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Sample records for white-blood-cell abdomen scan

  1. White Blood Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Blood Additional Content Medical News Overview of White Blood Cell Disorders By Mary Territo, MD, Emeritus ... service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Manual in the ...

  2. Edwardsiella tarda Endocarditis Confirmed by Indium-111 White Blood Cell Scan: An Unusual Pathogen and Diagnostic Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayleigh M. Litton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Edwardsiella tarda is a freshwater marine member of the family Enterobacteriaceae which often colonizes fish, lizards, snakes, and turtles but is an infrequent human pathogen. Indium-111- (111In- labeled white blood cell (WBC scintigraphy is an imaging modality which has a wide range of reported sensitivity and specificity (from 60 to 100% and from 68 to 92%, resp. for diagnosing acute and chronic infection. We describe a case of suspected E. tarda prosthetic aortic valve and mitral valve endocarditis with probable vegetations and new mitral regurgitation on transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms which was supported with the use of 111In-labeled WBC scintigraphy.

  3. The role of {sup 99m}Tc-labelled stannous colloid white blood cells scanning in the evaluation of and differentiation between cellulitis and osteomyelitis

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    Kumar, V.; Chu, J.M.G. [Liverpool Health Services, Liverpool, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Sequential {sup 99m}Tc-MDP and {sup 67}Ga-citrate scanning have been extensively used in the evaluation of infection. {sup 99m}Tc-labelled stannous colloid white blood cell (Tc-WBC) is not widely reported. A prospective study was undertaken in 92 patients to assess Tc-WBC and Tc-MDP scanning in this clinical application. Labelling efficiency (LE) was calculated with a mean {+-} SD of 94 {+-} 4.8 %. Patients (6) who were treated with gentamycin had an LE {+-} SD of 70 {+-} 9%. Twenty six patients treated as osteomyelitis had congruent abnormalities on Tc-WBC and Tc-MDP scans. Twenty one patients treated as cellulitis had abnormalities demonstrated on Tc-WBC but not on Tc-MDP scans. Tc-WBC appeared to define areas of inflammation of bone and soft-tissue in the hands or feet more distinctly than Tc-MDP. Fourteen patients had progress Tc-WBC scans 4-6 weeks following antibiotic treatment. Changes in scan appearances seemed to mirror the clinical course of the patients. Tc-WBC and Tc-MDP scans were useful complementary studies in the diagnosis, evaluation and assessment of treatment in patients with cellulitis and osteomyelitis.

  4. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marx JA, et al., eds. Anemia, polycythemia, and white blood cells disorders. In: Rosen's Emergency Medicine. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. ...

  5. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor about precautions to avoid catching contagious diseases. Always wash your hands regularly and thoroughly. You might also be advised to wear a face mask and avoid anyone with a cold or other illness. References Kumar V, et al. Diseases of white blood cells, lymph nodes, spleen, and ...

  6. White blood cell count - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The White Blood Cell (WBC) Count measures two components: the total number of WBC's (leukocytes), and the differential count. ... and basophils) and non-granulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes). White blood cells are a major component of the ...

  7. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    White blood cells (WBCs) fight infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other pathogens (organisms that cause infection). ... Abeloff's Clinical Oncology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 36.

  8. White Blood Cell Counts and Malaria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKenzie, F. E; Prudhomme, Wendy A; Magill, Alan J; Forney, J. R; Permpanich, Barnyen; Lucas, Carmen; Gasser, Jr., Robert A; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2005-01-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) were counted in 4697 individuals who presented to outpatient malaria clinics in Maesod, Tak Province, Thailand, and Iquitos, Peru, between 28 May and 28 August 1998 and between 17 May and 9 July 1999...

  9. Colour measurement and white blood cell recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Gelsema, E S

    1972-01-01

    As a part of a collaboration with NEMCH aimed at the automation of the differential white blood cell count, studies have been made of the different possibilities for using colour to help in the recognition process. Results are presented comparing data obtained with a microspectrophotometer and with a simulated three-colour scanner.

  10. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15 μL of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of allelic differential expression in human white blood cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pant, P V Krishna; Tao, Heng; Beilharz, Erica J; Ballinger, Dennis G; Cox, David R; Frazer, Kelly A

    2006-01-01

    .... To identify human genes with allelic expression differences, we genotype DNA and examine mRNA isolated from the white blood cells of 12 unrelated individuals using oligonucleotide arrays containing 8406 exonic SNPs...

  12. Human white blood cells contain cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer photolyase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, B.M.; Bennett, P.V. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-10-10

    Although enzymatic photoreactivation of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers in DNA is present in almost all organisms, its presence in placental mammals is controversial. We tested human white blood cells for photolyase by using three defined DNAs (suprecoiled pET-2, nonsupercoiled bacteriphage {lambda}, and a defined-sequence 287-bp oligonucleotide), two dimer-specific endonucleases (T4 endonuclease V and UV endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus), and three assay methods. We show that human white blood cells contain photolyase that can photorepair pyrimidine dimers in defined supercoiled and linear DNAs and in a 287-bp oligonucleotide and that human photolyase is active on genomic DNA in intact human cells. 44 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Rapid white blood cell detection for peritonitis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Feng; Mei, Zhe; Chiu, Yu-Jui; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2013-03-01

    A point-of-care and home-care lab-on-a-chip (LoC) system that integrates a microfluidic spiral device as a concentrator with an optical-coding device as a cell enumerator is demonstrated. The LoC system enumerates white blood cells from dialysis effluent of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. The preliminary results show that the white blood cell counts from our system agree well with the results from commercial flow cytometers. The LoC system can potentially bring significant benefits to end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients that are on peritoneal dialysis (PD).

  14. White Blood Cell Monitoring During Long-Term Clozapine Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Dan; Monden, Marcel

    Late-onset agranulocytosis is rare during treatment with clozapine, especially in monotherapy. The authors describe a case of agranulocytosis that emerged after 19 years of continuous clozapine monotherapy. The discovery of the agranulocytosis was due to the lifelong white blood cell counts that are

  15. Procalcitonin and white blood cell count (WBC), erythrocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present prospective observational study aimed to determine the correlation between procalcitonin (PCT) and white blood cell count (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in toddlers before and after treatment. Moreover, 50 patients aged 1 to 36 months who were hospitalized at the ...

  16. Automated counting of white blood cells in synovial fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Jonge (Robert); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); M. Smit (Marij); M. de Frankrijker-Merkestijn; R.J. Dolhain; J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); J. Lindemans (Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of automated leucocyte (white blood cell; WBC) counting by comparison with manual counting. METHODS: The number of WBC was determined in heparinized synovial fluid samples by the use of (i) a standard urine cytometer (Kova) and a

  17. Multiple Loci Are Associated with White Blood Cell Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Nalls, Michael A.; Couper, David J.; Tanaka, Toshiko; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Smith, Albert V.; Toniolo, Daniela; Zakai, Neil A.; Yang, Qiong; Greinacher, Andreas; Wood, Andrew R.; Garcia, Melissa; Gasparini, Paolo; Liu, Yongmei; Lumley, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhite blood cell (WBC) count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten cohorts for replication analyses, to determine genetic factors influencing variability within the...

  18. Association Between Obesity, White Blood Cell and Platelet Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Jamshidi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular disease is resulted from malfunctioning’s of heart as well as blood vessels. More than two decades ago it was noted that the number of white blood cells can be an indicated of the existence of such disease. Platelet activation and aggregation are among the include processes. That are considered in pathophysiology of a coronary heart disease. However there seems to be a paucity of research on platelet count in patients suffering from obesity. Moreover although previous studies have indicated a positive correlation between platelet and white blood cells. Counts and mortality from coronary heath disease, how this might correlate with obesity is an issue still in need of more attention. Objectives The present study was designed to evaluate platelet count and white blood cell count in those patients who suffer from obesity as compared with control subjects who were not obese. Methods In this cross-sectional study, there were a total of 1024 Iranian subjects living in Hamedan include, staff of Islamic Azad University of Hamedan and subjects who referred to Ekbatan hospital in Hamedan during the period of 6 months randomly and staff of Islamic Azad University of Hamedan. The absence of infectious disease was confirmed by a general practitioner. Finally, the samples included 486 subjects, 254 male, and 232were females. Body mass index was calculated. Waist circumference in the Iranian subjects, at least in men 89 (cm and women 91 (cm was considered. White blood cell and platelet count was measured. T-test and Pearson’s correlation were run to analyze the collected data through SPSS software version 16. Results The average age of the subjects was 34.75 ± 8.1 years. The body mass indexes in 7.6 percent of men and 15.7 of women were greater than 30 (kg/m2. The averages of waist circumference in men and women was 1.04 ± 0.5 and 89.3 ± 10.2 (cm, respectively. Also there seemed to be a significant correlation between waist

  19. Pathology of porcine peripheral white blood cells during infection with African swine fever virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karalyan Zaven

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African swine fever virus (ASFV is the causative agent of African swine fever (ASF that is the significant disease of domestic pigs. Several studies showed that ASFV can influence on porcine blood cells in vitro. Thus, we asked ourselves whether ASFV infection results in changes in porcine blood cells in vivo. A series of experiments were performed in order to investigate the effects of ASFV infection on porcine peripheral white blood cells. Nine pigs were inoculated by intramuscular injection with 104 50% hemadsorbing doses of virus (genotype II distributed in Armenia and Georgia. The total number of fifteen cell types was calculated during experimental infection. Results Although band-to-segmented neutrophils ratio became much higher (3.5 in infected pigs than in control group (0.3, marked neutropenia and lymphopenia were detected from 2 to 3 days post-infection. In addition to band neutrophils, the high number of other immature white blood cells, such as metamyelocytes, was observed during the course of infection. From the beginning of infection, atypical lymphocytes, with altered nuclear shape, arose and became 15% of total cells in the final phase of infection. Image scanning cytometry revealed hyperdiploid DNA content in atypical lymphocytes only from 5 days post-infection, indicating that DNA synthesis in pathological lymphocytes occurred in the later stages of infection. Conclusion From this study, it can be concluded that ASFV infection leads to serious changes in composition of white blood cells. Particularly, acute ASFV infection in vivo is accompanied with the emergence of immature cells and atypical lymphocytes in the host blood. The mechanisms underlying atypical cell formation remain to be elucidated.

  20. [Nutritional status, metabolic changes and white blood cells in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Thatianne Moreira Silva; de Faria, Franciane Rocha; de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Franceschini, Sylvia C C; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2014-12-01

    To analyze the relationship between the peripheral blood white cells, metabolic changes, and nutritional status of adolescents with and without excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) in 362 adolescents from 15 to 19 years of age, of both sexes. White blood cell count, platelet count, uric acid, fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were measured. The inclusion criteria were agreement to participate in the study and signature of the informed consent. Exclusion criteria were: presence of chronic or infectious disease; use of medications that could cause changes in biochemical tests; pregnancy; participation in weight reduction and weight control programs; use of diuretics and laxatives; or the presence of a pacemaker. The following statistical tests were applied: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Student's t or Mann-Whitney test, Pearson or Spearman correlation tests, and chi-squared test, considering p<0.05. Overweight was observed in 20.7% of adolescents. The total cholesterol (TC) had a higher percentage of inadequacy (52.2%), followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (38.4%). There was a positive correlation between white cells and serum lipids, insulin, body fat, and BMI. Monocytes were negatively correlated with BMI, and rods with BMI, body fat, and insulin. Nutritional status is related to an inflammatory process, and adolescents with excess weight or body fat presented higher amounts of white blood cells. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of ultrafast CT scanning of the adult abdomen

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    Goldberg, H.I.; Gould, R.G.; Feuerstein, I.M.; Sigeti, J.S.; Lipton, M.J. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Various measures of image quality were compared from adult abdomen scans obtained with a subsecond computed tomographic (CT) scanner (Imatron Ultrafast C-100) and a conventional third-generation whole-body scanner (GE9800). Forty images from 13 patients scanned within 2 hours of each other on both scanners were evaluated with techniques standardized as much as possible for CT exposure factors and contrast enhancement. Two observers in consensus evaluated matched anatomic levels using standard window width and level settings. Each image was graded on a scale of 1 (worst) to 5 (best) for spatial resolution, image noise, and presence and type of artifacts. Overall image quality also was graded. Averaged scores were compared between the two scanners. In all categories, scores were slightly higher for the GE9800. However, the differences in spatial resolution, presence of artifacts, overall image quality were not significant using the sign test. There was a significant difference, in favor of the GE9800, in image noise. The types of artifacts differed; the GE9800 produced more motion artifacts from bowel and surgical clips and the Imatron C-100 produced more rib shadow artifacts projecting on the liver and spleen. While the GE9800 produced abdominal images of slightly superior quality in adults, the Imatron Ultrafast C-100 was shown to produce images suitable for routine abdominal imaging in adults.

  2. Development and testing of a new disposable sterile device for labelling white blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signore, A.; Glaudemans, A. W. J. M.; Malviya, G.; Lazzeri, E.; Prandini, N.; Viglietti, A. L.; De Vries, E. F. J.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.

    Aim. White blood cell (WBC) labelling requires isolation of cells from patient's blood under sterile conditions using sterile materials, buffers and disposables under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. Till now, this limited the use of white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC-S) only to well

  3. White blood cell counting on smartphone paper electrochemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhao; Lin, Guohong; Cui, Guangzhe; Zhou, Xiangfei; Liu, Gang Logan

    2017-04-15

    White blood cell (WBC) analysis provides rich information in rapid diagnosis of acute bacterial and viral infections as well as chronic disease management. For patients with immune deficiency or leukemia WBC should be persistently monitored. Current WBC counting method relies on bulky instrument and trained personnel and is time consuming. Rapid, low-cost and portable solution is in highly demand for point of care test. Here we demonstrate a label-free smartphone based electrochemical WBC counting device on microporous paper with patterned gold microelectrodes. WBC separated from whole blood was trapped by the paper with microelectrodes. WBC trapped on the paper leads to the ion diffusion blockage on microelectrodes, therefore cell concentration is determined by peak current on the microelectrodes measured by a differential pulse voltammeter and the quantitative results are collected by a smartphone wirelessly within 1min. We are able to rapidly quantify WBC concentrations covering the common physiological and pathological range (200-20000μL-1) with only 10μL sample and high repeatability as low as 10% in CoV (Coefficient of Variation). The unique smartphone paper electrochemical sensor ensures fast cell quantification to achieve rapid and low-cost WBC analysis at the point-of-care under resource limited conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Mimicking the Interfacial Dynamics of Flowing White Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santore, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The rolling of particles on surfaces, facilitated by hydrodynamic forces combined with localized surface interactions of the appropriate strengths, spatial arrangements, and ranges, is a technologically useful means of transporting and manipulating particles. One's intuition for the rolling of a marble or a car tire cannot be extrapolated down to microparticle length scales because the microparticle interactions are dominated by electrostatic, van der Waals, and hydrogen bonding interactions rather than a friction that depends on an imposed normal force. Indeed, our microparticle rolling systems are inspired by the rolling of white blood cells on the inner walls of venules as part of the innate immune response: Selectin molecules engage with their counterparts on the opposing surfaces to slow cell motion relative to that for freely flowing cells. In the resulting rolling signature, ligand-receptor binding and crack closing on the front of the cell are balanced with molecular dis-bonding and crack opening at the rear. The contact region is relatively static, allowing other interactions (for instance signaling) to occur for a finite duration. Thus, achieving particle rolling in synthetic systems is important because it facilitates particle-surface interactions in a continuous nonfouling fashion where the contact surface is continually renewed. In developing a synthetic model for this system, we employ polymers to modify flowing particles and /or planar collectors, producing heterogeneous interfaces which can support rolling or produce other motion signatures such as skipping, arrest, or free flow. We identify, in the synthetic system, combinations of variables that produce rolling and demonstrate how the distinction between rolling and arrest is not a simple matter of the adhesion strength between the particles and the collector. Rolling is a cooperative process and the coordination of binding in one location with dis-bonding in another requires appropriate length

  5. WHITE BLOOD CELLS IN POLISH ATHLETES OF VARIOUS SPORTS DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Orysiak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the diversity of white blood cell (WBC counts and their subsets (neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes among competitive athletes of different sports disciplines. The blood samples were collected from 608 healthy, medically examined athletes (181 females and 427 males aged 20.1 ± 5.1 years, who represented five sport disciplines: canoeing, judo, rowing, swimming and volleyball. All blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein in the morning, after overnight fasting, in a seated position. Haematological analyses were conducted using a haematology analyser (ADVIA 120, Siemens. Neutropenia (defined as neutrophil count <2.0 · 10[sup]9[/sup]·L[sup]-1[/sup] was found in athletes of both sexes in each discipline. There was no incident of lymphopenia (defined as a lymphocyte count <1.0 · 10[sup]9[/sup]·L[sup]-1[/sup]. Monocytopenia (defined as a monocyte count <0.2 · 10[sup]9[/sup]·L[sup]-1[/sup] was seen only in male athletes, except judo athletes. Differences in WBC and their subset counts were related to sport disciplines: in volleyball players WBC counts were significantly higher than in athletes of canoeing and rowing (in females; neutrophil counts were the lowest in swimming athletes; lymphocyte counts were lower in athletes of canoeing than in volleyball and swimming, but only in females; monocyte counts were lower in athletes of canoeing than swimming (in females and judo (in males. In women, counts of neutrophils were greater and counts of monocytes were smaller than in men. It seems that prevalence of neutropenia and monocytopenia and differences in WBC counts and their subsets among disciplines could be related to the adaptive response to physical exercise.

  6. Overlapping White Blood Cells Detection Based on Watershed Transform and Circle Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Sukhia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available White blood cell (WBC count and segmentation is considered to be important step to diagnose diseases like leukemia, malaria etc. Automatic analysis of blood smear images will help hematologists to detect WBCs efficiently and effectively as compared to manual analysis which is quite time consuming. Therefore, an automatic white blood cells detection technique for complex blood smear images is proposed. The proposed scheme uses segmentation and edge map extraction for the separation of overlapped WBCs and further parametric circle approximation is used which is capable of detecting both separated and overlapped white blood cells. Simulation results compared with the existing techniques verify the accuracy and robustness of the proposed scheme.

  7. Multiple Loci Are Associated with White Blood Cell Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiong; Greinacher, Andreas; Wood, Andrew R.; Garcia, Melissa; Gasparini, Paolo; Liu, Yongmei; Lumley, Thomas; Folsom, Aaron R.; Reiner, Alex P.; Gieger, Christian; Lagou, Vasiliki; Felix, Janine F.; Völzke, Henry; Gouskova, Natalia A.; Biffi, Alessandro; Döring, Angela; Völker, Uwe; Chong, Sean; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Rendon, Augusto; Dehghan, Abbas; Moore, Matt; Taylor, Kent; Wilson, James G.; Lettre, Guillaume; Hofman, Albert; Bis, Joshua C.; Pirastu, Nicola; Fox, Caroline S.; Meisinger, Christa; Sambrook, Jennifer; Arepalli, Sampath; Nauck, Matthias; Prokisch, Holger; Stephens, Jonathan; Glazer, Nicole L.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Okada, Yukinori; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Matsuda, Koichi; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Prokopenko, Inga; Illig, Thomas; Patel, Kushang V.; Garner, Stephen F.; Kuhnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Oostra, Ben A.; Thein, Swee Lay; Coresh, Josef; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Menzel, Stephan; Lin, JingPing; Pistis, Giorgio; Uitterlinden, André G.; Spector, Tim D.; Teumer, Alexander; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Bandinelli, Stefania; Frayling, Timothy M.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Melzer, David; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Levy, Daniel; Boerwinkle, Eric; Singleton, Andrew B.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Longo, Dan L.; Soranzo, Nicole; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harris, Tamara B.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Ganesh, Santhi K.

    2011-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten cohorts for replication analyses, to determine genetic factors influencing variability within the normal hematological range for total WBC count and five WBC subtype measures. Cohort specific data was supplied by the CHARGE, HeamGen, and INGI consortia, as well as independent collaborative studies. We identified and replicated ten associations with total WBC count and five WBC subtypes at seven different genomic loci (total WBC count—6p21 in the HLA region, 17q21 near ORMDL3, and CSF3; neutrophil count—17q21; basophil count- 3p21 near RPN1 and C3orf27; lymphocyte count—6p21, 19p13 at EPS15L1; monocyte count—2q31 at ITGA4, 3q21, 8q24 an intergenic region, 9q31 near EDG2), including three previously reported associations and seven novel associations. To investigate functional relationships among variants contributing to variability in the six WBC traits, we utilized gene expression- and pathways-based analyses. We implemented gene-clustering algorithms to evaluate functional connectivity among implicated loci and showed functional relationships across cell types. Gene expression data from whole blood was utilized to show that significant biological consequences can be extracted from our genome-wide analyses, with effect estimates for significant loci from the meta-analyses being highly corellated with the proximal gene expression. In addition, collaborative efforts between the groups contributing to this study and related studies conducted by the COGENT and RIKEN groups allowed for the examination of effect homogeneity for genome-wide significant associations across populations

  8. Multiple loci are associated with white blood cell phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Nalls

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available White blood cell (WBC count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten cohorts for replication analyses, to determine genetic factors influencing variability within the normal hematological range for total WBC count and five WBC subtype measures. Cohort specific data was supplied by the CHARGE, HeamGen, and INGI consortia, as well as independent collaborative studies. We identified and replicated ten associations with total WBC count and five WBC subtypes at seven different genomic loci (total WBC count-6p21 in the HLA region, 17q21 near ORMDL3, and CSF3; neutrophil count-17q21; basophil count- 3p21 near RPN1 and C3orf27; lymphocyte count-6p21, 19p13 at EPS15L1; monocyte count-2q31 at ITGA4, 3q21, 8q24 an intergenic region, 9q31 near EDG2, including three previously reported associations and seven novel associations. To investigate functional relationships among variants contributing to variability in the six WBC traits, we utilized gene expression- and pathways-based analyses. We implemented gene-clustering algorithms to evaluate functional connectivity among implicated loci and showed functional relationships across cell types. Gene expression data from whole blood was utilized to show that significant biological consequences can be extracted from our genome-wide analyses, with effect estimates for significant loci from the meta-analyses being highly corellated with the proximal gene expression. In addition, collaborative efforts between the groups contributing to this study and related studies conducted by the COGENT and RIKEN groups allowed for the examination of effect homogeneity for genome-wide significant associations across

  9. White blood cell scintigraphy for differentiation of infection and aseptic loosening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Buhl, Anna; Oersnes, Thue

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis of an infected arthroplasty is often difficult. Fever, abnormal physical findings, radiographic changes, findings at bone scintigraphy, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP, and leucocytosis are not specific enough. We evaluated the diagnostic value of white blood cell...

  10. White blood cell scintigraphy with monoclonal antibodies in the study of the infected endoprosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciuk, J.; Puskas, C.; Schober, O. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin); Greitemann, B. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Allgemeine Orthopaedie)

    1992-07-01

    Forty-three patients with suspected infection of a hip or a knee prosthesis were studied with white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC), using technetium-99m (n=37) or iodine-123 (n=6) labelled monoclonal mouse antibody (MOA). Previously, all patients had undergone skeletal scintigraphy, which was performed as a three-phase study in 33 cases. The final diagnosis was established by open surgery, histology and culture in 37 cases, by puncture and cultere in 3 cases, and by clinical follow-up of at least 6 months in 3 cases. Eighteen prostheses were infected, 25 uninfected. The delayed phase of skeletal scintigraphy had a sensitivity of 92%, a specificity of 24% and an accuracy of 48% in the detection of infection. The perfusion and blood pool activity of the three-phase bone scan had a sensitivity of 67%, a specificity of 71% and an accuracy of 70%. The diagnostic value of WBC was sensitivty 89%, specificity 84% and accuracy 86%. WBC with {sup 99m}-Tc-MOA is easy to perform and always available. Its diagnostic accuracy is similar to conventional WBC scintigraphy with either indium-111 or {sup 99m}-Tc. (orig.).

  11. The application of technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) labeled white blood cells for the diagnosis of right dorsal ulcerative colitis in two horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, L M; Trumble, T N; Steyn, P F; Savage, C J; Dickinson, C E; Traub-Dargatz, J L

    2000-01-01

    The application of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled white blood cells to support the diagnosis of right dorsal ulcerative colitis was studied in two horses with a history and clinical signs consistent with phenylbutazone toxicity. These images were compared to a reference horse unaffected by right dorsal ulcerative colitis. Blood was collected aseptically in heparinized syringes from the patients for in vitro white blood cell (WBC) radiolabeling. The buffy coat was separated out and radiolabeled with 99mTc-HMPAO. The radiolabeled blood was re-injected i.v. and four images of the right and left side of the patient's abdomen were acquired at 4 hours and 20 hours post-injection. Results of the nuclear study revealed no abnormal findings in the abdomen at the four-hour post-injection images in any horse. Images obtained 20 hours post-injection revealed a linear uptake of radiolabeled WBCs in the right cranioventral abdomen in the region of the right dorsal colon in both horses with right dorsal ulcerative colitis. The reference horse had no radiopharmaceutical uptake in this region. This nuclear imaging study was a rapid, non-invasive method to identify right dorsal colon inflammation. These findings not only supported the diagnosis of right dorsal ulcerative colitis, but also facilitated appropriate medical management of each horse.

  12. Differential associations between white blood cell counts and fatigue in young and older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Hokland, Marianne; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this exploratory study were to study whether fatigue might be related to the cellular immune system by 1) analysing if the number of white blood cell subsets are related to fatigue and 2) if possible relationships vary in younger and older community-dwelling individuals.......The aims of this exploratory study were to study whether fatigue might be related to the cellular immune system by 1) analysing if the number of white blood cell subsets are related to fatigue and 2) if possible relationships vary in younger and older community-dwelling individuals....

  13. Underdiagnosis of Vertebral Collapse on Routine Multidetector Computed Tomography Scan of the Abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obaid, H.; Husamaldin, Z.; Bhatt, R. (Doncaster Royal Infirmary, Doncaster (United Kingdom))

    2008-09-15

    Background: Vertebral fractures are commonly associated with osteoporosis and have significant morbidity and mortality rates. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are presently considered as a treatable and preventable condition, and early detection is vital for further management. The evaluation of vertebral compression on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scans of the abdomen has, to our knowledge, not been reported before. Purpose: To assess the prevalence of vertebral collapse on routine abdominal CT scans, and to evaluate the usefulness of the multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) capability of MDCT scans in accurately identifying vertebral abnormalities such as vertebral collapse, spondylolisthesis, and retrolisthesis. Material and Methods: A retrospective review of 307 MDCT scans of the abdomen was carried out at a university teaching hospital. Identifiable patient information was anonymized for data protection. All images were reviewed on a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) using sagittal MPR and bone window for the assessment of the vertebrae. Data were collected from the Computerized Radiology Information System (CRIS). Results: Vertebral collapse was seen in 42 (13.6%) of the 307 patients undergoing routine MDCT of the abdomen. Multilevel and single-level collapses were seen in 24 and 18 patients, respectively. Spondylolisthesis was identified in 5.5% (n=17), and retrolisthesis was seen in 0.6% (n=2). All patients with vertebral fracture were older than 50 years. Women were more commonly affected than men. Conclusion: A significant number of patients with vertebral collapse were diagnosed using MPR on MDCT routine scans of the abdomen

  14. Measuring density and compressibility of white blood cells and prostate cancer cells by microchannel acoustophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune; Augustsson, Per; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    to determine the density and compressibility of individual cells enables the prediction and alteration of the separation outcome for a given cell mixture. We apply the method on white blood cells (WBCs) and DU145 prostate cancer cells (DUCs) aiming to improve isolation of circulating tumor cells from blood......, an emerging tool in the monitoring and characterizing of metastatic cancer....

  15. Image resizing using saliency strength map and seam carving for white blood cell analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam JaeYeal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new image-resizing method using seam carving and a Saliency Strength Map (SSM is proposed to preserve important contents, such as white blood cells included in blood cell images. Methods To apply seam carving to cell images, a SSM is initially generated using a visual attention model and the structural properties of white blood cells are then used to create an energy map for seam carving. As a result, the energy map maximizes the energies of the white blood cells, while minimizing the energies of the red blood cells and background. Thus, the use of a SSM allows the proposed method to reduce the image size efficiently, while preserving the important white blood cells. Results Experimental results using the PSNR (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio and ROD (Ratio of Distortion of blood cell images confirm that the proposed method is able to produce better resizing results than conventional methods, as the seam carving is performed based on an SSM and energy map. Conclusions For further improvement, a faster medical image resizing method is currently being investigated to reduce the computation time, while maintaining the same image quality.

  16. Image resizing using saliency strength map and seam carving for white blood cell analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, ByoungChul; Kim, SeongHoon; Nam, JaeYeal

    2010-09-20

    A new image-resizing method using seam carving and a Saliency Strength Map (SSM) is proposed to preserve important contents, such as white blood cells included in blood cell images. To apply seam carving to cell images, a SSM is initially generated using a visual attention model and the structural properties of white blood cells are then used to create an energy map for seam carving. As a result, the energy map maximizes the energies of the white blood cells, while minimizing the energies of the red blood cells and background. Thus, the use of a SSM allows the proposed method to reduce the image size efficiently, while preserving the important white blood cells. Experimental results using the PSNR (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio) and ROD (Ratio of Distortion) of blood cell images confirm that the proposed method is able to produce better resizing results than conventional methods, as the seam carving is performed based on an SSM and energy map. For further improvement, a faster medical image resizing method is currently being investigated to reduce the computation time, while maintaining the same image quality.

  17. Four-Parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; de Grooth, B.G.; Visscher, K.; Kouterik, F.A.; Greve, Jan

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of the depolarized orthogonal light scattering in flow cytometry enables one to discriminate human eosinephilic granulocytes from neutrophilic granulocytes. We use this method to perform a four-parameter differential white blood cell analysis. A simple flow cytometer was built equipped

  18. Beyond White Blood Cell Monitoring : Screening in the Initial Phase of Clozapine Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Dan; Bogers, Jan P. A. M.; van Dijk, Daniel; Bakker, Bert; Schulte, Peter F. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Clozapine is the preferred option for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, since 1975, clozapine has been known to cause agranulocytosis. In the clozapine screening guidelines, white blood cell count is mandatory. In the past 20 years, after its reintroduction, 3 other serious side

  19. Effect of interval training program on white blood cell count in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is considered to be prospectively and positively associated with cardiovascular diseases, particularly hypertension. Also, the positive role of exercise in the management of hypertension has been well and long established. However the relationship between WBC count and ...

  20. Use of indium-111-labeled white blood cells in the diagnosis of diabetic foot infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiger, L.S.; Fox, I.M.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of bone infection in the patient with nonvirgin bone is a diagnostic dilemma. This is especially true in the diabetic patient with a soft tissue infection and an underlying osteoarthropathy. The authors present a retrospective study using the new scintigraphic technique of indium-111-labeled white blood cells as a method of attempting to solve this diagnostic dilemma.

  1. White blood cell count correlates with mood symptom severity and specific mood symptoms in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Ole; Sylvia, Louisa G; Bowden, Charles L; Calabrese, Joseph R; Thase, Michael; Shelton, Richard C; McInnis, Melvin; Tohen, Mauricio; Kocsis, James H; Ketter, Terence A; Friedman, Edward S; Deckersbach, Thilo; Ostacher, Michael J; Iosifescu, Dan V; McElroy, Susan; Nierenberg, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    Immune alterations may play a role in bipolar disorder etiology; however, the relationship between overall immune system functioning and mood symptom severity is unknown. The two comparative effectiveness trials, the Clinical and Health Outcomes Initiatives in Comparative Effectiveness for Bipolar Disorder Study (Bipolar CHOICE) and the Lithium Treatment Moderate-Dose Use Study (LiTMUS), were similar trials among patients with bipolar disorder. At study entry, white blood cell count and bipolar mood symptom severity (via Montgomery-Aasberg Depression Rating Scale and Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale) were assessed. We performed analysis of variance and linear regression analyses to investigate relationships between deviations from median white blood cell and multinomial regression analysis between higher and lower white blood cell levels. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Among 482 Bipolar CHOICE participants, for each 1.0 × 10(9)/L white blood cell deviation, the overall Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale severity increased significantly among men (coefficient = 2.13; 95% confidence interval = [0.46, -3.79]; p = 0.013), but not among women (coefficient = 0.87; 95% confidence interval = [-0.87, -2.61]; p = 0.33). Interaction analyses showed a trend toward greater Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale symptom severity among men (coefficient = 1.51; 95% confidence interval = [-0.81, -3.82]; p = 0.2). Among 283 LiTMUS participants, higher deviation from the median white blood cell showed a trend toward higher Montgomery-Aasberg Depression Rating Scale scores among men (coefficient = 1.33; 95% confidence interval = [-0.22, -2.89]; p = 0.09), but not among women (coefficient = 0.34; 95% confidence interval = [-0.64, -1.32]; p = 0.50). When combining LiTMUS and Bipolar CHOICE, Montgomery-Aasberg Depression Rating Scale scores

  2. Children's white blood cell counts in relation to developmental exposures to methylmercury and persistent organic pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Shamim, Z; Kielsen, Katrine

    2017-01-01

    Background To explore possible markers of developmental immunotoxicity, we prospectively examined 56 children to determine associations between exposures to methylmercury and persistent organic pollutants since birth and the comprehensive differential counts of white blood cells (WBC) at age 5...... years. Materials and methods Extended differential count included: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes (includingT cells, NK cells, and B cells), and monocytes. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides, five perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs...

  3. Heterogeneity in white blood cells has potential to confound DNA methylation measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn T Adalsteinsson

    Full Text Available Epigenetic studies are commonly conducted on DNA from tissue samples. However, tissues are ensembles of cells that may each have their own epigenetic profile, and therefore inter-individual cellular heterogeneity may compromise these studies. Here, we explore the potential for such confounding on DNA methylation measurement outcomes when using DNA from whole blood. DNA methylation was measured using pyrosequencing-based methodology in whole blood (n = 50-179 and in two white blood cell fractions (n = 20, isolated using density gradient centrifugation, in four CGIs (CpG Islands located in genes HHEX (10 CpG sites assayed, KCNJ11 (8 CpGs, KCNQ1 (4 CpGs and PM20D1 (7 CpGs. Cellular heterogeneity (variation in proportional white blood cell counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils, counted by an automated cell counter explained up to 40% (p<0.0001 of the inter-individual variation in whole blood DNA methylation levels in the HHEX CGI, but not a significant proportion of the variation in the other three CGIs tested. DNA methylation levels in the two cell fractions, polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, differed significantly in the HHEX CGI; specifically the average absolute difference ranged between 3.4-15.7 percentage points per CpG site. In the other three CGIs tested, methylation levels in the two fractions did not differ significantly, and/or the difference was more moderate. In the examined CGIs, methylation levels were highly correlated between cell fractions. In summary, our analysis detects region-specific differential DNA methylation between white blood cell subtypes, which can confound the outcome of whole blood DNA methylation measurements. Finally, by demonstrating the high correlation between methylation levels in cell fractions, our results suggest a possibility to use a proportional number of a single white blood cell type to correct for this confounding effect in analyses.

  4. PYGM expression analysis in white blood cells: a complementary tool for diagnosing McArdle disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luna, Noemí; Brull, Astrid; Lucia, Alejandro; Santalla, Alfredo; Garatachea, Nuria; Martí, Ramon; Andreu, Antoni L; Pinós, Tomàs

    2014-12-01

    McArdle disease is caused by an inherited deficiency of the enzyme myophosphorylase, resulting in exercise intolerance from childhood and acute crises of early fatigue and contractures. In severe cases, these manifestations can be accompanied by rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, and fatal renal failure. Diagnosis of McArdle disease is based on clinical diagnostic tests, together with an absence of myophosphorylase activity in skeletal muscle biopsies and genetic analysis of the myophosphorylase-encoding gene, PYGM. The recently reported association between myophosphorylase and Rac1 GTPase in a T lymphocyte cell line prompted us to study myophosphorylase expression in white blood cells (WBCs) from 20 healthy donors and 30 McArdle patients by flow cytometry using a fluorescent-labeled PYGM antibody. We found that T lymphocytes expressed myophosphorylase in healthy donors, but expression was significantly lower in McArdle patients (pblood cells from McArdle patients. Nevertheless, in 13% of patients (who were either heterozygotes or homozygotes for the most common PYGM pathogenic mutation among Caucasians (p.R50X)), the percentage of myophosphorylase-positive white blood cells was not different compared with the control group. Our findings suggest that analysis of myophosphorylase expression in white blood cells might be a useful, less-invasive, complementary test for diagnosing McArdle disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The responses of white blood cells to weight loss among young male judoists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardalan Shariat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was the assessment of white blood cells in response to acute and gradual weight loss among young male judoists. Material and Methods—Twenty four healthy young judoists aged 17.0±1.2 years (mean ± SD, with one year of experience in judo training, selected and they were randomly classified in two groups of acute weight loss and gradual weight loss. Blood sampling was conducted in three stages: 1 before weight loss, 2 18 hours after weight loss, and 3 after the last phase of physical exercise performance tests. Results— The average amount of white blood cells in the phase 2 for both groups didn’t increase meaningfully (Acute: P=0. 53, Gradual: P=0.48 but the increase in the phase 3 for both groups was significant (P<0.01. Conclusion— This study concludes that acute weight loss can result in changing the level of white blood cells which are determined in immunity system and related disease.

  6. Relationship between white blood cells and hypertension in Chinese adults: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Ting; Gong, Ying; Zhu, Ruihua; Liu, Xuekui; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Yu; Qiu, Qinqin; Qi, Lu; Liang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Increased blood pressure was associated with increased white blood cell count (adjusted p hypertension across white blood cell count quintiles were 1.00, 0.99 (0.89-1.09), 1.11 (1.01-1.22), 1.09 (0.99-1.20), and 1.19 (1.08-1.31) (p for trend blood cell count had an additive effect on systolic blood pressure (p for interaction = 0.047). Therefore, white blood cell count could independently predict hypertension in Chinese adults.

  7. A color and shape based algorithm for segmentation of white blood cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Salim; Ozyurek, Emel; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2014-06-01

    Computer-based imaging systems are becoming important tools for quantitative assessment of peripheral blood and bone marrow samples to help experts diagnose blood disorders such as acute leukemia. These systems generally initiate a segmentation stage where white blood cells are separated from the background and other nonsalient objects. As the success of such imaging systems mainly depends on the accuracy of this stage, studies attach great importance for developing accurate segmentation algorithms. Although previous studies give promising results for segmentation of sparsely distributed normal white blood cells, only a few of them focus on segmenting touching and overlapping cell clusters, which is usually the case when leukemic cells are present. In this article, we present a new algorithm for segmentation of both normal and leukemic cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow images. In this algorithm, we propose to model color and shape characteristics of white blood cells by defining two transformations and introduce an efficient use of these transformations in a marker-controlled watershed algorithm. Particularly, these domain specific characteristics are used to identify markers and define the marking function of the watershed algorithm as well as to eliminate false white blood cells in a postprocessing step. Working on 650 white blood cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow images, our experiments reveal that the proposed algorithm improves the segmentation performance compared with its counterparts, leading to high accuracies for both sparsely distributed normal white blood cells and dense leukemic cell clusters. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  8. White blood cell counting analysis of blood smear images using various segmentation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safuan, Syadia Nabilah Mohd; Tomari, Razali; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Othman, Nurmiza

    2017-09-01

    In white blood cell (WBC) diagnosis, the most crucial measurement parameter is the WBC counting. Such information is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer therapy and to diagnose several hidden infection within human body. The current practice of manual WBC counting is laborious and a very subjective assessment which leads to the invention of computer aided system (CAS) with rigorous image processing solution. In the CAS counting work, segmentation is the crucial step to ensure the accuracy of the counted cell. The optimal segmentation strategy that can work under various blood smeared image acquisition conditions is remain a great challenge. In this paper, a comparison between different segmentation methods based on color space analysis to get the best counting outcome is elaborated. Initially, color space correction is applied to the original blood smeared image to standardize the image color intensity level. Next, white blood cell segmentation is performed by using combination of several color analysis subtraction which are RGB, CMYK and HSV, and Otsu thresholding. Noises and unwanted regions that present after the segmentation process is eliminated by applying a combination of morphological and Connected Component Labelling (CCL) filter. Eventually, Circle Hough Transform (CHT) method is applied to the segmented image to estimate the number of WBC including the one under the clump region. From the experiment, it is found that G-S yields the best performance.

  9. White blood cell segmentation by circle detection using electromagnetism-like optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Erik; Oliva, Diego; Díaz, Margarita; Zaldivar, Daniel; Pérez-Cisneros, Marco; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Medical imaging is a relevant field of application of image processing algorithms. In particular, the analysis of white blood cell (WBC) images has engaged researchers from fields of medicine and computer vision alike. Since WBCs can be approximated by a quasicircular form, a circular detector algorithm may be successfully applied. This paper presents an algorithm for the automatic detection of white blood cells embedded into complicated and cluttered smear images that considers the complete process as a circle detection problem. The approach is based on a nature-inspired technique called the electromagnetism-like optimization (EMO) algorithm which is a heuristic method that follows electromagnetism principles for solving complex optimization problems. The proposed approach uses an objective function which measures the resemblance of a candidate circle to an actual WBC. Guided by the values of such objective function, the set of encoded candidate circles are evolved by using EMO, so that they can fit into the actual blood cells contained in the edge map of the image. Experimental results from blood cell images with a varying range of complexity are included to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique regarding detection, robustness, and stability.

  10. White Blood Cell Segmentation by Circle Detection Using Electromagnetism-Like Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Cuevas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging is a relevant field of application of image processing algorithms. In particular, the analysis of white blood cell (WBC images has engaged researchers from fields of medicine and computer vision alike. Since WBCs can be approximated by a quasicircular form, a circular detector algorithm may be successfully applied. This paper presents an algorithm for the automatic detection of white blood cells embedded into complicated and cluttered smear images that considers the complete process as a circle detection problem. The approach is based on a nature-inspired technique called the electromagnetism-like optimization (EMO algorithm which is a heuristic method that follows electromagnetism principles for solving complex optimization problems. The proposed approach uses an objective function which measures the resemblance of a candidate circle to an actual WBC. Guided by the values of such objective function, the set of encoded candidate circles are evolved by using EMO, so that they can fit into the actual blood cells contained in the edge map of the image. Experimental results from blood cell images with a varying range of complexity are included to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique regarding detection, robustness, and stability.

  11. Peripheral white blood cells profile of biodegradable metal implant in mice animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramitha, Devi; Noviana, Deni; Estuningsih, Sri; Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul; Nasution, Ahmad Kafrawi; Hermawan, Hendra

    2015-09-01

    Biocompatibility or safety of the medical device is considered important. It can be determined by blood profile examination. The aim of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of biodegradable metal implant through peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) profile approach. Forty eight male ddy mice were divided into four groups according to the materials implanted: iron wire (Fe), magnesium rod (Mg), stainless steel surgical wire (SS316L) and control with sham (K). Implants were inserted and attached onto the right femoral bone on latero-medial region. In this study, peripheral white blood cells and leukocyte differentiation were the parameters examined. The result showed that the WBCs value of all groups were decreased at the first day after implantation, increased at the 10th day and continued increasing at the 30th day of observation, except Mg group which has decreased. Neutrophil, as an inflammatory cells, was increased at the early weeks and decreased at the day-30 after surgery in all groups. Despite, these values during the observation were still within the normal range. As a conclus ion, biodegradable metal implants lead to an inflammatory reaction, with no adverse effect on WBC value found.

  12. White Blood Cell Segmentation by Circle Detection Using Electromagnetism-Like Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Diego; Díaz, Margarita; Zaldivar, Daniel; Pérez-Cisneros, Marco; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Medical imaging is a relevant field of application of image processing algorithms. In particular, the analysis of white blood cell (WBC) images has engaged researchers from fields of medicine and computer vision alike. Since WBCs can be approximated by a quasicircular form, a circular detector algorithm may be successfully applied. This paper presents an algorithm for the automatic detection of white blood cells embedded into complicated and cluttered smear images that considers the complete process as a circle detection problem. The approach is based on a nature-inspired technique called the electromagnetism-like optimization (EMO) algorithm which is a heuristic method that follows electromagnetism principles for solving complex optimization problems. The proposed approach uses an objective function which measures the resemblance of a candidate circle to an actual WBC. Guided by the values of such objective function, the set of encoded candidate circles are evolved by using EMO, so that they can fit into the actual blood cells contained in the edge map of the image. Experimental results from blood cell images with a varying range of complexity are included to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique regarding detection, robustness, and stability. PMID:23476713

  13. Peripheral white blood cells profile of biodegradable metal implant in mice animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramitha, Devi; Noviana, Deni, E-mail: deni@ipb.ac.id; Estuningsih, Sri [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Bogor (Indonesia); Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Bogor (Indonesia); Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Nasution, Ahmad Kafrawi [Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Faculty of Engineering, Muhammadiyah University of Riau (UMRI), Pekanbaru (Indonesia); Hermawan, Hendra [Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering & CHU de Québec Research Center, Laval University (ULaval) (Canada)

    2015-09-30

    Biocompatibility or safety of the medical device is considered important. It can be determined by blood profile examination. The aim of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of biodegradable metal implant through peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) profile approach. Forty eight male ddy mice were divided into four groups according to the materials implanted: iron wire (Fe), magnesium rod (Mg), stainless steel surgical wire (SS316L) and control with sham (K). Implants were inserted and attached onto the right femoral bone on latero-medial region. In this study, peripheral white blood cells and leukocyte differentiation were the parameters examined. The result showed that the WBCs value of all groups were decreased at the first day after implantation, increased at the 10th day and continued increasing at the 30th day of observation, except Mg group which has decreased. Neutrophil, as an inflammatory cells, was increased at the early weeks and decreased at the day-30 after surgery in all groups. Despite, these values during the observation were still within the normal range. As a conclus ion, biodegradable metal implants lead to an inflammatory reaction, with no adverse effect on WBC value found.

  14. SU-F-I-40: Impact of Scan Length On Patient Dose in Abdomen/pelvis CT Diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, I; Song, J; Kim, K [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To analysis the impact of scan length on patient doses in abdomen/pelvis CT diagnosis of each hospital. Methods: Scan length of 7 hospitals from abdomen/pelvis CT diagnosis was surveyed in Korea. Surveyed scan lengths were additional distance above diaphragm and distance below pubic symphysis except for standard scan range between diaphragm and pubic symphysis. Patient dose was estimated for adult male and female according to scan length of each hospital. CT-Expo was used to estimate the patient dose under identical equipment settings (120 kVp, 100 mAs, 10 mm collimation width, etc.) except scan length. Effective dose was calculated by using tissue weighting factor of ICRP 103 recommendation. Increase rate of effective dose was calculated comparing with effective dose of standard scan range Results: Scan lengths of abdomen/pelvis CT diagnosis of each hospital were different. Also effective dose was increased with increasing the scan length. Generally increasing the distance above diaphragm caused increase of effective dose of male and female, but increasing the distance below pubic symphysis caused increase of effective dose of male. Conclusion: We estimated the patient dose according to scan length of each hospital in abdomen/pelvis CT diagnosis. Effective dose was increased by increasing the scan length because dose of organs with high tissue weighting factor such as lung, breast, testis were increased. Scan length is important factor on patient dose in CT diagnosis. If radiologic technologist interested in patient dose, decreasing the unnecessary scan length will decrease the risk of patients from radiation. This research was supported by a grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant number: HI13C0004).

  15. Changes in circulatory white blood cells of mice and rats due to acute trichothecene intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergers, W W; van Dura, E A; van der Stap, J G

    1987-04-01

    In mice, administration of pure T-2 toxin caused a rapid decrease of lymphocyte counts, which was linear with respect to dose, whereas granulocyte counts showed a delayed decrease. The blood cell counts of both cell types attained normal values after 4-7 days. Similar results were obtained for crude A-, B- and macrocyclic type trichothecene. Intoxication of rats with T-2 toxin or crude A-type trichothecene caused changes in white blood cells, which differed quantitatively from those in the mouse: lymphocyte counts decreased less and a rapid transient increase of granulocytes was more obvious. Results of this study show that lymphocyte and granulocyte blood cell counts of small rodents respond sensitively to acute intoxication with various trichothecenes.

  16. Separation of cancer cells from white blood cells by pinched flow fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant; Ashley, Neil; Koprowska, Kamila

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the microfluidic size-separation technique pinched flow fractionation (PFF) is used to separate cancer cells from white blood cells (WBCs). The cells are separated at efficiencies above 90% for both cell types. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are found in the blood of cancer patients...... and can form new tumors. CTCs are rare cells in blood, but they are important for the understanding of metastasis. There is therefore a high interest in developing a method for the enrichment of CTCs from blood samples, which also enables further analysis of the separated cells. The separation...... is challenged by the size overlap between cancer cells and the 106 times more abundant WBCs. The size overlap prevents high efficiency separation, however we demonstrate that cell deformability can be exploited in PFF devices to gain higher efficiencies than expected from the size distribution of the cells....

  17. Leukogram and white blood cells count in native people of Chukotka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyrgolkay, L A; Nikitin, Y P

    2001-11-01

    A representative sample of male and female Chukotka natives aged 25-6 years (362 persons) has been surveyed using the cross-sectional epidemiological method. The results have been compared with the data obtained when surveying a representative sample of the non-organised population of the same age in Novosibirsk (n = 2071 persons). The mean age was 43 years. The total count of white blood cells (WBC) in peripheral blood of Chukotka natives was lower than the corresponding values of that index in the inhabitants of Novosibirsk, the 10-90% range of white blood counts being 3.0-7.0 10(9)/l in natives and 4.0-9.0 10(9)/l in residents of Novosibirsk. A significant incidence of leukopenias (leukogram) has been found in native Chukotka people, particularly relative and absolute lymphocytopenia.

  18. Effect of Active and Passive Recovery on Athletes' White Blood Cell Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Piraki, MA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesExercise affects the immune system. The aim of this study is comparison of the effect of active and passive recovery (AR and RR, respectively on differential white blood cell (WBC count after an exhaustive exercise session in athlete males.Methods Twenty male athletes who signed an informed consent form were randomly divided in to two equal groups. Their blood samples were drawn at rest, immediately after an exhaustive exercise session, immediately after 15 minutes active and passive recovery from an exhaustive exercise session. A WBC’s (lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basohils, and eosinophils count was done on all of these samples.This exercise protocol was based on the Bruce Protocol Treadmill Stress Test until feeling excessive fatigue followed by AR (first group, and RR (second group.Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney test were used for descriptive and statistical analysis on collected raw data. Statistical significance in this analysis was set at P ≤ 0.05.ResultsA session of exhaustive exercise increased the number of WBCs (except for eosinophils with a statistical significant differences of (P0.05.ConclusionThe results show a session of exhaustive exercise increases the blood leukocytes, except for eosinophils. Also, taking 15 minutes recovery (AR or RR has no effect on athlete's WBC count. It means the type of recovery has no special and different effect on athlete's WBC count. In fact, if there are any changes in WBC count during or after exhaustive exercise, they are not due to the type of 15 minutes recovery. Furthermore, under the conditions of this study after completing the AR and RR, number of the blood leukocytes was over their basal level.Keywords: Active Recovery, Passive Recovery, White Blood Cell Count, Athletes.

  19. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of white blood cells from chikungunya fever patients of different severities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikan, Nitwara; Khongwichit, Sarawut; Phuklia, Weerawat; Ubol, Sukathida; Thonsakulprasert, Tipparat; Thannagith, Montri; Tanramluk, Duangrudee; Paemanee, Atchara; Kittisenachai, Suthathip; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Smith, Duncan R

    2014-04-11

    Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is a recently re-emerged mosquito transmitted viral disease caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an Alphavirus belonging to the family Togaviridae. Infection of humans with CHIKV can result in CHIKF of variable severity, although the factors mediating disease severity remain poorly defined. White blood cells were isolated from blood samples collected during the 2009-2010 CHIKF outbreak in Thailand. Clinical presentation and viral load data were used to classify samples into three groups, namely non chikungunya fever (non-CHIKF), mild CHIKF, and severe CHIKF. Five samples from each group were analyzed for protein expression by GeLC-MS/MS. CHIKV proteins (structural and non-structural) were found only in CHIKF samples. A total of 3505 human proteins were identified, with 68 proteins only present in non-CHIKF samples. A total of 240 proteins were found only in CHIKF samples, of which 65 and 46 were found only in mild and severe CHIKF samples respectively. Proteins with altered expression mapped predominantly to cellular signaling pathways (including toll-like receptor and PI3K-Akt signaling) although many other processes showed altered expression as a result of CHIKV infection. Expression of proteins consistent with the activation of the inflammasome was detected, and quantitation of (pro)-caspase 1 at the protein and RNA levels showed an association with disease severity. This study confirms the infection of at least a component of white blood cells by CHIKV, and shows that CHIKV infection results in activation of the inflammasome in a manner that is associated with disease severity.

  20. All-plastic, miniature, digital fluorescence microscope for three part white blood cell differential measurements at the point of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcucci, Alessandra; Pawlowski, Michal E; Majors, Catherine; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

    2015-11-01

    Three-part differential white blood cell counts are used for disease diagnosis and monitoring at the point-of-care. A low-cost, miniature achromatic microscope was fabricated for identification of lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes in samples of whole blood stained with acridine orange. The microscope was manufactured using rapid prototyping techniques of diamond turning and 3D printing and is intended for use at the point-of-care in low-resource settings. The custom-designed microscope requires no manual adjustment between samples and was successfully able to classify three white blood cell types (lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes) using samples of peripheral whole blood stained with acridine orange.

  1. The white blood cell count : its relationship to plasma insulin and other cardiovascular risk factors in healthy male individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Targher, G; Seidell, J C; Tonoli, M; Muggeo, M; de Sandre, G; Cigolini, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationships of total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count to the components of the so-called insulin resistance syndrome. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: The study population consisted of a random sample of 90 38-year-old healthy men with normal glucose tolerance.

  2. Association of white blood cell counts with left ventricular mass index in hypertensive patients undergoing anti-hypertensive drug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongtao; Chu, Hongxia; Lv, Zhiyang; Qi, Guanming; Guo, Junjie; Fu, Wei; Wang, Xiaojing; Guo, Xiangyu; Ge, Junbo; Yin, Chengqian

    2017-04-01

    Although studies using animal models have demonstrated that nonhemodynamic factors, including inflammatory cells and cytokines, contribute to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), there is little clinical data to confirm this association. Therefore in the present study, levels of circulating specific types of leukocyte were measured to determine the association between white blood cells and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in hypertensive patients undergoing anti-hypertensive drug therapy. A total of 144 consecutive hypertensive patients taking anti-hypertensive drug therapy were enrolled in the current study. Subjects were divided into two groups: Those with normal geometry and those with left LVH. Total white blood cells and differentiated subtypes (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes) were counted, and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, left ventricular posterior wall thickness in diastole and inter-ventricular septal wall thickness in diastole were all measured. Analysis revealed a significant correlation between LVMI and total white blood cell levels (P=0.013). The percentage of LVH in the highest tertile of WBC was increased compared with the middle tertile (P=0.008). Furthermore, a significant correlation between the highest tertile of neutrophil counts and LVH was observed (P=0.039). However, no significant associations between LVMI and monocyte or lymphocyte counts were detected. Therefore, the current study determined that increased total white blood cell and neutrophil subtype counts were associated with LVMI in hypertensive patients undergoing anti-hypertensive drug therapy. They may provide convenient and useful markers for further risk appraisal of LVH caused by nonhemodynamic factors of hypertension.

  3. White blood cell fragments in platelet concentrates prepared by the platelet-rich plasma or buffy-coat methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra-Tiekstra, M. J.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Pietersz, R. N. I.; Reesink, H. W.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: White blood cell (WBC) fragments in platelet concentrates (PCs) may induce allo-immunization in the recipient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As the level of WBC fragments can differ between PCs produced using different methods, we compared PCs prepared by using the buffy-coat

  4. Impact of Ambient Air Pollution on the Differential White Blood Cell Count in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Brüske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M.; Rückerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdörster, Günter; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Peters, Annette

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases.To examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma.

  5. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Woo Choi

    Full Text Available The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN. A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of

  6. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Ku, Yunseo; Yoo, Byeong Wook; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon; Chai, Young Jun; Kong, Hyoun-Joong; Kim, Hee Chan

    2017-01-01

    The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN). A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of the proposed method

  7. {sup 99m}Tc-besilesomab (Scintimun {sup registered}) in peripheral osteomyelitis: comparison with {sup 99m}Tc-labelled white blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Wolf S. [Pharmtrace Klinische Entwicklung GmbH, Berlin (Germany); University Clinics Magdeburg (Germany). Clinics for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Ivancevic, Velimir [Nuclear Medicini, Celle (Germany); Meller, Johannes [University Medicine, Goettingen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Lang, Otto [UH Kralovske, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Nclear Medicine; Le Guludec, Dominique [CHU Bichat-Claude Bernard, Paris (France). Service de Medecine Nucleaire; Szilvazi, Istvan [Orszagos Gyogyintezeti Koezpont, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Amthauer, Holger [University Clinics Magdeburg (Germany). Clinics for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Chossat, Florence; Dahmane, Amel [IBA/CIS Bio International, Gif sur Yvette (France); Schwenke, Carsten [SCOSSIS, Berlin (Germany); Signore, Alberto [University of Rome, Faculty of Medicine, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Rome (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    The diagnosis of osteomyelitis is a challenge for diagnostic imaging. Nuclear medicine procedures including white blood cell imaging have been successfully used for the identification of bone infections. This multinational, phase III clinical study in 22 European centres was undertaken to compare anti-granulocyte imaging using the murine IgG antibody besilesomab (Scintimun {sup registered}) with {sup 99m}Tc-labelled white blood cells in patients with peripheral osteomyelitis. A total of 119 patients with suspected osteomyelitis of the peripheral skeleton received {sup 99m}Tc-besilesomab and {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO)-labelled white blood cells (WBCs) in random order 2-4 days apart. Planar images were acquired at 4 and 24 h after injection. All scintigraphic images were interpreted in an off-site blinded read by three experienced physicians specialized in nuclear medicine, followed by a fourth blinded reader for adjudication. In addition, clinical follow-up information was collected and a final diagnosis was provided by the investigators and an independent truth panel. Safety data including levels of human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) and vital signs were recorded. The agreement in diagnosis across all three readers between Scintimun {sup registered} and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled WBCs was 0.83 (lower limit of the 95% confidence interval 0.8). Using the final diagnosis of the local investigator as a reference, Scintimun {sup registered} had higher sensitivity than {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled WBCs (74.8 vs 59.0%) at slightly lower specificity (71.8 vs 79.5%, respectively). All parameters related to patient safety (laboratory data, vital signs) did not provide evidence of an elevated risk associated with the use of Scintimun {sup registered} except for two cases of transient hypotension. HAMA were detected in 16 of 116 patients after scan (13.8%). Scintimun {sup registered} imaging is accurate, efficacious and safe in the diagnosis of peripheral

  8. On-Orbit, Immuno-Based, Label-Free White Blood Cell Counting System with Microelectromechanical Sensor Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Aurora Flight Sciences, in partnership with Draper Laboratory, has developed a miniaturized system to count white blood cells in microgravity environments. The system uses MEMS technology to simultaneously count total white blood cells, the five white blood cell differential subgroups, and various lymphocyte subtypes. The OILWBCS-MEMS detection technology works by immobilizing an array of white blood cell-specific antibodies on small, gold-coated membranes. When blood flows across the membranes, specific cells' surface protein antigens bind to their corresponding antibodies. This binding can be measured and correlated to cell counts. In Phase I, the partners demonstrated surface chemistry sensitivity and specificity for total white blood cells and two lymphocyte subtypes. In Phase II, a functional prototype demonstrated end-to-end operation. This rugged, miniaturized device requires minimal blood sample preparation and will be useful for both space flight and terrestrial applications.

  9. The nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test and white blood cell count in acute throat infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkstén, B; Ekstrand, T; Gothefors, L; Ostberg, Y

    1975-01-01

    The clinical value of the NBT test and of leucocyte counts in the aetiological differentiation of acute throat infections was investigated. In our hands a frequency of less than 13% NBT positive neutrophils is considered as normal and a test value above 19% as "positive", i.e. indicating a bacterial infection. More than 19% or more than 1 800 NBT positive neutrophils per mm-3 blood were found in 10 of 18 patients with an infection caused by beta-haemolytic streptococci, in 1 of 2 patients with a Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and in 1 patient with both a streptococcal and mycoplasmal infection, but in none of 19 patients with a viral infection. Since 8 of 18 patients with streptococcal throat infection had normal NBT test results, the NBT test apparently is of limited value in the early recognition of these infections. A high NBT test value would however support the diagnosis. The white blood cell and neutrophil counts were of little value in the differentiation between streptococcal and viral throat infection.

  10. White Blood Cell-Based Detection of Asymptomatic Scrapie Infection by Ex Vivo Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliez, Sophie; Jaumain, Emilie; Huor, Alvina; Douet, Jean-Yves; Lugan, Séverine; Cassard, Hervé; Lacroux, Caroline; Béringue, Vincent; Andréoletti, Olivier; Vilette, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Prion transmission can occur by blood transfusion in human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in experimental animal models, including sheep. Screening of blood and its derivatives for the presence of prions became therefore a major public health issue. As infectious titer in blood is reportedly low, highly sensitive and robust methods are required to detect prions in blood and blood derived products. The objectives of this study were to compare different methods - in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays - to detect prion infectivity in cells prepared from blood samples obtained from scrapie infected sheep at different time points of the disease. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) and bioassays in transgenic mice expressing the ovine prion protein were the most efficient methods to identify infected animals at any time of the disease (asymptomatic to terminally-ill stages). However scrapie cell and cerebellar organotypic slice culture assays designed to replicate ovine prions in culture also allowed detection of prion infectivity in blood cells from asymptomatic sheep. These findings confirm that white blood cells are appropriate targets for preclinical detection and introduce ex vivo tools to detect blood infectivity during the asymptomatic stage of the disease. PMID:25122456

  11. White blood cell counts, insulin resistance, vitamin D levels and sarcopenia in Korean elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Hwan; Kwon, Hyun Seok; Hwang, Hee-Jin

    2017-05-01

    Sarcopenia is a major determinant of frailty, disability and mortality in the elderly. Whether low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and vitamin D are independently associated with sarcopenia remains unclear. In our study, sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height squared (ASM/Ht 2 ) that was sarcopenia in Korean elderly men aged more than 65 years was 11.2%. ASM/Ht 2 were positively associated with vitamin D levels, but negatively associated with white blood cell counts and HOMA-IR by multiple regression analysis. After adjustment for covariables, sarcopenia was associated with the highest quartile of WBC counts (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.21-7.14) and the highest quartile of serum vitamin D levels (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.15-0.95). In conclusion, the study findings suggest that higher WBC counts and lower vitamin D levels are independently associated with the presence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly men. They also provide a basis for further studies of the complex immune-endocrine network in sarcopenia.

  12. Impulsivity-related Traits Are Associated with Higher White Blood Cell Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Cannas, Alessandra; Ferrucci, Luigi; Uda, Manuela; Schlessinger, David; Zonderman, Alan B.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    A chronically elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The present research tests whether facets of impulsivity – impulsiveness, excitement-seeking, self-discipline, and deliberation – are associated with chronically elevated WBC counts. Community-dwelling participants (N=5,652) from Sardinia, Italy, completed a standard personality questionnaire and provided blood samples concurrently and again three years later. Higher scores on impulsivity, in particular impulsiveness and excitement-seeking, were related to higher total WBC counts and higher lymphocyte counts at both time points. Impulsiveness was a predictor of chronic inflammation: For every standard deviation difference in this trait, there was an almost 25% higher risk of elevated WBC counts at both time points (OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.10–1.38). These associations were mediated, in part, by smoking and body mass index. The findings demonstrate that links between psychological processes and immunity are not limited to acute stressors; stable personality dispositions are associated with a chronic inflammatory state. PMID:22190235

  13. Expression of candidate genes associated with obesity in peripheral white blood cells of Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-Martínez, Marcela; Burguete-García, Ana I; Murugesan, Selvasankar; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Cruz-Lopez, Miguel; García-Mena, Jaime

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a chronic, complex, and multifactorial disease, characterized by excess body fat. Diverse studies of the human genome have led to the identification of susceptibility genes that contribute to obesity. However, relatively few studies have addressed specifically the association between the level of expression of these genes and obesity. We studied 160 healthy and obese unrelated Mexican children aged 6 to 14 years. We measured the transcriptional expression of 20 genes associated with obesity, in addition to the biochemical parameters, in peripheral white blood cells. The detection of mRNA levels was performed using the OpenArray Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems). Obese children exhibited higher values of fasting glucose (p = 0.034), fasting insulin (p = 0.004), low-density lipoprotein (p = 0.006), triglycerides (p Analysis of transcriptional expression data showed a difference for ADRB1 (p = 0.0297), ADIPOR1 (p = 0.0317), GHRL (p = 0.0060) and FTO (p = 0.0348) genes. Our results suggest that changes in the expression level of the studied genes are involved in biological processes implicated in the development of childhood obesity. Our study contributes new perspectives for a better understanding of biological processes involved in obesity. The protocol was approved by the National Committee and Ethical Committee Board from the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) (IMSS FIS/IMSS/PRIO/10/011).

  14. Antigenotoxic Effect of Trametes spp. Extracts against DNA Damage on Human Peripheral White Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Knežević

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trametes species have been used for thousands of years in traditional and conventional medicine for the treatment of various types of diseases. The goal was to evaluate possible antigenotoxic effects of mycelium and basidiocarp extracts of selected Trametes species and to assess dependence on their antioxidant potential. Trametes versicolor, T. hirsuta, and T. gibbosa were the species studied. Antigenotoxic potentials of extracts were assessed on human peripheral white blood cells with basidiocarp and mycelium extracts of the species. The alkaline comet test was used for detection of DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites, as well as the extent of DNA migration. DPPH assay was used to estimate antioxidative properties of extracts. Fruiting body extracts of T. versicolor and T. gibbosa as well as T. hirsuta extracts, except that at 20.0 mg/mL, were not genotoxic agents. T. versicolor extract had at 5.0 mg/mL the greatest antigenotoxic effect in both pre- and posttreatment of leukocytes. The mycelium extracts of the three species had no genotoxic activity and significant antigenotoxic effect against H2O2-induced DNA damage, both in pre- and posttreatment. The results suggest that extracts of these three species could be considered as strong antigenotoxic agents able to stimulate genoprotective response of cells.

  15. White Blood Cell Count and Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Kim, Mimi Y; Manson, JoAnn E; Lessin, Lawrence; Lin, Juan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Rohan, Thomas E

    2017-07-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count appears to predict total mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, but it is unclear to what extent the association reflects confounding by smoking, underlying illness, or comorbid conditions. We used data from the Women's Health Initiative to examine the associations of WBC count with total mortality, CHD mortality, and cancer mortality. WBC count was measured at baseline in 160,117 postmenopausal women and again in year 3 in 74,375 participants. Participants were followed for a mean of 16 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative mortality hazards associated with deciles of baseline WBC count and of the mean of baseline + year 3 WBC count. High deciles of both baseline and mean WBC count were positively associated with total mortality and CHD mortality, whereas the association with cancer mortality was weaker. The association of WBC count with mortality was independent of smoking and did not appear to be influenced by previous disease history. The potential clinical utility of this common laboratory test in predicting mortality risk warrants further study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. A microfluidic chip for direct and rapid trapping of white blood cells from whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingdong; Chen, Di; Yuan, Tao; Xie, Yao; Chen, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Blood analysis plays a major role in medical and science applications and white blood cells (WBCs) are an important target of analysis. We proposed an integrated microfluidic chip for direct and rapid trapping WBCs from whole blood. The microfluidic chip consists of two basic functional units: a winding channel to mix and arrays of two-layer trapping structures to trap WBCs. Red blood cells (RBCs) were eliminated through moving the winding channel and then WBCs were trapped by the arrays of trapping structures. We fabricated the PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) chip using soft lithography and determined the critical flow velocities of tartrazine and brilliant blue water mixing and whole blood and red blood cell lysis buffer mixing in the winding channel. They are 0.25 μl/min and 0.05 μl/min, respectively. The critical flow velocity of the whole blood and red blood cell lysis buffer is lower due to larger volume of the RBCs and higher kinematic viscosity of the whole blood. The time taken for complete lysis of whole blood was about 85 s under the flow velocity 0.05 μl/min. The RBCs were lysed completely by mixing and the WBCs were trapped by the trapping structures. The chip trapped about 2.0 × 103 from 3.3 × 103 WBCs. PMID:24404026

  17. Association between hypermethylation of DNA repetitive elements in white blood cell DNA and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Rachel E; Clark, Paul J; Fawcett, Jonathan; Fritschi, Lin; Nagler, Belinda N; Risch, Harvey A; Walters, Rhiannon J; Crawford, William J; Webb, Penelope M; Whiteman, David C; Buchanan, Daniel D

    2014-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Methylation of DNA may influence risk or be a marker of early disease. The aim of this study was to measure the association between methylation of three DNA repetitive elements in white blood cell (WBC) DNA and pancreatic cancer. DNA from WBCs of pancreatic cancer cases (n=559) and healthy unrelated controls (n=603) were tested for methylation of the LINE-1, Alu and Sat2 DNA repetitive elements using MethyLight quantitative PCR assays. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) between both continuous measures of percent of methylated sample compared to a reference (PMR) or quintiles of PMR and pancreatic cancer, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, BMI, alcohol and higher education, were estimated. The PMR for each of the three markers was higher in cases than in controls, although only LINE-1 was significantly associated with pancreatic cancer (OR per log unit=1.37, 95%CI=1.16-1.63). The marker methylation score for all three markers combined was significantly associated with pancreatic cancer (p-trend=0.0006). There were no associations between measures of PMR and either presence of metastases, or timing of blood collection in relation to diagnosis, surgery, chemotherapy or death (all p>0.1). We observed an association between methylation of LINE-1 in WBC DNA and risk of pancreatic cancer. Further studies are needed to confirm this association. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tissue augmentation by white blood cell-containing platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, Takeshi; Kim, Hak Hee

    2012-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a matrix of fibrin and platelets that releases cytokines that are important in wound healing. PRP is produced from the patient's blood and therefore has less risk of allergic reaction and infection. We have obtained PRP with an enhanced white blood cell component (W-PRP) by optimizing the centrifugal separation of PRP from plasma. Here we show that injection of W-PRP into the auricle of nude mice gave greater tissue augmentation compared to PRP. Further augmentation occurred when bFGF was added to W-PRP, and there was a significant increase in the number of α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells in mice treated with W-PRP+bFGF. Our results suggest that W-PRP may have value in cosmetic surgery aimed at rejuvenation of wrinkled and sagging skin. W-PRP injection constitutes a new concept in cell transplantation, in which cells required for tissue regeneration are induced by cytokines released from the transplanted cells.

  19. DNA Damages and White Blood Cell Death Processes in Victims with Severe Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the mechanisms of posttraumatic changes in the blood cells, by investigating DNA damages associat ed with hypoxia caused by massive blood loss (BL in severe injury.Subjects and methods. Ninetyfive patients aged 40.6±16.5 years (from 20 to 79 years who had sustained severe mechanical injury with different BL volumes (BLV (from 100 to 4000 ml and hemodynamic disorders were examined to study DNA damages and white blood cell necrotic and apop totic processes. In terms of the victims' weight, the mean BL was 21.5±16.5 ml/kg (from 1.4 to 61.5 ml/kg. The victimswere divided into 4 groups according to BLV: 1 26 victims whose BLV was less than 750 ml (5.93±2.41 ml/kg (grade I BL; 2 23 victims whose BLV was 750—1500 ml (11.5±1.5 ml/kg (grade 2 BL; 3 23 victims whose BLV was 1500—2000 ml (23.8±4.0 ml/kg (grade 3 BL; 4 23 victims whose BLV was over 2000 ml (45.6±10.1 ml/kg (grade 4 BL, according to the type of injury: 1 severe skeletal injury (SSI (n=17; 2 brain injury (BI (n=43; 3 a concurrence of SSI and BI (SSI+BI (n=35; according to the development of infectious complications: 1 69 victims who developed infectious com plications on days 5—7 postinjury; 2 26 victims who did not. To evaluate the impact of hypoxia on DNA damages, white blood cell apoptotic and necrotic processes, the victims were divided into 2 groups: 1 hypoxia (18 of the 95 victims who had 4 altered indicators, such as capillary blood pO2, plasma lactate levels, pH, and BE; 2 no hypoxia (10 of the 95 victims whose indicators were within the normal range. DNA damages and necrotic and apoptotic changes in the white blood cells were assessed by the DNA comet assay. The plasma concentration of extracellular DNA was fluorometrically determined using a QuantiTTM HS DNA Assay Kit (Invitrogen, USA. That of 8hydroxy2deoxyguanosine was estimated by enzyme immunoassay employing an 8hydroxy2deoxyGuanosine EIA Kit (Cayman Chemical, USA. The levels of cas

  20. Relationships between Global DNA Methylation in Circulating White Blood Cells and Breast Cancer Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayha Chopra-Tandon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not yet clear whether white blood cell DNA global methylation is associated with breast cancer risk. In this review we examine the relationships between multiple breast cancer risk factors and three markers of global DNA methylation: LINE-1, 5-mdC, and Alu. A literature search was conducted using Pubmed up to April 1, 2016, using combinations of relevant outcomes such as “WBC methylation,” “blood methylation,” “blood LINE-1 methylation,” and a comprehensive list of known and suspected breast cancer risk factors. Overall, the vast majority of reports in the literature have focused on LINE-1. There was reasonably consistent evidence across the studies examined that males have higher levels of LINE-1 methylation in WBC DNA than females. None of the other demographic, lifestyle, dietary, or health condition risk factors were consistently associated with LINE-1 DNA methylation across studies. With the possible exception of sex, there was also little evidence that the wide range of breast cancer risk factors we examined were associated with either of the other two global DNA methylation markers: 5-mdC and Alu. One possible implication of the observed lack of association between global WBC DNA methylation and known breast cancer risk factors is that the association between global WBC DNA methylation and breast cancer, if it exists, is due to a disease effect.

  1. High-Throughput Separation of White Blood Cells From Whole Blood Using Inertial Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Yuan, Dan; Sluyter, Ronald; Yan, Sheng; Zhao, Qianbin; Xia, Huanming; Tan, Say Hwa; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Li, Weihua

    2017-08-29

    White blood cells (WBCs) constitute only about 0.1% of human blood cells, yet contain rich information about the immune status of the body; thus, separation of WBCs from the whole blood is an indispensable and critical sample preparation step in many scientific, clinical, and diagnostic applications. In this paper, we developed a continuous and high-throughput microfluidic WBC separation platform utilizing the differential inertial focusing of particles in serpentine microchannels. First, separation performance of the proposed method is characterized and evaluated using polystyrene beads in the serpentine channel. The purity of 10-μm polystyrene beads is increased from 0.1% to 80.3% after two cascaded processes, with an average enrichment ratio of 28 times. Next, we investigated focusing and separation properties of Jurkat cells spiked in the blood to mimic the presence of WBCs in whole blood. Finally, separation of WBCs from human whole blood was conducted and separation purity of WBCs was measured by the flow cytometry. The results show that the purity of WBCs can be increased to 48% after two consecutive processes, with an average enrichment ratio of ten times. Meanwhile, a parallelized inertial microfluidic device was designed to provide a high processing flow rate of 288 ml/h for the diluted (×1/20) whole blood. The proposed microfluidic device can potentially work as an upstream component for blood sample preparation and analysis in the integrated microfluidic systems.

  2. Using Medical Claims for Policy Effectiveness Surveillance: Reimbursement and Utilization of Abdomen/Pelvis Computed Tomography Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horný, Michal; Morgan, Jake R; Merker, Vanessa L

    2015-12-01

    To quantify changes in private insurance payments for and utilization of abdominal/pelvic computed tomography scans (CTs) after 2011 changes in CPT coding and Medicare reimbursement rates, which were designed to reduce costs stemming from misvalued procedures. TruvenHealth Analytics MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database. We used difference-in-differences models to compare combined CTs of the abdomen/pelvis to CTs of the abdomen or pelvis only. Our main outcomes were inflation-adjusted log payments per procedure, daily utilization rates, and total annual payments. Claims data were extracted for all abdominal/pelvic CTs performed in 2009-2011 within noncapitated, employer-sponsored private plans. Adjusted payments per combined CTs of the abdomen/pelvis dropped by 23.8 percent (p pelvis decreased in 2011 despite the increased utilization. Private insurance payments for combined CTs of the abdomen/pelvis declined and utilization accelerated significantly after 2011 policy changes. While growth in total annual payments was contained in 2011, it may not be sustained if 2011 utilization trends persist. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  3. White blood cells identification system based on convolutional deep neural learning networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, A I; Guo, Yanhui; Amin, K M; Sharawi, Amr A

    2017-11-16

    White blood cells (WBCs) differential counting yields valued information about human health and disease. The current developed automated cell morphology equipments perform differential count which is based on blood smear image analysis. Previous identification systems for WBCs consist of successive dependent stages; pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. There is a real need to employ deep learning methodologies so that the performance of previous WBCs identification systems can be increased. Classifying small limited datasets through deep learning systems is a major challenge and should be investigated. In this paper, we propose a novel identification system for WBCs based on deep convolutional neural networks. Two methodologies based on transfer learning are followed: transfer learning based on deep activation features and fine-tuning of existed deep networks. Deep acrivation featues are extracted from several pre-trained networks and employed in a traditional identification system. Moreover, a novel end-to-end convolutional deep architecture called "WBCsNet" is proposed and built from scratch. Finally, a limited balanced WBCs dataset classification is performed through the WBCsNet as a pre-trained network. During our experiments, three different public WBCs datasets (2551 images) have been used which contain 5 healthy WBCs types. The overall system accuracy achieved by the proposed WBCsNet is (96.1%) which is more than different transfer learning approaches or even the previous traditional identification system. We also present features visualization for the WBCsNet activation which reflects higher response than the pre-trained activated one. a novel WBCs identification system based on deep learning theory is proposed and a high performance WBCsNet can be employed as a pre-trained network. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. How sensitive is the synovial fluid white blood cell count in diagnosing septic arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy, Daniel C; Shah, Kaushal H; Friedberg, Ryan P; Nathanson, Larry A; Edlow, Jonathan A

    2007-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the sensitivity of the current standard for synovial fluid leukocytosis analysis in diagnosing infectious arthritis or a septic joint. How accurate is the standard synovial fluid white blood cell (WBC) cutoff of 50,000 WBC/mm3 to rule out septic arthritis? We conducted a retrospective study at an urban tertiary care medical center with 50,000 adult emergency department visits per year. The study population consisted of patients with infectious arthritis confirmed by synovial fluid culture growth of a pathogenic organism. The study period lasted from January 1996 to December 2002. Extracted data included synovial fluid leukocyte count, Gram's stain, culture, past medical history, and discharge diagnosis. Fisher exact test was used to compare proportions. Sensitivity and means were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). There were 49 culture-positive synovial fluid aspirates in the 6-year study period. Nineteen (39%) of 49 patients (95% CI, 25%-52%) had a synovial WBC of less than 50,000/mm3 and 30 (61%) of 49 patients (95% CI, 48%-75%) had a synovial WBC of more than 50,000/mm3. The sensitivity of the 50,000 synovial WBC/mm3 cutoff was 61% (95% CI, 48%-75%). Twenty-seven (55%) of 49 patients had a negative Gram's stain (95% CI, 41%-69%) and 15 (56%) of 27 patients (95% CI, 37%-74%) with negative Gram's stain had a synovial WBC of less than 50,000/mm3. A synovial fluid WBC cutoff of 50,000/mm3 lacks the sensitivity required to be clinically useful in ruling out infectious arthritis.

  5. Sleep restriction increases white blood cells, mainly neutrophil count, in young healthy men: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia2, Brice Faraut1,2, Patricia Stenuit1, Maria José Esposito1,2, Michal Dyzma1,2, Dany Brohée2, Jean Ducobu2, Michel Vanhaeverbeek2, Myriam Kerkhofs1,21Sleep Laboratory; 2Laboratory of Experimental Medicine (ULB 222 Unit, CHU de Charleroi Vésale Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Montigny-le-Tilleul, BelgiumObjectives: This study examines the effects of sleep restricted to four hours for three consecutive nights on blood parameters, known to be associated with cardiovascular risk, in young healthy men.Material and methods: Eight young healthy men (age 24.5 ± 3.3 years were studied in the sleep restricted group. Nine young healthy men (age 24 ± 2 years were included in the control group and spent the days and nights in the sleep lab, while sleeping eight hours/night. One baseline night was followed by three nights of sleep restriction to four hours and by one recovery night of eight hours. Blood samplings were performed after the baseline night and after the third night of sleep restriction or without restriction for the control group.Results: A significant increase in white blood cells (WBC (5.79 ± 1.05 vs. 6.89 ± 1.31 103 cell/µl, p = 0.03, and neutrophils (3.17 ± 0.69 vs 4.24 ± 0.97 103 cell/µl, p = 0.01 was observed after the third night of sleep restriction. Other blood parameters were not affected. No significant variation was observed in the control group.Conclusion: Sleep restriction affected WBC count, mainly neutrophils, considered as risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Stress induced by the short term sleep restriction could be involved in this observation.Keywords: sleep restriction, men, cardiovascular risk, cholesterol, neutrophils

  6. Effects of dexamethasone on cytokine plasma levels and white blood cell counts in depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuld, A; Kraus, T; Haack, M; Hinze-Selch, D; Zobel, A W; Holsboer, F; Pollmächer, T

    2001-01-01

    In major depression, alterations of some aspects of the host defense system and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system have been reported. Both systems are closely related, but their interaction in major depression has not yet been explored. Moreover, little is known about the effects of glucocorticoids on the circulating amounts of cytokines in humans in the absence of immunological challenges. Therefore, we investigated the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) in 17 depressed patients who underwent a combined DEX-suppression and corticotropine-releasing-hormone (CRH)-stimulation test on white blood cell counts, and on the plasma levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and soluble TNF-receptors (sTNF-R) p55 and p75. DEX induced an increase in granulocyte counts, which was positively correlated with increases in the circulating amounts of G-CSF and paralleled by decreased lymphocyte and monocyte counts. Moreover, DEX reduced the plasma levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha and sTNF-R p75. The levels of sTNF-R p55 and IL-10 were not affected. DEX-induced changes in immunological parameters did not differ between patients who had different amounts of HPA-system alteration, and were neither related to the severity of depressive symptomatology or to other clinical features. We conclude that a single oral dose of DEX, even in the absence of infection and inflammation, affects the circulating amounts of cytokines and soluble cytokine receptors, further supporting the pivotal role of these immune-mediators in glucocorticoid-induced immunomodulation. Neuroendocrinological alterations associated with major depression seem to be independent from these processes.

  7. Combining white blood cell count and thrombosis for predicting in-hospital outcomes after acute myocardial infraction

    OpenAIRE

    Rohani, Atooshe; Akbari, Vahid; Moradian, Karim; Malekzade, Janmohammad

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Admission white blood cell (WBC) count and thrombosis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score have been associated with adverse outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study investigated the joint effect of WBC count and TIMI risk score on predicting in-hospital outcomes in patients with AMI. Materials and Methods: WBC count and TIMI risk score were measured at the time of hospital admission in 70 patients with AMI. Echocardiogram was done on prior to discharge...

  8. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jin Woo; Ku, Yunseo; Yoo, Byeong Wook; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon; Chai, Young Jun; Kong, Hyoun-Joong; Kim, Hee Chan

    2017-01-01

    The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the wh...

  9. Extracting, Recognizing, and Counting White Blood Cells from Microscopic Images by Using Complex-valued Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akramifard, Hamid; Firouzmand, Mohammad; Moghadam, Reza Askari

    2012-07-01

    In this paper a method related to extracting white blood cells (WBCs) from blood microscopic images and recognizing them and counting each kind of WBCs is presented. In medical science diagnosis by check the number of WBCs and compared with normal number of them is a new challenge and in this context has been discussed it. After reviewing the methods of extracting WBCs from hematology images, because of high applicability of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in classification we decided to use this effective method to classify WBCs, and because of high speed and stable convergence of complex-valued neural networks (CVNNs) compare to the real one, we used them to classification purpose. In the method that will be introduced, first the white blood cells are extracted by RGB color system's help. In continuance, by using the features of each kind of globules and their color scheme, a normalized feature vector is extracted, and for classifying, it is sent to a complex-valued back-propagation neural network. And at last, the results are sent to the output in the shape of the quantity of each of white blood cells. Despite the low quality of the used images, our method has high accuracy in extracting and recognizing WBCs by CVNNs, and because of this, certainly its result on high quality images will be acceptable. Learning time of complex-valued neural networks, that are used here, was significantly less than real-valued neural networks.

  10. Ultrasensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for analysis of etheno-DNA adducts in human white blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Cui, S; Wang, S; Jiang, X; Zhang, S; Zhang, R; Fu, P P; Sun, X

    2015-01-01

    Etheno-DNA adducts are generated by interaction of cellular DNA with exogenous environmental carcinogens and end products of lipid peroxidation. It has been determined that 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (εdA) and 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (εdC) adducts formed in human white blood cells can be used to serve as biomarkers of genetic damage mediated by oxidative stress. In this study, we developed an ultrasensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method used to detect and quantify εdA and dC adducts in human white blood cells. The percent recoveries of εdA and dC adducts were found to be 88.9% ± 2.8 and 95.7% ± 3.7, respectively. The detection limits were ∼ 1.45 fmol for εdA and ∼ 1.27 fmol for εdC in 20 μg of human white blood cell DNA samples, both εdA and εdC adducts could be detected using only ∼ 5 μg of DNA per sample. For validation of the method, 34 human blood cell DNA samples were assayed and the results revealed a significant difference (P blood cell DNA samples; background levels of εdA and εdC could be reproducibly detected. The ultrasensitive and simple detection method is thus suitable for applications in human biomonitoring and molecular epidemiology studies.

  11. Impact of ambient air pollution on the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüske, Irene; Hampel, Regina; Socher, Martin M; Rückerl, Regina; Schneider, Alexandra; Heinrich, Joachim; Oberdörster, Günter; Wichmann, H-Erich; Peters, Annette

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies report associations between particulate air pollution and increased mortality from pulmonary diseases. This study was performed to examine whether the exposure to ambient gaseous and particulate air pollution leads to an alteration of the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases like chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. A prospective panel study was conducted in Erfurt, Eastern Germany, with 12 repeated differential white blood cell counts in 38 males with chronic pulmonary diseases. Hourly particulate and gaseous air pollutants and meteorological data were acquired. Mixed models with a random intercept adjusting for trend, meteorology, weekday, and other risk variables were used. In this explorative analysis, we found an immediate decrease of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in response to an increase of most gaseous and particulate pollutants. Lymphocytes increased within 24 h in association with all gaseous pollutants but showed only minor effects in regard to particulate air pollution. Monocytes showed an increase associated with ultrafine particles, and nitrogen monoxide. The effect had two peaks in time, one 0-23 h before blood withdrawal and a second one with a time lag of 48-71 h. The increase of particulate and gaseous air pollution was associated with multiple changes in the differential white blood cell count in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases.

  12. Segmentation of white blood cells and comparison of cell morphology by linear and naïve Bayes classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinyakupt, Jaroonrut; Pluempitiwiriyawej, Charnchai

    2015-06-30

    Blood smear microscopic images are routinely investigated by haematologists to diagnose most blood diseases. However, the task is quite tedious and time consuming. An automatic detection and classification of white blood cells within such images can accelerate the process tremendously. In this paper we propose a system to locate white blood cells within microscopic blood smear images, segment them into nucleus and cytoplasm regions, extract suitable features and finally, classify them into five types: basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte. Two sets of blood smear images were used in this study's experiments. Dataset 1, collected from Rangsit University, were normal peripheral blood slides under light microscope with 100× magnification; 555 images with 601 white blood cells were captured by a Nikon DS-Fi2 high-definition color camera and saved in JPG format of size 960 × 1,280 pixels at 15 pixels per 1 μm resolution. In dataset 2, 477 cropped white blood cell images were downloaded from CellaVision.com. They are in JPG format of size 360 × 363 pixels. The resolution is estimated to be 10 pixels per 1 μm. The proposed system comprises a pre-processing step, nucleus segmentation, cell segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection and classification. The main concept of the segmentation algorithm employed uses white blood cell's morphological properties and the calibrated size of a real cell relative to image resolution. The segmentation process combined thresholding, morphological operation and ellipse curve fitting. Consequently, several features were extracted from the segmented nucleus and cytoplasm regions. Prominent features were then chosen by a greedy search algorithm called sequential forward selection. Finally, with a set of selected prominent features, both linear and naïve Bayes classifiers were applied for performance comparison. This system was tested on normal peripheral blood smear slide images from two datasets. Two sets

  13. A novel white blood cells segmentation algorithm based on adaptive neutrosophic similarity score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, A I; Guo, Yanhui; Amin, K M; Sharawi, Amr A

    2018-12-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) play a crucial role in the diagnosis of many diseases according to their numbers or morphology. The recent digital pathology equipments investigate and analyze the blood smear images automatically. The previous automated segmentation algorithms worked on healthy and non-healthy WBCs separately. Also, such algorithms had employed certain color components which leak adaptively with different datasets. In this paper, a novel segmentation algorithm for WBCs in the blood smear images is proposed using multi-scale similarity measure based on the neutrosophic domain. We employ neutrosophic similarity score to measure the similarity between different color components of the blood smear image. Since we utilize different color components from different color spaces, we modify the neutrosphic score algorithm to be adaptive. Two different segmentation frameworks are proposed: one for the segmentation of nucleus, and the other for the cytoplasm of WBCs. Moreover, our proposed algorithm is applied to both healthy and non-healthy WBCs. in some cases, the single blood smear image gather between healthy and non-healthy WBCs which is considered in our proposed algorithm. Also, our segmentation algorithm is performed without any external morphological binary enhancement methods which may effect on the original shape of the WBC. Different public datasets with different resolutions were used in our experiments. We evaluate the system performance based on both qualitative and quantitative measurements. The quantitative results indicates high precision rates of the segmentation performance measurement A1 = 96.5% and A2 = 97.2% of the proposed method. The average segmentation performance results for different WBCs types reach to 97.6%. In this paper, a method based on adaptive neutrosphic sets similarity score is proposed in order to detect WBCs from a blood smear microscopic image and segment its components (nucleus and the cytoplasm). The proposed

  14. Aromatic DNA adducts in human white blood cells and skin after dermal application of coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godschalk, R.W.L.; Ostertag, J.U.; Moonen, E.J.C.; Neumann, H.A.M.; Kleinjans, J.C.S.; Schooten, F.J. van [University of Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology

    1998-09-01

    A group of eczema patients topically treated with coal tar (CT) ointments was used as a model population to examine the applicability of DNA adducts in white blood cell (WBC) subpopulations as a measure of dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Aromatic DNA adducts were examined by {sup 32}P-postlabeling in exposed skin and WBC subsets, and urinary excretion of PAH metabolites was determined to assess the whole-body burden. The median urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene and 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene was 0.39 and 0.01 {mu}mol/mol creatinine respectively, before the dermal application of CT ointments. After treatment for 1 week, these levels increased to 139.7 and 1.18 {mu}mol/mol creatinine respectively, indicating that considerable amounts of PAHs were absorbed. Median aromatic DNA adduct levels were significantly increased in skin from 2.9 adduct/10{sup 8} nucleotides before treatment to 63.3 adducts/10{sup 8} nt after treatment with CT, in monocytes from 0.28 to 0.86 adducts/10{sup 8} nt, in lymphocytes from 0.33 to 0.89 adducts/10{sup 8} nt and in granulocytes from 0.28 to 0.54 adducts/10{sup 8} nt. A week after stopping the CT treatment, the DNA adduct levels in monocytes and granulocytes were reduced to 0.38 and 0.38 adducts/10{sup 8} nt respectively, whereas the adduct levels in lymphocytes remained enhanced. Total DNA adduct levels in skin correlated with the adduct levels in monocytes and lymphocytes. Excretion of urinary metabolites during the first week of treatment was correlated with the percentage of the skin surface treated with CT ointment and decreased within a week after the cessation of treatment. 3-Hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene excretion, correlated with the levels of DNA adducts in skin that comigrated with benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide-DNA. This study indicates that the DNA adduct levels in mononuclear WBCs can possibly be used as a surrogate for skin DNA after dermal exposure to PAHs. 34 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. The distribution of white blood cell fat oxidation in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, D R; Fisher, N M; Meksawan, K; Doubrava, M; Vladutiu, G D

    2004-01-01

    Fat oxidation is important for maintaining health and for supplying energy for exercise. We have proposed that the predisposition for individual rates of fat oxidation is determined genetically but may be modulated by acute exercise or exercise training. The purpose of this study was to examine cellular fat oxidation in white blood cells (WBC) using [9,10-3H]palmitic acid. Sedentary controls free of symptoms (SED-C, n=32), were compared with known carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) II-deficient patients (n =2), patients with fatiguing diseases (chronic fatigue syndrome, CFS, n=6; multiple sclerosis, MS, n=31), obesity (OB, n=5), eating disorders (ED, n=16), sedentary individuals prior to and after exercise (SED-Ex, n=12), exercise-trained sedentary individuals (SED-Tr, n=12), and elite runners (ER, n=5). Fat oxidation in WBC for all subjects was normally distributed (mean=0.270 +/- 0.090 nmol/h per 10(9) WBC) and ranged from 0.09 nmol/h per 10(9) WBC in CPT II-deficient patients to 0.59 nmol/h per 10(9) WBC in ER. There were no significant sex or acute exercise effects on WBC fat oxidation. Patients with MS, OB or ED were not different from SED-C; however, in CPT II-deficient patients, fat oxidation was low, while that of CFS patients was high. Exercise training in SED-C resulted in a 16% increase in fat oxidation but in ER it was still 97% higher than in SED-C. We propose that while WBC fat oxidation is not significantly affected by sex or acute exercise, and only by 15-20% with training, genetic factors play a role in determining both high and low fat oxidation in certain groups of individuals. The genetic predisposition for individual rates of fat oxidation may be easily measured using WBC fat oxidation, as has been shown for CPT II-deficient patients and for elite runners. Ranges of WBC fat oxidation that are abnormally low (35 nmol/h per 10(9) WBC) are proposed based on genetic factors evaluated in this study.

  16. Detection of Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Foot by Imaging Techniques : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Comparing MRI, White Blood Cell Scintigraphy, and FDG-PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauri, Chiara; Tamminga, Menno; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Juárez Orozco, Luis Eduardo; Erba, Paola A; Jutte, Paul C; Lipsky, Benjamin A.; IJzerman, Maarten J; Signore, Alberto; Slart, Riemer H J A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Diagnosing bone infection in the diabetic foot is challenging and often requires several diagnostic procedures, including advanced imaging. We compared the diagnostic performances of MRI, radiolabeled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy (either with (99m)Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime

  17. On Orbit Immuno-Based, Label-Free, White Blood Cell Counting System with MicroElectroMechanical Sensor (MEMS) Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and our partner, Draper Laboratory, propose to develop an on orbit immuno-based, label-free, white blood cell counting system for...

  18. On Orbit Immuno-Based, Label-Free, White Blood Cell Counting System with MicroElectroMechanical Sensor (MEMS) Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and partner, Draper Laboratory, propose to develop an on-orbit immuno-based label-free white blood cell counting system using MEMS...

  19. Image acquisition and interpretation criteria for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled white blood cell scintigraphy: results of a multicentre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erba, Paola A. [University of Pisa Medical School (Italy). Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Veltman, Niels C. [Jeroen Bosch Hospital, ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Sollini, Martina [Arcisprdale S. Maria Nuova - IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Pacilio, Marta; Galli, Filippo [Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Signore, Alberto [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Ospedale S. Andrea Medicina Nucleare

    2014-04-15

    There is no consensus yet on the best protocol for planar image acquisition and interpretation of radiolabelled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy. This may account for differences in reported diagnostic accuracy amongst different centres. This was a multicentre retrospective study analysing 235 WBC scans divided into two groups. The first group of scans (105 patients) were acquired with a fixed-time acquisition protocol and the second group (130 patients) were acquired with a decay time-corrected acquisition protocol. Planar images were interpreted both qualitatively and semiquantitatively. Three blinded readers analysed the images. The most accurate imaging acquisition protocol comprised image acquisition at 3 - 4 h and at 20 - 24 h in time mode with acquisition times corrected for isotope decay. Using this protocol, visual analysis had high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of infection. Semiquantitative analysis could be used in doubtful cases, with no cut-off for the percentage increase in radiolabelled WBC over time, as a criterion to define a positive scan. (orig.)

  20. Serotonin (5-HT) released by activated white blood cells in a biological fuel cell provide a potential energy source for electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, Gusphyl A; Sun, Mingui; Zhang, Yingze; Cui, X Tracy; Sclabassi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies by our group have demonstrated the ability of white blood cells to generate small electrical currents, on the order of 1-3 microA/cm(2), when placed at the anode compartment of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) biological fuel cell. In this research study, an electrochemical technique is used to further investigate the electron transfer ability of activated white blood cells at interfacing electrodes in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of electron transfer in the original biological fuel cell experiments. Cyclic voltammograms were obtained for human white blood cells using a three-electrode system. The working and counter electrodes were made from carbon felt and platinum, respectively, while the reference was a saturated calomel electrode (SCE). Oxidation peaks were observed at an average potential of 363 mV vs. SCE for the PMA/ionomycin activated white blood cells in glucose solution. However a corresponding reduction peak was not observed, suggesting irreversibility of the redox reaction. The cyclic voltammograms recorded for the white blood cells bear very close similarities to those of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT). Serotonin released by white blood cells into the extracellular environment may be irreversibly oxidized at the working electrode in the cyclic voltammetry experiments and at the PEM biological fuel cell anode in our earlier electrochemical cell studies.

  1. High DNA stability in white blood cells and buffy coat lysates stored at ambient temperature under anoxic and anhydrous atmosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Fabre

    Full Text Available Conventional storage of blood-derived fractions relies on cold. However, lately, ambient temperature preservation has been evaluated by several independent institutions that see economic and logistic advantages in getting rid of the cold chain. Here we validated a novel procedure for ambient temperature preservation of DNA in white blood cell and buffy coat lysates based on the confinement of the desiccated biospecimens under anoxic and anhydrous atmosphere in original hermetic minicapsules. For this validation we stored encapsulated samples either at ambient temperature or at several elevated temperatures to accelerate aging. We found that DNA extracted from stored samples was of good quality with a yield of extraction as expected. Degradation rates were estimated from the average fragment size of denatured DNA run on agarose gels and from qPCR reactions. At ambient temperature, these rates were too low to be measured but the degradation rate dependence on temperature followed Arrhenius' law, making it possible to extrapolate degradation rates at 25°C. According to these values, the DNA stored in the encapsulated blood products would remain larger than 20 kb after one century at ambient temperature. At last, qPCR experiments demonstrated the compatibility of extracted DNA with routine DNA downstream analyses. Altogether, these results showed that this novel storage method provides an adequate environment for ambient temperature long term storage of high molecular weight DNA in dehydrated lysates of white blood cells and buffy coats.

  2. Abdominal computed tomographic scan for patients with gunshot wounds to the abdomen selected for nonoperative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmahos, George C; Constantinou, Constantinos; Tillou, Areti; Brown, Carlos V; Salim, Ali; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2005-11-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) scanning is increasingly used in patients with abdominal gunshot wounds (AGSWs) selected for nonoperative management (NOM). Triple-contrast CT scanning (i.e., intravenous, oral, and rectal) has produced encouraging initial results. The exact role and usefulness of CT scanning with intravenous contrast only is unknown. Hemodynamically stable AGSW patients without generalized abdominal tenderness were offered a trial of NOM, underwent single-contrast (intravenous) CT scanning, and were prospectively followed from July 1, 2002, to May 31, 2004. The sensitivity and specificity of CT scanning to detect organ injuries requiring repair were calculated against the clinical results of NOM. The effect of CT scanning in management was recorded. One hundred patients with nontangential AGSWs were included. Twenty-six required laparotomy, which was nontherapeutic in five (19%). These five patients underwent operation on the basis of misleading CT findings (n = 3) or development of clinical symptoms (n = 2). Two CT scans were false-negative, and these patients were operated on at 121 and 307 minutes after arrival for hollow visceral injuries and recovered without postoperative complications. Three CT scans were false-positive and resulted in nontherapeutic laparotomies without postoperative complications. The sensitivity and specificity of CT scanning was 90.5% and 96%, respectively. CT findings resulted in a change of management in 40 patients. In nine, the decision to operate was changed to a decision to manage nonoperatively; whereas in eight, the opposite occurred. In addition, in 17, the decision to observe was changed to a decision to discharge; whereas in 1, the opposite occurred. Finally, five patients had additional tests after the findings of CT scanning. Abdominal CT scanning is a safe and useful method of selecting AGSW patients for NOM. Further exploration is needed to define the precise benefits of routine CT scanning over clinical

  3. The Additional Value of Tc 99m HMPAO White Blood Cell SPECT in the Evalution of Bone and Soft Tissue Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Şanlı

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the additional value of Tc 99m HMPAO white blood cell (WBC SPECT for bone and soft tissue infections. Materials and Methods: Thirty-eight patients with suspected bone and joint infection were included in the study. Patients were assigned into 2 groups according to the presence of orthopedic implants. All patients had multiphase bone scan (BS with Tc 99m methylene diphosphonate and WBC scintigraphy. The planar images of BS and WBC images were evaluated together. SPECT WBC images were evaluated separately. Results: Group 1 had 30 patients including 12 patients with diabetic foot, 17 patients with suspected relapse of chronic osteomyelitis and 1 with septic arthritis. In 19 of 30 patients, BS and planar WBC images were similar with SPECT images in terms of final diagnosis. In the remaining 11 patients, planar BS+planar WBC images and SPECT WBC images were discordant. Group 2 included 8 patients with suspected infection of orthopedic implants. There was no difference between planar BS+planar WBC images and SPECT WBC in 6 of 8 patients. SPECT WBC images changed the diagnosis of 13 (34.2% patients in the whole group. SPECT WBC images did not have any contribution in theevaluation of the 6 patients who had reactive changes. Conclusion: SPECT images made significant contribution in discriminating soft tissue infection from osteomyelitis and improved diagnosis in terms of localization and the extent of disease. (MIRT 2011; 20: 7-13

  4. Model Averaging for Predicting the Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 Using DNA Methylation in White Blood Cells of Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahardiantoro, S.; Sartono, B.; Kurnia, A.

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, DNA methylation has been the special issue to reveal the pattern of a lot of human diseases. Huge amount of data would be the inescapable phenomenon in this case. In addition, some researchers interesting to take some predictions based on these huge data, especially using regression analysis. The classical approach would be failed to take the task. Model averaging by Ando and Li [1] could be an alternative approach to face this problem. This research applied the model averaging to get the best prediction in high dimension of data. In the practice, the case study by Vargas et al [3], data of exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and DNA methylation in white blood cells of infants in The Gambia, take the implementation of model averaging. The best ensemble model selected based on the minimum of MAPE, MAE, and MSE of predictions. The result is ensemble model by model averaging with number of predictors in model candidate is 15.

  5. Expression of CD56 is an unfavorable prognostic factor for acute promyelocytic leukemia with higher initial white blood cell counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takaaki; Takeshita, Akihiro; Kishimoto, Yuji; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Okada, Masaya; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Emi, Nobuhiko; Horikawa, Kentaro; Matsuda, Mitsuhiro; Shinagawa, Katsuji; Monma, Fumihiko; Ohtake, Shigeki; Nakaseko, Chiaki; Takahashi, Masatomo; Kimura, Yukihiko; Iwanaga, Masako; Asou, Norio; Naoe, Tomoki

    2014-01-01

    Expression of CD56 has recently been introduced as one of the adverse prognostic factors in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, the clinical significance of CD56 antigen in APL has not been well elucidated. We assessed the clinical significance of CD56 antigen in 239 APL patients prospectively treated with all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy according to the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group APL97 protocol. All patients were prospectively treated by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group APL97 protocol. The median follow-up period was 8.5 years. Positive CD56 expression was found in 23 APL patients (9.6%). Expression of CD56 was significantly associated with lower platelet count (P = 0.04), severe disseminated intravascular coagulation (P = 0.04), and coexpression of CD2 (P = 0.03), CD7 (P = 0.04), CD34 (P < 0.01) and/or human leukocyte antigen-DR (P < 0.01). Complete remission rate and overall survival were not different between the two groups. However, cumulative incidence of relapse and event-free survival (EFS) showed an inferior trend in CD56(+) APL (P = 0.08 and P = 0.08, respectively). Among patients with initial white blood cell counts of 3.0 × 10(9)/L or more, EFS and cumulative incidence of relapse in CD56(+) APL were significantly worse (30.8% vs 63.6%, P = 0.008, and 53.8% vs 28.9%, P = 0.03, respectively), and in multivariate analysis, CD56 expression was an unfavorable prognostic factor for EFS (P = 0.04). In conclusion, for APL with higher initial white blood cell counts, CD56 expression should be regarded as an unfavorable prognostic factor. © 2013 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  6. Effect of Nanosilver Particles on Alanin Amino Transferase (ALT Activity and White Blood Cells (WBC Level in Male Wistar Rats, In Vivo Condition

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    Nooshin Naghsh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nanosilver is extensively used in medical equipment. Given the importance of white blood cells (WBC in the immune system and liver cells in the body detoxification, this study has examined the effects of nanosilver particles on the white cell count and ALT liver enzyme in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 40 adult male Wistar rats, provided from Pasteur Institute of Tehran. Nanosilver particles with concentrations of 50, 100, 200 and 400ppm were intraperitoneally injected to the treatment groups. Then, the mean of ALT enzyme concentration and white blood cell count of rats were compared in case and control groups at day 12 after treatment through ANOVA test.Results: The greatest effect of nanosilver particles on the ALT liver enzyme of rats was at concentration 50ppm after 3 days of injection (p=0.002. Also the greatest effect of nanosilver particles on white blood cells of rats was at concentration 400ppm after 12 days of injection (p=0.0001.Conclusion: The oxidative stress induced by intraperitoneally injection of nanosilver particles in rats causes severe irritation and immune system and increases the creation of white blood cells and liver damage in rats treated with nanosilver particles.

  7. Air pollution exposure affects circulating white blood cell counts in healthy subjects : the role of particle composition, oxidative potential and gaseous pollutants - the RAPTES project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhof, Maaike; Janssen, Nicole A. H.; Strak, Maciej; Hoek, Gerard; Gosens, Ilse; Mudway, Ian S.; Kelly, Frank J.; Harrison, Roy M.; Pieters, Raymond H. H.; Cassee, Flemming R.; Brunekreef, Bert

    Studies have linked air pollution exposure to cardiovascular health effects, but it is not clear which components drive these effects. We examined the associations between air pollution exposure and circulating white blood cell (WBC) counts in humans. To investigate independent contributions of

  8. High white blood cell count is associated with a worsening of insulin sensitivity and predicts the development of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Lindsay, Robert S

    2002-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We examined whether a high white blood cell count (WBC), a marker of inflammation, predicts a worsening of insulin action, insulin secretory function, and the development of type 2 diabet...

  9. Comparison of Insulin Expression Levels in White Blood Cells of infants with and without Family History of Type II Diabetes

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    Reza Mazhari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type II diabetes is known as one of the most important, prevalent, and expensive diseases of mankind. Late diagnosis and subsequent delayed initiation of treatment or surveillance of patients create a variety of problems for affected individuals. This has raised increasing concerns for public health authorities throughout the world. In the current study, we aimed to find a new approach for early identification of high-risk individuals at initial months of their life. This allows us to take preventive measures as early as possible.Materials and Methods: In our study, 102 infants - from one to six months - were selected and placed in two case and control groups. The case group contained 52 babies with at least one of their parents identified as a type II diabetic patient. The control group comprised 50 babies with no family history of type II diabetes in paternal and maternal first-degree relatives. Afterwards, the expression level of insulin gene was analyzed in white blood cells of both groups. Information related to infants - referred to outpatient and inpatient wards of three main pediatric hospitals placed in Tehran - and their parents were collected through questionnaires within a two-year period. The study inclusion criteria for infants were confirmed type II diabetes in at least one of their parents, the absence of any metabolic disorder, and the absence of any disturbing vital signs. After drawing 2 ml of babies’ peripheral blood, total RNA of white blood cells (WBC was extracted, and used for cDNA synthesis. Real-Time PCR was then applied to quantitatively evaluate the expression levels of insulin gene. The results of Real-Time PCR were statistically analyzed by non-parametric tests of Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis.Results: The expression of insulin gene was observed in white blood cells of all samples. However, there was a significant difference in expression levels between case and control groups (p<0.05. There was a

  10. White blood cell and platelet count as adjuncts to standard clinical evaluation for risk assessment in patients at low probability of acute aortic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Fulvio; Cavalot, Giulia; Giachino, Francesca; Tizzani, Maria; Nazerian, Peiman; Carbone, Federica; Pivetta, Emanuele; Mengozzi, Giulio; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2017-08-01

    Pre-test probability assessment is key in the approach to suspected acute aortic syndromes (AASs). However, most patients with AAS-compatible symptoms are classified at low probability, warranting further evaluation for decision on aortic imaging. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen explore pathophysiological pathways mobilized in AASs and are routinely assayed in the workup of AASs. However, the diagnostic performance of these variables for AASs, alone and as a bundle, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that white blood cell count, platelet count and/or fibrinogen at presentation may be applied as additional tools to standard clinical evaluation for pre-test risk assessment in patients at low probability of AAS. This was a retrospective observational study conducted on consecutive patients managed in our Emergency Department from 2009 to 2014 for suspected AAS. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen were assayed during evaluation in the Emergency Department. The final diagnosis was obtained by computed tomography angiography. The pre-test probability of AAS was defined according to guidelines. Of 1210 patients with suspected AAS, 1006 (83.1%) were classified at low probability, and 271 (22.4%) were diagnosed with AAS. Within patients at low probability, presence of at least one alteration among white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl, platelet count 9*10 3 /µl and platelet count 9*10 3 /µl and platelet count evaluation, white blood cell count and platelet count may be used in patients at low pre-test probability to fine-tune risk assessment of AAS.

  11. Transcriptomic profiles of peripheral white blood cells in type II diabetes and racial differences in expression profiles

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    Mao Jinghe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Along with obesity, physical inactivity, and family history of metabolic disorders, African American ethnicity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D in the United States. However, little is known about the differences in gene expression and transcriptomic profiles of blood in T2D between African Americans (AA and Caucasians (CAU, and microarray analysis of peripheral white blood cells (WBCs from these two ethnic groups will facilitate our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism in T2D and identify genetic biomarkers responsible for the disparities. Results A whole human genome oligomicroarray of peripheral WBCs was performed on 144 samples obtained from 84 patients with T2D (44 AA and 40 CAU and 60 healthy controls (28 AA and 32 CAU. The results showed that 30 genes had significant difference in expression between patients and controls (a fold change of 1.4 with a P value Conclusions These newly identified genetic markers in WBCs provide valuable information about the pathophysiology of T2D and can be used for diagnosis and pharmaceutical drug design. Our results also found that AA and CAU patients with T2D express genes and pathways differently.

  12. Correlation between White Blood Cell Count and insulin resistance in type 2 Diabetes Running title: WBC and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdiani, Armin; Kheirandish, Masoume; Bonakdaran, Shokoufeh

    2018-01-19

    The role of chronic inflammation in insulin resistance states and the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and diabetes have been reported earlier. White blood cell (WBC) count is an easy marker for estimation of systemic inflammation. This study is to clarify whether WBC count associate with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. This cross sectional study was conducted in 283 patients with type 2 diabetes and in 283 healthy non diabetic subjects as control group. Data including: age, gender, blood pressure, height and weight, history of smoking were collected for each patient. Fasting blood sugar, HbA1C, insulin, lipid profiles, creatinine, Urine albumin to creatinine ratio, high sensitive C- reactive protein (HCRP) and WBC was measured for all patients. WBC count was measured in control group. Two groups were compared in WBC count. Insulin resistance was calculated with HOMA-IR formula. Association of WBC count with insulin resistance and metabolic parameters was assessed in diabetic patients. WBC count was significantly associated with body mass index, hypertension, and triglyceride level. There was not significant association between WBC count and glycemic index and insulin resistance. An elevated WBC count (even in the normal range) is closely related to various components of metabolic syndrome but not related to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. An on-chip instrument for white blood cells classification based on a lens-less shadow imaging technique.

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    Yuan Fang

    Full Text Available Routine blood tests provide important basic information for disease diagnoses. The proportions of three subtypes of white blood cells (WBCs, which are neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, is key information for disease diagnosis. However, current instruments for routine blood tests, such as blood cell analyzers, flow cytometers, and optical microscopes, are cumbersome, time consuming and expensive. To make a smaller, automatic low-cost blood cell analyzer, much research has focused on a technique called lens-less shadow imaging, which can obtain microscopic images of cells in a lens-less system. Nevertheless, the efficiency of this imaging system is not satisfactory because of two problems: low resolution and imaging diffraction phenomena. In this paper, a novel method of classifying cells with the shadow imaging technique was proposed. It could be used for the classification of the three subtypes of WBCs, and the correlation of the results of classification between the proposed system and the reference system (BC-5180, Mindray was 0.93. However, the instrument was only 10 × 10 × 10 cm, and the cost was less than $100. Depending on the lens-free shadow imaging technology, the main hardware could be integrated on a chip scale and could be called an on-chip instrument.

  14. Influence of platelet and white blood cell counts on major thrombosis - analysis from a patient registry in essential thrombocythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxhofer-Ausch, Veronika; Steurer, Michael; Sormann, Siegfried; Schloegl, Ernst; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Gisslinger, Bettina; Ruckser, Reinhard; Gastl, Günther; Gisslinger, Heinz

    2016-12-01

    Although guidelines recommend normalization of platelet counts as an appropriate endpoint for treatment in high-risk essential thrombocythemia (ET), retrospective studies could not prove a correlation of diagnostic platelet counts with an increased thrombotic rate. There is, however, an increasing evidence that leukocytosis is an important risk factor for arterial thrombosis in myeloproliferative neoplasms. This study considers the Austrian cohort of a European registry regarding the platelet-lowering therapeutic anagrelide. Influence of platelet and white blood cell (WBC) counts on thrombotic risk was assessed. Using the calculated cutoffs of 574.5 G/L for platelets and 8.48 G/L for WBC counts, respectively, the Cox regression analysis revealed a clear influence of elevated platelets (P = 0.008) and WBC counts (P = 0.011) on the occurrence of major thrombotic events. The time to a major thrombotic event was shortest (P < 0.001) and the frequency related to 100 patient-years was highest (P = <0.001) when both platelet and WBC counts ranged above the calculated cutoffs. Our data add evidence to the impact of platelet and WBC counts on thrombosis in ET. We suspect a particular interaction between platelets and WBC which might be based on a biological interplay depending on particular cell counts. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Haematology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Innate immunity in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer): associations with parasite infection and white blood cell counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beechler, Brianna R; Broughton, Heather; Bell, Austin; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Jolles, Anna E

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian immunology has been studied in great detail in laboratory animals, but few of the tools and less of the insight derived from these studies have been placed in the context of natural, outbred wildlife populations subject to variable environments. We investigated patterns of innate immunity in free-ranging African buffalo in relation to host traits (age, reproductive status, body condition, white blood cell counts) and disease status (bovine tuberculosis [BTB], gastrointestinal nematodes, coccidia, ticks). We evaluated and used an in vitro assay measuring bactericidal competence of blood to assess a component of innate immunity in 200 female buffalo captured at Kruger National Park, South Africa, in June/July and October 2008. Animals with BTB had higher bactericidal competence of blood. Animals with higher neutrophil counts had higher bactericidal competence, whereas animals with lower lymphocyte counts had higher bactericidal competence. This pattern was driven by animals captured at the end of the dry season (October) and may be evidence of immune polarization, whereby individuals are unable to upregulate multiple components of immunity simultaneously. Bactericidal competence did not vary with host pregnancy status, body condition, age, lactation, tick infestation, nematode egg count, or coccidia oocyst count. Overall, we demonstrate that the bactericidal competence assay is practical and informative for field-based studies in wild bovids. Our results also show a correlation between bactericidal competence and bovine tuberculosis infection and reveal possible functional polarizations between different types of immune response in a free-ranging mammal.

  16. Serum monocyte fraction of white blood cells is increased in patients with high Gleason score prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takuji; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Tanigawa, Go; Kawashima, Atsunari; Nagahara, Akira; Ujike, Takeshi; Uemura, Motohide; Takao, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Nonomura, Norio

    2017-05-23

    Systemic inflammation and immune responses are reported to be associated with progressive prostate cancer. In this study, we explored which among the fractions of white blood cell (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level were associated with high Gleason score prostate cancer. Prostate needle biopsy was performed in 966 men with suspicion of prostate cancer. We assessed age, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, WBC count, fractions of WBCs (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils), and CRP level before biopsy for associations with biopsy findings. Among all men, 553 (57.2%) were positive for prostate cancer including 421 with high Gleason score cancer (Gleason score ≥7). Age, PSA, PSA density (PSAD), serum monocyte fraction of WBC, monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR), and CRP were significantly associated with high Gleason score cancer (pGleason score prostate cancer (p Gleason score prostate cancer (pGleason score prostate cancer (pGleason score prostate cancer, suggesting an interaction of monocytes with the progression of prostate cancer.

  17. Alteration of histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation in peripheral white blood cells of septic patients with trauma and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Linghui; Wang, Yiqin; Zhu, Duming; Xue, Zhanggang; Mao, Hailei

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of histone methylation in sepsis. A total of 43 blood samples from trauma and esophageal cancer patients with or without sepsis were collected. Immunofluorescence staining of isolated peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) was conducted. Co‑stained 293T cells served as a reference, to allow the levels of histone methylation in different types of WBCs from patients to be determined. Immunostaining analyses revealed different levels of histone 3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) in neutrophils (Neu), lymphocytes (Lym), and monocytes (Mon) from trauma patients. Compared with trauma patients, the levels of H3K9me2 were elevated in the three types of WBCs from cancer patients. When combined with sepsis, trauma patients demonstrated increased H3K9me2 levels in Neu (P=0.0005) and Mon (P=0.0002), whereas cancer patients had a significant decrease of H3K9me2 levels in the three types of WBCs (Neu, P=0.0003; Lym, P=0.007; Mon, P=0.007). The H3K9me2 alterations in patients with trauma and cancer were different with the occurrence of sepsis. A larger cohort study is warranted to explore the diagnostic significance and prognostic implications of altered histone methylation in septic patients.

  18. Image segmentation and classification of white blood cells with the extreme learning machine and the fast relevance vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, S

    2016-05-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) or leukocytes are an important part of the body's defense against infectious organisms and foreign substances. WBC segmentation is a challenging issue because of the morphological diversity of WBCs and the complex and uncertain background of blood smear images. The standard ELM classification techniques are used for WBC segmentation. The generalization performance of the ELM classifier has not achieved the maximum nearest accuracy of image segmentation. This paper gives a novel technique for WBC detection based on the fast relevance vector machine (Fast-RVM). Firstly, astonishingly sparse relevance vectors (RVs) are obtained while fitting the histogram by RVM. Next, the relevant required threshold value is directly sifted from these limited RVs. Finally, the entire connective WBC regions are segmented from the original image. The proposed method successfully works for WBC detection, and effectively reduces the effects brought about by illumination and staining. To achieve the maximum accuracy of the RVM classifier, we design a search for the best value of the parameters that tune its discriminant function, and upstream by looking for the best subset of features that feed the classifier. Therefore, this proposed RVM method effectively works for WBC detection, and effectively reduces the computational time and preserves the images.

  19. The Effect of Hemodialysis on Hemoglobin Concentration, Platelets count and White Blood Cells Count in End Stage Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir A.H. Hakim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of hemodialysis machine in complete blood count with focus on hemoglobin, platelets and total white blood cells count for patients of end stage renal disease, to evaluate the effect of dialysis on hemoglobin, platelets and white blood count, to estimate the values of change session of dialysis, to clarify the major cause of End Stage Renal Failure among the study group. 3 ml of blood were collected from 199 patients, aseptically by standard phlebotomy technique by trained phlebotomist from each patient and dispensed in to tri-potassium Ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid(K3 EDTA anticoagulant containers about 10-15 minutes after the hemodialysis. The study revealed that (83,9% of patients with higher decrease range reach to 4.3g, about.(14.1% have stable concentration, and only( 2% their Hb increased after dialysis, 83.9% of patients have noticeable increase in , 14.1% of patients show decrease in TWBCs and 2% have stable count, there is decrease in platelets count in (99.5% of patients almost in and only one patient showed stable count after dialysis (0.5%, The study revealed that a significant number of low hemoglobin concentration , low platelets count and high white blood count.

  20. The utility of erythrocyte sedimentation rate values and white blood cell counts after spinal deformity surgery in the early (≤3 months) post-operative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Margaret G; Lenke, Lawrence G; Bridwell, Keith H; O'Donnell, June C; Luhmann, Scott J

    2012-03-01

    The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and white blood cell (WBC) count are frequently obtained in the work-up of post-operative fever. However, their diagnostic utility depends upon comparison with normative peri-operative trends which have not yet been described. The purpose of this study is to define a range of erythrocyte sedimentation rates and white blood cell counts following spinal instrumentation and fusion in non-infected patients. Seventy-five patients underwent spinal instrumentation and fusion. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and white blood cell count were recorded pre-operatively, at 3 and 7 days post-operatively, and at 1 and 3 months post-operatively. Both erythrocyte sedimentation rate and white blood cell count trends demonstrated an early peak, followed by a gradual return to normal. Peak erythrocyte sedimentation rates occurred within the first week post-operatively in 98% of patients. Peak white blood cell counts occurred with the first week in 85% of patients. In the absence of infection, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate was abnormally elevated in 78% of patients at 1 month and in 53% of patients at 3 months post-operatively. The white blood cell count was abnormally elevated in only 6% of patients at 1 month post-operatively. Longer surgical time was associated with elevated white cell count at 1 week post-operatively. The fusion of more vertebral levels had a negative relationship with elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate at 1 week post-operatively. The anterior surgical approach was associated with significantly lower erythrocyte sedimentation rate at 1 month post-operatively and with lower white cell count at 1 week post-operatively. In non-infected spinal fusion surgeries, erythrocyte sedimentation rates are in the abnormal range in 78% of patients at 1 month and in 53% of patients at 3 months post-operatively, suggesting that the erythrocyte sedimentation rate is of limited diagnostic value in the early post

  1. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests ...

  2. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acidosis and Alkalosis Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison Disease Alcoholism Allergies Alzheimer Disease Anemia Angina Ankylosing Spondylitis Anthrax ... smoking status. It is not uncommon for the elderly to fail to develop high WBC count ( leukocytosis ) ...

  3. The use of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime labelled white blood cells to detect subclinical inflammation of the heart after cardiopulmonary bypass in children with congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao Chiahung; Wang Yenliang; Wang Shyhjen (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Hsieh Kaisheng (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan). Dept. of Pediatrics)

    1992-11-01

    Ten children (6 boys and 4 girls, aged 1-9 years old) underwent operations with a cardiopulmonary bypass, and the technetium-99m hexamehtylpropylene amine oxine ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) labelled white blood cell (WBC) heart scans were used to detect postoperative leukocyte infiltration in the hearts. The results showed that 80% (8/10) of the cases had subclinical inflammation in the hearts (grading of WBC scans {>=}score 2), and a positive correlation (R=0.77) was noted between the severity of the inflammation (grading of the WBC scans) and the duration of the cardiopulmonary bypass in the operations. Another control group (9 boys and 2 girls, aged 2-13 years old) underwent operations without a cardiopulmonary bypass, and subclinical inflammation of hearts was demonstrated in only 1 case (9%) by the {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO labelled WBC scans (grading of WBC scans scans may provide non-invasive and directly discernible evidence of subclinical inflammation in the heart due to a transient ischaemic state during a cardiopulmonary bypass, even if the clinical symptoms and signs of carditis are not apparent. (orig.).

  4. Cost effectiveness of the addition of a comprehensive CT scan to the abdomen and pelvis for the detection of cancer after unprovoked venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Kathryn; Carrier, Marc; Lazo-Langner, Alejandro; Shivakumar, Sudeep; Zarychanski, Ryan; Tagalakis, Vicky; Solymoss, Susan; Routhier, Nathalie; Douketis, James; Coyle, Douglas

    2017-03-01

    Unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE) can be the first manifestation of cancer. It is unclear if extensive screening for occult cancer including a comprehensive computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen/pelvis is cost-effective in this patient population. To assess the health care related costs, number of missed cancer cases and health related utility values of a limited screening strategy with and without the addition of a comprehensive CT scan of the abdomen/pelvis and to identify to what extent testing should be done in these circumstances to allow early detection of occult cancers. Cost effectiveness analysis using data that was collected alongside the SOME randomized controlled trial which compared an extensive occult cancer screening including a CT of the abdomen/pelvis to a more limited screening strategy in patients with a first unprovoked VTE, was used for the current analyses. Analyses were conducted with a one-year time horizon from a Canadian health care perspective. Primary analysis was based on complete cases, with sensitivity analysis using appropriate multiple imputation methods to account for missing data. Data from a total of 854 patients with a first unprovoked VTE were included in these analyses. The addition of a comprehensive CT scan was associated with higher costs ($551 CDN) with no improvement in utility values or number of missed cancers. Results were consistent when adopting multiple imputation methods. The addition of a comprehensive CT scan of the abdomen/pelvis for the screening of occult cancer in patients with unprovoked VTE is not cost effective, as it is both more costly and not more effective in detecting occult cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simultaneous dual-isotope solid-state detector SPECT for improved tracking of white blood cells in suspected endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caobelli, Federico; Wollenweber, Tim; Bavendiek, Udo; Kühn, Christian; Schütze, Christian; Geworski, Lilli; Thackeray, James T; Bauersachs, Johann; Haverich, Axel; Bengel, Frank M

    2017-02-07

    High-energy resolution and sensitivity of novel cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) detector equipped SPECT systems facilitate simultaneous imaging of multiple isotopes and may enhance the detection of molecular/cellular signals. This may refine the detection of endocarditis. This study was designed to determine the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of simultaneous imaging of inflammation with 111In-labeled white blood cells (WBCs) and myocardial perfusion with 99mTc-sestamibi, for localization of WBCs relative to the valve plane in suspected endocarditis. A dedicated cardiac CZT camera (Discovery 530c, GE Healthcare) was employed. Anthropomorphic thorax phantom studies were followed by clinical studies in 34 patients with suspected infection of native valves (n = 12) or implants (n = 22). Simultaneous 111In-WBC/99mTc perfusion imaging was performed, and compared with standard 111In-WBC planar scintigraphy and SPECT-CT. Phantom studies ruled out significant radioisotope crosstalk. Downscatter on 99mTc images was not observed for 111In activity as high as 2.5*99mTc activity. In patients, image quality was superior for CZT imaging vs. conventional SPECT-CT and planar scintigraphy (P < 0.01). Cadmium-zinc-telluride dual isotope imaging improved reader confidence for detection of inflammatory foci. Diagnostic accuracy based on surgery or Duke Criteria during follow-up was highest for CZT imaging (P < 0.001). Novel CZT SPECT technology improves the accuracy of molecular/cellular cardiac imaging. Simultaneous multi-isotope imaging with 111In and 99mTc is feasible and aids in the workup of suspected endocarditis.

  6. White blood cell counts as risk markers of developing metabolic syndrome and its components in the PREDIMED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babio, Nancy; Ibarrola-Jurado, Núria; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Wärnberg, Julia; Salaverría, Itziar; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Estruch, Ramón; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Covas, Maria Isabel; Sorli, José Vicente; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes hyperglucemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity, conferring an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The white blood cell (WBC) count has been proposed as a marker for predicting cardiovascular risk. However, few prospective studies have evaluated the relationship between WBC subtypes and risk of MetS. Participants were recruited from seven PREDIMED study centers. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 4,377) and a prospective assessment (n = 1,637) were performed. Participants with MetS at baseline were excluded from the longitudinal analysis. The median follow-up was 3.9 years. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipid profile and WBC counts were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Participants were categorized by baseline WBC and its subtype count quartiles. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the risk of MetS and its components. Of the 4,377 participants, 62.6% had MetS at baseline. Compared to the participants in the lowest baseline sex-adjusted quartile of WBC counts, those in the upper quartile showed an increased risk of having MetS (OR, 2.47; 95%CI, 2.03-2.99; P-trendcomponents hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol. Likewise, lymphocyte counts were found to be associated with the incidence of the MetS components low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose. An increase in the total WBC during the follow-up was also associated with an increased risk of MetS. Total WBC counts, and some subtypes, were positively associated with MetS as well as hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol and high fasting glucose, all components of MetS. Controlled-Trials.comISRCTN35739639.

  7. Serum procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and white blood cell levels following hypothermia after cardiac arrest: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Affolter, Barbara; Hunziker, Sabina; Winterhalder, Clemens; Fischer, Michael; Balestra, Gianmarco M; Hunziker, Patrick; Marsch, Stephan

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate time course of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) levels in patients with therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. We retrospectively assessed laboratory and clinical data in a consecutive cohort of patients admitted to the medical intensive-care-unit of the University Hospital in Basel, Switzerland, in whom therapeutic hypothermia was induced because of cardiac arrest between December 2007 and January 2009. Infection was considered based on microbiological evidence (restricted definition) and/or clinical evidence of infection with prescription of antibiotics (extended definition). From 34 included patients, 25 had respiratory tract infection based on the clinical judgment and in 18 microbiological cultures turned positive (restricted definition). PCT concentrations were highest on the first day after hypothermia and showed a steady decrease until day 7 without differences in patients with and without presumed infection. CRP concentrations increased to a peak level at days 3-4 followed by a steady decrease; CRP concentrations were higher in patients with clinical diagnosis of infection on day 4 (P = 0.02); and in patients with evidence of bacterial growth in cultures on days 4 and 5 (P = 0.01 and P = 0.006). WBC remained unchanged after hypothermia without differences between patients with and without infection. High initial values of PCT and high peak levels after 3-4 days of CRP were found in patients with induction of hypothermia after cardiac arrest. This increase was unspecific and mirrors rather an inflammatory reaction than true underlying infection, limiting the diagnostic potential for early antibiotic stewardship in these patients.

  8. Total and differential white blood cell counts in Caiman latirostris after in ovo and in vivo exposure to insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, María A; Romito, María L; Larriera, Alejandro; Poletta, Gisela L; Siroski, Pablo A

    2016-11-01

    Agricultural activities associated mainly with soybean crops affect the natural environment and wildlife by habitat destruction and the extensive use of agrochemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunotoxic effects of the insecticides cypermethrin (CYP) and endosulfan (END) in Caiman latirostris analyzing total blood cell count (TWBC) and differential white blood cell count (DWBC) after in ovo and in vivo exposure. Eggs (in ovo) and hatchlings (in vivo) from nests harvested in natural habitats were artificially incubated and reared under controlled conditions in the Proyecto Yacaré (Gob.Santa Fe/MUPCN) facilities. Exposure of embryos was performed by topication on the eggshell during the first stage of development. The treatments were distilled water (negative control; NC), ethanol (vehicle control; VC), four groups treated with different concentrations of CYP and four groups with END. In vivo exposure was performed by immersion; treatments were NC, VC, two groups exposed to CYP and two to END. After embryonic exposure to the insecticides, no differences were found in TWBC or DWBC among the neonates exposed to pesticides versus controls. In the in vivo scenario, similar results were obtained for TWBC, but DWBC data showed differences between NC hatchlings and CYP-1 hosts for heterophil, lymphocyte and monocyte levels, and between NC and END-1 hosts for lymphocyte and monocyte levels. Research on the effects of pesticide exposure on this species is of special interest not only to assess the impact on caiman populations, but also to further characterize the species as a potential sentinel of ecosystem health.

  9. Transcriptomic profiles of peripheral white blood cells in type II diabetes and racial differences in expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jinghe; Ai, Junmei; Zhou, Xinchun; Shenwu, Ming; Ong, Manuel; Blue, Marketta; Washington, Jasmine T; Wang, Xiaonan; Deng, Youping

    2011-12-23

    Along with obesity, physical inactivity, and family history of metabolic disorders, African American ethnicity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the United States. However, little is known about the differences in gene expression and transcriptomic profiles of blood in T2D between African Americans (AA) and Caucasians (CAU), and microarray analysis of peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) from these two ethnic groups will facilitate our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism in T2D and identify genetic biomarkers responsible for the disparities. A whole human genome oligomicroarray of peripheral WBCs was performed on 144 samples obtained from 84 patients with T2D (44 AA and 40 CAU) and 60 healthy controls (28 AA and 32 CAU). The results showed that 30 genes had significant difference in expression between patients and controls (a fold change of 1.4 with a P value <0.05). These known genes were mainly clustered in three functional categories: immune responses, lipid metabolism, and organismal injury/abnormaly. Transcriptomic analysis also showed that 574 genes were differentially expressed in AA diseased versus AA control, compared to 200 genes in CAU subjects. Pathway study revealed that "Communication between innate and adaptive immune cells"/"Primary immunodeficiency signaling" are significantly down-regulated in AA patients and "Interferon signaling"/"Complement System" are significantly down-regulated in CAU patients. These newly identified genetic markers in WBCs provide valuable information about the pathophysiology of T2D and can be used for diagnosis and pharmaceutical drug design. Our results also found that AA and CAU patients with T2D express genes and pathways differently.

  10. Effect of long-term sleep restriction and subsequent recovery sleep on the diurnal rhythms of white blood cell subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasselin, Julie; Rehman, Javaid-Ur; Åkerstedt, Torbjorn; Lekander, Mats; Axelsson, John

    2015-07-01

    While acute modifications of sleep duration induces a wide array of immune function alterations, less is known of how longer periods with insufficient sleep affect immune functions and how they return to normal once recovery sleep is obtained. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of five days of restricted sleep and a subsequent 7-day period of sleep recovery on white blood cell (WBC) subpopulation count and diurnal rhythms. Nine healthy males participated in a sleep protocol consisting of two baseline days (8h of sleep/night), five nights with restricted sleep (4h of sleep/night) and seven days of recovery sleep (8h of sleep/night). During nine of these days, blood was drawn hourly during night-time end every third hour during daytime, and differential WBC count was analyzed. Gradual increase across the days of sleep restriction was observed for total WBC (psleep resulted in a gradual decrease in monocytes (psleep being associated with higher levels during the night and at awakening, resulting in a flattening of the rhythm. The diurnal alterations were reversed when recovery sleep was allowed, although the amplitude of total WBC, neutrophils and monocytes was increased at the end of the recovery period in comparison to baseline. Altogether, these data show that long-term sleep restriction leads to a gradual increase of circulating WBC subpopulations and alterations of the respective diurnal rhythms. Although some of the effects caused by five days of restricted sleep were restored within the first days of recovery, some parameters were not back to baseline even after a period of seven recovery days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between Resting Heart Rate and Inflammatory Markers (White Blood Cell Count and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein) in Healthy Korean People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woo-Chul; Seo, Inho; Kim, Shin-Hye; Lee, Yong-Jae; Ahn, Song Vogue

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is an important underlying mechanism in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and an elevated resting heart rate underlies the process of atherosclerotic plaque formation. We hypothesized an association between resting heart rate and subclinical inflammation. Resting heart rate was recorded at baseline in the KoGES-ARIRANG (Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study on Atherosclerosis Risk of Rural Areas in the Korean General Population) cohort study, and was then divided into quartiles. Subclinical inflammation was measured by white blood cell count and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. We used progressively adjusted regression models with terms for muscle mass, body fat proportion, and adiponectin in the fully adjusted models. We examined inflammatory markers as both continuous and categorical variables, using the clinical cut point of the highest quartile of white blood cell count (≥7,900/mm(3)) and ≥3 mg/dL for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Participants had a mean age of 56.3±8.1 years and a mean resting heart rate of 71.4±10.7 beats/min; 39.1% were men. In a fully adjusted model, an increased resting heart rate was significantly associated with a higher white blood cell count and higher levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in both continuous (P for trend heart rate is associated with a higher level of subclinical inflammation among healthy Korean people.

  12. LINE-1 hypermethylation in white blood cell DNA is associated with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchitta, Martina; Quattrocchi, Annalisa; Maugeri, Andrea; Canto, Carolina; La Rosa, Nadia; Cantarella, Maria Antonietta; Spampinato, Giuseppa; Scalisi, Aurora; Agodi, Antonella

    2017-08-30

    Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements-1 (LINEs-1) methylation from white blood cells (WBCs) DNA has been proposed as biomarker associated with different types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the degree of WBCs LINE-1 methylation, according to high-risk Human Papilloma Virus (hrHPV) status in a healthy population, and the association with high-grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN2+) in hrHPV positive women. Women with abnormal cervical cells were enrolled and classified by histological diagnosis and hrHPV infection. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic variables and lifestyle factors. LINE-1 methylation level in WBCs was measured by pyrosequencing-based methylation analysis after bisulfite conversion. Among 252 women diagnosed with normal cervical epithelium, with regard to LINE-1 methylation level no significant difference was observed between hrHPV positive and hrHPV negative women, also adjusting for known risk factors of infection. The association between WBCs LINE-1 methylation and CIN2+ status was analyzed in hrHPV positive women. The median value of LINE-1 methylation levels was higher in cases (CIN2+) than in controls (75.00% versus 73.17%; p = 0.002). For a one-unit increase in LINE-1 methylation level, the odds of being diagnosed with CIN2+ increased by 10%, adjusting for known factors related to LINE-1 methylation (adjOR: 1.10; 95% CI:1.01-1.20; p = 0.032). The Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis identified the cut-off value of 73.8% as the best threshold to separate cases from controls (sensitivity: 63.4% and specificity: 61.8%). LINE-1 methylation status in WBCs DNA may represent a cost-effective and tissue-accessible biomarker for high-grade CIN in hrHPV positive women. However, LINE-1 hypermethylation cannot be considered specific for cervical cancer (CC) and a model based solely on LINE-1 methylation levels has limited performance. Further investigations

  13. Evaluation of Bone or Soft Tissue Infection with Tc-99m Hmpao White Blood Cell Scintigraphy: Semiquantitative Method

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    Funda Aydın

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aim the aim of this study was to investigate semiquantitatively the diagnostic performance of Tc-99m hexamethypropylene amine oxime labeled white blood cell (Tc-99m HMPAO-WBC scintigraphy in patients with suspected bone or soft tissue infections. Methods: Material and Method twenty one patients who applied to Nuclear Medicine Departmant (for suspected prosthesis infection, diabetic foot, bone infection, graft infection were evaluated retrospectively. Tc-99m HMPAO WBC scintigraphy imaging were performed to all patients. Planar images were taken 1., 2., and 4. hours after injecting the labeled leukocytes. Evaluation of infection with Tc-99m HMPAO WBC scintigraphy was done semiquantitatively. Relative uptake was determined by setting the region of interest (ROI of lesion area on the anterior view. Rectangular ROI was set on the against limb (nonlesion. The ratio of the average pixel count in the lesion (L to that in the non-lesion (NL (L/NL ratio was calculated at 1., 2., and 4. hours images. Final diagnosis was based on histopathology, microbiologic assays, or clinical and imaging follow-up. Results: 0.55 and 1.55±0.74, 1.42±0.55, 1.40±0.55 in positive and control groups, respectively. Positive group revealed a statistically significant increase L/NL values in the data 3 hours images (p=0.002. However, no statistically significant was found between L/NL values in 3 hours imaging data in control group (p=0.223. All the data in the positive group found a statistically increased steadily. Furthermore, statistically significant difference was found between the positive and control group at 2., and 4. hours images (p=0.015, and p=0.006 .±0.43, 2.05±0.35, 1.90±SD values were found to be 1.74±Results of the 21 patients, 11 were found to have infection (positive group, whereas 10 had normal (control group pathologies on histopathology, microbiologic assays, or clinical and imaging follow-up. First, 2., and 4. hours L/NL (mean Conclusion

  14. Effects of Palm Kernel Expellers on Productive Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and White Blood Cells of Lactating Sows

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    J. Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of palm kernel expellers on productive performance, nutrient digestibility, and changes in white blood cells (WBC of lactating sows. A total of 14 sows (200±12 kg of average body weight [BW]; 2.5 of average parity were used and moved from gestation room to farrowing room on d 109 of gestation. Sows were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were a diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON and CON added with 20% of palm kernel expellers (PKE. Sows were fed the treatments for 28 days (weaning after farrowing. Blood was collected from each sow and 4 randomly selected piglets from each sow before farrowing or on d 3, 7, or 14 of lactation. Sows were fed respective treatments containing 0.2% chromic oxide from d 15 to 21 of lactation. Fecal samples were collected daily for the last 3 days after the 4-d adjustment period. Measurements were performances and WBC changes of sows and litter, nutrient digestibility of sows, and daily diarrhea of litter. Sows fed PKE had greater average daily feed intake (7.38 vs 7.10 kg/d; p<0.05 and lost less BW (−6.85 vs −8.54 kg; p<0.05 and backfat depth (−0.42 vs −0.71 mm; p<0.05 than those fed CON. However, there were no differences on digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, and energy and weaning to estrus interval of sows fed either CON or PKE. Piglets from sows fed PKE gained more BW (203 vs 181 g/d; p = 0.08 and had less frequency of diarrhea (6.80 vs 8.56%; p = 0.07 than those from sows fed CON. On the other hand, no difference was found on preweaning mortality of piglets from sows fed either CON or PKE. Sows fed PKE had lower number of WBC (9.57 vs 11.82 ×103/μL; p = 0.09 before farrowing than those fed CON, but no difference on d 3 and 7. Similarly, piglets from sows fed PKE had also lower number of WBC (7.86 vs 9.80 ×103/μL; p<0.05 on d 14 of lactation than those from sows fed CON, but no

  15. Preoperative White Blood Cell Count in Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms and Its Relation to Survival following Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Camilla; Hagen, Anne I; Myhre, Hans O; Dahl, Torbjørn

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore whether preoperative white blood cell (WBC) count may predict 30-day mortality and long-term survival following surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Secondarily, we wanted to assess the potential sex differences in WBC in these patients. The study was carried out as a retrospective cohort study. Patients undergoing surgery for intact and ruptured AAA (rAAA) at our institution consecutively in the time period 1994-2007 were included. Patients were either treated with open aneurysm repair or with endovascular aneurysm repair. Data were collected from the patients' medical records, including laboratory reports for WBC count prior to surgery. Mortality and long-term survival were extracted from The Patient Administrative System. A total of 988 patients were included, 712 (72%) patients were treated for intact AAA and 276 (28%) underwent surgery for rAAA. Patients with WBC ≥11 ×109/L had a 8.7-fold higher risk of 30-day mortality undergoing surgery for intact AAA compared to patients with WBC <11 ×109/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.2-23.3, P < 0.001). Patients with a high WBC tended to have inferior long-term survival. However, when excluding 30-day mortality, no statistically significant difference was found (hazard ratio, 1.4; 95% CI: 0.9-2.0, P = 0.121). No association between WBC count and 30-day mortality or long-term survival was observed among patients treated for rAAA. We could not identify any sex differences in WBC, neither in intact AAA nor in rAAA. We were not able identify any association between WBC and specific causes of death. This study suggests that patients with WBC count ≥11 ×109/L prior to surgery for intact AAA have a higher 30-day mortality compared to patients with WBC <11 ×109/L. We could not identify any substantial difference in long-term survival when excluding 30-day mortality. We did not observe any association between preoperative WBC count and case fatality or long

  16. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Naoya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF. The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet. Subjects and Methods One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48 and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94. Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, and TNF-α between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1 (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010 and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p p = 0.031 as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600 and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index Results Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p p = 0.005 than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437. In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p p = 0.001 smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl. There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158. Conclusion We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

  17. Evaluation of Absorbed Dose of Critical Organ in Rando Phantom under Head, Abdomen and Pelvis Spiral CT Scan by Thermo Luminescent Dosimetery - TLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhosein Haddadi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Computed tomography (CT represents 11% of all diagnostic radiology procedures but it contributes to almost 67% of the total effective dose to the human population. In head and neck CT which consist of 1/3 of total CT scans, other critical organs such as lenses and thyroid are in the radiation field. Also in the abdomen and pelvis scan, irradiation of ovaries is unavoidable. Because of high sensitivity of these organs, the probability of abnormality and cancer in these organs has increased. Therefore the dose assessment in these organs is very important. The aim of this study is to estimate the absorbed dose in critical organ of patient undergoing common head, neck, abdomen and pelvic spiral CT scan. Materials & Methods: In this study, Lithium fluoride thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLD-100, Harshaw were used to determine the absorbed dose of critical organ of tissue equivalent rando phantom (Alderson research industries, Inc, Stanford, Conn, U.S.A. The phantom was sectional in design and manufactured with a 2.5 cm slab thickness. Each section contained some holes that allowed accommodation of TLDs. At least two crystals were placed in each hole. The average value of the TLD readings was taken as the organ dose. Readouts were obtained on a Harshaw 4500 reader (Harshaw, Ohio, USA. For calibration, the annealed dosimeters were exposed to an X-ray beam resulting from 120 kVp tube voltage and calibration curve was plotted. Results: result of this study showed during head CT scan the maximum absorbed dose belongs to occipital bones skin. Which were about 11.45 mGy and the minimum absorbed dose belong to thyroid gland which was 0.5 mGy. During abdomen & pelvic spiral CT, the maximum absorbed dose of abdomen skin was 23.32 mGy and the minimum absorbed dose in the eye region was 0.15 mGy. The readout results are correlated with the results of spiral CT detector with the “ALARA” principle, we recommend suitable techniques

  18. Immune-related health-relevant changes in natural populations of Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769: White blood cell counts, leukocyte activity, and peripheral organ infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataranovski Milena V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic immune-related health-relevant changes (total and differential white blood cell counts and activity, leukocyte tissue infiltration, and related pathohistology were assessed in wild Norway rats from urban habitats. Comparative measurements were conducted in individuals of several laboratory strains of Norway rat in order to gain insight into environmental effects on the health of wild rats. Changes in leukocyte counts and activity along with tissue infiltration were noted only in wild rats, indicating systemic as well as tissue inflammation in these animals. Coincidence of these changes with chronic inflammatory pulmonary and kidney disease was observed in the majority of affected rats.

  19. Maintenance therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia revisited—Should drug doses be adjusted by white blood cell, neutrophil, or lymphocyte counts?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Nersting, Jacob; Nielsen, Stine Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    adjustment guidelines. PROCEDURE: To identify relapse predictors, we collected 28,255 data sets on drug doses and blood counts (median: 47/patient) and analyzed erythrocyte (Ery) levels of cytotoxic 6MP/MTX metabolites in 9,182 blood samples (median: 14 samples/patient) from 532 children on MTX/6MP...... maintenance therapy targeted to a white blood cell count (WBC) of 1.5-3.5 × 10(9) /l. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 13.8 years for patients in remission, stepwise Cox regression analysis did not find age, average doses of 6MP and MTX, hemoglobin, absolute lymphocyte counts, thrombocyte counts, or Ery...

  20. Acute abdomen

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    Wig J

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available 550 cases of acute abdomen have been analysed in detail includ-ing their clinical presentation and operative findings. Males are more frequently affected than females in a ratio of 3: 1. More than 45% of patients presented after 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Intestinal obstruction was the commonest cause of acute abdomen (47.6%. External hernia was responsible for 26% of cases of intestinal obstruction. Perforated peptic ulcer was the commonest cause of peritonitis in the present series (31.7% while incidence of biliary peritonitis was only 2.4%.. The clinical accuracy rate was 87%. The mortality in operated cases was high (10% while the over-all mortality rate was 7.5%.

  1. Are polymorphisms in metabolism protective or a risk for reduced white blood cell counts in a Chinese population with low occupational benzene exposures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ling-li; Zhang, Guang-hui; Huang, Jing-wen; Li, Yong; Zheng, Guo-qiao; Zhang, De-ting; Zhou, Li-fang; Tao, Xi-dan; Zhang, Jing; Ye, Yun-jie; Sun, Pin; Frank, Arthur; Xia, Zhao-lin

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variations in metabolic enzyme genes may enhance hematotoxicity in benzene-exposed populations. To investigate the association between polymorphisms of metabolism genes and white blood cells (WBCs). Three hundred and eighty-five benzene-exposed workers and 220 unexposed indoor workers were recruited in China. We explored the relationship between metabolic enzymes polymorphisms [glutathione S-transferase T1/M1 (GSTT1/M1) null, glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1)rs1695, Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) rs3813867, rs2031920, rs6413432, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) rs1051740, rs2234922] by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and WBC. The exposed group had lower WBC counts (Pbenzene-exposed workers in China, and we can make use of it to select susceptible population.

  2. C-reactive protein and white blood cell levels in schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and depression - associations with mortality and psychiatric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsdal, H T; Köhler-Forsberg, O; Benros, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mental disorders have been associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers, which can affect disease trajectories. We aimed to assess levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells (WBC) across individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression......, and to investigate associations with subsequent psychiatric admission and mortality. METHODS: We identified all adults in the Central Denmark Region during 2000-2012 with a first diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression and a baseline measurement of CRP and/or WBC count. We followed...... these individuals until outcome of interest (psychiatric admission or death), emigration or December 31, 2012, using Cox regression analysis to estimate hazard ratios (HRs). RESULTS: Baseline median CRP differed significantly between mental disorders (P=0.01) being highest in individuals with bipolar disorder (3...

  3. Typical signature of DNA damage in white blood cells: a pilot study on etheno adducts in Danish mother-newborn child pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arab, K; Pedersen, Marie; Nair, J

    2009-01-01

    The impact of DNA damage commonly thought to be involved in chronic degenerative disease causation is particularly detrimental during fetal development. Within a multicenter study, we analyzed 77 white blood cell (WBC) samples from mother-newborn child pairs to see if imprinting of DNA damage...... reliably detectable and about two times lower in child cord blood, the difference being significant at P ... arising from endogenous reactive aldehydes in WBC of both mother and newborn can be reliably assessed by epsilondA and epsilondC as biomarkers. The high correlation of etheno adduct levels in mother and child WBC suggests that a typical signature of DNA damage is induced similarly in fetus and mother...

  4. Sodium-potassium pump activity in white blood cells from children with an increased risk of developing hypertension--The Odense Schoolchild Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H S; Nielsen, J R; Pedersen, K E

    1993-01-01

    a hypertensive subgroup comprising the upper 5% of the blood pressure distribution and children from a randomly selected normotensive subgroup were eligible for the study. In the cross-sectional study 40 children from the hypertensive subgroup and 40 children from the normotensive subgroup were evaluated......We have measured the capacity of the sodium-potassium pump, as assessed by 86rubidium uptake and the number of [3H]-ouabain binding sites on white blood cells, in children aged 9-11 years, partly cross-sectionally and partly longitudinally after a physical training programme. Children from...... the hypertensive subgroup and 10 boys from the normotensive subgroup were also evaluated after eight months of physical training. A significant fall in 86rubidium uptake was observed. No control group was examined and probably the changes reflect some effects of sexual maturation on cation handling of cells...

  5. Melatonin Restores White Blood Cell Count, Diminishes Glycated Haemoglobin Level and Prevents Liver, Kidney and Muscle Oxidative Stress in Mice Exposed to Acute Ethanol Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhaluk, Natalia; Sliuta, Alina; Kyriienko, Svitlana; Winklewski, Pawel J

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of melatonin impact on changes in haematological profile, biomarkers of oxidative stress (dienes conjugates, malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidatively modified protein levels, total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme activity) in liver, muscle, kidney and erythrocytes, and glycated haemoglobin (HBA1c) in mice during acute ethanol stress. Assays were carried out in quadruplicate: control, melatonin (10 mg/kg, 10 days), acute ethanol stress (0.75 g/kg/day, 10 days) and acute ethanol stress plus melatonin groups. Acute ethanol stress caused a significant increase in the total number of white blood cells (WBC), especially neutrophils in the blood, and HBA1c levels vs. control mice. The correlation between lipid peroxidation and the glycated haemoglobin level was shown (r = 0.93, P = 0.007). Ethanol reduced the antioxidant capacity by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the level of oxidatively modified protein content, diene conjugates and MDA. Melatonin administration in animals during acute ethanol stress reduced antioxidant stress biomarkers, WBC, HBA1c levels and ROS production. Melatonin had protective effects on liver, kidney and muscle tissues by preventing the intensive lipid peroxidation processes in initial (diene conjugation production) and late stages (MDA level), and significantly reduced the level of aldehyde and ketone protein derivatives. Furthermore, melatonin restored elevated WBC count and HBA1c level and diminished ROS production. Ethanol reduces antioxidant capacity and leads to exaggerated reactive oxygen species production and consequent increases in oxidatively modified proteins. Melatonin exerts protective effects by preventing the intensive lipid peroxidation processes. Melatonin significantly reduces the level of aldehyde and ketone protein derivatives, restores glycated haemoglobin level and white blood cell count.

  6. Release of eicosanoids from white blood cells, platelets, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells in response to endotoxin and A23187.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, G D; Johnson, M; Ward, D; Fessler, J; Lamar, C; Turek, J

    1986-01-01

    Endotoxin produces numerous pathophysiologic changes in animals, including vascular endothelial cell damage and hematologic changes. Direct effects of endotoxin on arachidonic acid metabolism and the release of eicosanoids from endothelial cells and neutrophils have been reported. A rapid release of these autocoids occurs when cells are incubated with endotoxin, and this appears to be one of the earliest endotoxin-induced changes. Some of these eicosanoids may result in beneficial effects, and others may result in detrimental effects. This study was to determine the release of eicosanoids from white blood cells, platelets, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells in response to varying amounts of endotoxin and the calcium ionophore A23187. The results indicate that endotoxin has a major direct effect on vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells as indicated by its ability to increase the synthesis of predominately i6-keto-PGF1 alpha by these cells. These effects were seen within a dose range of endotoxin that is lethal in horses. Very high concentrations of endotoxin (100 micrograms/ml) were required to stimulate a small increase in the production of i6-keto-PGF1 alpha and iLTC4 by freshly isolated neutrophils. Stimulation of cells with A23187 revealed that, of the eicosanoids measured, the one produced predominately by endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells was 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, by platelets was TxB2, and by neutrophils was LTC4 (LTB4 was not measured). A mixture of all white blood cells including platelets when incubated with A23187 produced large amounts of TxB2, LTB4, and LTC4 with smaller amounts of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The results indicate that endotoxin directly affects cells and stimulates them to produce thromboxane and prostacyclin, but very high concentrations of endotoxin were required to stimulate neutrophils to produce rather small increases in iLTC4.

  7. Tetrahydroxylated-benzo[a]pyrene isomer analysis after hydrolysis of DNA-adducts isolated from rat and human white blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grova, Nathalie; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Hardy, Emilie M; Schroeder, Henri; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2014-10-17

    Since exposure to benzo[a]pyrene is suspected to be associated with several health issues, significant efforts have been made to develop efficient strategies for the assessment of human exposure to this ubiquitous compound. In this context, a method was developed for the analysis of four tetrahydroxylated-benzo[a]pyrene isomers resulting from the hydrolysis of their respective diol-epoxide precursors which are involved in DNA-adduct formation. The analytical sensitivity necessary to reach environmental levels of concentration was obtained by using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The recovery determined at the four concentration levels were estimated in average at 83% for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±), 29% for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,t-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±), and 82% for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,C-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±). The coefficient of determination of the calibration curve was above 0.997 for all the analytes investigated and the limit of quantification ranged from 0.5 to 2 adduct/10(8) nucleotides. The precision was between 5.3% and 22.3%. The suitability of the method was firstly evaluated by the analysis of DNA isolated from white blood cells of rats submitted after controlled exposure to benzo[a]pyrene. The four targeted tetra-OH-benzo[a]pyrenes as well as two unknown isomers were detected in all the treated animals. Benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,c-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±) appeared as the most abundant isomer in both treated and control animals followed by benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±). The method was afterwards applied to the analysis of DNA isolated from white blood cells of human volunteers. The results confirmed that this method was sufficiently sensitive to monitor environmental levels of exposure since all the specimens analyzed were above the limit of quantification for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydrotetrol(±) and two of them were positive for benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,c-9,c-10

  8. Low white blood cell count is independently associated with chronic kidney disease progression in the elderly: the CKD-ROUTE study.

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    Arai, Yohei; Kanda, Eiichiro; Iimori, Soichiro; Naito, Shotaro; Noda, Yumi; Sasaki, Sei; Sohara, Eisei; Okado, Tomokazu; Rai, Tatemitsu; Uchida, Shinichi

    2017-07-11

    Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is a well-known predictor of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. However, elderly patients commonly fail to develop a high WBC count in response to several diseased states and may instead present a low WBC count. Therefore, we hypothesized that low WBC count, in addition to high WBC count, is associated with CKD progression in the elderly. We conducted a prospective cohort study using 3-year follow-up data from the CKD Research of Outcomes in Treatment and Epidemiology study. In the present study, participants aged over 60 years with pre-dialysis CKD stages G2-G5 were eligible. Patients were stratified into three groups according to WBC count using tertiles (T). The primary outcome was a composite of end-stage renal disease and a 50% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models with adjustments for covariates. We enrolled 697 patients (males, 69%). The median WBC count was 6100 cells/µl (T1, elderly.

  9. Childhood growth, IQ and education as predictors of white blood cell telomere length at age 49-51 years: the Newcastle Thousand Families Study.

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    Mark S Pearce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomere length is emerging as a potential factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether birth weight, infant growth, childhood cognition and adult height, as well as a range of lifestyle, socio-economic and educational factors, were associated with white blood cell telomere length at age 49-51 years. METHODS: The study included 318 members of the Newcastle Thousand Families Study, a prospectively followed birth cohort which includes all individuals born in Newcastle, England in May and June 1947, who attended for clinical examination at age 49-51 years, and had telomere length successfully measured using real-time PCR analyses of DNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RESULTS: No association was found between birth weight and later telomere length. However, associations were seen with other factors from early life. Education level was the only predictor in males, while telomere length in females was associated with gestational age at birth, childhood growth and childhood IQ. CONCLUSIONS: While these findings may be due to chance, in particular where differing associations were seen between males and females, they do provide evidence of early life associations with telomere length much later in life. Our findings of sex differences in the education association may reflect the sex differences in achieved education levels in this generation where few women went to university regardless of their intelligence. Our findings do not support the concept of telomere length being on the pathway between very early growth and later disease risk.

  10. Childhood growth, IQ and education as predictors of white blood cell telomere length at age 49-51 years: the Newcastle Thousand Families Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Mark S; Mann, Kay D; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Parker, Louise; White, Martin; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Adams, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Telomere length is emerging as a potential factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether birth weight, infant growth, childhood cognition and adult height, as well as a range of lifestyle, socio-economic and educational factors, were associated with white blood cell telomere length at age 49-51 years. The study included 318 members of the Newcastle Thousand Families Study, a prospectively followed birth cohort which includes all individuals born in Newcastle, England in May and June 1947, who attended for clinical examination at age 49-51 years, and had telomere length successfully measured using real-time PCR analyses of DNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. No association was found between birth weight and later telomere length. However, associations were seen with other factors from early life. Education level was the only predictor in males, while telomere length in females was associated with gestational age at birth, childhood growth and childhood IQ. While these findings may be due to chance, in particular where differing associations were seen between males and females, they do provide evidence of early life associations with telomere length much later in life. Our findings of sex differences in the education association may reflect the sex differences in achieved education levels in this generation where few women went to university regardless of their intelligence. Our findings do not support the concept of telomere length being on the pathway between very early growth and later disease risk.

  11. CD20 positivity and white blood cell count predict treatment outcomes in Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients ineligible for pediatric-inspired chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isshiki, Yusuke; Ohwada, Chikako; Sakaida, Emiko; Onoda, Masahiro; Aotsuka, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Fukazawa, Motoharu; Cho, Ryuko; Sugawara, Takeaki; Kawaguchi, Takeharu; Hara, Satoru; Yokota, Akira

    2017-11-01

    The efficacy of conventional chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has been controversial as post-remission therapies for adult Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. We retrospectively analyzed 96 adolescent and adult cases of Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia to evaluate whether allo-HSCT should be performed after first complete remission (1CR). In total, 34 patients received chemotherapy followed by allo-HSCT (HSCT group) and 62 received chemotherapy alone (chemotherapy group). No significant differences in the event-free survival (EFS) or overall survival were observed between the two groups. In the chemotherapy group, use of pediatric regimens was significantly associated with favorable EFS, while high white blood cell (WBC) count and CD20 positivity were associated with poor outcome. In patients who received pediatric regimens, subsequent allo-HSCT did not influence EFS. In patients who received conventional chemotherapy (adult regimen), subsequent allo-HSCT did not improve EFS. High WBC count and CD20 positivity were also significantly associated with poor EFS in patients who received adult regimens. Patients with low WBC count and absence of CD20 who received adult regimens did not benefit from allo-HSCT. Allo-HSCT may not be required in the pediatric regimen-eligible patients; however, pediatric regimen-ineligible patients with either CD20 positivity or high WBC count should receive allo-HSCT after achieving 1CR. This study was registered at http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ as #C000016287.

  12. The effect of intensive endurance exercise and probiotic yogurt consumption, on aerobic, anaerobic, white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils in young Football players

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    G. R. Jahani ghaeh ghashlagh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intensive endurance exercise and probiotic supplementation on aerobic, anaerobic power, white blood cell (WBC, lymphocytes (LYM, monocytes (MON and neutrophils (NUT in young Football players. This study was semi-experimental, 36 young Football players with height 172± 0.77 cm, weight 66.76±5.87 kg and BMI 21.27±2.09 kg/m2, randomly assigned into control (n=18 and experimental (n=18 groups. Medical examinations and physical fitness tests were performed before and after training done. They performed a training program for 8 weeks, three times a week, every session 90 to 120 min. Experiment group consumed 400 ml probiotic yoghurt one hour before every session of training. Both groups trained aerobic exercise with 60-75% and anaerobic with 80-100% (MHR. To determine the variables blood samples were taken four times. Initially, before the training program, there were not significantly different amounts of variables. After 8 weeks in the experiment group, the levels of lymphocytes and neutrophils significantly increased. Any report about URTI infection was not observed. Eight weeks training improved the aerobic and anaerobic power, meanwhile reduce the incidence of URTI after ingestion of probiotic yoghurt. As a conclusion, it is recommended to the athletes to consume probiotic supplement before intensive endurance exercises.

  13. Comparison between white blood cell count, procalcitonin and C reactive protein as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of infection or sepsis in patients presenting to emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, Laura; Gagliano, Giulia; Travaglino, Francesco; Vetrone, Francesco; Marino, Rossella; Cardelli, Patrizia; Salerno, Gerardo; Di Somma, Salvatore

    2014-10-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) is currently the most studied infection biomarker and its blood levels seem to mirror the severity of illness and outcome. PCT is widely used together with other biomarkers, such as white blood cells (WBC) count and C reactive protein (CRP), in order to guide antibiotic therapy. This study aimed to verify the diagnostic and prognostic power of WBC, CRP and PCT in patients with suspected infection in emergency department (ED). A total of 513 patients presenting to the ED with signs/symptoms of local infections or sepsis were enrolled. APACHEII score and in-hospital death were recorded. Patients were subdivided into quartiles by age, and the biomarkers were measured at baseline. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for evaluating diagnostic and prognostic role of PCT, CRP and WBC were calculated for each variable alone and combined. When compared each other for PCT, CRP, and WBC there was no significant difference between the four subgroups. A direct correlation between PCT and WBC was found in the II, III, and IV quartiles (the highest correlation, r=0.34, pdiagnostic and prognostic power at ROC analysis. Our data demonstrate that WBC, but more CRP and PCT are reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, when considered in combination and with severity clinical score. PCT confirms its stronger usefulness as a diagnostic marker of sepsis. A multi-diagnostic tools approach is fundamental to perform a correct and rapid diagnosis of infection and sepsis in ED.

  14. De Novo Assembly of the Donkey White Blood Cell Transcriptome and a Comparative Analysis of Phenotype-Associated Genes between Donkeys and Horses.

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    Feng-Yun Xie

    Full Text Available Prior to the mechanization of agriculture and labor-intensive tasks, humans used donkeys (Equus africanus asinus for farm work and packing. However, as mechanization increased, donkeys have been increasingly raised for meat, milk, and fur in China. To maintain the development of the donkey industry, breeding programs should focus on traits related to these new uses. Compared to conventional marker-assisted breeding plans, genome- and transcriptome-based selection methods are more efficient and effective. To analyze the coding genes of the donkey genome, we assembled the transcriptome of donkey white blood cells de novo. Using transcriptomic deep-sequencing data, we identified 264,714 distinct donkey unigenes and predicted 38,949 protein fragments. We annotated the donkey unigenes by BLAST searches against the non-redundant (NR protein database. We also compared the donkey protein sequences with those of the horse (E. caballus and wild horse (E. przewalskii, and linked the donkey protein fragments with mammalian phenotypes. As the outer ear size of donkeys and horses are obviously different, we compared the outer ear size-associated proteins in donkeys and horses. We identified three ear size-associated proteins, HIC1, PRKRA, and KMT2A, with sequence differences among the donkey, horse, and wild horse loci. Since the donkey genome sequence has not been released, the de novo assembled donkey transcriptome is helpful for preliminary investigations of donkey cultivars and for genetic improvement.

  15. De Novo Assembly of the Donkey White Blood Cell Transcriptome and a Comparative Analysis of Phenotype-Associated Genes between Donkeys and Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng-Yun; Feng, Yu-Long; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Yun-Feng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yin-Chao; Shen, Wei; Pan, Qing-Jie; Yin, Shen; Sun, Yu-Jiang; Ma, Jun-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the mechanization of agriculture and labor-intensive tasks, humans used donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) for farm work and packing. However, as mechanization increased, donkeys have been increasingly raised for meat, milk, and fur in China. To maintain the development of the donkey industry, breeding programs should focus on traits related to these new uses. Compared to conventional marker-assisted breeding plans, genome- and transcriptome-based selection methods are more efficient and effective. To analyze the coding genes of the donkey genome, we assembled the transcriptome of donkey white blood cells de novo. Using transcriptomic deep-sequencing data, we identified 264,714 distinct donkey unigenes and predicted 38,949 protein fragments. We annotated the donkey unigenes by BLAST searches against the non-redundant (NR) protein database. We also compared the donkey protein sequences with those of the horse (E. caballus) and wild horse (E. przewalskii), and linked the donkey protein fragments with mammalian phenotypes. As the outer ear size of donkeys and horses are obviously different, we compared the outer ear size-associated proteins in donkeys and horses. We identified three ear size-associated proteins, HIC1, PRKRA, and KMT2A, with sequence differences among the donkey, horse, and wild horse loci. Since the donkey genome sequence has not been released, the de novo assembled donkey transcriptome is helpful for preliminary investigations of donkey cultivars and for genetic improvement. PMID:26208029

  16. Evaluation of lactate, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, procalcitonin and immature granulocyte count as biomarkers for sepsis in emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, Brad S; Tolan, Nicole V; Wockenfus, Amy M; Block, Darci R; Baumann, Nikola A; Bryant, Sandra C; Clements, Casey M

    2017-11-01

    Lactate, white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil count, procalcitonin and immature granulocyte (IG) count were compared for the prediction of sepsis, and severe sepsis or septic shock, in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). We prospectively enrolled 501 ED patients with a sepsis panel ordered for suspicion of sepsis. WBC, neutrophil, and IG counts were measured on a Sysmex XT-2000i analyzer. Lactate was measured by i-STAT, and procalcitonin by Brahms Kryptor. We classified patients as having sepsis using a simplification of the 1992 consensus conference sepsis definitions. Patients with sepsis were further classified as having severe sepsis or septic shock using established criteria. Univariate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine odds ratio (OR), area under the ROC curve (AUC), and sensitivity/specificity at optimal cut-off for prediction of sepsis (vs. no sepsis), and prediction of severe sepsis or septic shock (vs. no sepsis). There were 267 patients without sepsis; and 234 with sepsis, including 35 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Lactate had the highest OR (1.44, 95th% CI 1.20-1.73) for the prediction of sepsis; while WBC, neutrophil count and percent (neutrophil/WBC) had OR>1.00 (psepsis or septic shock, with an odds ratio (95th% CI) of 2.70 (2.02-3.61) and AUC 0.89 (0.82-0.96). Traditional biomarkers (lactate, WBC, neutrophil count, procalcitonin, IG) have limited utility in the prediction of sepsis. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamics of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in critically ill patients with nosocomial Gram positive vs. Gram negative bacteremia: a historical cohort study

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    Depuydt Pieter O

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nosocomial bacteremia is associated with a poor prognosis. Early adequate therapy has been shown to improve outcome. Consequently, rapid detection of a beginning sepsis is therefore of the utmost importance. This historical cohort study was designed to evaluate if different patterns can be observed in either C-reactive protein (CRP and white blood cell count (WCC between Gram positive bacteremia (GPB vs. Gram negative bacteremia (GNB, and to assess the potential benefit of serial measurements of both biomarkers in terms of early antimicrobial therapy initiation. Methods A historical study (2003–2004 was conducted, including all adult intensive care unit patients with a nosocomial bacteremia. CRP and WCC count measurements were recorded daily from two days prior (d-2 until one day after onset of bacteremia (d+1. Delta (Δ CRP and Δ WCC levels from the level at d-2 onward were calculated. Results CRP levels and WCC counts were substantially higher in patients with GNB. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that GNB and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score were independently associated with a CRP increase of 5 mg/dL from d-2 to d+1, and both were also independently associated with an increase of WCC levels from d-2 to d+1 of 5,000 × 103 cells/mm3. Conclusion Increased levels of CRP and WCC are suggestive for GNB, while almost unchanged CRP and WCC levels are observed in patients with GPB. However, despite the different patterns observed, antimicrobial treatment as such cannot be guided based on both biomarkers.

  18. Depression and anxiety symptoms are associated with white blood cell count and red cell distribution width: A sex-stratified analysis in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Mojtaba; Tayefi, Maryam; Hassanian, Seyed Mahdi; Ghaneifar, Zahra; Parizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Avan, Amir; Rahmani, Farzad; Khorasanchi, Zahra; Azarpajouh, Mahmoud Reza; Safarian, Hamideh; Moohebati, Mohsen; Heidari-Bakavoli, Alireza; Esmaeili, Habibolah; Nematy, Mohsen; Safarian, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Ferns, Gordon A; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2017-10-01

    Depression and anxiety are two common mood disorders that are both linked to systemic inflammation. Increased white blood cell (WBC) count and red cell distribution width (RDW) are associated with negative clinical outcomes in a wide variety of pathological conditions. WBC is a non-specific inflammatory marker and RDW is also strongly related to other inflammatory markers. Therefore, we proposed that there might be an association between these hematological inflammatory markers and depression/anxiety symptoms. The primary objective of this study was to examine the association between depression/anxiety symptoms and hematological inflammatory markers including WBC and RDW in a large population-based study. Symptoms of depression and anxiety and a complete blood count (CBC) were measured in 9274 participants (40% males and 60% females) aged 35-65 years, enrolled in a population-based cohort (MASHAD) study in north-eastern Iran. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were evaluated using the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. The mean WBC count increased with increasing severity of symptoms of depression and anxiety among men. Male participants with severe depression had significantly higher values of RDW (p<0.001); however, this relationship was less marked among women (p=0.004). In addition, men (but not women) with severe anxiety symptoms had significantly higher values of RDW (p<0.001). Moreover, there was a negative association between red blood cell (RBC) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and symptoms of depression/anxiety. Our results suggest that higher depression and anxiety scores are associated with an enhanced inflammatory state, as assessed by higher hematological inflammatory markers including WBC and RDW, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characteristics of Febrile Patients with Normal White Blood Cell Counts and High C-Reactive Protein Levels in an Emergency Department

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    Kuan-Ting Liu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Fever is one of the more common chief complaints of patients who visit emergency departments (ED. Many febrile patients have markedly elevated C-reactive protein (CRP levels and normal white blood cell (WBC counts. Most of these patients have bacterial infection and no previous underlying disease of impaired WBC functioning. We reviewed patients who visited our ED between November 2003 and July 2004. The WBC count and CRP level of patients over 18 years of age who visited the ED because of or with fever were recorded. Patients who had normal WBC count (4,000–10,000/mL and high CRP level (> 100 mg/L were included. The data, including gender, age and length of hospital stay, were reviewed. Underlying diseases, diagnosis of the febrile disease and final condition were recorded according to the chart. Within the study period, 54,078 patients visited our ED. Of 5,628 febrile adults, 214 (3.8% had elevated CRP level and normal WBC count. The major cause of febrility was infection (82.24%. Most of these patients were admitted (92.99%. There were 32 patients with malignant neoplasm, nine with liver cirrhosis, 66 with diabetes mellitus and 11 with uremia. There were no significant differences in age and gender between patients with and those without neoplasm. However, a higher inhospital mortality rate and other causes of febrility were noted in patients with neoplasm. It was not rare in febrile patients who visited the ED to have a high CRP level but normal WBC count. These patients did not necessarily have an underlying malignant neoplasm or hematologic illness. Factors other than malignant neoplasm or hematologic illness may be associated with the WBC response, and CRP may be a better indicator of infection under such conditions.

  20. Formaldehyde-Associated Changes in microRNAs: Tissue and Temporal Specificity in the Rat Nose, White Blood Cells, and Bone Marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of gene expression, yet much remains unknown regarding their changes resulting from environmental exposures as they influence cellular signaling across various tissues. We set out to investigate miRNA responses to formaldehyde, a critical air pollutant and known carcinogen that disrupts miRNA expression profiles. Rats were exposed by inhalation to either 0 or 2 ppm formaldehyde for 7, 28, or 28 days followed by a 7-day recovery. Genome-wide miRNA expression profiles were assessed within the nasal respiratory epithelium, circulating white blood cells (WBC), and bone marrow (BM). miRNAs showed altered expression in the nose and WBC but not in the BM. Notably in the nose, miR-10b and members of the let-7 family, known nasopharyngeal carcinoma players, showed decreased expression. To integrate miRNA responses with transcriptional changes, genome-wide messenger RNA profiles were assessed in the nose and WBC. Although formaldehyde-induced changes in miRNA and transcript expression were largely tissue specific, pathway analyses revealed an enrichment of immune system/inflammation signaling in the nose and WBC. Specific to the nose was enrichment for apoptosis/proliferation signaling, involving let-7a, let-7c, and let-7f. Across all tissues and time points assessed, miRNAs were predicted to regulate between 7% and 35% of the transcriptional responses and were suggested to play a role in signaling processes including immune/inflammation-related pathways. These data inform our current hypothesis that formaldehyde-induced inflammatory signals originating in the nose may drive WBC effects. PMID:24304932

  1. Influence of vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation on genome wide expression of white blood cells: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein-nezhad, Arash; Spira, Avrum; Holick, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Although there have been numerous observations of vitamin D deficiency and its links to chronic diseases, no studies have reported on how vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation affects broad gene expression in humans. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D status and subsequent vitamin D supplementation on broad gene expression in healthy adults. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409). A randomized, double-blind, single center pilot trial was conducted for comparing vitamin D supplementation with either 400 IUs (n = 3) or 2000 IUs (n = 5) vitamin D3 daily for 2 months on broad gene expression in the white blood cells collected from 8 healthy adults in the winter. Microarrays of the 16 buffy coats from eight subjects passed the quality control filters and normalized with the RMA method. Vitamin D3 supplementation that improved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations was associated with at least a 1.5 fold alteration in the expression of 291 genes. There was a significant difference in the expression of 66 genes between subjects at baseline with vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D20 ng/ml. After vitamin D3 supplementation gene expression of these 66 genes was similar for both groups. Seventeen vitamin D-regulated genes with new candidate vitamin D response elements including TRIM27, CD83, COPB2, YRNA and CETN3 which have been shown to be important for transcriptional regulation, immune function, response to stress and DNA repair were identified. Our data suggest that any improvement in vitamin D status will significantly affect expression of genes that have a wide variety of biologic functions of more than 160 pathways linked to cancer, autoimmune disorders and cardiovascular disease with have been associated with vitamin D deficiency. This study reveals for the first time molecular finger prints that help explain the nonskeletal health benefits of vitamin D. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409.

  2. Relationship between high white blood cell count and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in Korean children and adolescents: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J-M; Lee, D-C; Lee, Y-J

    2017-05-01

    Increasing evidence has indicated that insulin resistance is associated with inflammation. However, few studies have investigated the association between white blood cell (WBC) count and insulin resistance, as measured by a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a general pediatric population. This study aimed to examine the association between WBC count and insulin resistance as measured by HOMA-IR in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents. In total, 2761 participants (1479 boys and 1282 girls) aged 10-18 years were selected from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Insulin resistance was defined as a HOMA-IR value greater than the 90th percentile. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for insulin resistance were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. The mean values of most cardiometabolic variables tended to increase proportionally with WBC count quartiles. The prevalence of insulin resistance significantly increased in accordance with WBC count quartiles in both boys and girls. Compared to individuals in the lowest WBC count quartile, the odds ratio for insulin resistance for individuals in the highest quartile was 2.84 in boys and 3.20 in girls, after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and waist circumference. A higher WBC count was positively associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in Korean children and adolescents. This study suggests that WBC count could facilitate the identification of children and adolescents with insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Air pollution exposure affects circulating white blood cell counts in healthy subjects: the role of particle composition, oxidative potential and gaseous pollutants - the RAPTES project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, Maaike; Janssen, Nicole A H; Strak, Maciej; Hoek, Gerard; Gosens, Ilse; Mudway, Ian S; Kelly, Frank J; Harrison, Roy M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Cassee, Flemming R; Brunekreef, Bert

    2014-02-01

    Studies have linked air pollution exposure to cardiovascular health effects, but it is not clear which components drive these effects. We examined the associations between air pollution exposure and circulating white blood cell (WBC) counts in humans. To investigate independent contributions of particulate matter (PM) characteristics, we exposed 31 healthy volunteers at five locations with high contrast and reduced correlations amongst pollutant components: two traffic sites, an underground train station, a farm and an urban background site. Each volunteer visited at least three sites and was exposed for 5 h with intermittent exercise. Exposure measurements on-site included PM mass and number concentration, oxidative potential (OP), elemental- and organic carbon, metals, O3 and NO2. Total and differential WBC counts were performed on blood collected before and 2 and 18 h post-exposure (PE). Changes in total WBC counts (2 and 18 h PE), number of neutrophils (2 h PE) and monocytes (18 h PE) were positively associated with PM characteristics that were high at the underground site. These time-dependent changes reflect an inflammatory response, but the characteristic driving this effect could not be isolated. Negative associations were observed for NO2 with lymphocytes and eosinophils. These associations were robust and did not change after adjustment for a large suite of PM characteristics, suggesting an independent effect of NO2. We conclude that short-term air pollution exposure at real-world locations can induce changes in WBC counts in healthy subjects. Future studies should indicate if air pollution exposure-induced changes in blood cell counts results in adverse cardiovascular effects in susceptible individuals.

  4. Influence of vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation on genome wide expression of white blood cells: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hossein-nezhad

    Full Text Available Although there have been numerous observations of vitamin D deficiency and its links to chronic diseases, no studies have reported on how vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation affects broad gene expression in humans. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D status and subsequent vitamin D supplementation on broad gene expression in healthy adults. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409.A randomized, double-blind, single center pilot trial was conducted for comparing vitamin D supplementation with either 400 IUs (n = 3 or 2000 IUs (n = 5 vitamin D3 daily for 2 months on broad gene expression in the white blood cells collected from 8 healthy adults in the winter. Microarrays of the 16 buffy coats from eight subjects passed the quality control filters and normalized with the RMA method. Vitamin D3 supplementation that improved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations was associated with at least a 1.5 fold alteration in the expression of 291 genes. There was a significant difference in the expression of 66 genes between subjects at baseline with vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD20 ng/ml. After vitamin D3 supplementation gene expression of these 66 genes was similar for both groups. Seventeen vitamin D-regulated genes with new candidate vitamin D response elements including TRIM27, CD83, COPB2, YRNA and CETN3 which have been shown to be important for transcriptional regulation, immune function, response to stress and DNA repair were identified.Our data suggest that any improvement in vitamin D status will significantly affect expression of genes that have a wide variety of biologic functions of more than 160 pathways linked to cancer, autoimmune disorders and cardiovascular disease with have been associated with vitamin D deficiency. This study reveals for the first time molecular finger prints that help explain the nonskeletal health benefits of vitamin D.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409.

  5. Effect of different doses of aerobic exercise on total white blood cell (WBC and WBC subfraction number in postmenopausal women: results from DREW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M Johannsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated total white blood cell (WBC count is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and death. Aerobic exercise is associated with lower total WBC, neutrophil, and monocyte counts. However, no studies have evaluated the effect of the amount of aerobic exercise (dose on total WBC and WBC subfraction counts. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 3 different doses of aerobic exercise on changes in total WBC and WBC subfraction counts and independent effects of changes in fitness, adiposity, markers of inflammation (IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, fasting glucose metabolism, and adiponectin. METHODS: Data from 390 sedentary, overweight/obese postmenopausal women from the DREW study were used in these analyses. Women were randomized to a non-exercise control group or one of 3 exercise groups: energy expenditure of 4, 8, or 12 kcal kg(-1⋅week(-1 (KKW for 6 months at an intensity of 50% VO2peak. RESULTS: A dose-dependent decrease in total WBC counts (trend P = 0.002 was observed with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-163.1±140.0 cells/µL; mean±95%CI compared with the control (138.6±144.7 cells/µL. A similar response was seen in the neutrophil subfraction (trend P = 0.001 with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-152.6±115.1 cells/µL compared with both the control and 4KKW groups (96.4±119.0 and 21.9±95.3 cells/µL, respectively and in the 8KKW group (-102.4±125.0 cells/µL compared with the control. When divided into high/low baseline WBC categories (median split, a dose-dependent decrease in both total WBCs (P = 0.003 and neutrophils (P<0.001 was observed in women with high baseline WBC counts. The effects of exercise dose on total WBC and neutrophil counts persisted after accounting for significant independent effects of change in waist circumference and IL-6. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise training reduces total WBC and neutrophil counts, in a dose-dependent manner, in

  6. Differential white blood cell count and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological evidence suggests that inflammation might induce type 2 diabetes (T2D, and epidemiological studies have shown an association between higher white blood cell count (WBC and T2D. However, the association has not been systematically investigated.Studies were identified through computer-based and manual searches. Previously unreported studies were sought through correspondence. 20 studies were identified (8,647 T2D cases and 85,040 non-cases. Estimates of the association of WBC with T2D were combined using random effects meta-analysis; sources of heterogeneity as well as presence of publication bias were explored.The combined relative risk (RR comparing the top to bottom tertile of the WBC count was 1.61 (95% CI: 1.45; 1.79, p = 1.5*10(-18. Substantial heterogeneity was present (I(2 = 83%. For granulocytes the RR was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.17; 1.64, p = 1.5*10(-4, for lymphocytes 1.26 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.56, p = 0.029, and for monocytes 0.93 (95% CI: 0.68; 1.28, p = 0.67 comparing top to bottom tertile. In cross-sectional studies, RR was 1.74 (95% CI: 1.49; 2.02, p = 7.7*10(-13, while in cohort studies it was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.22; 1.79, p = 7.7*10(-5. We assessed the impact of confounding in EPIC-Norfolk study and found that the age and sex adjusted HR of 2.19 (95% CI: 1.74; 2.75 was attenuated to 1.82 (95% CI: 1.45; 2.29 after further accounting for smoking, T2D family history, physical activity, education, BMI and waist circumference.A raised WBC is associated with higher risk of T2D. The presence of publication bias and failure to control for all potential confounders in all studies means the observed association is likely an overestimate.

  7. Sex based levels of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Gharipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: C-reactive protein (CRP and white blood cell (WBC are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS. This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp. Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the. Results: In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures and for those with and without MetS. The age and

  8. Quantitative Distinction of Morphological Characteristics of White Blood Cells in Peripheral Blood Through Texture Analysis Using Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mai; Kono, Keigo; Kuroki, Maiko; Murakami, Satoru; Hayata, Ruka; Nanato, Kana; Shao, Minrong; Miwa, Keiko; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Okada, Kazunori; Kaga, Sanae; Masauzi, Nobuo

    2017-11-01

    Texture features are valuable clues for skilled technicians to differentiate peripheral blood (PB) white blood cells (WBCs). Some studies have tried to distinguish WBCs automatically by using texture analysis. However, no study so far has applied a gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) to images of PB WBCs. Here, we developed a new GLCM method, called the CM-Tx method, for automatically distinguishing PB WBCs. We used a total of 199 images of six different types of PB WBCs, taken from PB smears of 12 healthy volunteers, as objective standard images for the analysis. The six types were band form neutrophil, segmented form neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte. Using in-house FORTRAN programs, three types of GLCM (R: distance (d) = 1, direction (θ) = 0°), (U: d = 1, θ = 270°) and (AE: d = 1, θ = 15° x q: q = 0, ..., 23), the mean intensity (MI) of each image and nine different texture distinction indexes (TDIs) for each GLCM were calculated. Then, a threshold value (TV) for distinguishing the type of PB WBC was selected from the dot plots of all TDIs and the MI. In total, we made 1,194 GLCMs. Using the selected TVs of the TDI, four sequential binary divisions could distinguish five types of PB WBCs. First, monocytes were distinguished (sensitivity 100%, specificity 100%, p < 0.0001) with the TV of the inverse difference moment of the GLCM (U). Then, segmented and band form neutrophils were distinguished from the remaining (100%, 99%, p < 0.0001) with the TV of the contrast of the GLCM (AE). Next, lymphocytes were distinguished (100%, 98%, p < 0.0001) with the TV of the entropy of the GLCM (AE). Finally, basophils were distinguished (82.4%, 100%, p < 0.0001) from eosinophils with the TV of the summed entropy of the GLCM (R). Band form neutrophils could not be distinguished from segmented form neutrophils. The average sensitivity of the CM-Tx method for the five types was 95.6%, and its average specificity was 99.3%. The CM-Tx method can

  9. White blood cell count measured prior to cancer development is associated with future risk of venous thromboembolism--the Tromsø study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Blix

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated white blood cell (WBC count is associated with risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE in cancer patients initiating chemotherapy. It is not known whether the risk of VTE by WBC count in cancer patients is causal or merely a consequence of the malignant disease. To address this question, we studied the association between WBC count, measured prior to cancer development, and risk of VTE in subjects who did and did not develop cancer during follow-up in a prospective population-based study. METHODS: Baseline characteristics, including WBC and neutrophil counts, were measured in 24304 initially cancer-free subjects who participated in the Tromsø Study in 1994-1995. Incident cancer diagnosis and VTE events were registered up to September 1, 2007. In the cancer cohort, WBC and neutrophil counts were measured in average 7.1 years before cancer development. Cox-regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs for VTE by WBC and neutrophil counts as categorized variables (80(th percentile with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: During follow-up, 1720 subjects developed cancer and there were 388 VTE events, of which 116 occurred in the cancer-group (6.9 per 1000 person-years and 272 in the cancer-free group (1.1 per 1000 person-years. In those who developed cancer, WBC count above the 80(th percentile (≥ 8.6 x 10(9 cells/L was associated with a 2.4-fold higher risk (HR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.44-3.87 of VTE compared to WBC count below the 40(th percentile (<6.4 x 10(9 cells/L. No association was found between WBC count and VTE in those who stayed cancer-free (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.65-1.36. Similar findings were observed for neutrophils. COMMENT: Pre-cancer WBC count was associated with risk of VTE in cancer patients, but not in cancer-free subjects. Our findings suggest that leukocytes may play a causal role in cancer-related VTE rather than only reflecting the low-grade inflammation associated with cancer.

  10. Genome-wide association study of white blood cell count in 16,388 African Americans: the continental origins and genetic epidemiology network (COGENT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P Reiner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Total white blood cell (WBC and neutrophil counts are lower among individuals of African descent due to the common African-derived "null" variant of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC gene. Additional common genetic polymorphisms were recently associated with total WBC and WBC sub-type levels in European and Japanese populations. No additional loci that account for WBC variability have been identified in African Americans. In order to address this, we performed a large genome-wide association study (GWAS of total WBC and cell subtype counts in 16,388 African-American participants from 7 population-based cohorts available in the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network. In addition to the DARC locus on chromosome 1q23, we identified two other regions (chromosomes 4q13 and 16q22 associated with WBC in African Americans (P<2.5×10(-8. The lead SNP (rs9131 on chromosome 4q13 is located in the CXCL2 gene, which encodes a chemotactic cytokine for polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Independent evidence of the novel CXCL2 association with WBC was present in 3,551 Hispanic Americans, 14,767 Japanese, and 19,509 European Americans. The index SNP (rs12149261 on chromosome 16q22 associated with WBC count is located in a large inter-chromosomal segmental duplication encompassing part of the hydrocephalus inducing homolog (HYDIN gene. We demonstrate that the chromosome 16q22 association finding is most likely due to a genotyping artifact as a consequence of sequence similarity between duplicated regions on chromosomes 16q22 and 1q21. Among the WBC loci recently identified in European or Japanese populations, replication was observed in our African-American meta-analysis for rs445 of CDK6 on chromosome 7q21 and rs4065321 of PSMD3-CSF3 region on chromosome 17q21. In summary, the CXCL2, CDK6, and PSMD3-CSF3 regions are associated with WBC count in African American and other populations. We also demonstrate that large inter

  11. Ultrasound: Abdomen (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Ultrasound: Abdomen KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Abdomen Print A A A What's in this ... español Ultrasonido: abdomen What It Is An abdominal ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  12. The Impact of the Progressive Efficiency Test on a Rowing Ergometer on White Blood Cells Distribution and Clinical Chemistry Changes in Paralympic Rowers During the Preparatory Stage Before the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Robert; Buryta, Rafał; Krupecki, Krzysztof; Zając, Tomasz; Zawartka, Marek; Proia, Patrizia; Kostrzewa-Nowak, Dorota

    2017-12-01

    There is a large gap in knowledge regarding research on post-exercise blood changes in disabled athletes. There are relatively few data on adaptive mechanisms to exercise in disabled athletes, including disabled rowers. Two rowers from a Polish adaptive rowing settle TAMix2x that qualified for the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 took part in this study. They performed a progressive test on a rowing ergometer until exhaustion. The cardiorespiratory fitness measures, complete blood count, white blood cells' distribution and 30 clinical chemistry variables describing laboratory diagnostic profiles and general health were determined. The extreme effort induced changes in all studied metabolites (glucose, creatinine, urea, uric acid, total and direct bilirubin), albumin, total protein levels in both participants. Furthermore, a post-exercise increase in aspartate transaminase activity, yet a 2-fold decrease during the recovery time in both rowers were found. White blood cell count increased 2-fold after the test. The percentages of natural killer cells were higher and total T lymphocytes were lower after the exercise protocol. There were higher percentages of suppressor/cytotoxic and lower percentages of helper/inducer T lymphocyte subsets in both studied rowers. No changes in B lymphocytes distribution were observed. Lack of inflammatory symptoms during the experiment suggests a high level of rowers' biological adaptation to the physical effort. The different changes in physiological, biochemical and immunological variables are related to the adaptive mechanism to physical exercise allowing for improvement of performance.

  13. Longer telomere length in peripheral white blood cells is associated with risk of lung cancer and the rs2736100 (CLPTM1L-TERT polymorphism in a prospective cohort study among women in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lan

    Full Text Available A recent genome-wide association study of lung cancer among never-smoking females in Asia demonstrated that the rs2736100 polymorphism in the TERT-CLPTM1L locus on chromosome 5p15.33 was strongly and significantly associated with risk of adenocarcinoma of the lung. The telomerase gene TERT is a reverse transcriptase that is critical for telomere replication and stabilization by controlling telomere length. We previously found that longer telomere length measured in peripheral white blood cell DNA was associated with increased risk of lung cancer in a prospective cohort study of smoking males in Finland. To follow up on this finding, we carried out a nested case-control study of 215 female lung cancer cases and 215 female controls, 94% of whom were never-smokers, in the prospective Shanghai Women's Health Study cohort. There was a dose-response relationship between tertiles of telomere length and risk of lung cancer (odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0, 1.4 [0.8-2.5], and 2.2 [1.2-4.0], respectively; P trend = 0.003. Further, the association was unchanged by the length of time from blood collection to case diagnosis. In addition, the rs2736100 G allele, which we previously have shown to be associated with risk of lung cancer in this cohort, was significantly associated with longer telomere length in these same study subjects (P trend = 0.030. Our findings suggest that individuals with longer telomere length in peripheral white blood cells may have an increased risk of lung cancer, but require replication in additional prospective cohorts and populations.

  14. The value of indicated computed tomography scan of the chest and abdomen in addition to the conventional radiologic work-up for blunt trauma patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deunk, J.; Dekker, H.M.; Brink, M.; Vugt, R. van; Edwards, M.J.R.; Vugt, A.B. van

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multidetector computed tomography (CT) is more sensitive and specific in detecting traumatic injuries than conventional radiology is. However, still little is known about the diagnostic value and the therapeutic impact of indicated thoraco-abdominal CT scan when it is performed in

  15. Role of plasma bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, group IIA phospholipase A(2), C-reactive protein, and white blood cell count in the early detection of severe sepsis in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo-Seppälä, Raija; Peuravuori, Heikki; Koskinen, Pertti; Vahlberg, Tero; Rintala, Esa M

    2012-09-01

    To study the diagnostic values of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), group IIA phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)GIIA), white blood cell count (WBC), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in identifying severe sepsis upon admission in an emergency room. This was a single-centre prospective cohort study involving 525 adult patients admitted to the emergency room with suspected infection. Plasma samples were taken concurrently with the blood cultures. Forty-nine patients with severe sepsis and 476 other patients (58 with no systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and no bacterial infection, 63 with bacterial infection but no SIRS, 53 with SIRS but no bacterial infection, and 302 with sepsis but no organ dysfunction) were evaluated. BPI and PLA(2)GIIA were measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay, and CRP with an immunoturbidimetric assay. WBC was measured using an automatic cell counter. There was a positive correlation between the plasma levels of PLA(2)GIIA and CRP (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.60, p sepsis from others (OR 1.37, 95% Cl 1.05-1.78, p = 0.019). After adjusting for confounders PLA(2)GIIA remained a significant independent predictor of severe sepsis. PLA(2)GIIA seemed to be superior to CRP, BPI, and WBC in differentiating patients with severe sepsis. BPI gave no additional information in this respect.

  16. The Impact of the Progressive Efficiency Test on a Rowing Ergometer on White Blood Cells Distribution and Clinical Chemistry Changes in Paralympic Rowers During the Preparatory Stage Before the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 – A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Robert; Buryta, Rafał; Krupecki, Krzysztof; Zając, Tomasz; Zawartka, Marek; Proia, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There is a large gap in knowledge regarding research on post-exercise blood changes in disabled athletes. There are relatively few data on adaptive mechanisms to exercise in disabled athletes, including disabled rowers. Two rowers from a Polish adaptive rowing settle TAMix2x that qualified for the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 took part in this study. They performed a progressive test on a rowing ergometer until exhaustion. The cardiorespiratory fitness measures, complete blood count, white blood cells’ distribution and 30 clinical chemistry variables describing laboratory diagnostic profiles and general health were determined. The extreme effort induced changes in all studied metabolites (glucose, creatinine, urea, uric acid, total and direct bilirubin), albumin, total protein levels in both participants. Furthermore, a post-exercise increase in aspartate transaminase activity, yet a 2-fold decrease during the recovery time in both rowers were found. White blood cell count increased 2-fold after the test. The percentages of natural killer cells were higher and total T lymphocytes were lower after the exercise protocol. There were higher percentages of suppressor/cytotoxic and lower percentages of helper/inducer T lymphocyte subsets in both studied rowers. No changes in B lymphocytes distribution were observed. Lack of inflammatory symptoms during the experiment suggests a high level of rowers’ biological adaptation to the physical effort. The different changes in physiological, biochemical and immunological variables are related to the adaptive mechanism to physical exercise allowing for improvement of performance. PMID:29340006

  17. The Impact of the Progressive Efficiency Test on a Rowing Ergometer on White Blood Cells Distribution and Clinical Chemistry Changes in Paralympic Rowers During the Preparatory Stage Before the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Robert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a large gap in knowledge regarding research on post-exercise blood changes in disabled athletes. There are relatively few data on adaptive mechanisms to exercise in disabled athletes, including disabled rowers. Two rowers from a Polish adaptive rowing settle TAMix2x that qualified for the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 took part in this study. They performed a progressive test on a rowing ergometer until exhaustion. The cardiorespiratory fitness measures, complete blood count, white blood cells’ distribution and 30 clinical chemistry variables describing laboratory diagnostic profiles and general health were determined. The extreme effort induced changes in all studied metabolites (glucose, creatinine, urea, uric acid, total and direct bilirubin, albumin, total protein levels in both participants. Furthermore, a post-exercise increase in aspartate transaminase activity, yet a 2-fold decrease during the recovery time in both rowers were found. White blood cell count increased 2-fold after the test. The percentages of natural killer cells were higher and total T lymphocytes were lower after the exercise protocol. There were higher percentages of suppressor/cytotoxic and lower percentages of helper/inducer T lymphocyte subsets in both studied rowers. No changes in B lymphocytes distribution were observed. Lack of inflammatory symptoms during the experiment suggests a high level of rowers’ biological adaptation to the physical effort. The different changes in physiological, biochemical and immunological variables are related to the adaptive mechanism to physical exercise allowing for improvement of performance.

  18. CT angiography - abdomen and pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computed tomography angiography - abdomen and pelvis; CTA - abdomen and pelvis; Renal artery - CTA; Aortic - CTA; Mesenteric CTA ... of the blood vessels inside your belly or pelvis. This test may be used to look for: ...

  19. WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tuberculosis, fungal infection ) Infection within the heart (bacterial endocarditis) Collagen vascular diseases (e.g., lupus, scleroderma , rheumatoid ... On The Web National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Immune System American Society of Hematology: Blood ...

  20. WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition resolves. Other types of T cells directly attack and neutralize virus-infected or cancerous cells. Natural killer cells (NK cells) directly attack and kill abnormal cells such as cancer cells ...

  1. White Blood Cell Counts and Malaria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKenzie, F. E; Prudhomme, Wendy A; Magill, Alan J; Forney, J. R; Permpanich, Barnyen; Lucas, Carmen; Gasser, Jr., Robert A; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2005-01-01

    .... At each site and in each year, WBC counts in the Plasmodium falciparum infected patients were lower than those in the Plasmodium vivax infected patients, which, in turn, were lower than those in the uninfected patients...

  2. Computer identification of white blood cells

    CERN Document Server

    Neurath, P W; Selles, W D; Gelsema, E S; Powell, B W; Gallus, G; Vastola, E

    1973-01-01

    The hardware and software problems for an effective image processing system are described, with a real time high speed system solution as the goal. The discriminating power of the algorithms has been tested in a simulation made on the PIQUANT film scanner and is between 67 and 92% depending on the definition of accuracy. The results are expected to be of value to firms designing and building commercial equipment and to prospective purchasers of it.

  3. The extent of P2Y12 inhibition by clopidogrel in diabetes mellitus patients with acute coronary syndrome is not related to glycaemic control: roles of white blood cell count and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Olivier; El Ghannudi, Soraya; Hess, Sebastien; Reydel, Antje; Crimizade, Ulun; Jesel, Laurence; Radulescu, Bogdan; Wiesel, Marie L; Gachet, Christian; Ohlmann, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    It was the study objective to determine whether glycaemic control affects the extent of platelet inhibition by thienopyridines as assessed by vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein flow cytometry (VASP-FCT) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although the proportion of high on-treatment residual platelet reactivity is higher in DM, the contributions of glycaemic control and other factors associated with DM, such as excess body weight and inflammation, to this impaired platelet inhibition by thienopyridines have not yet been fully characterised. In this study, the extent of P2Y12 ADP receptor pathway inhibition was evaluated by the VASP-FCT. Platelet activation was expressed as the platelet reactivity index (PRI). Low response to clopidogrel (LR) was defined as a PRI of >61%. Four hundred forty-five consecutive ACS patients (DM = 160, NDM = 285) were enrolled. The proportion of LR was higher in DM patients (50 vs. 37.5%). In DM, PRI was not correlated with glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) or glycaemia. In a univariate analysis, LR was associated with age, male sex, overweight, and white blood cell count (WBC). In a multivariate analysis, WBC >10,000 and body weight >80 kg were the sole independent predictors of LR to clopidogrel (hazard ratio (HR) 3.02 [1.36-6.68], p=0.006 and HR 2.47 [1.14-5.35], p = 0.021, respectively). Conversely, in non-DM patients, ST-elevation myocardial infarction was the sole independent predictor of LR. In conclusion, in ACS DM patients undergoing PCI, the extent of P2Y12 inhibition by clopidogrel is not related to glycaemic control but is related to body weight and inflammatory status as assessed by the WBC.

  4. Optimization of the freezing process for hematopoietic progenitor cells: effect of precooling, initial dimethyl sulfoxide concentration, freezing program, and storage in vapor-phase or liquid nitrogen on in vitro white blood cell quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J; Setroikromo, Airies C; Kraan, Marcha; Gkoumassi, Effimia; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny

    2014-12-01

    Adding dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) causes an exothermic reaction, potentially affecting their viability. The freezing method might also influence this. The aim was to investigate the effect of 1) precooling of DMSO and plasma (D/P) and white blood cell (WBC)-enriched product, 2) DMSO concentration of D/P, 3) freezing program, and 4) storage method on WBC quality. WBC-enriched product without CD34+ cells was used instead of HPCs. This was divided into six or eight portions. D/P (20 or 50%; precooled or room temperature [RT]) was added to the WBC-enriched product (precooled or RT), resulting in 10% DMSO, while monitoring temperature. The product was frozen using controlled-rate freezing ("fast-rate" or "slow-rate") and placed in vapor-phase or liquid nitrogen. After thawing, WBC recovery and viability were determined. Temperature increased most for precooled D/P to precooled WBC-enriched product, without influence of 20 or 50% D/P, but remained for all variations below 30°C. WBC recovery for both freezing programs was more than 95%. Recovery of WBC viability was higher for slow-rate freezing compared to fast-rate freezing (74% vs. 61%; p Effect of precooling D/P or WBC-enriched product and of storage in vapor-phase or liquid nitrogen was marginal. Based on these results, precooling is not necessary. Fifty percent D/P is preferred over 20% D/P. Slow-rate freezing is preferred over fast-rate freezing. For safety reasons storage in vapor-phase nitrogen is preferred over storage in liquid nitrogen. Additional testing using real HPCs might be necessary. © 2014 AABB.

  5. Clinical utility of18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan vs.99mTc-HMPAO white blood cell single-photon emission computed tomography in extra-cardiac work-up of infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Trine K; Iversen, Kasper K; Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Hasbak, Philip; Loft, Annika; Berthelsen, Anne K; Dahl, Anders; Dejanovic, Danijela; Albrecht-Beste, Elisabeth; Mortensen, Jann; Kjær, Andreas; Bundgaard, Henning; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2017-05-01

    The extra-cardiac work-up in infective endocarditis (IE) comprises a search for primary and secondary infective foci. Whether 18 FDG-PET/CT or WBC-SPECT/CT is superior in detection of clinically relevant extra-cardiac manifestations in IE is unexplored. The objectives of this study were to identify the numbers of positive findings detected by each imaging modality, to evaluate the clinical relevance of these findings and to define the reproducibility for extra-cardiac foci in patients with definite IE. Each modality was evaluated for numbers and location of positive extra-cardiac foci in patients with definite IE. A team of 2 × 2 cardiologists evaluated each finding to determine clinical relevance. Clinical utility was determined by 4 criteria converted into an ordinal scale. Using the manifestation with highest clinical utility rating in each patient, the clinical impact of the two imaging modalities was expressed in a clinical utility score. To evaluate reproducibility for each modality, an imaging core laboratory reviewed all findings. In 55 IE patients, 91 pathological foci were found by FDG-PET/CT and 37 foci were identified by WBC-SPECT/CT (p < 0.001). The clinical utility of FDG-PET/CT was significantly higher than that of WBC-SPECT/CT when comparing clinical utility score (2.06 vs. 1.17; p = 0.01). In assessment of extra-cardiac diagnostics in IE, inter-observer reproducibility was substantial for WBC-SPECT/CT (k 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.89) and substantial to excellent for FDG-PET/CT (k 0.79, 95% CI 0.61-0.98). FDG-PET/CT has a significantly higher clinical utility score than WBC SPECT/CT and is potentially superior to WBC-SPECT/CT in detection of extra-cardiac pathology in patients with IE.

  6. Clinical utility of (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan vs. (99m)Tc-HMPAO white blood cell single-photon emission computed tomography in extra-cardiac work-up of infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine K; Iversen, Kasper K; Ihlemann, Nikolaj

    2017-01-01

    in patients with definite IE. A team of 2 × 2 cardiologists evaluated each finding to determine clinical relevance. Clinical utility was determined by 4 criteria converted into an ordinal scale. Using the manifestation with highest clinical utility rating in each patient, the clinical impact of the two...... to identify the numbers of positive findings detected by each imaging modality, to evaluate the clinical relevance of these findings and to define the reproducibility for extra-cardiac foci in patients with definite IE. Each modality was evaluated for numbers and location of positive extra-cardiac foci...

  7. Pediatric central nervous system tumors in the first 3 years of life: pre-operative mean platelet volume, neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio, and white blood cell count correlate with the presence of a central nervous system tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumturk, Abdulfettah; Ozdemir, Mehmet Akif; Per, Huseyin; Unal, Ekrem; Kucuk, Ahmet; Ulutabanca, Halil; Karakukcu, Musa; Canoz, Ozlem; Gumus, Hakan; Coskun, Abdulhakim; Kurtsoy, Ali

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the relationship of pre-operative complete blood count parameters [mean platelet volume (MPV), neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), and white blood cell count (WBC)], with the clinical, radiological, and histopathological features and the management options for patients under 3 years of age with a newly diagnosed central nervous system tumors. Children with central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the first 3 years of life admitted in the Erciyes University Hospital between April 2004 and April 2014 were enrolled in this study. The CBC parameters were compared with those of an age- and sex-matched normal control group. In the study group, the means of MPV and WBC were 8.00 ± 1.24 fl, and 10,855 ± 3642/mm(3) respectively; the median (25-75%) of NLCR was 0.98 (0.66-1.46). For the control group, the means of MPV and WBC were 6.8 ± 0.73 fl and 8565 ± 2522/mm(3); the median (25-75%) of NLCR was 0.52 (0.36-0.70). The MPV, WBC, and NLCR were higher in the study group. The median overall survival (OS) of the patients was 60 months (range 0-81.6 months); and median event free survival (EFS) was 24 months (range 0-70.1 months). The formulation of MPV, NLCR, and WBC was found to be predictive for the diagnosis of CNS tumor in children with nonspecific symptoms. The univariate and multiple binary regression analyses showed a positive association of MPV, NLCR, and WBC and the risk of a diagnosis of CNS tumor. There was no relationship between MPV, WBC, NLCR, and histological subgroups. However, there were no associations between CBC parameters and OS or EFS of the patients. By causing suspicion, MPV, NLCR, and WBC may provide both an earlier radiological investigation decision and thereby an early diagnosis of CNS tumor in children with nonspecific symptoms in the first 3 years of life.

  8. Expression of inflammation-related miRNAs in white blood cells from subjects with metabolic syndrome after 8 wk of following a Mediterranean diet-based weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Rocha, José Luiz; Milagro, Fermin I; Mansego, Maria Luisa; Zulet, Maria Angeles; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a dietary strategy for weight loss (the RESMENA [reduction of metabolic syndrome in Navarra, Spain] diet) on the expression of inflammation-related microRNAS (miRNAs) and genes in white blood cells (WBC) from individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical characteristics of 40 individuals with MetS (20 men and 20 women; age: 48.84 ± 10.02 y; body mass index: 35.41 ± 4.42 kg/m(2)) were evaluated before and after an 8-wk hypocaloric diet based on the Mediterranean dietary pattern. Nutrient intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire and 48-h weighed food records. Total RNA was isolated from WBC and the expression of some inflammation-related miRNAs and mRNAs (IL-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, IL-18, SERPINE1, VCAM-1, GAPDH) was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The RESMENA nutritional intervention improved most anthropometric and biochemical features. The expression of miR-155-3p was decreased in WBC, whereas Let-7b was strongly upregulated as a consequence of the dietary treatment. However, they were not correlated with the expression of the proinflammatory genes in the same cells. The changes in the expression of let-7b, miR-125b, miR-130a, miR-132-3p, and miR-422b were significantly associated with changes in diet quality when assessed by the Healthy Eating Index. Moreover, low consumption of lipids and saturated fat (g/d) were associated with higher expression of let-7b after the nutritional intervention. The Mediterranean-based nutritional intervention was able to induce changes in the expression of let-7b and miR-155-3p in WBC from patients with MetS after 8 wk. Moreover, the quality of the diet has an important effect on the miRNAs expression changes. These results should be highlighted because these miRNAs have been associated with inflammatory gene regulation and important human diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiological aspects of acute abdomen; Aspectos radiologicos do abdomen agudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Renato Muller de; Lacerda, Jose Carlos Teixeira; Georg, Bruno Rigueira; Ramos, Alexandre Ferreira [Hospital Naval Marcilio Dias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiodiagnostico

    1994-12-31

    This work demonstrates the main roentgen signs of the most common causes of acute abdomen, through some cases chosen from H.N.M.D. Roentgen Department-Learning Register. First, we will show the normal roentgen anatomy of the abdomen. Then, we will discuss about the basic roentgen routine of acute abdomen and some technical changes depending on the suspected illness, the clinical conditions of the patient and certain roentgen findings. Finally, we will show the most important roentgen signs of the most familiar effects accurate abdomen, putting emphasis on the next things: intestinal obstructions, peritonitis, acute cholecustitis, acute pancreatitis, acute appendicitis, subphrenic abscesses, toxic megacolon of ulcerative retocolitis, gastric or duodenal ulcer perforation and renal colic. (author) 4 refs., 13 figs.

  10. MDCT of the abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschoff, A.J. [Dept. for Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospitals of Ulm (Germany)

    2006-01-10

    Multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) enables fast and thin acquisition of the abdominal anatomy. This allows multi-pass multi-planar studies that can be obtained during defined circulatory phases. When bolus timing is adequate, arterial phases with high contrast levels provide 'free lunch' CT angiographies eliminating the need for diagnostic angiographies in most cases. In addition to established clinical indications for abdominal CT such as preoperative MDCT of the liver or pancreas, MDCT of the abdomen is especially gaining ground in the work up for acute abdominal pain and abdominal trauma and is opening new indications for MDCT of the gastrointestinal tract. Indications for gastrointestinal MDCT include tumors, bleeding and ischemia of the small and large bowel as well as diverticulitis. The question of whether to use positive or negative contrast material for bowel distention for MDCT of the gastrointestinal tract is still a controversial issue. In selected cases, modifying the protocol to perform a 'CT enteroclysis' might improve sensitivity and specificity in depicting small bowel tumors or inflammatory changes such as in Crohn's disease. The most common gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumor is the gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). MDCT may show hypervascular submucosal masses. Acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is common with patients presenting with melena, hematemesis or hematochezia. In addition to the established initial work-up MDCT is beginning to establish itself for this indication. It may be especially helpful in the work up of obscure bleeding. Another relatively rare but important cause for acute abdominal pain is mesenteric ischemia. It may be caused by many conditions and may mimic various intestinal diseases. Bowel ischemia severity ranges from transient superficial changes of the intestinal mucosa to life-threatening transmural bowel wall necrosis. CT can demonstrate changes in ischemic bowel segments

  11. An Efficient Pipeline for Abdomen Segmentation in CT Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Hasan; Ceylan, Rahime; Sivri, Mesut; Erdogan, Hasan

    2017-10-24

    Computed tomography (CT) scans usually include some disadvantages due to the nature of the imaging procedure, and these handicaps prevent accurate abdomen segmentation. Discontinuous abdomen edges, bed section of CT, patient information, closeness between the edges of the abdomen and CT, poor contrast, and a narrow histogram can be regarded as the most important handicaps that occur in abdominal CT scans. Currently, one or more handicaps can arise and prevent technicians obtaining abdomen images through simple segmentation techniques. In other words, CT scans can include the bed section of CT, a patient's diagnostic information, low-quality abdomen edges, low-level contrast, and narrow histogram, all in one scan. These phenomena constitute a challenge, and an efficient pipeline that is unaffected by handicaps is required. In addition, analysis such as segmentation, feature selection, and classification has meaning for a real-time diagnosis system in cases where the abdomen section is directly used with a specific size. A statistical pipeline is designed in this study that is unaffected by the handicaps mentioned above. Intensity-based approaches, morphological processes, and histogram-based procedures are utilized to design an efficient structure. Performance evaluation is realized in experiments on 58 CT images (16 training, 16 test, and 26 validation) that include the abdomen and one or more disadvantage(s). The first part of the data (16 training images) is used to detect the pipeline's optimum parameters, while the second and third parts are utilized to evaluate and to confirm the segmentation performance. The segmentation results are presented as the means of six performance metrics. Thus, the proposed method achieves remarkable average rates for training/test/validation of 98.95/99.36/99.57% (jaccard), 99.47/99.67/99.79% (dice), 100/99.91/99.91% (sensitivity), 98.47/99.23/99.85% (specificity), 99.38/99.63/99.87% (classification accuracy), and 98

  12. A CLINICAL STUDY ON BLUNT INJURY ABDOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kishore Babu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Abdominal trauma continues to account for a large number of trauma-related injuries and deaths. Motor vehicle accidents and urban violence, respectively, are the leading causes of blunt and penetrating trauma to this area of the body. Unnecessary deaths and complications can be minimized by improved resuscitation, evaluation and treatment. The new techniques and diagnostic tools available are important in the management of abdominal trauma. These improved methods, however, still depend on experience and clinical judgment for application and determination of the best care for the injured patient. The aim of the study is to 1. Analyse the incidence, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, indications for laparotomy, therapeutic methods and morbidity & mortality rates. 2. To study nature of blunt abdominal trauma. 3. To assess patient for surgical intervention and to avoid negative laparotomy. 4. To assess morbidity rate in different organs injury. 5. To evaluate modalities of treatment, complications and prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study is a prospective study on 97 patients with Blunt injuries to the abdomen admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G. Hospital, Tirupati during October 2013-15. Inclusion Criteria Patients > 13 years, with Blunt injury to abdomen either by RTA, fall, object contact, assault giving written informed consent. Exclusion Criteria Patients <13 yrs. Blunt injuries due to blasts, patients with severe cardiothoracic and head injuries who are hemodynamically unstable. CONCLUSION Blunt Trauma to abdomen is on rise due to excessive use of motor vehicles. It poses a therapeutic and diagnostic dilemma for the attending surgeon due to wide range of clinical manifestations ranging from no early physical findings to progression to shock. So, the Trauma surgeon should rely on his physical findings in association with use of modalities like x-ray abdomen, USG abdomen and abdominal paracentesis. Hollow viscus perforations are

  13. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very small ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  14. 49 CFR 572.186 - Abdomen assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Abdomen assembly. 572.186 Section 572.186... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.186 Abdomen assembly. (a) The abdomen assembly (175-5000) is part of the dummy assembly shown in drawing 175-0000 including load sensors specified in § 572.189(e...

  15. Quantification of the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio for breathing motion modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Benjamin M; Zhao, Tianyu; Lamb, James; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Low, Daniel A

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology to quantitatively measure the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio from a 4DCT dataset for breathing motion modeling and breathing motion studies. The thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio was quantified by measuring the rate of cross-sectional volume increase throughout the thorax and abdomen as a function of tidal volume. Twenty-six 16-slice 4DCT patient datasets were acquired during quiet respiration using a protocol that acquired 25 ciné scans at each couch position. Fifteen datasets included data from the neck through the pelvis. Tidal volume, measured using a spirometer and abdominal pneumatic bellows, was used as breathing-cycle surrogates. The cross-sectional volume encompassed by the skin contour when compared for each CT slice against the tidal volume exhibited a nearly linear relationship. A robust iteratively reweighted least squares regression analysis was used to determine η(i), defined as the amount of cross-sectional volume expansion at each slice i per unit tidal volume. The sum Ση(i) throughout all slices was predicted to be the ratio of the geometric expansion of the lung and the tidal volume; 1.11. The Xiphoid process was selected as the boundary between the thorax and abdomen. The Xiphoid process slice was identified in a scan acquired at mid-inhalation. The imaging protocol had not originally been designed for purposes of measuring the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratio so the scans did not extend to the anatomy with η(i) = 0. Extrapolation of η(i)-η(i) = 0 was used to include the entire breathing volume. The thorax and abdomen regions were individually analyzed to determine the thorax-to-abdomen breathing ratios. There were 11 image datasets that had been scanned only through the thorax. For these cases, the abdomen breathing component was equal to 1.11 - Ση(i) where the sum was taken throughout the thorax. The average Ση(i) for thorax and abdomen image datasets was found to be 1.20

  16. How to deal with an open abdomen?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    De Waele, Jan J

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate open abdomen treatment is one of the key elements in the management of patients who require decompressive laparotomy or in whom the abdomen is left open prophylactically. Apart from fluid control and protection from external injury, fluid evacuation and facilitation of early closure are now the goals of open abdomen treatment. Abdominal negative pressure therapy has emerged as the most appropriate method to reach these goals. Especially when combined with strategies that allow progressive approximation of the fascial edges, high closure rates can be obtained. Intra-abdominal pressure measurement can be used to guide the surgical strategy and continued attention to intra-abdominal hypertension is necessary. This paper reviews recent advances as well as identifying the remaining challenges in patients requiring open abdomen treatment. The new classification system of the open abdomen is an important tool to use when comparing the efficacy of different strategies, as well as different systems of temporary abdominal closure.

  17. [Anterolateral hernias of the abdomen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathonnet, M; Mehinto, D

    2007-01-01

    Anterolateral hernias of the abdomen group together umbilical, epigastric, and spigelian hernias and diastasis of the abdominal rectus. In spigelian hernias, 90% are located in the subumbilical region at the Monro line. They are asymptomatic in 90% of cases. The risk of strangulation is 10%-25% and requires surgical treatment. A herniorrhaphy is sufficient if the ring is less than 2 cm in diameter. Beyond 2 cm, open or celioscopic mesh repair is necessary. The risk of recurrence is less than 2%. Umbilical hernias result from progressive enlargement of the umbilical ring. The risk of strangulation is higher than 10%. The morbidity and mortality rate reaches 15% in large strangulated hernias. All umbilical hernias should therefore be treated surgically. If their diameter is under 2 cm, a simple herniorrhaphy can be done; otherwise mesh repair is required. In the cirrhosis patient, hernia treatment is part of the ascites treatment. The indication for surgery depends on liver function. Epigastric hernias are most often symptomatic: 80% have a ring smaller than 25 mm and 20% are multifocal. The risk of strangulation is low. If the ring is less than 20 mm, these hernias can be treated by herniorrhaphy. Recurrence is frequent - more than 10% - and always difficult to treat. Diastasis of the recti does not lead to complication, and treatment is not necessary. Cosmetic surgery can be used to manage diastasis.

  18. Role of ultrasonography in the evaluation of children with acute abdomen in the emergency set-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviral

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute abdomen in children has been aptly described as Pandora′s box. Unlike computerized tomography (CT scan, ultrasonography (USG has no radiation hazard and the present study analyses the diagnostic yield of the USG in acute abdomen in children. Materials and Methods: Between September 2001 to October 2003, 75 patients with acute abdomen underwent clinical examination, routine biochemical tests, erect X-ray abdomen, USG and CT scan. Laparotomy and histological examination established final diagnosis. Results: The accuracy of correct diagnosis was 60%, 66.6%, 64%, 98.7% with clinical examination alone, USG alone, clinical examination combined with conventional radiography, and clinical evaluation combined with conventional radiography and USG respectively. USG helped to prevent unnecessary laparotomy in 16.3% of patients. Conclusions: USG is good investigative modality in the management of acute abdomen in children.

  19. Effect Of Food Supplementation On The White Blood Cells Count ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trypanosomiasis is an important livestock disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Improvement on host\\'s nutrition is mportant in moderating the severity of pathophysiological efect of trypanosomiasis and it also influences the rate of recovery. Earlier researchers demonstrated that dietary supplement of selenium and vitamin E ...

  20. White Blood Cell Differentiation Using a Solid State Flow Cytometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, R.M.P.; Doornbos, R.M.P.; Hennink, E.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    A flow cytometer using a solid state light source and detector was designed and built. For illumination of the sample stream two types of diode lasers (670 nm and 780 nm) were tested in a set-up designed to differentiate human leukocytes by means of light scattering. The detector is an avalanche

  1. Platelets and white blood cells in acute coronary syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jaap Jan Johannes

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, we have studied the role of leukocytes and platelets as methods to measure platelets aggregation, in the clinical management of presenting with acute coronary syndromes. We have tried to incidence and to identify predictors of adverse cardiac events with function tests or

  2. Abdomen "- a Report of TWO Cases.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Septic arthritis of the hip joint in two children, originally thought to be cases of acute abdomen is ... These cases illustrate the maxim that any painful movement ... the UCH revealed a limb-length discrepancy of five centimetres with a good range of painless movement in the left hip joint. He was mobflised with the aid of.

  3. Emergency management of acute abdomen in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Binesh; Singhi, Sunit; Lal, Sadhna

    2013-03-01

    Acute abdomen can be defined as a medical emergency in which there is sudden and severe pain in abdomen with accompanying signs and symptoms that focus on an abdominal involvement. It accounts for about 8 % of all children attending the emergency department. The goal of emergency management is to identify and treat any life-threatening medical or surgical disease condition and relief from pain. In mild cases often the cause is gastritis or gastroenteritis, colic, constipation, pharyngo-tonsilitis, viral syndromes or acute febrile illnesses. The common surgical causes are malrotation and Volvulus (in early infancy), intussusception, acute appendicitis, and typhoid and ischemic enteritis with perforation. Lower lobe pneumonia, diabetic ketoacidosis and acute porphyria should be considered in patients with moderate-severe pain with little localizing findings in abdomen. The approach to management in ED should include, in order of priority, a rapid cardiopulmonary assessment to ensure hemodynamic stability, focused history and examination, surgical consult and radiologic examination to exclude life threatening surgical conditions, pain relief and specific diagnosis. In a sick patient the initial steps include rapid IV access and normal saline 20 ml/kg (in the presence of shock/hypovolemia), adequate analgesia, nothing per oral/IV fluids, Ryle's tube aspiration and surgical consultation. An ultrasound abdomen is the first investigation in almost all cases with moderate and severe pain with localizing abdominal findings. In patients with significant abdominal trauma or features of pancreatitis, a Contrast enhanced computerized tomography (CECT) abdomen will be a better initial modality. Continuous monitoring and repeated physical examinations should be done in all cases. Specific management varies according to the specific etiology.

  4. FDG-PET/CT Limited to the Thorax and Upper Abdomen for Staging and Management of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Anne I J; Postema, Jan W A; Schreurs, Wendy M J; Lafeber, Albert; Hendrickx, Baudewijn W; Oyen, Wim J G; Vogel, Wouter V

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) of the chest/upper abdomen compared to the generally performed scan from head to upper thighs, for staging and management of (suspected) lung cancer in patients with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax. FDG-PET/CT scans of 1059 patients with suspected or recently proven lung cancer, with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax, were analysed in a retrospective multi-centre trial. Suspect FDG-avid lesions in the chest and upper abdomen, the head and neck area above the shoulder line and in the abdomen and pelvis below the caudal tip of the liver were noted. The impact of lesions detected in the head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis on additional diagnostic procedures, staging and treatment decisions was evaluated. The head and neck area revealed additional suspect lesions in 7.2%, and the abdomen and pelvis in 15.8% of patients. Imaging of the head and neck area and the abdomen and pelvic area showed additional lesions in 19.5%, inducing additional diagnostic procedures in 7.8%. This resulted in discovery of additional lesions considered malignant in 10.7%, changing patient management for lung cancer in 1.2%. In (suspected) lung cancer, PET/CT limited to the chest and upper abdomen resulted in correct staging in 98.7% of patients, which led to the identical management as full field of view PET in 98.8% of patients. High value of FDG-PET/CT for staging and correct patient management is already achieved with chest and upper abdomen. Findings in head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis generally induce investigations with limited or no impact on staging and treatment of NSCLC, and can be interpreted accordingly.

  5. FDG-PET/CT Limited to the Thorax and Upper Abdomen for Staging and Management of Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne I J Arens

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT of the chest/upper abdomen compared to the generally performed scan from head to upper thighs, for staging and management of (suspected lung cancer in patients with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax.FDG-PET/CT scans of 1059 patients with suspected or recently proven lung cancer, with no history of malignancy or complaints outside the thorax, were analysed in a retrospective multi-centre trial. Suspect FDG-avid lesions in the chest and upper abdomen, the head and neck area above the shoulder line and in the abdomen and pelvis below the caudal tip of the liver were noted. The impact of lesions detected in the head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis on additional diagnostic procedures, staging and treatment decisions was evaluated.The head and neck area revealed additional suspect lesions in 7.2%, and the abdomen and pelvis in 15.8% of patients. Imaging of the head and neck area and the abdomen and pelvic area showed additional lesions in 19.5%, inducing additional diagnostic procedures in 7.8%. This resulted in discovery of additional lesions considered malignant in 10.7%, changing patient management for lung cancer in 1.2%. In (suspected lung cancer, PET/CT limited to the chest and upper abdomen resulted in correct staging in 98.7% of patients, which led to the identical management as full field of view PET in 98.8% of patients.High value of FDG-PET/CT for staging and correct patient management is already achieved with chest and upper abdomen. Findings in head and neck area and abdomen and pelvis generally induce investigations with limited or no impact on staging and treatment of NSCLC, and can be interpreted accordingly.

  6. A phantom pig abdomen as an alternative for testing robotic surgical systems: our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristolainen, Asko; Colucci, Gianluca; Kruusmaa, Maarja

    2013-11-01

    The use of animals for testing and validating new medical devices and surgical techniques has raised ethical issues for a long time. Following the introduction of the Three Rs principle, significant efforts have been made to achieve a reduction in the numbers of animals used in testing. Nevertheless, the number of large animals used for testing purposes is still too high. This article describes a potential alternative to the use of large animals in the early phase of the development of surgical equipment -- a high-definition phantom pig abdomen. The phantom pig abdomen was developed from computed tomography scans by using affordable materials, and it was used with two different robotic platforms. It permitted the testing of minimally-invasive robotic pancreatic enucleation, with or without intraoperative ultrasound guidance. The phantom pig abdomen has proven to be a realistic tool, with the potential to reduce the cost and time-frame of the experiments. 2013 FRAME.

  7. Options for Closure of the Infected Abdomen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chris A.; Rosenberger, Laura H.; Politano, Amani D.; Davies, Stephen W.; Riccio, Lin M.; Sawyer, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The infected abdomen poses substantial challenges to surgeons, and often, both temporary and definitive closure techniques are required. We reviewed the options available to close the abdominal wall defect encountered frequently during and after the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections. Methods A comprehensive review was performed of the techniques and literature on abdominal closure in the setting of intra-abdominal infection. Results Temporary abdominal closure options include the Wittmann Patch, Bogota bag, vacuum-assisted closure (VAC), the AbThera™ device, and synthetic or biologic mesh. Definitive reconstruction has been described with mesh, components separation, and autologous tissue transfer. Conclusion Reconstructing the infected abdomen, both temporarily and definitively, can be accomplished with various techniques, each of which is associated with unique advantages and disadvantages. Appropriate judgment is required to optimize surgical outcomes in these complex cases. PMID:23216525

  8. IDIOPATHIC OMENTAL INFARCTION : A RARE CAUSE OF ACUTE PAIN ABDOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Nath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Omental torsion leading on to omental infarction is an unusual cause of acute abdominal pain in adults. Often the condition mimics common causes of acute abdomen like acute cholecystitis, acute appendicitis or acute pancreatitis. A review of literature reveals that this enigmatic condition has been managed both non - operatively and by surgery in the past. We report the case of a 46 - year - old man who presented with a 4 - day history of severe right - sided abdominal pain mimicking acute cholecystitis. Abdominal CT scan revealed a right upper quadrant mass with a whirl - like appearance, suspicious for omental infarction. He was started on conservative management with analgesics and antibiotics. He improved symptomatically and was discharged

  9. Surgically treated acute abdomen at Gondar University Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute abdomen is an acute onset of abdominal disease entities that require immediate surgical intervention in most of the cases. The numbers of researches done on acute abdomen in general are Very few in Ethiopia. The main objective of this study was to document the burden of acute abdomen in general ...

  10. 49 CFR 572.19 - Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. 572.19 Section...-Year-Old Child § 572.19 Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. (a) The lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis... component surfaces are clean, dry and untreated unless otherwise specified. (2) Attach the pelvis to the...

  11. Abdominal MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance - abdomen; NMR - abdomen; Magnetic resonance imaging - abdomen; MRI of the abdomen ... radiologist see certain areas more clearly. During the MRI, the person who operates the machine will watch ...

  12. Basic interventional radiology in the abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero García, R; Garcia-Hidalgo Alonso, M I

    2016-05-01

    This article describes the different basic nonvascular interventional techniques in the abdomen that all general radiologists should be familiar with. It explains the indications and approaches for the different procedures (punctures, biopsies, drainage of collections, cholecystostomies, and nephrostomies). It also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the different imaging techniques that can be used to guide these procedures (ultrasound, CT, and fluoroscopy) as well as the possible complications that can develop from each procedure. Finally, it shows the importance of following up patients clinically and of taking care of catheters. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of dosimetry and image quality of computerized tomography abdomen protocols; Avaliacao de dose e qualidade da imagem em protocolos de abdomen em tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maues, Nadine H.P.B.; Alves, Allan F.F.; Bacchim Neto, Fernando A.; Pina, Diana R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluate the dosimetry and image quality of computed tomography multislice abdomen protocols for different tube current modulation techniques (ATCM). We used the 16-slice Toshiba Activion CT scanner with the 'SureExposure3D' ATCM system. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were placed inside the anthropomorphic phantom Alderson-Rando for dosimetric assessments. An analytical phantom was used for the objective evaluation of image quality. It is observed that the higher standard deviation technique (SD) has the lowest value of effective dose. The use of different tube current modulation techniques showed significant reduction of radiation doses for the abdomen exams in computed tomography. The ATCM protocols can be an excellent alternative to dose reduction in CT scans, since it does not impair the diagnostic image quality. (author)

  14. Abdomen/pelvis computed tomography in staging of pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma: is it always necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farruggia, Piero; Puccio, Giuseppe; Sala, Alessandra; Todesco, Alessandra; Terenziani, Monica; Mura, Rosamaria; D'Amico, Salvatore; Casini, Tommaso; Mosa, Clara; Pillon, Marta; Boaro, Maria Paola; Bottigliero, Gaetano; Burnelli, Roberta; Consarino, Caterina; Fedeli, Fausto; Mascarin, Maurizio; Perruccio, Katia; Schiavello, Elisabetta; Trizzino, Angela; Ficola, Umberto; Garaventa, Alberto; Rossello, Mario

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if abdomen/pelvis computed tomography (CT) can be safety omitted in the initial staging of a subgroup of children affected by Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL). Every participating center of A.I.E.O.P (Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica) sent local staging reports of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and abdominal ultrasound (US) along with digital images of staging abdomen/pelvis CT to the investigation center where the CT scans were evaluated by an experienced pediatric radiologist. The local radiologist who performed the US was unaware of local CT and PET reports (both carried out after US), and the reviewer radiologist examining the CT images was unaware of local US, PET and CT reports. A new abdominal staging of 123 patients performed on the basis of local US report, local PET report, and centralized CT report was then compared to a simpler staging based on local US and PET. No additional lesion was discovered by CT in patients with abdomen/pelvis negativity in both US and PET or isolated spleen positivity in US (or US and PET), and so it seems that in the initial staging, abdomen/pelvis CT can be safety omitted in about 1/2 to 2/3 of children diagnosed with HL. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Spontaneous Spleen Rupture in a Teenager: An Uncommon Cause of Acute Abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verroiotou Maria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous spleen rupture is a rare complication of infectious diseases and it can become a potentially life-threatening condition if not diagnosed in time. A 17-year-old Greek female presented to the ER due to acute abdominal pain, mainly of the left upper quadrant. She had no recent report of trauma. The patient was pale, her blood pressure was 90/70 mmHg, and her pulse was 120 b/min. Clinical examination of the abdomen revealed muscle contraction and resistance. The patient was submitted to an ultrasound of the upper abdomen and to a CT scanning of the abdomen that revealed an extended intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to spleen rupture. Due to the patient’s hemodynamic instability, she was taken to the operation room and splenectomy was performed. Following a series of laboratory examinations, the patient was diagnosed to be positive for current cytomegalovirus infection. The postoperative course was uneventful, and in a two year follow-up the patient is symptom-free. Spontaneous spleen rupture due to Cytomegalovirus infection is a rare clinical entity, described in few case reports in the world literature and should always be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially in adolescents with no recent report of trauma.

  16. Acurácia diagnóstica do leucograma, proteína C-reativa, interleucina-6 e fator de necrose tumoral-alfa na sepse neonatal tardia Accuracy of white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha for diagnosing late neonatal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil P. S. Caldas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o valor do leucograma, proteína C-reativa (PCR, interleucina-6 (IL-6 e do fator de necrose tumoral-alfa (TNF-α, isoladamente e em conjunto, na detecção da sepse neonatal tardia. MÉTODOS: Estudo de validação diagnóstica. A PCR, IL-6 e TNF-α foram dosados por quimioluminescência à suspeita clínica, 24 e 48 horas depois, e o leucograma unicamente à suspeita. De acordo com evolução clínica e resultados de culturas, três grupos foram definidos: sepse comprovada (SC, sepse provável (SP e não infectados (NI. Os testes estatísticos utilizados foram os de Wilcoxon, qui-quadrado e análise de variância de Friedman e os limites de corte foram obtidos pela construção da curva ROC. RESULTADOS: Estudaram-se 82 crianças, sendo 42 no grupo SC, 16 no SP e 24 NI. Nos três momentos, as medianas da PCR e da IL-6 mostraram-se significativamente mais elevadas nos grupos SC e SP, e as do TNF-α alteraram-se apenas no grupo SC. Os índices diagnósticos da PCR foram elevados nos três momentos e com acurácia superior a do leucograma e semelhante a da IL-6 e a do TNF-α em suas primeiras medidas. Entre as citocinas, não houve diferença estatística entre elas, nem em relação ao leucograma. A associação dos testes não aumentou a capacidade diagnóstica, exceto na combinação entre leucograma e PCR2 e na dosagem seriada de PCR. CONCLUSÕES: A PCR e o leucograma mostram-se úteis no diagnóstico de sepse neonatal tardia e comparáveis à IL-6 e ao TNF-α. A acurácia aumentou com a associação PCR-leucograma e a dosagem seriada da PCR.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic value for late neonatal sepsis of white blood cell count (WBC and assays for C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, in isolation and in conjunction. METHODS: This was a diagnostic test validation study. Chemiluminescence was used to assay CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α at the time of clinical suspicion and again

  17. FDG-PET/CT Limited to the Thorax and Upper Abdomen for Staging and Management of Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arens, A.I.; Postema, J.W.; Schreurs, W.M.; Lafeber, A.; Hendrickx, B.W.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Vogel, W.V.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) of the chest/upper abdomen compared to the generally performed scan from head to upper thighs, for staging and management of (suspected) lung cancer in

  18. Incidence and pathology of repeat CT abdomen and pelvis in an adult emergency department population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Barry; Akita, Anna; Rankin, Lane; Scibilia, Maria; Trovato, Gabriella; Foley, Marion; Hirschorn, David

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to identify the incidence of adult patients who undergo more than one computed tomography (CT) abdomen and pelvis within 1 year and detect the incidence of significant pathology on these repeat scans. All adults with an initial CT within 12 months and then during an emergency department visit were retrospectively identified. A percentage of 21.1 of the repeat CT scans were positive. Approximately 20% of positive repeat CT scans occurred within the first month and nearly 70% within 6 months of the initial CT scan. Many patients undergo multiple CT scans within a 1 year time frame with significant pathology identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute abdomen presentation in dengue fever during recent outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Kishan Gupta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the etiology, clinical profile and outcome of acute abdomen presentation in Dengue Fever (DF. Methods: This clinical prospective study was done on confirmed cases of DF admitted in the department of medicine during recent epidemic (September 2015 to November 2016. All patients were evaluated clinically and by laboratory and imaging investigations and followed-up during hospital stay till discharge. The cause of pain abdomen was ascertained by blood tests (amylase, lipase and liver function test etc, radiology (Flat plate abdomen-erect, Ultrasonography of abdomen, CECT abdomen and/or endoscopy. Results: Out of the 501 patients diagnosed as DF, 165 (32.93% presented with acute abdomen. Some patients presented in other departments like surgery, gastroenterology and emergency, were later diagnosed as DF on laboratory evaluation. Various causes of acute abdomen in our study were nonspecific severe pain abdomen (67 cases, acute hepatitis (46 one had acute fulminant hepatitis, acute acalculous cholecystitis (31, ascitis (12, acute hyperemic gastritis with malena (5, acute pancreatitis (2, and 1 case each of acute appendicitis and acute jejuno-ileal intussuception. All patients were managed conservatively. One patient of acute pancreatitis died of multi-organ failure. Conclusion: Our study concludes that clinical vigilance about such type of presentations is important as timely recognition can influence outcome and may prevent unwanted surgery.

  20. Surgical Abdomen in School Age Children: A Prospective Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Surgical abdomen traverses all age groups. We sought to define the aetiology, patients' characteristics, and outcome of management amongst children Methods: Two years prospective review of patients aged 5-15 years managed for surgical abdomen at the Wesley Guilds Hospital Ilesa and Mishmael Medical ...

  1. Accidental foreign bodies in pediatric abdomens: A pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Ho; Kim, Young Tong [Soonchunhyang Univ. Cheonan Hospital/Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Foreign bodies in pediatric abdomens are caused by accidental ingestion or trauma. The purpose of this article is to review the various findings of accidental foreign bodies in pediatric abdomens. Abdominal radiography, fluoroscopic examination, gastrointestinal contrast studies and CT may be useful in evaluating the location and type of foreign body, and for evaluating complications such as bowel perforation and obstruction.

  2. Exercise-Induced Abdominal Wall Muscle Injury Resulting in Rhabdomyolysis and Mimicking an Acute Abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echague, Charlene G; Csokmay, John M

    2018-03-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by muscle necrosis and release of intracellular constituents, causing muscle pain, weakness, and myoglobinuria. This can be attributed to muscle injury after strenuous exercise. If the abdominal wall is involved, clinical presentation may resemble an acute abdomen. A 27-year-old woman, gravida 4 para 2, presented with swelling and pain of the mons pubis and abdominal pain after intense powerlifting 2 days prior. A computed tomography scan was performed, revealing abdominal wall inflammation. Although myoglobinuria was absent, there was high suspicion for rhabdomyolysis, which was confirmed by an elevated creatine kinase level. The patient improved after receiving intravenous fluids and abstaining from physical activity. Abdominal wall muscle injury resulting in rhabdomyolysis can imitate an acute abdomen in a healthy woman presenting with abdominal pain and swelling.

  3. Radiation doses in chest, abdomen and pelvis CT procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manssor, E; Abuderman, A; Osman, S; Alenezi, S B; Almehemeid, S; Babikir, E; Alkhorayef, M; Sulieman, A

    2015-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning is recognised as a high-radiation dose modality and estimated to be 17 % of the radiological procedure and responsible for 70 % of medical radiation exposure. Although diagnostic X rays provide great benefits, their use involves some risk for developing cancer. The objectives of this study are to estimate radiation doses during chest, abdomen and pelvis CT. A total of 51 patients were examined for the evaluation of metastasis of a diagnosed primary tumour during 4 months. A calibrated CT machine from Siemens 64 slice was used. The mean age was 48.0 ± 18.6 y. The mean patient weight was 73.8 ± 16.1 kg. The mean dose-length product was 1493.8 ± 392.1 mGy cm, Volume CT dose index (CTDI vol) was 22.94 ± 5.64 mGy and the mean effective dose was 22.4 ± 5.9 mSv per procedure. The radiation dose per procedure was higher as compared with previous studies. Therefore, the optimisation of patient's radiation doses is required in order to reduce the radiation risk. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Management of Open Abdomen: Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yanar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The authors reviewed their experience in the management of open abdomen using the vacuum-assisted closure (VAC, in order to assess its morbidity, and the outcome of abdominal wall integrity. Methods. A retrospective review was performed using the trauma registry to identify patients undergoing temporary abdominal closure (TAC either using Bogota Bag (BB or VAC, from January 2006 to December 2012. Inclusion criteria were TAC and survival to definitive abdominal closure. Data collected included age, indication for TAC, number of operating room procedures, primary fascial closure rate, and complications. Results. During the study period, 156 patients required one type of TAC. Mean number of operations required in BB group was 3.04 as compared to 1.96 in VAC group (. Survival was significantly increased in the VAC group (. The difference in primary closure rates did not reach statistical significance (25% vs. 55%; . Complications were observed less frequently in the VAC group (. The mean time for fascial closure was 21 (±12 days in the BB group, as opposed to 6 (±3 days in the VAC group (. Conclusion. The vacuum assisted closure (VAC has a significantly faster rate of closure, requires less number of operations, and is associated with a lower complication rate.

  5. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ON PENETRATING INJURIES ABDOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Penetrating abdominal injuries forms an important component of surgical emergencies. It remains one of the commonest reasons for preventable deaths in any trauma systems. 1 Abdominal injuries may be parietal or visceral or perforating through and through injury. Unnecessary exploration leads to increased morbidity. The goal in managing penetrating abdominal injuries is to identify and treat all the damages caused by the weapon and to reduce negative laparotomy and avoid missed injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study that was carried out in 53 patients in Government Kilpauk Medical College and Government Royapettah Hospital from May 2007 to July 2009 on penetrating injuries abdomen. RESULTS Among 53 patients, maximum number of cases were in the age group of 30-40 years. Assault injuries account for 87% of cases of penetrating abdominal injuries. Small bowel was the commonly injured organ in this study. Laparotomy was therapeutic in 94% of the cases (64% of the cases underwent laparotomy. CONCLUSION Careful and serial clinical examination and appropriate diagnostic investigations leads to successful treatment in these patients. Computed tomography is highly sensitive in predicting both peritoneal penetration and intra-abdominal visceral injuries.

  6. Lassa fever presenting as acute abdomen: a case series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dongo, Andrew E; Kesieme, Emeka B; Iyamu, Christopher E; Okokhere, Peter O; Akhuemokhan, Odigie C; Akpede, George O

    2013-01-01

    .... When fever and abdominal pain are the main presenting symptoms, and a diagnosis of acute abdomen is entertained, Lassa fever is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis, even in endemic areas...

  7. Clues to vascular disorders at non-contrast CT of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterson, Yonah B; Berkowitz, Jennifer L; Friedman, Barak; Hines, John J; Shah, Priya K; Grimaldi, Gregory M

    2017-08-01

    Non-contrast chest CT scans are commonly performed while CT scans of the abdomen and pelvis are performed in a select subset of patients; those with limited renal function, an allergy to iodinated contrast, in the setting of suspected renal calculus, retroperitoneal hematoma, common duct calculus, abdominal aortic aneurysm with or without rupture, and in patients undergoing a PET-CT scan. In the absence of intravenous contrast, vascular structures may prove challenging to evaluate, yet their assessment is an important component of every non-contrast CT examination. We describe the key imaging features of both arterial and venous pathology, and review clues and common associated non-vascular findings, which can help the radiologist identify vascular disorders at non-contrast CT. Briefly, alternative imaging options are discussed.

  8. 49 CFR 572.75 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly and test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly and...) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 6-Year-Old Child § 572.75 Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly and test procedure. (a) Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly. The lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis consist of...

  9. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen; Diffusionsgewichtete Magnetresonanztomographie des Abdomens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid-Tannwald, C.; Reiser, M.F.; Zech, C.J. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) provides qualitative and quantitative information of tissue cellularity and the integrity of cellular membranes. Since DW-MRI can be performed without ionizing radiation exposure and contrast media application, DW-MRI is a particularly attractive tool for patients with allergies for gadolinium-based contrast agents or renal failure. Recent technical developments have made DW-MRI a robust and feasible technique for abdominal imaging. DW-MRI provides information on the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions and can also visualize treatment effects and early changes in chronic liver disease. In addition DW-MRI is a promising tool for the detection of inflammatory changes in patients with Crohn's disease. (orig.) [German] Die diffusionsgewichtete (DW-)MRT ermoeglicht die Erfassung qualitativer und quantitativer Informationen bzgl. der Gewebezellularitaet und Membranintegritaet. Die DW-MRT ist insbesondere bei Patienten mit einer Allergie gegen gadoliniumhaltige Kontrastmittel oder eingeschraenkter Nierenfunktion attraktiv, da ihr Einsatz nicht mit Strahlenexposition oder Kontrastmittelgabe verbunden ist. Durch technische Weiterentwicklungen ist die robuste Anwendung der DW-MRI in der Bildgebung des Abdomens seit einiger Zeit moeglich geworden. In der Leberdiagnostik lassen sich Zusatzinformationen zur Detektion und Charakterisierung von Leberlaesionen gewinnen, aber auch Therapieerfolge dokumentieren und fruehe chronische Leberveraenderungen visualisieren. Neben ihrer Rolle bei hepatologischen und onkologischen Fragestellungen erscheint der Einsatz der DW-MRT zudem bei entzuendlichen Fragestellungen wie dem Morbus Crohn sehr viel versprechend. (orig.)

  10. [Mannheim index in acute perforated abdomen in patients 65 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lada, Paul Eduardo; Mariot, Ana; Sanchez Tasonne, Carlos; Mansilla, Daniel; Casares, Gonzalo; Caballero, Fabian; Saliba, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We present a prospective and protocolizeted study of 98 patients over 65 years, underwent emergency surgery for perforated acute abdomen in the Hospital Nacional de Clínicas during the period from April/2007 to April/2013. The purpose was to determine the morbidity and mortality of this entity in the elderly. Mainly affected were women between 65 and 75 years. The leading cause of intervention was the colonic involvement, in its entirety. Septic complications and renal failure are the disorders that prevailed. Practical application of Mannheim peritonitis index. The perforated acute abdomen is a picture with a high rate of mortality in the elderly.

  11. Imaging findings of acute abdomen with intraperitoneal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Ji Seon; Kim, Mi Young; Koo, Jin Hoi; Cho, Soon Gu; Suh, Chang Hae [Inha Univ. College of Medicine, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    Acute abdomen caused by abdominal tuberculosis is a rare manifestation, and includes bleeding of a gastric or ileal ulcer, obstruction of the small bowel by an adhesive band, perforation of the ileum, ileocolic intussusception and fistula, and mesenteric abscesses caused by necrotic lymph nodes. The clinical and radiologic features of these complicated tuberculosis may mimic other acute abdominal diseases. Although not definitive, careful evaluation of the radiologic findings of the bowel wall, mesenteric fat infiltration, and lymph node enlargement may provide useful diagnostic clues to the presence of acute abdomen due to tuberculosis.

  12. Patent Urachus Presenting as Acute Abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro de Queiroz Garcia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The urachus is an epithelial tubular structure located in the midline that spreads from the anterosuperior part of the bladder to the navel, connecting the apex of the urinary bladder with the allantois in the fetus, and is involved in forming the umbilical structures. When the urachal tract is not completely obliterated during embryonic development, bladder diverticulum, urachal cyst, umbilical polyp, or patent urachus may result. Therefore, making a differential diagnosis prior to surgery is not easy. A 30-year-old woman presented to the outpatient clinic with severe abdominal pain in the suprapubic and infraumbilical regions of 12 hours of evolution. There were no urinary symptoms, and she was afebrile. Physical examination revealed periumbilical tenderness and intense pain on abdominal palpation in the suprapubic and abdominal regions. An ultrasound scan revealed a patent urachus. The striated structure was present between the bladder and the umbilicus. After undergoing preoperative examinations, the patient was submitted to surgical treatment, and the final pathology of the resected segment confirmed the ultrasound diagnosis. Urachal pathology in adulthood is rare. Often its presentation as acute abdominal pain is nonspecific and, as such, may cause many diagnostic problems. Differential diagnosis should include acute appendicitis and other inflammatory disorders. The patient's history and physical examination are crucial for the correct diagnosis. It is important to have a thorough understanding of the embryology, anatomy, presentation, and relevant investigations for these anomalies. Ultrasound can be helpful for diagnosing the pathology of urachal remnants.

  13. Incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen, and pelvis after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiraishi Yutaka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to determine the incidence of seed migration not only to the chest, but also to the abdomen and pelvis after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds. Methods We reviewed the records of 267 patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds. After seed implantation, orthogonal chest radiographs, an abdominal radiograph, and a pelvic radiograph were undertaken routinely to document the occurrence and sites of seed migration. The incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen, and pelvis was calculated. All patients who had seed migration to the abdomen and pelvis subsequently underwent a computed tomography scan to identify the exact location of the migrated seeds. Postimplant dosimetric analysis was undertaken, and dosimetric results were compared between patients with and without seed migration. Results A total of 19,236 seeds were implanted in 267 patients. Overall, 91 of 19,236 (0.47% seeds migrated in 66 of 267 (24.7% patients. Sixty-nine (0.36% seeds migrated to the chest in 54 (20.2% patients. Seven (0.036% seeds migrated to the abdomen in six (2.2% patients. Fifteen (0.078% seeds migrated to the pelvis in 15 (5.6% patients. Seed migration occurred predominantly within two weeks after seed implantation. None of the 66 patients had symptoms related to the migrated seeds. Postimplant prostate D90 was not significantly different between patients with and without seed migration. Conclusion We showed the incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen and pelvis. Seed migration did not have a significant effect on postimplant prostate D90.

  14. Burst abdomen in pregnancy: A proposed management algorithm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of the burst abdomen is complex due to the co-morbidities associated with it. When coupled with intraabdominal sepsis and pregnancy, it becomes even more difficult due to the ethical issues that have to be considered when managing both mother and child. Due to the paucity of literature on this subject, ...

  15. Pattern of acute abdomen in adult patients in Tikur Anbessa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Back ground: Surgical acute abdomen is one of the commonly encountered emergency in the practice of General surgery but there is no much study regarding the magnitude and its pattern in Ethiopia at large and in Tikur Anbessa Hospital (TAH) in particular. This study was aimed at assessing the magnitude, pattern and ...

  16. Sonography in chronic distension of the abdomen and apparent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bbshehu

    abdominal distension. Histopathology is mandatory in ovarian tumours. Key words: Sonography, abdominal distension, apparent pregnancy. Introduction. The differential diagnoses of chronic distension of the abdomen include abdominal tumours, obesity,. Cushing's syndrome and pseudo pregnancy. Each of these can be ...

  17. Sonography in chronic distension of the abdomen and apparent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bbshehu

    Abstract. Objective: To find out the causes of chronic distension of the abdomen in women who thought they were pregnant; and the role of sonography in their management. Method: A retrospective study. Results: There were 394 patients in the study. The mean age was 36.2 ± 1.7. Uterine fibroids (42%) and ovarian benign ...

  18. Noncommunicating isolated enteric duplication cyst in the abdomen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noncommunicating isolated enteric duplications in the abdomen are an extremely rare variant of enteric duplications with their own blood supply. We report a case of a noncommunicating isolated ileal duplication in a. 10-month-old boy. He was admitted because of severe abdominal distension and developed irritability ...

  19. Patent processus vaginalis: A window to the abdomen | Rahman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A patent processus vaginalis (PPV) allows a communication between the peritoneum and scrotum. Hydrocoele is the usual presentation of a PPV in children. However, with intraabdominal pathology the patent PPV may provide the first clue to the mischief within the abdomen. We present here two unusual cases associated ...

  20. [ACUTE ABDOMEN CAUSED BY COMPLICATED FIBROID IN PREGNANCY. CASE REPORT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, V; Petrakieva, N; Markov, P; Raycheva, I; Nikolov, A

    2015-01-01

    With the advancing maternal age the rate of fibroids in pregnancy is also growing. A small part of fibroids in pregnancy are complicated and in about 2.6% necessitate urgent surgical treatment. We present a clinical case of subserose fibroid at 20 gestational weeks complicated with acute abdomen treated urgently with normal continuation of pregnancy.

  1. Gossypiboma of the Abdomen and Pelvis; A Recurring Error ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Gossypiboma is a retained surgical sponge commonly in the abdomen and pelvis. Risk factors include emergency and prolonged surgery. Attendant complications are: visceral obstruction, perforation, sepsis, fistulae and diagnostic dilemmas. The objective of this write up is to report the occurrence of ...

  2. The acute AIDS abdomen – a prospective clinical and pathological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Patients with AIDS who present with an acute abdomen pose a new challenge to surgeons. The purpose of this study was to determine the nature and outcome of intra-abdominal catastrophes in AIDS patients. Methods: A prospective clinical study was conducted on HIV-positive patients who presented with an ...

  3. Causes and Clinical Outcomes in Neonates with Acute Abdomen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute abdomen is a common surgical problem in neonates and often presents as a diagnostic dilemma for primary clinicians. Neonatal surgery is challenging, particularly in the emergency setting whereby problems like misdiagnosis with serious consequences occur thereby accounting for high morbidity and ...

  4. Children with Acute Abdomen Requiring Surgery at Muhimbili ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions and Recommendations: Acute surgical abdomen predominantly occurred in boys and intestinal obstruction was the main cause. Children who presented late to hospital (MNH) had higher morbidity and mortality. Peritonitis was substantially associated with high mortality and misdiagnosis at the initial health ...

  5. Surgical Tips in Frozen Abdomen Management: Application of Coliseum Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis D. Kyriazanos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound dehiscence is a serious postoperative complication, with an incidence of 0.5–3% after primary closure of a laparotomy incision, and represents an acute mechanical failure of wound healing. Relatively recently the concept of “intentional open abdomen” was described and both clinical entities share common pathophysiological and clinical pathways (“postoperative open abdominal wall”. Although early reconstruction is the target, a significant proportion of patients will develop adhesions between abdominal viscera and the anterolateral abdominal wall, a condition widely recognized as “frozen abdomen,” where delayed wound closure appears as the only realistic alternative. We report our experience with a patient who presented with frozen abdomen after wound dehiscence due to surgical site infection and application of the “Coliseum technique” for its definitive surgical management. This novel technique represents an innovative alternative to abdominal exploration, for cases of “malignant” frozen abdomen due to peritoneal carcinomatosis. Lifting the edges of the surgical wound upwards and suspending them under traction by threads from a retractor positioned above the abdomen facilitates approach to the peritoneal cavity, optimizes exposure of intra-abdominal organs, and prevents operative injury to the innervation and blood supply of abdominal wall musculature, a crucial step for subsequent hernia repair.

  6. Septic Arthritis of The Hip Joint presenting as Acute Abdomen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Septic arthritis of the hip joint in two children, originally thought to be cases of acute abdomen is presented. In one case, the discovery of extra-peritoneal purulent fluid at surgery, obviated the need for laparotomy and in the other, the true nature of the disease became apparent one week after laparotomy. These cases ...

  7. An improbable diagnosis of acute abdomen in the immediate post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An improbable diagnosis of acute abdomen in the immediate post-partum period: Case report. MK Kilonzo, F Ogutu, RJ Kosgei, AB Kihara. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  8. Chilaiditi's syndrome as an acute abdomen | Jambo | Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepato-diaphragmatic interposition of the intestine is uncommon. Although known as Chilaiditi syndrome, the diagnosis is often missed. As more cases are seen, it has been shown that the disease condition is a potential cause of acute abdomen requiring emergency or elective operation. Aim: To report a case ...

  9. Huge Mesenteric Lymphangioma – A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymphangiomas are benign congenital masses which occur most commonly in head and neck of children and incidence of mesenteric lymphangiomas is very rare. We report such a case of huge mesenteric lymphangioma in a 20 year old male who presented to us with acute abdomen. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult ...

  10. The changing pattern of acute abdomen in Port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute appendicitis (47.2 %) was the commonest cause of acute abdomen, followed by abdominal trauma (25.6%) and intestinal obstruction ( 19.4 %). Abdominal pain (96.7 %) was the commonest symptom, followed by anorexia and vomiting (46.7 % each). The mean duration of symptoms before presentation was 2.0±2.9 ...

  11. A wandering spleen presenting as an acute abdomen: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapan, Murat; Gümüş, Metehan; Önder, Akın; Gümüş, Hatice; Aldemir, Mustafa

    2012-11-01

    A wandering spleen, defined as a spleen without peritoneal attachments, is a rare entity characterized by splenic hypermobility due to laxity or maldevelopment of the supporting splenic ligaments. Patients with a wandering spleen may be asymptomatic, or may present with a palpable mass in the abdomen, or with acute, chronic, or intermittent symptoms due to torsion of the wandering spleen. Because early clinical diagnosis is difficult, imaging modalities play an important role in the diagnosis. Treatment should be planned according to the vitality of the spleen. A 22-year-old woman presented with an acute abdomen that was found to be due to a wandering spleen with 720° anti-clockwise torsion around the pedicle. Splenectomy is advocated in the presence of torsion, splenic vein thrombosis, or splenic infarction. Conversely, when a viable wandering spleen is found at laparotomy, detorsion with splenopexy is preferred. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Burst abdomen: an unusual complication of silicosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivabalasubramaniam, Gajatheepan; Sagili, Haritha; Dasari, Papa; Gowda, Mamatha

    2015-06-24

    We present a case of silicosis in a 37-year-old pregnant woman, a second gravida with previous caesarean section. She was referred to our hospital at 42 weeks of gestation with breathlessness and oligohydramnios. She had worked in a glass and talc powder factory for 11 years and was diagnosed as having silicosis 2 years prior; she was on treatment. Following admission, she was evaluated for dyspnoea and underwent emergency Caesarean section for poor cervical dilation. She developed a burst abdomen on the third postoperative day with loops of gangrenous bowel protruding outside the abdomen. Emergency laparotomy with ileal resection and ileostomy was carried out. She was discharged on day 14 and is on follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of silicosis in pregnancy presenting with an unusual complication. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Meckel's diverticulitis with associated enterloith formation: a rare presentation of an acute abdomen in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucha, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Meckel's diverticulum (MD) is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract, occurring in 2-3% of the population. Enterolith formation associated with MD is a rare entity. We present the case of a 35-year-old active duty sailor who presented with a 24-hour history of worsening abdominal pain and nausea. His exam revealed lower abdominal peritonitis. An abdominal and pelvic CT scan revealed a fluid-filled structure in the pelvis adjacent to the distal small bowel with associated calcifications. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, which revealed an acutely inflamed MD associated with enterolith formation. Consideration of this condition in the differential upon presentation of an acute abdomen is essential, secondary to the morbidity that can accompany it when misdiagnosed.

  14. [Treatment of patients with suicidal and autoagressive neck, thorax and abdomen injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumov, M M; Zubareva, O V; Radchenko, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    The issue is devoted to the analysis of case reports of 305 patients with suicidal and autoagressive neck, thorax and abdomen injuries. The objective prevalence of penetrating injuries of the abdomen among men with depressive disorders was registered. The most complicated, both for surgeon and psychiatrist, were cases of combined neck, thorax and abdomen injuries in elderly patients.

  15. Marfan syndrome with acute abdomen: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyazit Zencirci

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Beyazit ZencirciKahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Medical Faculty, Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation Kahramanmaras, TurkeyIntroduction: Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder characterized by a combination of clinical manifestations in different organ systems. Patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS whose lifetimes are extended may be encountered as acute abdomen (appendicitis cases apart from the obligatory reasons and emergencies arising naturally out of their disease, as in the case reported.Case presentation: In a 28-year-old Turkish male, arachnodactyly, pectus excavatum, kyphoscoliosis and, according to pulmonary roentgenogram, a density increase in the left apical field were detected. In addition, according to the echocardiographic examination, Ebstein’s anomaly, mitral valve prolapse, pulmonary hypertension, and inferior deficiency of mitral, aorta, and tricuspid valves were present. The patient was planned to be operated on with the prediagnosis of acute abdomen.Conclusion: Taking into consideration the pathologies that may accompany MFS and the probable future complications, the patients must be closely monitored during anesthesia applications and required measures should be taken beforehand.Keywords: Marfan syndrome, acute abdomen

  16. A role of abdomen in butterfly's flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Jeeva; Senda, Kei; Yokoyama, Naoto

    2017-11-01

    Butterfly's forward flight with periodic flapping motion is longitudinally unstable, and control of the thoracic pitching angle is essential to stabilize the flight. This study aims to comprehend roles which the abdominal motion play in the pitching stability of butterfly's flapping flight by using a two-dimensional model. The control of the thoracic pitching angle by the abdominal motion is an underactuated problem because of the limit on the abdominal angle. The control input of the thorax-abdomen joint torque is obtained by the hierarchical sliding mode control in this study. Numerical simulations reveal that the control by the abdominal motion provides short-term pitching stabilization in the butterfly's flight. Moreover, the control input due to a large thorax-abdomen joint torque can counteract a quite large perturbation, and can return the pitching attitude to the periodic trajectory with a short recovery time. These observations are consistent with biologists' view that living butterflies use their abdomens as rudders. On the other hand, the abdominal control mostly fails in long-term pitching stabilization, because it cannot directly alter the aerodynamic forces. The control for the long-term pitching stabilization will also be discussed.

  17. Lassa fever presenting as acute abdomen: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongo, Andrew E; Kesieme, Emeka B; Iyamu, Christopher E; Okokhere, Peter O; Akhuemokhan, Odigie C; Akpede, George O

    2013-04-19

    Lassa fever, an endemic zoonotic viral infection in West Africa, presents with varied symptoms including fever, vomiting, retrosternal pain, abdominal pain, sore-throat, mucosal bleeding, seizures and coma. When fever and abdominal pain are the main presenting symptoms, and a diagnosis of acute abdomen is entertained, Lassa fever is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis, even in endemic areas. Rather the diagnosis of Lassa fever is suspected only after surgical intervention. Therefore, such patients often undergo unnecessary surgery with resultant delay in the commencement of ribavirin therapy. This increases morbidity and mortality and the risk of nosocomial transmission to hospital staff. We report 7 patients aged between 17 months and 40 years who had operative intervention for suspected appendicitis, perforated typhoid ileitis, intussuception and ruptured ectopic pregnancy after routine investigations. All seven were post-operatively confirmed as Lassa fever cases. Four patients died postoperatively, most before commencement of ribavirin, while the other three patients eventually recovered with appropriate antibiotic treatment including intravenous ribavirin. Surgeons working in West Africa should include Lassa fever in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially appendicitis. The presence of high grade fever, proteinuria and thrombocytopenia in patients with acute abdomen should heighten the suspicion of Lassa fever. Prolonged intra-operative bleeding should not only raise suspicion of the disease but also serve to initiate precautions to prevent nosocomial transmission.

  18. Radiological diagnostics of abdomen and thorax. Image interpretation considering anatomical landmarks and clinical symptoms; Radiologische Diagnostik Abdomen und Thorax. Bildinterpretation unter Beruecksichtigung anatomischer Landmarken und klinischer Symptome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, Gabriele A. [Universitaetsklinikum Giessen (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Mahnken, Andreas H. (ed.) [Universitaetsklinikum Marburg (Germany). Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2015-07-01

    The book on radiological diagnostics of abdomen and thorax - image interpretation considering anatomical landmarks and clinical symptoms - includes three chapters: (1) imaging of different parts of the body: thorax and abdomen. (II) Thorax: head and neck; mediastinum; heard and pericardium; large vessels; lungs and pleura; mamma. (III) Abdomen: liver; gall bladder and biliary tract; pancreas; gastrointestinal tract; spleen and lymphatic system; adrenal glands; kidneys and urinary tract; female pelvis; male pelvis.

  19. Effect of different aspirin doses on arterial thrombosis after canine carotid endarterectomy: a scanning electron microscope and indium-111-labeled platelet study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercius, M.S.; Chandler, W.F.; Ford, J.W.; Swanson, D.P.; Burke, J.C.

    1984-02-01

    Although it is widely accepted that aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation in arterial thrombosis, the appropriate dosage of aspirin remains quite controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different doses of aspirin (0.5 mg/kg vs. 10 mg/kg) on mural thrombus formation after carotid endarterectomy. Eighteen hours after oral aspirin administration, 20 endarterectomies were performed on mongrel dogs with the use of the operating microscope. Blood flow was then restored for 3 hours and the vessels were prepared for investigation with the scanning electron microscope. Ten endarterectomies were also performed on unmedicated dogs as controls. Five minutes before vessel unclamping, autologous indium-111-labeled platelets were administered intravenously, and the endarterectomized portions of the vessels were studied with a gamma counter system after harvesting. Group 1, the control group, revealed extensive mural thrombus consisting of platelet aggregates, fibrin, red blood cells, and white blood cells. Six of the 10 vessels in Group 2, premedicated with 0.5 mg of aspirin per kg, demonstrated varying amounts of mural thrombus. Group 3 (10 vessels), premedicated with 10 mg of aspirin per kg, revealed a platelet monolayer completely covering the exposed vessel wall media, with scattered white blood cells and infrequent fine fibrin strands overlying the platelet surface. The mean (+/- SD) radioactivity per group expressed as counts/minute/mm2 was: Group 1--2055.3 +/- 1905.5, log . 7.253 +/- 0.926; Group 2--1235.6 +/- 1234.3, log . 6.785 +/- 0.817; Group 3--526 +/- 433.06, log . 5.989 +/- 0.774.

  20. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  1. Measuring density and compressibility of white blood cells and prostate cancer cells by microchannel acoustophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune; Augustsson, Per; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel method for the determination of density and compressibility of individual particles and cells undergoing microchannel acoustophoresis in an arbitrary 2D acoustic field. Our method is a critical advancement within acoustophoretic separation of biological cells, as the ability to...

  2. White blood cell count and C-reactive protein together remain useful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CRP) contribution to the diagnosis of AA in children. Methods. This was a retrospective study of 943 consecutive patients operated on with the preoperative diagnosis of AA, in whom preoperative WBCC and CRP had both been measured.

  3. White blood cell count is associated with carotid and femoral atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortega, Emilio; Gilabert, Rosa; Nuñez, Isabel; Cofán, Montserrat; Sala-Vila, Aleix; de Groot, Eric; Ros, Emili

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with atherosclerosis. Ultrasound imaging allows measurement of intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque. We investigated the association between inflammatory markers and carotid and femoral atherosclerosis. Methods: We studied 554 subjects with

  4. High white blood cell count at diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkeviciene, Goda; Forestier, Erik; Hellebostad, Marit

    2011-01-01

    , Iceland, Norway and Sweden). Ten-year event-free (pEFS(10 y)) survival and overall (pOS(10 y)) survival were 0.75 ± 0.01 and 0.85 ± 0.01, respectively. Although treatment intensity was determined by WBC, non-remission and relapsed patients still had significantly higher WBC than those in remission for B......-cell precursor (BCP) (median WBC: 24.8 vs. 14.0 vs. 8.3 × 10(9) /L, P pEFS was inversely related to WBC for BCP (P

  5. Expression of candidate genes associated with obesity in peripheral white blood cells of Mexican children

    OpenAIRE

    Ulloa-Mart?nez, Marcela; Burguete-Garc?a, Ana I.; Murugesan, Selvasankar; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Cruz-Lopez, Miguel; Garc?a-Mena, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a chronic, complex, and multifactorial disease, characterized by excess body fat. Diverse studies of the human genome have led to the identification of susceptibility genes that contribute to obesity. However, relatively few studies have addressed specifically the association between the level of expression of these genes and obesity. Material and methods We studied 160 healthy and obese unrelated Mexican children aged 6 to 14 years. We measured the transcriptional exp...

  6. A Neural-Network-Based Approach to White Blood Cell Classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Su, Mu-Chun; Cheng, Chun-Yen; Wang, Pa-Chun

    2014-01-01

    ... of important hematic pathologies. For example, the presence of infections, leukemia, and some particular kinds of cancers can be diagnosed based on the results of the classification and the count of ...

  7. White blood cells and cortisol after sleep deprivation and recovery sleep in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, P; Dickhaus, B; Schreiber, W; Clement, H W; Hasse, C; Hennig, J; Remschmidt, H; Krieg, J C; Wesemann, W; Opper, C

    2000-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has enriched our treatment programme for major depression. SD has been demonstrated to modify different host defence activities. There is some evidence that there are reciprocal relationships between immune function and increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in depression. We therefore investigated the number of leukocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes, B cells, T cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, NK cells and salivary cortisol in 10 healthy men before and after total SD (TSD) as well as after recovery sleep. Blood samples were drawn on 3 consecutive days at 7 am, 1 pm and 7 pm, respectively. Comparison of the 7 am values by contrast analysis yielded significant differences for granulocytes (p = 0.044) and NK cells (p = 0.001) after SD and recovery sleep. NK cells decreased and granulocytes increased after SD and after recovery sleep. Significant differences between single points in time across the day were found for granulocytes (p = 0.022), monocytes (p = 0.031), T cells (p = 0.005), helper T cells (p = 0.004), cytotoxic T cells (p = 0.005) and NK cells (p = 0.017). No significant difference could be detected for leukocytes, lymphocytes and B cells counts. These results favour the thesis that SD and recovery sleep lead to changes in the distribution of peripheral leukocytes, especially in a reduction of NK cells after SD and recovery sleep. The cortisol rhythm was affected neither by SD nor recovery sleep.

  8. Changes in white blood cells in sheep blood during selenium supplementation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Písek, L.; Trávníček, J.; Salát, Jiří; Kroupová, V.; Soch, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 5 (2008), s. 255-259 ISSN 0375-8427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD523/03/H076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : ewes * immunity * T lymphocytes * CD4(+) * CD8(+) Subject RIV: GG - Livestock Rearing Impact factor: 0.659, year: 2008

  9. Obesity and ischemic stroke modulate the methylation levels of KCNQ1 in white blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Úriz, Ana M; Milagro, Fermín I; Mansego, María L; Cordero, Paúl; Abete, Itziar; De Arce, Ana; Goyenechea, Estíbaliz; Blázquez, Vanessa; Martínez-Zabaleta, Maite; Martínez, José Alfredo; López De Munain, Adolfo; Campión, Javier

    2015-03-01

    Obesity and stroke are multifactorial diseases in which genetic, epigenetic and lifestyle factors are involved. The research aims were, first, the description of genes with differential epigenetic regulation obtained by an 'omics' approach in patients with ischemic stroke and, second, to determine the importance of some regions of these selected genes in biological processes depending on the body mass index. A case-control study using two populations was designed. The first population consisted of 24 volunteers according to stroke/non-stroke and normal weight/obesity conditions. The second population included 60 stroke patients and 55 controls classified by adiposity. DNA from the first population was analyzed with a methylation microarray, showing 80 cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpG) sites differentially methylated in stroke and 96 CpGs in obesity, whereas 59 CpGs showed interaction. After validating these data by MassArray Epityper, the promoter region of peptidase M20 domain containing 1 (PM20D1) gene was significantly hypermethylated in stroke patients. One CpG site at Caldesmon 1 (CALD1) gene showed an interaction between stroke and obesity. Two CpGs located in the genes Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) and potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1) were significantly hypermethylated in obese patients. In the second population, KCNQ1 was also hypermethylated in the obese subjects. Two CpGs of this gene were subsequently validated by methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting. Moreover, KCNQ1 methylation levels were associated with plasma KCNQ1 protein concentrations. In conclusion, obesity induced changes in the KCNQ1 methylation pattern which were also dependent on stroke. Furthermore, the epigenetic marks differentially methylated in the stroke patients were dependent on the previous obese state. These DNA methylation patterns could be used as future potential stroke biomarkers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells: a pooled analysis of 3,600 subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricceri, Fulvio; Godschalk, Roger W; Peluso, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Bulky DNA adducts are markers of exposure to genotoxic aromatic compounds, which reflect the ability of an individual to metabolically activate carcinogens and to repair DNA damage. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a major class of carcinogens that are capable of forming such add...

  11. Roentogenologic diagnosis of an acute abdomen in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Makio; Chiba, Nobuyuki; Miyagi, Tetsuo (Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan))

    1983-05-01

    An acute abdomen is one of the main topics among emergency practice for children. We have experienced about 300 acute abdomen cases per year at our Children's Hospital since 1970. Radiological technologists provide a 24-hour emergency service using special knowledge and techniques in our radiological investigation. In the noenatal period esophageal atresia should be diagnosed by plain up-right film with a coiled-up rubber tube, and a contrast examination is contraindicated to prevent severe aspiration pneumonia. In the cases with intestinal atresia, the contrast examination is not necessary again, because the findings of plain film such as the distribution of air-filled intestinal loops, dilated bowel with air-fluid level gives us enough information for the diagnosis of these congenital anomalies. On the contrary, barium enema is useful and harmless for the neonatal age group. It is practical for diagnosing Hirschsprung's disease, midgut malrotation with volvulus, ileal and colonic atresia and necrotizing enterocolitis. An imperforate anus should be classified into the high and low type in the neonatal period to define the treatment. Invertogram is an only way for the differentiation of a baby without external fistula, and we have established the technique for this. The level is diagnosed by the relationship between the gas-filled rectal pouch and ischiac bone. In the infant group intussusception is the most common and urgent acute abdomen. We use a special device to fix the bady, dilute the barium with warm saline (to avoid water intoxication), limit the water pressure to within one meter, and avoid abdominal manipulation and longtime exposure. The successful reduction rate that our team has obtained is almost 85%.

  12. Hotel NHS and the acute abdomen - admit first, investigate later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, K; Bhowmick, A; Beveridge, A J; Scott, N A

    2009-12-01

    To determine the financial consequences of a policy of admission first, followed by definitive investigation for patients with an admission diagnosis of suspected acute abdomen. Over a 1-month period, 122 patients were admitted with a suspected surgical diagnosis of acute abdomen (55 men, 67 women); age range 16-95 years (median: 56.5). Based on surgical operation required (n = 36), death after admission (n = 6, three postoperative deaths) and/or severe surgical illness (n = 17), 56 required surgical inpatient admission, while 66 did not. The patients who did not require admission spent significantly shorter time in hospital than those who required admission (median: 5 days vs. 8.5 days; p = 0.0000). Total hospital hotel and investigation cost (not including ITU or theatre costs) for all 122 patients was 330,468 pounds. Overall, 205,468 pounds was consumed by these 56 patients who required admission, while 125,000 pounds was spent on 66 patients whose clinical course did not justify admission; 92% of which was spent on hospital hotel costs and 8% on the cost of imaging and/or endoscopy. On a national basis, emergency General Surgery admissions account for 1000 Finished Consultant Episodes per 100,000 population. The findings of this study suggest that this equates to a national NHS spend of 650 million pounds each year, for the hotel costs of patients that could arguably avoid surgical admission altogether. Continuing to admit patients with a suspected acute abdomen first and then requesting definitive investigation makes neither clinical nor economic sense.

  13. A Rare Acute Abdomen Reason: Perforated Jejunal Diverticulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Karakose

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare case that is diagnosed incidental. Although it is generally asymptomatic, it can cause non-spesific symptoms like stomachache, nausea, diarrhoea, malabsorption, bleeding, obstruction and / or perforation. Perforated jejunal diverticulitis is a very rare acute abdomen cause. The acute complications of jejunal diverticulosis can be cause of significant morbidity and mortality especially in old patients. In this text, we report a 81 year old woman case that was operated emergently because of perforated jejunal diverticulitis and was lost in postoperation term because of multiple organ failure.

  14. Guillain-Barre Syndrome Presenting as Acute Abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk incecik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Guillain-Barr and eacute; syndrome (GBS is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis in childhood. Symmetric weakness, headache, respiratory symptom, neuropathic pain, muscle pain, paresthesia, and facial palsy were the most common clinical presentations. We report 13-year-old boy with GBS who presented with acute abdominal pain. This is the first report, to our knowledge, first presented of acute abdomen of a pediatric patient with GBS. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 601-603

  15. Incidence and pathology of repeat computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis in a pediatric emergency department population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Barry; Dima, Jennifer; Hirschorn, David; Weiserbs, Kera F

    2013-07-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) scanning is increasingly prevalent in emergency departments (EDs). It is a moderate- to high-radiation diagnostic technique that exposes more than 1 million children per year to unnecessary radiation. Repeat CT of the abdomen and pelvis (CTAP) among pediatric patients who return to the ED within 1 year may be an example of unnecessary pediatric radiation exposure. The objectives of this study were to identify the incidence of pediatric patients who undergo more than 1 CTAP within 1 year and to detect the incidence of significant pathology on these repeat scans. This was a retrospective review of subjects younger than 18 years with an initial CTAP as an ED patient, inpatient, or outpatient and a second CTAP within 12 months and during an ED visit. During the observation period, 172 pediatric ED admissions had at least 1 repeat admission involving an abdominal CT scan. Thirty-seven of the CT scans (19.3%) were positive. Sixty percent of the positive cases (n = 22) were attributable to the 3 most prevalent diagnoses: appendicitis in 8 cases (21.6%), kidney stone in 8 cases (21.6%), and colitis in 6 cases (16.2%). Approximately, one third of repeat CT scans occurred within the first month of the initial CT scan, and two thirds occurred within 6 months of the initial CT scan. A substantial percentage of pediatric patients undergo more than 1 CTAP within a 1-year time frame. Among these patients, a large portion were diagnosed significant pathology.

  16. Diagnostics of vascular diseases as a cause for acute abdomen; Diagnostik vaskulaerer Erkrankungen als Ursache fuer das akute Abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juchems, M.S. [Universitaetsklinikum Ulm, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Ulm (Germany); Aschoff, A.J. [Klinikum Kempten-Oberallgaeu, Abteilung fuer Radiologie, Kempten (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Vascular pathologies are rare causes of an acute abdomen. If the cause is a vascular disease a rapid diagnosis is desired as vascular pathologies are associated with high mortality. A differentiation must be made between arterial and venous diseases. An occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery is the most common reason for acute mesenteric ischemia but intra-abdominal arterial bleeding is also of great importance. Venous pathologies include thrombotic occlusion of the portal vein, the mesenteric vein and the vena cava. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is predestined for the diagnostics of vascular diseases of the abdomen. Using multiphasic contrast protocols enables reliable imaging of the arterial and venous vessel tree and detection of disorders with high sensitivity and specificity. Although conventional angiography has been almost completely replaced by MDCT as a diagnostic tool, it is still of high importance for minimally invasive interventions, for example in the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.) [German] Vaskulaere Pathologien sind seltene Ursachen fuer den klinischen Zustand eines akuten Abdomens. Liegt eine vaskulaere Erkrankung vor, ist jedoch aufgrund der hohen Mortalitaet eine zuegige Diagnostik von grosser Wichtigkeit. Bei den Erkrankungen der abdominellen Gefaesse sind arterielle von venoesen Ursachen zu unterscheiden. Ein Verschluss der A. mesenterica superior ist die haeufigste Ursache fuer die akute Mesenterialischaemie, daneben sind Blutungen in den abdominellen Gefaessprovinzen des arteriellen Gefaessbaums von Bedeutung. Venoese Pathologien betreffen thrombotische Verschluesse der Pfortader, der V. mesenterica und der V. cava. Die Multidetektor-CT (MDCT) ist zur Diagnostik vaskulaerer Erkrankungen des Abdominalraums praedestiniert. Mit mehrphasigen Untersuchungsprotokollen gelingt es, den arteriellen und venoesen Gefaessbaum zuverlaessig darzustellen und Erkrankungen mit hoher Sensitivitaet und Spezifitaet zu

  17. Open abdomen and VAC® in severe diffuse peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutafchiyski, Ventsislav M; Popivanov, G I; Kjossev, K T; Chipeva, S

    2016-02-01

    Currently, the open abdomen technique is the widely recognised method for treatment of life-threatening trauma, intra-abdominal sepsis, abdominal compartment syndrome and wound dehiscence. The techniques for temporary closure using negative pressure have gained increasing popularity. Although negative pressure wound therapy has been proved as an effective method in trauma, the results in diffuse peritonitis are contradictory. Overall, 108 patients with diffuse peritonitis and open abdomen were prospectively enrolled from January 2006 to December 2013--69 treated with mesh-foil laparostomy without negative pressure and 49 with vacuum-assisted closure (VAC(®)) The primary endpoints were the rate of primary fascial closure and mortality. The secondary outcomes were the rate of complications--enteroatmospheric fistulas, intra-abdominal abscesses, wound infection and necrotising fasciitis, intensive care unit (ICU) and overall hospital stay. VAC was associated with higher overall (73% vs 53%) and late primary fascial closure rates (31% vs 7%), lower rates of necrotising fasciitis (2% vs 15%, p=0.012), intra-abdominal abscesses (10% vs 20%), enteroatmospheric fistulas (8% vs 19%), overall mortality (31% vs 53%, pperitonitis. However, to a large extent, our results might be attributed to the combination of VAC with dynamic fascial closure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR) 3D in low dose CT abdomen-pelvis: Effects on image quality and radiation exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, W. C.; Hashim, S.; Karim, M. K. A.; Bahruddin, N. A.; Salehhon, N.; Musa, Y.

    2017-05-01

    The widespread use of computed tomography (CT) has increased the medical radiation exposure and cancer risk. We aimed to evaluate the impact of AIDR 3D in CT abdomen-pelvic examinations based on image quality and radiation dose in low dose (LD) setting compared to standard dose (STD) with filtered back projection (FBP) reconstruction. We retrospectively reviewed the images of 40 patients who underwent CT abdomen-pelvic using a 80 slice CT scanner. Group 1 patients (n=20, mean age 41 ± 17 years) were performed at LD with AIDR 3D reconstruction and Group 2 patients (n=20, mean age 52 ± 21 years) were scanned with STD using FBP reconstruction. Objective image noise was assessed by region of interest (ROI) measurements in the liver and aorta as standard deviation (SD) of the attenuation value (Hounsfield Unit, HU) while subjective image quality was evaluated by two radiologists. Statistical analysis was used to compare the scan length, CT dose index volume (CTDIvol) and image quality of both patient groups. Although both groups have similar mean scan length, the CTDIvol significantly decreased by 38% in LD CT compared to STD CT (psuperior image quality in LD CT abdomen-pelvis.

  19. AluScan: a method for genome-wide scanning of sequence and structure variations in the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Lingling

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To complement next-generation sequencing technologies, there is a pressing need for efficient pre-sequencing capture methods with reduced costs and DNA requirement. The Alu family of short interspersed nucleotide elements is the most abundant type of transposable elements in the human genome and a recognized source of genome instability. With over one million Alu elements distributed throughout the genome, they are well positioned to facilitate genome-wide sequence amplification and capture of regions likely to harbor genetic variation hotspots of biological relevance. Results Here we report on the use of inter-Alu PCR with an enhanced range of amplicons in conjunction with next-generation sequencing to generate an Alu-anchored scan, or 'AluScan', of DNA sequences between Alu transposons, where Alu consensus sequence-based 'H-type' PCR primers that elongate outward from the head of an Alu element are combined with 'T-type' primers elongating from the poly-A containing tail to achieve huge amplicon range. To illustrate the method, glioma DNA was compared with white blood cell control DNA of the same patient by means of AluScan. The over 10 Mb sequences obtained, derived from more than 8,000 genes spread over all the chromosomes, revealed a highly reproducible capture of genomic sequences enriched in genic sequences and cancer candidate gene regions. Requiring only sub-micrograms of sample DNA, the power of AluScan as a discovery tool for genetic variations was demonstrated by the identification of 357 instances of loss of heterozygosity, 341 somatic indels, 274 somatic SNVs, and seven potential somatic SNV hotspots between control and glioma DNA. Conclusions AluScan, implemented with just a small number of H-type and T-type inter-Alu PCR primers, provides an effective capture of a diversity of genome-wide sequences for analysis. The method, by enabling an examination of gene-enriched regions containing exons, introns, and

  20. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  1. Scintigraphic head-to-head comparison between {sup 99m}Tc-WBCs and {sup 99m}Tc-LeukoScan in the evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokkel, M.P.M.; Reigman, H.I.E.; Pauwels, E.K.J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2002-02-01

    Scintigraphy with technetium-99m labelled white blood cells (WBCs) is routinely used in our hospital for the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The main disadvantages of this diagnostic tool are its time-consuming nature and the handling of blood itself. {sup 99m}Tc-LeukoScan is a relatively new, easily prepared agent that is used for the detection of osteomyelitis. To assess its value in IBD, a scintigraphic head-to-head comparison was performed between {sup 99m}Tc-LeukoScan and {sup 99m}Tc-WBCs. {sup 99m}Tc-LeukoScan scintigraphy was performed in six patients with clinically active IBD and increased uptake on {sup 99m}Tc-WBC images. The interval between the scintigraphic studies ranged from 2 to 7 days, and endoscopy was subsequently performed to confirm active IBD. In three out of six patients with increased uptake on the {sup 99m}Tc-WBC scans, {sup 99m}Tc-LeukoScan images showed very discreet activity in the bowel, but the sites did not correspond with the inflammation sites seen on {sup 99m}Tc-WBC scintigraphy and found at endoscopy. In the other three patients, {sup 99m}Tc-LeukoScan scintigraphy revealed a physiological distribution but no abnormalities. In conclusion, {sup 99m}Tc-LeukoScan is not an alternative agent for the assessment of IBD. A prospective study is not justified owing to the false-negative results. (orig.)

  2. The effects of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scan on human karyotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liberatore, Mauro; Prosperi, Daniela; Iurilli, Anna Paola [Section of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Policlinico Umberto I, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161, Rome (Italy); Poscente, Monica; Mancini, Barbara; Grammatico, Paola [Medical Genetics, Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology Department, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); Donnetti, Massimo [Section of Medical Physics, Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy)

    2003-10-01

    Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) white blood cell scan (WBCS) requires separation and labelling of mixed leucocytes, which include particularly radiosensitive cells, lymphocytes. Lymphocytes labelled during the mixed leucocyte labelling procedure could represent a problem for patients owing to the possible induction of chromosomal aberrations. Lymphocytes labelled in mixed leucocyte preparations are probably killed by the high-dose radiation. Nevertheless, it has been reported that some of these lymphocytes can proliferate after in vitro stimulation. If these cells were to reproduce themselves in vivo, onset of, or increase over time in, chromosomal aberrations could occur on peripheral blood lymphocytes. The present study was performed on 21 patients who underwent WBCS for suspected infection/inflammation. Blood samples of these patients were submitted to cytogenetic study, comprising karyotype determination, evaluation of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and evaluation of induced chromosomal breakages or rearrangement rate (B/R). This study was performed 2 h before and 7 days and 6 months after the WBCS. The results demonstrated no statistically significant differences between SCE and B/R values before and after WBCS. No cause-effect relationship appeared to exist between WBCS and the onset of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, at least during the first 6 months post WBCS and within the limits of this study's approach. The high-dose radiation administered to lymphocytes was almost certainly sufficient to kill these cells. (orig.)

  3. Omental torsion in acute abdomen: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alibakhshi A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Management of acute abdomen usually does not necessitate accurate pre-operative diagnosis but the surgeon should make a decision about the need for emergent laparotomy. This fact is somehow different for localized peritonitis (e.g. acute appendicitis in which the clinical presentation directs straightly to the diagnosis. However, acute appendicitis has lots of differential diagnoses, finding the normal appendix during laparotomy is just a start point to look for other diagnoses. Omental torsion is a rare cause for acute abdomen that is usually missed. Knowing about this rare condition and its frequently encountered presentation at the operating room (sero-sanguinous fluid coming out of peritoneal cavity may prevent missing the diagnosis and doing a malpractice."n"nCase report: Report a 9 year- old boy presented with acute abdomen which turned out to be an omental torsion after the operation."n"nConclusion: Knowledge about this rare condition "omental torsion" and its clinical and intra operative presentations may prevent missing the diagnosis and a malpractice.

  4. Perforated jejunal diverticulum: a rare case of acute abdomen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Rishabh; Cheung, Cherry X.; Hills, Tristram; Waris, Aqueel; Healy, Donagh; Khan, Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Jejunal pseudo-diverticulosis is a rare acquired herniation of the mucosa and submucosa through weakened areas of the muscularis mucosa of the mesenteric aspect of the bowel. They are asymptomatic in the majority of cases; however, they can present with a wide spectrum of non-specific symptoms such as chronic abdominal discomfort, postprandial flatulence, diarrhoea, malabsorption and steattorhoea. In up to 15% of cases, more serious acute complications may arise such as the development of intestinal obstruction, haemorrhage or as in our case, localized peritonitis secondary to perforation. Perforation carries an overall mortality rate of up to 40% and exploratory laparotomy followed by copious lavage with segmental resection and primary anastomosis remains the mainstay of managing such sequalae of jejunal pseudo-diverticulosis. Our case report highlights the importance of maintaining a high clinical suspicion of a perforated jejunal diverticulum in an elderly patient presenting with an acute abdomen. PMID:27765806

  5. An accessory venous channel of abdomen: an anatomical insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S; Rath, G; Dhuria, R; Yadav, Y; Suri, R; Das, S

    2011-01-01

    Variations in the venous architecture of the retro peritoneum is not uncommon, mostly those of Inferior Vena Cava (IVC). In this report we describe an extremely rare anatomical entity, where the IVC is formed by the union of the right common iliac vein and the left internal iliac vein. This is associated with a parallel venous channel which is the upward continuation of the left external iliac vein, which finally drains into the IVC at the level of renal veins. Awareness of such unusual variation of abdominal venous channels is helpful during retroperitoneal and laparoscopic surgeries of the abdomen, in staging of abdominal neoplasm, in radiological interpretation as well as therapeutic intervention in cases of recurrent pulmonary embolism.

  6. Missed Diagnosed Bicornuate Unicollis Uterus Presenting As Acute Abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omokanye, L O; Salaudeeen, A G; Balogun, O R; Saidu, R; Olatinwo, A W

    2014-01-01

    Uterus bicornuate unicollis is one of the various congenital abnormalities of the female genital tract caused by partial fusion of the mullerian ducts on both sides. A case of acute abdomen resulting from missed diagnosed bicornuate unicollis uterus in a 42-year infertile women was presented. The ultrasonographic diagnosis of twisted complex left adnexial cyst was made prior to exploratory laparotomy. However, findings at laparotomy revealed a non-communicating bicornuate unicollis uterus with damaged right tube (hyrosalpinx) and normal ovaries and left tube. A blind-ended rudimentary left sided uterine horn was excised with the ovary spared and the right sided hydrosalpinx disconnected using chromic 1. Patient was however counselled for in vitro fertilization.

  7. Abdomen agudo quirúrgico en el anciano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M Valdés Jiménez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de 156 enfermos mayores de 65 años, con diagnóstico de abdomen agudo quirúrgico (AAQ, operados en el Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico «Manuel Fajardo» e ingresados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intermedios Polivalente, durante el trienio comprendido entre 1995 y 1998. Las causas más frecuentes del síndrome fueron la oclusión intestinal (58,9 %, la colecistitis aguda (13,5 % y la úlcera péptica gastroduodenal perforada (10,9 %. Las enfermedades asociadas de mayor prevalencia eran la cardiopatía isquémica (62,2 % y la hipertensión arterial (48,7 %. La mortalidad aumentó con el avance de la edad, y alcanzó el 70,4 % en los mayores de 85 años. Entre las complicaciones predominaron la infección de la herida quirúrgica (12,8 % y la bronconeumonía (5,8 %. La principal causa de muerte fue la sepsis (10,3 %A descriptive and retrospective study of 156 patients over 65 with diagnosis of acute surgical abdomen (ASA that were operated on at "Manuel Fajardo" Clinical and Surgical Hospital and admitted at the Polyvalent Intermediate Care Unit, from 1995 to 1998, was conducted. The most common causes of the syndrome were intestinal occlusion (58.9 %, acute cholecystitis (13.5 % and the gastroduodenal perforated peptic ulcer (10.9 %. The associated diseases of highest prevalence were ischemic heart disease (62.2 % and arterial hypertension (48.7 %. Mortality increased with age and amounted to 70.4 % in patients over 85. The infection of the surgical wound (12.8 % and bronchopneumonia (5.8% prevailed among the complications. Sepsis (10.3 % was the main cause of death

  8. Comparison of virtual unenhanced CT images of the abdomen under different iodine flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongrui; Li, Ye; Jackson, Alan; Li, Xiaodong; Huang, Ning; Guo, Chunjie; Zhang, Huimao

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effect of varying iodine flow rate (IFR) and iodine concentration on the quality of virtual unenhanced (VUE) images of the abdomen obtained with dual-energy CT. 94 subjects underwent unenhanced and triphasic contrast-enhanced CT scan of the abdomen, including arterial phase, portal venous phase, and delayed phase using dual-energy CT. Patients were randomized into 4 groups with different IFRs or iodine concentrations. VUE images were generated at 70 keV. The CT values, image noise, SNR and CNR of aorta, portal vein, liver, liver lesion, pancreatic parenchyma, spleen, erector spinae, and retroperitoneal fat were recorded. Dose-length product and effective dose for an examination with and without plain phase scan were calculated to assess the potential dose savings. Two radiologists independently assessed subjective image quality using a five-point scale. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used first to test for normal distribution. Where data conformed to a normal distribution, analysis of variance was used to compare mean HU values, image noise, SNRs and CNRs for the 4 image sets. Where data distribution was not normal, a nonparametric test (Kruskal-Wallis test followed by stepwise step-down comparisons) was used. The significance level for all tests was 0.01 (two-sided) to allow for type 2 errors due to multiple testing. The CT numbers (HU) of VUE images showed no significant differences between the 4 groups (p > 0.05) or between different phases within the same group (p > 0.05). VUE images had equal or higher SNR and CNR than true unenhanced images. VUE images received equal or lower subjective image quality scores than unenhanced images but were of acceptable quality for diagnostic use. Calculated dose-length product and estimated dose showed that the use of VUE images in place of unenhanced images would be associated with a dose saving of 25%. VUE images can replace conventional unenhanced images. VUE images are not affected by varying iodine

  9. Acute Abdomen in 8-year Old Girl due to Bilateral Ovarian Burkitt's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patient had stage IV disease and chemotherapy treatment was started, however she died after the third course of chemotherapy. Although ovarian Burkitt's lymphoma is common, presentation with signs of acute abdomen with involvement of both ovaries is not a usual mode of presentation. Key words: Acute abdomen, ...

  10. [Digestive bleeding and acute abdomen caused by jejunal diverticulosis. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nari, Gustavo A; Azar, Ricardo; Feliu, Luis; Moreno, Eduardo; Bonaparte, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    We present a patient with acute abdomen and digestive bleeding caused by jejunal diverticulosis. Jejunal diverticulosis, mainly asymptomatic, when is symptomatic have a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from chronic anemic syndrome to acute abdomen. In this communication, we reviewed the clinical presentation, the pathogenesis and the treatment this infrequent pathology.

  11. Subperitoneal extension of disease processes between the chest, abdomen, and the pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Sherif; Moshiri, Mariam; Robinson, Tracy J; Gunn, Martin; Lehnert, Bruce; Sundarkumar, Dinesh; Katz, Douglas S

    2015-08-01

    The subserous space is a large, anatomically continuous potential space that interconnects the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. The subserous space is formed from areolar and adipose tissue, and contains branches of the vascular, lymphatic, and nervous systems. As such, it provides one large continuous space in which many disease processes can spread between the chest, abdomen, and the pelvis.

  12. The role of open abdomen in non-trauma patient: WSES Consensus Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coccolini, Federico; Montori, Giulia; Ceresoli, Marco; Catena, Fausto; Moore, Ernest E.; Ivatury, Rao; Biffl, Walter; Peitzman, Andrew; Coimbra, Raul; Rizoli, Sandro; Kluger, Yoram; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.; Sartelli, Massimo; de Moya, Marc; Velmahos, George; Fraga, Gustavo Pereira; Pereira, Bruno M.; Leppaniemi, Ari; Boermeester, Marja A.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Maier, Ron; Bala, Miklosh; Sakakushev, Boris; Khokha, Vladimir; Malbrain, Manu; Agnoletti, Vanni; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Sugrue, Michael; Di Saverio, Salomone; Griffiths, Ewen; Soreide, Kjetil; Mazuski, John E.; May, Addison K.; Montravers, Philippe; Melotti, Rita Maria; Pisano, Michele; Salvetti, Francesco; Marchesi, Gianmariano; Valetti, Tino M.; Scalea, Thomas; Chiara, Osvaldo; Kashuk, Jeffry L.; Ansaloni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The open abdomen (OA) is defined as intentional decision to leave the fascial edges of the abdomen un-approximated after laparotomy (laparostomy). The abdominal contents are potentially exposed and therefore must be protected with a temporary coverage, which is referred to as temporal abdominal

  13. Geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen in geometrid moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelä, Sami M.; Välimäki, Panu; Carrasco, David; Mäenpää, Maarit I.; Mänttäri, Satu

    2012-08-01

    A resource allocation trade-off is expected when resources from a common pool are allocated to two or more traits. In holometabolous insects, resource allocation to different functions during metamorphosis relies completely on larval-derived resources. At adult eclosion, resource allocation to the abdomen at the expense of other body parts can be seen as a rough estimate of resource allocation to reproduction. Theory suggests geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen, but there are currently no empirical data on it. We measured resource allocation to the abdomen at adult eclosion in four geometrid moths along a latitudinal gradient. Resource (total dry material, carbon, nitrogen) allocation to the abdomen showed positive allometry with body size. We found geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen in each species, and this variation was independent of allometry in three species. Geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen was complex. Resource allocation to the abdomen was relatively high in partially bivoltine populations in two species, which fits theoretical predictions, but the overall support for theory is weak. This study indicates that the geographic variation in resource allocation to the abdomen is not an allometric consequence of geographic variation in resource acquisition (i.e., body size). Thus, there is a component of resource allocation that can evolve independently of resource acquisition. Our results also suggest that there may be intraspecific variation in the degree of capital versus income breeding.

  14. First identification of nanoparticles on thorax, abdomen and wings of the worker bee Apis dorsata Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya Atanu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of nanoparticles on the body of the honeybee Apis dorsata Fabricius, was investigated for the first time to better understand the bee’s behaviour. These have been observed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and confirmed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. Our study clearly denotes that the Indian rock honey bee Apis dorsata possess calcium silicate and calcium phosphate nanoparticles on its body surface of 5-50 nm in diameter. In particular, the nanoparticles on the abdomen and thorax of A. dorsata have an average diameter of about 10 nanometers and they are smaller than those found on wings of the same bees which are about 20 nanometers. The nanoparticles found are different of the ones previously observed on honey bees or other insects. The origin and role of these natural nanoparticles on the body of the Indian rock bee need to be to be further investigated; more research in the subject might raise important aspects in relation to the conservation of these unique pollinators.

  15. Fine focal spot size improves image quality in computed tomography abdomen and pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Yin P.; Low, Keat; Kuganesan, Ahilan [Monash Health, Diagnostic Imaging Department, 246, Clayton Road, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Lau, Kenneth K. [Monash Health, Diagnostic Imaging Department, 246, Clayton Road, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Monash University, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Victoria (Australia); Buchan, Kevin [Philips Healthcare, Clinical Science, PO Box 312, Mont Albert, Victoria (Australia); Oh, Lawrence Chia Wei [Flinders Medical Centre, Division of Medical Imaging, Bedford Park South (Australia); Huynh, Minh [Swinburne University, Department of Statistics, Data Science and Epidemiology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, Hawthorn (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    To compare the image quality between fine focal spot size (FFSS) and standard focal spot size (SFSS) in computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis (CTAP) This retrospective review included all consecutive adult patients undergoing contrast-enhanced CTAP between June and September 2014. Two blinded radiologists assessed the margin clarity of the abdominal viscera and the detected lesions using a five-point grading scale. Cohen's kappa test was used to examine the inter-observer reliability between the two reviewers for organ margin clarity. Mann-Whitney U testing was utilised to assess the statistical difference of the organ and lesion margin clarity. 100 consecutive CTAPs were recruited. 52 CTAPs were examined with SFSS of 1.1 x 1.2 mm and 48 CTAPs were examined with FFSS of 0.6 x 0.7 mm. Results showed that there was substantial agreement for organ margin clarity (mean κ = 0.759, p < 0.001) among the reviewers. FFSS produces images with clearer organ margins (U = 76194.0, p < 0.001, r = 0.523) and clearer lesion margins (U = 239, p = 0.052, r = 0.269). FFSS CTAP improves image quality in terms of better organ and lesion margin clarity. Fine focus CT scanning is a novel technique that may be applied in routine CTAP imaging. (orig.)

  16. Cooperative scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractData mining, information retrieval and other application areas exhibit a query load with multiple concurrent queries touching a large fraction of a relation. This leads to individual query plans based on a table scan or large index scan. The implementation of this access path in most

  17. International consensus conference on open abdomen in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Osvaldo; Cimbanassi, Stefania; Biffl, Walter; Leppaniemi, Ari; Henry, Sharon; Scalea, Thomas M; Catena, Fausto; Ansaloni, Luca; Chieregato, Arturo; de Blasio, Elvio; Gambale, Giorgio; Gordini, Giovanni; Nardi, Guiseppe; Paldalino, Pietro; Gossetti, Francesco; Dionigi, Paolo; Noschese, Giuseppe; Tugnoli, Gregorio; Ribaldi, Sergio; Sgardello, Sebastian; Magnone, Stefano; Rausei, Stefano; Mariani, Anna; Mengoli, Francesca; di Saverio, Salomone; Castriconi, Maurizio; Coccolini, Federico; Negreanu, Joseph; Razzi, Salvatore; Coniglio, Carlo; Morelli, Francesco; Buonanno, Maurizio; Lippi, Monica; Trotta, Liliana; Volpi, Annalisa; Fattori, Luca; Zago, Mauro; de Rai, Paolo; Sammartano, Fabrizio; Manfredi, Roberto; Cingolani, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    A part of damage-control laparotomy is to leave the fascial edges and the skin open to avoid abdominal compartment syndrome and allow further explorations. This condition, known as open abdomen (OA), although effective, is associated with severe complications. Our aim was to develop evidence-based recommendations to define indications for OA, techniques for temporary abdominal closure, management of enteric fistulas, and methods of definitive wall closure. The literature from 1990 to 2014 was systematically screened according to PRISMA [Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses] protocol. Seventy-six articles were reviewed by a panel of experts to assign grade of recommendations (GoR) and level of evidence (LoE) using the GRADE [Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation] system, and an international consensus conference was held. OA in trauma is indicated at the end of damage-control laparotomy, in the presence of visceral swelling, for a second look in vascular injuries or gross contamination, in the case of abdominal wall loss, and if medical treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome has failed (GoR B, LoE II). Negative-pressure wound therapy is the recommended temporary abdominal closure technique to drain peritoneal fluid, improve nursing, and prevent fascial retraction (GoR B, LoE I). Lack of OA closure within 8 days (GoR C, LoE II), bowel injuries, high-volume replacement, and use of polypropylene mesh over the bowel (GoR C, LoE I) are risk factors for frozen abdomen and fistula formation. Negative-pressure wound therapy allows to isolate the fistula and protect the surrounding tissues from spillage until granulation (GoR C, LoE II). Correction of fistula is performed after 6 months to 12 months. Definitive closure of OA has to be obtained early (GoR C, LoE I) with direct suture, traction devices, component separation with or without mesh. Biologic meshes are an option for wall reinforcement if bacterial

  18. VALIDITY OF PARACENTESIS IN DIAGNOSING BLUNT TRAUMA ABDOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Bin Abdul Majeed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Blunt abdominal trauma is a common case that comes to an emergency department and it is the most easily missed diagnosis resulting in catastrophic consequences. Delay in diagnosing a case is due to the nonspecific character of the symptoms with which it presents. Clinical signs that could be elicited in blunt trauma abdomen are equally nonspecific. Thus, to avoid delay and save the life of the patient, a doctor has to depend on various investigations to rule out blunt trauma abdomen. The modalities which help include paracentesis, diagnostic peritoneal lavage, Focused Abdominal Sonography for Trauma (FAST and ContrastEnhanced Computed Tomography (CECT. To choose the right investigation for the right patient helps in saving precious lives. Validity of each investigation, availability, condition of the patient are the main points to look into before deciding on the right investigative modality. Paracentesis is the simplest investigation that could be done in emergency department and also at the site of accident to triage the patient. Paracentesis has low sensitivity to detect blunt trauma. FAST is a better investigation with higher validity rates than paracentesis. This study aims to validate paracentesis, which is the simplest and commonest investigation used to identify blunt abdominal trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, 106 patients who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were followed up by detailed history, clinical examination, paracentesis and FAST to identify blunt abdominal trauma and then compared with a gold standard investigation, which was assigned as CECT for haemodynamically stable patients and laparotomy for haemodynamically unstable patients. Commonest organs injured in blunt trauma and their management was noted. Patients were followed up till discharge or death. Subsequently, the data were compiled using excel sheet and evaluated using tables and charts. RESULTS Paracentesis is found to have a

  19. Sonographic findings of ovarian hemorrhage presenting acute abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Joo Sung; Lee, Eun Ju; Kang, Hae Jin; Suh, Jung Ho [Aju University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    To obtain the characteristic sonographic findings of ovarian hemorrhage and investigate the usefulness of ultrasonography in the diagnosis. Forty-nine cases presenting acute abdomen diagnosed as ovarian hemorrhage by ultrasonography or surgicopathological confirmation. We observed the size and margin of the ovary, size, pattern, shape, wall and internal echogenecity of the masses and the amount of hemoperitoneum. We also performed a color Doppler study to evaluate the blood flow pattern and resistive index (RI). The age of patients were between 21-41. Most symptoms occurred from days 14 to 30 of her menstrual cycle and were presented for less than 24 hours. Twenty patients had a history of intercourse shortly before the onset of the symptom. Thirty two cases involved the right ovary while the other 17 cases involved the left. All patients had a negative urine or serum hCG test except for 4 pregnant women. The size of the ovary was measured as mean 5.1 cm and marginal irregularly was noted in 36 cases. Mixed echoic solid masses were observed in 6 cases and variable echogenecity of cystic masses were seen in 43 cases. Maximal diameter of adnexal masses were measured as mean 3.95 cm. Internal echogenecity of cystic masses appeared as mainly heterogeneous (21). Twenty two cystic masses had a thick irregular wall and 17 had a thin smooth wall. Hypoechoic rim like halo surrounding was noted in 17 cystic masses. 17 cases seemed to have a small amount of hemoperitoneum, a moderate amount in 22 cases and a large amount in 9 cases. The blood flow pattern of cystic masses showed a rim (29) and spotty (8) pattern in the color Doppler study. Measured RI was 0.41 (mean). Fertile women with the complaint of acute abdominal pain, who has the laboratory data of negative hCG test, ultrasonographic findings of enlargement of ovary with irregular margin, heterogeneous echoic cystic mass, peripheral halo surrounding the mass, hemoperitoneum and low resistance index of peripheral blood

  20. Utility of CT Scan and CA 19-9 in Predicting Non –Resectability in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Eligible consenting patients were recruited. All had a CT scan of the abdomen and serum CA 19-9 levels determined preoperatively and staging was done using the LRCC criteria. At surgery, intraoperative findings were then compared in terms of non-resectability with the preoperative CT scan prediction and the ...

  1. CT analysis of fat distribution superficial and deep to the Scarpa's fascial layer in the mid and lower abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, O J H; Pickford, M A

    2013-04-01

    Mismatches in the thickness of subcutaneous fat at the level of the umbilicus and suprapubic region can result in an unsightly bulge and an unfavourable result following standard abdominoplasty. This problem can be avoided by thinning the abdominoplasty flap. This study was carried out to assess the thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer at the level of the umbilicus and the supra-pubic region. Measurements of full thickness fat and the depth of Scarpa's fascia separating superficial and sub-Scarpa fat layers were taken from the CT scans in 69 women; mean age 52 years (range 30-79). The thickness of the skin and abdominal wall fat was an average of 7 mm thicker (max 22 mm; p superficial to Scarpa's fascia was an average of 19 mm at mid abdomen and 22 mm in the lower abdomen (p tension layer. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Meckel’s Diverticulitis as a Cause of an Acute Abdomen in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy: Laparoscopic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivilina Pandeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Meckel’s diverticulitis is an extremely rare cause of an acute abdomen in pregnancy. Its clinical presentation tends to be rather unusual and therefore commonly delaying diagnosis. The surgical method of exploration can be either by laparoscopy or through an open incision. Case Report. We report a case of a 34-year-old, P1 with previous Caesarean section, who presented at 20 weeks with worsening right-sided abdominal pain, distention, and peritonism. Ultrasound scan showed an area of a possibly thickened loop of bowel inconsistent with an appendicitis. The findings at laparoscopy were purulent fluid in the pelvis, a congested appendix, and inflamed Meckel’s diverticulum. An appendectomy and excision of the diverticulum was performed using stapler technique. Discussion. Meckel’s diverticulitis in pregnancy can have nonspecific presentation and poses difficulties for preoperative diagnosis. Delay in diagnosis and management poses significant maternal and fetal risks. The use of laparoscopy if the gestational age and uterine size permit its use allows a thorough exploration of the abdominal cavity and management of rarer and unexpected pathology. Laparoscopic management of acute abdomen in the midtrimester of pregnancy has been found to be safe and effective.

  3. Laparoscopic surgery in pregnant patients with acute abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocael, Pinar Cigdem; Simsek, Osman; Saribeyoglu, Kaya; Pekmezci, Salih; Goksoy, Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    Notwithstanding the significant advantages compared to open surgery, laparoscopic surgery was considered to be contraindicated in pregnant patients. Currently, there are opposing views on the safety of laparoscopic surgery during pregnancy, especially in last trimester. The aim of this study was to examine feasibility of laparoscopic surgery in pregnant women with acute abdomen. We retrospectively reviewed records of all patients who were admitted to the Emergency Department of Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty between January 1995 and January 2013. All clinical data of pregnant patient who underwent laparoscopic surgery were analyzed including inpatient records, operative reports, pathology records, and delivery information. Fourteen pregnant patients (mean gestational age 19.2 weeks, ranged from 9 to 33 weeks) who underwent laparoscopy for appendectomy (n=11), cholecystectomy (n=2), and diagnostic reasons (n=1) were included. Average time of delivery was 37.4 gestational weeks (range 35-40 weeks). Two patients had preterm labor. No complications such as uterine injury, fetal death, or maternal mortality were encountered during laparoscopic procedures Laparoscopic surgery can be safely performed at all trimesters of pregnancy. Laparoscopy may be useful in differentiation of acute abdominal pain in pregnancy and may decrease fetal loss due to delay in diagnosis. shorter operative time reduces negative effects of surgery on mother and fetus.

  4. Stereo Matching Based on Immune Neural Network in Abdomen Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereo feature matching is a technique that finds an optimal match in two images from the same entity in the three-dimensional world. The stereo correspondence problem is formulated as an optimization task where an energy function, which represents the constraints on the solution, is to be minimized. A novel intelligent biological network (Bio-Net, which involves the human B-T cells immune system into neural network, is proposed in this study in order to learn the robust relationship between the input feature points and the output matched points. A model from input-output data (left reference point-right target point is established. In the experiments, the abdomen reconstructions for different-shape mannequins are then performed by means of the proposed method. The final results are compared and analyzed, which demonstrate that the proposed approach greatly outperforms the single neural network and the conventional matching algorithm in precise. Particularly, as far as time cost and efficiency, the proposed method exhibits its significant promising and potential for improvement. Hence, it is entirely considered as an effective and feasible alternative option for stereo matching.

  5. Management of open abdomen with an absorbable mesh closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichayudh, Supparerk; Sriussadaporn, Suvit; Samorn, Pasurachate; Pak-Art, Rattaplee; Sriussadaporn, Sukanya; Kritayakirana, Kritaya; Capin, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To examine the methods and results of treatment in patients with an open abdomen (OA) at a single institution where an absorbable mesh closure (AMC) is most commonly used. A retrospective study was performed in OA patients from January 2001 to June 2007. Outcomes were analyzed in terms of enteroatmospheric fistula (EAF) formation and survival. There were 73 OA patients receiving definitive closures (40 trauma and 33 nontrauma). Twenty-four patients were able to undergo a delayed primary fascial closure (DPFC) after initial vacuum pack closure (DPFC rate 33%). The DPFC rate was significantly lower in patients with an associated infection or contamination (9% vs 44%, P = 0.002). The EAF and mortality rates of the DPFC group were 0% and 13%, respectively. Absorbable mesh closure was used in 41 of 49 patients who failed DPFC (84%). There were 9 patients who had EAF (overall EAF rate 12%), 6 of whom were in the AMC group (EAF rate 15%). The overall and AMC group mortality rates were 29% and 37%, respectively. Absorbable mesh closure carries high EAF and mortality rates. Therefore, DPFC should be considered as the primary closure method. Absorbable mesh closure should be reserved for patients who fail DPFC, especially those with peritonitis or contamination.

  6. Spiral CT of the abdomen: weight-adjusted dose reduction; Spiral-CT des abdomens: gewichtsadaptierte Dosisreduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppenrath, E.; Schmid, C.; Brandl, R.; Szeimies, U.; Hahn, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Klinik Innenstadt

    2001-01-01

    Aim of the study: The influence of weight-adjusted current application in spiral CT of the abdomen on noise was investigated in a clinical study. Patients and methods: In 77 routine abdominal CT investigations (120 kV, 8 mm, pitch 1.5) the patients were divided into three body-weight groups A (<60 kg), B (60-80 kg), and C (>80 kg). The tube current was randomized prospectively in low weight group A, either 125 mA or 150 mA, in middle and high weight groups B and C, 150, 175 or 200 mA, with a tube revolution time of one second. The noise was measured in liver, skeleton muscle, fat tissue, and bladder content for evaluation of image quality. Results: The bodyweight groups differ significantly in noise, e.g., in the liver (150 mA): Group A: 15.8 HU, group B: 18.9 HU, group C: 21.5 HU. The increase of tube current (150, 175, 200 mA) within a body weight group resulted in a minor decrease of noise (18.9 HU, 17.6 HU, 17.5 HU, respectively, in group B). There is a good correlation of noise with body weight, body mass index and body cross section, but not with body size. Conclusion: A body weight adjusted reduction of tube current is possible without an increase of noise. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Studie: Das Bildrauschen der Spiral-CT-Untersuchung des Abdomens wurde bei gewichtsadaptierter Roehrenstromapplikation in einer klinischen Studie ueberprueft. Patienten und Methode: Bei 77 routinemaessigen CT-Untersuchungen des Abdomens (120 kV, 8 mm, Pitch 1,5) wurden die Patienten in Gewichtsklassen A (<60 kg), B (60-80 kg) und C (>80 kg) eingeteilt. Der Roehrenstrom wurde prospektiv zwischen 125 und 150 mA (Klasse A) oder zwischen 150, 175 und 200 mA (Klassen B und C) randomisiert bei konstanter Roehrenumdrehungszeit von einer Sekunde. Als ein objektives Kriterium der Bildqualitaet wurde das 'in-vivo'-Bildrauschen in Leber, Muskulatur, Fettgewebe und Blaseninhalt gemessen. Ergebnisse: Das Bildrauschen unterscheidet sich signifikant zwischen den Gewichtsklassen, zum

  7. CT scan-based modelling of anastomotic leak risk after colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Platon, A; Buchs, N C; Rocher, T; Perneger, T; Poletti, P-A

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged ileus, low-grade fever and abdominal discomfort are common during the first week after colonic resection. Undiagnosed anastomotic leak carries a poor outcome and computed tomography (CT) scan is the best imaging tool for assessing postoperative abdominal complications. We used a CT scan-based model to quantify the risk of anastomotic leak after colorectal surgery. A case-control analysis of 74 patients who underwent clinico-radiological evaluation after colorectal surgery for suspicion of anastomotic leak was undertaken and a multivariable analysis of risk factors for leak was performed. A logistic regression model was used to identify determinant variables and construct a predictive score. Out of 74 patients with a clinical suspicion of anastomotic leak, 17 (23%) had this complication confirmed following repeat laparotomy. In multivariate analysis, three variables were associated with anastomotic leak: (1) white blood cells count > 9 × 10(9) /l (OR = 14.8); (2) presence of ≥ 500 cm(3) of intra- abdominal fluid (OR = 13.4); and (3) pneumoperitoneum at the site of anastomosis (OR = 9.9). Each of these three parameters contributed one point to the risk score. The observed risk of leak was 0, 6, 31 and 100%, respectively, for patients with scores of 0, 1, 2 and 3. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the score was 0.83 (0.72-0.94). This CT scan-based model seems clinically promising for objective quantification of the risk of a leak after colorectal surgery. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. Gossypiboma of the Abdomen and Pelvis; A Recurring Error

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiological investigations have high diagnostic value and comprise ultrasonography, plain abdominal radiography and computerized tomography scanning (7, 10). Gossypiboma may be prevented by counting sponges before and after surgery, use of sponges with radiopaque markers, tagging sponges and compresses.

  9. MRI Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from ...

  10. Bone Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... posts Join Mayo Clinic Connect Bone scan About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  11. Diseases of the hepatobiliary system as a cause of acute abdomen; Erkrankungen des hepatobiliaeren Systems als Ursache des akuten Abdomens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schima, W.; Eisenhuber-Stadler, E. [Krankenhaus Goettlicher Heiland, Abteilung fuer Radiologie und bildgebende Diagnostik, Wien (Austria); Koelblinger, C.; Kulinna-Cosentini, C.; Ba-Ssalamah, A. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2010-03-15

    Diseases of the liver and biliary system are common causes of acute abdominal pain and gallstone disease predisposes to cholecystitis and cholangiolithiasis. Sonography is the method of choice for the assessment of cholecystitis, whereas magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP) is the standard technique to detect stones in the common bile duct. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is ideal for detection of associated complications, including abscess formation and gall stone ileus. Pyogenic, amebic and fungal liver abscesses are reliably diagnosed with MDCT which can also be used for interventional radiologic therapy of liver abscesses by percutaneous aspiration or drainage procedures. The second most common cause of liver rupture after blunt trauma is spontaneous rupture of hypervascular liver tumors (i.e., HCC, adenoma, angiosarcoma) and due to medical procedures. Multi-phase contrast-enhanced MDCT can reliably detect active bleeding to guide further therapy in these cases. (orig.) [German] Die Cholezystitis ist eine der haeufigsten Ursachen fuer ein akutes Abdomen. Waehrend die Sonographie die Methode der Wahl zum Nachweis einer Cholezystolithiasis und Cholezystitis ist, steht bei der Entwicklung von Komplikationen die Multidetektorcomputertomographie (MDCT) diagnostisch im Vordergrund. Die Magnetresonanzcholangiopankreatikographie (MRCP) hat einen hohen Stellenwert bei der Abklaerung der Cholangiolithiasis, v. a. bei der Differenzialdiagnose zu anderen Ursachen einer Cholestase. Die Diagnose bakterieller, Amoeben- oder fungaler Leberabszesse kann mittels Sonographie oder MDCT rasch gestellt werden, wobei diese Methoden auch fuer die interventionelle radiologische Therapie von Leberabszessen (Punktion oder Drainage) gut geeignet sind. Die mehrphasige, kontrastmittelverstaerkte MDCT ist die Methode der Wahl fuer den Nachweis von Leberinfarkten oder -rupturen, da bei diesen Erkrankungen bzw. Verletzungsfolgen die Darstellung der

  12. Diffusion-weighted imaging in the abdomen and pelvis: concepts and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qayyum, Aliya

    2009-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows the detection of focal solid and cystic lesions in the abdomen and pelvis and, if pitfalls are to be avoided, is most effectively used in conjunction with other imaging sequences...

  13. Repair of radiation ulcus of the lower abdomen with groin flap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Y.; Harashina, T.; Tajima, S. (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Suzuki, S.

    1980-08-01

    Two patients with radiation ulcers of the lower abdomen which had occurred after radiotherapy for cancer of the cervix uteri and was repaired with groin flap were reported. Effects of flaps in plastic and reconstructive surgery were also referred to. Besides defects in the lower abdomen, defects in the vulva, the perineum, and the upper region of the femur were probably reconstructed effectively with groin flaps.

  14. VAWCM-Instillation Improves Delayed Primary Fascial Closure of Open Septic Abdomen

    OpenAIRE

    Qingsong Tao; Jianan Ren; Zhenling Ji; Shengli Liu; Baochai Wang; Yu Zheng; Guosheng Gu; Xinbo Wang; Jieshou Li

    2014-01-01

    Background. Failure to achieve delayed primary fascial closure (DPFC) is one of the main complications of open abdomen (OA), certainly when abdominal sepsis is present. This retrospective cohort study aims to evaluate the effect of combined therapy of vacuum-assisted mesh-mediated fascial traction and topical instillation (VAWCM-instillation) on DPFC in the open septic abdomen. Methods. The patients with abdominal sepsis who underwent OA using VAWCM were included and divided into the instilla...

  15. [Prognostic Factors of Open Abdomen Treatment in Visceral Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Websky, Martin W; Jedig, Agnes; Willms, Arnulf; Jafari, Azin; Matthaei, Hanno; Kalff, Jörg C; Manekeller, Steffen

    2017-06-01

    Introduction In general surgery, open abdomen treatment (OAT) is used to treat abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and sepsis, often after a primary surgical procedure associated with complications. The results achieved in this patient population may depend on factors that are yet unknown. This study evaluates independent patient-related prognostic factors after OAT. Methods 38 clinical parameters and survival data of 165 consecutive general surgery patients after OAT were entered into a prospective database according to a defined algorithm in order to analyse the underlying surgical pathology, predictors of survival and important aspects of OAT-related morbidity. Independent predictors of survival, OAT-related morbidity and duration of hospital stay were identified. Results Common indications for OAT were peritonitis, haemorrhage and ACS. Median age was 60 years and > 80 % of patients were ASA III/IV; median follow-up was 23 months. Oncologic surgery was performed in 19 % of cases. 30-day and 1-year mortality was 11 % and 34 %, respectively. Malignancy was a negative predictor (OR: 4.63, 95 % CI: 2.00-10.7) while mild obesity (BMI 25-35) and primary fascial closure, which was achieved in 82 % of patients, improved survival (OR: 0.2, 95 % CI: 0.07-0.55; OR: 0.19, 95 % CI: 0.06-0.57). Enteroatmospheric fistula (EAF) and giant hernia with impossible fascial closure were frequent after OAT (19 and 18 %), and malignancy was an independent risk factor for EAF (OR 3.47, CI [95 %]: 1.41-8.53). Vacuum-assisted wound closure or polyglactin mesh interposition did not affect EAF incidence. Conclusions General surgery patients after OAT differ significantly from trauma patients, and mortality as well as long-term morbidity is high. Outcome is greatly determined by independent patient-related factors after OAT. A tailored surgical approach based on objective evidence is needed to further improve the results after OAT. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart

  16. Scanning table

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Before the invention of wire chambers, particles tracks were analysed on scanning tables like this one. Today, the process is electronic and much faster. Bubble chamber film - currently available - (links can be found below) was used for this analysis of the particle tracks.

  17. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  18. Components separation technique is feasible for assisting delayed primary fascial closure of open abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasilainen, S K; Mentula, P J; Leppäniemi, A K

    2016-03-01

    The goal after open abdomen treatment is to reach primary fascial closure. Modern negative pressure wound therapy systems are sometimes inefficient for this purpose. This retrospective chart analysis describes the use of the 'components separation' method in facilitating primary fascial closure after open abdomen. A total of 16 consecutive critically ill surgical patients treated with components separation during open abdomen management were analyzed. No patients were excluded. Primary fascial closure was achieved in 75% (12/16). Components separation was performed during ongoing open abdomen treatment in 7 patients and at the time of delayed primary fascial closure in 9 patients. Of the former, 3/7 (43%) patients reached primary fascial closure, whereas all 9 patients in the latter group had successful fascial closure without major complications (p = 0.019). Components separation is a useful method in contributing to successful primary fascial closure in patients treated for open abdomen. Best results were obtained when components separation was performed simultaneously with primary fascial closure at the end of the open abdomen treatment. © The Finnish Surgical Society 2015.

  19. Imaging findings of solitary fibrous tumor in the abdomen and pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, T-T; Wu, Jing-Tao; Hu, X-H; Yang, G-M; Sun, J; Chen, W-X; Tian, X-C

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the imaging characteristics of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) in the abdomen and pelvis. Nine cases of SFT confirmed by surgery and pathology were retrospectively analyzed in terms of computed tomography (CT, eight cases) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, one case). SFT were located in the retroperitoneum (4/9), abdominal cavity (1/9), pelvis (4/9). Eight cases were single (8/9) and one case (1/9) with three tumors. The average tumor size of 11 lesions was 9.7 cm (4.7-20 cm). Nine tumors were round or ovoid, and two lesions were irregular. The CT value of the plain scans ranged from 33 to 43 Hounsfield units (HU, mean 37.6 HU) in five cases. Arterial-phase CT found solid parts demonstrate avid enhancement (eight cases) and five of them presented with multiple circuitous vessels along the periphery with a CT value of 68-89 HU (mean 76.6 HU). In the venous and delayed phases, enhancement was strengthened progressively. The CT values at venous (eight cases) and delayed phases (five cases) were 108-115 and 112-123 HU respectively, with averages of 109.8 and 114.8 HU. Patch or nodular no-enhanced areas were observed in eight cases during the enhanced phases. One case showed isointensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images accompanied by linear or curvilinear hypointense lines. Intense enhancements along with linear no-enhancement areas are seen in the arterial and venous phases. The possibility of SFT should be considered when a single or multiple masses with sharp border, inhomogeneous density or signal are detected, especially, with inhomogeneous intense enhancement in the arterial phase being maintained in the venous and delayed phases.

  20. Fine focal spot size improves image quality in computed tomography abdomen and pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yin P; Lau, Kenneth K; Low, Keat; Buchan, Kevin; Oh, Lawrence Chia Wei; Kuganesan, Ahilan; Huynh, Minh

    2016-12-01

    To compare the image quality between fine focal spot size (FFSS) and standard focal spot size (SFSS) in computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis (CTAP) METHODS: This retrospective review included all consecutive adult patients undergoing contrast-enhanced CTAP between June and September 2014. Two blinded radiologists assessed the margin clarity of the abdominal viscera and the detected lesions using a five-point grading scale. Cohen's kappa test was used to examine the inter-observer reliability between the two reviewers for organ margin clarity. Mann-Whitney U testing was utilised to assess the statistical difference of the organ and lesion margin clarity. 100 consecutive CTAPs were recruited. 52 CTAPs were examined with SFSS of 1.1 × 1.2 mm and 48 CTAPs were examined with FFSS of 0.6 × 0.7 mm. Results showed that there was substantial agreement for organ margin clarity (mean κ = 0.759, p < 0.001) among the reviewers. FFSS produces images with clearer organ margins (U = 76194.0, p < 0.001, r = 0.523) and clearer lesion margins (U = 239, p = 0.052, r = 0.269). FFSS CTAP improves image quality in terms of better organ and lesion margin clarity. Fine focus CT scanning is a novel technique that may be applied in routine CTAP imaging. • Fine focal spot improves organ margin clarity. • Fine focal spot improves lesion margin clarity. • Fine focal spot can be used in routine CT abdominal imaging.

  1. Dosimetric assessments multi-slice CT of the chest and abdomen in pediatrics; Evaluaciones dosimetricas en TC multicorte de torax y abdomen en pediatria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giner Sala, M.; Roch Gonzalez, M.; Rodriguez Martin, G.; Garcia Castanon, P.; Espana Lopez, M. L.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is the dosimetry evaluation in pediatric MSCT of thorax and abdomen, and the estimation of effective dose in the different ranges of age taking into account the new ICRP recommendations, by variations that may be involved in explorations that affect breast. (Author)

  2. Leucograma e teores plasmáticos de proteínas de fase aguda de eqüinos portadores de abdômen agudo e submetidos à laparotomia Leukogram and plasma acute phase protein concentrations in horses with acute abdomen submitted to treatment by laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Fagliari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 20 eqüinos adultos portadores de abdômen agudo e submetidos à laparotomia. Dez recuperaram-se sem intercorrência pós-operatória (G1 e 10 foram a óbito sete a 10 dias após a cirurgia, com sinais de choque séptico (G2. Avaliaram-se temperatura retal, freqüências cardíaca e respiratória, tempo de preenchimento capilar e teores plasmáticos das proteínas de fase aguda - fibrinogênio, ceruloplasmina, proteína C-reativa, antitripsina, haptoglobina e glicoproteína ácida -, antes e até sete dias após a laparotomia. As leucometrias às 72h e no sétimo dia pós-operatório dos eqüinos que foram a óbito foram, respectivamente, 34,6% e 57,1%, mais altas que a dos animais curados. Os maiores valores de proteína de fase aguda ocorreram no sétimo dia após a cirurgia; os percentuais de elevação de fibrinogênio, antitripsina, glicoproteina ácida, proteína C-reativa, ceruloplasmina e haptoglobina de eqüinos do G2 em relação ao G1 foram 46,8%, 67,9%, 91,9%, 112,2%, 126,9% e 186,2%, respectivamente.Twenty adult horses with acute abdomen were examined and submitted to treatment by laparotomy; ten had no postoperative complication (group 1, and ten showed septic shock symptom and died from seven to ten days after surgery (group 2. Body temperature, heart and respiratory rates, filling capillary time, and plasma acute phase protein concentrations - fibrinogen, ceruloplasmin, C-reactive protein, antitrypsin, haptoglobin, and acid glycoprotein - were evaluated before laparotomy and until seven days after surgery. White blood cell counts at 72h and seven days after surgery in group 2 animals were, respectively, 34.6% and 57.1%, and were higher than those measured in group 1 horses. The highest values of acute phase proteins occurred on the seventh day after surgery. The increase percentages of fibrinogen, antitrypsin, acid glycoprotein, C-reactive protein, ceruloplasmin, and haptoglobin plasma concentrations in group 2

  3. Acute Abdomen in Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy, An Emergency Laparoscopic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Picardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present case report demonstrates a laparoscopic approach to treat interstitial cornual pregnancy in emergency. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy develops in the uterine portion of the fallopian tube which accounts for 2–4% of all ectopic pregnancies and has the potential to cause life-threatening hemorrhage at rupture. The mortality rate for a woman diagnosed with such a pregnancy is 2–2.5%. Diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy is made by ultrasound. In this case a 32 year-old woman, Gravida 0 Parity 0 Living 0 Ectopic 1, presented to the emergency obstetrical room complaining acute abdominal pain. There was a history of 10 weeks of pregnancy but no pelvic ultrasound scan was performed before the access. A transvaginal ultrasound scan immediately performed demonstrated a gestational sac with viable fetus in the right interstitial region. Moreover there was an ultrasound evidence of hemoperitoneum. She was transferred to the operating room and an emergency laparoscopy surgery was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged two days after the surgery. Interstitial pregnancies present a difficult management problem with no absolute standard of care in literature. Laparoscopic technique is under study with favorable results. For our personal point of view a treatment via laparoscopy could be performed both in elective and in emergency cases.

  4. Non Obstetric Acute Abdomen in Pregnancy – An Experience from Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaz Ahmad Rather

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to study the profile of pregnant patients who were managed by general surgical unit of a referral hospital in Kashmir valley for non obstetric causes of acute abdomen over a period of seven years. Methods: The study was done retrospectively after acquiring data from databank related to pregnant patients managed for acute abdomen over a period of seven years (from January 2006 to December 2012 in the general surgical department of the medical college of SK Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Kashmir. Results: 49 non obstetric acute abdomen were managed in pregnant females over a period of seven years. 23 (46.9% patients reported with a delay of more than 12 hours and 34 (69.4% cases underwent surgical interventions. Appendicitis was the commonest cause of acute abdomen and Ultrasonography was the only imaging modality utilized. Only 3 cases had preterm labor. Conclusions: Acute abdomen in pregnant females should be assessed with high level of suspicion .Delay in presentation and intervention leads to adverse outcomes.

  5. A CASE REPORT OF GAINT JEJUNAL DIVERTICULOSIS PRESENTING AS RECURRENT ACUTE ABDOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambabu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The diverticulum of the small bowel may be congenital or acquired. 80% of diverticula occur in the jejunum, 15% in the ileum and 5% in both . (1,2,3,4 Although it is often asymptomatic, it can lead to severe complications including perforation, haemorrhage, enterolith formation, diverticulitis, and intestinal obstruction (5,6,7,8 and occur in 10% - 30% of patients. We have a male aged 30yrs old came with h/o recurrent colicky pain abdomen and bilious vomiting since past 6 months (9,10,11 o/e he is anaemic , malnourished and dehydrated. P/abdomen – gaseous distension present , no mass palpable and no free fluid , p/r – no abnormality , plain X - ray abdomen shows multiple air fluid levels. (12 On laparotomy there are multiple giant jenjunal diverticuli with bowel distension and there is a band found attached to the middle ileum. The band is excised and the jejunum which had giant diverticula has been resected and e nd to end anastomosis is done. Jejunal diverticula are rare and mostly asymptomatic. Patients may have nonspecific symptoms, such as chronic abdominal pain and change in bowel habits. However, the morbidity and mortality rates may increase due to perforati on, obstruction, and bleeding. If acute abdomen in jejunal diverticulosis is suspected, a laparotomy and resection & anastomosis is considered and TB abdomen must be considered in the differential diagnosis

  6. [Value of diagnostic laparoscopy and minimal invasive procedures in acute abdomen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waclawiczek, H W; Schneeberger, V; Bekk, A; Dinnewitzer, A; Sungler, P; Boeckl, O

    1997-01-01

    During the last three years 172 diagnostic laparoscopies (DL) were performed at our department in patients with an acute abdomen of unclear causes. This corresponds to 17% of all patients who underwent operation due to an acute abdomen in the same period. Always the indication for a diagnostic laparoscopy arose then, when the cause or the localization of the acute abdomen could not be found by conventional diagnostic methods. The advantages of DL were either the confirmation (93%) or the exclusion (7%) of the diagnosis "acute abdomen", the exact localization and simultaneously a definitive operative treatment of the cause by minimal invasive interventions (n = 109/65%). In these patients with acute abdomen the main causes were acute inflammations of gallbladder (n = 48) and appendix (n = 29), ulcus perforations (n = 9) and ileus (n = 9). The conversion rate amounted to 2.7%, the postoperative complication rate to 11% and the lethality rate to 1.8% in these patients. A new indication is the so-called "bedside laparoscopy" as means to control the postoperative course of mesenteric embolism (n = 9) and diffuse peritonitis (n = 3) in order to avoid the stress of a second-look operation for these seriously ill patients or to secure the indication for relaparotomy.

  7. Sonographic findings of localized Castleman disease of the abdomen and pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhan, Weiwei; Zhou, Jianqiao; Zhu, Ying; Yao, Jiejie

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to sonographically evaluate the diagnosis of localized Castleman disease in the abdomen and pelvis. This was a retrospective analysis of 18 cases of Castleman disease localized in the abdomen and pelvis. The following features of the lesions were assessed on sonography (US): location, size, margin, echogenicity, echotexture, intralesional cystic necrosis, intralesional calcification, posterior acoustic enhancement, and blood supply. Of the 18 tumors, 16 were located in the abdomen and 2 were located in the pelvis close to iliac vessels. The most frequent appearance of localized Castleman disease in the abdomen and pelvis on US was of a single, well-defined, hypoechoic solid mass with no intralesional cystic necrosis. The internal echotexture was homogeneous in 4 cases and heterogeneous in 14 cases, with thin hyperechoic septa (n = 14) or calcifications (n = 3). Posterior acoustic enhancement was seen in 17 of the 18 cases (94%). Ninety-four percent of the lesions (17/18) had marked vascularity on color Doppler US. Localized Castleman disease in the abdomen and pelvis usually appears on US as a heterogeneously hypoechoic lesion containing thin septa, and more commonly than not, demonstrates posterior acoustic enhancement and marked vascularity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Radiation exposure from musculoskeletal computerized tomographic scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Debdut; Bible, Jesse E; Bohan, Michael; Simpson, Andrew K; Whang, Peter G; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2009-08-01

    Computerized tomographic scans are routinely obtained to evaluate a number of musculoskeletal conditions. However, since computerized tomographic scans expose patients to the greatest amounts of radiation of all imaging modalities, the physician must be cognizant of the effective doses of radiation that are administered. This investigation was performed to quantify the effective doses of computerized tomographic scans that are performed for various musculoskeletal applications. The digital imaging archive of a single institution was retrospectively reviewed to identify helical computerized tomographic scans that were completed to visualize the extremities or spine. Imaging parameters were recorded for each examination, and dosimetry calculator software was used to calculate the effective dose values according to a modified protocol derived from publication SR250 of the National Radiological Protection Board of the United Kingdom. Computerized tomographic scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis were also collected, and the effective doses were compared with those reported by prior groups in order to validate the results of the current study. The mean effective doses for computerized tomographic scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis (5.27, 4.95, and 4.85 mSv, respectively) were consistent with those of previous investigations. The highest mean effective doses were recorded for studies evaluating the spine (4.36, 17.99, and 19.15 mSv for the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spines, respectively). In the upper extremity, the effective dose of a computerized tomographic scan of the shoulder (2.06 mSv) was higher than those of the elbow (0.14 mSv) and wrist (0.03 mSv). Similarly, the effective dose of a hip scan (3.09 mSv) was significantly higher than those observed with knee (0.16 mSv) and ankle (0.07 mSv) scans. Computerized tomographic scans of the axial and appendicular skeleton are associated with substantially elevated radiation exposures, but the effective dose

  9. Effects of age on fatty acid composition of the hump and abdomen depot fats of the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadim, I T; Mahgoub, O; Al-Maqbaly, R S; Annamalai, K; Al-Ajmi, D S

    2002-10-01

    This study aimed to quantify concentrations of fatty acids in the hump and abdomen fats of three different age groups of camel. Hump and abdomen fats were extracted from eight each of one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) of three age groups: group 1 (3 years old). The fatty acid methyl ester concentrations of these fats were determined by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The percentage of fat in the hump (H) and abdomen (A) fats was significantly (Pcamels.

  10. Update on the management of non-obstetric acute abdomen in pregnant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Millet, Sebastián; Bueno Lledó, José; Granero Castro, Pablo; Gómez Gavara, Immaculada; Ballester Pla, Neus; García Domínguez, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Acute abdomen is a rare entity in the pregnant patient, with an incidence of one in 500-635 patients. Its appearance requires a quick response and an early diagnosis to treat the underlying disease and prevent maternal and fetal morbidity. Imaging tests are essential, due to clinical and laboratory masking in this subgroup. Appendicitis and complicated biliary pathology are the most frequent causes of non-obstetric acute abdomen in the pregnant patient. The decision to operate, the timing, and the surgical approach are essential for a correct management of this pathology. The aim of this paper is to perform a review and update on the diagnosis and treatment of non-obstetric acute abdomen in pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute abdomen probably caused by acute tuberculous appendicitis. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montiel-Jarquín, Álvaro José

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute tuberculous appendicitis is a rare disease. It constitutes from 0.001 % to 0.01 % of the clinical forms of tuberculosis. We present cases of such disease as probably cause for surgical acute abdomen. Case report: Male aged 29 with mild to moderate diffuse abdominal pain, which intensified and localized in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen, fever, vomiting, malaise, leukocytosis (11,300/µL and 91 % neutrophils. Appendectomy was performed, the histopathological report was acute appendicitis, Ziehl-Neelsen stain was positive. Three days later he returned home and had no short- or long term complications. Conclusion: Acute tuberculous appendicitis is a rare disease that may cause acute abdomen, patients should receive drug treatment to eradicate the cause and have proper epidemiological monitoring.

  12. Síndrome de abdomen en ciruela pasa y dextrocardia, asociación infrecuente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un neonato con Síndrome de abdomen en ciruela pasa, de sexo masculino, nacido de 36 semanas de gestación y pesó 3 650 g al nacer. El examen clínico mostró un neonato con un abdomen globuloso, con redundancia de la piel que huelga a los costados rebosantes, la palpación del abdomen no descubre la tonalidad muscular. No se palpa visceromegalia y hay presencia normal de ruidos hidroaéreos. El examen físico del tórax y cardiovascular fueron aparentemente normales. Normocéfalo y facies no peculiar. La radiografía de tórax muestra dextrocardía. La ecografía renal mostró dilatación pielocalicial. Revela además criptorquidia bilateral.

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  15. Temporary Vacuum-Assisted Closure of the Open Abdomen in Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kengo; Numanoglu, Alp; Cox, Sharon

    2017-10-01

    Introduction The need for open abdomen in the treatment of severely ill neonates will increase in time as more complex abdominal procedures are undertaken. However, the experience of temporary closure of an open abdomen using vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) system is still relatively limited in premature and term neonates. The aim of this study is to describe and review our experience in the use of temporary VAC of the open abdomen for neonates with varying pathological processes. Materials and Methods A retrospective folder review of all neonates treated with VAC for open abdomen over the study period of 2010 to 2014 at our institution was performed. Results A total of 15 neonates were included in this study. Mean gestational age and postbirth age at VAC application were 33.6 ± 4.1 (28-40) weeks and 14 ± 10.2 (2-30) days, respectively. Mean weight at VAC application was 1,797.7 ± 730.8 (960-3,200) g. Initial diagnoses were necrotizing enterocolitis (seven), intestinal perforation (three), gastroschisis (two), congenital diaphragmatic hernia (two), and primary abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) (one). Reasons for VAC application included confirmed ACS (2) and application to prevent ACS (13). Duration of VAC use was 4 ± 3.4 (0-13) days during which 2 ± 1.2 (1-5) applications were performed. Overall survival rate was 80% (12 of 15 patients). One patient with primary ACS died from sepsis with an open abdomen. The only potential VAC-related complication was an enterocutaneous fistula. Conclusion Temporary VAC of the open abdomen is a safe method of temporary abdominal closure to prevent ACS in high-risk postoperative conditions in neonates of any gestational age and birth weight. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Torsion of a wandering spleen. A rare cause of acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwashilli N. Jude

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wandering spleen is a rare condition that accounts for less than 0.25% of all indications for splenectomy. It is characterized by ectopic localization of the spleen owing to the lack or weakening of its ligaments. Torsion is the most common complication due to its long pedicle and high mobility, which may result in acute abdomen. We report a case of torsion in a wandering spleen in a 28-year-old male presenting with an acute abdomen that was treated by splenectomy.

  17. Detection of the Adamkiewicz artery in computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guziński, Maciej; Bryl, Maciej; Ziemińska, Katarzyna; Wolny, Kamila; Sąsiadek, Marek; Garcarek, Jerzy S

    2017-01-01

    The great anterior radiculomedullary artery, also known as the artery of Adamkiewicz (AKA), is a small-caliber vessel which arises from the intercostal or lumbar arteries branching out from the aorta. The aim of this study was to evaluate detection of the AKA, as well as its level and side of origin, with multi-slice contrast enhanced computed tomography (MSCT) of the abdomen and thorax performed during everyday clinical practice, and to compare the results with the literature. The study retrospectively evaluated 200 consecutive MSCT images of the thoracic and thoracoabdominal aorta performed at Wroclaw Medical University's Department of General and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology as part of normal clinical work-ups. The CT examinations were performed with a 64-slice CT scanner. Arterial-phase images were analyzed for detection of the AKA and for anatomical variants of the AKA. Recognition of the AKA was achieved in 43 of 200 patients (21.5%). Out of these 43 cases, the AKA originated on the left side in 36 instances (83.7%) - a significantly higher number than on the right side (only in 6 cases, 14%); in one case (2.3%) it arose from both sides (p < 0.05, T-test). Most of the AKAs (24 cases, 55.8%) originated on the left side at level T11 or T12. In 13 patients (30.2%) the AKA arose from T11 or from T12 intercostal arteries. The origin of the AKA varied greatly and ranged from T5 (2.3%) to L2 (2.3%). The AKA is characterized by left-side lateralization and is associated with a wide range of origin, from T5 to L2. Detection of the AKA is, relatively speaking, rarely possible in routine clinical CT in the arterial phase - only in 1/5 of the patients. Therefore it is necessary to perform dedicated, individual arterial phase bolus tracking enhancement CT scans from the T5 to L3 level.

  18. The optimization of acoustic fields for ablative therapies of tumours in the upper abdomen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélat, P.; ter Haar, G.; Saffari, N.

    2012-12-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) enables highly localized, non-invasive tissue ablation and its efficacy has been demonstrated in the treatment of a range of cancers, including those of the kidney, prostate and breast. HIFU offers the ability to treat deep-seated tumours locally, and potentially bears fewer side effects than more invasive treatment modalities such as resection, chemotherapy and ionizing radiation. There remains however a number of significant challenges which currently hinder its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the ribcage to ablate tissue at the required foci whilst minimizing the formation of side lobes and sparing healthy tissue. Ribs both absorb and reflect ultrasound strongly. This sometimes results in overheating of bone and overlying tissue during treatment, leading to skin burns. Successful treatment of a patient with tumours in the upper abdomen therefore requires a thorough understanding of the way acoustic and thermal energy is deposited. Previously, a boundary element approach based on a Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was developed to predict the field of a multi-element HIFU array scattered by human ribs, the topology of which was obtained from CT scan data (Gélat et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 5553-81). The present paper describes the reformulation of the boundary element equations as a least-squares minimization problem with nonlinear constraints. The methodology has subsequently been tested at an excitation frequency of 1 MHz on a spherical multi-element array in the presence of ribs. A single array-rib geometry was investigated on which a 50% reduction in the maximum acoustic pressure magnitude on the surface of the ribs was achieved with only a 4% reduction in the peak focal pressure compared to the spherical focusing case. This method was then compared with a binarized apodization approach

  19. Ultrasound quantitation of respiratory organ motion in the upper abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, S C; Hill, A L; Holmes, R B; Halliwell, M; Jackson, P C

    1994-11-01

    Organ motion can cause artefacts in abdominal imaging particularly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and may often limit the diagnostic quality of an image. If spatial resolution and image quality are to improve in MRI and other imaging techniques, a more detailed understanding of organ motion is required. Despite the importance of organ motion little quantitative information is available to date. This study was the continuation of work instigated to investigate and quantify respiratory movements of upper abdominal organs for a group of healthy volunteers in order to provide the design criteria for a motion test object for use in MRI. A previous phase of the project allowed construction of a test object but refinements were needed to represent respiratory motion more closely as a consequence of the data presented in this paper. Improvements in the scanning technique and the recording procedure have revealed that, contrary to our initial findings, motion of the diaphragm and liver is predominantly in the superior-inferior (SI) direction with an average displacement (+/- SD) (quiet respiration) of 12 +/- 7 mm (range 7-28 mm) and 10 +/- 8 mm (range 5-17 mm), respectively. For some volunteers, motion of the kidneys can be complex, especially during deep inspiration. New data have been provided by this phase of the motion study on the displacement, velocity and acceleration of abdominal organs as a function of time. These data show that MRI motion artefact reduction techniques which assume that either organ displacement, velocity or acceleration are constant are only applicable during certain phases of the respiratory cycle.

  20. Expression of cytokine genes and receptors in white blood cells associated with divergent body weight gain in beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous work examining the transcriptome of steer tissue samples from animals with divergent gain have shown a relationship with the expression of genes with functions in immune and inflammatory pathways. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in cytokine expression in the circulati...

  1. Self-reported sleep duration, white blood cell counts and cytokine profiles in European adolescents: the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Heredia, Fátima; Garaulet, Marta; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Díaz, Ligia E; Wärnberg, Julia; Androutsos, Odysseas; Michels, Nathalie; Breidenassel, Christina; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Huybrechts, Inge; Gottrand, Frédéric; Ferrari, Marika; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Kafatos, Anthony; Molnár, Denes; Sjöstrom, Michael; Widhalm, Kurt; Moreno, Luis A; Marcos, Ascensión

    2014-10-01

    Sleep patterns face important changes during adolescence. This can have implications for the immune system, which is regulated by the sleep-wake cycle; however, most studies relating sleep and immune system have been conducted on adults. To study the relationships between sleep duration, immune cell counts, and cytokines in European adolescents participating in the HELENA Cross-Sectional Study. Adolescents (12.5-17.5 years; n = 933; 53.9% girls) were grouped according to self-reported sleep duration into sleep duration and compared between the three groups. Sleep duration was negatively associated with cortisol levels and WBC, neutrophil, monocyte, CD4(+) and CD4(+)CD45RO(+) counts; in girls it is also negatively associated with IL-5 and IL-6 levels. The 8-8.9 h/night group presented the highest IL-4 values and the lowest pro-/anti-inflammatory and Th1/Th2 cytokine ratios. A sleep duration of 8-8.9 h/night was associated with a healthier immune profile in our adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Link between the p53 germ line polymorphisms and white blood cells apoptosis in lung cancer patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biroš, Erik; Kohút, A.; Biroš, I.; Kalina, I.; Bogyiová, E.; Štubňa, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2002), s. 231-235 ISSN 0169-5002 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/1/97 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : apoptosis * p53 polymorphism * lung cancer Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 2.451, year: 2002

  3. C-reactive protein and white blood cell count do not improve clinical decision-making in acute appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tind, Sofie; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Zimmermann-Nielsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acute appendicitis (AA) remains a diagnostic challenge as indicated by the high rate of unnecessary surgery. Blood samples, primarily C-reactive protein (CRP) and leucocyte counts, are used as a diagnostic supplement despite their relatively low sensitivities and specificities...... the blood results and re-evaluate their diagnosis. The surgeon's diagnosis before and after was compared with the final diagnosis defined by surgical findings or follow-up. The gold standard was any degree of appendicitis on histology. RESULTS: A total of 226 patients were included of whom 91 (40.3%) had...... appendicitis on histology. The surgeons changed their diagnosis in nine cases after assessing blood samples. The changes in the proportion of correct diagnoses, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values after assessing blood samples were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The results of CRP and leucocyte...

  4. Influence of nutrient intake on antioxidant capacity, muscle damage and white blood cell count in female soccer players

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Soccer is a form of exercise that induces inflammatory response, as well as an increase in free radicals potentially leading to muscle injury. Balanced nutritional intake provides important antioxidant vitamins, including vitamins A, C and E, which may assist in preventing exercise-related muscle damage. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of macro/micronutrient intake on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, inflammatory and immune response in female soccer players. Methods Twenty-eight female players belonging to two soccer teams of the same professional soccer club participated in this study after being informed about the aims and procedures and after delivering written consent. Each team completed an 8-day dietary record and played one competition match the same week. Participants were divided into two groups: the REC group (who complied with recommended intakes) and the NO-REC group (who were not compliant). Laboratory blood tests were carried out to determine hematological, electrolytic and hormonal variables, as well as to monitor markers of cell damage and oxidative stress. Blood samples were obtained 24 h before, immediately after and 18 h after official soccer matches. Student t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare both groups throughout the match. Results At rest, we observed that the REC group had higher levels of total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and lower levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in comparison to the NO-REC group. Immediately after the match, levels of TAS, GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD), LDH and % lymphocytes were higher and the % of neutrophils were lower in the REC group compared to the NO-REC group. These differences were also maintained 18 h post-match, only for TAS and GPx. Conclusions Our data reveal an association between nutritional intake and muscle damage, oxidative stress, immunity and inflammation markers. The benefit of the intake of specific nutrients may contribute to preventing the undesirable physiological effects provoked by soccer matches. PMID:22812729

  5. Influence of nutrient intake on antioxidant capacity, muscle damage and white blood cell count in female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravina Leyre

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soccer is a form of exercise that induces inflammatory response, as well as an increase in free radicals potentially leading to muscle injury. Balanced nutritional intake provides important antioxidant vitamins, including vitamins A, C and E, which may assist in preventing exercise-related muscle damage. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of macro/micronutrient intake on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, inflammatory and immune response in female soccer players. Methods Twenty-eight female players belonging to two soccer teams of the same professional soccer club participated in this study after being informed about the aims and procedures and after delivering written consent. Each team completed an 8-day dietary record and played one competition match the same week. Participants were divided into two groups: the REC group (who complied with recommended intakes and the NO-REC group (who were not compliant. Laboratory blood tests were carried out to determine hematological, electrolytic and hormonal variables, as well as to monitor markers of cell damage and oxidative stress. Blood samples were obtained 24 h before, immediately after and 18 h after official soccer matches. Student t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare both groups throughout the match. Results At rest, we observed that the REC group had higher levels of total antioxidant status (TAS, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and lower levels of creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in comparison to the NO-REC group. Immediately after the match, levels of TAS, GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, LDH and % lymphocytes were higher and the % of neutrophils were lower in the REC group compared to the NO-REC group. These differences were also maintained 18 h post-match, only for TAS and GPx. Conclusions Our data reveal an association between nutritional intake and muscle damage, oxidative stress, immunity and inflammation markers. The benefit of the intake of specific nutrients may contribute to preventing the undesirable physiological effects provoked by soccer matches.

  6. Diagnostic imaging of musculoskeletal infection. Roentgenography; Gallium, indium-labeled white blood cell, gammaglobulin, bone scintigraphy; and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, W.A.; Alavi, A. (Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

    1991-07-01

    A great deal of effort has been made to evaluate and define the role of various diagnostic imaging techniques in various clinical settings that complicate the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Except possibly in neonates, bone scintigraphy remains generally recommended when there has been no previous osseous involvement. In other cases of chronic disease, previous fracture or trauma, prosthesis, and diabetic foot, In-WBC scintigraphy is generally accepted as an appropriate imaging technique. MRI will play an increasingly important role in diagnosing osteomyelitis and may prove to be an important adjunct in these cases. Research continues to improve our current diagnostic armamentarium. In-IgG appears to avoid practical deficiencies encountered with 67Ga and In-WBC; it remains to be seen what role this agent will play in routine clinical practice. All agents to date image inflammation, not infection, and most require delayed imaging sessions, usually at 24 hours. These shortcomings necessitate further research to develop new radiotracers that can provide useful images within several hours and that are specific for infection, perhaps ultimately delineating the particular microorganism involved.84 references.

  7. Inflammatory Cytokines and White Blood Cell Counts Response to Environmental Levels of Diesel Exhaust and Ozone Inhalation Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological observations of urban inhalation exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) and ozone (O3) have shown pre-clinical cardiopulmonary responses in humans. Identifying the key biological mechanisms that initiate these health bioindicators is difficult due to variability in envi...

  8. Monozygotic twins are discordant for chronic periodontitis: white blood cells counts and cytokine production after ex vivo stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres de Heens, G.L.; Loos, B.G.; van der Velden, U.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of concordance in the number of leucocytes and their cytokine secretion after ex vivo stimulation in a twin population discordant for the amount of periodontal breakdown. Material and Methods: Venous blood was collected from 18 adult

  9. Characteristics of peripheral and peritoneal white blood cells in children with chronic renal failure, dialyzed or not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouts, A. H.; Out, T. A.; Schröder, C. H.; Monnens, L. A.; Nauta, J.; Krediet, R. T.; Davin, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore further the mechanisms leading to immune deficiency in chronic renal failure and the role of dialysis treatment in these mechanisms. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. PATIENTS: We studied 39 children treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD), 23 children treated

  10. Vacuum-assisted closure of the open abdomen in a resource-limited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mechanical containment of abdominal contents. • active removal of wound and visceral exudates ... but a suction system must be applied to ensure that peritoneal fluid is removed from the surface of the dressing. ... assistance these approaches deal poorly with the large volumes of fluid lost from the open abdomen. Both.

  11. Perforated duodenal ulcer a rare cause of acute abdomen in infancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duodenal ulcer perforation is very uncommon in infants and children, that is why it is not usually considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in this age group. Moreover, the diagnosis of this condition is usually overlooked because of vague and variable symptoms and low index of suspicion on the part of the ...

  12. miR-965 controls cell proliferation and migration during tissue morphogenesis in the Drosophila abdomen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verma, Pushpa; Cohen, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    Formation of the Drosophila adult abdomen involves a process of tissue replacement in which larval epidermal cells are replaced by adult cells. The progenitors of the adult epidermis are specified during embryogenesis and, unlike the imaginal discs that make up the thoracic and head segments, the...

  13. Lower Lobe Pneumonia Presenting with a Picture of Acute Abdomen: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaaddin Yorulmaz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is known that lower lobe pneumonia may result in a picture of acute abdomen; however, it can be easily overlooked when there are no signs or symptoms of the respiratory system. This case has been reported to remind the reader of the possibility of lower lobe pneumonia in patients presenting with a picture of acute abdomen. A ten-year-old male patient presented to our emergency outpatient clinic with the symptom of severe stomach ache that had started 2 days previously. The abdominal examination showed sensitivity, rebound, and defense. The examination results for his respiratory system and other systems were normal. The anterior-posterior pulmonary x-ray and direct abdominal x-ray in standing position were normal. No signs of acute abdomen could be seen in his abdominal ultrasonography. Lower lobe pneumonia was identified in his abdominal CT. It is difficult to diagnose pneumonia in patients who present with a picture of acute abdomen if there are no symptoms and x-ray signs related to the respiratory system. Anamnesis and physical examination are key to reaching an accurate diagnosis in such patients; however, any delay in diagnosis can be prevented by requesting further studies such as CT if the diagnosis cannot be ascertained by physical examination.

  14. Cirugia de abdomen abierto en gineco obstetricia: indicaciones, tecnica y manejo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forero, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez, Jorge Augusto

    2005-01-01

    ... y las nuevas tecnicas quirurgicas de la cirugia de abdomen abierto para el manejo adecuado de estas entidades. Palabras clave: sindrome compartimiento abdominal, hipertension intraabdominal, tecnicas sutura. SUMMARY Intentional open abdominal management of severe pathologies is becoming increasingly common in obstetrics when dealing wi...

  15. Outcome of Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy for Open Abdomen Treatment After Nontraumatic Lower Gastrointestinal Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Claus Anders; Fabricius, Rasmus; Kleif, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the risk factors for failure to achieve fascial closure after use of negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in an open abdomen (OA). We aimed at analyzing possible risk factors for failure of fascial closure and the risk of fistulas after nontrauma lower gastrointestinal...

  16. Infarction of a polyp within a mesenteric cyst: An unusual presentation as an acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gon Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of mesenteric cyst in a five-year-old male child who presented with acute abdomen due to an infarcted polyp present within the cyst is reported. To the best of our knowledge, such an event has never been reported in the literature previously.

  17. Vacuum-assisted closure of the open abdomen in a resource-limited setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A M; Kuhn, W P; Barker, P

    2010-11-01

    We describe our experience of developing a modified vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) dressing for open abdomens. We see a high volume of trauma in our department. Massive delays in presentation of patients with acute abdomen are common. Closure at initial laparotomy is not possible in many cases, either because the patient has or will develop abdominal compartment syndrome, or because several re-look laparotomies will be required. A significant proportion of our patients who have undergone laparotomy therefore spend some of their stay in hospital with an open abdomen. The management of these patients is particularly labour intensive for nursing staff. The Opsite sandwich or Bogota bag invariably leaks, and sometimes needs changing daily. If a patient also has a temporary ileostomy, application can be difficult. The commercial VAC dressing is an improvement on the Opsite sandwich, but is prohibitively expensive. Financial constraints and the volume of abdominal trauma and sepsis we see mean that commercial VAC dressings for laparostomy are not affordable in our setting. We describe our adapted VAC dressing. It is inexpensive and easy to apply, has made a big difference in the nursing of patients with an open abdomen, and has enabled us to increase the rate of delayed primary closure (i.e., we have reduced the rate of ventral hernia). The modified VAC dressing is now our department's method of choice for temporary abdominal closure.

  18. Analysis of Acoustic Access to the Prostate Through the Abdomen and Perineum for Extracorporeal Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy L.; Hempel, Christopher R.; Sabb, Brian J.; Roberts, William W.

    2010-03-01

    As part of the development of a noninvasive treatment for BPH using histotripsy, this study aimed to measure acoustic access for extracorporeal ablation of the prostate. Both transabdominal and transperineal approaches were considered. The objective was to measure the size and shape of a transducer aperture that could target the prostate without obstruction. CT images obtained from 17 subjects >56 years of age were used to create 3D reconstructions of the lower abdomen and pelvis. Target locations on the urethra at the base, mid, and apex in the prostate were marked along with a transrectal imaging probe. Evenly space rays spanning were traced from each target location towards the perineum and separately towards the abdomen with the maximum x-ray density encountered along each path recorded. The overall free aperture through the perineum was found to be a triangular shaped region bounded by the lower bones of the pelvis and the transrectal probe varying significantly in size between subjects. The free aperture through the abdomen was wedge shaped limited by the pubis also with great subject to subject variability. Average unblocked fractions of an f/1 transducer to target base, veru, and apex through the perineum were 77.0%, 94.4%, and 99.6%, respectively. Averages targeting through the abdomen were 86.1%, 52.3%, and 11.0%. Acoustic access to the prostate for through the perineum was judged to be feasible.

  19. VAWCM-Instillation Improves Delayed Primary Fascial Closure of Open Septic Abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Tao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Failure to achieve delayed primary fascial closure (DPFC is one of the main complications of open abdomen (OA, certainly when abdominal sepsis is present. This retrospective cohort study aims to evaluate the effect of combined therapy of vacuum-assisted mesh-mediated fascial traction and topical instillation (VAWCM-instillation on DPFC in the open septic abdomen. Methods. The patients with abdominal sepsis who underwent OA using VAWCM were included and divided into the instillation and noninstillation (control groups. The DPFC rate and other outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results. Between 2007 and 2013, 73 patients with open septic abdomen were treated with VAWCM-instillation and 61 cases with VAWCM-only. The DPFC rate in the instillation group was significantly increased (63% versus 41%, P=0.011. The mortality with OA was similar (24.6% versus 23%, P=0.817 between the two groups. However, time to DPFC (P=0.003 and length of stay in hospital (P=0.022 of the survivals were significantly decreased in the instillation group. In addition, VAWCM-instillation (OR 1.453, 95% CI 1.222–4.927, P=0.011 was an independent influencing factor related to successful DPFC. Conclusions. VAWCM-instillation could improve the DPFC rate but could not decrease the mortality in the patients with open septic abdomen.

  20. VAWCM-Instillation Improves Delayed Primary Fascial Closure of Open Septic Abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qingsong; Ren, Jianan; Ji, Zhenling; Liu, Shengli; Wang, Baochai; Zheng, Yu; Gu, Guosheng; Wang, Xinbo; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Background. Failure to achieve delayed primary fascial closure (DPFC) is one of the main complications of open abdomen (OA), certainly when abdominal sepsis is present. This retrospective cohort study aims to evaluate the effect of combined therapy of vacuum-assisted mesh-mediated fascial traction and topical instillation (VAWCM-instillation) on DPFC in the open septic abdomen. Methods. The patients with abdominal sepsis who underwent OA using VAWCM were included and divided into the instillation and noninstillation (control) groups. The DPFC rate and other outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results. Between 2007 and 2013, 73 patients with open septic abdomen were treated with VAWCM-instillation and 61 cases with VAWCM-only. The DPFC rate in the instillation group was significantly increased (63% versus 41%, P = 0.011). The mortality with OA was similar (24.6% versus 23%, P = 0.817) between the two groups. However, time to DPFC (P = 0.003) and length of stay in hospital (P = 0.022) of the survivals were significantly decreased in the instillation group. In addition, VAWCM-instillation (OR 1.453, 95% CI 1.222-4.927, P = 0.011) was an independent influencing factor related to successful DPFC. Conclusions. VAWCM-instillation could improve the DPFC rate but could not decrease the mortality in the patients with open septic abdomen.

  1. Detection of Hyperechoic Inflammatory Fatty Tissue during Transabdominal Ultrasonography: Diagnostic Role in Acute Abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Jin; Lee, Hae Kyung; Yi, Bum Ha [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Cheol [Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    To assess the incidence and diagnostic role of hyperechoic inflammatory fatty tissue (HIFT) in transabdominal ultrasonography (TAUS) for acute abdomen. With TAUS, we examined 98 consecutive patients (68 women, 30 men: mean age, 32 years: age range, 4-84 years) having acute abdominal pain. We examined the abdomen and pelvis by TAUS to determine the cause of acute abdomen, to check for the presence of HIFT, and to investigate whether it was easier and earlier to find the main cause and HIFT presence. We also prospectively evaluated the shape, distribution, and diagnostic role of HIFT. Final diagnoses consisted of 47 cases of acute appendicitis, 14 of enterocolitis, 13 of PID, 7 of gynecological hemoperitoneum, 5 of colonic diverticulitis, 3 of ovarian torsion, 2 of colon perforation, 2 of only presence of non-specific HIFT, 1 of mesenteric lymphadenitis, and 4 of normal. HIFT were seen in 67 patients (68.4%), including 44/47(93.6%) of acute appendicitis, 2/14(14.3%) of enterocolitis, 11/13(84.6%) of PID, 0/7 of hemoperitoneum, 5/5 of colonic diverticulitis, 0/3 of ovarian torsion, 2/2 of colon perforation, and 1/1 mesenteric lymphadenitis. HIFT were detected earlier than the main cause in 17/44 of acute appendicitis, 6/11 of PID, and 4/5 of colonic diverticulitis. In acute appendicitis, the shape of HIFT appeared as fat thickening along the mesoappendix in 12/44, fat thickening along the mesoappendix and the opposite side in 13/44, fat encircled appendix in 6/44, fatty mass wrapping abscess in 10/44, and diffuse intraperitoneal fat thickening in 3/44. In PID, HIFT appeared as a single fatty mass in the pelvis and lower abdomen in 6/11, wrapping pelvic abscess in 2/11, and multiple fatty masses scattered in abdomen and pelvis in 3/11. In colonic diverticulitis, all 5 cases appeared as hyperechoic hemispheric mass covering the inflamed diverticulum. HIFT are a usual US finding in patients with acute abdomen, particularly on abdominal and pelvic inflammatory conditions

  2. Outcomes and complications of open abdomen technique for managing non-trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritayakirana Kritaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Damage control surgery and the open abdomen technique have been widely used in trauma. These techniques are now being utilized more often in non-trauma patients but the outcomes are not clear. We hypothesized that the use of the open abdomen technique in non-trauma patients 1 is more often due to peritonitis, 2 has a lower incidence of definitive fascial closure during the index hospitalization, and 3 has a higher fistula rate. Methods : Retrospective case series of patients treated with the open abdomen technique over a 5-year period at a level-I trauma center. Data was collected from the trauma registry, operating room (OR case log, and by chart review. The main outcome measures were number of operations, definitive fascial closure, fistula rate, complications, and length of stay. Results : One hundred and three patients were managed with an open abdomen over the 5-year period and we categorized them into three groups: elective (n = 31, urgent (n = 35, and trauma (n = 37. The majority of the patients were male (69%. Trauma patients were younger (39 vs 53 years; P < 0.05. The most common indications for the open abdomen technique were intraabdominal hypertension in the elective group (n = 18, severe intraabdominal infection in the urgent group (n=19, and damage control surgery in the trauma group (n = 28. The number of abdominal operations was similar (3.1−3.7 in the three groups, as was the duration of intensive care unit (ICU stay (average: 25−31 days. The definitive fascial closure rates during initial hospitalization were as follows: 63% in the elective group, 60% in the urgent group, and 54% in the trauma group. Intestinal fistula formation occurred in 16%, 17%, and 11%, respectively, in the three groups, with overall mortality rates of 35%, 31%, and 11%. Conclusion : Intra-abdominal infection was a common reason for use of the open abdomen technique in non-trauma patients. However, the definitive fascial closure and

  3. Enzymatic and hemolytic properties of brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa) toxin and extracts of venom apparatus, cephalothorax and abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekow, M A; Civello, D J; Geren, C R

    1983-01-01

    Loxosceles reclusa venom apparatus extract, toxin, cephalothorax and abdomen extracts were tested for six activities. Protease, lipase, nonspecific hydrolase and direct hemolytic activities were found primarily in abdomen extracts while sphingomyelinase activity appeared predominantly in the toxin. Appreciable complement-mediated hemolysis was not observed.

  4. Patient dosimetry during chest, abdomen, skull and neck radiography in SW Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olowookere, C.J. [Department of Physics with Electronics, Ajayi Crowther University, P.M.B 1066, Oyo (Nigeria); Obed, R.I., E-mail: rachelobed@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State (Nigeria); Babalola, I.A. [Department of Physical Sciences, Bells University of Technology, Ota, Ogun State (Nigeria); Bello, T.O. [Department of Radiology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State (Nigeria)

    2011-08-15

    The technique factors and X-ray output from the X-ray units of three Nigerian hospitals were obtained and used to calculate doses delivered to patients during chest, abdomen, skull and neck examinations. DoseCal software was used to calculate the entrance skin dose (ESD) and effective dose (E) based on the values of technique factors employed. The result obtained for inter-hospital comparison showed wide variation of mean hospital ESD, from a factor of 1.3 for chest posteroanterior (PA) in hospital 2 (H2) to a factor of 63 for the same chest X-ray projection in hospital 1 (H1). A comparison of ESD obtained in this work with established reference doses in the United Kingdom (UK 2005 review), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Community of European Commission (CEC), Ghana and Sudan shows that the values of ESD obtained in H1 for five examinations; namely: chest (PA) and lateral (LAT), abdomen anteroposterior (AP) and skull (PA and LAT) are higher. In H2, the dose value for chest PA is about 50% higher than that of UK but comparable with CEC and less than IAEA and Ghanaian values. The dose values obtained in H3 chest PA are higher than UK, IAEA and CEC values but comparable with that of Ghana. For abdomen AP, the dose is a factor of 1.2 less than IAEA and CEC values but greater than the UK, Ghanaian and Sudanese values by a factor of 2.1, 1.2 and 4.5, respectively. Reference data for abdomen LAT and neck AP were not available for comparison. Higher effective doses are being delivered to patients in chest PA (H1 and H3) and abdomen AP (H1) when compared with the range of values reported in the literature. This trend is an indication that patients examined are at higher health risks.

  5. Normal sonographic anatomy of the abdomen of coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rejane G; Costa, Ana Paula A; Bragato, Nathália; Fonseca, Angela M; Duque, Juan C M; Prado, Tales D; Silva, Andrea C R; Borges, Naida C

    2013-06-23

    The use of ultrasound in veterinary medicine is widespread as a diagnostic supplement in the clinical routine of small animals, but there are few reports in wild animals. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomy, topography and abdominal sonographic features of coatis. The urinary bladder wall measured 0.11 ± 0.03 cm. The symmetrical kidneys were in the left and right cranial quadrant of the abdomen and the cortical, medullary and renal pelvis regions were recognized and in all sections. The medullary rim sign was visualized in the left kidney of two coatis. The liver had homogeneous texture and was in the cranial abdomen under the rib cage. The gallbladder, rounded and filled with anechoic content was visualized in all coatis, to the right of the midline. The spleen was identified in the left cranial abdomen following the greater curvature of the stomach. The parenchyma was homogeneous and hyperechogenic compared to the liver and kidney cortex. The stomach was in the cranial abdomen, limited cranially by the liver and caudo-laterally by the spleen. The left adrenal glands of five coatis were seen in the cranial pole of the left kidney showing hypoechogenic parenchyma without distinction of cortex and medulla. The pancreas was visualized in only two coatis. The left ovary (0.92 cm x 0.56 cm) was visualized on a single coati in the caudal pole of the kidney. The uterus, right adrenal, right ovary and intestines were not visualized. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen of coatis may be accomplished by following the recommendations for dogs and cats. It is possible to evaluate the anatomical and topographical relationships of the abdominal organs together with the knowledge of the peculiarities of parenchymal echogenicity and echotexture of the viscera.

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine ...

  8. Lumbar spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower ... The lumbar CT scan is good for evaluating large herniated disks, ... smaller ones. This test can be combined with a myelogram to get ...

  9. Arm CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the arm area, called slices. These images can be stored, ...

  10. Thoracic spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan - thoracic spine; Computed axial tomography scan - thoracic spine; Computed tomography scan - thoracic spine; CT scan - ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 44. US Food and Drug Administration. Computed tomography (CT). Updated August ...

  11. Predicting need for additional CT scan in children with a non-diagnostic ultrasound for appendicitis in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Takuya; Maeda, Shigenobu; Goldman, Ran D; Hayashi, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine which children with suspected appendicitis should be considered for a computerized tomography (CT) scan after a non-diagnostic ultrasound (US) in the Emergency Department (ED). We retrospectively reviewed patients 0-18year old, who presented to the ED with complaints of abdominal pain, during 2011-2015 and while in the hospital had both US and CT. We recorded demographic and clinical data and outcomes, and used univariate and multivariate methods for comparing patients who did and didn't have appendicitis on CT after non-diagnostic US. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression to determine what variables were independently associated with appendicitis. A total of 328 patients were enrolled, 257 with non-diagnostic US (CT: 82 had appendicitis, 175 no-appendicitis). Younger children and those who reported vomiting or had right lower abdominal quadrant (RLQ) tenderness, peritoneal signs or White Blood Cell (WBC) count >10,000 in mm 3 were more likely to have appendicitis on CT. RLQ tenderness (Odds Ratio: 2.84, 95%CI: 1.07-7.53), peritoneal signs (Odds Ratio: 11.37, 95%CI: 5.08-25.47) and WBC count >10,000 in mm 3 (Odds Ratio: 21.88, 95%CI: 7.95-60.21) remained significant after multivariate analysis. Considering CT with 2 or 3 of these predictors would have resulted in sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 67%, positive predictive value of 57% and negative predictive value of 96% for appendicitis. Ordering CT should be considered after non-diagnostic US for appendicitis only when children meet at least 2 predictors of RLQ tenderness, peritoneal signs and WBC>10,000 in mm 3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanical response of the herniated human abdomen to the placement of different prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Gascón, Belén; Peña, Estefanía; Grasa, Jorge; Pascual, Gemma; Bellón, Juan M; Calvo, Begoña

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes a method designed to model the repaired herniated human abdomen just after surgery and examine its static mechanical response to the maximum intra-abdominal pressure provoked by a physiological movement (standing cough). The model is based on the real geometry of the human abdomen bearing a large incisional hernia with several anatomical structures differentiated by MRI. To analyze the outcome of hernia repair, the surgical procedure was simulated by modeling a prosthesis placed over the hernia. Three surgical meshes with different mechanical properties were considered: an isotropic heavy-weight mesh (Surgipro®), a slightly anisotropic light-weight mesh (Optilene®), and a highly anisotropic medium-weight mesh (Infinit®). Our findings confirm that anisotropic implants need to be positioned such that the most compliant axis of the mesh coincides with the craneo-caudal direction of the body.

  13. [Clinical case--voluminous diaphragmatic hernia--surgically acute abdomen: diagnostic and therapeutical challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, D; Savlovschi, C; Borcan, R; Pantu, H; Serban, D; Gradinaru, S; Smarandache, G; Trotea, T; Branescu, C; Musat, L; Comandasu, M; Priboi, M; Baldir, M; Sandolache, B; Oprescu, S

    2011-01-01

    We present the case of a 58-year old male patient admitted in the surgery section of the University Emergency Hospital of Bucharest and diagnosed with acute abdomen. The minimal clinical-paraclinical investigation (i.e., thorax-pulmonary Xray, biological probes) raises questions as to the differentiated diagnosis and other associated diseases, also suggesting the existence of voluminous diaphragmatic hernia. The CT thorax-abdomen examination confirms the diaphragmatic hernia suspicion, with intra-thorax ascent of the colon up to the anterior C4 level, but does not explain the abdominal suffering; thus we suspected a biliary ileus or acute appendicitis. Medial laparotomy was imperative. Intrasurgically peritonitis was noticed located by gangrenous acute apendicitis, perforated, with coprolite, for which apendictomy and lavage-drainage pf the peritoneal cavity was performed. Post-surgical status: favourable to recovery.

  14. Spontaneous perforation of pyometra presenting as acute abdomen: a rare condition with considerable mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wan-Bin; Wei, Yan-Hua; Liu, Guang-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Tang; Zhang, Mao-Shen; Hu, Ji-Lin; Zhang, Nan-Yang; Lu, Yun

    2016-04-01

    Pyometra is an uncommon and potentially lethal disease that occurs mainly in postmenopausal women. Spontaneous perforation of pyometra presenting as acute abdomen is an extremely rare complication of pyometra, and the patients are always admitted to the emergency department. An additional case is reported herein. In addition, a literature review was performed between 1949 and 2015. A correct preoperative diagnosis was made in 21.05% of all the cases. Of all cases, 25.71% were associated with malignant disease. The mortality rate of spontaneous perforation of pyometra is 31.88%. Thus, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in elderly women. Total hysterectomy along with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the preferred treatment. Administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics and postoperative intensive care support are essential to reduce the high mortality.

  15. Definitive identification of magnetite nanoparticles in the abdomen of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desoil, M [Biological Physics Department, University of Mons-Hainaut (Belgium); Gillis, P [Biological Physics Department, University of Mons-Hainaut (Belgium); Gossuin, Y [Biological Physics Department, University of Mons-Hainaut (Belgium); Pankhurst, Q A [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1E 7HN (United Kingdom); Hautot, D [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1E 7HN (United Kingdom); Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Thornburrow Drive, Hartshill, Stoke-en-Trent, ST4 7QB (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    The biogenic magnetic properties of the honeybee Apis mellifera were investigated with a view to understanding the bee's physiological response to magnetic fields. The magnetisations of bee abdomens on one hand, and heads and thoraxes on the other hand, were measured separately as functions of temperature and field. Both the antiferromagnetic responses of the ferrihydrite cores of the iron storage protein ferritin, and the ferrimagnetic responses of nanoscale magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) particles, were observed. Relatively large magnetite particles (ca. 30 nm or more), capable of retaining a remanent magnetisation at room temperature, were found in the abdomens, but were absent in the heads and thoraxes. In both samples, more than 98% of the iron atoms were due to ferritin.

  16. The Clinical anatomy of the physical examination of the abdomen: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Voin, Vlad; Topale, Nitsa; Iwanaga, Joe; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-04-01

    Physical examination of the abdomen is an essential skill. Knowledge of its clinical anatomy and application is vital for making diagnoses. Misinterpretation of anatomy during examination can have serious consequences. This review addresses understanding of the anatomy, methodology, and complications of abdominal physical examination. It includes particular reference to modern technology and investigations. Physical examination is performed for diagnostic purposes. However, the art of physical examination is declining as more and more clinicians rely on newer technology. This can have regrettable consequences: negligence, waste of time and resources, and deterioration of clinical skills. With a sound knowledge of clinical anatomy, and realization of the importance of physical examination of the abdomen, clinician, and patients alike can benefit. Clin. Anat. 30:352-356, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Lymphangioma of the jejunal mesentery and jejunal polyps presenting as an acute abdomen in a teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasundara, Jasb; Perera, E; Chandu de Silva, M V; Pathirana, A A

    2017-03-01

    Cystic lymphangioma of the small bowel mesentery is a rare clinical entity, especially after childhood. Medical literature reveals a limited number of such cases presenting as acute abdomen due to bowel obstruction, small bowel volvulus and bleeding into the tumour. We present the management experience of an 18-year-old woman who presented with rapid onset diffuse peritonism and raised inflammatory markers. Computed tomography showed a mass in the small bowel mesentery with suspicion of segmental bowel ischaemia. Emergency laparotomy revealed a mass in the mid-jejunal mesentery close to the bowel wall with no bowel ischaemia. The patient made an uncomplicated recovery after segmental bowel resection and end-to-end anastomosis. Histology confirmed the mass as a cystic lymphangioma involving the jejunal mesentery and two small jejunal polyps. Lymphangioma could be considered in the differential diagnosis of an acute abdomen in a young adult when the presentation is atypical.

  18. Acute Abdomen Due to Uncontrolled Use of Warfarin: Spontaneous Intra-abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Dal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant, which is commonly used in the treatment and prophylaxis of thromboembolic conditions. Bleeding is the primary adverse effect associated with warfarin. The majority of warfarin-related bleedings are spontaneous minor hemorrhages occurring in the subcutaneous or intramuscular tissues and can be treated by decreasing the dose of oral anticoagulants. However, although rare, it is possible to encounter spontaneous major bleedings with increased risk of mortality. Conservative approach is the preferred initial therapy for hemodynamically stable patients with major intra-abdominal hemorrhages that we define as the intermediate group patients. Nevertheless, surgery is required for hemodynamically unstable patients with acute abdominal pain in cases of ongoing active hemorrhage, generalized peritonitis, obstruction, acute abdomen, intestinal ischemia, and perforation. In this article, we present a rare case of acute abdomen and spontaneous intra-abdominal hemorrhage resulting from uncontrolled use of warfarin and a new classification requirement.

  19. A Study of Physicochemical Properties of Subcutaneous Fat of the Abdomen and its Implication in Abdominal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Pramod; Kodavoor, Srinivas Aithal; Kotian, Sushma Rama; Yathdaka, Sudhakar Narahari; Nayak, Dayanand; Souza, Anne D; Souza, Antony Sylvan D

    2016-05-01

    The lower abdominal obesity is more resistant to absorption as compared to that of upper abdomen. Differences in the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of the upper and lower abdomen may be responsible for this variation. There is paucity of the scientific literature on the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of abdomen. The present study was undertaken to create a database of physicochemical properties of abdominal subcutaneous fat. The samples of subcutaneous fat from upper and lower abdomen were collected from 40 fresh autopsied bodies (males 33, females 7). The samples were prepared for physicochemical analysis using organic and inorganic solvents. Various physicochemical properties of the fat samples analysed were surface tension, viscosity, specific gravity, specific conductivity, iodine value and thermal properties. Data was analysed by paired and independent sample t-tests. There was a statistically significant difference in all the physicochemical parameters between males and females except surface tension (organic) and surface tension (inorganic) of upper abdominal fat, and surface tension (organic) of lower abdominal fat. In males, viscosity of upper abdominal fat was more compared to that of lower abdomen (both organic and inorganic) unlike the specific conductivity that was higher for the lower abdominal fat as compared to that of the upper abdomen. In females there were statistically significant higher values of surface tension (inorganic) and specific gravity (organic) of the upper abdomen fat as compared to that of lower abdomen. The initial and final weight loss of the lower abdominal fat as indicated by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was significantly more in males than in female. The difference in the physicochemical properties of subcutaneous fat between upper and lower abdomen and between males and females could be responsible for the variant behaviour of subcutaneous abdominal fat towards resorption.

  20. Acute epiploic appendagitis: A rare cause of acute abdomen and a diagnostic dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuhanna, Afnan F.; Alghamdi, Zeead M.; Alshammari, Eiman

    2016-01-01

    Acute epiploic appendagitis is a relatively rare cause of lower abdominal pain that clinically mimics other acute abdomen conditions that require surgery such as acute diverticulitis or appendicitis. Here, we report a case of a 50-year-old lady who presented with an unusual lower abdominal pain. Awareness of such a clinical condition with its characteristic imaging findings is important to avoid costly hospitalization, unnecessary antibiotic courses, and the morbidity and mortality associated with surgical procedures. PMID:26929730

  1. Necrotizing myofasciitis: an atypical cause of ``acute abdomen`` in an immunocompromised child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, L.F.; Frush, D.P.; O`Hara, S.M.; Bisset, G.S. III [Department of Radiology, Section of Pediatric Radiology, Box 3808, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    1998-02-01

    We report the case of an immunocompromised 15-year-old boy who presented with symptoms mimicking an ``acute abdomen`` related to necrotizing myofasciitis of the anterior abdominal wall. CT demonstrated the abdominal wall process as the cause of the patient`s symptoms and sonographically guided aspiration confirmed the diagnosis. Despite prompt diagnosis and aggressive surgical debridement, the infection continued to progress and the patient died within 24 h of presentation. (orig.) With 1 fig., 16 refs.

  2. An Experience in the Management of the Open Abdomen in Severely Injured Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    that fascial closure was achieved in 77% of patients with a mean closure date of 33 days. The use of this technique has not been studied in burn...therapy (90%). Fascial closure was performed in 21 patients but was associated with a 38% rate of failure requiring reexploration. Of 12 survivors... fascial closure was achieved in seven patients and five were managed with a planned ventral hernia. Burned patients who necessitate an open abdomen

  3. Bilateral ovarian teratoma presenting with a clinical picture of acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Rocchietti March

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 30-year-old patient with bilateral mature cystic teratoma (MCT of the ovaries. The patient had been complaining of mild abdominal pain for several months that had suddenly become severe. Early diagnosis at the emergency room was acute appendicitis, but definitive diagnosis was bilateral ovarian teratoma. We therefore recommend considering ovarian teratomas in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in young women in an emergency care setting.

  4. Comportamiento Inusual de Sarcoma de alto grado de malignidad en abdomen. Reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryem Seco Meza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Los sarcomas de tejidos blandos aparecen en cualquier localización y abarcan más de 50 tipos histológicos; se originan del tejido mesodérmico embrionario y del ectodermo o neuroectodermo. Son pocos frecuentes y representan el 1 % de tumores sólidos abdominales de alta agresividad en adultos. Los más agresivos y con mayor capacidad metastásica son los de alto grado, mientras que los de bajo grado son agresivos pero de forma local. Al respecto, se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 52 años, del área rural, con 3 meses de evolución del cuadro clínico, quien presentó aumento progresivo de volumen abdominal, sensación de peso y masa palpable, concomitantemente emesis, adinamia, pérdida de peso y edema en miembros inferiores. Se realizó ultrasonografía abdominal que evidenció tumoración ecomixta de 16 x 20 cm en línea media. La Tomografía Axial Computarizada abdominal reportó lesión ocupante de espacio heterogénea, ovalada, de bordes irregulares de 15 x 10 cm que desplaza asas delgadas. La laparotomía exploradora media mostró ausencia de implantes peritoneales y carcinomatosis, tumor muy vascularizado, encapsulado de contextura lisa, consistencia firme, con bordes definidos de 15 x 20 cm. Después de la resección, no se observaron adenopatías ni metástasis locales y a distancia. El reporte histopatológico identificó un sarcoma de alto grado. A dos años de la operación no se encontró metástasis. Contrario a lo que la literatura reporta, se mantuvo un comportamiento “benigno” a pesar de su histología, lo cual es inusual considerando la historia natural de la enfermedad. Unusual Behavior of High-grade sarcoma malignancy in abdomen. A case report Abstract Soft tissue sarcomas appear in any location and include more than 50 histological types; they originate from mesodermal embryonic tissue, ectoderm or neuroectoderm. They are infrequent and represent 1% of highly aggressive abdominal solid tumors in adults

  5. Honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) swing abdomen to dissipate residual flying energy landing on a wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jieliang; Huang, He; Yan, Shaoze

    2017-03-01

    Whether for insects or for aircrafts, landing is one of the indispensable links in the verification of airworthiness safety. The mechanisms by which insects achieve a fast and stable landing remain unclear. An intriguing example is provided by honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica), which use the swinging motion of their abdomen to dissipate residual flying energy and to achieve a smooth, stable, and quick landing. By using a high-speed camera, we observed that touchdown is initiated by honeybees extending their front legs or antennae and then landing softly on a wall. After touchdown, they swing the rest of their bodies until all flying energy is dissipated. We suggested a simplified model with mass-spring dampers for the body of the honeybee and revealed the mechanism of flying energy transfer and dissipation in detail. Results demonstrate that body translation and abdomen swinging help honeybees dissipate residual flying energy and orchestrate smooth landings. The initial kinetic energy of flying is transformed into the kinetic energy of the abdomen's rotary movement. Then, the kinetic energy of rotary movement is converted into thermal energy during the swinging cycle. This strategy provides more insight into the mechanism of insect flying, which further inspires better design on aerial vehicle with better landing performance.

  6. A Case of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presenting with an Acute Abdomen: Successful Treatment with Steroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Fukatsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal pain continues to pose diagnostic challenges for emergency clinicians. A 56-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital due to severe abdominal pain which presented as occasional epigastric pain five months before and intermittent abdominal pain. She had a past history of ileus twice, for both of which laparotomy was performed without an alimentary tract resection. The wall thickening with marked three-wall structure from terminal ileum to sigmoid colon was seen and bladder wall was irregularly thick and enhanced irregularly. Among the differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen, autoimmune diseases were suspected, especially lupus erythematosus and Henoch-Schönlein purpura. On the second day of admission, abdominal pain worsened. The results of examinations of antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA antibody, ANCA, and the complements were not obtained at that time; however, we started 1-g steroid pulse treatment for three days with success. With the results obtained later, the patient was given a diagnosis of probable systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. The present case shows that SLE can present with acute abdomen and should be included in the wide range of the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen.

  7. Manual compression of the abdomen to assess expiratory flow limitation during mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemyze, Malcolm; Favory, Raphael; Alves, Isabelle; Perez, Thierry; Mathieu, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the manual compression of the abdomen (MCA) during expiration as a simple bedside method to detect expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during daily clinical practice of mechanical ventilation (MV). We studied 44 semirecumbent intubated and sedated critically ill patients. Flow-volume loops obtained during MCA were superimposed upon the preceding breaths and recorded with the ventilator. Expiratory flow limitation was expressed as percentage of expiratory tidal volume without any increase in flow during MCA (MCA [%V(T)]). In the first 13 patients, MCA was validated by comparison with the negative expiratory pressure (NEP) technique. Esophageal pressure changes during MCA and intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure were also recorded in all the patients. Manual compression of the abdomen and NEP agreed in all cases in detecting EFL with a bias of -0.16%. Percentage of expiratory tidal volume without any increase in flow during MCA is highly correlated with percentage of expiratory tidal volume without any increase in flow during NEP (n = 13, P respiratory disease. Manual compression of the abdomen provides a simple, rapid, and safe bedside reliable maneuver to detect and quantify EFL during mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A rare cause of acute abdomen – Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hock Chin Chong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma (SRSH is a rare entity that mimics acute abdomen. Rectus sheath hematoma is the accumulation of blood in rectus sheath due to muscle or epigastric vessel injury. However, SRSH without a trauma or anticoagulation is rare. It frequently mimics acute abdomen and it may lead to misdiagnosis and unnecessary laparotomy. In this article, we described two cases of SRSH with their diagnostic and therapeutic strategy. Both of our patients in report were neither consumed antiplatelet nor coagulopathy. They both had abdominal muscle straining before their symptoms presentation. We hypothesized that the SRSH may be induced by rectus muscle injury secondary to inappropriate straining or posture. To diagnose SRSH, clinical findings are important but radiologic imaging such as computed tomography, can be diagnostic. In expanding SRSH, percutaneous arterial embolization of epigastric artery is useful to secure the bleeding. If embolization is not feasible, surgical exploration hemostasis is curative. In non-expanding SRSH, it can be managed nonoperatively. SRSH is an important initial differential for acute abdomen. Radiologic imaging helps in diagnosis. Stable SRSH can be managed conservatively with good outcome.

  9. Brain PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have false results on a PET scan. Blood sugar or insulin levels may affect the test results in people with diabetes . PET scans may be done along with a CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. Alternative Names Brain positron emission tomography; PET scan - brain References Chernecky ...

  10. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Coronary Calcium Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Also known as Calcium Scan Test A coronary calcium scan is a CT scan of your heart that detects and measures the amount of calcium in the walls of your coronary arteries. Overview ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... code: Phone no: Thank you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  12. Heart PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  14. An unusual case of intraabdominal abscess and acute abdomen caused by axial torsion of a Meckel's diverticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Yıldız

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Although MD is known as a pediatric disease, it is likely to occur in adults as well. Axial torsion of Meckel's diverticulum should be kept in mind the adults presenting with symptoms of acute abdomen.

  15. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) to Litopenaeus vannamei from infected cephalothorax, abdomen, or whole shrimp cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, M A; Shervette, V R; Lotz, J M

    2001-06-20

    Shrimp viruses can remain infectious in frozen shrimp tissue and have been found in frozen commodity shrimp. Therefore, the threat of viral outbreaks in wild and cultured shrimp via frozen commodity shrimp exists. Because frozen shrimp are imported with and without the cephalothorax, more knowledge is needed concerning the infectivity of a cephalothorax relative to that of an abdomen. We compared the mortality rates from shrimp exposed to a WSSV-infected cephalothorax, abdomen, or whole shrimp cadaver. Estimates of transmission coefficients from the exposures to the infected cephalothorax, abdomen, or whole shrimp were also calculated because the transmission coefficients account for differences in the initial doses. In addition, we compared the variability in infectivity of pieces of shrimp by feeding 24 equal-sized pieces of cephalothorax and abdomen to 24 individually isolated shrimp. In Expt 1, susceptible shrimp did not completely consume the infected abdomen, and a significant difference was detected among shrimp exposed to the abdomen (mortality rate = 0.40), cephalothorax (mortality rate = 0.75), and whole shrimp cadaver (mortality rate = 0.67). The calculated transmission coefficients were 0.95 from an infected cephalothorax, 0.59 from an infected abdomen, and 0.69 from an infected whole shrimp cadaver. In Expt 2, susceptible shrimp were starved to ensure complete ingestion of each dose. No significant difference was observed in the estimated mortality rates from an infected cephalothorax (0.58), abdomen (0.63), or whole shrimp (0.67). The calculated transmission coefficients were 0.84 from an infected cephalothorax, 0.83 from an infected abdomen, and 0.60 from an infected whole shrimp cadaver. In Expt 3, no difference was observed in the mortality rates resulting from exposures to pieces of infected cephalothorax (0.57) or abdomen (0.58). Our results suggested that there was no difference in the viral loads of a WSSV-infected cephalothorax or abdomen, but

  16. Open abdomen procedure in managing abdominal compartment syndrome in a child with severe fungal peritonitis and sepsis after gastric perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome with increased abdominal pressure resulted in multi-organ dysfunctions can be lethal in children. The open abdomen procedure intentionally leaves the abdominal cavity open in patients with severe abdominal sepsis and abdominal compartment syndrome by temporarily relieving the abdominal pressure. We reported our experience of open abdomen procedure in successfully treating a 4-year old boy with abdominal compartment syndrome caused by severe fungal peritonitis and sepsis after gastric perforation.

  17. Prospective Evaluation of Vacuum-Assisted Fascial Closure After Open Abdomen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Preston R.; Meredith, J Wayne; Johnson, James C.; Chang, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this report is to examine the success of vacuum-assisted fascial closure (VAFC) under a carefully applied protocol in abdominal closure after open abdomen. Summary Background Data: With the development of damage control techniques and the understanding of abdominal compartment syndrome, the open abdomen has become commonplace in trauma patients. If the abdomen is not closed in the early postoperative period, the combination of adhesions and fascial retraction frequently make primary fascial closure impossible and creation of a planned ventral hernia is required. We have previously reported our experience with the development of a technique for VAFC that allowed for closure of the fascia in many such patients long after initial operation. During this previous study, during which the technique was being developed, VAFC was successful in 69% of patients in whom it was applied, and 22 patients were successfully closed at ≥ 9 days after initial surgery (range, 9 to 49 days). A protocol for the use of VAFC in patients with open abdomen was developed on the basis of these data and has been employed since October 2001. The outcome of this protocol's use is examined. Methods: This is a prospective evaluation of all trauma patients admitted to Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center over a 19-month period who required management with an open abdomen. VAFC employs suction applied to a large polyurethane sponge under an occlusive dressing in the wound and allows for constant medial traction of the abdominal fascia. It is attempted in all patients in whom the rectus muscles and fascia are intact. Studied variables include fascial closure rate, time to closure, incidence of wound dehiscence, and hernia development after closure. Results: From November 1, 2001, through May 31, 2003, 212 laparotomies were performed in injured patients; 53 (25%) of these patients required open abdomen management. Mean injury severity score for the group was 34, with

  18. Abnormal bone marrow distribution following unsuccessful hip replacement: A potential confusion on white cell scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, D.A. (Saint Mary' s Hospital, London (UK). Dept. of Clinical Physics and Radiology)

    1991-01-01

    The use of indium 111 white blood cell imaging for the detection of bony sepsis is now well established. Labelled white cells are seen normally in the liver, spleen and bone marrow, and recent reports have stressed the need for concomitant bone marrow imaging to reduce the incidence of false-positive results. In the case described, a grossly abnormal distribution of bone marrow following failed hip replacement would have led to a false diagnosis of osteomyelitis. (orig.).

  19. [Acute abdomen and diabetic patients--difficulties of diagnosis and therapeutical decision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, H; Pătraşcu, T; Păcescu, E; Marin, I; Radu, C

    2001-01-01

    We present a retrospective study based on 50 diabetic patients with acute abdominal diseases. Usually, clinical features were not typical, without defining signs of acute abdomen, despite frequent severe anatomo-pathological forms (6 of 12 acute appendicitis were gangrenous, with generalised or localised peritonitis; 15 of 22 acute colecystitis were gangrenous). In diabetic patients, with metabolic disorders and cetoacidosis, positive diagnosis and the decision of laparotomy are difficult problems, often delated, with a negative influence on the evolutions and prognosis of these patients.

  20. Imaging features of vascular compression in abdomen: Fantasy, phenomenon, or true syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisajjakul, Sitthipong; Prapaisilp, Patcharin; Bangchokdee, Sirikan

    2017-01-01

    Vascular structures in the abdomen can compress or be compressed by adjacent structures. Classic imaging findings of vascular compressions, including median arcuate ligament syndrome, superior mesenteric artery syndrome, nutcracker syndrome, portal biliopathy, May-Thurner syndrome, and ureteropelvic junction obstruction will be discussed here. It is important to correlate imaging findings and clinical data to identify asymptomatic vascular compression which requires no treatment, intermittent vascular compression with nonspecific or vague clinical manifestation, and the subset of patients with true syndromes who will benefit from treatment. PMID:28744083

  1. Imaging features of vascular compression in abdomen: Fantasy, phenomenon, or true syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitthipong Srisajjakul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular structures in the abdomen can compress or be compressed by adjacent structures. Classic imaging findings of vascular compressions, including median arcuate ligament syndrome, superior mesenteric artery syndrome, nutcracker syndrome, portal biliopathy, May-Thurner syndrome, and ureteropelvic junction obstruction will be discussed here. It is important to correlate imaging findings and clinical data to identify asymptomatic vascular compression which requires no treatment, intermittent vascular compression with nonspecific or vague clinical manifestation, and the subset of patients with true syndromes who will benefit from treatment.

  2. Effective dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, F.R.A. [Centro regional de Ciencias Nucleares, CRCN/CNEN, Rua Conego Barata, 999, Tamarineira, Recife, PE (Brazil); Kramer, R.; Vieira, J.W.; Khoury, H.J. [Departamento de Energia Nuclear, DEN/UFPE, Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    The recently developed MAX (Male Adult voXel) and the FAXht (Female Adult voXel) head and trunk phantoms have been used to calculate organ and tissue equivalent dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen as a function of source and field parameters, like voltage, filtration, field size, focus-to-skin distance, etc. Based on the equivalent doses to twenty three organs and tissues at risk, the effective dose has been determined and compared with corresponding data for others phantoms. The influence of different radiation transport codes, different tissue compositions and different human anatomies have been investigated separately. (Author)

  3. OHVIRA syndrome presenting with acute abdomen: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor Ugurlucan, Funda; Bastu, Ercan; Gulsen, Gokce; Kurek Eken, Meryem; Akhan, Suleyman Engin

    2014-01-01

    Uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (OHVIRA) or Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is a rare congenital urogenital anomaly. A 13-year-old female presented with acute abdominal pain and dysmenorrhea. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging showed uterus didelphys, hematometrocolpos, obstructed hemivagina, and right renal agenesis. Hemivaginal septal resection and anastomosis between the obstructed hemivagina and the normal vagina was tried, but it was not possible. Unilateral hysterectomy was performed. HWW syndrome may present with acute abdomen and is usually treated with vaginal septum resection and drainage of the hematometrocolpos. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Multiple and combined injuries to chest and abdomen as an unresolved surgical problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumov, M M

    2010-01-01

    Peculiar features of surgical treatment of gunshot, non-lethal arm, and cold steel wounds are formulated based on the 20-year experience with managing 20,000 injured subjects having multiple and combined injuries to neck, chest, and abdomen of suicidal and criminal character. The growth in the number of patients with suicidal wounds and hemocontact viral infections (hepatitis, HIV) is emphasized. It is concluded that assessment of the state of gas exchange, lipid peroxidation, antioxidative, and immune systems does not give full idea of pathogenetic mechanisms of traumatic diseases.

  5. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of the migratory ant Pachycondyla marginata abdomens.

    OpenAIRE

    Wajnberg, E.; Acosta-Avalos, D; El-Jaick, L J; Abraçado, L; Coelho, J.L.A.; Bakuzis, A F; Morais,P. C.; Esquivel, D.M.S.

    2000-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance was used to investigate the magnetic material present in abdomens of Pachycondyla marginata ants. A g congruent with 4.3 resonance of high-spin ferric ions and a very narrow g congruent with 2 line are observed. Two principal resonance broad lines, one with g > 4.5 (LF) and the other in the region of g congruent with 2 (HF), were associated with the biomineralization process. The resonance field shift between these two lines, HF and LF, associated with magnetic...

  6. [Efficacy of intestinal splinting in hostile abdomen secondary to postoperative flanges in pediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho-Blanchet, Eduardo; Langarica-Bulos, Mónica; Dávila-Pérez, Roberto; Fernández-Portilla, Emilio; Zalles-Vidal, Cristian; Nieto-Zermeño, Jaime

    2016-10-01

    Objetivo: Mostrar la eficacia de la FI para prolongar el tiempo libre de oclusión intestinal quirúrgica en niños con abdomen hostil secundario a bridas posquirúrgicas. Método: Análisis retrospectivo de FI por abdomen hostil de 2000 a 2011 y su seguimiento a largo plazo. Comparamos el tiempo libre de oclusión quirúrgica antes y después de la FI. Resultados: Se incluyeron 20 FI en 19 pacientes. Predominaron las causas congénitas, la mediana de edad en la cirugía fue de 6 meses, todos tenían cirugías previas con mediana de tres, y dos de ellas fueron por oclusión intestinal previa. La férula se quitó a los 28 días (mediana). Con un seguimiento de 1-183 meses, hubo una recurrencia de oclusión quirúrgica. El tiempo libre de oclusión quirúrgica posferulización fue significativamente mayor que el preferulización mediante la prueba de Wilcoxon, con un valor Z = -3.594; p = tiempo libre de oclusión quirúrgica.

  7. Swordfish bill injury involving abdomen and vertebral column: case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drossos Charalambos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penetrating injuries of the abdomen and spinal canal that involve organic material of animal origin are extremely rare and derive from domestic and wild animal attacks or fish attacks. Case presentation In this case report we present the unique, as far as the literature is concerned, unprovoked woman's injury to the abdomen by a swordfish. There are only four cases of swordfish attacks on humans in the literature - one resulted to thoracic trauma, two to head trauma and one to knee trauma, one of which was fatal - none of which were unprovoked. Three victims were professional or amateur fishermen whereas in the last reported case the victim was a bather as in our case. Our case is the only case where organic debris of animal's origin remained in the spinal canal after penetrating trauma. Conclusions Although much has been written about the management of penetrating abdominal and spinal cord trauma, controversy remains about the optimal management. Moreover, there is little experience in the management of patients with such spinal injuries, due to the fact that such cases are extremely rare. In this report we focus on the patient's treatment with regard to abdominal and spinal trauma and present a review of the literature.

  8. [Volvulus of the small intestine as a cause of primary acute abdomen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevaearai, H; Achtari, C; Suter, M

    1994-12-01

    As a cause of small intestine occlusion, volvulus is often a consequence of a band or adhesions. Except in infants, it is rarely the primary cause of symptomatology. Between January 1976 and December 1992, 13 patients (7 women and 6 men, mean age of 56.8 years) were admitted in our department for an acute abdomen due to a spontaneous primary volvulus of the small bowel. Clinical examination and laboratory tests did not help in preoperative diagnosis. All patients underwent an explorative laparotomy. Six patients had had prior abdominal surgery but none of them presented adhesion or band. In 8 patients (62%), detorsion was sufficient. Resection of a segment of small bowel was necessary in 4 patients. Gangrenous of the entire bowel was observed in one patient who rapidly died. Two patients presented minor complications. One patient with Down syndrome died of bronchoaspiration. One patient has been reoperated on one year later for recurrence of the volvulus, and underwent a Noble procedure. We conclude that volvulus of the small bowel is a rare cause of acute abdomen that must be remembered. Early surgery is mandatory to reduce the risk of gangrene, which is known to double the mortality. Laparoscopy will be helpful in early diagnosis and therapy.

  9. Peritoneal Carcinomatosis: Intraoperative Parameters in Open (Coliseum versus Closed Abdomen Hipec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Halkia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC is associated with a poor prognosis. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS and HIPEC play an important role in well-selected patients with PC. The aim of the study is to present the differences in the intraoperative parameters in patients who received HIPEC in two different manners, open versus closed abdomen. Patients and Methods. The population includes 105 patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal, gastric, and ovarian cancer, sarcoma, mesothelioma, and pseudomyxoma peritonei. Group A (n=60 received HIPEC using the open technique and Group B (n=45 received HIPEC with the closed technique. The main end points were morbidity, mortality, and overall hospital stay. Results. There were two postoperative deaths (3.3% in the open group versus no deaths in the closed group. Twenty-two patients in the open group (55% had grade III-IV complications versus 18 patients in the closed group (40%. There are more stable intraoperative conditions in the closed abdomen HIPEC in CVP, pulse rate, and systolic pressure parameters. Conclusions. Both methods are equal in the HIPEC procedures. Perhaps the closed method is the method of choice for frail patients due to more stable hemodynamic parameters.

  10. Ruptured Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Ovary as a Cause of Acute Abdomen in Postmenopausal Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Oge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute abdomen with hemoperitoneum is a very rare entity in postmenopausal women due to gynecologic conditions. A 54-year-old, postmenopausal woman was brought to emergency department with severe abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed acute abdomen findings with 15 cm pelvic mass on the right adnexal region. Immediate exploratory laparotomy was performed. During laparotomy 1000 cc of bloodstained fluid, ruptured and actively bleeding large mass arising from right ovary was observed. Right salpingo-oopherectomy was performed in emergency conditions, and pathology report revealed an adult type of granulosa cell tumor. After this result, staging surgery was performed and patient was diagnosed as granulosa cell tumor stage 1 c. Cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin chemotherapy was given. Clinicians should be aware of granulosa cell tumors which may occur at any age and prone to rupture. Frozen section will be helpful in order to avoid incomplete surgeries especially in postmenopausal women presented with intra-abdominal bleeding.

  11. [Behavior of an intra-uterine device in the abdomen of animals (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, H; Cossard, F; Saurel, J; Brun, G

    1981-01-01

    The authors have carried out an experimental study on the reaction of an animal's organism to the presence of an open copper intra-uterine device when placed in the abdomen. The study was carried out on two groups each of 10 rabbits and two bitches. The intra-uterine device was placed in the pouch of Douglas by laparotomy, directly in one group and after contamination with genital secretions in the other. The state of the animals was checked six weeks after the initial laparotomy. Trauma caused by the operation was minimal because there were no adhesions found on the parietal peritoneum. On the other hand in experimental conditions that are very similar to those found when an intra-uterine device goes through the uterus in a human subject and involves contamination with genital secretions, in 50 per cent of cases the intra-uterine device migrated within the abdominal cavity. It was picked up by the omentum and this underwent such a strong fibrous reaction that it brought about multiple intestinal adhesions. Though the authors admit that experimental results in animals cannot be extrapolated to women, they believe that these results should be taken into consideration and that it would be imprudent to leave an intra-uterine device in the abdomen in a woman when there is proof that it has migrated, because there would then be a major risk of intestinal obstruction due to an adhesion that as formed a band.

  12. A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen: Perforation of Double Meckel’s Diverticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan Tas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Meckel’s diverticulum is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. In this report, we aimed to represent a case of intestinal perforation, caused by double Meckel’s diverticulum, which is a very rare entity in surgical practice. The patient was a 20-year-old Caucasian man, admitted to hospital with complaints of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomitting during the last 3 days. Physical examination indicated tenderness, rebound, and guarding in the right lower quadrant of abdomen. Abdominal X-ray revealed a few air-liquid levels in the left upper quadrant. In the operation, 2 Meckel’s diverticula were observed, one at the antimesenteric side, at 70 cm distance to the ileocecal valve, approximately in 3 cm size, and the other between the mesenteric and antimesenteric sides, approximately in 5 cm size. The first one had been perforated at the tip and wrapped with omentum. A 30 cm ileal resection, including both diverticula with end-to-end anastomosis, was performed. The diagnosis of symptomatic Meckel’s diverticulum is considerably hard, especially when it is complicated. Diverticulectomy or segmentary resections are therapeutic options. In patients with acute abdomen clinic, Meckel’s diverticulum and its complications should be kept in mind, and the intestines should be observed for an extra diverticulum for caution although it is a very rare condition.

  13. [Pulse triggering for improved diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the abdomen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mürtz, P; Pauleit, D; Träber, F; Gieseke, J; Kreft, B P; van den Brink, J S; Schild, H H

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this work was to reduce the influence of motion on diffusion-weighted MR images of the abdomen by pulse triggering of single-shot sequences. Five healthy volunteers were examined both without and with finger pulse-triggering of a diffusion-weighted single-shot echo planar MR imaging sequence at 1.5 T. Series of diffusion-weighted images were acquired at different phases of the cardiac cycle by varying the time delay between finger pulse and sequence acquisition. The measurements were repeated three times. The diffusion weighted images were analysed by measuring the signal intensities and by determining the ADC values within the spleen, kidney and liver. The magnitude of motion artifacts on diffusion weighted images shows a strong dependence on the trigger delay. The optimum trigger delay is found to be between 500 and 600 ms. For these values the abdominal organs appear homogeneous on all diffusion weighted images and the strongest signal intensities are detected. At optimum triggering the accuracy of the apparent diffusion coefficients is up to 10 times better than without triggering. Moreover, the standard deviation of the repeated measurements is smaller than 12% for all volunteers and for all organs. Without triggering the standard deviation is larger by a factor of 4 on average. Pulse triggering of single-shot sequences leads to significant reduction of motion related artifacts on diffusion weighted images of the abdomen and provides more accurate and reproducible ADC values.

  14. Computed tomography of the abdomen of calves during the first 105 days of life: II. Liver, spleen, and small and large intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Schnetzler, C; Augsburger, H; Müller, U; Dicht, S; Ohlerth, S

    2014-05-01

    Computed tomography (CT) findings of the liver, spleen and intestines of five healthy calves during six examinations in the first 105 days of life were compared with corresponding cadaver slices. The liver was located in the right hemiabdomen adjacent to the diaphragm and right abdominal wall. The caudal vena cava was seen dorsomedially and the portal vein further ventrally. The umbilical vein was seen running from the navel to the liver in all calves in the first scan and in four calves in the second scan. The spleen ran dorsoventrally adjacent to the costal part of the left abdominal wall and appeared sickle-shaped on transverse images. Differentiation of small and large intestines was only possible when the former contained fluid content and the latter gaseous content. The small intestine was in the left hemiabdomen dorsal to the abomasum and caudodorsal to the rumen at the first two examinations. Growth of the forestomachs caused displacement of the small intestine to the right and toward the ventral abdomen caudal to the liver and adjacent to the right abdominal wall. The large intestine was located caudodorsally, and the typical features of the spiral colon were apparent in the dorsal plane. The location of the caecum varied from dorsal to the spiral colon to adjacent to the right abdominal wall with the apex always pointing caudally. The rectum was easily identified in the pelvic region. The size, volume and density of the described organs throughout the study are shown in several tables.

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... concern for you. If you had an intravenous line inserted for the procedure, it will usually be ... procedure that same day that requires an intravenous line. Actual scanning time for a thyroid scan is ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid ... body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The ...

  17. RBC nuclear scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  18. Closed hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with open abdomen: a novel technique to reduce exposure of the surgical team to chemotherapy drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Laurent; Cheynel, Nicolas; Ortega-Deballon, Pablo; Giacomo, Giovanni Di; Chauffert, Bruno; Rat, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Exposure of the surgical team to toxic drugs during hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) remains a matter of great concern. In closed-abdomen HIPEC operating room staffs are not exposed to drugs, but the distribution of the heated liquid within the abdomen is not optimal. In open-abdomen HIPEC, the opposite is true. Even though the open-abdomen method is potentially more effective, it has not become a standard procedure because of the risk of exposure of members of the team to drugs. We present a new technique (closed HIPEC with open abdomen) which ensures protection against potentially contaminating exposure to liquids, vapours and aerosols, and allows permanent access to the whole abdominal cavity. Its principle is to extend the abdominal surgical wound upwards with a sort of “glove-box”. The cutaneous edges of the laparotomy are stapled to a latex «wall expander». The expander is draped over a special L-section metal frame placed above the abdomen. A transparent cover containing a « hand-access » port like those used in laparoscopic surgery is fixed inside the frame. In 10 patients, this device proved to be hermetic both for liquids and vapours. Intra-abdominal temperature was maintained between 42 and 43°C during most of the procedure. The whole abdominal cavity was accessible to the surgeon allowing optimal exposure of all peritoneal surfaces. This technique allows optimal HIPEC while limiting the potential toxic effects for the surgical, medical and paramedical teams. PMID:17929098

  19. Función del diafragma durante la colocación de cargas sobre el abdomen en sujetos normales

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio G. Monteiro; Fernando A. Pessolano; Adrián A. Suárez; Eduardo L. De Vito

    2012-01-01

    Los efectos de las cargas en el abdomen con el objeto de producir entrenamiento del diafragma, no han sido suficientemente evaluados. Estudiamos la función del diafragma durante la colocación de cargas sobre el abdomen y con cambios en el patrón respiratorio. Se estudiaron 6 voluntarios normales. Se obtuvo flujo en la boca, presión gástrica (Pga), presión esofágica (Pes), movimiento torácico (TX) y abdominal (AB), presión inspiratoria máxima (PImax) y presión transdiafragmática media (Pdi) y ...

  20. Delayed diagnosis of a heterotopic pregnancy as a cause of acute abdomen: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Turkan Ayan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heterotopic pregnancy is a life threating condition of intrauterine and extrauterine gestations which occur at the same time. We report a delayed diagnosed case of heterotopic pregnancy. Case: A 31 year-old primigravida was referred to our Emergency Gynaecology Service complicated by acute abdomen. She had been treated with clomiphene citrate and on admission intrauterine a missed abortus of about 8 weeks complicated by a large subchorionic hematoma was detected. Emergency laparotomy was performed because of diffuse intra-abdominal haemorrhage. A right-sided ectopic focus was recognized and excised, and dilatation - curettage was performed. Coclusion: Delay in diagnosing the condition can be fatal to both the mother and the intrauterine fetus. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(3.000: 207-208

  1. Surgical Workshop on Liver Surgery Using Isolated Perfused Livers in Moulded Casts of the Upper Abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadžijev Eldar

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic training in liver surgery on isolated perfused livers used at the workshop in the First Surgical Course of the Alps—Adriatic Hepatobiliary School is presented. The methods for the excision, preservation, perfusion and preparation of the liver are described, as is the manner of manufacturing the upper abdomen moulded casts, into which an isolated perfused liver is placed for training. The methods proved to be sufficiently successful, enabling participants to perform basic liver surgery like an intraoperative ultrasound investigation, as well as liver dissection techniques, liver suturing, segmental resection and even hepatectomy. Some technical improvements are proposed for future surgical workshops, such as washing out the blood from the liver, and a triple perfusion.

  2. Surgical workshop on liver surgery using isolated perfused livers in moulded casts of the upper abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldar, G; Dean, R; Valentin, S

    1995-01-01

    The basic training in liver surgery on isolated perfused livers used at the workshop in the First Surgical Course of the Alps--Adriatic Hepatobiliary School is presented. The methods for the excision, preservation, perfusion and preparation of the liver are described, as is the manner of manufacturing the upper abdomen moulded casts, into which an isolated perfused liver is placed for training. The methods proved to be sufficiently successful, enabling participants to perform basic liver surgery like an intraoperative ultrasound investigation, as well as liver dissection techniques, liver suturing, segmental resection and even hepatectomy. Some technical improvements are proposed for future surgical workshops, such as washing out the blood from the liver, and a triple perfusion.

  3. Torsion of a Giant Pedunculated Hemangioma of the Liver Presenting With Acute Abdomen: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzi, Aliasghar; Taheri, Hassan; Kamali Ahangar, Sekineh; Mirzapour Shafiei, Alameh; Asghari, Yasser

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the liver. Most cases are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. A hemangioma can rarely be pedunculated; as a result, it may undergo torsion and infarction, which can make it symptomatic. Case Presentation We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with acute abdominal pain due to torsion of a giant pedunculated hepatic hemangioma around its vascular stalk. Conclusions Pedunculated hemangioma of the liver is an uncommon benign tumor, a rare differential diagnosis for a mass located in the upper abdomen. All incidentally detected pedunculated hemangiomas must be surgically managed, as these have a tendency to become torsioned, and there is also a risk of malignancy or rupture. PMID:27781125

  4. Acute abdomen as initial manifestation of M4 - acute non-lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalambros, E; Felekouras, E; Karavokyros, I G; Diamantis, T; Androulaki, A; Boutsis, D; Sigala, F; Tsavaris, N; Pangalis, G

    2005-01-01

    Visceral involvement in acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) seldom precedes hematological manifestation. We report on a patient with M4 - ANLL presenting with acute abdomen without any evidence of blood disorder. Laparotomy revealed only ileal wall oedema. Postoperative clinical deterioration led to a second-look operation combined with intraoperative endoscopy. Biopsied tissues were diffusely infiltrated by blasts characterised as HLA-DR (+), PGM1 (50% +), MPO (50% +) and CD 34 (-). Bone marrow reconfirmed these findings and showed positivity for CD4 (44%), CD11b (50%), CD11c (42%), CD13 (33%), CD34 (32%), and CD56 (54%). Chemotherapy achieved a complete but short remission. Relapse occurred 7 months later. Immediately after consolidation chemotherapy the profoundly immunosuppressed patient passed away after a lower respiratory tract infection. We discuss the contrast between histology and short disease duration, the unusual presentation and the bad prognosis, and attempt to correlate the clinical course with the coexpression of markers.

  5. Non-traumatic acute abdomen in the adult: a critical review of imaging modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitrago-Tellez, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Boos, S. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Heinemann, F. [Dept. of Surgery, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Wenz, W. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany)

    1992-06-01

    Two different series collected at the University Hospital of Freiburg are presented as a basis for the critical appraisal of available imaging tests and their correlation with anatomic pain sites. The first series comprises 284 patients of non-traumatic acute abdomen admitted to the emergency department during 1990. The radiological approach revealed an increased use of immediate ultrasound (58%) followed by plain film radiography (53%), contrast studies (15%), and computed tomography (9.8%). Five groups of entities were identified according to the diagnostic imaging procedure prior to surgery. In a second series, the clinical presentation, the distribution and the efficacy of imaging studies for the confirmation of acute mesenteric ischemia were evaluated in 55 patients over a period of 14 years. A reduced mortality rate emphasizes the value of early and agressive diagnosis and angiographic management. (orig.)

  6. Abdomen aigu sur une torsion de rate ectopique: à propos d'un cas

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Elhattabi; Fatimazahra, Bensardi; Rachid, Lefriyekh; Abdelaziz, Fadil; Mohamed, Lahkim; Nadia, Benissa; Driss, Khaiz; Saad, Berrada; Najib, Zerouali Ouariti

    2012-01-01

    La rate ectopique est une entité rare dont l'incidence est mal connue. La torsion de son pédicule est une complication grave, qui doit bénéficier d'un diagnostic précoce; évitant ainsi la splénectomie surtout chez des patients jeunes. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente âgée de 39 ans; admise aux urgences dans un tableau d'abdomen aigu chirurgical, l'examen clinique, l’échographie et la tomodensitométrie abdominale ont contribué au diagnostic de torsion d'une rate ectopique en position hypo...

  7. Encystation--survival of Blastocystis hominis in immunocompetent mice abdomen cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao Bo; Zhang, Xu; Qiao, Ji Ying; Cai, Juan; Cheng, Shaoli; Yuan, Yukang; Li, Jun

    2010-05-01

    Human Blastocystis hominis were isolated from diarrhea patients' feces and cultured in vitro. Then the cultures were inoculated intraperitoneally to laboratory mice. The B. hominis in living mice were collected and inoculated again to healthy mice. The B. hominis showed dose-dependent pathogenicity in the primary inoculation. No pathogenicity was observed in the secondary inoculation. The protozoan existed in the living mice abdomen cavity for more than 6 months and the cyst was the only form. These results showed that encystation enable the parasite to avoid the immune attack in competent host and simultaneously decrease the pathogenicity to host. Intraperitoneal inoculation to laboratory mice is a good method to maintain and propagate B. hominis. This is also a good model to study the interaction of B. hominis and immune system.

  8. Accumulation of melanin in the peritoneum causes black abdomens in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Wang, Y; Luo, C; Qu, H; Shu, D

    2014-03-01

    A suspected case of localized visceral hyperpigmentation was described for a breed of broiler in China. Using optical microscopy, the accumulation of pigments in the abdominal skin and visceral peritoneum was observed. Electron microscopy was used to further study the ultrastructure of the pigmented peritoneum, and pigment granules resembling melanosomes at different stages were found, and melanocytes were present in this tissue. Infrared spectroscopy was used to analyze the physical-chemical properties of pigments extracted from these broilers. Using synthetic melanin as a reference and the melanin from the peritoneum of Silkie fowls as a control, the pigments in the peritonea of these broilers were found to be melanin, and it had a chemical structure similar to that of melanin from the Silkie fowl peritoneum. In this way, the black abdomens of these broilers were found to have been caused by accumulation of melanin produced by melanocytes in visceral peritonea.

  9. SPLENIC INFARCTION: an intriguing and important cause of pain abdomen in high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Hota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with Sickle cell trait (SCT are usually asymptomatic. They are usually unaware of their condition unless they have a family history. There are specific situations, where these people suffer from the effects of sickle cell trait. Splenic syndrome at high altitude is one of the specific problems. It is usually seen after a patient with SCT has been inducted to high altitude like in case of mountaineers and military personnel deployed in high altitude warfare. Pain abdomen due to splenic infarction in individuals with SCT is one of the manifestations. These patients, if diagnosed in time, they can be spared from unnecessary surgical interventions. We present herewith our experience of splenic infarction due to SCT in high altitude and their management.

  10. Prehospital ultrasound of the abdomen and thorax changes trauma patient management: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dochartaigh, D; Douma, M

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound examination of trauma patients is increasingly performed in prehospital services. It is unclear if prehospital sonographic assessments change patient management: providing prehospital diagnosis and treatment, determining choice of destination hospital, or treatment at the receiving hospital. This review aims to assess and grade the evidence that specifically examines whether prehospital ultrasound (PHUS) of the thorax and/or abdomen changes management of the trauma patient. A systematic review was conducted of trauma patients who had an ultrasound of the thorax or abdomen performed in the prehospital setting. PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science (CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) and the reference lists of included studies were searched. Methodological quality was checked and risk of bias analysis performed, a level of evidence grade was assigned, and descriptive data analysis performed. 992 unique citations were identified, which included eight studies that met inclusion criteria with a total of 925 patients. There are no reports of randomised controlled trials. Heterogeneity exists between the included studies which ranged from a case series to retrospective and prospective non-randomised observational studies. Three studies achieved a 2+ Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Networks grade for quality of evidence and the remainder demonstrated a high risk of bias. The three best studies each provided examples of prehospital ultrasound positively changing patient management. There is moderate evidence that supports prehospital physician use of ultrasound for trauma patients. For some patients, management was changed based on the results of the PHUS. The benefit of ultrasound use in non-physician services is unclear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Deflection measurement system for the hybrid iii six-year-old biofidelic abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, T Stan; Howes, Meghan K; Rouhana, Stephen W; Hardy, Warren N

    2012-01-01

    Motor vehicle collisions are the leading cause of death for children ages 5 to 14. Enhancement of child occupant protection is partly dependent on the ability to accurately assess the interaction of child-size occupants with restraint systems. Booster seat design and belt fit are evaluated using child anthropomorphic test devices, such as the Hybrid III 6-year-old dummy., A biofidelic abdomen for the Hybrid III 6-year-old dummy is being developed by the Ford Motor Company to enhance the dummy’s ability to assess injury risk and further quantify submarining risk by measuring abdominal deflection. A practical measurement system for the biofidelic abdominal insert has been developed and demonstrated for three dimensional determination of abdominal deflection. Quantification of insert deflection is achieved via differential signal measurement using electrodes mounted within a conductive medium. Signal amplitude is proportional to the distance between the electrodes. A microcontroller is used to calculate distances between ventral electrodes and a dorsal electrode in three dimensions. This system has been calibrated statically, and its performance demonstrated in a series of sled tests. Deflection measurements from the instrumented abdominal insert indicate performance differences between two booster seat designs, yielding an average peak anterior to posterior displacement of the abdomen of 1.0 ± 3.4 mm and 31.2 ± 7.2 mm for the seats, respectively. Implementation of a 6-year-old abdominal insert with the ability to evaluate submarining potential will likely help safety researchers further enhance booster seat design and interaction with vehicle restraint systems , and help to further understand child occupant injury risk in automobile collisions.

  12. Hereditary angioderma: an uncommon cause of acute abdomen. Abdominal computed tomography and ultrasound findings; Angioedema hereditario: una causa infrecuente de abdomen agudo. Hallazgos en la TC e ecografia abdominal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, R.A. de la; Oliver, J. M.; Bueno, A.; Albillos, J. C. [Fundacion Hospital Alcorcon. Madrid (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    We present an uncommon case of acute abdomen in a patient with hereditary angioderma. The ultrasound and CT findings described may suggest this diagnosis, thus avoiding useless surgical interventions in patients in whom the disease has not been previously diagnosed. (Author) 19 refs.

  13. A simulation study on proton computed tomography (CT) stopping power accuracy using dual energy CT scans as benchmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David Christoffer; Seco, Joao; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2015-01-01

    development) have both been proposed as methods for obtaining patient stopping power maps. The purpose of this work was to assess the accuracy of proton CT using dual energy CT scans of phantoms to establish reference accuracy levels. Material and methods. A CT calibration phantom and an abdomen cross section...... phantom containing inserts were scanned with dual energy and single energy CT with a state-of-the-art dual energy CT scanner. Proton CT scans were simulated using Monte Carlo methods. The simulations followed the setup used in current prototype proton CT scanners and included realistic modeling...

  14. Estimating radiation effective doses from whole body computed tomography scans based on U.S. soldier patient height and weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Brian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to explore how a patient's height and weight can be used to predict the effective dose to a reference phantom with similar height and weight from a chest abdomen pelvis computed tomography scan when machine-based parameters are unknown. Since machine-based scanning parameters can be misplaced or lost, a predictive model will enable the medical professional to quantify a patient's cumulative radiation dose. Methods One hundred mathematical phantoms of varying heights and weights were defined within an x-ray Monte Carlo based software code in order to calculate organ absorbed doses and effective doses from a chest abdomen pelvis scan. Regression analysis was used to develop an effective dose predictive model. The regression model was experimentally verified using anthropomorphic phantoms and validated against a real patient population. Results Estimates of the effective doses as calculated by the predictive model were within 10% of the estimates of the effective doses using experimentally measured absorbed doses within the anthropomorphic phantoms. Comparisons of the patient population effective doses show that the predictive model is within 33% of current methods of estimating effective dose using machine-based parameters. Conclusions A patient's height and weight can be used to estimate the effective dose from a chest abdomen pelvis computed tomography scan. The presented predictive model can be used interchangeably with current effective dose estimating techniques that rely on computed tomography machine-based techniques.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and metabolic effects of growth hormone injected subcutaneously in growth hormone deficient patients: thich versus abdomen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    1994-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: The absorption of insulin following subcutaneous (s.c.) injection is faster in the abdomen than the thigh. We therefore studied the effect of changing the site of injection on the absorption and metabolic effects of human growth hormone. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: In a cross...

  16. Soft-Tissue Sarcomas of the Abdomen and Pelvis: Radiologic-Pathologic Features, Part 2-Uncommon Sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Angela D; Manning, Maria A; Miettinen, Markku M

    2017-01-01

    Soft-tissue sarcomas occurring in the abdomen and pelvis are an uncommon but important group of malignancies. Recent changes to the World Health Organization classification of soft-tissue tumors include the movement of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) into the soft-tissue tumor classification. GIST is the most common intraperitoneal sarcoma. Liposarcoma is the most common retroperitoneal sarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma is the second most common. GIST, liposarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma account for the majority of sarcomas encountered in the abdomen and pelvis and are discussed in part 1 of this article. Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (previously called malignant fibrous histiocytoma), dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, solitary fibrous tumor, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, extraskeletal chondro-osseous sarcomas, vascular sarcomas, and sarcomas of uncertain differentiation uncommonly arise in the abdomen and pelvis and the abdominal wall. Although these lesions are rare sarcomas and their imaging features overlap, familiarity with the locations where they occur and their imaging features is important so they can be diagnosed accurately. The anatomic location and clinical history are important factors in the differential diagnosis of these lesions because metastasis, more-common sarcomas, borderline fibroblastic proliferations (such as desmoid tumors), and endometriosis have imaging findings that overlap with those of these uncommon sarcomas. In this article, the clinical, pathologic, and imaging findings of uncommon soft-tissue sarcomas of the abdomen and pelvis and the abdominal wall are reviewed, with an emphasis on their differential diagnosis.

  17. Single-source chest-abdomen-pelvis cancer staging on a third generation dual-source CT system: comparison of automated tube potential selection to second generation dual-source CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Clara; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Leithner, Doris; Zierden, Amelie; Albrecht, Mortiz H; Wichmann, Julian L; Bodelle, Boris; Elsabaie, Mohamed; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Kaup, Moritz; Vogl, Thomas J; Beeres, Martin

    2016-10-10

    Evaluation of latest generation automated attenuation-based tube potential selection (ATPS) impact on image quality and radiation dose in contrast-enhanced chest-abdomen-pelvis computed tomography examinations for gynaecologic cancer staging. This IRB approved single-centre, observer-blinded retrospective study with a waiver for informed consent included a total of 100 patients with contrast-enhanced chest-abdomen-pelvis CT for gynaecologic cancer staging. All patients were examined with activated ATPS for adaption of tube voltage to body habitus. 50 patients were scanned on a third-generation dual-source CT (DSCT), and another 50 patients on a second-generation DSCT. Predefined image quality setting remained stable between both groups at 120 kV and a current of 210 Reference mAs. Subjective image quality assessment was performed by two blinded readers independently. Attenuation and image noise were measured in several anatomic structures. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated. For the evaluation of radiation exposure, CT dose index (CTDIvol) values were compared. Diagnostic image quality was obtained in all patients. The median CTDIvol (6.1 mGy, range 3.9-22 mGy) was 40 % lower when using the algorithm compared with the previous ATCM protocol (median 10.2 mGy · cm, range 5.8-22.8 mGy). A reduction in potential to 90 kV occurred in 19 cases, a reduction to 100 kV in 23 patients and a reduction to 110 kV in 3 patients of our experimental cohort. These patients received significantly lower radiation exposure compared to the former used protocol. Latest generation automated ATPS on third-generation DSCT provides good diagnostic image quality in chest-abdomen-pelvis CT while average radiation dose is reduced by 40 % compared to former ATPS protocol on second-generation DSCT.

  18. Missed injuries in the era of the trauma scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Christy M; Daley, Brian J; Ormsby, Christine B; Enderson, Blaine

    2011-02-01

    A rapid computed tomography technique or "trauma scan" (TS) provides high-resolution studies of the head, cervical spine, chest, abdomen, and pelvis. We sought to determine whether TS has decreased missed injuries. A previous study of TS found a 3% missed rate. After institutional review board approval, trauma patients from January 2001 through December 2008 were reviewed for delayed diagnosis (DD) of injury to the head, cervical spine, chest, abdomen, or pelvis. Missed extremity injuries were excluded. Injury Severity Score, length of stay, type of injury, outcomes, and days to detection were captured. Of 26,264 patients reviewed, 90 patients had DD, with an incidence of 0.34%. DD most commonly presented on day 2. Injuries included 16 bowel/mesentery, 12 spine, 11 pelvic, 8 spleen, 6 diaphragm, 5 clavicle, 4 scapula, 4 cervical spine, 4 intracranial, 4 sternum, 3 maxillofacial, 3 liver, 2 heart/aorta, 2 vascular, 2 urethra/bladder, 2 pneumothorax, and 2 pancreas/common bile duct. DD resulted in 1 death, 6 prolonged intensive care unit stays, 19 operative interventions, and 38 additional interventions. TS is an effective way of evaluating trauma patients for intracranial, cervical spine, chest, abdomen, and pelvic injuries that have the potential to impact morbidity and mortality. The incidence of injuries missed in these crucial areas has been reduced at our institution by the use of this radiographic modality. The most common missed injury remains bowel, and so a high index of suspicion and the tertiary survey must remain a mainstay of therapy.

  19. Morphology of the adult male and pupal exuviae of Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes) glaucus (Meigen 1818) (Diptera, Chironomidae) using scanning electron microscope (SEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kownacki, Andrzej; Woznicka, Olga; Szarek-Gwiazda, Ewa; Michailova, Paraskeva; Czaplicka, Anna

    2017-02-27

    In this paper, a study of the morphology of the pupa and male imago of Glyptotendipes (G.) glaucus (Meigen 1818) was carried out, with the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM provided additional valuable information on the morphology of the species. Adult male head, antenna, wing, leg, abdomen, hypopygium, pupal cephalothorax and abdomen were examined. It is emphasized that SEM was not often used in Chironomidae studies. The present results confirm SEM as a suitable approach in carrying out morphological and taxonomical descriptions of Chironomidae species.

  20. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Marie; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    With a Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) a vibrating surface is automatically scanned over predefined grid points, and data processed for displaying vibration properties like mode shapes, natural frequencies, damping ratios, and operational deflection shapes. Our SLDV – a PSV-500H from...

  1. Frequency scanning microstrip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Magnus; Jørgensen, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    The principles of using radiating microstrip resonators as elements in a frequency scanning antenna array are described. The resonators are cascade-coupled. This gives a scan of the main lobe due to the phase-shift in the resonator in addition to that created by the transmission line phase...

  2. [Gunshot wounds of the abdomen studied by computed tomography. The authors' personal experience in 30 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzano, A; De Rosa, A; Scialpi, M; Rossi, E; Ammaturo, C; Filidoro, L; Gesuè, G; Carbone, M

    1999-09-01

    CT plays an important role in depicting gunshot wounds in parenchymal and hollow organs in the abdomen. Relative to other techniques and to emergency laparotomy, CT permits good assessment of abdominal content, major injuries and changes in other districts, such as chest, pelvis and skull. We investigated the yield and role of CT in diagnosing abdominal gunshot wounds, with their rich and varied radiological signs and associated injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the findings of 30 patients with abdominal gunshot wounds examined in 4 years at Loreto-Mare Hospital, Naples. All patients were men, age ranging 19-54 years (mean: 35); 6 of them were not from the European Union. Examinations were carried out from diaphragm to pubis with i.v. contrast injection and the CT angiography technique. CT was integrated with chest studies in 6 cases and with skull studies in 5. Subsequent CT follow-ups were necessary in 12 cases submitted to conservative treatment. Liver was the most damaged parenchyma, with hemorrhage and lacerocontusion in 7 cases and mashed in 1 case; spleen was involved in 4 cases; hemoperitoneum was found in 18 cases. Diaphragm was involved in 5 cases and pancreas in 2; gallbladder, stomach and duodenum were involved in 1 case each and jejunum-ileum and colon in 3 and 6 cases, respectively. CT showed renal injury in 3 cases and bladder injury in 2. Eight patients had vertebral gunshot damage. Pneumothorax, hemothorax and lacerocontusion were found in 7 cases; brain was injured in 4 cases and limbs in 16. Tissue damage extent depends on the speed and kinetic energy the bullet carries into the abdomen. Abdominal radiography shows the bullet and its site, pneumoperitoneum from gastrointestinal perforation, crash bone injuries, vertebral trauma and subcutaneous emphysema. Instead, CT depicts early parenchymal damage and vascular injury and thus becomes a complete and necessary tool for imaging gunshot wounds. CT provides early diagnostic information which

  3. A STUDY OF POST-SURGICAL COMPLICATIONS IN ACUTE ABDOMEN CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhooma Reddy Muthyala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The most common causes of the acute abdomen are acute appendicitis which may be perforated, typhoid ileal perforation, acute intestinal obstruction, gastroduodenal perforations, nonspecific abdominal pain, abdominal injuries, and acute cholecystitis. A summary of all the acute complications taken together will be the fact that all are associated with post-surgical complications. A sincere effort has been made to study the post-operative complications that a surgeon encounters while treating the acute abdomen cases. This study is intended to help the practising surgeons who deal with such complications. It also is intended to help the doctors who practice to identify such complications and thus refer the patients for immediate intervention. METHODS This study was conducted in the Department of General Surgery, Government Medical College, Nizamabad, Telangana. This study was done from June 2013 to May 2016. One hundred sixty patients who were admitted in the hospital after surgery for acute abdominal conditions were considered for the study. Thorough clinical examination was conducted and the complications that were encountered were noted and the complications were treated as per the need of the hour. The complications faced by the treating surgeon in each and every entity that was discussed earlier was duly noted and statistical analysis was conducted. All the statistical analysis was done using the latest SPSS software 2015 (California. RESULT In our study, the mean age of the study population was found to be 29.8 years. That means the majority of the patients who turn up in the Department of Emergency is young and generally in the third decade of life. In Acute Intestinal Obstruction and blunt abdominal injuries, significance of mortality is high (p<0.05. CONCLUSION The study was successful in proving that abdominal injuries are the main factors of causing morbidity and mortality in the younger generation. The surgical mode of

  4. Thermal territories of the abdomen after caesarean section birth: infrared thermography and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, C; Siraj, M R; Fair, F J; Selvan, A N; Soltani, H; Wilmott, J; Farrell, T

    2016-09-01

    To develop and refine qualitative mapping and quantitative analysis techniques to define 'thermal territories' of the post-partum abdomen, the caesarean section site and the infected surgical wound. In addition, to explore women's perspectives on thermal imaging and acceptability as a method for infection screening. Prospective feasibility study undertaken at a large University teaching hospital, Sheffield UK. Infrared thermal imaging of the abdomen was undertaken at the bedside on the first two days after elective caesarean section. Target recruitment: six women in each of three body mass index (BMI) categories (normal, 18.5-24.9 kg/m²; overweight 25-29.9 kg/m²; obese ≥30 kg/m²). Additionally, women presenting to the ward with wound infection were eligible for inclusion in the study. Perspectives on the use of thermal imaging and its practicality were also explored via semi-structured interviews and analysed using thematic content analysis. We recruited 20 women who had all undergone caesarean section. From the booking BMI, eight women were obese (including two women with infected wounds), seven women were overweight and five women had a normal BMI. Temperature (ºC) profiling and pixel clustering segmentation (hierarchical clustering-based segmentation, HCS) revealed characteristic features of thermal territories between scar and adjacent regions. Differences in scar thermal intensity profiles exist between healthy scars and infected wounds; features that have potential for wound surveillance. The maximum temperature differences (∆T) between healthy skin and the wound site exceed 2º C in women with established wound infection. At day two, two women had a scar thermogram with features observed in the 'infected' wound thermogram. Thermal imaging at early and later times after caesarean birth is feasible and acceptable. Women reported potential benefits of the technique for future wound infection screening. Thermal intensity profiling and HCS for pixel

  5. Laser Scanning in Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Olsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS to forests has been revolutionary during the last decade. This development was facilitated by combining earlier ranging lidar discoveries [1–5], with experience obtained from full-waveform ranging radar [6,7] to new airborne laser scanning systems which had components such as a GNSS receiver (Global Navigation Satellite System, IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit and a scanning mechanism. Since the first commercial ALS in 1994, new ALS-based forest inventory approaches have been reported feasible for operational activities [8–12]. ALS is currently operationally applied for stand level forest inventories, for example, in Nordic countries. In Finland alone, the adoption of ALS for forest data collection has led to an annual savings of around 20 M€/year, and the work is mainly done by companies instead of governmental organizations. In spite of the long implementation times and there being a limited tradition of making changes in the forest sector, laser scanning was commercially and operationally applied after about only one decade of research. When analyzing high-ranked journal papers from ISI Web of Science, the topic of laser scanning of forests has been the driving force for the whole laser scanning research society over the last decade. Thus, the topic “laser scanning in forests” has provided a significant industrial, societal and scientific impact. [...

  6. Jejunal Diverticulosis Presented with Acute Abdomen and Diverticulitis Complication: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidan, Nurdan; Mermi, Esra Ummuhan; Acay, Mehtap Beker; Murat, Muammer; Zobaci, Ethem

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare, usually asymptomatic disease. Its incidence increases with age. If symptomatic, diverticulosis may cause life-threatening acute complications such as diverticulitis, perforation, intestinal hemorrhage and obstruction. In this report, we aimed to present a 67-year-old male patient with jejunal diverticulitis accompanying with abdominal pain and vomiting. Case Report A 67-year-old male patient complaining of epigastric pain for a week and nausea and fever for a day presented to our emergency department. Ultrasonographic examination in our clinic revealed diverticulum-like images with thickened walls adjacent to the small intestine loops, and increase in the echogenicity of the surrounding mesenteric fat tissue. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography showed multiple diverticula, thickened walls with showing contrast enhancement and adjacent jejunum in the left middle quadrant, increased density of the surrounding mesenteric fat tissue, and mesenteric lymph nodes. The patient was hospitalized by general surgery department with the diagnosis of jejunal diverticulitis. Conservative intravenous fluid administration and antibiotic therapy were initiated. Clinical symptoms regressed and the patient was discharged from hospital after 2 weeks. Conclusions In cases of diverticulitis it should be kept in mind that in patients with advanced age and pain in the left quadrant of the abdomen, diverticular disease causing mortality and morbidity does not always originate from the colon but might also originate from the jejunum. PMID:26715947

  7. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra Presenting as Acute Abdomen and Pneumoperitoneum Mimicking Those of Gastrointestinal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Yamada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI perforation accounts for over 90% of acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum. The presence of pneumoperitoneum secondary to spontaneously perforated pyometra is an interesting yet confusing finding given the absence of gastrointestinal (GI perforation, because pyometra is more common in postmenopausal women. We report an instructive case of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneous perforation of pyometra. A 70-year-old postmenopausal female was admitted to surgical emergency with signs of diffuse peritonitis. After resuscitation, an emergency laparotomy was performed because of suspicion of GI perforation. At laparotomy, about 2,000 mL of purulent fluid was found to be present in peritoneal cavity, while GI tract was intact. A rent with a diameter of 5 mm was found on anterior fundus of uterus. A total abdominal hysterectomy with a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Despite intensive care and a course of antibiotics, the patient died of multiple organ failure resulting from sepsis on postoperative day 16. Our case illustrates the importance of clinical knowledge of acute gynecological diseases, which are not uncommonly encountered by the general surgeon. Moreover, good appreciation of pelvic anatomy and close collaboration with gynecology and GI surgery colleagues is essential as operative intervention is often required.

  8. Multidetector CT of blunt traumatic venous injuries in the chest, abdomen, and pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, Brian P; Steenburg, Scott D

    2011-01-01

    Venous injuries as a result of blunt trauma are rare. Even though current protocols for multidetector computed tomography (CT) of patients with trauma are designed to evaluate primarily the solid organs and arteries, blunt venous injuries may nevertheless be identified, or at least suspected, on the basis of the multidetector CT findings. Venous injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Diagnosis of a possible venous injury is crucial because the physical findings of a venous injury are nonspecific and may be absent. This article aims to make the radiologist aware of various venous injuries caused by blunt trauma and to provide helpful hints to aid in the identification of venous injuries. Multidetector CT technology, in combination with interactive manipulation of the raw dataset, can be useful in the creation of multiplanar reconstructed images and in the identification of a venous injury caused by blunt trauma. Familiarity with direct and indirect signs of venous injuries, as well as with examples of blunt traumatic venous injuries in the chest, abdomen, and pelvis, will help in the diagnosis of these injuries.

  9. Acute abdomen in a patient with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrić Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH syndrome is a malformation of female genital tract (incidence 1 in 4000 female newborn children. It appears as a result of a disorder in the development of Millerian cannals. Etiology is unknown. Syndrome MRKH is the most frequent cause of primary amenorrhoea (90%. Patients with MRKH have a normal female phenotype, with normal pubic hairness and thelarche, and female karyotype (46XX followed by primary amenorrhoea. Hormonal status corresponds to healthy women, where the appearance of ovarian tumors and tumors on rudiment parts of uterus is possible. Case report. We presented a case of acute abdomen in a patient with previously not diagnosed MRKH. The diagnosis was done during the operation. Small pelvis and an abdominal part were filled with torquated tumor lump, where ovaries, oviducts, uterus or something resembling rudiment of uterus were not recognized through careful examination. Furthemore, the patient had a short, dead-end vagina. Tumorectomy was done and hystopathological finding showed the presence of vascular leiomyoma. Conclusion. The diagnosis of complex syndromes, such as MRKH, can, despite modern diagnostics, be absent for non-medical and psycho-social reasons. We can expect ovarian and uterine pathology on hypoplastic structures in these patients, as well as in healthy women. Vascular leiomyoma in the patients with MRKH was not found in the available literature.

  10. ROTURA DE ANEURISMA DE AORTA ABDOMINAL: SU IMPORTANCIA COMO DIAGNOSTICO DIFERENCIAL EN ABDOMEN AGUDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Orellana-Villazón

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El aneurisma aórtico abdominal (AAA roto es una forma de presentación poco frecuente de los AAA. Presentamos un caso de rotura de aneurisma de aorta abdominal (AAAr de un paciente varón de 76 años de edad que ingresa al servicio de emergencias del Hospital Elizabeth Setón por presentar dolor abdominal punzante en región lumbar derecha de inicio súbito e intensidad creciente, llegando a perder el conocimiento. La impresión diagnóstica inicial incluye cólico ureteral e hipertensión arterial; sin embargo después realizar una ecografía abdominal y posteriormente una tomografía abdominal se concluye con el diagnostico de AAAr. El paciente es sometido a cirugía de emergencia, y después de permanecer tres días en terapia intensiva y tres días en sala, es dado de alta. Consideramos importante informar este caso clínico por la frecuencia con que se le confunde con patologías renales o abdomen agudo, pese a la sintomatología característica que presenta, que en muchos casos lleva a un diagnostico retrasado y posteriormente a la muerte.

  11. Granuloma a cuerpo extraño en abdomen secundario a sutura no absorbible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlyn González

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Los granulomas a cuerpo extraño son inducidos por cuerpos relativamente inertes, es típico que se formen alrededor de material como talco o suturas. Algunos estudios describen que las suturas no absorbibles especialmente la seda tiene mayor índice de complicaciones como son la formación de granuloma a cuerpo extraño y dolor postoperatorio. Se reporta el caso de una paciente femenino de 40 años de edad, quién consulta por presentar dolor abdominal de moderada intensidad a nivel de epigástrio, de dos meses de evolución acompañado de náuseas y vómitos, presenta como antecedente quirúrgico una miomectomía realizada hace dos meses. Al examen físico de ingreso abdomen globoso a expensas de panículo adiposo, ruidos hidroaéreos presentes, blando, depresible, doloroso a la palpación en epigástrico donde se evidencia tumoración móvil de 10 x 10 cm aproximadamente, sin signos de irritación peritoneal. Se realizó laparotomía exploradora con los siguientes hallazgos: tumoración de 10 x 15 cm a nivel de epigastrio formado por epiplón mayor adherido a colon transverso y colon sigmoides formando plastrón alrededor de sutura no absorbible.

  12. The Suprapubic Dermoadipose Flap for Aesthetic Reshaping of the Postpregnancy Abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Horacio F; Loustau, Hugo D

    2017-10-14

    Postpregnancy full-length diastasis of the recti abdominis muscles is a common condition occasionally associated with atrophy of the subcutaneous fat located at the midline above and below the umbilicus. The authors report a preliminary clinical experience with the suprapubic flap to prevent the late postoperative contour deformities of the postpregnancy abdomen. Between January 2005 and January 2015, all female patients undergoing abdominoplasty with the suprapubic flap were included in the present study. Electronic clinical records were reviewed to analyze the patients' ages, body mass index (BMI) scores, pregnancies, risk factors, and operative times, followed by a telephone-based survey to measure patient satisfaction. Twenty-two patients were included. Their ages ranged from 19 to 36 years (mean, 27 years) and their BMI ranged from 17.5 to 22.5 kg/m2 (mean, 20.5 kg/m2). Postoperative follow up ranged from 12 months to 10 years (mean, 89 months). All patients had experienced at least one pregnancy and many of them multiple or twin pregnancies. Umbilical hernias were present in 18 patients. There were 5 unusual cases: one hematoma, one seroma, and three cases of hypertrophic scarring. Thirteen additional minutes were required, on average, to associate the flap. All patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the results. The suprapubic dermoadipose flap is an effective option to prevent the midline depression that would otherwise remain on the hypogastric region of postpregnant slim women with midline fat tissue atrophy. 4.

  13. Ileum perforation due to accidental chicken bone ingestion a rare cause of the acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doklestić Krstina S.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of foreign bodies is not an uncommon occurrence, but most of them will pass through the gastrointestinal tract without consequences. Complication such as perforation is rare. We present a case of small bowel perforation secondary to the accidental ingestion of a chicken bone. The patient presented with abdominal pain, constipation and vomiting. Clinical examination confirmed generalized abdominal tenderness and rebound tenderness. Abdominal radiography showed multiple dilated loops of small bowel, and abdominal ultrasound (US showed inflammatory changes on small bowel loops, with free fluid and fluid collection around intestinal loops. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy. Intra operative findings revealed diffuse fibro purulent peritonitis with abscess between central small bowels loops. At about 60 cm from Bauchini valve we found a perforation of ileum at the anti-mesenteric site caused by a sharp chicken wishbone. The patient was treated with resection of the ileum segment (10 cm and primary end-to-end anastomosis. Even that intestinal perforation by a foreign body is rare, physicians should consider possibility of intestinal perforation by a foreign body in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in patients presenting with abdominal pain.

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... gland evaluate changes in the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential to ... tells you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special ...

  16. Body CT (CAT Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Computed tomography (CT) of the body uses special ... the Body? What is CT Scanning of the Body? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special camera and a computer ... last two months that used iodine-based contrast material. Your doctor will instruct you on how to ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluate changes in the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should ... such as an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information needed to make a ... any. Nuclear medicine is less expensive and may yield more precise information than exploratory surgery. Risks Because ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Actual scanning time for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will ... diagnostic procedures have been used for more than five decades, and there are no known long-term ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry and ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iodine, medications and anesthetics. are breastfeeding. In the days prior to your examination, blood tests may be ... are scheduled for an additional procedure that same day that requires an intravenous line. Actual scanning time ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up to 24 hours before the scan. The radiotracer given by intravenous injection is usually given up to 30 minutes prior to the test. When ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. top of page How does the procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is ... with other imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI. However, nuclear medicine scans are more sensitive than ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... a special camera or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and ... and with the help of a computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function ...

  10. Pediatric CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. If you had an ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. Actual scanning time for ...

  12. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  14. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera and ... area of your body. top of page How does the procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. If you had an intravenous line ... found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. Actual scanning time for each thyroid ...

  18. Slow Scan Telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Originally developed under contract for NASA by Ball Bros. Research Corporation for acquiring visual information from lunar and planetary spacecraft, system uses standard closed circuit camera connected to a device called a scan converter, which slows the stream of images to match an audio circuit, such as a telephone line. Transmitted to its destination, the image is reconverted by another scan converter and displayed on a monitor. In addition to assist scans, technique allows transmission of x-rays, nuclear scans, ultrasonic imagery, thermograms, electrocardiograms or live views of patient. Also allows conferencing and consultation among medical centers, general practitioners, specialists and disease control centers. Commercialized by Colorado Video, Inc., major employment is in business and industry for teleconferencing, cable TV news, transmission of scientific/engineering data, security, information retrieval, insurance claim adjustment, instructional programs, and remote viewing of advertising layouts, real estate, construction sites or products.

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine ... you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera and imaging ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions. ... but is often performed on hospitalized patients as well. Thyroid Scan You will be positioned on an ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical tests that help physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. These imaging scans use radioactive materials called radiopharmaceuticals or radiotracers . Depending on the type of nuclear medicine exam, the radiotracer is either injected into the body, ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... many types of cancers, heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other abnormalities within the body. Because ... with other imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI. However, nuclear medicine scans are more sensitive than ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... are noninvasive and, with the exception of intravenous injections, are usually painless medical tests that help physicians ... before the scan. The radiotracer given by intravenous injection is usually given up to 30 minutes prior ...

  5. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for whic...

  6. Vivencia de la persona en el proceso de tener una herida crónica por abdomen abierto

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Ramírez, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Las personas sometidas a la técnica quirúrgica de abdomen abierto debido a la severidad de la infección, pueden permanecer con la herida abierta por más de seis semanas, necesitando de un cierre por segunda intención. Ello condiciona una lenta recuperación y cambios en la vida que aún no han sido descritos. Los objetivos fueron la descripción de los significados y la comprensión de la experiencia de tener una herida crónica por abdomen abierto, luego se planteó una propuesta teórica que de...

  7. Radiologic findings mimicking acute abdomen in a patient with colorectal cancer: are these side effects of FOLFIRI therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Karadeli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bowel perforation is an emergency problem, it presents as an acute abdomen. Computurize tomography (CT is important imaging modality used to evaluate patients with acute abdomen. CT shows anatomical detail and intestinal wall, evaluating secondary signs of bowel disease within the surrounding mesentery and detecting even small amounts of extraluminal air or oral contrast leakage into the peritoneal cavity. The aim of this article is to illustrate acute abdominal CT findings due to FOLFIRI therapy of a patient with colorectal cancer. Interestingly, this patient was an emergency case based on radiologic findings, but he felt good, had no emergency problem clinically. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(0.100: 88-91

  8. [Computer tomography aspects in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in the area of the abdomen and urogenital tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, W; Fischer, H J; Uhlenbrock, D

    1983-12-01

    The morphologic aspect of abdominal tuberculosis are evaluated by C.T. The necrotising tuberculosis of the genitourinary tract presents course cystic lesions of fluid density. Similar morphologic criteria are seen in ileocecal tuberculosis. The peritoneal tuberculosis is characterized by large soft tissue masses of a high density which can be found in nearly all areas of the abdomen. The increased morbidity of tuberculosis in people from foreign countries living in the Federal Republic of Germany is pointed out.

  9. Use of dynamic wound closure system in conjunction with vacuum-assisted closure therapy in delayed closure of open abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, A E; Yetişir, F; Aksoy, M; Tokaç, M; Yildirim, M B; Kiliç, M

    2014-02-01

    Definitive abdominal closure may not be possible for several days or weeks after laparotomy in damage-control surgery, abdominal compartment syndrome and intraabdominal sepsis, until the patient has stabilized. Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC therapy(®), KCI, San Antonio, TX, USA) and abdominal re-approximation anchor system (ABRA, Canica, Almonte, Ontario, Canada) are novel techniques in delayed closure of open abdomen. Our aim is to present the use of these strategies in the management of 7 patients with open abdomen. Between August 2010 and December 2011, 7 patients with severe peritonitis were stabilized by laparotomy and treated with either ABRA system or ABRA system in conjunction with VAC dressing. VAC dressing applied to 4 patients initially and followed by ABRA. ABRA was applied alone to remaining 3 patients. Demographic data and patient characteristics, timing of VAC dressing and ABRA system were recorded. ICU and hospital stay and development of incisional hernia were also recorded. Stage of open abdomen, width of abdominal defect, extent to damage to fascia, and pressure sores were staged. The mean duration with VAC dressing before ABRA application was 18 days. The mean duration of ABRA application was 53 days. The average width of the abdominal defect was 18 cm. The average length of defect was 20.8 cm. Delayed primary abdominal closure was accomplished in 6 patients without further surgery. Incisional hernia with a small abdominal defect developed in 2 patients. Abdominal re-approximation anchor system and VAC dressing can be used separately or in conjunction with each other for closure of delayed open abdomen successfully.

  10. Vacuum-assisted wound closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction for open abdomen therapy - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Stefan; Björck, Martin; Petersson, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the literature on vacuum-assisted wound closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction (VAWCM) in open abdomen therapy. It was designed as systematic review of observational studies. A Pub Med, EMBASE and Cochrane search from 2007/01-2016/07 was performed combining the Medical Subject Headings "vacuum", "mesh-mediated fascial traction", "temporary abdominal closure", "delayed abdominal closure", "open abdomen", "abdominal compartment syndrome", "negative pressure wound therapy" or "vacuum assisted wound closure". Eleven original studies were found including patients numbering from 7 to 111. Six studies were prospective and five were retrospective. Nine studies were on mixed surgical (n = 9), vascular (n = 6) and trauma (n = 6) patients, while two were exclusively on vascular patients. The primary fascial closure rate per protocol varied from 80-100%. The time to closure of the open abdomen varied between 9-32 days. The entero-atmospheric fistula rate varied from 0-10.0%. The in-hospital survival rate varied from 57-100%. In the largest prospective study, the incisional hernia rate among survivors at 63 months of median follow-up was 54% (27/50), and 16 (33%) repairs out of 48 incisional hernias were performed throughout the study period. The study patients reported lower short form health survey (SF-36) scores than the mean reference population, mainly dependent on the prevalence of major co-morbidities. There was no difference in SF-36 scores or a modified ventral hernia pain questionnaire (VHPQ) at 5 years of follow up between those with versus those without incisional hernias. A high primary fascial closure rate can be achieved with the vacuum-assisted wound closure and meshmediated fascial traction technique in elderly, mainly non-trauma patients, in need of prolonged open abdomen therapy.

  11. Management of the open abdomen using vacuum-assisted wound closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willms, A; Güsgen, C; Schaaf, S; Bieler, D; von Websky, M; Schwab, R

    2015-01-01

    The open abdomen has become an accepted treatment option of critically ill patients with severe intra-abdominal conditions. Fascial closure is a particular challenge in patients with peritonitis. This study investigates whether fascial closure rates can be increased in peritonitis patients by using an algorithm that combines vacuum-assisted wound closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction. Moreover, fascial closure rates for patients with peritonitis, trauma or abdominal compartment system (ACS) are compared. Data were collected prospectively from all patients who underwent open abdomen management at our institution from 2006 to 2012. All patients were treated under a standardised algorithm that combines vacuum-assisted closure and mesh placement at the fascial level. During the study period, 53 patients (mean age 53 years) underwent open abdomen management for a mean duration of 15 days. Indications for leaving the abdomen open were peritonitis (51 %), trauma (26 %), and ACS or abdominal wall dehiscence (23 %). The fascial closure rate was 79 % in an intention-to-treat analysis and 89 % in a per-protocol analysis. Mortality was 13 %. No patient developed an enteroatmospheric fistula or abdominal wall dehiscence after closure. The mean duration of treatment was significantly longer in peritonitis patients (20 days) than in patients without peritonitis (10 days) (p = 0.03). There were no significant differences in fascial closure rates between patients with peritonitis (87 %), trauma (85 %), and ACS or abdominal wall dehiscence (100 %) (p = 0.647). Regardless of the underlying pathology, high fascial closure rates can be achieved using a combination of vacuum-assisted closure and mesh-mediated fascial traction.

  12. Tremulatory and abdomen vibration signals enable communication through air in the stink bug Euschistus heros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavčič, Andreja; Cokl, Andrej; Laumann, Raúl A; Blassioli-Moraes, Maria Carolina; Borges, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Communication by substrate-borne mechanical signals is widespread among animals but remains one of their least understood communication channels. Past studies of vibrational communication in insects have been oriented predominantly to communication during mating, showing that species- and sex-specific vibrational signals enable recognition and localization of potential mates on continuous solid substrates. No special attention has been paid to vibrational signals with less obvious specificity as well as to the possibility of vibrational communication across substrates that are not in physical contact. We aimed to reinvestigate emission of the aforementioned vibrational signals transmitted through a plant in the stink bug Euschistus heros (Pentatomidae: Pentatominae) and to check whether individuals are able to communicate across adjecent, physically separated substrates. We used laser vibrometry for registration of substrate-borne vibrational signals on a bean plant. Using two bean plants separated for 3 to 7 cm between two most adjacent leaves, we investigated the possibility of transmission of these signals through air. Our study showed that males and females of E. heros communicate using tremulatory, percussion and buzzing signals in addition to the previously described signals produced by vibrations of the abdomen. Contrary to the latter, the first three signal types did not differ between sexes or between pentatomid species. Experiments with two physically separated plants showed significant searching behaviour and localization of vibrational signals of an E. heros male or a female, in response to abdominal vibration produced signals of a pair duetting on the neighbouring plant, in comparison to control where no animals were on the neighbouring plant. We also confirmed that transmission through air causes amplitude and frequency decay of vibrational signals, which suggests high-amplitude, low-frequency tremulatory signals of these stink bugs their most

  13. TEMA -2016: Terapia de presión negativa como técnica de cierre abdominal temporal en el manejo de abdomen abierto

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Liang, Huixian; Sandoval Vargas, Jairo; Castro Alvarez, José Pablo; Ayi Wong, José Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Múltiples situaciones clínicas desafiantes pueden requerir dejar la cavidad abdominal abierta poste-rior a una cirugía, resultando en un abdomen abierto (OA, open abdomen) o laparostoma. Las indicaciones para abdomen abierto son general-mente trauma, sepsis abdominal, pancreatitis aguda severa y en situaciones generales en las que se está desarrollando una situación de hiperten-sión abdominal, con el objetivo de prevenir el desarrollo de síndrome compartimental abdomi-nal. La Sociedad Mundial...

  14. Gallium scanning in sarcoidosis. [/sup 67/Ga tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israel, H.L.; Park, C.H.; Mansfield, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    The uptake of gallium-67 by pulmonary sarcoidosis was noted by Langhammer et al. in 1972 and by McKusick et al. in 1973. Heshiki et al. studied the application of this procedure in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis and concluded that although gallium-67 uptake in lungs and hilar regions correlated poorly with clinical activity, its measurement might prove useful in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis and in the measurement of response to therapy. We have undertaken to evaluate further the clinical usefulness of this technique. Thirty-six patients, 27 of whom had sarcoidosis, were given intravenous injections of 3 ml of commercially obtained (/sup 67/Ga) citrate. None were receiving corticosteroid therapy at the time of the initial study. Three days later simultaneous anterior and posterior scans of the thorax and the upper abdomen were performed in the supine position. 1 table.

  15. Comparison of clinical efficacy of second look operation and FDG-PET scan in patients with ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Sang Young

    1999-12-01

    This study is to investigate whether FDG-PET scan can substitute for second look operation in patients with ovarian cancer showing complete response with chemotherapy. From Jan. 1999 to Oct. 1999, 10 patients with advanced ovarian cancer who showed clinical complete response with 6 cycles of combination chemotherapy were registered in KCCH. These patients showed no residual tumors in conventional radiologic imaging studies (CT or MRI), normal tumor marker, no evidence of disease by physical examination. PET scans and second look operation were performed in 10 patients with advanced ovarian cancer (3 patients with stage IIc, 2 patients with stage IIIb, 5 patients with IIIc), who showed complete response with cytoreductive surgery and 6 cycles of post-operative adjuvant cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. Median age of patients was 45 years, and serous cystadenocarcinoma was most common histologic type. None showed active lesion in pelvis and abdomen with FDG-PET scan (SUV; > 3.5 kg/ml), and I patient showed active lesion in lung field. On second look operations, 5 patients (50%) showed positive result on multiple blind biopsy. The patient with active lesion on FDG-PET scan in lung field confirmed to have metastatic lesions by chest CT scan. In conclusion, FDG-PET scan is not useful for detection of small ovarian cancer lesions in pelvis and abdomen, and cannot substitute for second look operation to determine pathologic complete response.

  16. Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Eric W.; Zelten, J. Peter; Wiseman, Benjamin A.

    1988-06-01

    We report on the development of a laser scanning fluorescence microscope possessing several features which facilitate its application to biological and biophysical analyses in living cells. It is built around a standard inverted microscope stand, enabling the use of standard optics, micromanipulation apparatus, and conventional (including video) microscopy in conjunction with laser scanning. The beam is scanned across the specimen by a pair of galvanometer-mounted mirrors, driven by a programmable controller which can operate in three modes: full raster scan, region of interest, and random-access. A full 512x512 pixel image can be acquired in one second. In region of interest mode, several subareas of the field can be selected for more rapid or detailed analysis. For those cases where the time scale of the observed phenomenon precludes full-field imaging, or where a full-field image is unnecessary, the random access mode enables an arbitrary pattern of isolated points to be selected and rapidly sequenced through. Via a graphical user interface implemented on the system's host computer, a user will be able to take a scout image either with video or a full-field laser scan, select regions or points on the scout image with a mouse, and set up experimental parameters such as detector integration times with a window-style menu. The instrument is designed to be a flexible testbed for investigating new techniques, without compromising its utility as a tool for biological research.

  17. Scanning laser video camera/ microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. P.; Bow, R. T.

    1984-10-01

    A laser scanning system capable of scanning at standard video rate has been developed. The scanning mirrors, circuit design and system performance, as well as its applications to video cameras and ultra-violet microscopes, are discussed.

  18. To study tumor motion and planning target volume margins using four dimensional computed tomography for cancer of the thorax and abdomen regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sudesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT scanning was performed during free breathing on a 16-slice Positron emission tomography PET /computed tomography (CT for abdomen and thoracic patients. Images were sorted into 10 phases based on the temporal correlation between surface motion and data acquisition with an Advantage Workstation. Gross tumor volume gross tumor volume (GTV s were manually contoured on all 10 phases of the 4DCT scan. GTVs in the multiple CT phases were called GTV4D. GTV4D plus an isotropic margin of 1.0 cm was called CTV4D. Two sets of planning target volume (PTV 4D (PTV4D were derived from the CTV4D, i.e. PTV4D 2cm = CTV4D plus 1 cm setup margin (SM and 1 cm internal margin (IM and PTV4D 1.5cm = CTV4D plus 1 cm SM and 0.5cm IM. PTV3D was derived from a CTV3D of the helical CT scan plus conventional margins of 2 cm. PTV gated was generated only selecting three CT phases, with a total margin of 1.5 cm. All four volumes were compared. To quantify the extent of the motion, we selected the two phases where the tumor exhibited the greatest range of motion. We also studied the effect of different PTV volumes on dose to the surrounding critical structures. Volume of CTV4D was greater than that of CTV3D. We found, on an average, a reduction of 14% volume of PTV4D 1.5cm as compared with PTV3D and reduction of 10% volume of PTV gated as compared with PTV4D 1.5cm . We found that 2 cm of margin was inadequate if true motion of tumor was not known. We observed greater sparing of critical structures for PTVs drawn taking into account the tumor motion.

  19. Calibration of scanning Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Courtney, Michael

    This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast. Additio......This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast...

  20. Tomographic scanning imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Harald

    2009-07-06

    In tomographic scanning (TOSCA) imaging, light from a scene is focused onto a reticle mask using conical scan optics, and collected on a single element detector. Alternatively, one or several detectors replace the reticle. Tomographic processing techniques are then applied to the one-dimensional signal to reproduce a two-dimensional image. The TOSCA technique is presented in detail, including its mathematical foundations and some of its limitations. It is shown how TOSCA imaging can be used in a multispectral configuration, and compares well with more conventional alternatives both in simplicity and performance. Examples of image reconstruction using TOSCA techniques are shown.