingly, cellular autophagic activity was positively correlated with efficient viral entry, in which a key autophagy-related protein, γ-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein (Cq-GABARAP), that not only localized but also co-localized with WSSV on the Hpt cell membrane, strongly facilitated WSSV entry by binding to the viral envelope VP28 in a CME-dependent manner that was negatively regulated by Cq-Rac1. Furthermore, cytoskeletal components, including Cq-β-tubulin and Cq-β-actin, bound to both recombinant rCq-GABARAP and WSSV envelope proteins, which likely led to viral entry promotion via cooperation with rCq-GABARAP. Even under conditions that promoted viral entry, rCq-GABARAP significantly reduced viral replication at an early stage of infection, which was probably caused by the formation of WSSV aggregates in the cytoplasm. PMID:27385304

  2. Proteomic analysis by iTRAQ in red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, hematopoietic tissue cells post white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeswin, Joseph; Xie, Xiao-lu; Ji, Qiao-lin; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng

    2016-03-01

    To elucidate proteomic changes of Hpt cells from red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, we have carried out isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) of cellular proteins at both early (1 hpi) and late stage (12 hpi) post white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Protein database search revealed 594 protein hits by Mascot, in which 17 and 30 proteins were present as differentially expressed proteins at early and late viral infection, respectively. Generally, these differentially expressed proteins include: 1) the metabolic process related proteins in glycolysis and glucogenesis, DNA replication, nucleotide/amino acid/fatty acid metabolism and protein biosynthesis; 2) the signal transduction related proteins like small GTPases, G-protein-alpha stimulatory subunit, proteins bearing PDZ- or 14-3-3-domains that help holding together and organize signaling complexes, casein kinase I and proteins of the MAP-kinase signal transduction pathway; 3) the immune defense related proteins such as α-2 macroglobulin, transglutaminase and trans-activation response RNA-binding protein 1. Taken together, these protein information shed new light on the host cellular response against WSSV infection in a crustacean cell culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inactivation of Anisakis simplex L3 in the flesh of white spotted conger (Conger myriaster) by high hydrostatic pressure and its effect on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hoon; Park, Shin Young; Ha, Sang-Do

    2016-06-01

    Koreans consume much seafood; the country is surrounded on the east, west and south by the sea. Koreans have eaten raw sashimi for a long time. However, a concern in the raw sea food industry is that the parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex L3 occurs naturally in marine fish. Thus, the fishery industry needs a non-thermal processing method. High hydrostatic pressure (HPP) has been demonstrated to be effective. White spotted conger flesh containing 20 live larvae was exposed to different pressures (150 and 200 MPa for 1 and 5 min; 250 and 300 MPa each for 1 min). The viability of A. simplex L3 was significantly (p  0.05) in any of the Hunter colour ('L', 'a' and 'b') values were found after HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min. The fresh treated at 300 MPa for 1 min scored 4.0 (the defect limit of quality) of flavour, texture and overall acceptability in untrained sensory evaluation using a seven-point hedonic scale. However, the flesh treated at 200 MPa for 5 min scored > 5.0 ('like') for all sensory parameters. This study suggested that HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min could potentially be used for the inactivation of A. simplex L3 in raw fishery food products without any concomitant changes in their colour or sensory qualities.

  4. Identification and characterization of intestine microRNAs and targets in red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii infected with white spot syndrome virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Du

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that play important roles in the innate immunity system of invertebrates, especially in the aspect of antivirus. In the present study, high-throughput small RNA Illumina sequencing systems were used to identify differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs from the intestines of Procambarus clarkii that were infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. As a result, 39 known and 12 novel miRNAs were identified in both NG and WG small RNA libraries. Seven DEMs were determined to be involved in the antiviral innate immunity in the intestines of P. clarkii. The results of the target gene predictions of the DEMs showed that the putative target genes of these 7 DEMs are related to tight junctions, vascular smooth muscle contraction regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, RNA transport, mRNA surveillance, viral carcinogenesis, and Salmonella infection. These results provide theoretical insights for future studies on the antiviral immunity of crustaceans.

  5. Peritrophin-like protein from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) involved in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in digestive tract challenged with reverse gavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shijun; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-05-01

    The peritrophic membrane plays an important role in the defense system of the arthropod gut. The digestive tract is considered one of the major tissues targeted by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. In this study, the nucleotide sequence encoding peritrophin-like protein of Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) was amplified from a yeast two-hybrid library of L. vannamei. The epitope peptide of LvPT was predicted with the GenScript OptimumAntigen™ design tool. An anti-LvPT polyclonal antibody was produced and shown to specifically bind a band at 27 kDa, identified as LvPT. The LvPT protein was expressed and its concentration determined. LvPT dsRNA (4 μg per shrimp) was used to inhibit LvPT expression in shrimp, and a WSSV challenge experiment was then performed with reverse gavage. The pleopods, stomachs, and guts were collected from the shrimp at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h post-infection (hpi). Viral load quantification showed that the levels of WSSV were significantly lower in the pleopods, stomachs, and guts of shrimp after LvPT dsRNA interference than in those of the controls at 48 and 72 hpi. Our results imply that LvPT plays an important role during WSSV infection of the digestive tract.

  6. Peritrophin-like protein from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) involved in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in digestive tract challenged with reverse gavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shijun; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-11-01

    The peritrophic membrane plays an important role in the defense system of the arthropod gut. The digestive tract is considered one of the major tissues targeted by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. In this study, the nucleotide sequence encoding peritrophin-like protein of Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) was amplified from a yeast two-hybrid library of L. vannamei. The epitope peptide of LvPT was predicted with the GenScript OptimumAntigen™ design tool. An anti-LvPT polyclonal antibody was produced and shown to specifically bind a band at 27 kDa, identified as LvPT. The LvPT protein was expressed and its concentration determined. LvPT dsRNA (4 μg per shrimp) was used to inhibit LvPT expression in shrimp, and a WSSV challenge experiment was then performed with reverse gavage. The pleopods, stomachs, and guts were collected from the shrimp at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h post-infection (hpi). Viral load quantification showed that the levels of WSSV were significantly lower in the pleopods, stomachs, and guts of shrimp after LvPT dsRNA interference than in those of the controls at 48 and 72 hpi. Our results imply that LvPT plays an important role during WSSV infection of the digestive tract.

  7. Molecular docking and simulation studies of 3-(1-chloropiperidin-4-yl)-6-fluoro benzisoxazole 2 against VP26 and VP28 proteins of white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharsana, S; Rajashekar Reddy, C B; Dinesh, S; Rajasekhara Reddy, S; Mohanapriya, A; Itami, T; Sudhakaran, R

    2016-10-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an aquatic virus infecting shrimps and other crustaceans, is widely distributed in Asian subcontinents including India. The infection has led to a serious economic loss in shrimp farming. The WSSV genome is approximately 300 kb and codes for several proteins mediating the infection. The envelope proteins VP26 and VP28 play a major role in infection process and also in the interaction with the host cells. A comprehensive study on the viral proteins leading to the development of safe and potent antiviral therapeutic is of adverse need. The novel synthesized compound 3-(1-chloropiperidin-4-yl)-6-fluoro benzisoxazole 2 is proved to have potent antiviral activity against WSSV. The compound antiviral activity is validated in freshwater crabs (Paratelphusa hydrodomous). An in silico molecular docking and simulation analysis of the envelope proteins VP26 and VP28 with the ligand 3-(1-chloropiperidin-4-yl)-6-fluoro benzisoxazole 2 are carried out. The docking analysis reveals that the polar amino acids in the pore region of the envelope proteins were involved in the ligand binding. The influence of the ligand binding on the proteins is validated by the molecular dynamics and simulation study. These in silico approaches together demonstrate the ligand's efficiency in preventing the trimers from exhibiting their physiological function. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Advances in the processing of policromat images as diagnostic method to determine white spot syndrome virus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Sanchez, Cristina M.; Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Montoya-Rodriguez, L.; Garcia-Gasca, A.; Fajer Avila, Emma J.; Pacheco-Marges, R.

    2004-10-01

    White spot syndrome (WSSV) is a viral disease which affects many crustacean species including commercial shrimps. Adequate, precise and quick methods to diagnose on time the presence of the disease in order to apply different strategies to avoid the dispersion and to reduce mortalities is necessary. Histopathology is an important diagnostic method. However, histopathology has the problem that requires time to prepare the histological slides and time to arrive to some diagnosis because this depend on the nature of the tissues, the pathogen(s) to find, the number of organisms, number of slides to analyze and the skill of the technician. This paper try to demonstrate the sensibility of one digital system of processing and recognition of images using color correlation with phase filters, to identify inclusion bodies of WSSV. Infected tissues were processed to obtain histological slides and to verify that the inclusion bodies observed were of WSV, in situ hybridization were carried out. The sensibility results of the recognition of the inclusion bodies of WSSV with the color correlation program was 86.1%. The highest percentage of recognition was in nervous system and tegument glands with 100%. The values in the stomach epithelium and heart tissue was 78.45% of recognition. Tissues with the lowest recognition values were lymphoid organ and hematopoietic tissue. It is necessary further studies to increase the sensibility and to obtain the specificity.

  9. White spot lesions after orthodontic treatment assessed by clinical photographs and by quantitative light-induced fluorescence imaging; a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerens, Moniek W; Boekitwetan, Florence; van der Veen, Monique H; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-08-01

    White spot lesions (WSL) are an important side-effect of orthodontic multi-bracket (MB) treatment. Standardized monitoring of such WSL may help in caries management. In this retrospective study the discriminatory power of caries assessment on routine digital oral photographs was compared to quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) imaging in monitoring WSL development after debonding of orthodontic appliances. Oral and QLF photographs captured directly after debond (T1) and 1 year thereafter (T2) of 51 subjects, treated with full MB orthodontic appliances were used. Oral photographs were assessed by use of The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) at both time points independently and by side-by-side comparison to assess visual transition (VT). QLF photographs were categorized based on integrated fluorescence loss at T1 and T2. At T1 433 and 384 lesions on 918 buccal surfaces were detected using ICDAS and QLF, respectively. For both methods these numbers were reduced at T2. Changes within ICDAS scores were recorded by VT and showed mainly lesion improvement within ICDAS score 2. The oral and QLF photographs both showed regression of WSL after debonding of MB orthodontic appliances. The VT evaluation was found to have higher discriminatory power in comparison to ICDAS.

  10. Efficacy of a casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste in preventing white spot lesions in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances: A prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esenlik, E; Uzer Çelik, E; Bolat, E

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to test the efficacy of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste applied in-office to prevent white spot lesions (WSL) in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Study design: this study was designed as a randomised controlled clinical trial. Fifty-seven patients undergoing nonextraction fixed orthodontic treatment were enrolled and divided randomly into two groups (control n = 28, experimental n = 29). The pretreatment plaque, gingival and bleeding indices, and oral hygiene habits were recorded. One group received CPP-ACP paste (GC Tooth Mousse) at each monthly orthodontic follow-up examination; the control group received routine orthodontic treatment. The mean patient age was 16.9 years in the experimental group and 17.1 years in the control group. The periodontal indices, decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS), and the WSL prevalence pre- and post-treatment were measured and compared between the groups. differences between groups in normally distributed data between groups were assessed by the paired-t test, and the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test was used to compare variables that were not normally distributed. There was a lower incidence of WSL in the experimental group compared to the control group. Most of the WSL occurred at the maxillary incisors, mandibular canines and premolars. The in-office application of CPP-ACP paste did not prevent WSL development completely; however, it did significantly decrease the number of WSL compared to the control patients.

  11. 78 FR 73704 - Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... work with our biologists to avoid and minimize and compensate for eagle impacts. Adaptive management... to eagles, avoid and minimize risks to eagles, compensate for unavoidable take, and apply an adaptive... 2009 final rule. Adaptive Management Process Management of some types of facilities, such as wind...

  12. 77 FR 27174 - Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Parts 13 and 22 RIN 1018-AX91 Eagle Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Eagle Permitting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule... 13, 2012, proposed rule to revise the regulations for permits for nonpurposeful take of golden eagles...

  13. 77 FR 47628 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project...

  14. 77 FR 43280 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All...

  15. 78 FR 26358 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy...), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and federal agencies...

  16. 78 FR 25263 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and federal...

  17. Eagle syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Ersan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Eagle syndrome, an uncommon sequela of elongation of the styloid process or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament, can manifest as pain in the face and the anterolateral neck, often with referred pain to the ear and the temporomandibular joint area. CASE REPORT: A 43-year-old female patient presented to the Dentomaxillofacial Radiology Department with complaints of unremitting unilateral facial and neck pain, limitation in the movement of the neck, sensation of foreign body in the throat, dysphagia, and otalgia for a year. Systemic anamnesis of the patient was unremarkable. In the clinical examination, digital palpation of the tonsillar fossa aggravated the pain. The patient was being treated for temporomandibular joint disorder. A panoramic radiograph taken after the clinical examination revealed bilateral styloid process elongation. Cone-beam computed tomography also revealed bilateral ossification of the stylohyoid ligament which was measured as 71.5 mm and 69.6 mm on the right and the left side, respectively; and the patient was diagnosed as having Eagle syndrome. The patient was referred to the otolaryngology clinic for surgical treatment. Surgical shortening of the structure provided definitive relief in the patient's symptoms. CONCLUSION: In cases of unexplained complaints in the head and neck region Eagle syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis as it may change the treatment approach.

  18. In Vitro Comparison Of Fluoride Gel Alone and in Combination With Er,Cr:YSGG Laser on Reducing White Spot Lesions in Primary Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaasadollah, Fatemeh; Asnaashari, Mohammad; Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh; Jafary, Maral

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Laser therapy has been suggested as a method for caries-prevention, and ErCr:YSGG laser is increasingly used in dentistry. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of fluoride gel alone and in conjunction with Er,Cr:YSGG laser for remineralization of white spot lesions (WSLs) in primary teeth. Methods: This study was conducted on 20 primary teeth with WSLs extracted for orthodontic reasons. Three sections were made of each tooth at the site of WSLs. The surface area of WSLs was measured under a stereomicroscope at ×25 magnification. Samples were assigned to 3 groups of control (group 1), exposure to 1.23% APF gel for 4 minutes (group 2) and Er,Cr:YSGG laser (0.5 W power, 20 Hz frequency, 60% water, 40% air, pulse duration of 5±1 seconds) plus fluoride (group 3). All samples were stored in artificial saliva for 10 days and then the surface area of the WSLs was measured again under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, MannWhitney and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Results: The reduction in surface area of the WSLs was significantly different between the control and fluoride (Pgroups (Pgroups was not significant (P=0.265). Comparison of the surface area of WSLs before and after the intervention showed no significant difference in group one (P=0.737) while this difference in groups 2 (PCr:YSGG laser irradiation plus 1.23% APF gel was not significantly different from the application of fluoride gel alone in enhancing the remineralization of WSLs.

  19. Analysis of variable genomic loci in white spot syndrome virus to predict its origins in Procambarus clarkii crayfish farmed in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Zeng, Yong; Fei, Rong-Mei; Zeng, Ling-Bing; Wei, Kai-Jin

    2011-09-09

    Variable genomic loci were examined in 4 white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) isolates (08HB, 09HB, 08JS and 09JS) from Procambarus clarkii crayfish collected from Jiangsu and Hubei Provinces in China in 2008 and 2009. In ORF75, sequence variation detected in the 4 isolates, as well as in isolates sequenced previously, suggested that WSSV might have segregated into 2 lineages since first emerging as a serious pathogen of farmed shrimp in East Asia in the early-mid 1990s, with one lineage remaining in East Asia and the other separating to South Asia. In ORF23/24, deletions of 9.31, 10.97, or 11.09 kb were evident compared to a reference isolate from Taiwan (WSSV-TW), and, in ORF14/15, deletions of 5.14 or 5.95 kb were evident compared to a reference isolate from Thailand with the largest genome size (TH-96-II). With respect to these genome characteristics, the crayfish isolates 08HB, 09HB and 08JS were similar to WSSV-TW and the isolate 09JS was similar to a reference isolate from China (WSSV-CN). In addition to these loci, sequence variation was evident in ORF94 and ORF125 that might be useful for differentiating isolates and in epidemiological tracing of WSSV spread in crayfish farmed in China. However, as all 4 crayfish isolates possessed a Homologous Region 9 sequence identical to isolate WSSV-TW and another Thailand isolate (WSSV-TH), and as their transposase sequence was identical to isolates WSSV-CN and WSSV-TH, these 2 loci were not useful in predicting their origins.

  20. Characterization of microRNAs by deep sequencing in red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus haematopoietic tissue cells after white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-Ru; Meng, Chuang; Xie, Xiao-Lu; Li, Cheng-Hua; Liu, Hai-Peng

    2016-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most prevalent and widespread viruses in both shrimp and crayfish aquaculture. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial post-transcriptional regulators and play critical roles in cell differentiation and proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction and immunity. In this study, miRNA expression profiles were identified via deep sequencing in red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus haematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cell cultures infected with WSSV at both early (i.e., 1 hpi) and late (i.e., 12 hpi) infection stages. The results showed that 2 known miRNAs, namely, miR-7 and miR-184 play key roles in immunity. Meanwhile, 106 novel miRNA candidates were predicted by software in these combined miRNA transcriptomes. Compared with two control groups, 36 miRNAs showed significantly different expression levels after WSSV challenge. Furthermore, 10 differentially expressed miRNAs in WSSV-exposed Hpt cells were randomly selected for expression analysis by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Consistent with the expression profiles identified by deep sequencing, RT-PCR showed a significant increase or decrease in miRNA expression in Hpt cells after WSSV infection. Prediction of targets of miRNAs such as miR-7, cqu-miR-52, cqu-miR-126 and cqu-miR-141 revealed that their target genes have diverse biological roles, including not only immunity but also transcriptional regulation, energy metabolism, cell communication, cell differentiation, cell death, autophagy, endocytosis and apoptosis. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanism of WSSV infection and highlight the function of miRNAs in the regulation of the immune response against WSSV infection in crustaceans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A laminin-receptor-like protein regulates white spot syndrome virus infection by binding to the viral envelope protein VP28 in red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling-Ke; Li, Wei-Dong; Gao, Yan; Chen, Rong-Yuan; Xie, Xiao-Lu; Hong, Heng; Wang, Ke-Jian; Liu, Hai-Peng

    2018-02-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a lethal pathogen of shrimp and many other crustaceans, which has been causing huge economic losses in global aquaculture. Laminin receptor (LR) is a cell surface receptor which participates in the interactions between cells as well as cells and extracellular matrix. Previously, we found that a CqLR-like gene was responsive to WSSV infection in the hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cells from red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. To further reveal the role of CqLR-like gene involved in WSSV infection, the full-length cDNA of CqLR-like gene was cloned with 1000 bp, and the open reading frame encoded 308 amino acids with a conserved laminin-binding domain. Importantly, both the WSSV entry and viral replication were strongly reduced in Hpt cells after loss-of-function of CqLR-like gene by gene silencing. Protein interaction assay demonstrated that the recombinant CqLR-like protein could bind to WSSV virion in vitro by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the binding affinity was in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, recombinant CqLR-like protein was found to bind to WSSV envelop protein VP28, but not other envelop proteins tested including VP19, VP24, and VP26, by pull down assay in HEK293T cells. In regarding to that LR is mainly localized on many types of cells' membrane, these data together suggested that CqLR-like protein was likely to function as a putative recognition molecule towards WSSV and act in the viral entry into a crustacean host cell, which may benefit the elucidation of the WSSV pathogenesis and further the pharmaceutical target for the possibly effective control of WSSV disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CqToll participates in antiviral response against white spot syndrome virus via induction of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor in red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Yao; Chen, Xiao-Xiao; Lin, Feng-Yu; Chen, Qiu-Fan; Ma, Xing-Yuan; Liu, Hai-Peng

    2017-09-01

    It is well known that Tolls/Toll like receptors (TLRs), a family of pattern recognition receptors, play important roles in immune responses. Previously, we found that a Toll transcript was increased in a transcriptome library of haematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cells from the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus post white spot syndrome virus infection. In the present study, a full-length cDNA sequence of Toll receptor (named as CqToll) was identified with 3482 bp which contained an open reading frame of 3021 bp encoding 1006 amino acids. The predicted structure of CqToll protein was composed of three domains, including an extracellular domain of 19 leucine-rich repeats residues, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular domain of 138 amino acids. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that CqToll was expressed widely in various tissues determined from red claw crayfish with highest expression in haemocyte but lowest expression in eyestalk. Importantly, significant lower expression of the anti-lipopolysacchride factor (CqALF), an antiviral antimicrobial peptide (AMP) in crustaceans, but not CqCrustin was observed after gene silencing of CqToll in crayfish Hpt cell cultures, indicating that the CqALF was likely to be positively regulated via Toll pathway in red claw crayfish. Furthermore, the transcription of both an immediate early gene and a late envelope protein gene VP28 of WSSV were clearly enhanced in Hpt cells if silenced with CqToll, suggesting that the increase of WSSV replication was likely to be caused by the lower expression of the CqALF resulted from the loss-of-function of CqToll. Taken together, these data implied that CqToll might play a key role in anti-WSSV response via induction of CqALF in a crustacean C. quadricarinatus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Litopenaeus vannamei tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) responds to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection and activates antimicrobial peptide genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Wan, Ding-Hui; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Deng, Xie-Xiong; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

    2011-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a key signaling adaptor protein not only for the TNFR superfamily but also for the Interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR) superfamily. To investigate TRAF6 function in invertebrate innate immune responses, Litopenaeus vannamei TRAF6 (LvTRAF6) was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvTRAF6 is 2823bp long, with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 594 amino acids, including a RING-type Zinc finger, two TRAF-type Zinc fingers, a coiled-coil region, and a meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain. The overall amino acid sequence identity between LvTRAF6 and other known TRAF6s is 22.2-33.3%. Dual luciferase reporter assays in Drosophila S2 cells revealed that LvTRAF6 could activate the promoters of antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs), including Drosophila Attacin A and Drosomycin, and shrimp Penaeidins. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that LvTRAF6 was constitutively expressed in various tissues of L. vannamei. After Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge, LvTRAF6 was down-regulated, though with different expression patterns in the intestine compared to other tissues. After WSSV challenge, LvTRAF6 was up-regulated 2.7- and 2.3-fold over the control at 3h in gills and hepatopancreas, respectively. These results indicated that LvTRAF6 may play a crucial role in antibacterial and antiviral responses via regulation of AMP gene expression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. SUMO-conjugating enzyme E2 UBC9 mediates viral immediate-early protein SUMOylation in crayfish to facilitate reproduction of white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, An-Jing; Gao, Lu; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Successful viruses have evolved superior strategies to escape host defenses or exploit host biological pathways. Most of the viral immediate-early (ie) genes are essential for viral infection and depend solely on host proteins; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the modification of viral IE proteins by the crayfish small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) and investigated the role of SUMOylation during the viral life cycle. SUMO and SUMO ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (UBC9) involved in SUMOylation were identified in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). Both SUMO and UBC9 were upregulated in crayfish challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Replication of WSSV genes increased in crayfish injected with recombinant SUMO or UBC9, but injection of mutant SUMO or UBC9 protein had no effect. Subsequently, we analyzed the mechanism by which crayfish SUMOylation facilitates WSSV replication. Crayfish UBC9 bound to all three WSSV IE proteins tested, and one of these IE proteins (WSV051) was covalently modified by SUMO in vitro. The expression of viral ie genes was affected and that of late genes was significantly inhibited in UBC9-silenced or SUMO-silenced crayfish, and the inhibition effect was rescued by injection of recombinant SUMO or UBC9. The results of this study demonstrate that viral IE proteins can be modified by crayfish SUMOylation, prompt the expression of viral genes, and ultimately benefit WSSV replication. Understanding of the mechanisms by which viruses exploit host components will greatly improve our knowledge of the virus-host "arms race" and contribute to the development of novel methods against virulent viruses.

  5. Responses of three very large inducible GTPases to bacterial and white spot syndrome virus challenges in the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Jin, Min; Yin, Shaowu; Ding, Zhengfeng; Wang, Wen; Ren, Qian

    2016-04-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines secreted by cells in response to invasion by pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or tumor cells. Very large inducible GTPases (VLIG) are the latest IFN-inducible GTPase family to be discovered and are the largest known GTPases of any species. However, VLIG proteins from invertebrates have yet to be characterized. In this study, three forms of VLIGs designated as MrVLIG1, MrVLIG2, and MrVLIG3 were cloned from the giant fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrVLIG1 has a 5445 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding an 1814-amino acid protein. The complete nucleotide sequence of MrVLIG2 cDNA is 7055 bp long consisting of a 5757 bp ORF encoding a protein with 1918 amino acids. The full length of the MrVLIG3 gene consists of 5511 bp with a 3909 bp ORF encoding a peptide with 1302 amino acids. BLASTP and phylogenetic tree analyses showed that the three MrVLIGs are clustered into one subgroup and, together with other vertebrate VLIGs, into a branch. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that the mRNAs of the three MrVLIGs were widely expressed in almost all detected tissues, including the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine, with the highest expression in the hepatopancreas. They were also detected in the intestine but with relatively low expression levels. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA transcripts of the MrVLIGs in the hepatopancreas were significantly expressed at various time points after infection with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus. In summary, the three isoforms of VLIG genes participate in the innate immune response of the shrimps to bacterial and viral infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ontogenetic changes in the expression of immune related genes in response to immunostimulants and resistance against white spot syndrome virus in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, T; Taju, G; Abdul Majeed, S; Sinwan Sajid, M; Santhosh Kumar, S; Sivakumar, S; Thamizhvanan, S; Vimal, S; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, researchers have focused on viral and plant immunostimulants which could have beneficial effects in disease prevention and control in shrimp culture. At present, the application of the recombinant VP28 protein (r-VP28) and herbal immunostimulant has been considered as a more effective approach to prevent white spot syndrome (WSS) by enhancing the immune response in shrimp. In the present study, expression of selected immune related genes in response to r-VP28 and herbal immunostimulant mix (HIM) were separately studied qualitatively and quantitatively by RT-PCR and real time PCR, respectively during ontogenetic development from nauplius to juvenile stage in Litopenaeus vannamei. The mRNA expression level of immune related genes such as anti-lipopolysaccharides (ALF), Lysozyme, cMnSOD, Crustin, Prophenoloxidase, Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and Haemocyanin were found to be up-regulated significantly in different ontogenetic development stages of shrimp fed with r-VP28 and HIM formulated diets. Relative percent survival (RPS) was determined in shrimp fed with immunostimulants formulated diets after oral challenge with WSSV. The survival of WSSV challenged shrimp was found to be higher in immunostimulants treated groups when compared to untreated group. The results of PCR, ELISA and real time PCR revealed the absence of WSSV in WSSV-challenged shrimp after 20 days of treatment with immunostimulants. Among these immunostimulants, HIM was found to be more effective when compared to r-VP28. After a survey of literature, we are of the opinion that this might be the first report on the expression of immune genes during ontogenetic development of L. vannamei in response to immunostimulants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro evaluation of surface properties of Pro Seal(®) and Opal(®) Seal(TM) in preventing white spot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaraj, T S; Rohani, N; Covey, D; Premaraj, S

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the surface properties of two commercially available sealants (Pro Seal(®) (PS) and Opal(®) Seal(TM) (OS)) in terms of fluoride(F) release, biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus and the ability to resist acid penetration. University of Nebraska Medical Center. Discs of similar diameter and thickness were made from OS and PS. Discs were soaked in double-distilled water, and F released was measured with fluoride meter daily for 14 consecutive days, then at 21 and 28 days. Biofilm formation was evaluated with Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli grown on sealant discs using confocal microscopy. Extracted human teeth (n=8) with sealant-coated buccal surfaces and untreated lingual surfaces were exposed to 0.1M lactic acid(pH=4.5) to test the acid penetration. After 1-4 weeks of exposure, teeth were subjected to microhardness testing and SEM microscopy. PS released significantly higher levels of F than OS. PS showed more S. mutans adherence than OS, whereas Lactobacillus did not show any differences in adherence. Both sealants protected enamel surfaces, showing statistically significant difference in the depth of acid penetration compared to their unsealed control sides. F release was adequate to aid in remineralization, although clinically it would not likely aid in preventing demineralization as there was no prolonged release of F by both sealants tested. S. mutans adherence to OS surface was less compared to PS surface, which could be of relevance in biofilm formation and white spot lesions. Both sealants protected enamel surfaces from acid penetration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. White-spot syndrome virus (WSSV) introduction into the Gulf of Mexico and Texas freshwater systems through imported, frozen bait-shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, K W; Fan, Y; Reisinger, T; Venuti, J; Varner, P W

    2006-07-25

    We analysed 20 boxes of, frozen imported bait-shrimp (China: Parapenaeopsis sp. and Metapenaeopsis sp.) and 8 boxes of native, frozen bait-shrimp (Gulf of Mexico: Litopenaeus setiferus and Farfantepenaeus duorarum) by RT-PCR or PCR for Taura syndrome virus (TSV), yellowhead virus/gill-associated virus (YHV/GAV), white-spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). All 28 boxes of shrimp were negative for TSV, YHV/GAV and IHHNV; 2 boxes of imported bait-shrimp were WSSV-positive by 3 different PCR assays. Intramuscular injection of replicate groups of SPF (specific pathogen-free) L. vannamei juveniles with 2 different tissue homogenates prepared from the 2 WSSV-positive bait boxes resulted in 100% mortality of the test shrimp within 48 to 72 h post-injection. No mortality occurred among injected negative control groups. Histological and in situ hybridization analyses of 20 moribund treatment-shrimp demonstrated severe WSSV infections in each sample. Oral exposure of SPF L. vannamei postlarvae, PL (PL 25 to 30 stage; approximately 0.02 g) to minced tissue prepared from the 2 WSSV-positive bait-lots did not induce infection, possibly because of an insufficient infectious dose and/or viral inactivation resulting from multiple freeze-thaw cycles of the bait-shrimp during PCR testing. Use of an electric drill and collection of drill-tailings (tissue from approximately 20 to 30 shrimp) from frozen blocks of shrimp was successfully employed as an alternate tissue-sampling method without thawing. Our findings indicate that imported WSSV-infected bait shrimp, originating from China, are being sold in Texas for the purpose of sport fishing and represent a potential threat to freshwater and marine crustacean fisheries, as well as to coastal US shrimp farms.

  9. Virulence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) isolates may be correlated with the degree of replication in gills of Penaeus vannamei juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Corteel, M; Escobedo-Bonilla, C M; Wille, M; Alday-Sanz, V; Pensaert, M B; Sorgeloos, P; Nauwynck, H J

    2008-05-08

    A standardized inoculation model was used in 2 separate experiments to gauge the virulence of 3 white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) isolates from Thailand and Vietnam (WSSV Thai-1, WSSV Thai-2, and WSSV Viet) in Penaeus vannamei juveniles. Mortality patterns (Expt 1) were compared and WSSV-positive cells quantified (Expt 2) in tissues following intramuscular inoculation of shrimp with the most (WSSV Thai-1) and least (WSSV Viet) virulent isolates as determined by Expt 1. The results of Expt 1 demonstrated that mortalities began at 36 h post inoculation (hpi) for both Thai isolate groups and at 36 to 60 hpi for the Viet isolate group. Cumulative mortality reached 100% 96 to 240 h later in shrimp challenged with the WSSV Viet isolate compared to shrimp challenged with the Thai isolates. WSSV infection was verified in all groups by indirect immunofluorescence. In Expt 2, WSSV-infected cells were quantified by immunohistochemical analysis of both dead and time-course sampled shrimp. WSSV-positive cells were detected in tissues of Thai-1 inoculated dead and euthanized shrimp from 24 hpi onwards and from 36 hpi onwards in shrimp injected with the Viet isolate. Significantly more infected cells were found in tissues of dead shrimp inoculated with the Thai-1 than in Viet isolate-inoculated shrimp. In these experiments, substantial differences in virulence were demonstrated between the WSSV isolates. The Vietnamese isolate induced a more chronic disease and mortality pattern than was found for the Thai isolates, possibly because it infected fewer cells. This difference was most pronounced in gills.

  10. ASBO Eagle Institute: A Leadership Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, James

    2012-01-01

    Each summer, ASBO International conducts an Eagle Institute leadership session in the Washington, D.C., area that provides a group of about 25 participants, including Eagle Award recipients, an opportunity to network with and learn from exemplary leaders inside and outside the field of school business management. Each year, the focus of the…

  11. Eagle Hill, Kenya: changes over 60 years

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cline. What we do not often appreciate is the extent of these losses, down to the very last eagle. What occurred on Eagle Hill is no different from what has occurred in some 50% to 90% of Kenya in the same time span. Given that less than 10% of Kenya is effec- tively protected within national parks, reserves and sanctuaries ...

  12. Like an eagle carries its young

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-15

    Jul 15, 2016 ... more accurately translated as 'vulture'. But can this really be a symbol of comfort? Furthermore, do eagles (or vultures) even carry their young on their wings? This article intends to shed some light on these questions. Like an eagle carries its young. Read online: Scan this QR code with your smart phone or.

  13. Eagle's syndrome with facial palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hashim, Mohammed; Al-Jazan, Nasser; Abdulqader, Abdulrahman; Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Eagle's syndrome (ES) is a rare disease in which the styloid process is elongated and compressing adjacent structures. We describe a rare presentation of ES in which the patient presented with facial palsy. Facial palsy as a presentation of ES is very rare. A review of the English literature revealed only one previously reported case. Our case is a 39-year-old male who presented with left facial palsy. He also reported a 9-year history of the classical symptoms of ES. A computed tomography sc...

  14. SUMO and SUMO-Conjugating Enzyme E2 UBC9 Are Involved in White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoqian; Li, Wei; Xing, Jing; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Zhan, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    In previous work, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) in hemocytes of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis was found to be up-regulated post-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection using proteomic approach. However, the role of SUMO in viral infection is still unclear. In the present work, full length cDNAs of SUMO (FcSUMO) and SUMO-conjugating enzyme E2 UBC9 (FcUBC9) were cloned from F. chinensis using rapid amplification of cDNA ends approach. The open reading frame (ORF) of FcSUMO encoded a 93 amino acids peptide with the predicted molecular weight (M.W) of 10.55 kDa, and the UBC9 ORF encoded a 160 amino acids peptide with the predicted M.W of 18.35 kDa. By quantitative real-time RT-PCR, higher mRNA transcription levels of FcSUMO and FcUBC9 were detected in hemocytes and ovary of F. chinensis, and the two genes were significantly up-regulated post WSSV infection. Subsequently, the recombinant proteins of FcSUMO and FcUBC9 were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and employed as immunogens for the production of polyclonal antibody (PAb). Indirect immunofluorescence assay revealed that the FcSUMO and UBC9 proteins were mainly located in the hemocytes nuclei. By western blotting, a 13.5 kDa protein and a 18.7 kDa protein in hemocytes were recognized by the PAb against SUMO or UBC9 respectively. Furthermore, gene silencing of FcSUMO and FcUBC9 were performed using RNA interference, and the results showed that the number of WSSV copies and the viral gene expressions were inhibited by knockdown of either SUMO or UBC9, and the mortalities of shrimp were also reduced. These results indicated that FcSUMO and FcUBC9 played important roles in WSSV infection.

  15. SUMO and SUMO-Conjugating Enzyme E2 UBC9 Are Involved in White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Tang

    Full Text Available In previous work, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO in hemocytes of Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis was found to be up-regulated post-white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection using proteomic approach. However, the role of SUMO in viral infection is still unclear. In the present work, full length cDNAs of SUMO (FcSUMO and SUMO-conjugating enzyme E2 UBC9 (FcUBC9 were cloned from F. chinensis using rapid amplification of cDNA ends approach. The open reading frame (ORF of FcSUMO encoded a 93 amino acids peptide with the predicted molecular weight (M.W of 10.55 kDa, and the UBC9 ORF encoded a 160 amino acids peptide with the predicted M.W of 18.35 kDa. By quantitative real-time RT-PCR, higher mRNA transcription levels of FcSUMO and FcUBC9 were detected in hemocytes and ovary of F. chinensis, and the two genes were significantly up-regulated post WSSV infection. Subsequently, the recombinant proteins of FcSUMO and FcUBC9 were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3, and employed as immunogens for the production of polyclonal antibody (PAb. Indirect immunofluorescence assay revealed that the FcSUMO and UBC9 proteins were mainly located in the hemocytes nuclei. By western blotting, a 13.5 kDa protein and a 18.7 kDa protein in hemocytes were recognized by the PAb against SUMO or UBC9 respectively. Furthermore, gene silencing of FcSUMO and FcUBC9 were performed using RNA interference, and the results showed that the number of WSSV copies and the viral gene expressions were inhibited by knockdown of either SUMO or UBC9, and the mortalities of shrimp were also reduced. These results indicated that FcSUMO and FcUBC9 played important roles in WSSV infection.

  16. Role of Litopenaeus vannamei Yin Yang 1 in the Regulation of the White Spot Syndrome Virus Immediate Early Gene ie1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping-Han; Huang, Ting-Yi; Cai, Pei-Si; Chang, Li-Kwan

    2017-03-15

    Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional zinc finger transcription factor that regulates many key cellular processes. In this study, we report the cloning of YY1 from Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp (LvYY1). This study shows that LvYY1 is ubiquitously expressed in shrimp tissues, and knockdown of LvYY1 expression by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) injection in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected shrimp reduced both mRNA levels of the WSSV immediate early gene ie1 as well as overall copy numbers of the WSSV genome. The cumulative mortality rate of infected shrimp also declined with LvYY1 dsRNA injection. Using an insect cell model, we observed that LvYY1 activates ie1 expression, and a mutation introduced into the ie1 promoter subsequently repressed this capability. Moreover, reporter assay results suggested that LvYY1 is involved in basal transcriptional regulation via an interaction with L. vannamei TATA-binding protein (LvTBP). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) results further indicated that LvYY1 binds to a YY1-binding site in the region between positions -119 and -126 in the ie1 promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis also confirmed that LvYY1 binds to the ie1 promoter in WSSV-infected shrimp. Taken together, these results indicate that WSSV uses host LvYY1 to enhance ie1 expression via a YY1-binding site and the TATA box in the ie1 promoter, thereby facilitating lytic activation and viral replication.IMPORTANCE WSSV has long been a scourge of the shrimp industry and remains a serious global threat. Thus, there is a pressing need to understand how the interactions between WSSV and its host drive infection, lytic development, pathogenesis, and mortality. Our successful cloning of L. vannamei YY1 (LvYY1) led to the elucidation of a critical virus-host interaction between LvYY1 and the WSSV immediate early gene ie1 We observed that LvYY1 regulates ie1 expression via a consensus YY1-binding site and TATA box. LvYY1 was also found to interact with L

  17. The c-Fos and c-Jun from Litopenaeus vannamei play opposite roles in Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaozheng; Li, Haoyang; Wang, Sheng; Song, Xuan; Zhang, Zijian; Qian, Zhe; Zuo, Hongliang; Xu, Xiaopeng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo

    2015-09-01

    Growing evidence indicates that activator protein-1 (AP-1) plays a major role in stimulating the transcription of immune effector molecules in cellular response to an incredible array of stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, cellular stresses and bacterial and viral infection. Here, we reported the isolation and characterization of a cDNA from Litopenaeus vannamei encoding the full-length c-Fos protein (named as Lvc-Fos). The predicted amino acid sequences of Lvc-Fos contained a basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) domain, which was characteristic of members of the AP-1 family. Immunoprecipitation and native-PAGE assays determined that Lvc-Fos could interact with the Lvc-Jun, a homolog of c-Jun family in L. vannamei, in a heterodimer manner. Further investigation demonstrated that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun were expressed in all tested tissues and located in the nucleus. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed both Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun in gills were up-regulated during Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges. In addition, reporter gene assays indicated Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun could activate the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of Drosophila and shrimp, as well as WSSV immediate early (IE) genes wsv069 and wsv249, in a different manner. Knockdown of Lvc-Fos or Lvc-Jun by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in higher mortalities of L. vannamei after infection with V. parahaemolyticus, suggesting that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun might play protective roles in bacterial infection. However, silencing of Lvc-Fos or Lvc-Jun in shrimp caused lower mortalities and virus loads under WSSV infection, suggesting that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun could be engaged for WSSV replication and pathogenesis. In conclusion, our results provided experimental evidence and novel insight into the roles of L. vannamei AP-1 in bacterial and viral infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 75 FR 53266 - United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort Richardson, AK AGENCY: United States Army Corps of Engineers... status of a portion of Eagle River within the boundaries of Fort Richardson, Alaska as well as an adjacent portion of Eagle Bay in the Knik Arm. More specifically, the restricted area is to include all...

  19. Through the Eyes of the Eagle

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  20. Comparative evaluation of remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride on artificial enamel white spot lesion: An in vitro light fluorescence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Results: As compared with artificial saliva both CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP produced significant amount of remineralization of the artificial enamel white spot lesion (P < 0.001, however when the remineralizing effect of CPP-ACP was compared with the remineralizing effect of CPP-ACFP there was no significant difference. Significant amount of remineralization was produced by CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP only after the 7 th day. After the 14 th day, the remineralization produced by both CPP-ACP and CPP-ACFP as compared to artificial saliva was non-significant.

  1. An Eagle of Cosmic Proportions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Today ESO has released a new and stunning image of the sky around the Eagle Nebula, a stellar nursery where infant star clusters carve out monster columns of dust and gas. Located 7000 light-years away, towards the constellation of Serpens (the Snake), the Eagle Nebula is a dazzling stellar nursery, a region of gas and dust where young stars are currently being formed and where a cluster of massive, hot stars, NGC 6611, has just been born. The powerful light and strong winds from these massive new arrivals are shaping light-year long pillars, seen in the image partly silhouetted against the bright background of the nebula. The nebula itself has a shape vaguely reminiscent of an eagle, with the central pillars being the "talons". The star cluster was discovered by the Swiss astronomer, Jean Philippe Loys de Chéseaux, in 1745-46. It was independently rediscovered about twenty years later by the French comet hunter, Charles Messier, who included it as number 16 in his famous catalogue, and remarked that the stars were surrounded by a faint glow. The Eagle Nebula achieved iconic status in 1995, when its central pillars were depicted in a famous image obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. In 2001, ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) captured another breathtaking image of the nebula in the near-infrared, giving astronomers a penetrating view through the obscuring dust, and clearly showing stars being formed in the pillars. The newly released image, obtained with the Wide-Field Imager camera attached to the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at La Silla, Chile, covers an area on the sky as large as the full Moon, and is about 15 times more extensive than the previous VLT image, and more than 200 times more extensive than the iconic Hubble visible-light image. The whole region around the pillars can now be seen in exquisite detail. The "Pillars of Creation" are in the middle of the image, with the cluster of young stars, NGC 6611, lying above and to the right. The

  2. Like an eagle carries its young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Georg Wünch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The picture of an eagle carrying its young on its wings (Dt 32:11 is a powerful and encouraging image of trust and security in God. It is particularly relevant for Western culture, where the eagle is a prominent symbol of power and strength. In recent years, though, the translation of the Hebrew term רֶשֶׁנ as ‘eagle’ has come into question and modern exegetes claim that it is more accurately translated as ‘vulture’. But can this really be a symbol of comfort? Furthermore, do eagles (or vultures even carry their young on their wings? This article intends to shed some light on these questions.Keywords: Old Testament; Deuteronomy; Eagle; Vulture

  3. Chesapeake Bay Bald Eagle Breeding Survey 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In its second year, the Chesapeake Region Eagle Group (CREG) obtained the data for this report. CREG consists of representatives of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  4. ANALISIS KEJADIAN SERANGAN WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS (WSSV DENGAN BEBERAPA PARAMETER KUALITAS AIR PADA BUDI DAYA UDANG WINDU MENGGUNAKAN SISTEM TANDON DAN PROBIOTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunarto Gunarto

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Munculnya serangan White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV pada udang yang dibudidayakan kemungkinan sebagai akibat menurunnya kualitas lingkungan tambak.  Data diperoleh dari penelitian budi daya udang windu yang dilakukan Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau, Maros menggunakan 8 unit tambak ukuran 500 m2. Tokolan udang windu PL-25 dengan padat tebar 10 dan 20 ekor/m2 ditebar dalam petak tambak tersebut serta penambahan probiotik setiap minggu sebanyak 1 mg/L  berlangsung selama pemeliharaan udang dan tanpa pemberian probiotik sebagai kontrol merupakan perlakuan yang diuji. Masing-masing perlakuan dengan dua ulangan. Setelah penebaran, beberapa petak terserang WSSV dan menyebabkan kematian total yaitu pada hari ke-27, 30, 41, dan 47. Serangan WSSV terus berlanjut selama pemeliharaan udang di tambak berlangsung. Pada petak menggunakan probiotik mempunyai  kecenderungan terserang WSSV lebih lambat daripada yang tidak menggunakan probiotik. Semakin tinggi padat tebar udang windu di tambak, maka semakin rentan terhadap serangan WSSV. Padat tebar 10 ekor/m2 menggunakan probiotik produksinya cenderung lebih baik daripada padat tebar 20 ekor/m2. Peningkatan populasi Vibrio sp., peningkatan konsentrasi nitrit dan tingginya populasi awal Vibrio sp. di air melebihi 103 cfu/mL dan di sedimen 104 cfu/g diduga erat kaitan dengan munculnya serangan WSSV pada udang yang dipelihara di tambak pada penelitian ini. The outbreak of WSSV infection on tiger shrimp culture was thought to be an impact of its pond environmental depletion. The data was obtained from the study of tiger shrimp culture conducted in ponds Research Station of RICA Maros using 8 unit of  brackishwater ponds compartment of 500 m2 each size. The PL-25 were stocked in the ponds at the density of 10 pieces and 20 pieces/m2 and on  the otherhand, ponds also were treated with 1 mg/L commercial probiotics applicated in every week during culture period and no probiotics application as control. Each

  5. The Northern Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus alascanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    1933; Chura et al., 1967). Sexual dimorphism in the bald eagle is limited to this difference in size. Brown and Amadon (1968) maintain that reversed...diet ws comprised of sea birds , which are locally abundant. His results were determined through examination of pellets; therefore, the importance of...of Lake Huron (Kalmbach et &1., 1964). Sherrod et al. (1976) never observed eagles to prey upon live adult sea otters, but believes that nesting birds

  6. Restoration of sea eagle population: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef RAJCHARD

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The population density of the white-tailed sea eagle Haliaeetus albicilla is very low in many countries. In last twenty years, the sea eagle population in South Bohemia was restored by strict protection subsidized by reintroduction. The active help consisted of feeding during winter and building of artificial nests. A new sea eagle breeding population arose in the Třeboň basin area in the early 1980’s. Until this time sea eagles had used former breeding places only for wintering, probably coming from the Baltic. The South Bohemian sea eagle population is very unique: it exists in a densely man-occupied landscape, mainly in areas with very intensive carp breeding in artificial fishponds and was partly artficially (help to wintering birds and reintroduction of some individuals restored. The experience from South Bohemia may have importance for populations of the sea eagle in other areas of its occurence, primarily in the continental conditions [Current Zoology 55 (5:–2009].

  7. The Food and nesting Habits of the Bald Eagle

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the observations of the author who watched a bald eagle and studied its food habits at two nests. At the time of the report, the bald eagle...

  8. Eagle river flats bird dieoff: A summary of findings 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Since 1982, periodic waterfowl die-offs have been documented at Ft. Richardson Army Base, Anchorage, Alaska in an area at the mouth of Eagle River known as Eagle...

  9. Evidence of Bald Eagles feeding on freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; Michael A. Coffey

    1982-01-01

    A 1978 study of the winter habitat of the Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Coconino National Forest, Arizona, indicated repeated and potentially heavy use of a freshwater mussel (Anodonta corpulenta) in the eagles’ diet. As many as 10 eagles (five adults and five immatures) were observed at Upper Lake Mary near...

  10. Suspected lead toxicosis in a bald eagle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, E.; Carpenter, J.W.; Novilla, M.

    1977-01-01

    An immature bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was submitted to the University of Maryland, College Park, for clinical examination. The bird was thin, had green watery feces, and was unable to maintain itself in upright posture. Following radiography, the bird went into respiratory distress and died. Numerous lead shot were recovered from the gizzard, and chemical analysis of liver and kidney tissue revealed 22.9 and 11.3 ppm lead, respectively. The clinical signs, necropsy findings, and chemical analysis of the eagle were compatible with lead toxicosis.

  11. Pelacakan Virus Bercak Putih pada Udang Vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei di Lombok dengan Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (DETECTION OF WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS IN LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI IN LOMBOK ISLAND USING REAL-TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Arafani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is one of the most threatening diseases in shrimp and othercrustaceans affecting global shrimp farming. Since firstly detected in Taiwan in 1992, the disease hasspread globally and followed with considerable socio-economic consequences. This research was performedto detect the WSSV infection in shrimp farming in Lombok Island’s (West Nusa Tenggara using real-timepolymerase chain reaction. Samples of vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei were collected from several shrimpfarming in Lombok. Results indicated that the spread of WSSV has reached shrimp farms in Lombok,especially in Lendang Jae, West Lombok. Therefore, a biosurveillance program is strongly recommendedto government to avoid and halt the spread of the disease in East Indonesia region .

  12. Efficacy of double-stranded RNA against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV non-structural (orf89, wsv191 and structural (vp28, vp26 genes in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César M. Escobedo-Bonilla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. RNA interference (RNAi is a promising tool against viral infections. Previous works with RNAi showed different antiviral efficacies depending on the silenced gene. This work evaluated the antiviral efficacy of double-stranded (ds RNA against two non-structural (orf89, wsv191 WSSV genes compared to structural (vp26, vp28 genes to inhibit an experimental WSSV infection. Gene orf89 encodes a putative regulatory protein and gene white spot virus (wsv191 encodes a nonspecific nuclease; whereas genes vp26 and vp28 encode envelope proteins, respectively. Molecules of dsRNA against each of the WSSV genes were intramuscularly injected (4 μg per shrimp into a group of shrimp 48 h before a WSSV challenge. The highest antiviral activity occurred with dsRNA against orf89, vp28 and vp26 (cumulative mortalities 10%, 10% and 21%, respectively. In contrast, the least effective treatment was wsv191 dsRNA (cumulative mortality 83%. All dead animals were WSSV-positive by one-step PCR, whereas reverse-transcription PCR of all surviving shrimp confirmed inhibition of virus replication. This study showed that dsRNA against WSSV genes orf89, vp28 and vp26 were highly effective to inhibit virus replication and suggest an essential role in WSSV infection. Non-structural WSSV genes such as orf89 can be used as novel targets to design therapeutic RNAi molecules against WSSV infection.

  13. EAGLE: 'EAGLE'Is an' Algorithmic Graph Library for Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-16

    The Resource Description Framework (RDF) and SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) were introduced about a decade ago to enable flexible schema-free data interchange on the Semantic Web. Today data scientists use the framework as a scalable graph representation for integrating, querying, exploring and analyzing data sets hosted at different sources. With increasing adoption, the need for graph mining capabilities for the Semantic Web has emerged. Today there is no tools to conduct "graph mining" on RDF standard data sets. We address that need through implementation of popular iterative Graph Mining algorithms (Triangle count, Connected component analysis, degree distribution, diversity degree, PageRank, etc.). We implement these algorithms as SPARQL queries, wrapped within Python scripts and call our software tool as EAGLE. In RDF style, EAGLE stands for "EAGLE 'Is an' algorithmic graph library for exploration. EAGLE is like 'MATLAB' for 'Linked Data.'

  14. Bald eagle, United States [chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    2010-01-01

    "One of you boys will continue radio-tracking bears, and the other will start climbing trees to band bald eagle nestlings ... " That's how it all began for me back in the summer of 1967, on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska, my first summer job in the wildlife field. And as it turned out, that inauspicious beginning has led to a fascinating,...

  15. Milli X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Eagle III Micro XRF unit is similar to a traditional XRF unit, with the primary difference being that the X-rays are focused by a polycapillary optic into a spot...

  16. 78 FR 65238 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Eagle, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Eagle, AK...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Eagle Airport, Eagle, AK. Controlled airspace is... management of aircraft operations at Eagle Airport, Eagle, AK. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  17. Eagle Syndrome: diagnostic imaging and therapy; Eagle Syndrom - Bildgebende Diagnostik und Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, J.; Andresen, R. [Abt. fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik und Interventionelle Radiologie, Guestrower Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Univ. Rostock (Germany); Sonnenburg, M. [Fachbelegarztpraxis fuer Mund, Kiefer, Gesichtschirurgie und Plastische Operationen, Guestrower Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Univ. Rostock (Germany); Scheufler, O. [Klinik fuer Plastische, Wiederherstellungs- und Handchirurgie, Markus Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In the case of clinical symptoms such as dysphagia, foreign-body sensation and chronic neck or facial pain close to the ear, an Eagle syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Rational diagnostics and therapy are elucidated on the basis of four case reports. Four patients presented in the out-patients clinic with chronic complaints on chewing and a foreign-body sensation in the tonsil region. Upon specific palpation below the mandibular angle, pain radiating into the ear region intensified. In all patients, local anaesthesia with lidocaine only led to a temporary remission of symptoms. Imaging diagnostics then performed initially included cranial survey radiograms according to Clementschitsch as well as in the lateral ray path and an OPTG. An axial spiral-CT was then performed using the thin-layer technique with subsequent 3-D reconstruction. Therapy consisted of elective resection with a lateral external incision from the retromandibular. From a symptomatic point of view, the cranial survey radiograms and the OPTG revealed hypertrophic styloid processes. The geometrically corrected addition of the axial CT images produced an absolute length of 51-58 mm. The 3-D reconstruction made it possible to visualise the exact spatial orientation of the styloid processes. An ossification of the stylohyoid ligament could definitely be ruled out on the basis of the imaging procedures. After resection of the megastyloid, the patients were completely free of symptoms. Spiral-CT with subsequent 3-D reconstruction is the method of choice for exact determination of the localisation and size of a megastyloid, while cranial survey radiograms according to Clementschitsch and in the lateral ray path or an OPTG can provide initial information. The therapy of choice is considered to be resection of the megastyloid, whereby an external lateral incision has proved effective. (orig.) [German] Bei klinischen Beschwerden wie Dysphagie, Fremdkoerpergefuehl und chronischen

  18. Wintering bald eagle trends in northern Arizona, 1975-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    2003-01-01

    Between 1975 and 2000, 4,525 sightings of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were recorded at Mormon Lake in northern Arizona. Numbers of wintering eagles fluctuated little in the 20 years from 1975 through 1994 (5.5 ± 3.0 mean sightings per day). However, during the winters of 1995 through 1997 local record highs of 59 to 118 eagles...

  19. The Cluster-EAGLE project: global properties of simulated clusters with resolved galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David J.; Kay, Scott T.; Bahé, Yannick M.; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; McCarthy, Ian G.; Schaye, Joop; Bower, Richard G.; Jenkins, Adrian; Thomas, Peter A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Theuns, Tom; White, Simon D. M.

    2017-10-01

    We introduce the Cluster-EAGLE (c-eagle) simulation project, a set of cosmological hydrodynamical zoom simulations of the formation of 30 galaxy clusters in the mass range of 1014 simulations adopt the state-of-the-art eagle galaxy formation model, with a gas particle mass of 1.8 × 106 M⊙ and physical softening length of 0.7 kpc. In this paper, we introduce the sample and present the low-redshift global properties of the clusters. We calculate the X-ray properties in a manner consistent with observational techniques, demonstrating the bias and scatter introduced by using estimated masses. We find the total stellar content and black hole masses of the clusters to be in good agreement with the observed relations. However, the clusters are too gas rich, suggesting that the active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback model is not efficient enough at expelling gas from the high-redshift progenitors of the clusters. The X-ray properties, such as the spectroscopic temperature and the soft-band luminosity, and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich properties are in reasonable agreement with the observed relations. However, the clusters have too high central temperatures and larger-than-observed entropy cores, which is likely driven by the AGN feedback after the cluster core has formed. The total metal content and its distribution throughout the intracluster medium are a good match to the observations.

  20. Golden Eagle Territories and Ecology at Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratanduono, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-29

    Garcia and Associates (GANDA) was contracted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to collect information on golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) use of Site 300. During 2014, we conducted surveys at Site 300 and for an area including a 10-mile radius of Site 300. Those surveys documented 42 golden eagle territories including two territories that overlapped with Site 300. These were named ‘Tesla’ and ‘Linac Road’. In 2015, we conducted surveys to refine the territory boundaries of golden eagle territories that overlapped with Site 300 and to document eagle activity at Site 300.

  1. Wintering Golden Eagles on the coastal plain of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukovich, Mark [USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Turner, Kelsey L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Grazia, Tracy E. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States). Savannah River; Mims, Thiomas [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States). Savannah River; Beasley, James C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab. (SREL); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Kilgo, John C. [USDA Forest Service-Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) are rare winter residents in eastern North America, with most found along the Appalachian Mountains and few reported on the coastal plain of the Carolinas. We used remote cameras baited with wild pig (Sus scrofa) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) carcasses to detect, age, and individually identify Golden Eagles on the U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site on the coastal plain of South Carolina. We identified eight individual Golden Eagles during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, with one detected during both winters. We detected eagles for 19 and 66 calendar days during the winters of 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, respectively, with two adult eagles detected for 30 and 31 calendar days in 2014–2015. Eagles typically scavenged on carcasses for a few days, left, and then returned when cameras were baited with another carcass, suggesting they had remained in the area. These observations suggest that large tracts of forests on the coastal plain may be important wintering areas for some Golden Eagles and, further, that other areas in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States may also harbor wintering eagles. Identification of wintering areas of Golden Eagles in the east will be an important step in the conservation of this protected species, and camera traps baited with carcasses can be an effective tool for such work.

  2. Development of a rapid method for identifying carryover contamination of positive control DNA, using a chimeric positive control and restriction enzyme for the diagnosis of white spot syndrome virus by nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Jun; Kwon, Se Ryun

    2014-12-01

    Chimeric positive plasmids have been developed to minimize false-positive reactions caused by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) contamination. Here, we developed a rapid method for identifying false-positive results while detecting white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by nested PCR, using chimeric positive plasmids. The results of PCRs using WSSV diagnostic primer sets showed PCR products of a similar size (WSSV 1st PCR product, 1,447 bp; WSSV 2nd PCR product, 941 bp) using WSSV chimeric plasmids or DNA from shrimp infected with WSSV. The PCR products were digested with DraI for 1 h at 37 °C. The digested chimeric DNA separated into two DNA bands; however, the WSSV-infected shrimp DNA did not separate. Thus, chimeric plasmid DNA may be used as positive control DNA instead of DNA from WSSV-infected shrimp, in order to prevent PCR contamination. Thus, the use of restriction enzyme digestion allowed us to rapidly distinguish between WSSV DNA and WSSV chimeric plasmid DNA.

  3. Dietary Administration of Yeast β 1,3 1,6 Glucan on Immunity and Survival Rate of White Indian Shrimp, Fennerpenaeus indicus Challenged with White Spot Syndrome Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Ghaednia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The potency of dietary β 1,3 1,6 glucan (BG, derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in stimulating the non-specific immunity of white Indian shrimp, Fennerpenaeus indicus (Milne-Edwards, 1837 and improving its resistance to white spot syndrome disease were investigated. F. indicus (11.32±1.20 g were fed for 20 days on a series of treatment diets containing graded levels of BG (blank control, 0 as control, 2, 10, 20 g kg-1 feed and were then challenged by injection of WSSV virus. Total haemocyte count (THC, total plasma protein (TPP, phagocytic activity (PA and Bacterial Clearance activity (BC were measured at days 0, 7, 14, 21 after BG feeding, and shrimp survival rate was also recorded daily after challenge. THC, TPP, PA and BC of the 10 and 20 g kg-1 BG treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05 by day 14 than control and 2 g kg-1 treatment shrimp. Survival rate of shrimp fed with the diet containing 10 and 20 g kg-1 BG after 21 days, were 53.32±5.77 and 48.32±5.77%, respectively. Accordingly, oral administration of BG at an optimal level of 10 g kg-1 diet for 20 days efficaciously stimulate the immune defense and improve the survival rate of WSV-infected F. indicus.

  4. The influence of different types of brackets and efficacy of two chlorhexidine mouthwashes on oral hygiene and the incidence of white spot lesions in adolescents during the orthodontic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurišić, Sanja; Kozomara, Davorin; Jurić, Hrvoje; Verzak, Željko; Jurišić, Gordan

    2016-12-01

    To detect the effect of two different types of brackets (ceramic and stainless steel) and investigate the effectiveness of two chlorhexidine mouthwashes 0.2% (CHX) on oral hygiene status and incidence of white spot lesions (WSLs) in adolescents wearing fixed orthodontic appliance. One hundred and twenty subjects (aged 11 to 18 years, mean age 14.5 years) were divided into six equal groups according to brackets type and to different mouthwashes: Group 1: metal brackets and conventional CHX, Group 2: metal brackets and CHX with anti-discoloration system (CHX-ADS), Group 3: ceramic brackets and conventional CHX, Group 4: ceramic brackets and CHX-ADS, Group 5: metal brackets and water correction flavors mouthwash (placebo), Group 6: ceramic brackets and placebo. Four weeks after the placement of fixed orthodontic appliance the subjects were provided with three different mouthwashes for use during the next two weeks. Assessment was carried out according to oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) and WSL index performed: prior to placement of the appliance (baseline), four weeks, six weeks, eighteen weeks, and thirty weeks after the placement. The data were then subjected to statistical analysis. Group 4 showed reduction in the OHI-S scores when compared to the Group 5 (in the 6(th) week), and Group 6 (in the 6(th) and 18(th) week), which was statistically significant, Pincidence of WSLs.

  5. Biology and Identification of Rays in the Chesapeake Bay. Sea Grant Program. Educational Series Number 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph W.; Merriner, J. V.

    This booklet provides a brief discussion of the anatomy and biology of rays in the Chesapeake Bay and a key to their identification. Descriptions of seven types of rays are also provided (with accompanying illustrations). These include electric rays, stingrays, butterfly rays, eagle rays, cownose rays, and manta rays. (JN)

  6. the conservation status of eagles in south african law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    As will be elaborated upon shortly, not all the eagle species occurring in South Africa are resident birds. Some species are migratory and others are nomadic. Hence, the environmental law regime in force in South Africa has an influence on the conservation status of some eagle species breeding as far away as Europe and ...

  7. First record of Bonelli's Eagle Aquila fasciatus in Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scopus 31: 41-42, November 2011. Received May 2010. First record of Bonelli's Eagle Aquila fasciatus in Sudan. The Bonelli's Eagle Aquila fasciatus is a Palearctic, Indo-malayan, marginally. Afro-tropical species that is considered local and uncommon across its range, mostly scarce to rare, and generally declining ...

  8. Eagle Hill, Kenya: changes over 60 years | Thomsett | Scopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eagle Hill, the study site of the late Leslie Brown, was first surveyed over 60 years ago in 1948. The demise of its eagle population was near-complete less than 50 years later, but significantly, the majority of these losses occurred in the space of a few years in the late 1970s. Unfortunately, human densities and land use ...

  9. the conservation status of eagles in south african law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    species are known to breed in the territory,4 while the remaining three species visit. 3. They are the African Fish Eagle ... a breeding territory.6 Compared to many other nations, South Africa is exceptionally rich in eagle species.7 ..... their habitats within the framework of land-use planning and of sustainable development.

  10. Distinct and extinct: genetic differentiation of the Hawaiian eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Frank; James, Helen F; Olson, Storrs L; Fleischer, Robert C

    2015-02-01

    Eagles currently occur in the Hawaiian Islands only as vagrants, but Quaternary bones of Haliaeetus eagles have been found on three of the major islands. A previous study of a ∼3500-year-old skeleton from Maui found its mtDNA more similar to White-tailed (H. albicilla) than to Bald (H. leucocephalus) Eagles, but low intraspecific resolution of the markers and lack of comparative data from mainland populations precluded assessment of whether the individual was part of the diversity found in Eurasia, or whether it represented an endemic Hawaiian lineage. Using ancient DNA techniques, we sequenced part of the rapidly evolving mtDNA control region from the same specimen, and compared it to published range-wide control region data from White-tailed Eagles and newly generated sequences from Bald Eagles. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Hawaiian eagle represents a distinct (>3% divergent) mtDNA lineage most closely related to those of extant White-tailed Eagles. Based on fossil calibration, we estimate that the Hawaiian mtDNA lineage diverged from mainland sequences around the Middle Pleistocene. Although not clearly differentiated morphologically from mainland forms, the Hawaiian eagle thus likely constituted an isolated, resident population in the Hawaiian archipelago for more than 100,000 years, where it was the largest terrestrial predator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. West Nile virus in the endangered Spanish imperial eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Ursula; Blanco, Juan M; Crespo, Elena; Naranjo, Victoria; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Sanchez, Azucena; de la Fuente, José; Gortazar, Christian

    2008-05-25

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is considered to be the most endangered European eagle. The species is an endemic resident in the Southwestern Iberian Peninsula. We used RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and seroneutralization to test samples from 13 wild and 18 captive eagles. WNV was detected by RT-PCR in tissues and/or oropharyngeal swabs of eight of 10 (80%) imperial eagles analyzed, and both in apparently clinically healthy birds, and in animals that died due to secondary infections but had symptoms/lesions compatible with WNV. Immunohistochemistry detected WNV antigen in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, epithelial cells of the gizzard and duodenum, perivascular inflammatory cells, and in Kupffer-cells and hepatocytes. Serum antibodies against WNV were detected in a total of five out of 21 imperial eagles (23.8%), including free-living nestlings (two out of nine samples, 22.2%) and captive adult eagles (three out of 12 samples, 25%). Our results evidence WNV circulation among free-living and captive Spanish imperial eagles in South-central Spain, a dry inland region with no previous WNV evidence, throughout 6 consecutive years. They also indicate the need for further research into this important zoonosis in order to better understand its epidemiology in the Mediterranean ecosystem and in order to understand the role of WNV in the population dynamics of the critically endangered Spanish imperial eagle.

  12. Leaders Hit the Battlefield for Education's Future: 2009 Eagle Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verardi, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    More than 40 esteemed school business officials traveled to Washington, D.C., for the 2009 Eagle Institute which was held on July 14-17. They examined the past and the future to uncover leadership insights. Eagle Institute participants shared a powerful experience of camaraderie, reflection, and optimism for the future. This article describes the…

  13. 33 CFR 165.1309 - Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. 165.1309 Section 165.1309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. (a) Regulated area. A regulated navigation area is established on...

  14. Kleptoparasitism by bald eagles wintering in south-central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorde, Dennis G.; Lingle, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Kleptoparasitism on other raptors was one means by which Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) secured food along the North Platte and Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1980. Species kelptoparasitized were Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), and Bald Eagle. Stealing of prey occurred more often during the severe winter of 1978-1979 when ice cover restricted eagles from feeding on fish than during the milder winter of 1979-1980. Kleptoparasitism occurred principally in agricultural habitats where large numbers of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were foraging. Subadults watched adults steal food and participated in food-stealing with adults, which indicated interspecific kleptoparasitism may be a learned behavior. We suggest factors that may favor interspecific kleptoparasitism as a foraging strategy of Bald Eagles in obtaining waterfowl during severe winters.

  15. Final Report Bald and Golden Eagle Territory Surveys for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratanduono, M. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-11-25

    Garcia and Associates (GANDA) was contracted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct surveys for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) at Site 300 and in the surrounding area out to 10-miles. The survey effort was intended to document the boundaries of eagle territories by careful observation of eagle behavior from selected viewing locations throughout the study area.

  16. 77 FR 22278 - Eagle Permits; Revisions to Regulations Governing Take Necessary To Protect Interests in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 22 RIN 1018-AY30 Eagle Permits; Revisions to Regulations... revisions to regulations under the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act for permits to take eagles where the... protect eagles. DATES: We will accept comments received or postmarked by the end of the day on July 12...

  17. 75 FR 3217 - Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental... filed: June 23, 2009. d. Applicant: Eagle Crest Energy Company. e. Name of Project: Eagle Mountain... Eagle Mountain Mine in Riverside County, California, near the Town of Desert Center, California, and...

  18. Enhancement of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900, fed β-1.3 glucan vitamin E, and β-carotene and infected with white spot syndrome virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Pacheco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary β-Ο-glucan, vitamin E, and β-carotene supplements in juvenile brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis, inoculated with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV was evaluated. Groups of 30 organisms (weighing 1 ± 0.5 g were cultured in 60 L fiberglass tanks and fed daily with β-1.3-glucan (0.1%, vitamin E (0.01%, and β-carotene (0.01% for 23 days; the specimens were then inoculated with WSSV. The antioxidant activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were determined in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after inoculation. Shrimp fed with β-1.3-glucan, vitamin E, and β-carotene significantly increased SOD activity in the hepatopancreas and muscle at 12 and 24 h post-infection, respectively. Shrimp fed with vitamin E and β-1.3-glucan registered an increment in SOD activity from 12 to 48 h post-infection. Shrimp fed with β-carotene increased SOD activity before infection with WSSV, and shrimp fed with β-1.3-glucan and vitamin E increased CAT activity, also before infection. The CAT activity response in shrimp muscle increased with respect to the control group for all treatments tested from 1 to 6 h after inoculation with WSSV. The highest antioxidant response was registered in shrimp fed with vitamin E. Juvenile shrimp fed with vitamin E and later inoculated with WSSV registered 100% mortality at 72 h, but shrimp fed with β-Ο-glucan and β-carotene showed greater resistance to WSSV, with mortality at 144 h post-infection. This study demonstrated the capacity of juvenile Farfantepenaeus californiensis fed β-Ο-glucan, vitamin E, or β-carotene to increase the antioxidant response before and after viral infection.

  19. Angular momentum evolution of galaxies in EAGLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Claudia del P.; Theuns, Tom; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Cortese, Luca; Padilla, Nelson D.; Davis, Timothy A.; Contreras, Sergio; Croton, Darren

    2017-02-01

    We use the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamic simulation suite to study the specific angular momentum of galaxies, j, with the aims of (i) investigating the physical causes behind the wide range of j at fixed mass and (ii) examining whether simple, theoretical models can explain the seemingly complex and non-linear nature of the evolution of j. We find that j of the stars, jstars, and baryons, jbar, are strongly correlated with stellar and baryon mass, respectively, with the scatter being highly correlated with morphological proxies such as gas fraction, stellar concentration, (u-r) intrinsic colour, stellar age and the ratio of circular velocity to velocity dispersion. We compare with available observations at z = 0 and find excellent agreement. We find that jbar follows the theoretical expectation of an isothermal collapsing halo under conservation of specific angular momentum to within ≈50 per cent, while the subsample of rotation-supported galaxies are equally well described by a simple model in which the disc angular momentum is just enough to maintain marginally stable discs. We extracted evolutionary tracks of the stellar spin parameter of EAGLE galaxies and found that the fate of their jstars at z = 0 depends sensitively on their star formation and merger histories. From these tracks, we identified two distinct physical channels behind low jstars galaxies at z = 0: (i) galaxy mergers, and (ii) early star formation quenching. The latter can produce galaxies with low jstars and early-type morphologies even in the absence of mergers.

  20. Sustainable control of white spot disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

    of live theronts were counted every 15 minutes using a stereo-microscope (8-100× magnification). Lysed and/or immobilised theronts with no movement of cilia were considered dead. For both substances a negative relationship was seen between the survival of theronts and length of treatment, temperature...

  1. White spots in the pupil (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occasion, the pupil of the eye may appear white. This is never a normal condition and requires ... an ophthalmologist. The causes of a cloudy or white cornea are different than those of a white ...

  2. Mitochondrial genome of longheaded eagle ray Aetobatus flagellum (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Baojuan; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Furumitsu, Keisuke; Zhang, Baowei

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Aetobatus flagellum is 20,201 bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region (CR). The base composition of the genome is 30.9% A, 28.2% T, 27.1% C and 13.8% G. Comparing mtDNA of elasmobranchs submitted in NCBI, our study not only identified the longest mitochondrial genome with 4490 bp CR in A. flagellum, but also strongly revealed that records in the northwest Pacific may belong to a separate species from those distributed in Indonesia.

  3. MQ-1C Gray Eagle Unmanned Aircraft System (MQ-1C Gray Eagle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM). Version 8.7, Revision 3 of the CPD for MQ-1C Gray Eagle defines an operational requirement for Improved Gray...extended range, multi-purpose unmanned aircraft system capable of executing reconnaissance, security , attack, and intelligence collection missions in...Apr 2005 Apr 2005 Apr 2005 Apr 2005 Critical Design Review Feb 2006 Feb 2006 Feb 2006 Feb 2006 Milestone C Mar 2011 Mar 2011 Mar 2011 Mar 2011 IOT &E

  4. The Conservation Status of Eagles in South African Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Knobel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is an introductory survey and preliminary evaluation of the conservation status of eagles in South African law. The methodology is primarily an interdisciplinary literature study of legal texts and texts from the natural sciences. Eagles are some of the largest and most powerful avian predators, and the human response to their presence is dualistic and polarised. At the one extreme, many people admire eagles, while at the other extreme they are perceived as a threat to economic and other interests, and may even be actively persecuted in a conviction that they are vermin. This duality in the human perception of eagles is also prevalent in South Africa and complicates their conservation. The mobility of eagles and other birds of prey means that they cannot be restrained by fencing national parks and other protected areas, and this heightens the likelihood of their entering into conflict with human interests. The conservation problems faced by eagles in South Africa can broadly be divided into direct and indirect threats. Direct threats include the intentional killing of eagles, and trade in eagles and their eggs. Indirect threats include non-targeted poisoning (where poisoned bait is used to control other predators, but eagles find the bait, feed on it, and succumb; habitat loss; mortality induced by dangerous structures; and disturbance. The legal status of eagles is influenced by a large body of legislative provisions, ranging from international and regional legal instruments, through national legislation, to provincial legislative measures. An overview of these provisions is given, with concise explanations of how they apply to the legal status of eagles and other birds of prey in South Africa. The conservation status of eagles in South African law is subsequently evaluated by considering the contribution of the applicable laws to three main types of conservation interventions. In respect of the first, habitat preservation

  5. Probability of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle...

  6. The Eagle's EGGs: Fertile or sterile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughrean, M. J.; Andersen, M.

    2002-07-01

    We present a deep, high spatial resolution (0.35 arcsec FWHM), near-infrared (1-2.5 mu m) imaging survey of the Eagle Nebula, M 16, made with the VLT, centred on the famous elephant trunks. We compare these data with the existing HST optical images to search for evidence of ongoing or recent star formation in the trunks, and in particular in the 73 small evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs) on their surface. We find that two of the three HST trunks have relatively massive YSOs in their tips. Most of the EGGs appear to be empty, but some 15% of them do show evidence for associated young low-mass stars or brown dwarfs: in particular, there is a small cluster of such sources seen at the head of the largest trunk.

  7. [1981 Midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey summary : North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing summary data of bird observations for the midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey conducted January 5-9, 1981 across North Dakota.

  8. [1980 Midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey summary : North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing summary data of bird observations for the midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey conducted January 2-8, 1980 across North Dakota.

  9. Kodiak Island bald eagle migration and movements study: Progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to update the progress of the bald eagle migration and movements study begun during July 1982. The study was initiated to: (1)...

  10. Liver Contaminants in Bald eagles Carcasses from Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fifty-one livers were extracted from bald eagle carcasses recovered in Maine between 2001 and 2007. Approximately 50% of the birds were collected during the spring...

  11. Mercury concentrations in tissues of Florida bald eagles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We designed this study to determine mercury concentrations in eagles using two sources of data. First, we collected blood and feather samples from nestling bald...

  12. Evaluation of Contaminant Residues in Delaware Bay Bald Eagle Nestlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagle (Naliacetus leucocephalus) nesting attempts have steadily increased over the past decade in the Delaware Bay and River drainage basin; however, nesting...

  13. Gastro-intestinal handling of water and solutes in three species of elasmobranch fish, the white-spotted bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium plagiosum, little skate, Leucoraja erinacea and the clear nose skate Raja eglanteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W Gary; Dasiewicz, Patricia J; Liban, Suadi; Ryan, Calen; Taylor, Josi R; Grosell, Martin; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2010-04-01

    The present study reports aspects of GI tract physiology in the white-spotted bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium plagiosum, little skate, Leucoraja erinacea and the clear nose skate, Raja eglanteria. Plasma and stomach fluid osmolality and solute values were comparable between species, and stomach pH was low in all species (2.2 to 3.4) suggesting these elasmobranchs may maintain a consistently low stomach pH. Intestinal osmolality, pH and ion values were comparable between species, however, some differences in ion values were observed. In particular Ca(2+) (19.67+/-3.65mM) and Mg(2+) (43.99+/-5.11mM) were high in L. erinacea and Mg(2+) was high (130.0+/-39.8mM) in C. palgiosum which may be an indication of drinking. Furthermore, intestinal fluid HCO(3)(-) values were low (8.19+/-2.42 and 8.63+/-1.48mM) in both skates but very high in C. plagiosum (73.3+/-16.3mM) suggesting ingested seawater may be processed by species-specific mechanisms. Urea values from the intestine to the colon dropped precipitously in all species, with the greatest decrease seen in C. plagiosum (426.0+/-8.1 to 0mM). This led to the examination of the molecular expression of both a urea transporter and a Rhesus like ammonia transporter in the intestine, rectal gland and kidney in L. erinacea. Both these transporters were expressed in all tissues; however, expression levels of the Rhesus like ammonia transporter were orders of magnitude higher than the urea transporter in the same tissue. Intestinal flux rates of solutes in L. erinacea were, for the most part, in an inward direction with the notable exception of urea. Colon flux rates of solutes in L. erinacea were all in an outward direction, although absolute rates were considerably lower than the intestine, suggestive of a much tighter epithelia. Results are discussed in the context of the potential role of the GI tract in salt and water, and nitrogen, homeostasis in elasmobranchs.

  14. Changes in white spot lesions following post-orthodontic weekly application of 1.25 per cent fluoride gel over 6 months-a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Part II: clinical data evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Niko C; Seibold, Laura; Heumann, Christian; Gnandt, Erhard; Röder, Miriam; Ruf, Sabine

    2017-04-01

    White spot lesions (WSL) frequently occur as side-effect of multibracket appliance treatment. The clinical effects of local fluoridation on post-orthodontic WSL and oral health development are however inconclusive. In vivo monitoring of clinical WSL and oral health changes in response to weekly 1.25 per cent fluoride gel application after multibracket appliance treatment. Randomized, single-centre, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study. Patients with not less than 1 WSL (modified score 1 or 2) on not less than 1 upper front teeth after debonding. Professional fluoride/placebo gel application during weeks 1-2; self-administered home application (weeks 3-24). Clinical evaluation of WSL index, lesion activity, plaque index, gingival bleeding index, and decayed, missing, and filled teeth index as well as saliva buffer capacity and stimulated salivary flow rate (T0-T5). Random assignment to test (n = 23) or placebo group (n = 23) using a sequentially numbered list (random allocation sequence generated for 50 subjects in 25 blocks of 2 subjects each). The clinical study duration lasted from March 2011 to September 2013. Unblinding was performed after complete data evaluation. Intention-to-treat analysis set comprised 39 participants (test: n = 21, placebo: n = 18). No clinical parameter except stimulated salivary flow rate (fluoride group: 1.1ml/min, placebo group: 0.74ml/min; P = 0.022) showed a statistically significant group difference after 24 weeks. Several adverse events occurred similarly frequent in both groups; none was classified as possibly related to the study product. The number of dropouts was higher than expected and the socio-economic status was not assessed. Furthermore, the unknown level of compliance during the home application phase must be considered as limitation. Based on the results of this study, no clinical effect of post-orthodontic high-dose fluoride treatment on WSL and oral health changes could be detected. The study was

  15. Changes in white spot lesions following post-orthodontic weekly application of 1.25 per cent fluoride gel over 6 months-a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Part I: photographic data evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Niko C; Seibold, Laura; Heumann, Christian; Gnandt, Erhard; Röder, Miriam; Ruf, Sabine

    2017-04-01

    White spot lesions (WSLs) are a frequent side-effect of multibracket appliance treatment. The effect of local fluoridation on post-orthodontic WSL is however inconclusive. Assessment of WSL changes in response to weekly 1.25 per cent fluoride gel application after multibracket appliance treatment. Randomized, single-centre, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study. Patients with not less than 1 WSL (modified score 1 or 2) on not less than 1 upper front teeth after debonding. Professional fluoride/placebo gel application during weeks 1-2; self-administered home application (weeks 3-24). Photographic WSL assessment (dimension and luminance) of the upper front teeth (T0-T5). Random assignment to test (n = 23) or placebo group (n = 23) using a sequentially numbered list (random allocation sequence generated for 50 subjects in 25 blocks of 2 subjects each). The clinical study duration lasted from March 2011 to September 2013. Unblinding was performed after complete data evaluation. Intent-to-treat analysis set comprising 39 participants (test: n = 21, placebo: n = 18). Dimensional WSL quantification showed limited reliability. Luminance improvement (%) of WSL, however, was seen after 6 months (test/placebo: tooth 12, 24.8/18.0; tooth 11, 38.4/35.4; tooth 21, 39.6/38.3; and tooth 22, 15.2/25.0). No statistically significant group difference existed. Data suggest that WSLs are difficult to measure with respect to reliability and repeatability and methods for monitoring WSLs in clinical trials require improvement/validation. Similar adverse events occurred in both groups; none was classified as possibly related to the study product. The number of dropouts was higher than expected and the socio-economic status was not assessed. Furthermore, the unknown level of compliance during the home application phase must be considered as limitation. Based on the results of this study, no difference could be detected with respect to the development of WSL under post

  16. Guidelines for the conservation of Bonelli’s eagle populations

    OpenAIRE

    Rollan, Àlex; Hernández Matías, Antonio, 1974-; Real, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive suite of protocols and methods summarized in the form of guidelines to solve Bonelli’s eagle conservation problems applicable at different spatial scales, from territories to populations. The Bonelli's eagle is an endangered raptor of Mediterranean environments in Europe playing a key role as top predator in these natural systems. Chapters are grouped into two general sections that relate to two different stages required to implement conservation actions...

  17. Clinical pathology and morphometrics of African fish eagles in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollamby, Simon; Afema-Azikuru, Josephine; Sikarskie, James G; Kaneene, John B; Stuht, John N; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Bowerman, William W; Cameron, Kenneth; Gandolf, A Rae; Hui, Gretchen N; Dranzoa, Christine; Rumbeiha, Wilson K

    2004-07-01

    Packed cell volumes (PCVs) and plasma chemistry parameters were measured in 15 adult and 18 nestling African fish eagles (Haliaeetus vocifer) sampled from June 2002 through January 2003 in Uganda. Morphologic measurements were obtained from 15 adult eagles. All eagles were examined for blood parasites and sexed by examination of DNA from red blood cells. Ten adults and eight nestlings were sampled from Lake Mburo and five adults and 10 nestlings were sampled from Lake Victoria near Entebbe, Uganda. Analysis of variance was conducted to assess the association between site, age, sex, and plasma chemistry parameters and the association between sex and morphologic characteristics. Plasma chemistry values for nestling and adult African fish eagles were similar to those reported for other captive and free-ranging eagle species. Packed cell volumes for nestling African fish eagles were markedly lower than values reported for nestlings of other eagle species, although the mean estimated age of nestlings sampled also was lower. A significant association (P or =0.05). An unidentified Plasmodium sp. was present in erythrocytes of three nestlings from Lake Mburo. No other blood parasites were seen. There was significant variation (P< or =0.05) in PCV, calcium, phosphorous, potassium, cholesterol concentrations, and creatine kinase activity between adults and nestlings; all were lower in adults. Aspartate transaminase activity was higher in adults. Like other Haliaeetus sp., body weight, bill depth, culmen length, footpad length, and hallux length as well as bill depth measurements were significantly (P < or = 0.05) greater for females than males. The objective of the study was to provide baseline biologic and physiologic information that may prove useful in the management and study of captive and wild populations of African fish eagles.

  18. Bald eagles of the Hanford National Environmental Research Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Watson, D.G.; Rickard, W.H.

    1980-06-01

    Since 1961, near-yearly aerial surveys of bald eagles along the Hanford reach of the Columbia River have been conducted. Prey resources available to the eagles have also been monitored and we have thus been able to examine predator-prey relationships in a statistical fashion. We report on a unique set of data which provides insight into one of the factors (prey availability) controlling bald eagle wintering populations. The winter distribution of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) has been reported to closely follow the availability of prey (Servheen 1975, Southern 1963, Shea 1973, Spencer 1976). Fitzner and Hanson (1979) compared twelve years of eagle winter survey data on the Hanford DOE Site with waterfowl numbers and salmon redd densities over the same period and provided some statistical evidence that eagle wintering numbers varied somewhat dependently with changing salmon redd numbers but not with changing waterfowl numbers. This report re-examines Fitzner and Hanson's (1979) twelve year data set and supplies two additional years of data for the Hanford DOE Site in order to gain additional insight into predator-prey interactions.

  19. Correlates of immune defenses in golden eagle nestlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacColl, Elisabeth; Vanesky, Kris; Buck, Jeremy A.; Dudek, Benjamin; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Heath, Julie A.; Herring, Garth; Vennum, Chris; Downs, Cynthia J.

    2017-01-01

    An individual's investment in constitutive immune defenses depends on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. We examined how Leucocytozoon parasite presence, body condition (scaled mass), heterophil-to-lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, sex, and age affected immune defenses in golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nestlings from three regions: California, Oregon, and Idaho. We quantified hemolytic-complement activity and bacterial killing ability, two measures of constitutive immunity. Body condition and age did not affect immune defenses. However, eagles with lower H:L ratios had lower complement activity, corroborating other findings that animals in better condition sometimes invest less in constitutive immunity. In addition, eagles with Leucocytozoon infections had higher concentrations of circulating complement proteins but not elevated opsonizing proteins for all microbes, and eagles from Oregon had significantly higher constitutive immunity than those from California or Idaho. We posit that Oregon eagles might have elevated immune defenses because they are exposed to more endoparasites than eagles from California or Idaho, and our results confirmed that the OR region has the highest rate of Leucocytozoon infections. Our study examined immune function in a free-living, long-lived raptor species, whereas most avian ecoimmunological research focuses on passerines. Thus, our research informs a broad perspective regarding the evolutionary and environmental pressures on immune function in birds.

  20. Boundary of the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This vector data set delineates the approximate boundary of the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA). This data set was developed by a cooperative...

  1. Boundary of the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This vector data set delineates the approximate boundary of the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA). This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. The boundary of the ERWVFA was developed by combining information from two data sources. The first data source was a 1:250,000-scale geologic map of the Leadville quadrangle developed by Day and others (1999). The location of Quaternary sediments was used as a first approximation of the ERWVFA. The boundary of the ERWVFA was further refined by overlaying the geologic map with Digital Raster Graphic (DRG) scanned images of 1:24,000 topographic maps (U.S. Geological Survey, 2001). Where appropriate, the boundary of the ERWVFA was remapped to correspond with the edge of the valley-fill aquifer marked by an abrupt change in topography at the edge of the valley floor throughout the Eagle River watershed. The boundary of the ERWVFA more closely resembles a hydrogeomorphic region presented by Rupert (2003, p. 8) because it is based upon general geographic extents of geologic materials and not on an actual aquifer location as would be determined through a rigorous hydrogeologic investigation.

  2. Bald Eagle Movements, Distribution and Abundance on the Northern Chesapeake Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of this study was to monitor bald eagle movements and to locate bald eagle intensive use areas on the northern Chesapeake Bay. An important...

  3. Bald eagle ground census, Chilkat Valley, Alaska, 11-12 November 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1979, the National Audubon Society initiated studies of the bald eagles inhabiting the Chilkat River valley. Aerial surveys and ground counts of bald eagles were...

  4. Effects of contaminants of reproduction of bald eagles on Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nesting on Green Bay, Lake Michigan, have extremely low reproductive rates, in comparison to eagles nesting in inland...

  5. Conservation significance of alternative nests of golden eagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Millsap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos are long-lived raptors that maintain nesting territories that may be occupied for a century or longer. Within occupied nesting territories there is one nest in which eagles lay their eggs in a given year (i.e., the used nest, but there are usually other nests (i.e., alternative nests. Conservation plans often protect used nests, but not alternative nests or nesting territories that appear vacant. Our objective is to review literature on golden eagle use of alternative nests and occupancy of nesting territories to determine if alternative nests are biologically significant and warrant greater conservation consideration. Our review shows that: (1 alternative nests or their associated habitat are most often in core areas of golden eagle nesting territories; (2 alternative nests likely will become used in the future; (3 probability of an alternative nest becoming used is greatest where prey availability is high and alternative nest sites are limited; (4 likelihood of annual occupancy or reoccupancy of golden eagle nesting territories is high; and (5 prey availability is the most important determinant of nesting territory occupancy and breeding activity. We recommend alternative nests be treated with the same deference as used nests in land use planning.

  6. Preventing Philippine Eagle hunting: what are we missing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayson Ibanez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Two pieces of information are minimally required to conserve endangered raptor species — (i an estimate of its remaining global population, and (ii the main factors responsible for its decline. Data suggest that no more than 400 adult pairs of the Critically Endangered Philippine Eagle could remain in the wild. As to what is causing population decline, shooting and hunting continue to be the primary factor while forest habitat loss is another. This paper reflects on the growing incident of human-caused deaths in Philippine Eagles, prominently on Mindanao Island where estimates suggest more than half of the eagle’s wild population exists. By analyzing data from eagle rescues, surveys, and field monitoring through radio and satellite tracking techniques, this paper shows that shooting and trapping is a “clear and present” danger which may potentially drive the population to extinction even when suitable forest habitats still exist. Cases of death within the last decade show that the nature and/or extent of law enforcement, conservation education, and population and habitat monitoring fall short of being effective deterrents to eagle persecution in the wild. We review emerging theories on wildlife crime and cases of community-based species conservation to justify a holistic and grounded approach to preventing eagle poaching as an alternative to the conservation status quo. 

  7. Evaluation of landscape level habitat characteristics of golden eagle habitat in Northwestern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Vinaja, Maria Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis Linnaeus 1758) are declining in some areas throughout their Nearctic range (Sauer et al. 2011). This reduction is linked to changes in their habitat caused by human activities. Golden eagles inhabit an extensive range of environments (Watson 1997, Kochert et al. 2002). In the American Continent, the golden eagleâ s range encompasses Alaska, Canada, the United States and the Northern and Central portions of Mexico. Northern golden eagle populations...

  8. Army’s Management of Gray Eagle Spare Parts Needs Improvement (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    No. DODIG-2016-080 A P R I L 2 9 , 2 0 1 6 Army’s Management of Gray Eagle Spare Parts Needs Improvement FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FOR OFFICIAL USE...Management of Gray Eagle Spare Parts Needs Improvement Objective The objective of the audit was to determine whether the Department of the Army (Army...effectively managed MQ-1C Gray Eagle (Gray Eagle) spare parts . Specifically, we determined whether the Army effectively managed its spare - parts

  9. 77 FR 5505 - Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project In accordance with... of Energy Projects has reviewed the application for license for the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage...

  10. 78 FR 924 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Alaska: Eagle River PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ...: Eagle River PM 10 Nonattainment Area Limited Maintenance Plan and Redesignation Request AGENCY... Maintenance Plan (LMP) submitted by the State of Alaska on September 29, 2010, for the Eagle River nonattainment area (Eagle River NAA) and the State's request to redesignate the area to attainment for the...

  11. 76 FR 1149 - Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project and Notice of Public... for the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project (FERC No. 13123), located on the site of...

  12. Persistent pollutants in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in the Federal Republic of Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, J.H.; Hadderingh, R.H.; Bijleveld, M.F.I.J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the possible relationship between persistent pollutants and the decline in reproductive success of the White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Schleswig Holstein, Federal Republic of Germany. Chemical analyses were made of Eagle's eggs, of one adult Eagle which was found

  13. From the inside out: Eagle Rock School Producing a New Generation of CES Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Dan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author gives an overview of Eagle Rock School's Teaching Fellowship Program which he founded in collaboration with Public Allies, Inc. and under the auspices of Eagle Rock's Professional Development Center. Eagle Rock's Teaching Fellowship has two perspectives: (1) local; and (2) global. Locally, Fellows contribute skills,…

  14. 76 FR 65507 - Notice of Petition for Rate Approval; Eagle Ford Midstream, LP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Petition for Rate Approval; Eagle Ford Midstream, LP Take notice that on October 11, 2011, (Eagle Ford) filed a petition for rate approval pursuant to section 284.123(b.... Eagle Ford states that it is an existing intrastate pipeline, within the meaning of sections 2(16) and...

  15. Small-scale galaxy clustering in the eagle simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artale, M. Celeste; Pedrosa, Susana E.; Trayford, James W.; Theuns, Tom; Farrow, Daniel J.; Norberg, Peder; Zehavi, Idit; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu

    2017-09-01

    We study present-day galaxy clustering in the eagle cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. eagle's galaxy formation parameters were calibrated to reproduce the redshift z = 0.1 galaxy stellar mass function, and the simulation also reproduces galaxy colours well. The simulation volume is too small to correctly sample large-scale fluctuations and we therefore concentrate on scales smaller than a few mega parsecs. We find very good agreement with observed clustering measurements from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, when galaxies are binned by stellar mass, colour or luminosity. However, low-mass red galaxies are clustered too strongly, which is at least partly due to limited numerical resolution. Apart from this limitation, we conclude that eagle galaxies inhabit similar dark matter haloes as observed GAMA galaxies, and that the radial distribution of satellite galaxies, as a function of stellar mass and colour, is similar to that observed as well.

  16. A Rare Cause for Cervical Pain: Eagle's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Massimo; Toro, Corrado; Tenani, Giulia

    2009-01-01

    Patients with pharyngodynia and neck pain symptoms can lead to an extensive differential diagnosis. Eagle's syndrome must be taken in account. Eagle defined "stylalgia" as an autonomous entity related to abnormal length of the styloid process or to mineralization of the stylohyoid ligament complex. The stylohyoid complex derives from Reichert's cartilage of the second branchial arch. The styloyd process is an elongated conical projection of the temporal bone that lies anteriorly to the mastoid process. The incidence of Eagle's syndrome varies among population. Usually asymptomatic, it occurs in adult patients. It is characterized by pharyngodynia localized in the tonsillar fossa and sometimes accompanied by disphagia, odynophagia, foreign body sensation, and temporary voice changes. In some cases, the stylohyoid apparatus compresses the internal and/or the external carotid arteries and their perivascular sympathetic fibers, resulting in a persistent pain irradiating in the carotid territory. The pathogenesis of the syndrome is still under discussion.

  17. Surgical treatment of bumblefoot in a captive golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Nazifi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The golden eagle is one of the world's largest living birds. Footpad dermatitis, also known as plantar pododermatitis or bumblefoot, is a condition characterized by lesions due to contact with unhealthy "perching" conditions, such as plastic perches, sharp-cornered perches on the ventral footpad of birds. A young female golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos in Fars province of Iran was presented to veterinary clinics of Shiraz University with clinical signs of lameness. The bird was examined clinically and a variety of complementary diagnostic procedures such as blood analysis, X-ray and bacteriological culture were performed. Then a surgical method was pick out for removing of scab, pus and necrotic tissues from abscess on the plantar aspect of bird's feet and healing the skin of area. After surgery, specific bandage, systemic antibiotics and vitamins were used. Corynebacterium, a gram negative bacterium, was isolated in the pus from the abscess. After the surgical operation, swelling in the digital pad reduced, the skin of pad healed and the signs of lameness vanished. To prevent developing bumblefoot, good bedding for proper "perching" conditions is necessary. Additionally, vitamin therapy to promote a healthy integument is advised.

  18. Surgical treatment of bumblefoot in a captive golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorbaghi, Seyedeh Leila; Javdani, Moosa; Nazifi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    The golden eagle is one of the world's largest living birds. Footpad dermatitis, also known as plantar pododermatitis or bumblefoot, is a condition characterized by lesions due to contact with unhealthy "perching" conditions, such as plastic perches, sharp-cornered perches on the ventral footpad of birds. A young female golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in Fars province of Iran was presented to veterinary clinics of Shiraz University with clinical signs of lameness. The bird was examined clinically and a variety of complementary diagnostic procedures such as blood analysis, X-ray and bacteriological culture were performed. Then a surgical method was pick out for removing of scab, pus and necrotic tissues from abscess on the plantar aspect of bird's feet and healing the skin of area. After surgery, specific bandage, systemic antibiotics and vitamins were used. Corynebacterium, a gram negative bacterium, was isolated in the pus from the abscess. After the surgical operation, swelling in the digital pad reduced, the skin of pad healed and the signs of lameness vanished. To prevent developing bumblefoot, good bedding for proper "perching" conditions is necessary. Additionally, vitamin therapy to promote a healthy integument is advised. PMID:25653750

  19. 75 FR 56093 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, LP; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, LP; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline September 8, 2010. Take notice that on September 8, 2010, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P. (Eagle Rock) filed a request to extend the date for filing its next rate case to May 1, 2012. Eagle Rock...

  20. 50 CFR 22.31 - Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor of a State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Golden eagle depredations control order on..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS Depredation Control Orders on Golden Eagles § 22.31 Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor of a State. (a...

  1. Assessment of surface-water quantity and quality, Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 1947-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Moore, Jennifer L.; Richards, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    From the early mining days to the current tourism-based economy, the Eagle River watershed (ERW) in central Colorado has undergone a sequence of land-use changes that has affected the hydrology, habitat, and water quality of the area. In 2000, the USGS, in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities, and Denver Water, initiated a retrospective analysis of surface-water quantity and quality in the ERW.

  2. The Eagle of Womanhood: Dramatising the Strength of Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in securing the survival of her family despite all odds that is considered the eagle of her womanhood, a womanist strength that also underscores an urgent need for change in the Igbo's gendered conceptualization of social roles in contemporary world. Keywords: gender, Nigerian drama, the Igbos, Patriarchy, Feminism,

  3. Bald Eagle Nesting in the Superior National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Mattson; Alfred H. Grewe

    1976-01-01

    Sixteen years (1959-1974) of bald eagle nesting data representing 102 nests were examined. Nest survey intensity increased in the late 1960''s and was most comprehensive during 1972, 1973, and 1974. Some nests were used for at least 15 years. Most nest trees were white pines, reflecting availability. IN 1974 the number of active and successful nests and...

  4. Food habits of Bald Eagles breeding in the Arizona desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    1995-01-01

    Of 1814 foraging attempts, prey captures, or nest deliveries by Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in 14 Arizona breeding areas during 1983-1985, 1471 observations were identifiable to at least class: fish (76%), mammal (18%), bird (4%), and reptile/amphibian (2%). Forty-five species were recorded: catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Pylodictis olivaris), suckers (...

  5. Evaluating Great Lakes bald eagle nesting habitat with Bayesian inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; William W. Bowerman; Allen J. Bath; John P. Giesy; D. V. Chip Weseloh

    2003-01-01

    Bayesian inference facilitated structured interpretation of a nonreplicated, experience-based survey of potential nesting habitat for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) along the five Great Lakes shorelines. We developed a pattern recognition (PATREC) model of our aerial search image with six habitat attributes: (a) tree cover, (b) proximity and...

  6. Food habits of bald eagles wintering in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; Roy G. Lopez

    2000-01-01

    We used pellets collected from roosts to supplement incidental foraging observations to identify prey species of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucoughalus) and to evaluate spatial and temporal trends in their food habits while wintering in northern Arizona between 1994-96. We analyzed 1057 pellets collected from 14 roosts, and identified five mammal and...

  7. Notes on African Crowned Eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus diet in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our study reports on contrasts in prey items from African Crowned Eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus nesting in forest (n = 1) and savanna (n = 2) biomes in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. At least 12 taxa were identified at a forest nest, of which 92.1% were neonate/juvenile. Bovids and procaviids represented 73.7% and 19.6% ...

  8. Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-09-21

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA .  Created: 9/21/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/15/2014.

  9. 50 CFR 22.27 - Removal of eagle nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... immediately transported to foster/recipient nests or a rehabilitation facility permitted to care for eagles... Migratory Bird Permit Office (http://www.fws.gov/permits/mbpermits/addresses.html) at the earliest possible... Region in which the disturbance would occur—Attention: Migratory Bird Permit Office. You can find the...

  10. The "Oklahoma Eagle": A Study of Black Press Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Karen F.

    Analyzing the history of the "Oklahoma Eagle" provides insight into the problems and the opportunities involved in operating a black newspaper and reveals the factors responsible for the paper's longevity. The paper has been owned and operated by members of the Edward Lawrence Goodwin family since 1938 and has been staffed by excellent…

  11. Book Review: Children of the Eagle | Nweke | Lagos Notes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T. Akachi Ezeigbo. Children of the Eagle. Lagos: Vista Books. 2002. Price: N600. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  12. 76 FR 9529 - Migratory Birds; Draft Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 22 RIN 1018-AX53 Migratory Birds; Draft Eagle Conservation Plan...; Division of Migratory Bird Management; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; 4401 North Fairfax Drive, Mail Stop... Protection Act (BGEPA), the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, and the Endangered Species Act. BGEPA prohibits all...

  13. Eagles, Otters, and Unicorns: An Anatomy of Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Stephen R.; King, Margaret J.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes three archetypal workers: eagles who innovate by improvements, otters who innovate by extension, and unicorns who innovate by paradigm. Each of these innovators is discussed in terms of domain-relevant skills, manipulative skills, and motivation. Needs of each type in terms of business culture are discussed. (PB)

  14. Haematological values for captive harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos J. Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing of harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja populations in natural environments, mainly in non-preserved areas, makes captive population management an important contribution to genetic diversity conservation. The aim of this study is to evaluate hematological parameters for captive harpy eagles maintained at the wild animals breeding center of Itaipu Binacional, Paraná State, Brazil. Fourteen blood samples from nine harpy eagles were collected from animals of both sexes, of different ages and with no clinical signs of disease. Significant variations were found in haematological values of hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte, a relative number of heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and plasma protein between groups of young (less than six months old and adult birds. Comparing males and females there was variation in the values of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH on heterophils, absolute and relative number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils. There was also variation in the values of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, leukocyte count, absolute number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils among birds that study compared to another reference birds. Due to the limited information available on harpy eagle hematology, this study will be useful to the clinical assessment of birds maintained in captivity.

  15. Lead Exposure in Bald Eagles from Big Game Hunting, the Continental Implications and Successful Mitigation Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Bryan; Craighead, Derek; Crandall, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal) is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005–2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL) during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009–2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles. PMID:23284837

  16. Lead exposure in bald eagles from big game hunting, the continental implications and successful mitigation efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Bedrosian

    Full Text Available Studies suggest hunter discarded viscera of big game animals (i.e., offal is a source of lead available to scavengers. We investigated the incidence of lead exposure in bald eagles in Wyoming during the big game hunting season, the influx of eagles into our study area during the hunt, the geographic origins of eagles exposed to lead, and the efficacy of using non-lead rifle ammunition to reduce lead in eagles. We tested 81 blood samples from bald eagles before, during and after the big game hunting seasons in 2005-2010, excluding 2008, and found eagles had significantly higher lead levels during the hunt. We found 24% of eagles tested had levels indicating at least clinical exposure (>60 ug/dL during the hunt while no birds did during the non-hunting seasons. We performed driving surveys from 2009-2010 to measure eagle abundance and found evidence to suggest that eagles are attracted to the study area during the hunt. We fitted 10 eagles with satellite transmitters captured during the hunt and all migrated south after the cessation of the hunt. One returned to our study area while the remaining nine traveled north to summer/breed in Canada. The following fall, 80% returned to our study area for the hunting season, indicating that offal provides a seasonal attractant for eagles. We fitted three local breeding eagles with satellite transmitters and none left their breeding territories to feed on offal during the hunt, indicating that lead ingestion may be affecting migrants to a greater degree. During the 2009 and 2010 hunting seasons we provided non-lead rifle ammunition to local hunters and recorded that 24% and 31% of successful hunters used non-lead ammunition, respectively. We found the use of non-lead ammunition significantly reduced lead exposure in eagles, suggesting this is a viable solution to reduce lead exposure in eagles.

  17. Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R.G.; Miles, A.K.; Ricca, M.A.; Estes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We collected 136 fresh and unhatched eggs from bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests and assessed productivity on eight islands in the Aleutian archipelago, 2000 to 2002. Egg contents were analyzed for a broad spectrum of organochlorine (OC) contaminants, mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) and nitrogen (??15N). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (??PCBs), p,p???- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and Hg in bald eagle eggs were elevated throughout the archipelago, but the patterns of distribution differed among the various contaminants. Total PCBs were highest in areas of past military activities on Adak and Amchitka Islands, indicating local point sources of these compounds. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were higher on Amchitka Island, which was subjected to much military activity during World War II and the middle of the 20th century. Concentrations of ??PCBs also were elevated on islands with little history of military activity (e.g., Amlia, Tanaga, Buldir), suggesting non-point sources of PCBs in addition to point sources. Concentrations of DDE and Hg were highest in eagle eggs from the most western Aleutian Islands (e.g., Buldir, Kiska) and decreased eastward along the Aleutian chain. This east-to-west increase suggested a Eurasian source of contamination, possibly through global transport and atmospheric distillation and/or from migratory seabirds. Eggshell thickness and productivity of bald eagles were normal and indicative of healthy populations because concentrations of most contaminants were below threshold levels for effects on reproduction. Contrary to our predictions, contaminant concentrations were not correlated with stable isotopes of carbon (??13C) or nitrogen (??15N) in eggs. These latter findings indicate that contaminant concentrations were influenced more by point sources and geographic location than trophic status of eagles among the different islands. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  18. Lead and eagles: demographic and pathological characteristics of poisoning, and exposure levels associated with other causes of mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Russell, Robin E.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate demographic and pathologic characteristics in 484 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 68 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) diagnosed with lead poisoning at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center. As part of our analysis, we compared characteristics of lead poisoned eagles with those that died of other causes. Odds of lead poisoning were greater for bald eagles versus golden eagles, females versus males, adults versus juveniles, and eagles from the Mississippi and Central flyways versus the Atlantic and Pacific flyways. In addition to spatial, species, and demographic associations, we detected a distinct temporal trend in the collection date of lead poisoned bald eagle carcasses. These carcasses were found at greater frequency in late autumn and winter than spring and summer. Lesions in lead poisoned birds included emaciation, evidence of bile stasis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis, and renal tubular nephrosis and necrosis. Ingested lead ammunition or fragments were found in 14.2 % of bald eagles and 11.8 % of golden eagles. The overall mean liver lead concentration (wet weight basis) for eagles diagnosed with lead poisoning was 28.9 ± 0.69 SE mg/kg in bald eagles and 19.4 ± 1.84 SE mg/kg in golden eagles. In eagles diagnosed with collision trauma, electrocution, poisoning (other than lead), emaciation, infectious disease, trapping death, other, and undetermined causes, average liver lead concentrations were low (lead exposure of eagles predisposed them to other causes of mortality.

  19. Lead and eagles: demographic and pathological characteristics of poisoning, and exposure levels associated with other causes of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J Christian; Russell, Robin E

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate demographic and pathologic characteristics in 484 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and 68 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) diagnosed with lead poisoning at the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center. As part of our analysis, we compared characteristics of lead poisoned eagles with those that died of other causes. Odds of lead poisoning were greater for bald eagles versus golden eagles, females versus males, adults versus juveniles, and eagles from the Mississippi and Central flyways versus the Atlantic and Pacific flyways. In addition to spatial, species, and demographic associations, we detected a distinct temporal trend in the collection date of lead poisoned bald eagle carcasses. These carcasses were found at greater frequency in late autumn and winter than spring and summer. Lesions in lead poisoned birds included emaciation, evidence of bile stasis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis, and renal tubular nephrosis and necrosis. Ingested lead ammunition or fragments were found in 14.2% of bald eagles and 11.8% of golden eagles. The overall mean liver lead concentration (wet weight basis) for eagles diagnosed with lead poisoning was 28.9 ± 0.69 SE mg/kg in bald eagles and 19.4 ± 1.84 SE mg/kg in golden eagles. In eagles diagnosed with collision trauma, electrocution, poisoning (other than lead), emaciation, infectious disease, trapping death, other, and undetermined causes, average liver lead concentrations were low (lead exposure of eagles predisposed them to other causes of mortality.

  20. On the galaxy-halo connection in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Harry; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop

    2017-10-01

    Empirical models of galaxy formation require assumptions about the correlations between galaxy and halo properties. These may be calibrated against observations or inferred from physical models such as hydrodynamical simulations. In this Letter, we use the EAGLE simulation to investigate the correlation of galaxy size with halo properties. We motivate this analysis by noting that the common assumption of angular momentum partition between baryons and dark matter in rotationally supported galaxies overpredicts both the spread in the stellar mass-size relation and the anticorrelation of size and velocity residuals, indicating a problem with the galaxy-halo connection it implies. We find the EAGLE galaxy population to perform significantly better on both statistics, and trace this success to the weakness of the correlations of galaxy size with halo mass, concentration and spin at fixed stellar mass. Using these correlations in empirical models will enable fine-grained aspects of galaxy scalings to be matched.

  1. Coming to terms about describing Golden Eagle reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; McIntyre, Carol L.; Brown, Jessi L.

    2017-01-01

    Clearly defined terms are essential for reporting and understanding research findings, and inconsistent terminology can complicate efforts to compare findings from different studies. In this article, we reiterate and clarify recommended terms for describing Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) territory occupancy and reproduction. Several authors have provided recommendations for reporting data on raptor reproduction, but our literature review showed that authors continue to use different, often ambiguous and undefined, terms. The inconsistent use of terminology by researchers has been continued and expanded by lawmakers, regulators, and managers, perpetuating confusion. We recommend that authors clearly define and reference all terminology that they use, and we caution against use of the term “active” to describe a nest or nesting territory, because it is tainted with a history of inconsistent use. We provide a glossary of recommended terms for Golden Eagles and other large, long-lived raptors.

  2. Doppler ultrasonography of the pectinis oculi artery in harpy eagles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pectinate artery resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) were investigated using ocular Doppler ultrasonography. The mean RI and PI values across all eyes were 0.44±0.10 and 0.62±0.20 respectively. Low RI and PI values found in the harpy eagle´s pectinis oculi artery compared with the American pekin ducks one ...

  3. 78 FR 59710 - Golden Eagles; Programmatic Take Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; Shiloh IV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... November 12, 2013. ADDRESSES: Obtaining Documents: You may download copies of the DEA on the Internet at... Shiloh IV Wind Project will result in recurring eagle mortalities over the life of the project, so the... permitted take and additional factors affecting eagle populations, are compatible with the preservation of...

  4. 76 FR 11523 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility.... Craig M. White. In this 10 CFR part 70 proceeding regarding the request of applicant AREVA Enrichment... Safeguards Information for Contention Preparation; In the Matter of AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle...

  5. 76 FR 53717 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin AGENCY: United States... pricing of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin. The price of the coin will be $60.45. FOR...

  6. 76 FR 65563 - Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins AGENCY: United... the re-pricing of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins. The price of the 2011...

  7. 77 FR 25164 - Adequacy Status of the Eagle River, Alaska Particulate Matter Limited Maintenance Plan for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... AGENCY Adequacy Status of the Eagle River, Alaska Particulate Matter Limited Maintenance Plan for..., Particulate Matter (PM 10 ) Limited Maintenance Plan, submitted by the State of Alaska on September 20, 2011... notice of EPA's adequacy finding regarding the PM 10 Limited Maintenance Plan for Eagle River, Alaska...

  8. The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, species-based legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... legislation may be misidentified as species that are not subject to such protection. Additional factors are also present that make such an extension of legal protection desirable. Keywords: environmental law; legal protection; biodiversity; species; misidentification; Bald Eagle; Golden Eagle; bird of prey; raptor; South Africa ...

  9. Known breeding distribution and abundance of golden eagles in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois Morneau; Junior A. Tremblay; Charles Todd; Tony E. Chubbs; Charles Maisonneuve; Jerome Lemaitre; Todd. Katzner

    2015-01-01

    Aquila chrysaetos (Golden Eagle) breeds in both eastern and western North America. However, the former population has received much less attention than the latter. The purpose of this paper is to document the known distribution and abundance of eastern Golden Eagles within their breeding range and to identify gaps in knowledge for future studies....

  10. 50 CFR 22.25 - What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and methods to be used and the exact location of each artificial nest site must be included. (b... permits to take golden eagle nests? 22.25 Section 22.25 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND....25 What are the requirements concerning permits to take golden eagle nests? The Director may, upon...

  11. The genome sequence of a widespread apex Predator, the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqueline M. Doyle; Todd E. Katzner; Peter H. Bloom; Yanzhu Ji; Bhagya K. Wijayawardena; J. Andrew DeWoody; Ludovic. Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Biologists routinely use molecular markers to identify conservation units, to quantify genetic connectivity, to estimate population sizes, and to identify targets of selection. Many imperiled eagle populations require such efforts and would benefit from enhanced genomic resources. We sequenced, assembled, and annotated the first eagle genome using DNA from a male...

  12. 77 FR 28375 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on May 1, 2012, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P. (Desoto) filed a Rate Election pursuant to...

  13. 75 FR 62895 - Notice of Availability of Safety Evaluation Report; AREVA Enrichment Services LLC, Eagle Rock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of Availability of Safety Evaluation Report; AREVA Enrichment Services LLC, Eagle Rock... special nuclear material. This proposed facility is known as the Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF) and...

  14. The eagle concept-framework for a future land monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Stephan; Hazeu, Gerard; Sanz, Nuria Valcarcel

    2016-01-01

    The EAGLE concept embodies a new approach for land monitoring initiatives following an object-oriented approach in landscape modelling. It aims at providing a basis for an integrated European Land Monitoring Framework. Once implemented, the EAGLE concept with its data model and tools can help to

  15. 78 FR 57629 - Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 9, 2013, Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC filed Form 556 and a petition for certification as a...

  16. 75 FR 11937 - Eagle Sportswear, Inc.; New York, NY; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Eagle Sportswear, Inc.; New York, NY; Notice of Termination of... response to a petition filed on December 4, 2009 by a company official on behalf of workers of Eagle...

  17. 76 FR 20971 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 7, 2011, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P. filed a revised Statement of Operating Conditions to...

  18. 76 FR 387 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; AREVA Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility... Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF)--in Bonneville County, Idaho; and (2) the receipt, possession, use... site at http://www.nrc.gov/materials/fuel-cycle-fac/arevanc.html . These and other documents relating...

  19. The endemic Bawean Serpent-eagle Spilornis baweanus: habitat use, abundance and conservation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.

    2006-01-01

    The Bawean Serpent-eagle Spilornis bawearius is endemic to the 190 km(2) island of Bawean in the Java Sea (Indonesia) where it is the only resident diurnal raptor. A 15 day study in 2002 revealed that the species is present in small numbers throughout the island. The eagle's abundance was assessed

  20. 78 FR 24816 - Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... United States Mint Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set AGENCY: United... the price of the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set. The coin set will be offered for sale at a price of $139.95. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marc Landry, Acting Associate Director for...

  1. Abundance and Distribution of African Fish Eagles along Major Rivers in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisadza-Gandiwa, P.; Chiganze, S.; Chirombe, P.; Mashapa, C.; Muboko, N.; Gandiwa, E.

    2013-01-01

    African fish eagles (Haliaeetus vocifer) are important birds of prey and indicator of ecosystem integrity in aquatic environments. We assessed the population abundance and spatial distribution of African fish eagles along three major rivers in Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. Data were collected

  2. Using nestling feathers to assess spatial and temporal concentrations of mercury in bald eagles at Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. T. Pittman; W. W. Bowerman; L. H. Grim; Teryl Grubb; W. C. Bridges

    2011-01-01

    Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) have been utilized as a biosentinel of aquatic ecosystem health in the Great Lakes Region since the early 1960s. Bald eagle populations have been monitored at Voyageurs National Park (VNP), Minnesota, since 1973. For the past 20 years, researchers have collected feathers from nestling bald eagles to assess their dietary exposure...

  3. 76 FR 5580 - Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Applicant-Proposed Water Pipeline Route for the Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Crest Energy Company; Notice of Applicant-Proposed Water Pipeline... January 21, 2011. On June 22, 2009, Eagle Crest Energy Company (Eagle Crest or applicant) filed an...

  4. 75 FR 66745 - Eagle and Phenix Hydro Company, Inc. and UPtown Columbus, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle and Phenix Hydro Company, Inc. and UPtown Columbus, Inc.; Notice of.... Applicants: Eagle and Phenix Hydro Company, Inc. and UPtown Columbus Inc., respectively. e. Name of Projects: Eagle and Phenix Mills and City Mills Hydroelectric Projects. f. Location: Lower Chattahoochee River...

  5. 78 FR 57444 - Eagle Fund III, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Eagle Fund III, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Eagle Fund III, L.P., 101 S. Hanley Road, Suite 1250, St... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations. Eagle Fund III, L.P., provided debt and equity...

  6. 75 FR 31811 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Post-Delisting Monitoring Plan for Bald Eagle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... for Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The Endangered Species Act (ESA) requires that we implement a system... that have been recovered and no longer need ESA protection. In 2007, we removed the bald eagle in the...

  7. 78 FR 57444 - Eagle Fund III-A, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Eagle Fund III-A, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Eagle Fund III-A, L.P., 101 S. Hanley Road, Suite 1250, St... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations. Eagle Fund III-A, L.P., provided debt and equity...

  8. Probability of Elevated Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed...

  9. 50 CFR 22.23 - What are the requirements for permits to take depredating eagles and eagles that pose a risk to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... livestock or domestic animals owned by applicant, if applicable; (6) Kind and amount of alleged damage, or... other suitable means except by poison or from aircraft; (2) The taking of eagles under permit may be...

  10. The EAGLE simulations: atomic hydrogen associated with galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert A.; Bahé, Yannick M.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Rahmati, Alireza; Schaye, Joop; McCarthy, Ian G.; Marasco, Antonino; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; van der Hulst, Thijs

    2017-02-01

    We examine the properties of atomic hydrogen (H I) associated with galaxies in the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) simulations of galaxy formation. EAGLE's feedback parameters were calibrated to reproduce the stellar mass function and galaxy sizes at z = 0.1, and we assess whether this calibration also yields realistic H I properties. We estimate the self-shielding density with a fitting function calibrated using radiation transport simulations, and correct for molecular hydrogen with empirical or theoretical relations. The `standard-resolution' simulations systematically underestimate H I column densities, leading to an H I deficiency in low-mass (M⋆ EAGLE simulations featuring a factor of 8 (2) better mass (spatial) resolution, within which the H I mass of galaxies evolves more mildly from z = 1 to 0 than in the standard-resolution simulations. The largest volume simulation reproduces the observed clustering of H I systems, and its dependence on H I richness. At fixed M⋆, galaxies acquire more H I in simulations with stronger feedback, as they become associated with more massive haloes and higher infall rates. They acquire less H I in simulations with a greater star formation efficiency, since the star formation and feedback necessary to balance the infall rate is produced by smaller gas reservoirs. The simulations indicate that the H I of present-day galaxies was acquired primarily by the smooth accretion of ionized, intergalactic gas at z ≃ 1, which later self-shields, and that only a small fraction is contributed by the reincorporation of gas previously heated strongly by feedback. H I reservoirs are highly dynamic: over 40 per cent of H I associated with z = 0.1 galaxies is converted to stars or ejected by z = 0.

  11. EAGLE SYMBOL IN TURKISH ICONOGRAPHY AND IT'S REFLECTION TO THE CONTEMPORARY TURKISH PAINTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim COBAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It's been thought that eagle has an important place as a cultural value, a symbol (nickname, soul, symbol in Anatolia and established in other regions of the world in the religious and social life of many civilization. This symbol has been accepted as the bird which brings news from the future also this symbol represent domination, power, authority, goodness, freedom, barvery, protective spirit, nobility, sun, fate, and scholarship. The eagle symbol which has been subsisted throughout centuries, has been transformed into stylized visuals. This visuals which have been symbolized in areas where they been also used as one or two headed eagle in patterns. It has been studied that eagle symbols's strong presence in the Turkish culture dealt with in terms of the sustainability of Turkish art. It has been examined that eagle symbol's handled with unique plastic language interpretation in the process of since 1923 to the present with tradition and rich history.

  12. Free radical scavenging activity of Eagle tea and their flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Meng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an online HPLC-DAD-MS coupled with 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS assay was employed for evaluating free radical scavenging activity of Eagle tea and their active components. Twenty-three chromatographic peaks were detected, and nineteen components had free radical scavenging activity. Among them, eight compounds were identified as flavonoids (hyperin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol, catechins, chlorogenic acid and epicatechin based on MS data and standard chromatographic characters.

  13. A case of unilateral atypical orofacial pain with Eagle's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Sowmya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eagle's syndrome is not an uncommon condition, but less known to physicians, where an elongated styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament compresses the adjacent anatomical structures leading to orofacial pain. Diagnosis is made with appropriate radiological examination. Nonsurgical treatment options include reassurance, analgesia, and anti.inflammatory medications; and the surgical option includes a transoral or external approach. Here, we present a case report of a male patient, of age38 years, with a chief complaint of unilateral atypical orofacial pain on the right side of his face radiating to the neck region, for the last two months.

  14. Barred galaxy formation in the EAGLE cosmological simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, M. G.; Algorry, D. G.

    2017-07-01

    We present results about the formation and evolution of stellar bars in Milky-Way sized galaxies using the EAGLE ΛCDM cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. In agreement with observational results, this simulation shows that ˜ 40% of our simulated disk galaxies have a stellar bar with a wide variety of bar strengths. Typical bar lengths are ˜ 6.5 kpc also comparing favourably to observed ones. Our unbarred disks are more gas-rich and star-forming than those having a strong bar. In concordance with previous work, bars develop in galaxies where the disk is gravitationally dominant over the dark matter halo.

  15. A Rare Cause for Cervical Pain: Eagle's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Politi

    2009-01-01

    The stylohyoid complex derives from Reichert's cartilage of the second branchial arch. The styloyd process is an elongated conical projection of the temporal bone that lies anteriorly to the mastoid process. The incidence of Eagle's syndrome varies among population. Usually asymptomatic, it occurs in adult patients. It is characterized by pharyngodynia localized in the tonsillar fossa and sometimes accompanied by disphagia, odynophagia, foreign body sensation, and temporary voice changes. In some cases, the stylohyoid apparatus compresses the internal and/or the external carotid arteries and their perivascular sympathetic fibers, resulting in a persistent pain irradiating in the carotid territory. The pathogenesis of the syndrome is still under discussion.

  16. Use of noninvasive genetics to assess nest and space use by white-tailed eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Zafer; Bragin, Evgeny A.; DeWoody, J. Andrew; Braham, Melissa A.; Katzner, Todd E.; Doyle, Jacqueline M.

    2016-01-01

    Movement and space use are important components of animal interactions with the environment. However, for hard-to-monitor raptor species, there are substantial gaps in our understanding of these key determinants. We used noninvasive genetic tools to evaluate the details of space use over a 3-yr period by White-tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) at the Naurzum Zapovednik in northern Kazakhstan. We genotyped, at 10 microsatellite markers and one mitochondrial marker, 859 eagle feathers and assigned naturally shed feathers to individuals. We identified 124 White-tailed Eagles, including both members of 5–10 pairs per year, and were able to monitor birds across years. Distances between eagle nests and hunting perches were always greater than nearest neighbor distances, eagles never used the closest available hunting perch, and hunting perches were always shared with other eagles. When eagles switched nests between years, the nests they chose were almost always well outside the space that theory predicted they defended the prior year. Our data are inconsistent with classical territorial and colonial models of resource use; they more closely resemble semi-colonial behavior. It is unlikely that standard methods of animal tracking (e.g., marking and telemetry), would have provided a similarly cost-effective mechanism to gain these insights into spatial and temporal aspects of eagle behavior. When combined with existing information on space use of other local species, these data suggest that partitioning of spatial resources among White-tailed Eagles and other eagles at the Zapovednik may be facilitated by the alternative strategies of space use they employ.

  17. Probability of Elevated Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  18. Probability of Elevated Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Concentrations in Groundwater in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of elevated volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps was developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  19. Efficiency evaluation of proposed EAGLE target acquisition systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William D.; Evans, Chris J.; Schnetler, Hermine

    2008-07-01

    Efficient assignment of science targets to the individual channels of a multi-object astronomical instrument, such as EAGLE for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), is crucial for maximising the utility of the instrument. This paper presents the results obtained by modelling the efficiencies of various pick-off system concepts: free standing Pick-Off Mirrors (POMs), POMs at the tip of moving arms, or a tiled focal plane. Consideration is also taken of the way in which the freestanding POMs are placed: by a pick and place robot, or a swarm of micro autonomous robots. Allocation algorithms were developed for each concept and applied to target fields which are representative of EAGLE's likely science cases. It is shown how the results of the modelling were used to generate a new system comparison criterion called Allocation Flexibility and how this influences the choice of the baseline solution. The allocation flexibility suggests that the best system will use free standing POMs with as small a footprint as possible, which reflect light to a raised beam steering mirror.

  20. Eagle i-Bot: An Eye-controlled System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onindita Afrin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of people in the world are hand impaired in some way, and for many, there is no absolute solution. Operation of computers by physically disabled people; especially with hand impairment was quite impossible till now because use of hands plays a vital role in the use of mouse, touch pad and keyboard. We proposed a new system named as “Eagle i-Bot - An eye-controlled system” which has come with a feasible solution for this scenario. With this system, computers and robots can be controlled by the pair of eyes’ movement or iris movement and voice commands control all the mouse events. This system works with image processing system based on Voila-Jones algorithm and modified Ada-boost algorithms along with java robot class and sphinx-4 frameworks. In this paper, this system is described including software and hardware aspects, algorithms that are used and scopes where Eagle i-Bot can be used.

  1. Landscapes for Energy and Wildlife: Conservation Prioritization for Golden Eagles across Large Spatial Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jason D; Fedy, Bradley C

    2015-01-01

    Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development. We used publically available data on golden eagle nests to generate predictive models of golden eagle nesting sites in Wyoming, USA, using a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables. By overlaying predictive models of golden eagle nesting habitat with wind energy resource maps, we highlight areas of potential conflict among eagle nesting habitat and wind development. However, our results suggest that wind potential and the relative probability of golden eagle nesting are not necessarily spatially correlated. Indeed, the majority of our sample frame includes areas with disparate predictions between suitable nesting habitat and potential for developing wind energy resources. Map predictions cannot replace on-the-ground monitoring for potential risk of wind turbines on wildlife populations, though they provide industry and managers a useful framework to first assess potential development.

  2. Landscapes for energy and wildlife: conservation prioritization for golden eagles across large spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jason D.; Fedy, Bradley C.

    2015-01-01

    Proactive conservation planning for species requires the identification of important spatial attributes across ecologically relevant scales in a model-based framework. However, it is often difficult to develop predictive models, as the explanatory data required for model development across regional management scales is rarely available. Golden eagles are a large-ranging predator of conservation concern in the United States that may be negatively affected by wind energy development. Thus, identifying landscapes least likely to pose conflict between eagles and wind development via shared space prior to development will be critical for conserving populations in the face of imposing development. We used publically available data on golden eagle nests to generate predictive models of golden eagle nesting sites in Wyoming, USA, using a suite of environmental and anthropogenic variables. By overlaying predictive models of golden eagle nesting habitat with wind energy resource maps, we highlight areas of potential conflict among eagle nesting habitat and wind development. However, our results suggest that wind potential and the relative probability of golden eagle nesting are not necessarily spatially correlated. Indeed, the majority of our sample frame includes areas with disparate predictions between suitable nesting habitat and potential for developing wind energy resources. Map predictions cannot replace on-the-ground monitoring for potential risk of wind turbines on wildlife populations, though they provide industry and managers a useful framework to first assess potential development.

  3. Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus population increases in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland: evidence for habitat saturation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla R. Letto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Across North America, Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus populations appear to be recovering following bans of DDT. A limited number of studies from across North America have recorded a surplus of nonbreeding adult Bald Eagles in dense populations when optimal habitat and food become limited. Placentia Bay, Newfoundland is one of these. The area has one of the highest densities of Bald Eagles in eastern North America, and has recently experienced an increase in the proportion of nonbreeding adults within the population. We tested whether the observed Bald Eagle population trends in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland during the breeding seasons 1990-2009 are due to habitat saturation. We found no significant differences in habitat or food resource characteristics between occupied territories and pseudo-absence data or between nest sites with high vs. low nest activity/occupancy rates. Therefore there is no evidence for habitat saturation for Bald Eagles in Placentia Bay and alternative hypotheses for the high proportion of nonbreeding adults should be considered. The Newfoundland population provides an interesting case for examination because it did not historically appear to be affected by pollution. An understanding of Bald Eagle population dynamics in a relatively pristine area with a high density can be informative for restoration and conservation of Bald Eagle populations elsewhere.

  4. Ossification of the stylohyoid chain on computed tomograms - Eagle syndrome; Die Ossifikation der stylohyoidalen Kette im Computertomogramm - Eagle-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugmayr, H.; Krennmair, G. [Krankenhaus St. Franziskus, Grieskirchen (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Lenglinger, F. [Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Wels (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    1997-11-01

    The computed tomographic morphology of a typical Eagle syndrome is presented on the basis of a case history. In a 40-year-old female patient presenting with bilateral tinnitus, globus hystericus, and increasing hoarseness computed tomography revealed bilateral ossification of the stylohyoid ligament. The incidence of stylalgia is very low in comparison to the occurrence of a elongated styloid process or an ossified stylohyoid ligament. However, in cases of unexplained complaints in the head and neck region it should be considered in the differential diagnosis as it has therapeutic consequences. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anhand einer Kasuistik wird die computertomographische Morphologie eines typischen Eagle-Syndroms vorgestellt: Bei einem 40jaehrigen Patienten, der an beidseitigem Tinnitus, Globusgefuehl und zunehmender Heiserkeit litt, wurde computertomographisch eine beidseitige Ossifikation des Ligamentum stylohoideum nachgewiesen. Die Inzidenz einer Stylalgie ist verglichen mit der Praevalenz eines elongierten Processus styloideus oder einem verknoecherten Ligamentum stylochyoideum sehr selten. Sie sollte jedoch bei ungeklaerten Beschwerden im Kopf-Halsbereich differentialdiagnostisch in Erwaegung gezogen werden, da sie therapeutische Konsequenzen nach sich zieht. (orig.)

  5. Wind Energy Industry Eagle Detection and Deterrents: Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Karin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeGeorge, Elise [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-13

    The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act (BGEPA) prohibits the 'take' of these birds. The act defines take as to 'pursue, shoot, shoot at, poison, wound, kill, capture, trap, collect, destroy, molest or disturb.' The 2009 Eagle Permit Rule (74 FR 46836) authorizes the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to issue nonpurposeful (i.e., incidental) take permits, and the USFWS 2013 Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance provides a voluntary framework for issuing programmatic take permits to wind facilities that incorporate scientifically supportable advanced conservation practices (ACPs). Under these rules, the Service can issue permits that authorize individual instances of take of bald and golden eagles when the take is associated with, but not the purpose of, an otherwise lawful activity, and cannot practicably be avoided. To date, the USFWS has not approved any ACPs, citing the lack of evidence for 'scientifically supportable measures.' The Eagle Detection and Deterrents Research Gaps and Solutions Workshop was convened at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in December 2015 with a goal to comprehensively assess the current state of technologies to detect and deter eagles from wind energy sites and the key gaps concerning reducing eagle fatalities and facilitating permitting under the BGEPA. During the workshop, presentations and discussions focused primarily on existing knowledge (and limitations) about the biology of eagles as well as technologies and emerging or novel ideas, including innovative applications of tools developed for use in other sectors, such as the U.S. Department of Defense and aviation. The main activity of the workshop was the breakout sessions, which focused on the current state of detection and deterrent technologies and novel concepts/applications for detecting and minimizing eagle collisions with wind turbines. Following the breakout sessions, participants were asked about their individual impressions of the

  6. A pilot golden eagle population study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Predatory Bird Research Group

    1995-05-01

    Orloff and Flannery (1992) estimated that several hundred reports are annually killed by turbine collisions, wire strikes, and electrocutions at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The most common fatalities were those of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrels (Falco sparvatius), and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), with lesser numbers of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), bam owls (Tyto alba), and others. Among the species of raptors killed at Altamont Pass, the one whose local population is most likely to be impacted is the golden eagle. Besides its being less abundant than the others, the breeding and recruitment rates of golden eagles are naturally slow, increasing their susceptibility to decline as a result of mortality influences. The golden eagle is a species afforded special federal protection because of its inclusion within the Bald Eagle Protection Act as amended in 1963. There are no provisions within the Act which would allow the killing ``taking`` of golden eagles by WRA structures. This report details the results of field studies conducted during 19941. The primary purpose of the investigation is to lay the groundwork for determining whether or not turbine strikes and other hazards related to energy at Altamont Pass may be expected to affect golden eagles on a population basis. We also seek an understanding of the physical and biotic circumstances which attract golden eagles to the WRA within the context of the surrounding landscape and the conditions under which they are killed by wind turbines. Such knowledge may suggest turbine-related or habitat modifications that would result in a lower incidence of eagle mortality.

  7. Does the order of invasive species removal matter? The case of the eagle and the pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W Collins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasive species are recognized as a primary driver of native species endangerment and their removal is often a key component of a conservation strategy. Removing invasive species is not always a straightforward task, however, especially when they interact with other species in complex ways to negatively influence native species. Because unintended consequences may arise if all invasive species cannot be removed simultaneously, the order of their removal is of paramount importance to ecological restoration. In the mid-1990s, three subspecies of the island fox Urocyon littoralis were driven to near extinction on the northern California Channel Islands owing to heightened predation by golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos. Eagles were lured to the islands by an abundant supply of feral pigs Sus scrofa and through the process of apparent competition pigs indirectly facilitated the decline in foxes. As a consequence, both pigs and eagles had to be removed to recover the critically endangered fox. Complete removal of pigs was problematic: removing pigs first could force eagles to concentrate on the remaining foxes, increasing their probability of extinction. Removing eagles first was difficult: eagles are not easily captured and lethal removal was politically distasteful. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using prey remains collected from eagle nests both before and after the eradication of pigs, we show that one pair of eagles that eluded capture did indeed focus more on foxes. These results support the premise that if the threat of eagle predation had not been mitigated prior to pig removal, fox extinction would have been a more likely outcome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: If complete eradication of all interacting invasive species is not possible, the order in which they are removed requires careful consideration. If overlooked, unexpected consequences may result that could impede restoration.

  8. Reduction of Genetic Diversity of the Harpy Eagle in Brazilian Tropical Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Banhos

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation intensify the effects of genetic drift and endogamy, reducing genetic variability of populations with serious consequences for wildlife conservation. The Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja is a forest dwelling species that is considered near threatened and suffers from habitat loss in the forests of the Neotropical region. In this study, 72 historical and current samples were assessed using eight autosomal microsatellite markers to investigate the distribution of genetic diversity of the Harpy Eagle of the Amazonian and Atlantic forests in Brazil. The results showed that the genetic diversity of Harpy Eagle decreased in the regions where deforestation is intense in the southern Amazon and Atlantic Forest.

  9. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Chickasaw)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (American Indian translation in Chickasaw).  Created: 4/9/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  10. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Shoshone)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (Listen to the American Indian translation in Shoshone).  Created: 4/9/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  11. Through the Eyes of the Eagle (American Indian translation in Paiute)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Through the Eyes of the Eagle tells children about looking to the healthy ways and wisdom of their elders (Listen to the American Indian translation in Paiute).  Created: 4/9/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  12. Absolute polycythemia in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Andreia F; Fenton, Heather; Martinson, Shannon; Desmarchelier, Marion; Ferrell, Shannon T

    2014-12-01

    An approximately 6-mo-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was presented for an inability to fly and bilateral drooped wings. Pectoral muscle atrophy with a moderate polycythemia was present. Over the course of 3 wk, there were no improvements in flight capacity, although the bird gained substantial weight. Further investigation revealed a prominent cyanosis that was responsive to oxygen therapy, a chronic respiratory acidosis with hypoxia, a cardiac murmur, and a persistent polycythemia. No obvious antemortem etiology for the clinical findings was discovered on computerized tomography, angiography, or echocardiography. The bird was euthanatized as a result of the poor prognosis. Necropsy and histopathology revealed no significant cardiovascular or pulmonary pathology. No myopathy was evident on electron microscopy of formalin-fixed tissues. Based on these diagnostics, a neuromuscular disorder is suspected as the cause for the blood gas abnormalities, with a resulting polycythemia from the hypoxia.

  13. CERN's eagle-eyed movement hunters in action

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Vibrations, movements, strains - nothing escapes the eagle eyes of CERN's Mechanical Measurements Laboratory, which helps groups needing mechanical testing and delicate transport operations. Graphical representation of the natural mode shape of one of the end-caps of the ATLAS inner detector, determined through experimentation.After installation of sensors on one of the end-caps of the ATLAS inner detector, CERN's Mechanical Measurements team performs remote checks to ensure the sensors are working properly before transport. They are on the look-out for anything that moves, shakes or changes shape. The slightest movement, however minute, will attract their attention. The Mechanical Measurements team, which is part of the Installation Coordination Group (TS-IC), specialises in all kinds of vibration studies, for design projects as well as for the transport of fragile objects. The Mechanical Measurements Laboratory was created in 1973 and, after a lull at the end of the century, was given a new lease of life ...

  14. Baryon effects on void statistics in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillas, Enrique; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Padilla, Nelson; Tissera, Patricia; Helly, John; Schaller, Matthieu

    2017-10-01

    Cosmic voids are promising tools for cosmological tests due to their sensitivity to dark energy, modified gravity and alternative cosmological scenarios. Most previous studies in the literature of void properties use cosmological N-body simulations of dark matter (DM) particles that ignore the potential effect of baryonic physics. Using a spherical underdensity finder, we analyse voids using the mass field and subhalo tracers in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment (EAGLE) simulations, which follow the evolution of galaxies in a Λ cold dark matter universe with state-of-the-art subgrid models for baryonic processes in a (100 cMpc)3 volume. We study the effect of baryons on void statistics by comparing results with DM-only simulations that use the same initial conditions as EAGLE. When identifying voids in the mass field, we find that a DM-only simulation produces 24 per cent more voids than a hydrodynamical one due to the action of galaxy feedback polluting void regions with hot gas, specially for small voids with rvoid ≤ 10 Mpc. We find that the way in which galaxy tracers are selected has a strong impact on the inferred void properties. Voids identified using galaxies selected by their stellar mass are larger and have cuspier density profiles than those identified by galaxies selected by their total mass. Overall, baryons have minimal effects on void statistics, as void properties are well captured by DM-only simulations, but it is important to account for how galaxies populate DM haloes to estimate the observational effect of different cosmological models on the statistics of voids.

  15. Source apportionment of hydrocarbons measured in the Eagle Ford shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, G. S.; Schade, G. W.

    2016-12-01

    The rapid development of unconventional oil and gas in the US has led to hydrocarbon emissions that are yet to be accurately quantified. Emissions from the Eagle Ford Shale in southern Texas, one of the most productive shale plays in the U.S., have received little attention due to a sparse air quality monitoring network, thereby limiting studies of air quality within the region. We use hourly atmospheric hydrocarbon and meteorological data from three locations in the Eagle Ford Shale to assess their sources. Data are available from the Texas commission of environmental quality (TCEQ) air quality monitors in Floresville, a small town southeast of San Antonio and just north of the shale area; and Karnes city, a midsize rural city in the center of the shale. Our own measurements were carried out at a private ranch in rural Dimmit County in southern Texas from April to November of 2015. Air quality monitor data from the TCEQ were selected for the same time period. Non-negative matrix factorization in R (package NMF) was used to determine likely sources and their contributions above background. While the TCEQ monitor data consisted mostly of hydrocarbons, our own data include both CO, CO2, O3, and NOx. We find that rural Dimmit County hydrocarbons are dominated by oil and gas development sources, while central shale hydrocarbons at the TCEQ monitoring sites have a mix of sources including car traffic. However, oil and gas sources also dominate hydrocarbons at Floresville and Karnes City. Toxic benzene is nearly exclusively due to oil and gas development sources, including flaring, which NMF identifies as a major hydrocarbon source in Karnes City. Other major sources include emissions of light weight alkanes (C2-C5) from raw natural gas emissions and a larger set of alkanes (C2-C10) from oil sources, including liquid storage tanks.

  16. Ancient DNA provides new insights into the evolutionary history of New Zealand's extinct giant eagle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bunce

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior to human settlement 700 years ago New Zealand had no terrestrial mammals--apart from three species of bats--instead, approximately 250 avian species dominated the ecosystem. At the top of the food chain was the extinct Haast's eagle, Harpagornis moorei. H. moorei (10-15 kg; 2-3 m wingspan was 30%-40% heavier than the largest extant eagle (the harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja, and hunted moa up to 15 times its weight. In a dramatic example of morphological plasticity and rapid size increase, we show that the H. moorei was very closely related to one of the world's smallest extant eagles, which is one-tenth its mass. This spectacular evolutionary change illustrates the potential speed of size alteration within lineages of vertebrates, especially in island ecosystems.

  17. Evaluation of the 100 meter protective zone for bald eagle nests in southeast Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests in southeast Alaska have been protected by a 100 m buffer zone since 1968. Nests near logging developments were surveyed...

  18. Physical characteristics of bald eagle eggs from Maine, 2000 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Between 2000 and 2012, 91 abandoned or non‐viable bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs were collected from55 nest territories in inland and coastal habitats in...

  19. Investigating Bald Eagle Winter and Summer Concentrations on Cat Point Creek

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this project are: 1) document the seasonal distribution and abundance patterns of Bald Eagles along Cat Point Creek within 750 feet of the Route...

  20. Ecology of Nesting Bald Eagles on the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were censused in a boreal forest region on and near the 688,000 ha Kenai National Wildlife Refuge for the first time in 1979....

  1. Potential for Contaminant Exposure to Bald Eagles of the James River 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The James River, Virginia has one of the largest concentrations of bald eagles on the east coast of the United States. Effects of environmental contaminants upon...

  2. Environmental Assessment for Hunt Plan; Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge, Eagle Point Unit, Derby Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Environmental Assessment to support public hunting. evaluation of the hunting impacts to refuge resources at the Eagle Point Unit based on chosen alternatives

  3. Golden Eagle food habits in the Mojave Desert: Regional information for a changing landscape

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Expansion of renewable energy development is rapidly transforming the Mojave Desert landscape and has the potential to impact Golden Eagles through loss of foraging...

  4. Census, nesting and productivity of bald eagles in southeast Alaska, 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in southeast Alaska was conducted during the period March 15, 1966 to July 7, 1966. The first surveys were for...

  5. Food web model output - Trophic impacts of bald eagles in the Puget Sound food web

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is developing models to examine the ecological roles of bald eagles in the Puget Sound region. It is primarily being done by NMFS FTEs, in collaboration...

  6. Contaminant exposure of bald eagles via prey at Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Voyageurs National Park (VNP) represents a major concentration site for nesting bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), which are currently listed in Minnesota as a...

  7. Assessment of blood contaminant residues in Delaware Bay bald eagle nestlings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The bald eagle population around the lower Delaware River Basin is rebounding from near extirpation in the early 1970's to 14 active breeding pairs today....

  8. The potential effects of Rocky Mountain Arsenal cleanup and Denver metropolitan transportation development on bald eagles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Army's Rocky Mountain Arsenal and Colorado's Barr Lake State Park provide habitats which support wintering and nesting bald eagles near metropolitan Denver,...

  9. Off‐refuge contaminant investigation : Liver contaminants in bald eagle carcasses from Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This presentation provides the results of a study done to analyze bald eagle carcasses found in Maine for mercury, lead, total polychlorinated biphenyl, and...

  10. Common Raven (Corvus corax) kleptoparasitism at a Golden Eagle (Aquila chyrsaetos) nest in southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simes, Matthew; Johnson, Diego R.; Streit, Justin; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.

    2017-01-01

    The Common Raven (Corvus corax) is a ubiquitous species in the Mojave Desert of southern Nevada and California. From 5 to 24 May 2014, using remote trail cameras, we observed ravens repeatedly kleptoparasitizing food resources from the nest of a pair of Golden Eagles (Aquila chyrsaetos) in the Spring Mountains of southern Nevada. The ravens fed on nine (30%) of the 30 prey items delivered to the nest during the chick rearing period. Kleptoparasitic behavior by the ravens decreased as the eagle nestling matured to seven weeks of age, suggesting a narrow temporal window in which ravens can successfully engage in kleptoparasitic behavior at eagle nests. The observation of kleptoparasitism by Common Ravens at the nest suggests potential risks to young Golden Eagles from Common Ravens.

  11. Recent distribution and status of nesting bald eagles in Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Conant, B.; Anderson, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    We studied Bald Eagles(Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nesting in Baja California, Mexico, and vicinity from 1983-1993. The range of nesting Bald Eagles in Baja California has been reduced from a scattering of pairs along both the Pacific and Gulf sides to a remnant population in Magdalena Bay where no more than three pairs were found annually. Low numbers and a restricted distribution make this disjunct population especially vulnerable to human disturbance. Additional protection of present nesting localities and a reintroduction program on remote islands in the Gulf of California where eagles historically nested, are proposed. Limited data on nesting success indicate that the Magdalena Bay population is reproducing successfully with young probably dispersing north following fledging. The Bald Eagles found wintering along the Colorado River Delta in January apparently nest farther north in the United States or Canada.

  12. Environmental contaminants in a crossed bill bald eagle recovered in Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On September 4, 2011, a fledgling female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) with a crossedbill was recovered along Pine Point Beach in the town of Scarborough,...

  13. Bioenergetics model output - Trophic impacts of bald eagles in the Puget Sound food web

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is developing models to examine the ecological roles of bald eagles in the Puget Sound region. It is primarily being done by NMFS FTEs, in collaboration...

  14. Bald Eagle Tracking Project Report Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study was to learn, by use of tracking devices, the locations of bald eagle high use areas for foraging and roosting. Tracking will provide...

  15. Lead, mercury, selenium, and other trace elements in tissues of golden eagles from southwestern Montana, USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harmata, Alan R; Restani, Marco

    2013-01-01

    .... We captured and sampled 74 Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in southwestern Montana, USA, from 2008 to 2010 to evaluate levels of lead, mercury, selenium, and 13 other trace elements in blood and feathers...

  16. Organochlorine compounds and mercury in bald eagle eggs, Penobscot River, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Four bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs from three nests on the Penobscot River, Maine, were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants and mercury. Eggs were...

  17. Bald Eagle Nest Observation Plan and Survey Report 1989 Elizabeth Hartwell Mason Neck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To record the breeding chronology (nest initiation, egg laying, incubation, hatching, nestling period, fledging and family dispersal) of bald eagles found at Mason...

  18. Kodiak Island bald eagle migration and movements study: Progress report, update

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to update the progress of the bald eagle migration and movements study begun during July of 1982. The study objectives are: to...

  19. Changes in productivity and environmental contaminants in bald eagles nesting along the Lower Columbia River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Numbers of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nesting along the lower Columbia River have doubled in the last six years, yet five-year running productivity...

  20. Environmental contaminants in bald eagles nesting in Hood Canal, Washington, 1992-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The number of bald eagle nesting territories along Hood Canal in Washington State have increased from 3 known occupied territories in 1980 to 35 in 2000....

  1. Guardian or threat: does golden eagle predation risk have cascading effects on forest grouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyly, Mari S; Villers, Alexandre; Koivisto, Elina; Helle, Pekka; Ollila, Tuomo; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies on intraguild predation have mainly focused on within-class assemblages, even though avian top predators may also influence mammalian mesopredator prey. By using nation-wide long-term data from Finland, northern Europe, we examined the impacts of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) together with red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and pine martens (Martes martes) on forest-dwelling herbivores, black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) and hazel grouse (Tetrastes bonasia). We hypothesized that eagles may alleviate the overall predation pressure on grouse by imposing intraguild predation risk on mesopredators. The predation impact of eagle was modelled using eagle density estimates and distance to eagle nest. Wildlife triangle counts were used as predation impact proxies of mammalian mesopredators and as measures of response in grouse. Our results show that eagle density correlated negatively with black grouse abundance indices while being positively associated with the proportion of juveniles in both grouse species, irrespective of the abundance of mesopredators. Yet, foxes and martens alone had a negative effect on the abundance indices and the proportion of young in the two grouse species. This suggests that the possible cascading effects of eagles are not mediated by decreased mesopredator numbers, but instead by fear effects. Alternatively, they may be mediated by other species than fox or marten studied here. In conclusion, we found support for the hypothesis that eagles provide protection for juvenile black and hazel grouse, whereas they are a threat for adult grouse. This important information helps us to better understand the role of avian top predators in terrestrial ecosystems.

  2. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R.G.; Estes, J.A.; Ricca, M.A.; Miles, A.K.; Forsman, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993–1994 and 2000–2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993–1994 to 2000–2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex

  3. Pleistocene to historic shifts in bald eagle diets on the Channel Islands, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Seth D; Collins, Paul W; Rick, Torben C; Guthrie, Daniel A; Erlandson, Jon M; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2010-05-18

    Studies of current interactions among species, their prey, and environmental factors are essential for mitigating immediate threats to population viability, but the true range of behavioral and ecological flexibility can be determined only through research on deeper timescales. Ecological data spanning centuries to millennia provide important contextual information for long-term management strategies, especially for species that now are living in relict populations. Here we use a variety of methods to reconstruct bald eagle diets and local abundance of their potential prey on the Channel Islands from the late Pleistocene to the time when the last breeding pairs disappeared from the islands in the mid-20th century. Faunal and isotopic analysis of bald eagles shows that seabirds were important prey for immature/adult eagles for millennia before the eagles' local extirpation. In historic times (A.D. 1850-1950), however, isotopic and faunal data show that breeding bald eagles provisioned their chicks with introduced ungulates (e.g., sheep), which were locally present in high densities. Today, bald eagles are the focus of an extensive conservation program designed to restore a stable breeding population to the Channel Islands, but native and nonnative prey sources that were important for bald eagles in the past are either diminished (e.g., seabirds) or have been eradicated (e.g., introduced ungulates). In the absence of sufficient resources, a growing bald eagle population on the Channel Islands could expand its prey base to include carrion from local pinniped colonies, exert predation pressure on a recovering seabird population, and possibly prey on endangered island foxes.

  4. Long-term survival despite low genetic diversity in the critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeff A; Tingay, Ruth E; Culver, Melanie; Hailer, Frank; Clarke, Michèle L; Mindell, David P

    2009-01-01

    The critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) is considered to be one of the rarest birds of prey globally and at significant risk of extinction. In the most recent census, only 222 adult individuals were recorded with an estimated total breeding population of no more than 100-120 pairs. Here, levels of Madagascar fish-eagle population genetic diversity based on 47 microsatellite loci were compared with its sister species, the African fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer), and 16 of these loci were also characterized in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Overall, extremely low genetic diversity was observed in the Madagascar fish-eagle compared to other surveyed Haliaeetus species. Determining whether this low diversity is the result of a recent bottleneck or a more historic event has important implications for their conservation. Using a Bayesian coalescent-based method, we show that Madagascar fish-eagles have maintained a small effective population size for hundreds to thousands of years and that its low level of neutral genetic diversity is not the result of a recent bottleneck. Therefore, efforts made to prevent Madagascar fish-eagle extinction should place high priority on maintenance of habitat requirements and reducing direct and indirect human persecution. Given the current rate of deforestation in Madagascar, we further recommend that the population be expanded to occupy a larger geographical distribution. This will help the population persist when exposed to stochastic factors (e.g. climate and disease) that may threaten a species consisting of only 200 adult individuals while inhabiting a rapidly changing landscape.

  5. Diet of Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug and Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca from Central Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedko Nedyalkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present results from a study on the diet of Saker falcon (n = 15 nests and Eastern imperial eagle (n = 2 nests from south Kazakhstan, on the basis of food remains and pellets collected during the 2009 breeding season. The main prey for Saker falcon was predominantly rodents living in middle-size colonies – Spermophilus erytrogenys and Rhombomys opimus. We also present the results from the diet of two pairs of Eastern imperial eagles nesting close to Balkhash Lake.

  6. Long-term survival despite low genetic diversity in the critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.A.; Tingay, R.E.; Culver, M.; Hailer, F.; Clarke, M.L.; Mindell, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    The critically endangered Madagascar fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides) is considered to be one of the rarest birds of prey globally and at significant risk of extinction. In the most recent census, only 222 adult individuals were recorded with an estimated total breeding population of no more than 100-120 pairs. Here, levels of Madagascar fish-eagle population genetic diversity based on 47 microsatellite loci were compared with its sister species, the African fish-eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer), and 16 of these loci were also characterized in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Overall, extremely low genetic diversity was observed in the Madagascar fish-eagle compared to other surveyed Haliaeetus species. Determining whether this low diversity is the result of a recent bottleneck or a more historic event has important implications for their conservation. Using a Bayesian coalescent-based method, we show that Madagascar fish-eagles have maintained a small effective population size for hundreds to thousands of years and that its low level of neutral genetic diversity is not the result of a recent bottleneck. Therefore, efforts made to prevent Madagascar fish-eagle extinction should place high priority on maintenance of habitat requirements and reducing direct and indirect human persecution. Given the current rate of deforestation in Madagascar, we further recommend that the population be expanded to occupy a larger geographical distribution. This will help the population persist when exposed to stochastic factors (e.g. climate and disease) that may threaten a species consisting of only 200 adult individuals while inhabiting a rapidly changing landscape. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  7. Bald eagles and sea otters in the Aleutian Archipelago: indirect effects of trophic cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Robert G; Estes, James A; Ricca, Mark A; Miles, A Keith; Forsman, Eric D

    2008-10-01

    Because sea otters (Enhydra lutris) exert a wide array of direct and indirect effects on coastal marine ecosystems throughout their geographic range, we investigated the potential influence of sea otters on the ecology of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA. We studied the diets, productivity, and density of breeding Bald Eagles on four islands during 1993-1994 and 2000-2002, when sea otters were abundant and scarce, respectively. Bald Eagles depend on nearshore marine communities for most of their prey in this ecosystem, so we predicted that the recent decline in otter populations would have an indirect negative effect on diets and demography of Bald Eagles. Contrary to our predictions, we found no effects on density of breeding pairs on four islands from 1993-1994 to 2000-2002. In contrast, diets and diet diversity of Bald Eagles changed considerably between the two time periods, likely reflecting a change in prey availability resulting from the increase and subsequent decline in sea otter populations. The frequency of sea otter pups, rock greenling (Hexagammus lagocephalus), and smooth lumpsuckers (Aptocyclus ventricosus) in the eagle's diet declined with corresponding increases in Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius), and various species of seabirds during the period of the recent otter population decline. Breeding success and productivity of Bald Eagles also increased during this time period, which may be due to the higher nutritional quality of avian prey consumed in later years. Our results provide further evidence of the wide-ranging indirect effects of sea otter predation on nearshore marine communities and another apex predator, the Bald Eagle. Although the indirect effects of sea otters are widely known, this example is unique because the food-web pathway transcended five species and several trophic levels in linking one apex predator

  8. Quest for safer skies: Modeling golden eagles and wind energy to reduce turbine risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd Katzner; Tricia Miller; Scott. Stoleson

    2014-01-01

    In a patch of sky above Pennsylvania, a golden eagle moves languidly, never flapping but passing quickly as it cruises southward on a cushion of air. It is migrating to its wintering grounds after a season of breeding in Quebec. As part of a team studying eagles on a daily basis—a project supported by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), West Virginia University,...

  9. Characterizing Golden Eagle risk to lead and anticoagulant rodenticide exposure: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Buck, Jeremy A.

    2017-01-01

    Contaminant exposure is among the many threats to Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) populations throughout North America, particularly lead poisoning and anticoagulant rodenticides (AR). These threats may act in concert with others (e.g., lead poisoning and trauma associated with striking objects) to exacerbate risk. Golden Eagles are skilled hunters but also exploit scavenging opportunities, making them particularly susceptible to contaminant exposure from ingesting tissues of poisoned or shot animals. Lead poisoning has long been recognized as an important source of mortality for Golden Eagles throughout North America. More recently, ARs have been associated with both sublethal and lethal effects in raptor species worldwide. In this review, we examine the current state of knowledge for lead and AR exposure in Golden Eagles, drawing from the broader raptor contaminant ecology literature. We examine lead and AR sources within Golden Eagle habitats, exposure routes and toxicity, effects on individuals and populations, synergistic effects, and data and information needs. Continued research addressing data needs and information gaps will help with Golden Eagle conservation planning.

  10. Assessment of frequency and duration of point counts when surveying for golden eagle presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Ben R.; Boal, Clint W.; Tsai, Jo-Szu; Fuller, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the utility of the recommended golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) survey methodology in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2013 Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance. We conducted 800-m radius, 1-hr point-count surveys broken into 20-min segments, during 2 sampling periods in 3 areas within the Intermountain West of the United States over 2 consecutive breeding seasons during 2012 and 2013. Our goal was to measure the influence of different survey time intervals and sampling periods on detectability and use estimates of golden eagles among different locations. Our results suggest that a less intensive effort (i.e., survey duration shorter than 1 hr and point-count survey radii smaller than 800 m) would likely be inadequate for rigorous documentation of golden eagle occurrence pre- or postconstruction of wind energy facilities. Results from a simulation analysis of detection probabilities and survey effort suggest that greater temporal and spatial effort could make point-count surveys more applicable for evaluating golden eagle occurrence in survey areas; however, increased effort would increase financial costs associated with additional person-hours and logistics (e.g., fuel, lodging). Future surveys can benefit from a pilot study and careful consideration of prior information about counts or densities of golden eagles in the survey area before developing a survey design. If information is lacking, survey planning may be best served by assuming low detection rates and increasing the temporal and spatial effort.

  11. Síndrome de Eagle: avaliação do tratamento cirúrgico Eagle Syndrome: surgical treatment evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo Suzano Louzeiro Tiago

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A apófise estilóide é uma projeção óssea que se origina na porção timpânica do osso temporal. O aumento desta ou a ossificação do ligamento estilohióideo pode originar uma série de sintomas como disfagia, odinofagia, dor facial, otalgia, cefaléia, zumbido e trismo. Este conjunto de sintomas associado à presença da apófise estilóide alongada é conhecido como Síndrome de Eagle. Objetivo: Relatar um grupo de quatro pacientes com Síndrome de Eagle, bem como discutir a apresentação clínica e o tratamento mais adequado desta doença. Forma de estudo: Clínico retrospectivo. Material e método: Realizado estudo clínico retrospectivo de quatro pacientes, operados no HSPE-FMO e HSPM de São Paulo, no período de junho de 1998 a junho de 2001. O tratamento cirúrgico foi a opção terapêutica escolhida, com a retirada da apófise estilóide alongada. Foi avaliada a evolução clínica no pós-operatório. Resultados: Dos quatro pacientes, três eram do sexo feminino e um do sexo masculino, com idade variando de 38 a 68 anos e com média etária de 57,25 anos. A apófise estilóide alongada foi encontrada e operada em ambos os lados em 50% dos casos. Houve remissão completa dos sintomas em três pacientes, com melhora parcial no outro paciente. Conclusão: Esta doença deve ser considerada em pacientes com sintomas de disfagia, odinofagia, dor facial, otalgia, cefaléia, zumbido e trismo. O tratamento cirúrgico para pacientes que apresentam a apófise estilóide alongada com sintomas compatíveis com a Síndrome de Eagle é a melhor forma de conduzir estes casos, sendo a via de abordagem externa a que oferece mais segurança e que possibilita uma ressecção mais completa.Introduction: The styloid apophysis is an osseous outgrowth originating in the tympanum portion of the temporal bone. Its growth, or the ossification of the stylohyoid ligament, may cause a series of symptoms, such as dysphagia, odynophagia

  12. Sequential method for rapid early diagnosis of white spot syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and final visualization of the product by ... when such infected crayfish were non-symptomatic), and a thousand times or more dilution can omit fluorescent background when SYBR green I was used.

  13. Sequential method for rapid early diagnosis of white spot syndrome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-07-19

    Jul 19, 2012 ... cation (RT-LAMP) have been developed for the detection of viral and bacterial ... applications that involve a limited amount of DNA, and .... Comparative analysis of detection limits of single-step PCR and LAMP and sensitivity ..... quantification by SYBR green I and consequences for the analysis of soils and ...

  14. Why do I have white spots on my front teeth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, Elvir

    2008-01-01

    Aesthetics have always been important in mainstream society. Fluorosis, a condition of hypomineralization of the enamel, is at its most critical stage when a child is between 22 and 25 months of age. Because their swallowing reflex is not fully developed, children under the age of 6 can swallow between 25% and 33% of fluoridated toothpaste with each brushing. In order to better educate parents about fluorosis and its effect on children's teeth, it is worth revisiting the guidelines for toothpaste use.

  15. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-11-06

    Nov 6, 2013 ... 2007) and arginine kinase (Rattanarojpong et al. 2007; Somboonwiwat et al. 2010) in WSSV infection. It has been reported that cellular metabolic proteins have additional roles in immunity and transcriptional regulation of apoptosis (Kim and Dang. 2005). Externalization of glycolytic enzymes is a common.

  16. The Bald And Golden Eagle Protection Act, Species-Based Legal Protection And The Danger Of Misidentification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann C Knobel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act of 1940 bestows legal protection on two North American eagle species in the United States of America. The Act was originally aimed at the legal protection of only one species: the Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus, the national symbol of the USA. Later the Act was amended to extend protection also to the Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos. The Bald Eagle was an Endangered Species, but the Golden Eagle was not formally listed as Endangered nationwide in the USA. One of the reasons for extending legal protection to the Golden Eagle under the Act was to strengthen the legal protection of the Bald Eagle, because immature Bald Eagles were being misidentified as Golden Eagles and shot. Additional factors relating to Golden Eagle mortality also made legal protection of the Golden Eagle desirable. The danger that a rare and legally protected species can be misidentified and mistaken for a more common and unprotected species can therefore serve as a reason for bestowing legal protection on the more common species as well. Other factors may also indicate that legal protection of the more common species is desirable, making the case more compelling. If this line of reasoning is applied in respect of South African birds of prey, a strong case can be made in favour of extending legal protection under the national biodiversity legislation to more species than the small number of species currently enjoying such protection. Species that are listed as Vulnerable under South African national biodiversity legislation may be misidentified as species that are not subject to such protection. Additional factors are also present that make such an extension of legal protection desirable.

  17. Avian top predator and the landscape of fear: responses of mammalian mesopredators to risk imposed by the golden eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyly, Mari S; Villers, Alexandre; Koivisto, Elina; Helle, Pekka; Ollila, Tuomo; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2015-01-01

    Top predators may induce extensive cascading effects on lower trophic levels, for example, through intraguild predation (IGP). The impacts of both mammalian and avian top predators on species of the same class have been extensively studied, but the effects of the latter upon mammalian mesopredators are not yet as well known. We examined the impact of the predation risk imposed by a large avian predator, the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, L.), on its potential mammalian mesopredator prey, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, L.), and the pine marten (Martes martes, L.). The study combined 23 years of countrywide data from nesting records of eagles and wildlife track counts of mesopredators in Finland, northern Europe. The predation risk of the golden eagle was modeled as a function of territory density, density of fledglings produced, and distance to nearest active eagle territory, with the expectation that a high predation risk would reduce the abundances of smaller sized pine martens in particular. Red foxes appeared not to suffer from eagle predation, being in fact most numerous close to eagle nests and in areas with more eagle territories. This is likely due to similar prey preferences of the two predators and the larger size of foxes enabling them to escape eagle predation risk. Somewhat contrary to our prediction, the abundance of pine martens increased from low to intermediate territory density and at close proximity to eagle nests, possibly because of similar habitat preferences of martens and eagles. We found a slightly decreasing trend of marten abundance at high territory density, which could indicate that the response in marten populations is dependent on eagle density. However, more research is needed to better establish whether mesopredators are intimidated or predated by golden eagles, and whether such effects could in turn cascade to lower trophic levels, benefitting herbivorous species.

  18. Increased flight altitudes among migrating golden eagles suggest turbine avoidance at a Rocky Mountain wind installation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira N Johnston

    Full Text Available Potential wind-energy development in the eastern Rocky Mountain foothills of British Columbia, Canada, raises concerns due to its overlap with a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos migration corridor. The Dokie 1 Wind Energy Project is the first development in this area and stands as a model for other projects in the area because of regional consistency in topographic orientation and weather patterns. We visually tracked golden eagles over three fall migration seasons (2009-2011, one pre- and two post-construction, to document eagle flight behaviour in relation to a ridge-top wind energy development. We estimated three-dimensional positions of eagles in space as they migrated through our study site. Flight tracks were then incorporated into GIS to ascertain flight altitudes for eagles that flew over the ridge-top area (or turbine string. Individual flight paths were designated to a category of collision-risk based on flight altitude (e.g. flights within rotor-swept height; ≤150 m above ground and wind speed (winds sufficient for the spinning of turbines; >6.8 km/h at ground level. Eagles were less likely to fly over the ridge-top area within rotor-swept height (risk zone as wind speed increased, but were more likely to make such crosses under headwinds and tailwinds compared to western crosswinds. Most importantly, we observed a smaller proportion of flights within the risk zone at wind speeds sufficient for the spinning of turbines (higher-risk flights during post-construction compared to pre-construction, suggesting that eagles showed detection and avoidance of turbines during migration.

  19. Spatial and temporal patterns in golden eagle diets in the western United States, with implications for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Geoffrey; Watson, James W.; Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; Preston, Charles R.; Woodbridge, Brian; Williams, Gary E.; Keller, Kent R.; Crandall, Ross H.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed information on diets and predatory ecology of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) is essential to prioritize prey species management and to develop landscape-specific conservation strategies, including mitigation of the effects of energy development across the western United States. We compiled published and unpublished data on Golden Eagle diets to (1) summarize available information on Golden Eagle diets in the western U.S., (2) compare diets among biogeographic provinces, and (3) discuss implications for conservation planning and future research. We analyzed 35 studies conducted during the breeding season at 45 locations from 1940–2015. Golden Eagle diet differed among western ecosystems. Lower dietary breadth was associated with desert and shrub-steppe ecosystems and higher breadth with mountain ranges and the Columbia Plateau. Correlations suggest that percentage of leporids in the diet is the factor driving overall diversity of prey and percentage of other prey groups in the diet of Golden Eagles. Leporids were the primary prey of breeding Golden Eagles in 78% of study areas, with sciurids reported as primary prey in 18% of study areas. During the nonbreeding season, Golden Eagles were most frequently recorded feeding on leporids and carrion. Golden Eagles can be described as both generalist and opportunistic predators; they can feed on a wide range of prey species but most frequently feed on abundant medium-sized prey species in a given habitat. Spatial variations in Golden Eagle diet likely reflect regional differences in prey community, whereas temporal trends likely reflect responses to long-term change in prey populations. Evidence suggests dietary shifts from traditional (leporid) prey can have adverse effects on Golden Eagle reproductive rates. Land management practices that support or restore shrub-steppe ecosystem diversity should benefit Golden Eagles. More information is needed on nonbreeding-season diet to determine what food resources

  20. Trigeminal neuralgia post-styloidectomy in Eagle syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackett John

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Eagle syndrome is a condition characterized by an elongated (>3cm styloid process with associated symptoms of recurrent facial or throat pain. In this report we present a case of Eagle syndrome exhibiting the typical findings of glossopharyngeal nerve involvement, as well as unusual involvement of the trigeminal nerve. Notably, this patient developed a classical trigeminal neuralgia post-styloidectomy. Case presentation A 68-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 25-year history of dull pain along the right side of her throat, lateral neck, and jaw. Her symptoms were poorly controlled with medication until 15 years ago when she was diagnosed with Eagle syndrome, and underwent a manual fracture of her styloid process. This provided symptomatic relief until 5 years ago when the pain recurred and progressed. She underwent a styloidectomy via a lateral neck approach, which resolved the pain once again. However, 6 months ago a new onset of triggerable, electric shock-like facial pain began within the right V1 and V2 distributions. Conclusions Eagle syndrome is distressing to patients and often difficult to diagnose due to its wide variability in symptoms. It is easily confused with dental pain or temporomandibular joint disorder, leading to missed diagnoses and unnecessary procedures. Pain along the jaw and temple is an unusual but possible consequence of Eagle syndrome. An elongated styloid process should be considered a possible etiology of dull facial pain in the trigeminal distributions, in particular V3.

  1. Wintering Bald Eagle Count Trends in the Conterminous United States, 1986-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakle, Wade L.; Bond, Laura; Fuller, Mark R.; Fischer, Richard A.; Steenhof, Karen

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed counts from the annual Midwinter Bald Eagle Survey to examine state, regional, and national trends in counts of wintering Bald Eagles (Haliaeetusleucocephalus) within the conterminous 48 United States from 1986 to 2010. Using hierarchical mixed model methods, we report trends in counts from 11,729 surveys along 844 routes in 44 states. Nationwide Bald Eagle counts increased 0.6% per yr over the 25-yr period, compared to an estimate of 1.9% per yr from 1986 to 2000. Trend estimates for Bald Eagles were significant (P≤0.05) and positive in the northeastern and northwestern U.S. (3.9% and 1.1%, respectively), while trend estimates for Bald Eagles were negative (P≤0.05) in the southwestern U.S. (-2.2%). After accounting for potential biases resulting from temporal and regional differences in surveys, we believe trends reflect post-DDT recovery and subsequent early effects of density-dependent population regulation. PMID:26392679

  2. Data on the Trophic Spectrum of Young Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca Savigny, 1809 in South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlin V. Zhelev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The current publication presents the results of a research on the food spectrum of young Imperial eagles (juvennes, immaturus (Aquilaheliaca, SAVIGNY, 1809 in South Bulgaria. Dispersal sites and temporary settlement areas were identified tracking two young eagles marked with radio-transmitters. The birds were tagged in 2007 by the team of Green Balkans Federation. The feeding and behaviour of over 20 young Imperial eagles was observed in a total of 6 regions, including vulture feeding sites. A total of 32 pellets were collected from the trees used by those birds for roosting. Thus the feeding spectrum of young imperial eagles in their roaming period just after fledgling was identified. A total of 13 feeding components, comprising 101 specimens were identified. These were mainly small mammals, dominated by *- (Microtus arvalis, P. - complex (n= 56 specimens, 55,45% and significant presence of House mouse (Mus musculus, L. – 18 specimens or 17,82 %. The observations prove the presence of carcass among the food items taken by the wintering eagles and the particular use of the existing artificial feeding sites for vultures. The study proves the food opportunism of the species.

  3. 76 FR 34103 - In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock... hearing'' portion of this proceeding regarding the December 2008 application by AREVA Enrichment Services... Information for Contention Preparation; In the Matter of Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment...

  4. 75 FR 35018 - Eagle Industrial Power Services (IL), LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Industrial Power Services (IL), LLC; Supplemental Notice That.... This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Eagle Industrial Power Services (IL...

  5. 75 FR 62808 - Eagle Power Authority, Inc; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Power Authority, Inc; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Eagle Power Authority, Inc.'s application for market...

  6. 75 FR 25235 - Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC's application for market...

  7. 75 FR 74038 - Twin Eagle Resource Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Twin Eagle Resource Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Twin Eagle Resource Management, LLC's ] application...

  8. 77 FR 74545 - Eagle Fund III-A, L.P.; License No. 07/07-0117: Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Eagle Fund III-A, L.P.; License No. 07/07-0117: Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Eagle Fund III-A, L.P... interest, of the Small Business Administration Rules and Regulations (13 CFR part 107). Eagle Fund III- A...

  9. 77 FR 74544 - Eagle Fund III, L.P., License No. 07/07-0116; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Eagle Fund III, L.P., License No. 07/07-0116; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Eagle Fund III, L.P... interest, of the Small Business Administration Rules and Regulations (13 CFR part 107). Eagle Fund III, L.P...

  10. Care, food consumption, and behavior of bald eagles used in DDT tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chura, N.J.; Stewart, P.A.

    1967-01-01

    Twenty-seven Bald Eagles captured in southeastern Alaska were used in feeding tests to determine the effects of DDT in the diet.....Trapping and housing of eagles are discussed. Various aspects of eagle behavior and handling techniques are also presented. Recommendations are made for preventing injuries and increasing the comfort of captive birds.....The 1962 test birds consumed an average of 274 grams per bird day with a range of 109 to 401 grams per day between birds. Average food intake was 254 grams per bird day for the 1963 test birds with a range of 194 to 324 grams per day between birds.....Weight losses varied from 23 to 49 per cent of normal body weight for the 7 birds which died in the 1962 tests. Tremors and death occurred first for birds on the highest dosage and progressively later for birds on the lower dosages.

  11. First evidence for carrion–feeding of Eurasian Eagle-owl (Bubo bubo in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milchev Boyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of carrion-feeding with remains of artiodactyls (0.3%, n=1104 samples with food remains have been documented in a long term diet study of Eurasian Eagle-owls (Bubo bubo in 53 localities at Southeastern Bulgaria. Bone pieces of a sheep/goat (Ovis aries/Carpa hircus, a Fallow Deer (Dama dama and a Domestic Pig (Sus scrofa dom. in three Eurasian Eagle-owl breeding localities (5.7% prove extremely rare feeding on carrion. Northern White-breasted Hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus, rats (Rattus sp., waterbirds and gallinaceous birds (total 59.5-72.6% by biomass constituted the main portion of the diets with carrion remains. The comparisons between food niche breadths, diet composition, average prey biomass and values of superpredation of the annual diets in the three localities have not supported the carrion-feeding of the Eurasian Eagle-owl as a result of food shortages.

  12. Barred galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algorry, David G.; Navarro, Julio F.; Abadi, Mario G.; Sales, Laura V.; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Frenk, Carlos S.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2017-07-01

    We examine the properties of barred disc galaxies in a ΛCDM cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE project. Our study follows the formation of 269 discs identified at z = 0 in the stellar mass range 10.6 < log M*/M⊙ < 11. These discs show a wide range of bar strengths, from unbarred discs (≈60 per cent) to weak bars (≈20 per cent) and to strongly barred systems (≈20 per cent). Bars in these systems develop after redshift ≈1.3, on time-scales that depend sensitively on the strength of the pattern. Strong bars develop relatively quickly (in a few Gyr, or roughly ∼10 disc rotation periods) in systems that are disc dominated, gas poor, and have declining rotation curves. Weak bars develop more slowly in systems where the disc is less gravitationally important, and are still growing at z = 0. Unbarred galaxies are comparatively gas-rich discs whose rotation speeds do not exceed the maximum circular velocity of the haloes they inhabit. Bar lengths compare favourably with observations, ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 times the radius containing 90 per cent of the stars. Bars slow down remarkably quickly as they grow, causing the inner regions of the surrounding dark halo to expand. At z = 0 strong bars in simulated galaxies have corotation radii roughly 10 times the bar length. Such slow bars are inconsistent with the few cases where pattern speeds have been measured or inferred observationally, a discrepancy that, if confirmed, might prove a challenge for disc galaxy formation in ΛCDM.

  13. A chronicle of galaxy mass assembly in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yan; Helly, John C.; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; Crain, Robert A.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Furlong, Michelle; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; White, Simon D. M.

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the mass assembly of central galaxies in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) hydrodynamical simulations. We build merger trees to connect galaxies to their progenitors at different redshifts and characterize their assembly histories by focusing on the time when half of the galaxy stellar mass was assembled into the main progenitor. We show that galaxies with stellar mass M* < 1010.5 M⊙ assemble most of their stellar mass through star formation in the main progenitor (`in situ' star formation). This can be understood as a consequence of the steep rise in star formation efficiency with halo mass for these galaxies. For more massive galaxies, however, an increasing fraction of their stellar mass is formed outside the main progenitor and subsequently accreted. Consequently, while for low-mass galaxies, the assembly time is close to the stellar formation time, the stars in high-mass galaxies typically formed long before half of the present-day stellar mass was assembled into a single object, giving rise to the observed antihierarchical downsizing trend. In a typical present-day M* ≥ 1011 M⊙ galaxy, around 20 per cent of the stellar mass has an external origin. This fraction decreases with increasing redshift. Bearing in mind that mergers only make an important contribution to the stellar mass growth of massive galaxies, we find that the dominant contribution comes from mergers with galaxies of mass greater than one-tenth of the main progenitor's mass. The galaxy merger fraction derived from our simulations agrees with recent observational estimates.

  14. Spatial demographic models to inform conservation planning of golden eagles in renewable energy landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Schumaker, Nathan H.; Inman, Richard D.; Esque, Todd C.; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Nussear, Kenneth E

    2017-01-01

    Spatial demographic models can help guide monitoring and management activities targeting at-risk species, even in cases where baseline data are lacking. Here, we provide an example of how site-specific changes in land use and anthropogenic stressors can be incorporated into a spatial demographic model to investigate effects on population dynamics of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Our study focused on a population of Golden Eagles exposed to risks associated with rapid increases in renewable energy development in southern California, U.S.A. We developed a spatially explicit, individual-based simulation model that integrated empirical data on demography of Golden Eagles with spatial data on the arrangement of nesting habitats, prey resources, and planned renewable energy development sites. Our model permitted simulated eagles of different stage-classes to disperse, establish home ranges, acquire prey resources, prospect for breeding sites, and reproduce. The distribution of nesting habitats, prey resources, and threats within each individual's home range influenced movement, reproduction, and survival. We used our model to explore potential effects of alternative disturbance scenarios, and proposed conservation strategies, on the future distribution and abundance of Golden Eagles in the study region. Results from our simulations suggest that probable increases in mortality associated with renewable energy infrastructure (e.g., collisions with wind turbines and vehicles, electrocution on power poles) could have negative consequences for population trajectories, but that site-specific conservation actions could reduce the magnitude of negative effects. Our study demonstrates the use of a flexible and expandable modeling framework to incorporate spatially dependent processes when determining relative effects of proposed management options to Golden Eagles and their habitats.

  15. Chromosome reshuffling in birds of prey: the karyotype of the world's largest eagle (Harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja) compared to that of the chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Edivaldo H C; Habermann, Felix A; Lacerda, Oneida; Sbalqueiro, Ives J; Wienberg, Johannes; Müller, Stefan

    2005-11-01

    Like various other diurnal birds of prey, the world's largest eagle, the Harpy (Harpia harpyja), presents an atypical bird karyotype with 2n=58 chromosomes. There is little knowledge about the dramatic changes in the genomic reorganization of these species compared to other birds. Since recently, the chicken provides a "default map" for various birds including the first genomic DNA sequence of a bird species. Obviously, the gross division of the chicken genome into relatively gene-poor macrochromosomes and predominantly gene-rich microchromosomes has been conserved for more than 150 million years in most bird species. Here, we present classical features of the Harpy eagle karyotype but also chromosomal homologies between H. harpyja and the chicken by chromosome painting and comparison to the chicken genome map. We used two different sets of painting probes: (1) chicken chromosomes were divided into three size categories: (a) macrochromosomes 1-5 and Z, (b) medium-sized chromosomes 6-10, and (c) 19 microchromosomes; (2) combinatorially labeled chicken chromosome paints 1-6 and Z. Both probe sets were visualized on H. harpyja chromosomes by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our data show how the organization into micro- and macrochromosomes has been lost in the Harpy eagle, seemingly without any preference or constraints.

  16. Cassin\\'s hawk-eagle Spizaetus africanus in Ndundulu Forest: a first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single adult Cassin's hawk-eagle Spizaetus africanus was sighted on five occasions over three years in a highland forest in the Udzungwa Mountains, the first ever record of this species in Tanzania. This discovery has potentially significant biogeographical implications, strengthening ancient links between the forests of ...

  17. If Animals Could Talk: Bald Eagle, Bear, Florida Panther, Gopher Tortoise, Indigo Snake, Manatee, Otter, Raccoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinellas County District School Board, Clearwater, FL.

    In this series of booklets, eight Florida animals describe their appearance, habitats, food, behavior, and relationships with humans. Each entry is written for elementary students from the animal's point of view and includes a bibliography. Contained are the life stories of the bald eagle, black bear, Florida panther, gopher tortoise, Eastern…

  18. 75 FR 52996 - Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Areva Enrichment Services, LLC (Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and... Board (Board) in the above-captioned Areva Enrichment Services proceeding is hereby reconstituted by...

  19. 77 FR 839 - Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coins Agency: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the re-pricing of...

  20. 77 FR 15457 - Pricing for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the...

  1. 76 FR 27182 - Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is...

  2. 76 FR 53717 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the re-pricing of...

  3. 76 FR 33026 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the...

  4. 76 FR 67799 - Pricing for the American Eagle 25th Anniversary Silver Coin Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the American Eagle 25th Anniversary Silver Coin Set AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the...

  5. A survey of potential bald eagle nesting habitat along the Great Lakes shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Bowerman; Teryl G. Grubb; Allen J. Bath; John P. Giesy; D.V. Chip Weseloh

    2005-01-01

    We used fixed-wing aircraft to survey the entire shoreline and connecting channels of the five Great Lakes to determine potential nesting habitat for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) during 1992. Habitat was classified as either good, marginal, or unsuitable, based on six habitat attributes: (a) tree cover, (b) proximity and (c) type/amount...

  6. Night roosts of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) wintering in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabin K. Joshi

    2009-01-01

    Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were delisted from threatened or endangered status in 2007 in the conterminous states because of their encouraging comeback throughout most of North America. However the recent court decision on 1 May 2008 forced USFWS to issue a rule to amend the regulations for the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife by...

  7. Black Eagles and hyraxes — the two flagship species in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Black Eagle (Aquila verreauxii) in the Matobo National Park is heavily dependent on two hyrax species, which form 98% of the diet. This raptor has been the subject of study in the Matobo Hills for the past 45 years. Its two main prey species, the Yellow-spotted Hyrax (Heterohyrax brucei) and the Rock Hyrax (Procavia ...

  8. Multi-object spectroscopy with the European ELT: scientific synergies between EAGLE and EVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.J.; Barbuy, B.; Bonifacio, P.; Chemla, F.; Cuby, J.G.; Dalton, G.B.; Davies, B.; Disseau, K.; Dohlen, K.; Flores, H.; Gendron, E.; Guinouard, I.; Hammer, F.; Hastings, P.; Horville, D.; Jagourel, P.; Kaper, L.; Laporte, P.; Lee, D.; Morris, S.L.; Morris, T.; Myers, R.; Navarro, R.; Parr-Burman, P.; Petitjean, P.; Puech, M.; Rollinde, E.; Rousset, G.; Schnetler, H.; Welikala, N.; Wells, M.; Yang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The EAGLE and EVE Phase A studies for instruments for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) originated from related top-level scientific questions, but employed different (yet complementary) methods to deliver the required observations. We re-examine the motivations for a multi-object

  9. 75 FR 27774 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Rate Election

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Rate Election May 11, 2010. Take notice that on May 3, 2010, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P., (Desoto) filed a Notice of Rate Election pursuant to section 284.123(b...

  10. The legal status of the Spanish imperial eagle in Spain and thoughts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This contribution reflects on the contributory role of environmental law and policy in the successful conservation interventions on behalf of the rare Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti), with the aim of gaining insights that may be more universally applicable, including in jurisdictions such as South Africa. An overview of ...

  11. Assessment of butterfly diversity in eagle owl gully of Amurum Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Butterfly diversity at the Eagle Owl Gully, Amurum Forest Reserve, Jos East, Plateau State was investigated by the use of sweep nets along transects in two types of habitats namely protected and unprotected. A total of three hundred and ninety-four butterflies belonging to thirty-three genera and seven families were ...

  12. 76 FR 6114 - Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, North Fork Eagle Creek Wells Special Use Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ...-dependent ecosystems. North Fork of Eagle Creek is located in the Sacramento Mountains of south-central New... and drought conditions have placed increasing demands on surface water and groundwater resources of... percent of its water supply from the North Fork well field. During drought conditions prior to 2006, over...

  13. Golden Eagle fatalities and the continental-scale consequences of local wind-energy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, Todd E.; Nelson, David M.; Braham, Melissa; Doyle, Jacqueline M.; Fernandez, Nadia B.; Duerr, Adam E.; Bloom, Peter H.; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C.; Miller, Tricia A.; Culver, Renee C. E.; Braswell, Loan; DeWoody, J. Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy production is expanding rapidly despite mostly unknown environmental effects on wildlife and habitats. We used genetic and stable isotope data collected from Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California in demographic models to test hypotheses about the geographic extent and demographic consequences of fatalities caused by renewable energy facilities. Geospatial analyses of δ2H values obtained from feathers showed that ≥25% of these APWRA-killed eagles were recent immigrants to the population, most from long distances away (>100 km). Data from nuclear genes indicated this subset of immigrant eagles was genetically similar to birds identified as locals from the δ2H data. Demographic models implied that in the face of this mortality, the apparent stability of the local Golden Eagle population was maintained by continental-scale immigration. These analyses demonstrate that ecosystem management decisions concerning the effects of local-scale renewable energy can have continental-scale consequences.

  14. Satellite tracking of a young Steppe Eagle from the United Arab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is part of a larger study on understanding migration of important birds of prey species from the UAE. The satellite-tagged Steppe Eagle was released near the town of Al Ain, UAE on 5 January 2009 and was tracked until 6 November 2010. Two complete spring and autumn migrations were tracked in addition to its ...

  15. Golden eagle indifference to heli-skiing and military helicopters in northern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; David K. Delaney; William W. Bowerman; Michael R. Wierda

    2010-01-01

    In 2006-2007, during Wasatch Powderbird Guides (WPG) permit renewal for heli-skiing in the Tri-Canyon Area (TCA) of the Wasatch Mountains, Utah, USA, we recorded 303 helicopter passes between 0 m and 3,000 m (horizontal distance) near >30 individual golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in 22 nesting territories, through passive observation and active experimentation...

  16. Eagle Oil and Gas Company – Sheldon Dome Field NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit WY-0020338, the Eagle Oil and Gas Company is authorized to discharge from its Sheldon Dome Field wastewater treatment facility in Fremont County, Wyoming, to an unnamed ephemeral tributary of Dry Creek, a tributary to the Wind River.

  17. Influences of Eagle Ford Shale Development on Superintendent Leadership Experiences: A Phenomenological Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczygemba, Jeanette Winn

    2017-01-01

    This phenomenological narrative study examined the effects of the Eagle Ford Shale development upon public school superintendent leadership experiences during the boom phase of the energy industry expansion. The four research questions investigated the shale development's influence on experiences in the areas of instruction, finance and…

  18. Bald eagle habitat suitability on Melton Hill Reservoir and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, D.A. [Univ., of Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The area around Melton Hill Reservoir and sections of the Clinch River along the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) provide suitable habitat for bald eagles for both breeding and wintering activities. Primary limitations on habitat suitability appear to be human activity in aquatic habitats and along shoreline areas, and human development along shoreline areas. ORR provides the majority of the suitable habitat because shoreline development is very limited. Four eagle management strategies discussed for ORR include planning development away from high-quality habitats, allowing forest stands near water to mature, conducting timber stand improvement to foster growth and development in pines and hardwoods, and using introductions to foster the development of a breeding population. The primary objective of this project was to make a qualitative assessment of bald eagle habitat suitability along Melton Hill Reservoir and the Clinch River and in adjacent areas on the ORR, including the proposed Advanced Neutron Source site. This survey`s aim was to provide ORR managers with an indication of whether suitable habitat exists and, if so, where it occurs on ORR. This information should provide the basis for incorporating eagle management into the overall ORR land management plan.

  19. Provisioning rates and time budgets of adult and nestling Bald Eagles at Inland Wisconsin nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Warnke D.; Andersen, D.E.; Dykstra, C.R.; Meyer, M.W.; Karasov, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    We used a remote video recording system and direct observation to quantify provisioning rate and adult and nestling behavior at Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nests in north-central Wisconsin in 1992 (N = 5) and 1993 (N = 8). Eagles nesting in this region have a high reproductive rate (??? 1.3 young/occupied territory), and the number of occupied territories has expanded nearly three-fold since 1980. The season-long provisioning rate averaged 5.2 prey deliveries/nest/d and 3.0 prey deliveries/nestling/d, and did not vary by year or with nestling number or age. Fish (Osteichthyes) made up 97% of identified prey deliveries followed by reptiles (Reptilia) (1.5%), birds (Aves) (1.2%), and mammals (Mammalia) (0.6%). Nearly 85% of prey items were >15 cm and 90% of the day and was negatively correlated with nestling age. Time adults spent feeding nestlings was negatively correlated with nestling age. Nestlings stood or sat in the nest >30% of the day, began to feed themselves, and exhibited increased mobility in the nest at 6-8 wk. We identified three stages of the nestling period and several benchmarks that may be useful when scheduling data collection for comparison of Bald Eagle nesting behavior. Our results support the hypothesis that food was not limiting this breeding population of Bald Eagles. ?? 2002 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  20. Golden Eagle fatalities and the continental-scale consequences of local wind-energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, Todd E; Nelson, David M; Braham, Melissa A; Doyle, Jacqueline M; Fernandez, Nadia B; Duerr, Adam E; Bloom, Peter H; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Miller, Tricia A; Culver, Renee C E; Braswell, Loan; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Renewable energy production is expanding rapidly despite mostly unknown environmental effects on wildlife and habitats. We used genetic and stable isotope data collected from Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) killed at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (APWRA) in California in demographic models to test hypotheses about the geographic extent and demographic consequences of fatalities caused by renewable energy facilities. Geospatial analyses of δ2 H values obtained from feathers showed that ≥25% of these APWRA-killed eagles were recent immigrants to the population, most from long distances away (>100 km). Data from nuclear genes indicated this subset of immigrant eagles was genetically similar to birds identified as locals from the δ2 H data. Demographic models implied that in the face of this mortality, the apparent stability of the local Golden Eagle population was maintained by continental-scale immigration. These analyses demonstrate that ecosystem management decisions concerning the effects of local-scale renewable energy can have continental-scale consequences. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Notes on the breeding biology of Javan Hawk-eagle in West Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, V.; Balen, van S.; Sözer, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Javan Hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi is one of the rarest and least known birds of prey, regarded as globally endangered and confined to the last remnants of forests left on the densely populated island of Java, Indonesia. Its biology is little-known and only a few cases of breeding have been

  2. Behavioural ecology, distribution and conservation of the Javan Hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi Stresemann, 1924

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sözer, Resit; Nijman, Vincent

    1995-01-01

    In the period December 1993 – January 1995 research on the behavioural ecology, distribution and conservation of the Javan Hawk-eagle Spizaetus bartelsi was carried out by R. Sözer and V. Nijman, under supervision of BirdLife International / PHPA – Indonesia Programme. This research was part of the

  3. Davis Pond freshwater prediversion biomonitoring study: freshwater fisheries and eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Bourgeois, E. Beth; Jeske, Clint W.

    2008-01-01

    In January 2001, the construction of the Davis Pond freshwater diversion structure was completed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The diversion of freshwater from the Mississippi River is intended to mitigate saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico and to lessen the concomitant loss of wetland areas. In addition to the freshwater inflow, Barataria Bay basin would receive nutrients, increased flows of sediments, and water-borne and sediment-bound compounds. The purpose of this biomonitoring study was, therefore, to serve as a baseline for prediversion concentrations of selected contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestlings (hereafter referred to as eaglets), representative freshwater fish, and bivalves. Samples were collected from January through June 2001. Two similarly designed postdiversion studies, as described in the biological monitoring program, are planned. Active bald eagle nests targeted for sampling eaglet blood (n = 6) were generally located southwest and south of the diversion structure. The designated sites for aquatic animal sampling were at Lake Salvador, at Lake Cataouatche, at Bayou Couba, and along the Mississippi River. Aquatic animals representative of eagle prey were collected. Fish were from three different trophic levels and have varying feeding strategies and life histories. These included herbivorous striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), omnivorous blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), and carnivorous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Three individuals per species were collected at each of the four sampling sites. Freshwater Atlantic rangia clams (Rangia cuneata) were collected at the downstream marsh sites, and zebra mussels (Dreissena spp.) were collected on the Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) protocols served as guides for fish sampling and health assessments. Fish are useful for monitoring aquatic ecosystems because they accumulate

  4. The implementation of the graphics of program EAGLE: A numerical grid generation code on NASA Langley SNS computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Johnny L.

    1989-01-01

    Program EAGLE (Eglin Arbitrary Geometry Implicit Euler) Numerical Grid Generation System is a composite (multi-block) algebraic or elliptic grid generation system designed to discretize the domain in and/or around any arbitrarily shaped three dimensional regions. This system combines a boundary conforming surface generation scheme and includes plotting routines designed to take full advantage of the DISSPLA Graphics Package (Version 9.0). Program EAGLE is written to compile and execute efficiently on any Cray machine with or without solid state disk (SSD) devices. Also, the code uses namelist inputs which are supported by all Cray machines using the FORTRAN compiler CFT77. The namelist inputs makes it easier for the user to understand the inputs and operation of Program EAGLE. EAGLE's numerical grid generator is constructed in the following form: main program, EGG (executive routine); subroutine SURFAC (surface generation routine); subroutine GRID (grid generation routine); and subroutine GRDPLOT (grid plotting routines). The EAGLE code was modified to use on the NASA-LaRC SNS computer (Cray 2S) system. During the modification a conversion program was developed for the output data of EAGLE's subroutine GRID to permit the data to be graphically displayed by IRIS workstations, using Plot3D. The code of program EAGLE was modified to make operational subroutine GRDPLOT (using DI-3000 Graphics Software Packages) on the NASA-LaRC SNS Computer System. How to implement graphically, the output data of subroutine GRID was determined on any NASA-LaRC graphics terminal that has access to the SNS Computer System DI-300 Graphics Software Packages. A Quick Reference User Guide was developed for the use of program EAGLE on the NASA-LaRC SNS Computer System. One or more application program(s) was illustrated using program EAGLE on the NASA LaRC SNS Computer System, with emphasis on graphics illustrations.

  5. A population study of golden eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource area. Second-year progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Since January 1994, the Predatory Bird Research Group, University of California, Santa Cruz, has been conducting a field investigation of the ecology of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the vicinity of the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The 190 km{sup 2} facility lies just east of San Francisco Bay in California and contains about 6,500 wind turbines. Grassland and oak savanna habitats surrounding the WRA support a substantial resident population of golden eagles. Each year, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service receivers reports from the wind industry of about 30 golden eagle casualties occurring at the WRA, and it is probable that many more carcasses go unnoticed. Over 90 percent of the casualties are attributed to collisions with wind turbines. The main purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of turbine-related mortality on the golden eagle population of the area. Assessing the impact of the WRA kills on the population requires quantification of both survival and reproduction. To estimate survival rates of both territorial and non-territorial golden eagles, we tagged 179 individuals with radio-telemetry transmitters expected to function for about four years and equipped with mortality sensors. Population segments represented in the tagged sample include 79 juveniles, 45 subadults, 17n floaters (non-territorial adults), and 38 breeders. Effective sample sizes in the older segments increase as younger eagles mature or become territorial. Since the beginning of the study, we have conducted weekly roll-call surveys by airplane to locate the tagged eagles in relation to the WRA and to monitor their survival. The surveyed area extends from the Oakland Hills southeast through the Diablo Mountain Range to San Luis Reservoir about 75 km southeast of the WRA. The surveys show that breeding eagles rarely enter the WRA while the non-territorial eagles tend to move about freely throughout the study area and often visit the WRA.

  6. Solving Man-Induced Large-Scale Conservation Problems: The Spanish Imperial Eagle and Power Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Pascual; Ferrer, Miguel; Madero, Agustín; Casado, Eva; McGrady, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Man-induced mortality of birds caused by electrocution with poorly-designed pylons and power lines has been reported to be an important mortality factor that could become a major cause of population decline of one of the world rarest raptors, the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti). Consequently it has resulted in an increasing awareness of this problem amongst land managers and the public at large, as well as increased research into the distribution of electrocution events and likely mitigation measures. Methodology/Principal Findings We provide information of how mitigation measures implemented on a regional level under the conservation program of the Spanish imperial eagle have resulted in a positive shift of demographic trends in Spain. A 35 years temporal data set (1974–2009) on mortality of Spanish imperial eagle was recorded, including population censuses, and data on electrocution and non-electrocution of birds. Additional information was obtained from 32 radio-tracked young eagles and specific field surveys. Data were divided into two periods, before and after the approval of a regional regulation of power line design in 1990 which established mandatory rules aimed at minimizing or eliminating the negative impacts of power lines facilities on avian populations. Our results show how population size and the average annual percentage of population change have increased between the two periods, whereas the number of electrocuted birds has been reduced in spite of the continuous growing of the wiring network. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that solving bird electrocution is an affordable problem if political interest is shown and financial investment is made. The combination of an adequate spatial planning with a sustainable development of human infrastructures will contribute positively to the conservation of the Spanish imperial eagle and may underpin population growth and range expansion, with positive side effects on other endangered

  7. Solving man-induced large-scale conservation problems: the Spanish imperial eagle and power lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Pascual; Ferrer, Miguel; Madero, Agustín; Casado, Eva; McGrady, Michael

    2011-03-02

    Man-induced mortality of birds caused by electrocution with poorly-designed pylons and power lines has been reported to be an important mortality factor that could become a major cause of population decline of one of the world rarest raptors, the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti). Consequently it has resulted in an increasing awareness of this problem amongst land managers and the public at large, as well as increased research into the distribution of electrocution events and likely mitigation measures. We provide information of how mitigation measures implemented on a regional level under the conservation program of the Spanish imperial eagle have resulted in a positive shift of demographic trends in Spain. A 35 years temporal data set (1974-2009) on mortality of Spanish imperial eagle was recorded, including population censuses, and data on electrocution and non-electrocution of birds. Additional information was obtained from 32 radio-tracked young eagles and specific field surveys. Data were divided into two periods, before and after the approval of a regional regulation of power line design in 1990 which established mandatory rules aimed at minimizing or eliminating the negative impacts of power lines facilities on avian populations. Our results show how population size and the average annual percentage of population change have increased between the two periods, whereas the number of electricuted birds has been reduced in spite of the continuous growing of the wiring network. Our results demonstrate that solving bird electrocution is an affordable problem if political interest is shown and financial investment is made. The combination of an adequate spatial planning with a sustainable development of human infrastructures will contribute positively to the conservation of the Spanish imperial eagle and may underpin population growth and range expansion, with positive side effects on other endangered species.

  8. Resource availability and diet in Harpy Eagle breeding territories on the Xingu River, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FH. Aguiar-Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Tapajos-Xingu interfluve, one of the largest birds of prey, the Harpy Eagle, is under intense anthropogenic pressure due to historical and recent reductions in forest cover. We studied prey availability and use by Harpy Eagle on six breeding territories on the low- and mid-Xingu River, between 2013 and 2015. We evaluated food resource availability using the environmental-surveys database from two methods: terrestrial surveys (RAPELD method and fauna rescue/flushing before vegetation suppression for the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Complex construction. Harpy Eagle diet was identified by prey remains sampled around six nest trees. Eighteen species of mammals, birds and reptiles comprised the prey items. Most prey species were sloths, primates and porcupines, which have arboreal habits and are found in forested areas, but two species, hoatzin and iguana, are usually associated with riverine habitats. The proportion of prey from each species predated on the nest best studied was different from estimated availability (χ2 = 54.23; df = 16; p < 0.001, however there was a positive correlation (rs = 0.7; p < 0.01 between prey species consumed and abundance available, where the predation was more on species more abundant. Continuous monitoring of the Harpy Eagle diet at these nests could evidence changes in the assemblage of prey species available for Harpy Eagles, due to changes in the seasonal flood pulse of the Xingu River to be caused by the operation of the hydroelectric dam, and changes in habitat features by forest reduction around breeding territories. We believe that it is important to consider the protection of remnants of forested areas in the landscape matrix surrounding the breeding territories to maintain the food resource availability and allow all pairs to successfully reproduce.

  9. Energy Intensity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Oil Production in the Eagle Ford Shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Sonia; Ghandi, Abbas; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Brandt, Adam R.; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q.; Vafi, Kourosh; Reedy, Robert C.

    2017-01-30

    A rapid increase in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in shale and “tight” formations that began around 2000 has resulted in record increases in oil and natural gas production in the U.S. This study examines energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil and natural gas produced from ~8,200 wells in the Eagle Ford Shale in southern Texas from 2009 to 2013. Our system boundary includes processes from primary exploration wells to the refinery entrance gate (henceforth well-to-refinery or WTR). The Eagle Ford includes four distinct production zones—black oil (BO), volatile oil (VO), condensate (C), and dry gas (G) zones—with average monthly gas-to-liquids ratios (thousand cubic feet per barrel—Mcf/bbl) varying from 0.91 in the BO zone to 13.9 in the G zone. Total energy consumed in drilling, extracting, processing, and operating an Eagle Ford well is ~1.5% of the energy content of the produced crude and gas in the BO and VO zones, compared with 2.2% in the C and G zones. On average, the WTR GHG emissions of gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel derived from crude oil produced in the BO and VO zones in the Eagle Ford play are 4.3, 5.0, and 5.1 gCO2e/MJ, respectively. Comparing with other known conventional and unconventional crude production where upstream GHG emissions are in the range 5.9–30 gCO2e/MJ, oil production in the Eagle Ford has lower WTR GHG emissions.

  10. The Utility of AISA Eagle Hyperspectral Data and Random Forest Classifier for Flower Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfatih M. Abdel-Rahman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the floral cycle and the spatial distribution and abundance of flowering plants is important for bee health studies to understand the relationship between landscape and bee hive productivity and honey flow. The key objective of this study was to show how AISA Eagle hyperspectral data and random forest (RF can be optimally utilized to produce flowering and spatially explicit land use/land cover (LULC maps for a study site in Kenya. AISA Eagle imagery was captured at the early flowering period (January 2014 and at the peak flowering season (February 2013. Data on white and yellow flowering trees as well as LULC classes in the study area were collected and used as ground-truth points. We utilized all 64 AISA Eagle bands and also used variable importance in RF to identify the most important bands in both AISA Eagle data sets. The results showed that flowering was most accurately mapped using the AISA Eagle data from the peak flowering period (85.71%–88.15% overall accuracy for the peak flowering season imagery versus 80.82%–83.67% for the early flowering season. The variable optimization (i.e., variable selection analysis showed that less than half of the AISA bands (n = 26 for the February 2013 data and n = 21 for the January 2014 data were important to attain relatively reliable classification accuracies. Our study is an important first step towards the development of operational flower mapping routines and for understanding the relationship between flowering and bees’ foraging behavior.

  11. The First Record of Case of the Imperial Eagle and the Steppe Eagle Successful Breeding in the Mixed Pair in Western Kazakhstan and Records of Probable Hybrids of These Species in Russia and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Facts mentioned in paper give evidence of the possibility of forming the mixed pairs between Steppe and Imperial Eagles, breeding success and fertility of hybrids. All the observed mixed pairs were found in the contact zone of the two species on the periphery of the Steppe Eagle breeding range under conditions of either decrease in numbers of one species (Steppe Eagle and the growth of another (in Western Kazakhstan, or decline in numbers of both species and the lack of birds of their own species (in Dauria. Considering the fact that the number of Steppe Eagles continues to decline, the hybridization process may amplify and this phenomenon requires a more thorough examination.

  12. Methane and benzene in drinking-water wells overlying the Eagle Ford, Fayetteville, and Haynesville Shale hydrocarbon production areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Groundwater samples were collected from domestic and public-supply wells in the Eagle Ford study area in 2015–16, in the Fayetteville study area in 2015, and in the...

  13. Age of the youngest volcanism at Eagle Lake, northeastern California—40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynne, Michael A.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Champion, Duane E.; Muffler, L.J.P.; Sawlan, Michael G.; Downs, Drew T.

    2017-03-22

    The age of the youngest volcanism at Eagle Lake, California, was investigated using stratigraphic, paleomagnetic, and 40Ar/39Ar techniques. The three youngest volcanic lava flows at Eagle Lake yielded ages of 130.0±5.1, 127.5±3.2 and 123.6±18.7 ka, and are statistically indistinguishable. Paleomagnetic results demonstrate that two of the lava flows are very closely spaced in time, whereas the third is different by centuries to at most a few millennia. These results indicate that the basalt lava flows at Eagle Lake are not Holocene in age, and were erupted during an episode of volcanism at about 130–125 ka that is unlikely to have spanned more than a few thousand years. Thus, the short-term potential for subsequent volcanism at Eagle Lake is considered low. 

  14. Occurrence and Habitat Use of Wintering Bald Eagles on Eastern Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River (1955-1993)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Occurrence and habitat use data for bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), was compiled for use in planning a study to assess the potential effects of environmental...

  15. The potential for contaminant exposure to bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) of the James River, Virginia: Prey contaminant studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The James River, Virginia has one of the largest concentrations of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) on the east coast of the United States. Fish constitute up...

  16. Probability of Unmixed Young Groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This raster data set delineates the predicted probability of unmixed young groundwater (defined using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities) in groundwater in the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007. This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. This groundwater probability map and its associated probability maps were developed as follows: (1) A point data set of wells with groundwater quality and groundwater age data was overlaid with thematic layers of anthropogenic (related to human activities) and hydrogeologic data by using a geographic information system to assign each well values for depth to groundwater, distance to major streams and canals, distance to gypsum beds, precipitation, soils, and well depth. These data then were downloaded to a statistical software package for analysis by logistic regression. (2) Statistical models predicting the probability of elevated nitrate concentrations, the probability of unmixed young water (using chlorofluorocarbon-11 concentrations and tritium activities), and the probability of elevated volatile organic compound concentrations were developed using logistic regression techniques. (3) The statistical models were entered into a GIS and the probability map was constructed.

  17. West Nile Virus transmission in winter: the 2013 Great Salt Lake Bald Eagle and Eared Grebes Mortality event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S.; Van Wettere, Arnaud J.; McFarlan, Leslie; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Dickson, Sammie L.; Baker, JoDee; Hatch, Gary; Cavender, Kimberly; Long, Renee Romaine; Bodenstein, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) infection has been reported in over 300 species of birds and mammals. Raptors such as eagles, hawks and falcons are remarkably susceptible, but reports of WNV infection in Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are rare and reports of WNV infection in grebes (Podicipediformes) even rarer. We report an unusually large wild bird mortality event involving between 15,000-20,000 Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) and over 40 Bald Eagles around the Great Salt Lake, Utah, in November-December 2013. Mortality in grebes was first reported in early November during a period when the area was unseasonably warm and the grebes were beginning to gather and stage prior to migration. Ten out of ten Eared Grebes collected during this period were WNV RT-PCR and/or isolation positive. This is the first report of WNV infection in Eared Grebes and the associated mortality event is matched in scale only by the combined outbreaks in American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) colonies in the north central states in 2002-2003. We cannot be sure that all of the grebes were infected by mosquito transmission; some may have become infected through contact with WNV shed orally or cloacally from other infected grebes. Beginning in early December, Bald Eagles in the Great Salt Lake area were observed to display neurological signs such as body tremors, limb paralysis and lethargy. At least 43 Bald Eagles had died by the end of the month. Nine of nine Bald Eagles examined were infected with WNV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest single raptor mortality event since WNV became endemic in the USA. Because the majority of the eagles affected were found after onset of below-freezing temperatures, we suggest at least some of the Bald Eagles were infected with WNV via consumption of infected Eared Grebes or horizontal transmission at roost sites.

  18. Geochemical and mineralogical characterization of the Eagle Ford Shale: Results from the USGS Gulf Coast #1 West Woodway core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Boehlke, Adam; Paxton, Stanley T.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Pearson, Ofori N.

    2017-01-01

    The Eagle Ford shale is a major continuous oil and gas resource play in southcentral Texas and a source for other oil accumulations in the East Texas Basin. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) petroleum system assessment and research efforts, a coring program to obtain several immature, shallow cores from near the outcrop belt in central Texas has been undertaken. The first of these cores, USGS Gulf Coast #1 West Woodway, was collected near Waco, Texas, in September 2015 and has undergone extensive geochemical and mineralogical characterization using routine methods to ascertain variations in the lithologies and chemofacies present in the Eagle Ford at this locale. Approximately 270 ft of core was examined for this study, focusing on the Eagle Ford Group interval between the overlying Austin Chalk and underlying Buda Limestone (~20 ft of each). Based on previous work to identify the stratigraphy of the Eagle Ford Group in the Waco area and elsewhere (Liro et al., 1994; Robison, 1997; Ratcliffe et al., 2012; Boling and Dworkin, 2015; Fairbanks et al., 2016, and references therein), several lithological units were expected to be present, including the Pepper Shale (or Woodbine), the Lake Waco Formation (or Lower Eagle Ford, including the Bluebonnet, Cloice, and Bouldin or Flaggy Cloice members), and the South Bosque Member (Upper Eagle Ford). The results presented here indicate that there are three major chemofacies present in the cored interval, which are generally consistent with previous descriptions of the Eagle Ford Group in this area. The relatively high-resolution sampling (every two ft above the Buda, 432.8 ft depth, and below the Austin Chalk, 163.5 ft depth) provides great detail in terms of geochemical and mineralogical properties supplementing previous work on immature Eagle Ford Shale near the outcrop belt.

  19. Inter-relationships between the spawning migration of Eagle Lake rainbow trout, streamflow, snowpack, and air temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Lisa C.

    2009-01-01

    Pine Creek has historically provided critical spawning and rearing habitat for Eagle Lake rainbow trout (ELRT, Oncorhynchus mykiss aquilarum). Over the past 100+ years modifications of Pine Creek watershed (e.g., overgrazing, timber harvest, passage barriers, culverts) decoupled the ELRT from its stream habitat. Introduced brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) now dominate historic rearing areas in the upper watershed. Passage barriers were constructed on Eagle Lake tributaries to prevent ELRT ...

  20. Count trends for migratory Bald Eagles reveal differences between two populations at a spring site along the Lake Ontario shoreline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R. Wright

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucophalus, after DDT and other organochlorine insecticides were banned in the United States, can be regarded as one of the most iconic success stories resulting from the Endangered Species Act. Interest remains high in the recovery and growth of the Bald Eagle population. Common to evaluating growth and recovery rates are counts at nesting sites and analyses of individuals fledged per season. But this is merely one snapshot that ignores survival rates as eagles grow to maturity. By analyzing indices from migration counts, we get a different snapshot better reflecting the survival of young birds. Different populations of Bald Eagles breed at different sites at different times of the year. Typical migration count analyses do not separate the populations. A separation of two distinct populations can be achieved at spring count sites by taking advantage of the tendency for northern summer breeding birds to migrate north in spring earlier than southern winter breeding birds who disperse north later in spring. In this paper I analyze migratory indices at a spring site along Lake Ontario. The analysis shows that eagles considered to be primarily of the northern summer breeding population showed an estimated growth rate of 5.3 ± 0.85% (SE per year with 49% of eagles tallied in adult plumage, whereas the migrants considered to be primarily of the southern breeding population had an estimated growth rate of 14.0 ± 1.79% with only 22% in adult plumage. Together these results argue that the populations of southern breeding Bald Eagles are growing at a substantially higher rate than northern breeding eagles. These findings suggest that aggregate population indices for a species at migration counting sites can sometimes obscure important differences among separate populations at any given site and that separating counts by time period can be a useful way to check for differences among sub-populations.

  1. A spatially-dynamic preliminary risk assessment of the bald eagle at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, G.J.; Gallegos, A.F.; Foxx, T.S.; Fresquez, P.R.; Mullen, M.A.; Pratt, L.E.; Gomez, P.E.

    1998-04-01

    The Endangered Species Act of 1973 and the Record of Decision on the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) require that the Department of Energy protect the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), a state and federally listed species, from stressors such as contaminants. A preliminary risk assessment of the bald eagle was performed using a custom FORTRAN code, ECORSK5, and the geographical information system. Estimated exposure doses to the eagle for radionuclide, inorganic metal, and organic contaminants were derived for varying ratios of aquatic vs. terrestrial simulated diet and compared against toxicity reference values to generate hazard indices (His). HI results indicate that no appreciable impact to the bald eagle is expected from contaminants at LANL from soil ingestion and food consumption pathways. This includes a measure of cumulative effects from multiple contaminants that assumes linear additive toxicity. Improving model realism by weighting simulated eagle foraging based on distance from potential roost sites increased the HI by 76%, but still to inconsequential levels. Information on risk by specific geographical location was generated, which can be used to manage contaminated areas, eagle habitat, facility siting, and/or facility operations in order to maintain risk from contaminants at low levels.

  2. A three-dimensional application with the numerical grid generation code: EAGLE (utilizing an externally generated surface)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Johnny L.

    1990-01-01

    Program EAGLE (Eglin Arbitrary Geometry Implicit Euler) is a multiblock grid generation and steady-state flow solver system. This system combines a boundary conforming surface generation, a composite block structure grid generation scheme, and a multiblock implicit Euler flow solver algorithm. The three codes are intended to be used sequentially from the definition of the configuration under study to the flow solution about the configuration. EAGLE was specifically designed to aid in the analysis of both freestream and interference flow field configurations. These configurations can be comprised of single or multiple bodies ranging from simple axisymmetric airframes to complex aircraft shapes with external weapons. Each body can be arbitrarily shaped with or without multiple lifting surfaces. Program EAGLE is written to compile and execute efficiently on any CRAY machine with or without Solid State Disk (SSD) devices. Also, the code uses namelist inputs which are supported by all CRAY machines using the FORTRAN Compiler CF177. The use of namelist inputs makes it easier for the user to understand the inputs and to operate Program EAGLE. Recently, the Code was modified to operate on other computers, especially the Sun Spare4 Workstation. Several two-dimensional grid configurations were completely and successfully developed using EAGLE. Currently, EAGLE is being used for three-dimension grid applications.

  3. Quantitative and qualitative morphologic, cytochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of blood cells in the Crested Serpent eagle and Shikra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salakij, Chaleow; Kasorndorkbua, Chaiyan; Salakij, Jarernsak; Suwannasaeng, Pimsuda; Jakthong, Pattarapong

    2015-08-01

    The Crested Serpent eagle (Spilornis cheela) is a bird of prey found in the tropical rain forest in Thailand. The Shikra (Accipiter badius) is a sparrow hawk and common resident in Thailand. Blood samples from 9 Crested Serpent eagles and 12 Shikras were obtained from September 2010 to November 2014. They were clinically healthy and negative for blood parasites detectable by light microscopy and molecular techniques (partial cytochrome b gene for avian malaria and partial 18S rRNA gene for trypanosome). Cytochemical staining (Sudan black B, peroxidase, α-naphthyl acetate esterase, and β-glucuronidase) and transmission electron microscopy were performed. Hematological results were reported as the mean ± standard deviation and median. Heterophils were the most prevalent leukocytes in the Crested Serpent eagle, but in the Shikra, lymphocytes were the most prevalent leukocytes. In the Shikra, some vacuoles were observed in the cytoplasm of the eosinophils. All blood cells in both types of raptors stained positively for β-glucuronidase but negatively for peroxidase. The ultrastructure of heterophils showed more clearly differentiate long rod granules in Crested Serpent eagle and spindle-shaped granules in Shikra. The ultrastructure of the eosinophils in the Crested Serpent eagle revealed varied electron-dense, round-shaped granules with round, different electron-dense areas in the centers of some granules, which differed from the structure reported for other raptors. These quantitative results may be useful for clinical evaluations of Crested Serpent eagles and Shikras that are undergoing rehabilitation for release.

  4. Estimation of occupancy, breeding success, and predicted abundance of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Kolar, Patrick S.; Fuller, Mark R.; Hunt, W. Grainger; Hunt, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    We used a multistate occupancy sampling design to estimate occupancy, breeding success, and abundance of territorial pairs of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Diablo Range, California, in 2014. This method uses the spatial pattern of detections and non-detections over repeated visits to survey sites to estimate probabilities of occupancy and successful reproduction while accounting for imperfect detection of golden eagles and their young during surveys. The estimated probability of detecting territorial pairs of golden eagles and their young was less than 1 and varied with time of the breeding season, as did the probability of correctly classifying a pair’s breeding status. Imperfect detection and breeding classification led to a sizeable difference between the uncorrected, naïve estimate of the proportion of occupied sites where successful reproduction was observed (0.20) and the model-based estimate (0.30). The analysis further indicated a relatively high overall probability of landscape occupancy by pairs of golden eagles (0.67, standard error = 0.06), but that areas with the greatest occupancy and reproductive potential were patchily distributed. We documented a total of 138 territorial pairs of golden eagles during surveys completed in the 2014 breeding season, which represented about one-half of the 280 pairs we estimated to occur in the broader 5,169-square kilometer region sampled. The study results emphasize the importance of accounting for imperfect detection and spatial heterogeneity in studies of site occupancy, breeding success, and abundance of golden eagles.

  5. Eagle's syndrome: report of two cases using computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sul Mi; Kwon, Hyuk Rok; Choi, Hang Moon; Park, In Woo [College of Dentistry, Kangnung National University, Kangnung (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    Two cases of Eagle's syndrome are reported. The first case involved a 31-year-old man who complained of pain in his throat and pain at preauricular area on turning his head. Panoramic and computed tomography (CT) views showed bilateral stylohyoid ligament ossification. The symptoms were relieved after surgical removal. The second case involved a 56-year-old female whose chief complaints were a continuous dull pain and occasional 'shooting' pain on lower left molar area. During the physical examination, an ossified stylohyoid ligament was palpated at the left submandibular area. Panoramic and CT images showed prominent bilateral stylohyoid ligament ossification. CT scans also showed hypertrophy of left medial and lateral pterygoid muscles. The symptoms were relieved after medication. CT is a useful tool for the examination of ossified stylohyoid ligaments and studying the relationship between Eagle's syndrome and adjacent soft tissue.

  6. Avian pox infection in a free-living crested serpent eagle (Spilornis cheela) in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C C; Pei, K J C; Lee, F R; Tzeng, M P; Chang, T C

    2011-03-01

    Avian pox viruses (APVs) have been reported to cause infection in diverse avian species worldwide. Herein we report the first case of APV infection in a free-living bird, a subadult crested serpent eagle (Spilornis cheela), in Taiwan. In addition to the typical wart-like lesions distributed on the cere, eyelid, and face, there were also yellowish nodules below the tongue and on the hard palate. Phylogenetic analysis of the 4b core protein gene showed that the APV is very close to that found in white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Japan recently. Because both cases are located on the same major flyway for migratory birds, the impact of this virus with regard to the wild and migratory raptor species along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway and West Pacific Flyway requires immediate investigation.

  7. Doppler ultrasonography of the pectinis oculi artery in harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderlei de Moraes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja without systemic or ocular diseases were examined to measure blood velocity parameters of the pectinis oculi artery using Doppler ultrasonography. Pectinate artery resistive index (RI and pulsatility index (PI were investigated using ocular Doppler ultrasonography. The mean RI and PI values across all eyes were 0.44±0.10 and 0.62±0.20 respectively. Low RI and PI values found in the harpy eagle´s pectinis oculi artery compared with the American pekin ducks one and other tissue suggest indeed a high metabolic activity in pecten oculi and corroborates the hypothesis of a nutritional function and/or intraocular pressure regulation.

  8. Diet of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos (Aves: Accipitridae in Sarnena Sredna Gora Mountains (Bulgaria

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    Dilian G. Georgiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The material of pellets and food remains (as bone and shell fragments, hair, and feathers was collected after the breeding season from below and within one nest of Golden Eagles on rocks at Sarnena Sredna Gora Mts., north-east of Stara Zagora town. Our study was carried out during a three year period (1999, 2000 and 2002. Total 65 specimens from minimum 10 species of preys were identified among the food remains from which the reptiles dominated. Mostly preyed by the Golden Eagles couple were the tortoises (Testudo sp. with 55.4% from all registered individual preys. The most common prey from mammals was the hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus with 13.8%. Interesting fact was and the relatively high percentage of the cats with 7.7% (possibly most of them domestic ones.

  9. The relation between galaxy morphology and colour in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Camila A.; Schaye, Joop; Clauwens, Bart; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; Thob, Adrien C. R.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the relation between kinematic morphology, intrinsic colour and stellar mass of galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. We calculate the intrinsic u-r colours and measure the fraction of kinetic energy invested in ordered corotation of 3562 galaxies at z=0 with stellar masses larger than $10^{10}M_{\\odot}$. We perform a visual inspection of gri-composite images and find that our kinematic morphology correlates strongly with visual morphology. EAGLE produces a galaxy population for which morphology is tightly correlated with the location in the colour- mass diagram, with the red sequence mostly populated by elliptical galaxies and the blue cloud by disc galaxies. Satellite galaxies are more likely to be on the red sequence than centrals, and for satellites the red sequence is morphologically more diverse. These results show that the connection between mass, intrinsic colour and morphology arises from galaxy formation models that reproduce the observed galaxy mass function and sizes.

  10. Contrasting feeding strategies among wintering common eiders linked to white-tailed sea eagle predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkel, Flemming Ravn; Mosbech, Anders; Sonne, Christian

    are typically dominated by adult birds gathered in large communal roosts on deep waters, which is in contrast to the coastal habitats that are dominated by younger birds with a more even spatial distribution on more shallow waters (... and at night, whereas coastal birds were primarily diurnal feeders. Occasionally juvenile birds initiated feeding during daytime in the fjord, but were discontinued due to interactions with white-tailed eagles. Even in April when day length had increased by 5.9 hours (compared to February) the eiders appeared...... to rely on nocturnal feeding. The more extensive shallow waters in the coastal areas allow eiders to forage and feed at daytime at larger distances from land - presumably out of reach of eagle predation. We suggest that the nocturnal feeding strategy observed in the fjord is an effective anti...

  11. Golden Eagle mortality at a utility-scale wind energy facility near Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) mortality associated with wind energy turbines and infrastructure is under-reported and weakly substantiated in the published literature. I report two cases of mortality at a utility-scale renewable energy facility near Palm Springs, California. The facility has been in operation since 1984 and included 460 65KW turbines mounted on 24.4 m or 42.7 m lattice-style towers with 8 m rotor diameters. One mortality event involved a juvenile eagle that was struck and killed by a spinning turbine blade on 31 August, 1995. The tower was 24.4 m high. The other involved an immature female that was struck by a spinning blade on another 24.4 m tower on 17 April, 1997 and was later euthanized due to the extent of internal injuries. Other raptor mortalities incidentally observed at the site, and likely attributable to turbines, included three Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) found near turbines.

  12. Post-fledging movements of white-tailed eagles: Conservation implications for wind-energy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balotari-Chiebao, Fabio; Villers, Alexandre; Ijäs, Asko; Ovaskainen, Otso; Repka, Sari; Laaksonen, Toni

    2016-11-01

    The presence of poorly sited wind farms raises concerns for wildlife, including birds of prey. Therefore, there is a need to extend the knowledge of the potential human-wildlife conflicts associated with wind energy. Here, we report on the movements and habitat use of post-fledging satellite-tagged white-tailed eagles in Finland, where wind-energy development is expected to increase in the near future. In particular, we examine the probability of a fledgling approaching a hypothetical turbine that is placed at different distances from the nest. We found that this probability is high at short distances but considerably decreases with increasing distances to the nest. A utilisation-availability analysis showed that the coast was the preferred habitat. We argue that avoiding construction between active nests and the shoreline, as well as adopting the currently 2-km buffer zone for turbine deployment, can avoid or minimise potential impacts on post-fledging white-tailed eagles.

  13. Study of hydrodynamic characteristics of a Sharp Eagle wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-qun; Sheng, Song-wei; You, Ya-ge; Huang, Zhen-xin; Wang, Wen-sheng

    2017-06-01

    According to Newton's Second Law and the microwave theory, mechanical analysis of multiple buoys which form Sharp Eagle wave energy converter (WEC) is carried out. The movements of every buoy in three modes couple each other when they are affected with incident waves. Based on the above, mechanical models of the WEC are established, which are concerned with fluid forces, damping forces, hinge forces, and so on. Hydrodynamic parameters of one buoy are obtained by taking the other moving buoy as boundary conditions. Then, by taking those hydrodynamic parameters into the mechanical models, the optimum external damping and optimal capture width ratio are calculated out. Under the condition of the optimum external damping, a plenty of data are obtained, such as the displacements amplitude of each buoy in three modes (sway, heave, pitch), damping forces, hinge forces, and speed of the hydraulic cylinder. Research results provide theoretical references and basis for Sharp Eagle WECs in the design and manufacture.

  14. Assessing ground-based counts of nestling bald eagles in northeastern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, M.R.; Hatfield, J.S.; Lindquist, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    We present evidence that the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) productivity survey in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness of northeastern Minnesota may have underestimated the number of nestlings during 1986-1988. Recommendations are provided to achieve more accurate ground-based counts. By conducting ground-based observations for up to 1 hour/nest, an accurate count of the number of bald eagle nestlings can be obtained. If nests are only observed for up to 30 minutes/nest, an accurate determination of nest success can be made. The effort that managers put into counts should be based on the intended use of the productivity data. If small changes in mean productivity would trigger management action, the less acurate ground-based counts should be conducted with caution. Prior to implementing ground-based counts, a study like ours should estimate bias associated with different survey procedures and the observation time needed to achieve accurate results.

  15. Breeding of the White-Tailed Eagle in the Omsk Region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Yu. Kassal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The White-Tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla in the Omsk region prefers to breed within the Irtysh River floodplain and its tributaries, as well as along Rahtovo lake and large lake systems (Bolshie Krutinskie, Tyukalinskie, Ilyinskie. Its nests are built mainly on silver birch, aspen, Scots and Siberian pines, white willow and poplars, at a height of 6–15 m with zonal.

  16. Sex− and species−biased gene flow in a spotted eagle hybrid zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väli Ülo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent theoretical and empirical work points toward a significant role for sex-chromosome linked genes in the evolution of traits that induce reproductive isolation and for traits that evolve under influence of sexual selection. Empirical studies including recently diverged (Pleistocene, short-lived avian species pairs with short generation times have found that introgression occurs on the autosomes but not on the Z-chromosome. Here we study genetic differentiation and gene flow in the long-lived greater spotted eagle (Aquila clanga and lesser spotted eagle (A. pomarina, two species with comparatively long generation times. Results Our data suggest that there is a directional bias in migration rates between hybridizing spotted eagles in eastern Europe. We find that a model including post divergence gene flow fits our data best for both autosomal and Z-chromosome linked loci but, for the Z-chromosome, the rate is reduced in the direction from A. pomarina to A. clanga. Conclusions The fact that some introgression still occurs on the Z-chromosome between these species suggests that the differentiation process is in a more premature phase in our study system than in previously studied avian species pairs and that could be explained by a shorter divergence time and/or a longer average generation time in the spotted eagles. The results are in agreement with field observations and provide further insight into the role of sex-linked loci for the build-up of barriers to gene flow among diverging populations and species.

  17. Galaxies in the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation and in the Durham and Munich semi-analytical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Quan; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Guo, Qi; Schaller, Matthieu; Furlong, Michelle; Bower, Richard G.; Cole, Shaun; Crain, Robert A.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Helly, John C.; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Mitchell, Peter; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2016-10-01

    We compare global predictions from the EAGLE hydrodynamical simulation, and two semi-analytic (SA) models of galaxy formation, L-GALAXIES and GALFORM. All three models include the key physical processes for the formation and evolution of galaxies and their parameters are calibrated against a small number of observables at z ≈ 0. The two SA models have been applied to merger trees constructed from the EAGLE dark matter only simulation. We find that at z ≤ 2, both the galaxy stellar mass functions for stellar masses M* 109.5 M⊙ differ in some instances by an order of magnitude, while the stellar mass-size relation in EAGLE is a factor of ≈2 tighter than for the two SA models. Our results suggest the need for a revision of how SA models treat the effect of baryonic self-gravity on the underlying dark matter. The treatment of gas flows in the models needs to be revised based on detailed comparison with observations to understand in particular the evolution of the stellar mass-metallicity relation.

  18. Mercury exposure and neurochemical impacts in bald eagles across several Great Lakes states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkiewicz, Jennifer; Nam, Dong-Ha; Cooley, Thomas; Neumann, Kay; Padilla, Irene Bueno; Route, William; Strom, Sean; Basu, Niladri

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we assessed mercury (Hg) exposure in several tissues (brain, liver, and breast and primary feathers) in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) collected from across five Great Lakes states (Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) between 2002-2010, and assessed relationships between brain Hg and neurochemical receptors (NMDA and GABA(A)) and enzymes (glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)). Brain total Hg (THg) levels (dry weight basis) averaged 2.80 μg/g (range: 0.2-34.01), and levels were highest in Michigan birds. THg levels in liver (r(p) = 0.805) and breast feathers (r(p) = 0.611) significantly correlated with those in brain. Brain Hg was not associated with binding to the GABA(A) receptor. Brain THg and inorganic Hg (IHg) were significantly positively correlated with GS activity (THg r(p) = 0.190; IHg r(p) = 0.188) and negatively correlated with NMDA receptor levels (THg r(p) = -0245; IHg r(p) = -0.282), and IHg was negatively correlated with GAD activity (r(s) = -0.196). We also report upon Hg demethylation and relationships between Hg and Se in brain and liver. These results suggest that bald eagles in the Great Lakes region are exposed to Hg at levels capable of causing subclinical neurological damage, and that when tissue burdens are related to proposed avian thresholds approximately 14-27% of eagles studied here may be at risk.

  19. A ring recovery of a lesser spotted Eagle Aquila Pomarina Brehm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Mendelsohn

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available During ringing operations in the Punda Milia area of the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa, a Lesser Spotted Eagle, Aquila pomarina, Roberts Nr. 136, was caught by means of a bal-chatri trap at Magoane. The bird, an adult, had a mass of 1,26 kg, which appears light for its size; it was probably a male. It was fitted with a flanged ring of 16 mm diameter, No. 526-0727 at the time of capture - 29.11.1972, 08h00. A number ofconspecifics were observed in the area at the time. The eagle was recovered on 30.10.1973 and, as the ring was returned, it is presumed to be dead. The place of recovery was Azerbaijan SSR, near Kusary, U.S.S.R., co-ordinates 41 24'N, 48 27'E, which places it just north of the Caucasus Mountains and west of the Caspian Sea. It would appear that the eagle met its end shortly before or during migration, as the date of recovery given is only thirty days prior to the date on which the bird was ringed in the proceeding year.

  20. Molecular identification of traces from the White-tailed Sea Eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausterer, Christian; Stein, Christina; Pichler, Christian; Probst, Remo

    2013-06-01

    Over the preceeding decades, after periods of dramatic decline and extinction in many parts of Europe, the White-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) has re-colonized traditional breeding areas. However, this large apex predator remains threatened, not only by the bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants, but also by targeted poisoning and poaching. In connection with a forensic case, a novel PCR assay was developed for the sensitive and specific detection of sea eagle DNA traces in questioned samples of unknown origin. The assay amplifies a fragment of the popular phylogenetic marker gene cytochrome b. Primers were designed to bind sites with relatively high variability between homologous sequences from H. albicilla and other related European birds of prey. Assay sensitivity was sufficient for single cell analysis. Specificity was tested in vitro and the primers did not cross-detect DNA from humans, chicken and the following raptors: Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo), Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), Red Kite (Milvus milvus) and Black Kite (Milvus migrans). Applicability for the analysis of poor quality samples was demonstrated with extracts from field-collected small molted down feathers that did not contain detectable amounts of sea eagle nuclear DNA. Amplicons of the expected size were generated, purified and sequenced. Sequence data were subjected to Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis and affiliated with cytochrome b from H. albicilla. The novel PCR primers allowed for the correct assignment of traces from H. albicilla, even in mixed samples and in cases with limited and degraded biological material.