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Sample records for white-blood-cell abdomen scan

  1. Improving the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children with atypical clinical findings using the technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime-labelled white-blood-cell abdomen scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Dahchin; Shiau Yuchien; Wang Jhijoung; Ho Shungtai; Kao Chiahung

    2002-01-01

    Heading AbstractBackground. Diagnosing acute appendicitis in children with equivocal signs and symptoms may be difficult. The usual approach is hospital observation and frequent re-examination. However, many surgeons are reluctant to delay surgery because of the risk of perforation and a negative laparotomy.Objective. To assess and compare the value of the technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO)-labelled white-blood-cell (WBC) abdomen scan in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children with atypical clinical presentation.Patients and methods. Fifty children with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain and possible acute appendicitis, but atypical findings were included. After IV injection of 99m Tc-HMPAO-labelled WBCs, serial anterior abdomen scans were obtained using a gamma camera.Results. Thirty-three children underwent surgery, while 17 children were managed conservatively and were followed up for at least 1 month. Four children had false-positive results and one child had a false-negative scan result. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the scan to diagnose acute appendicitis in children with atypical findings was 96.7, 80.0, 90.0, 87.8 and 94.1%, respectively.Conclusions. The 99m Tc-HMPAO WBC abdomen scan is a potential tool for diagnosing acute appendicitis in children with atypical clinical findings. The high sensitivity and negative predictive value allows early discharge from the emergency department to avoid costly observation in hospital and potentially unnecessary surgery in those patients with negative scans. (orig.)

  2. Prosthetic graft infection: limitations of indium white blood cell scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, M.C.; Mitchell, R.S.; Baldwin, J.C.; James, D.R.; Olcott, C. IV; Mehigan, J.T.; McDougall, I.R.; Miller, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The lack of a rapid, noninvasive, and accurate method to confirm or rule out prosthetic graft infection continues to constitute a compelling and vexing clinical problem. A host of adjunctive diagnostic techniques has been used in the past, but early promising results subsequently have usually not yielded acceptable sensitivity (reflecting false negatives) and specificity (reflecting false positive) data. White blood cell (WBC) indium 111 scanning has recently been added to this list. The utility and accuracy of 111 In WBC scans were assessed by retrospective review of WBC scan results in 70 patients undergoing evaluation for possible prosthetic graft infection over a 7-year period. Operative and autopsy data (mean follow-up, 18 months for survivors with negative scans) were used to confirm the 22 positive, 45 negative, and three equivocal WBC scans. The false positive rate (+/- 70% confidence limits) was 36% +/- 6% (n = 8) among the 22 patients with positive scans (44% +/- 6% [11 of 25] if the three equivocal scans are included as false positive), yielding a specificity of 85% +/- 5% and an overall accuracy rate of 88% +/- 4% (80% +/- 5% and 84% +/- 5%, respectively, if the three equivocal cases are considered as false positive). All three patients with equivocal scans ultimately were judged not to have prosthetic graft infection. As implied by the high accuracy rate, the sensitivity of the test was absolute (100% [14 of 14]); there were no false negative results

  3. Diagnosis of arterial prosthetic graft infection by 111In oxine white blood cell scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, P.P.; Miller, D.C.; Jamieson, S.W.; Mitchell, R.S.; Reitz, B.A.; Olcott, C.; Mehigan, J.T.; Silberstein, R.J.; McDougall, I.R.

    1982-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infected prosthetic arterial grafts is difficult, despite the application of diverse diagnostic modalities. Delay in making the diagnosis is largely responsible for the high amputation and mortality rates associated with this complication. In nine patients with suspected graft infections, 111 In white blood cell scanning was useful and accurate. Graft infection was proved in five cases and ruled out in three. One false-positive scan was due to a sigmoid diverticular abscess overlying the graft. 111 In white blood cell scans may improve the accuracy of diagnosing infected prosthetic grafts, which may result in better limb and patient salvage rates

  4. Ultrasonography and indium 111 white blood cell scanning for the detection of intraabdominal abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, B.; Silverman, P.M.; Goodwin, D.A.; McDougall, I.R.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasound and indium 111 white blood cell scanning were performed on 163 patients with suspected intraabdominal abscesses. In all but one case, intraabdominal abscesses were correctly identified by one or both tests; conversely, no patient was falsely diagnosed by both tests to have an abscess. Sonography was useful in those patients with focal symptoms, and frequently identified nonabscess causes for fever. White cell scanning was valuable when focal signs were absent, and frequently identified extraabdominal sources of sepsis. The two imaging modalities are complementary and provide a highly accurate and sensitive means of intraabdominal abscess detection

  5. False positive indium-111 white blood cell scan in a closed clavicle fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, R.J.; Gordon, L.

    1988-01-01

    Aggressive treatment of the multiply injured patient often requires early fixation of many fractures, some of which may be open. Often, patients develop postoperative fevers requiring a thorough workup to rule out infection. Recently, indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) imaging has become a valuable adjunct in the diagnosis of acute infection. The patient described had a simple, closed clavicle fracture with markedly increased activity on an indium-111 WBC scan obtained for fever workup. This subsequently proved to be a normal, healing, noninfected fracture by other diagnostic techniques. Noninfected, simple closed fractures should be added to the list of causes for a false-positive indium-111 WBC scan

  6. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease ... of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell count varies from one medical ...

  7. An unusual white blood cell scan in a child with inflammatory bowel disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porn, U; Howman-Giles, R; O'Loughlin, E; Uren, R; Chaitow, J

    2000-10-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled leukocyte (WBC) imaging is a valuable screening method for inflammatory bowel disease, especially in children, because of its high rate of sensitivity, low cost, and ease of preparation. A 14-year-old girl is described who had juvenile arthritis and iritis complicated by inflammatory bowel disease. She was examined for recurrent abdominal pain. A Tc-99m stannous colloid WBC scan was performed, and tracer accumulation was seen in the small bowel in the region of the distal ileum on the initial 1-hour image. Delayed imaging at 3 hours also revealed tracer accumulation in the cecum and ascending colon, which was not seen on the early image. A biopsy of the colon during endoscopy showed no evidence of active inflammation in the colon. The small bowel was not seen. Computed tomography revealed changes suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease in the distal ileum. The appearance on the WBC study was most likely a result of inflammatory bowel disease involving the distal ileum, with transit of luminal activity into the large bowel.

  8. Edwardsiella tarda Endocarditis Confirmed by Indium-111 White Blood Cell Scan: An Unusual Pathogen and Diagnostic Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayleigh M. Litton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Edwardsiella tarda is a freshwater marine member of the family Enterobacteriaceae which often colonizes fish, lizards, snakes, and turtles but is an infrequent human pathogen. Indium-111- (111In- labeled white blood cell (WBC scintigraphy is an imaging modality which has a wide range of reported sensitivity and specificity (from 60 to 100% and from 68 to 92%, resp. for diagnosing acute and chronic infection. We describe a case of suspected E. tarda prosthetic aortic valve and mitral valve endocarditis with probable vegetations and new mitral regurgitation on transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms which was supported with the use of 111In-labeled WBC scintigraphy.

  9. Three-phase bone scan and indium white blood cell scintigraphy following porous coated hip arthroplasty: A prospective study of the prosthetic tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, S.G.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Callaghan, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Although few reports address the use of three-phase bone scanning (TPBS) and 111 In-labeled white blood cell (In-WBC) scintigraphy in hip arthroplasty utilizing a porous coated prosthesis, the literature suggests that scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated patient may differ from that seen in the cemented prosthesis. In an attempt to determine the scintigraphic natural history, 25 uncomplicated porous coated hip arthroplasties in 21 patients were prospectively studied with serial TPBS and In-WBC at approximately 7 days, and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo postoperatively. This report deals with findings related to the prosthetic tip. Only one of 136 flow studies were abnormal and only two of 136 blood-pool images demonstrated focally increased activity. All 25 prostheses (120 of 143 scans) demonstrated increased uptake on the bone phase images. The area about the tip was divided into three segments; increased uptake at 24 mo was noted in the medial, distal, and lateral segments in 16%, 72%, and 56% of prostheses, respectively. Twenty of 25 prostheses (82 of 142 scans) showed uptake on In-WBC scintigraphy, being noted in 48% of prostheses at 24 mo. We conclude that scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated patient with a porous coated prosthesis appear to differ from patterns described in cemented prostheses

  10. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000675.htm Low white blood cell count and cancer To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. White blood cells (WBCs) fight infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and ...

  11. False positive paediatric labelled white blood cell study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beveridge, N.; Bennett, E.; Thomas, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: An eight-month-old female presented for a technetium labelled white blood cell study (LWBC) to exclude an intra-abdominal abscess. Born premature, the child had surgery to repair a perforated bowel and had repeated presentations with diarrhoea, fevers, a tender right upper quadrant and a raised leucocyte count. Multiple imaging modalities failed to demonstrate recurrent bowel perforation, ischaemia or an intra-abdominal mass. A LWBC study was performed with whole body imaging at 1 and 5 hours post re-injection of the radiolabelled blood. No abnormal uptake was visualised in the abdomen but abnormal white cell accumulation was noted in the right hind foot and the length of the right lower leg. This activity appeared to lie along the course of the right tibia. Plain X-ray demonstrated no evidence of tibial osteomyelitis. Concern that the LWBC may be falsely negative in a patient on antibiotics, a gallium scan was immediately performed to re-examine the abdomen. The whole body gallium images demonstrated normal physiological uptake in the abdomen and no evidence of infection in the right leg. The patient had no clinical features to support right leg pathology. The abnormal LWBC localisation in the right lower leg/foot was therefore falsely positive. The most likely explanation is increased activation of the autologous LWBC by 'rough' handling during difficult venesection and re-injection through small veins and needles/cannulas. The slow flow through the veins draining the foot injection site would contribute to margination in these vessel walls. This is a potential cause for false positive LWBC studies- with significant implications for patient care. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  12. White Blood Cell Counts and Malaria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKenzie, F. E; Prudhomme, Wendy A; Magill, Alan J; Forney, J. R; Permpanich, Barnyen; Lucas, Carmen; Gasser, Jr., Robert A; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2005-01-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) were counted in 4697 individuals who presented to outpatient malaria clinics in Maesod, Tak Province, Thailand, and Iquitos, Peru, between 28 May and 28 August 1998 and between 17 May and 9 July 1999...

  13. Colour measurement and white blood cell recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Gelsema, E S

    1972-01-01

    As a part of a collaboration with NEMCH aimed at the automation of the differential white blood cell count, studies have been made of the different possibilities for using colour to help in the recognition process. Results are presented comparing data obtained with a microspectrophotometer and with a simulated three-colour scanner.

  14. Cigarette smoking increases white blood cell aggregation in whole blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, A B; Hill, A; Belch, J J

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of chronic cigarette smoking on white blood cell aggregation, increased aggregation predisposes to microvascular occlusion and damage. Current smokers had significantly increased white blood cell aggregation when compared with non smokers. The presence of chronically activated white blood cells in current smokers may be relevant in the pathogenesis of ischaemic vascular disease.

  15. The study of the structures of the white blood cells using pattern recognition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arquisa, M.

    1976-03-01

    It is aimed that through machine recognition, a significant quantitative description of the white blood cells be obtained. This technique will give the characterization of the normal and abnormal white blood cells which may eventually lead to exact and efficient blood examinations and to the possibility of using white blood cells as an effective biological monitor in the assessment of radiation damage and other pathological disorders. Described are the preparation of blood stains and staining procedure with Giemsa and Wright stains, photomicrography of white blood cells with the use of Kodak Dektol Developer and Kodak Acid-Bath Fixer. The film rolls were then scanned. The scanner is used to scan photographic transparencies of white blood cells. This instrument gathers information and converts cell features such as size, shape, ash and granulation into a series of parameters whose values are descriptive of the minute but essential structural characteristics of the cells. From July 1 -December 31, 1975, a total of 51 blood smears were collected and stained. From these blood samples, a total of 103 neutrophils, 30 lymphocytes and 12 monocytes were added to the film library

  16. Diagnosis of infection by preoperative scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wukich, D.K.; Abreu, S.H.; Callaghan, J.J.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Eggli, D.F.; Garcia, J.E.; Berrey, B.H.

    1987-01-01

    Scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells has been reported to be sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of low-grade sepsis of the musculoskeletal system. We reviewed the records of fifty patients who had suspected osteomyelitis or suspected infection about a total joint prosthesis and who underwent scintigraphy with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate and scintigraphy with indium-111 oxine-labeled white blood cells before an open surgical procedure. Any patient who received preoperative antibiotics was not included in the study. For all of the patients, gram-stain examination of smears, evaluation of a culture of material from the operative site, and histological examination were done. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I was composed of twenty-four patients, each of whom had a prosthesis in place and complained of pain. Group II was composed of twenty-six patients for whom a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis had to be considered. With the indium scans alone, there was only one false-negative result (in Group II), but there were eighteen false-positive results (eight patients in Group II and ten patients in Group I). Although scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells is quite sensitive, it is not specific in detecting chronic osteomyelitis; a negative scan should be considered highly suggestive that osteomyelitis is not present. Specificity can be increased by interpreting the indium scan in conjunction with the technetium scan

  17. White blood cell subtypes and risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Weiwei; Niu, Yixin; Li, Xiaoyong; Qin, Li; Su, Qing

    2017-01-01

    It is reported that total white blood cell is associated with risk of diabetes mellitus. The present study is to investigate the relationship of white blood cell subsets with incidence of type 2 diabetes at baseline and 3year follow-up. We chose individuals without diabetes history as our study population; 8991 individuals were included at baseline. All of the participants underwent a 75-g OGTT at baseline. White blood cell count including all the subsets were measured along with all the other laboratory indices. The participants who were not diagnosed with type 2 diabetes according to the WHO 1999 diagnostic criteria underwent another 75-g OGTT at 3year follow-up. The total WBC count, neutrophil count, and lymphocyte count were significantly increased in subjects newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus compared to non-DM subjects at baseline (all ptype 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid white blood cell detection for peritonitis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Feng; Mei, Zhe; Chiu, Yu-Jui; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2013-03-01

    A point-of-care and home-care lab-on-a-chip (LoC) system that integrates a microfluidic spiral device as a concentrator with an optical-coding device as a cell enumerator is demonstrated. The LoC system enumerates white blood cells from dialysis effluent of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. The preliminary results show that the white blood cell counts from our system agree well with the results from commercial flow cytometers. The LoC system can potentially bring significant benefits to end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients that are on peritoneal dialysis (PD).

  19. The effect of various antibiotics on the labelling efficiency of human white blood cells with 111In-oxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinzinger, Helmut; Granegger, Susanne

    1988-01-01

    Earlier clinical studies revealed that in patients suffering from chronic osteomyelitis undergoing antibiotic therapy the white blood cell scanning missed the right diagnosis in 40% of cases, whereas all the acute untreated cases were imaged correctly. Thus, it was suspected that an impaired labelling efficiency and white blood cell function might have been causative. Retrospective analysis of labelling efficiency exhibited no difference between patients on antibiotics and those not on antibiotics. Prospective cellular viability testing in 81 patients, 71 of whom were on various antibiotics, using latex particles (phagocytosis) and the Trypan blue exclusion test, did not reveal any different function behaviour either. Examining the labelling efficiency (after 111 In-oxine and 111 In-oxine-sulphate labelling), recovery, half-life and viability of white blood cells of 107 patients undergoing therapy with various antibiotics as compared to controls, it becomes evident that the antibiotic therapy is not causative of the clinical difference observed. (author)

  20. Sorting of White Blood Cells in a Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Robert; Chan, Shirley; Gabel, Chris; Austin, Robert

    1997-03-01

    White blood cells represent a heterogenous population of differentially sticky and deformable objects. We examine here experiemnts where the hydrodynamic flow of such a population in a lattice of obstacles results in the fractionation of the objects, and will present modeling of the observed fractionation of the objects.

  1. Self-Sorting of White Blood Cells in a Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Robert H.; Gabel, Christopher V.; Chan, Shirley S.; Austin, Robert H.; Brody, James P.; James, D. W. Winkelman M.

    1997-09-01

    When a drop of human blood containing red and white blood cells is forced to move via hydrodynamic forces in a lattice of channels designed to mimic the capillary channels, the white cells self-fractionate into the different types of white cells. The pattern of white cells that forms is due to a combination of stretch-activated adhesion of cells with the walls, stochastic sticking probabilities, and heteroavoidance between granulocytes and lymphocytes.

  2. A Neural-Network-Based Approach to White Blood Cell Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Chun Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new white blood cell classification system for the recognition of five types of white blood cells. We propose a new segmentation algorithm for the segmentation of white blood cells from smear images. The core idea of the proposed segmentation algorithm is to find a discriminating region of white blood cells on the HSI color space. Pixels with color lying in the discriminating region described by an ellipsoidal region will be regarded as the nucleus and granule of cytoplasm of a white blood cell. Then, through a further morphological process, we can segment a white blood cell from a smear image. Three kinds of features (i.e., geometrical features, color features, and LDP-based texture features are extracted from the segmented cell. These features are fed into three different kinds of neural networks to recognize the types of the white blood cells. To test the effectiveness of the proposed white blood cell classification system, a total of 450 white blood cells images were used. The highest overall correct recognition rate could reach 99.11% correct. Simulation results showed that the proposed white blood cell classification system was very competitive to some existing systems.

  3. Development and testing of a new disposable sterile device for labelling white blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signore, A.; Glaudemans, A. W. J. M.; Malviya, G.; Lazzeri, E.; Prandini, N.; Viglietti, A. L.; De Vries, E. F. J.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.

    Aim. White blood cell (WBC) labelling requires isolation of cells from patient's blood under sterile conditions using sterile materials, buffers and disposables under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. Till now, this limited the use of white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC-S) only to well

  4. Mimicking the Interfacial Dynamics of Flowing White Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santore, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The rolling of particles on surfaces, facilitated by hydrodynamic forces combined with localized surface interactions of the appropriate strengths, spatial arrangements, and ranges, is a technologically useful means of transporting and manipulating particles. One's intuition for the rolling of a marble or a car tire cannot be extrapolated down to microparticle length scales because the microparticle interactions are dominated by electrostatic, van der Waals, and hydrogen bonding interactions rather than a friction that depends on an imposed normal force. Indeed, our microparticle rolling systems are inspired by the rolling of white blood cells on the inner walls of venules as part of the innate immune response: Selectin molecules engage with their counterparts on the opposing surfaces to slow cell motion relative to that for freely flowing cells. In the resulting rolling signature, ligand-receptor binding and crack closing on the front of the cell are balanced with molecular dis-bonding and crack opening at the rear. The contact region is relatively static, allowing other interactions (for instance signaling) to occur for a finite duration. Thus, achieving particle rolling in synthetic systems is important because it facilitates particle-surface interactions in a continuous nonfouling fashion where the contact surface is continually renewed. In developing a synthetic model for this system, we employ polymers to modify flowing particles and /or planar collectors, producing heterogeneous interfaces which can support rolling or produce other motion signatures such as skipping, arrest, or free flow. We identify, in the synthetic system, combinations of variables that produce rolling and demonstrate how the distinction between rolling and arrest is not a simple matter of the adhesion strength between the particles and the collector. Rolling is a cooperative process and the coordination of binding in one location with dis-bonding in another requires appropriate length

  5. Multiple loci are associated with white blood cell phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Nalls

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available White blood cell (WBC count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten cohorts for replication analyses, to determine genetic factors influencing variability within the normal hematological range for total WBC count and five WBC subtype measures. Cohort specific data was supplied by the CHARGE, HeamGen, and INGI consortia, as well as independent collaborative studies. We identified and replicated ten associations with total WBC count and five WBC subtypes at seven different genomic loci (total WBC count-6p21 in the HLA region, 17q21 near ORMDL3, and CSF3; neutrophil count-17q21; basophil count- 3p21 near RPN1 and C3orf27; lymphocyte count-6p21, 19p13 at EPS15L1; monocyte count-2q31 at ITGA4, 3q21, 8q24 an intergenic region, 9q31 near EDG2, including three previously reported associations and seven novel associations. To investigate functional relationships among variants contributing to variability in the six WBC traits, we utilized gene expression- and pathways-based analyses. We implemented gene-clustering algorithms to evaluate functional connectivity among implicated loci and showed functional relationships across cell types. Gene expression data from whole blood was utilized to show that significant biological consequences can be extracted from our genome-wide analyses, with effect estimates for significant loci from the meta-analyses being highly corellated with the proximal gene expression. In addition, collaborative efforts between the groups contributing to this study and related studies conducted by the COGENT and RIKEN groups allowed for the examination of effect homogeneity for genome-wide significant associations across

  6. White blood cell scintigraphy for differentiation of infection and aseptic loosening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Buhl, Anna; Oersnes, Thue

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis of an infected arthroplasty is often difficult. Fever, abnormal physical findings, radiographic changes, findings at bone scintigraphy, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP, and leucocytosis are not specific enough. We evaluated the diagnostic value of white blood cell...

  7. Effect of interval training program on white blood cell count in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Elevated white blood cell (WBC) count is considered to be prospectively and positively associated with cardiovascular diseases, particularly hypertension. Also, the positive role of exercise in the management of hypertension has been well and long established. However the relationship between WBC count and ...

  8. Use of indium-111-labeled white blood cells in the diagnosis of diabetic foot infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeiger, L.S.; Fox, I.M.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnosis of bone infection in the patient with nonvirgin bone is a diagnostic dilemma. This is especially true in the diabetic patient with a soft tissue infection and an underlying osteoarthropathy. The authors present a retrospective study using the new scintigraphic technique of indium-111-labeled white blood cells as a method of attempting to solve this diagnostic dilemma

  9. Differential associations between white blood cell counts and fatigue in young and older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Hokland, Marianne; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this exploratory study were to study whether fatigue might be related to the cellular immune system by 1) analysing if the number of white blood cell subsets are related to fatigue and 2) if possible relationships vary in younger and older community-dwelling individuals....

  10. Image resizing using saliency strength map and seam carving for white blood cell analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam JaeYeal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new image-resizing method using seam carving and a Saliency Strength Map (SSM is proposed to preserve important contents, such as white blood cells included in blood cell images. Methods To apply seam carving to cell images, a SSM is initially generated using a visual attention model and the structural properties of white blood cells are then used to create an energy map for seam carving. As a result, the energy map maximizes the energies of the white blood cells, while minimizing the energies of the red blood cells and background. Thus, the use of a SSM allows the proposed method to reduce the image size efficiently, while preserving the important white blood cells. Results Experimental results using the PSNR (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio and ROD (Ratio of Distortion of blood cell images confirm that the proposed method is able to produce better resizing results than conventional methods, as the seam carving is performed based on an SSM and energy map. Conclusions For further improvement, a faster medical image resizing method is currently being investigated to reduce the computation time, while maintaining the same image quality.

  11. Image resizing using saliency strength map and seam carving for white blood cell analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, ByoungChul; Kim, SeongHoon; Nam, JaeYeal

    2010-09-20

    A new image-resizing method using seam carving and a Saliency Strength Map (SSM) is proposed to preserve important contents, such as white blood cells included in blood cell images. To apply seam carving to cell images, a SSM is initially generated using a visual attention model and the structural properties of white blood cells are then used to create an energy map for seam carving. As a result, the energy map maximizes the energies of the white blood cells, while minimizing the energies of the red blood cells and background. Thus, the use of a SSM allows the proposed method to reduce the image size efficiently, while preserving the important white blood cells. Experimental results using the PSNR (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio) and ROD (Ratio of Distortion) of blood cell images confirm that the proposed method is able to produce better resizing results than conventional methods, as the seam carving is performed based on an SSM and energy map. For further improvement, a faster medical image resizing method is currently being investigated to reduce the computation time, while maintaining the same image quality.

  12. Four-Parameter white blood cell differential counting based on light scattering measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; de Grooth, B.G.; Visscher, K.; Kouterik, F.A.; Greve, Jan

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of the depolarized orthogonal light scattering in flow cytometry enables one to discriminate human eosinephilic granulocytes from neutrophilic granulocytes. We use this method to perform a four-parameter differential white blood cell analysis. A simple flow cytometer was built equipped

  13. Underdiagnosis of Vertebral Collapse on Routine Multidetector Computed Tomography Scan of the Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaid, H.; Husamaldin, Z.; Bhatt, R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Vertebral fractures are commonly associated with osteoporosis and have significant morbidity and mortality rates. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are presently considered as a treatable and preventable condition, and early detection is vital for further management. The evaluation of vertebral compression on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scans of the abdomen has, to our knowledge, not been reported before. Purpose: To assess the prevalence of vertebral collapse on routine abdominal CT scans, and to evaluate the usefulness of the multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) capability of MDCT scans in accurately identifying vertebral abnormalities such as vertebral collapse, spondylolisthesis, and retrolisthesis. Material and Methods: A retrospective review of 307 MDCT scans of the abdomen was carried out at a university teaching hospital. Identifiable patient information was anonymized for data protection. All images were reviewed on a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) using sagittal MPR and bone window for the assessment of the vertebrae. Data were collected from the Computerized Radiology Information System (CRIS). Results: Vertebral collapse was seen in 42 (13.6%) of the 307 patients undergoing routine MDCT of the abdomen. Multilevel and single-level collapses were seen in 24 and 18 patients, respectively. Spondylolisthesis was identified in 5.5% (n=17), and retrolisthesis was seen in 0.6% (n=2). All patients with vertebral fracture were older than 50 years. Women were more commonly affected than men. Conclusion: A significant number of patients with vertebral collapse were diagnosed using MPR on MDCT routine scans of the abdomen

  14. Novel Cell Preservation Technique to Extend Bovine In Vitro White Blood Cell Viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie L Laurin

    Full Text Available Although cell-mediated immunity based diagnostics can be integral assays for early detection of various diseases of dairy cows, processing of blood samples for these tests is time-sensitive, often within 24 hours of collection, to maintain white blood cell viability. Therefore, to improve utility and practicality of such assays, the objective of this study was to assess the use of a novel white blood cell preservation technology in whole bovine blood. Blood samples from ten healthy cows were each divided into an unpreserved control sample and a test sample preserved with commercially-available cell transport medium. Samples were maintained at room temperature and stimulated with the mitogens pokeweed and concanavalinA, as well as with interleukin-12 p40. Stimulation was completed on days 1, 5, and 8 post-sampling. Viability of white blood cells was assessed through interferon gamma production determined with a commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, mononuclear cell viability was assessed with propidium iodide flow cytometry. Greater interferon gamma production was observed on days 5 and 8 post-collection in preserved samples, with both pokeweed and concanavalinA stimulating positive interferon gamma production on day 5 post-collection. A greater proportion of the amount of interferon gamma produced on day 1 continued to be produced on days 5 and 8 post-collection with concanavalinA stimulation (with or without interleukin 12 as compared to pokeweed stimulation. Additionally, viable mononuclear cells were still present at eight days post-collection, with a higher mean proportion detected at days 5 and 8 in all stimulated preserved samples. This practical and simple method to extend in vitro white blood cell viability could benefit the efficient utilization of cell-based blood tests in ruminants.

  15. Heterogeneity in white blood cells has potential to confound DNA methylation measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn T Adalsteinsson

    Full Text Available Epigenetic studies are commonly conducted on DNA from tissue samples. However, tissues are ensembles of cells that may each have their own epigenetic profile, and therefore inter-individual cellular heterogeneity may compromise these studies. Here, we explore the potential for such confounding on DNA methylation measurement outcomes when using DNA from whole blood. DNA methylation was measured using pyrosequencing-based methodology in whole blood (n = 50-179 and in two white blood cell fractions (n = 20, isolated using density gradient centrifugation, in four CGIs (CpG Islands located in genes HHEX (10 CpG sites assayed, KCNJ11 (8 CpGs, KCNQ1 (4 CpGs and PM20D1 (7 CpGs. Cellular heterogeneity (variation in proportional white blood cell counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils, counted by an automated cell counter explained up to 40% (p<0.0001 of the inter-individual variation in whole blood DNA methylation levels in the HHEX CGI, but not a significant proportion of the variation in the other three CGIs tested. DNA methylation levels in the two cell fractions, polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, differed significantly in the HHEX CGI; specifically the average absolute difference ranged between 3.4-15.7 percentage points per CpG site. In the other three CGIs tested, methylation levels in the two fractions did not differ significantly, and/or the difference was more moderate. In the examined CGIs, methylation levels were highly correlated between cell fractions. In summary, our analysis detects region-specific differential DNA methylation between white blood cell subtypes, which can confound the outcome of whole blood DNA methylation measurements. Finally, by demonstrating the high correlation between methylation levels in cell fractions, our results suggest a possibility to use a proportional number of a single white blood cell type to correct for this confounding effect in analyses.

  16. Separation of cancer cells from white blood cells by pinched flow fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant; Ashley, Neil; Koprowska, Kamila

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the microfluidic size-separation technique pinched flow fractionation (PFF) is used to separate cancer cells from white blood cells (WBCs). The cells are separated at efficiencies above 90% for both cell types. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are found in the blood of cancer patients...... and can form new tumors. CTCs are rare cells in blood, but they are important for the understanding of metastasis. There is therefore a high interest in developing a method for the enrichment of CTCs from blood samples, which also enables further analysis of the separated cells. The separation...

  17. Peripheral white blood cells profile of biodegradable metal implant in mice animal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramitha, Devi; Noviana, Deni; Estuningsih, Sri; Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul; Nasution, Ahmad Kafrawi; Hermawan, Hendra

    2015-09-01

    Biocompatibility or safety of the medical device is considered important. It can be determined by blood profile examination. The aim of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of biodegradable metal implant through peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) profile approach. Forty eight male ddy mice were divided into four groups according to the materials implanted: iron wire (Fe), magnesium rod (Mg), stainless steel surgical wire (SS316L) and control with sham (K). Implants were inserted and attached onto the right femoral bone on latero-medial region. In this study, peripheral white blood cells and leukocyte differentiation were the parameters examined. The result showed that the WBCs value of all groups were decreased at the first day after implantation, increased at the 10th day and continued increasing at the 30th day of observation, except Mg group which has decreased. Neutrophil, as an inflammatory cells, was increased at the early weeks and decreased at the day-30 after surgery in all groups. Despite, these values during the observation were still within the normal range. As a conclus ion, biodegradable metal implants lead to an inflammatory reaction, with no adverse effect on WBC value found.

  18. White Blood Cell Segmentation by Circle Detection Using Electromagnetism-Like Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Cuevas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging is a relevant field of application of image processing algorithms. In particular, the analysis of white blood cell (WBC images has engaged researchers from fields of medicine and computer vision alike. Since WBCs can be approximated by a quasicircular form, a circular detector algorithm may be successfully applied. This paper presents an algorithm for the automatic detection of white blood cells embedded into complicated and cluttered smear images that considers the complete process as a circle detection problem. The approach is based on a nature-inspired technique called the electromagnetism-like optimization (EMO algorithm which is a heuristic method that follows electromagnetism principles for solving complex optimization problems. The proposed approach uses an objective function which measures the resemblance of a candidate circle to an actual WBC. Guided by the values of such objective function, the set of encoded candidate circles are evolved by using EMO, so that they can fit into the actual blood cells contained in the edge map of the image. Experimental results from blood cell images with a varying range of complexity are included to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique regarding detection, robustness, and stability.

  19. Peripheral white blood cells profile of biodegradable metal implant in mice animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramitha, Devi; Noviana, Deni, E-mail: deni@ipb.ac.id; Estuningsih, Sri [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Bogor (Indonesia); Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Bogor (Indonesia); Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Nasution, Ahmad Kafrawi [Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Faculty of Engineering, Muhammadiyah University of Riau (UMRI), Pekanbaru (Indonesia); Hermawan, Hendra [Department of Mining, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering & CHU de Québec Research Center, Laval University (ULaval) (Canada)

    2015-09-30

    Biocompatibility or safety of the medical device is considered important. It can be determined by blood profile examination. The aim of this study was to assess the biocompatibility of biodegradable metal implant through peripheral white blood cells (WBCs) profile approach. Forty eight male ddy mice were divided into four groups according to the materials implanted: iron wire (Fe), magnesium rod (Mg), stainless steel surgical wire (SS316L) and control with sham (K). Implants were inserted and attached onto the right femoral bone on latero-medial region. In this study, peripheral white blood cells and leukocyte differentiation were the parameters examined. The result showed that the WBCs value of all groups were decreased at the first day after implantation, increased at the 10th day and continued increasing at the 30th day of observation, except Mg group which has decreased. Neutrophil, as an inflammatory cells, was increased at the early weeks and decreased at the day-30 after surgery in all groups. Despite, these values during the observation were still within the normal range. As a conclus ion, biodegradable metal implants lead to an inflammatory reaction, with no adverse effect on WBC value found.

  20. White blood cell counting analysis of blood smear images using various segmentation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safuan, Syadia Nabilah Mohd; Tomari, Razali; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Othman, Nurmiza

    2017-09-01

    In white blood cell (WBC) diagnosis, the most crucial measurement parameter is the WBC counting. Such information is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer therapy and to diagnose several hidden infection within human body. The current practice of manual WBC counting is laborious and a very subjective assessment which leads to the invention of computer aided system (CAS) with rigorous image processing solution. In the CAS counting work, segmentation is the crucial step to ensure the accuracy of the counted cell. The optimal segmentation strategy that can work under various blood smeared image acquisition conditions is remain a great challenge. In this paper, a comparison between different segmentation methods based on color space analysis to get the best counting outcome is elaborated. Initially, color space correction is applied to the original blood smeared image to standardize the image color intensity level. Next, white blood cell segmentation is performed by using combination of several color analysis subtraction which are RGB, CMYK and HSV, and Otsu thresholding. Noises and unwanted regions that present after the segmentation process is eliminated by applying a combination of morphological and Connected Component Labelling (CCL) filter. Eventually, Circle Hough Transform (CHT) method is applied to the segmented image to estimate the number of WBC including the one under the clump region. From the experiment, it is found that G-S yields the best performance.

  1. White Blood Cell Segmentation by Circle Detection Using Electromagnetism-Like Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Diego; Díaz, Margarita; Zaldivar, Daniel; Pérez-Cisneros, Marco; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Medical imaging is a relevant field of application of image processing algorithms. In particular, the analysis of white blood cell (WBC) images has engaged researchers from fields of medicine and computer vision alike. Since WBCs can be approximated by a quasicircular form, a circular detector algorithm may be successfully applied. This paper presents an algorithm for the automatic detection of white blood cells embedded into complicated and cluttered smear images that considers the complete process as a circle detection problem. The approach is based on a nature-inspired technique called the electromagnetism-like optimization (EMO) algorithm which is a heuristic method that follows electromagnetism principles for solving complex optimization problems. The proposed approach uses an objective function which measures the resemblance of a candidate circle to an actual WBC. Guided by the values of such objective function, the set of encoded candidate circles are evolved by using EMO, so that they can fit into the actual blood cells contained in the edge map of the image. Experimental results from blood cell images with a varying range of complexity are included to validate the efficiency of the proposed technique regarding detection, robustness, and stability. PMID:23476713

  2. Study on the peripheral white blood cell count in patients with type 2 diabetes complicated with microangiopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Wenpin; Zhu Pinghui

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible role played by peripheral white blood cells in the development of type 2 diabetes (DM2) and complication of microvascular pathological changes. Methods: White blood cell count and metabolism related parameters (FBG, 2hPBG, 2h Pinsulin, TCH, HDL, LDL, TG, HbA1c, BMI, age) were examined in 33 DM2 patients without complication, 41 DM2 patients with micro-angiopathy and 31 controls. Results: The white blood cell counts in both DM2 patients with no complication and the DM2 with microvascular pathological changes were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). The white blood cell counts were positively correlated with age,body metabolism index (BMI), triglyceride (TG), 2h glucose (PBG) and 2h insulin (the r value 0.248, 0.201, 0.435, 0.225, 0.352 respectively, P<0.05). Conclusion: Peripheral white blood cells possibly played some role in development of DM2 and microvascular pathological changes and might be of some predictive importance. (authors)

  3. Clinical validation of a dose reduction study in paediatric abdomen MSCT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciccarone, A.; Fonda, C.; Zatelli, Giovanna; Mazzocchi, S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In our previous work an individual dose adaptation in abdomen of paediatric patients has been showed at the Meyer children hospital of Florence. For each kV really feasible in our MSCT scanner, a table of mAs versus abdomen thickness and width ratio has been developed only on the basis of water cylinder phantoms. The choice of the water arise by the fact that in pediatric patient the quantity of water inside the body is major than that of adult. In this way a reduction dose has showed with respect to the ordinary paediatric scanning protocol in use before and the same image quality has been preserved in the case of an optimized CT scanning technique of a standard adult patient of height 175 cm and weight 70 kg. However these results were only theoretical because relied on water phantoms. Now this work concerns the clinical validation of our dose reduction study on phantoms. So 50 examinations were acquired with the dose reduction scanning technique and scored randomly, without knowing weight and height of patient by three radiologists. These scores were compared with that of other 50 abdomen examination before dose reduction study. The scores refers to the noise perceived by radiologist and to the diagnostic quality of radiograph. As last, a score on the low contrast tissue separation between muscle and fat and a score on visibility of structure therein have been asked to the radiologists. The same work has concerned the abdomen examinations with iodine contrast medium. In this study the score of each radiographs has been catalogued in four range of age, 0 - 1; 1 - 3; 3 - 8; 8 - 13 years. Aligned rank and Wilcoxon's signed rank tests were used for statistical analyses. The table of modulating mAs with respect to the size of patient obtained with only water phantom study has been revised so that none reduced detection in low-visibility structures like fat or muscle or liver was evident. Nevertheless a reduction in CTDI of 30 % has been reached in our new

  4. Association of psychological stress response of fatigue with white blood cell count in male daytime workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Naoko; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts.

  5. White blood cell segmentation by color-space-based k-means clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congcong; Xiao, Xiaoyan; Li, Xiaomei; Chen, Ying-Jie; Zhen, Wu; Chang, Jun; Zheng, Chengyun; Liu, Zhi

    2014-09-01

    White blood cell (WBC) segmentation, which is important for cytometry, is a challenging issue because of the morphological diversity of WBCs and the complex and uncertain background of blood smear images. This paper proposes a novel method for the nucleus and cytoplasm segmentation of WBCs for cytometry. A color adjustment step was also introduced before segmentation. Color space decomposition and k-means clustering were combined for segmentation. A database including 300 microscopic blood smear images were used to evaluate the performance of our method. The proposed segmentation method achieves 95.7% and 91.3% overall accuracy for nucleus segmentation and cytoplasm segmentation, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can segment WBCs effectively with high accuracy.

  6. Raman tweezers spectroscopy of live, single red and white blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseefhali Bankapur

    Full Text Available An optical trap has been combined with a Raman spectrometer to make high-resolution measurements of Raman spectra of optically-immobilized, single, live red (RBC and white blood cells (WBC under physiological conditions. Tightly-focused, near infrared wavelength light (1064 nm is utilized for trapping of single cells and 785 nm light is used for Raman excitation at low levels of incident power (few mW. Raman spectra of RBC recorded using this high-sensitivity, dual-wavelength apparatus has enabled identification of several additional lines; the hitherto-unreported lines originate purely from hemoglobin molecules. Raman spectra of single granulocytes and lymphocytes are interpreted on the basis of standard protein and nucleic acid vibrational spectroscopy data. The richness of the measured spectrum illustrates that Raman studies of live cells in suspension are more informative than conventional micro-Raman studies where the cells are chemically bound to a glass cover slip.

  7. Evaluation of musculoskeletal sepsis with indium-111 white blood cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouzounian, T.J.; Thompson, L.; Grogan, T.J.; Webber, M.M.; Amstutz, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    The detection of musculoskeletal sepsis, especially following joint replacement, continues to be a challenging problem. Often, even with invasive diagnostic evaluation, the diagnosis of infection remains uncertain. This is a report on the first 55 Indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) images performed in 39 patients for the evaluation of musculoskeletal sepsis. There were 40 negative and 15 positive Indium-111 WBC images. These were correlated with operative culture and tissue pathology, aspiration culture, and clinical findings. Thirty-eight images were performed for the evaluation of possible total joint sepsis (8 positive and 30 negative images); 17 for the evaluation of nonarthroplasty-related musculoskeletal sepsis (7 positive and 10 negative images). Overall, there were 13 true-positive, 39 true-negative, two false-positive, and one false-negative images. Indium-111 WBC imaging is a sensitive and specific means of evaluating musculoskeletal sepsis, especially following total joint replacement

  8. Scanning and contrast enhancement protocols for multi-slice CT in evaluation of the upper abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awai, Kazuo; Onishi, Hiromitsu; Takada, Koichi; Yamaguchi, Yasuo; Eguchi, Nobuko; Hiraishi, Kumiko; Hori, Shinichi

    2000-01-01

    The advent of multi-slice CT is one of the quantum leaps in computed tomography since the introduction of helical CT. Multi-slice CT can rapidly scan a large longitudinal (z-axis) volume with high longitudinal resolution and low image artifacts. The rapid volume coverage speed of multi-slice CT can increase the difficulty in optimizing the delay time between the beginning of contrast material injection and the acquisition of images and we need accurate knowledge about optimal temporal window for adequate contrast enhancement. High z-axis resolution of multi-slice can improve the quality of three-dimensional images and MPR images and we must select adequate slice thickness and slice intervals in each case. We discuss basic considerations for adequate contrast enhancement and scanning protocols by multi-slice CT scanner in the upper abdomen. (author)

  9. Total white blood cell counts and LPS-induced TNF alpha production by monocytes of pregnant, pseudopregnant and cyclic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Moes, H; van der Schaaf, G; de Leij, LFMH; Heineman, MJ

    Pregnancy in the rat may be associated with an activated innate immune system. Therefore, we investigated monocyte function as well as total white blood cell (WBC) counts during the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle, pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the rat. Rats were equipped with a permanent

  10. Total white blood cell counts and LPS-induced TNF alpha production by monocytes of pregnant, pseudopregnant and cyclic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M. M.; Moes, H.; van der Schaaf, G.; de Leij, L. F. M. H.; Heineman, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Pregnancy in the rat may be associated with an activated innate immune system. Therefore, we investigated monocyte function as well as total white blood cell (WBC) counts during the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle, pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the rat. Rats were equipped with a permanent

  11. White blood cell fragments in platelet concentrates prepared by the platelet-rich plasma or buffy-coat methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra-Tiekstra, M. J.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Pietersz, R. N. I.; Reesink, H. W.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: White blood cell (WBC) fragments in platelet concentrates (PCs) may induce allo-immunization in the recipient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As the level of WBC fragments can differ between PCs produced using different methods, we compared PCs prepared by using the buffy-coat

  12. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Ku, Yunseo; Yoo, Byeong Wook; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon; Chai, Young Jun; Kong, Hyoun-Joong; Kim, Hee Chan

    2017-01-01

    The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN). A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of the proposed method

  13. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Ku, Yunseo; Yoo, Byeong Wook; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon; Chai, Young Jun; Kong, Hyoun-Joong

    2017-01-01

    The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN). A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of the proposed method

  14. White blood cell differential count of maturation stages in bone marrow smear using dual-stage convolutional neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Woo Choi

    Full Text Available The white blood cell differential count of the bone marrow provides information concerning the distribution of immature and mature cells within maturation stages. The results of such examinations are important for the diagnosis of various diseases and for follow-up care after chemotherapy. However, manual, labor-intensive methods to determine the differential count lead to inter- and intra-variations among the results obtained by hematologists. Therefore, an automated system to conduct the white blood cell differential count is highly desirable, but several difficulties hinder progress. There are variations in the white blood cells of each maturation stage, small inter-class differences within each stage, and variations in images because of the different acquisition and staining processes. Moreover, a large number of classes need to be classified for bone marrow smear analysis, and the high density of touching cells in bone marrow smears renders difficult the segmentation of single cells, which is crucial to traditional image processing and machine learning. Few studies have attempted to discriminate bone marrow cells, and even these have either discriminated only a few classes or yielded insufficient performance. In this study, we propose an automated white blood cell differential counting system from bone marrow smear images using a dual-stage convolutional neural network (CNN. A total of 2,174 patch images were collected for training and testing. The dual-stage CNN classified images into 10 classes of the myeloid and erythroid maturation series, and achieved an accuracy of 97.06%, a precision of 97.13%, a recall of 97.06%, and an F-1 score of 97.1%. The proposed method not only showed high classification performance, but also successfully classified raw images without single cell segmentation and manual feature extraction by implementing CNN. Moreover, it demonstrated rotation and location invariance. These results highlight the promise of

  15. Large-Scale Exome-wide Association Analysis Identifies Loci for White Blood Cell Traits and Pleiotropy with Immune-Mediated Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tajuddin, S.M. (Salman M.); U.M. Schick (Ursula); Eicher, J.D. (John D.); Chami, N. (Nathalie); Giri, A. (Ayush); J. Brody (Jennifer); W.D. Hill (W. David); T. Kacprowski (Tim); Li, J. (Jin); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); A. Manichaikul (Ani); E. Mihailov (Evelin); M.L. O'Donoghue (Michelle L.); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); R. Pazoki (Raha); Polfus, L.M. (Linda M.); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); C. Schurmann (Claudia); Vacchi-Suzzi, C. (Caterina); D. Waterworth (Dawn); E. Evangelou (Evangelos); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); A.D. Burt (Alastair); M.-H. Chen (Ming-Huei); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); J. Floyd (James); A. Greinacher (Andreas); T.B. Harris (Tamara); H. Highland (Heather); L.A. Lange (Leslie); Y. Liu (YongMei); R. Mägi (Reedik); M.A. Nalls (Michael); J. Mathias (Jasmine); D.A. Nickerson (Deborah); K. Nikus (Kjell); J.M. Starr (John); J.-C. Tardif (Jean-Claude); I. Tzoulaki; Velez Edwards, D.R. (Digna R.); L.C. Wallentin (Lars); T.M. Bartz (Traci M.); L.C. Becker (Lewis); Denny, J.C. (Joshua C.); Raffield, L.M. (Laura M.); J.D. Rioux (John); N. Friedrich (Nele); M. Fornage (Myriam); Gao, H. (He); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); D.C. Liewald (David C.); S.S. Rich (Stephen); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); Bastarache, L. (Lisa); D.M. Becker (Diane); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); de Denus, S. (Simon); E.P. Bottinger (Erwin); C. Hayward (Caroline); Hofman, A. (Albert); G. Homuth (Georg); E.M. Lange (Ethan); Launer, L.J. (Lenore J.); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Y. Lu (Yingchang); A. Metspalu (Andres); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); Quarells, R.C. (Rakale C.); Richard, M. (Melissa); Torstenson, E.S. (Eric S.); K.D. Taylor (Kent); Vergnaud, A.-C. (Anne-Claire); A.B. Zonderman; D.R. Crosslin (David); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); M. Dörr (Marcus); P. Elliott (Paul); M. Evans (Michele); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); M. Kähönen (Mika); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); Rotter, J.I. (Jerome I.); Slater, A.J. (Andrew J.); A. Dehghan (Abbas); White, H.D. (Harvey D.); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); T. Esko (Tõnu); Faraday, N. (Nauder); J.F. Wilson (James); M. Cushman (Mary Ann); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); T.L. Edwards (Todd L.); N.A. Zakai (Neil); G. Lettre (Guillaume); A. Reiner (Alexander); P. Auer (Paul)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWhite blood cells play diverse roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Genetic association analyses of phenotypic variation in circulating white blood cell (WBC) counts from large samples of otherwise healthy individuals can provide insights into genes and biologic pathways involved in

  16. Efficient organ localization using multi-label convolutional neural networks in thorax-abdomen CT scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrain Humpire-Mamani, Gabriel; Arindra Adiyoso Setio, Arnaud; van Ginneken, Bram; Jacobs, Colin

    2018-04-01

    Automatic localization of organs and other structures in medical images is an important preprocessing step that can improve and speed up other algorithms such as organ segmentation, lesion detection, and registration. This work presents an efficient method for simultaneous localization of multiple structures in 3D thorax-abdomen CT scans. Our approach predicts the location of multiple structures using a single multi-label convolutional neural network for each orthogonal view. Each network takes extra slices around the current slice as input to provide extra context. A sigmoid layer is used to perform multi-label classification. The output of the three networks is subsequently combined to compute a 3D bounding box for each structure. We used our approach to locate 11 structures of interest. The neural network was trained and evaluated on a large set of 1884 thorax-abdomen CT scans from patients undergoing oncological workup. Reference bounding boxes were annotated by human observers. The performance of our method was evaluated by computing the wall distance to the reference bounding boxes. The bounding boxes annotated by the first human observer were used as the reference standard for the test set. Using the best configuration, we obtained an average wall distance of 3.20~+/-~7.33 mm in the test set. The second human observer achieved 1.23~+/-~3.39 mm. For all structures, the results were better than those reported in previously published studies. In conclusion, we proposed an efficient method for the accurate localization of multiple organs. Our method uses multiple slices as input to provide more context around the slice under analysis, and we have shown that this improves performance. This method can easily be adapted to handle more organs.

  17. White blood cell counts, insulin resistance, vitamin D levels and sarcopenia in Korean elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Hwan; Kwon, Hyun Seok; Hwang, Hee-Jin

    2017-05-01

    Sarcopenia is a major determinant of frailty, disability and mortality in the elderly. Whether low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and vitamin D are independently associated with sarcopenia remains unclear. In our study, sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height squared (ASM/Ht 2 ) that was sarcopenia in Korean elderly men aged more than 65 years was 11.2%. ASM/Ht 2 were positively associated with vitamin D levels, but negatively associated with white blood cell counts and HOMA-IR by multiple regression analysis. After adjustment for covariables, sarcopenia was associated with the highest quartile of WBC counts (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.21-7.14) and the highest quartile of serum vitamin D levels (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.15-0.95). In conclusion, the study findings suggest that higher WBC counts and lower vitamin D levels are independently associated with the presence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly men. They also provide a basis for further studies of the complex immune-endocrine network in sarcopenia.

  18. Relationship of white blood cell counts, haemoglobin and ESR with IHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, F.; Shahzad Tawwab, S.; Abbas, A.

    2009-01-01

    To find any association of white blood cells, haemoglobin and ESR with ischemic heart disease in high risk native population. Methodology: The study included 93 male patients with Ischemic heart disease, between 40 and 60 years of age; 96 age and gender matched subjects. All study participants were non-diabetics. Complete blood cells count, haemoglobin and ESR levels were compared between the patient and control groups. Results: Total leukocyte counts along with neutrophils were significantly higher in the test group compared to the control population (p<0.001) and lymphocytes were significantly lower (p<0.001) in the patient group as compared to the control group. Haemoglobin levels were significantly lower (p<0.001) and ESR was higher (p=0.030) in the patient group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Although, our findings of the study variables extend previous reports, the prevalence and prognostic importance of theses variables in IHD should be assessed in future experimental studies. These parameters could be important in public health because they are routinely measured by clinicians and may be helpful to predict the risk of future and secondary ischemic events in a high risk population. (author)

  19. DNA Damages and White Blood Cell Death Processes in Victims with Severe Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the mechanisms of posttraumatic changes in the blood cells, by investigating DNA damages associat ed with hypoxia caused by massive blood loss (BL in severe injury.Subjects and methods. Ninetyfive patients aged 40.6±16.5 years (from 20 to 79 years who had sustained severe mechanical injury with different BL volumes (BLV (from 100 to 4000 ml and hemodynamic disorders were examined to study DNA damages and white blood cell necrotic and apop totic processes. In terms of the victims' weight, the mean BL was 21.5±16.5 ml/kg (from 1.4 to 61.5 ml/kg. The victimswere divided into 4 groups according to BLV: 1 26 victims whose BLV was less than 750 ml (5.93±2.41 ml/kg (grade I BL; 2 23 victims whose BLV was 750—1500 ml (11.5±1.5 ml/kg (grade 2 BL; 3 23 victims whose BLV was 1500—2000 ml (23.8±4.0 ml/kg (grade 3 BL; 4 23 victims whose BLV was over 2000 ml (45.6±10.1 ml/kg (grade 4 BL, according to the type of injury: 1 severe skeletal injury (SSI (n=17; 2 brain injury (BI (n=43; 3 a concurrence of SSI and BI (SSI+BI (n=35; according to the development of infectious complications: 1 69 victims who developed infectious com plications on days 5—7 postinjury; 2 26 victims who did not. To evaluate the impact of hypoxia on DNA damages, white blood cell apoptotic and necrotic processes, the victims were divided into 2 groups: 1 hypoxia (18 of the 95 victims who had 4 altered indicators, such as capillary blood pO2, plasma lactate levels, pH, and BE; 2 no hypoxia (10 of the 95 victims whose indicators were within the normal range. DNA damages and necrotic and apoptotic changes in the white blood cells were assessed by the DNA comet assay. The plasma concentration of extracellular DNA was fluorometrically determined using a QuantiTTM HS DNA Assay Kit (Invitrogen, USA. That of 8hydroxy2deoxyguanosine was estimated by enzyme immunoassay employing an 8hydroxy2deoxyGuanosine EIA Kit (Cayman Chemical, USA. The levels of cas

  20. Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, P L; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Barnes, C J

    2010-11-01

    White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were quantified. Each sport was scaled (1-5) for its perceived metabolic stress (aerobic-anaerobic) and mechanical stress (concentric-eccentric) by 13 sports physiologists. Substantially lower total white cell and neutrophil counts were observed in aerobic sports of cycling and triathlon (~16% of test results below the normal reference range) compared with team or skill-based sports such as water polo, cricket and volleyball. Mechanical stress of sports had less effect on the distribution of cell counts. The lower white cell counts in athletes in aerobic sports probably represent an adaptive response, not underlying pathology.

  1. Different cell moieties and white blood cell (WBC) integrity in In-111 labeled WBC preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, G.B.; Feiglin, D.H.I.; McMahon, J.T.; Go, R.T.; O'Donnell, J.K.; MacIntyre, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Indium-111 labeled white blood cells (WBC) have become very popular in detecting inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this paper is to determine the distribution of different types of cells in WBC preparation for In-111 oxine labeling, and also to assess the histological integrity of WBC's after labeling with In-111 oxine. Forty to fifty cc of blood was collected from each patient and WBC's were separated by sedimentation and centrifugation. After labeling with In-111 oxine, an aliquot of the WBC sample was used for cell counting and a second aliquot was used for electron microscopic (EM) examination. The different cell moieties were counted, and the mean and standard deviation of twelve determinations calculated. Cells were prepared by the standard technique for electron microscopic examination and images of the cells were obtained at different magnifications (X8,000-25,000). The EM images revealed that although minimal cytoplasmic vacuolization occurred in the WBC's due to the labeling process, the overall histological integrity of the cells remained intact. The relative labeling efficiency of WBC's is greater than those of RBC's and platelets (J Nuc) Med 25:p98, 1984) and, therefore, even a comparatively low population of WBC's gives optimal imaging due to their increased tracer uptake

  2. White Blood Cell Count and Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Kim, Mimi Y; Manson, JoAnn E; Lessin, Lawrence; Lin, Juan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Rohan, Thomas E

    2017-07-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count appears to predict total mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, but it is unclear to what extent the association reflects confounding by smoking, underlying illness, or comorbid conditions. We used data from the Women's Health Initiative to examine the associations of WBC count with total mortality, CHD mortality, and cancer mortality. WBC count was measured at baseline in 160,117 postmenopausal women and again in year 3 in 74,375 participants. Participants were followed for a mean of 16 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative mortality hazards associated with deciles of baseline WBC count and of the mean of baseline + year 3 WBC count. High deciles of both baseline and mean WBC count were positively associated with total mortality and CHD mortality, whereas the association with cancer mortality was weaker. The association of WBC count with mortality was independent of smoking and did not appear to be influenced by previous disease history. The potential clinical utility of this common laboratory test in predicting mortality risk warrants further study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Expression of candidate genes associated with obesity in peripheral white blood cells of Mexican children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-Martínez, Marcela; Burguete-García, Ana I.; Murugesan, Selvasankar; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos; Cruz-Lopez, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a chronic, complex, and multifactorial disease, characterized by excess body fat. Diverse studies of the human genome have led to the identification of susceptibility genes that contribute to obesity. However, relatively few studies have addressed specifically the association between the level of expression of these genes and obesity. Material and methods We studied 160 healthy and obese unrelated Mexican children aged 6 to 14 years. We measured the transcriptional expression of 20 genes associated with obesity, in addition to the biochemical parameters, in peripheral white blood cells. The detection of mRNA levels was performed using the OpenArray Real-Time PCR System (Applied Biosystems). Results Obese children exhibited higher values of fasting glucose (p = 0.034), fasting insulin (p = 0.004), low-density lipoprotein (p = 0.006), triglycerides (p GHRL (p = 0.0060) and FTO (p = 0.0348) genes. Conclusions Our results suggest that changes in the expression level of the studied genes are involved in biological processes implicated in the development of childhood obesity. Our study contributes new perspectives for a better understanding of biological processes involved in obesity. The protocol was approved by the National Committee and Ethical Committee Board from the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) (IMSS FIS/IMSS/PRIO/10/011). PMID:27695486

  4. White blood cell-based detection of asymptomatic scrapie infection by ex vivo assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Halliez

    Full Text Available Prion transmission can occur by blood transfusion in human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in experimental animal models, including sheep. Screening of blood and its derivatives for the presence of prions became therefore a major public health issue. As infectious titer in blood is reportedly low, highly sensitive and robust methods are required to detect prions in blood and blood derived products. The objectives of this study were to compare different methods--in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays--to detect prion infectivity in cells prepared from blood samples obtained from scrapie infected sheep at different time points of the disease. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA and bioassays in transgenic mice expressing the ovine prion protein were the most efficient methods to identify infected animals at any time of the disease (asymptomatic to terminally-ill stages. However scrapie cell and cerebellar organotypic slice culture assays designed to replicate ovine prions in culture also allowed detection of prion infectivity in blood cells from asymptomatic sheep. These findings confirm that white blood cells are appropriate targets for preclinical detection and introduce ex vivo tools to detect blood infectivity during the asymptomatic stage of the disease.

  5. Pathogen reduction by ultraviolet C light effectively inactivates human white blood cells in platelet products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohler, Petra; Müller, Meike; Winkler, Carla; Schaudien, Dirk; Sewald, Katherina; Müller, Thomas H; Seltsam, Axel

    2015-02-01

    Residual white blood cells (WBCs) in cellular blood components induce a variety of adverse immune events, including nonhemolytic febrile transfusion reactions, alloimmunization to HLA antigens, and transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD). Pathogen reduction (PR) methods such as the ultraviolet C (UVC) light-based THERAFLEX UV-Platelets system were developed to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection. As UVC light targets nucleic acids, it interferes with the replication of both pathogens and WBCs. This preclinical study aimed to evaluate the ability of UVC light to inactivate contaminating WBCs in platelet concentrates (PCs). The in vitro and in vivo function of WBCs from UVC-treated PCs was compared to that of WBCs from gamma-irradiated and untreated PCs by measuring cell viability, proliferation, cytokine secretion, antigen presentation in vitro, and xenogeneic GVHD responses in a humanized mouse model. UVC light was at least as effective as gamma irradiation in preventing GVHD in the mouse model. It was more effective in suppressing T-cell proliferation (>5-log reduction in the limiting dilution assay), cytokine secretion, and antigen presentation than gamma irradiation. The THERAFLEX UV-Platelets (MacoPharma) PR system can substitute gamma irradiation for TA-GVHD prophylaxis in platelet (PLT) transfusion. Moreover, UVC treatment achieves suppression of antigen presentation and inhibition of cytokine accumulation during storage of PCs, which has potential benefits for transfusion recipients. © 2014 AABB.

  6. Bioactive compounds from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cells induced apoptotic cell death in hela cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patathananone, Supawadee; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Daduang, Jureerut; Chung, Jing Gung; Temsiripong, Yosapong; Daduang, Sakda

    2016-08-01

    Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cell extracts (WBCex) were examined for anticancer activity in HeLa cell lines using the MTT assay. The percentage viability of HeLa cells significantly deceased after treatment with WBCex in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 dose was suggested to be approximately 225 μg/mL protein. Apoptotic cell death occurred in a time-dependent manner based on investigation by flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC and PI staining. DAPI nucleic acid staining indicated increased chromatin condensation. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities also increased, suggesting the induction of the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) of HeLa cells was lost as a result of increasing levels of Bax and reduced levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-Xs, and XIAP. The decreased ΔΨm led to the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Apoptosis-inducing factor translocated into the nuclei, and endonuclease G (Endo G) was released from the mitochondria. These results suggest that anticancer agents in WBCex can induce apoptosis in HeLa cells via both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 986-997, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effect of anabolic steroid on the recovery of white blood cell count after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Motohisa; Niki, Takamichi; Hiraoka, Atsunobu; Uchino, Haruto

    1979-01-01

    In order to observe the effects of nandrolone decanoate (NAN-D), an anabolic steroid, on granulocytes, its effect on the recovery of white blood cells (WBC) and granulocytes after radiation injuries was studied. Male mice were irradiated with 405 to 410 R of γ rays, and a 2.5 mg/dose of NAN-D was given subcutaneously 6 to 7 days after irradiation (group I) or immediately after irradiation (group II). The degree of decrease in WBC after irradiation was the same in both groups, but the recovery of WBC 18 days after irradiation was marked in group II, the control group, and group I, respectively. The recovery of granulocytes was the most marked in group II and was more marked in group I than in the control group. In an experiment in which NAN-D was given 2 to 3 days before irradiation (group III), WBC showed higher values in group III than in the control group 9 days after irradiation. The difference in WBC between group III and the control group was the greatest 17 days after irradiation. A gross count of granulocyte precursor cells in one femur clearly increased in the groups given this agent. (Tsunoda, M.)

  8. White blood cell counts mediate the effects of physical activity on prostate-specific antigen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Richart, Sarah M

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether white blood cell (WBC) level mediated the relationship between physical activity and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used; 1,726 U.S. adult men (aged 40 years or older) provided complete data on the study variables. Participants wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer for a 7-day period to measure their physical activity behavior, and PSA and WBC levels were obtained from a blood sample. After adjustments, results showed that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was inversely associated with WBC count (b = - .03; 95% CI [ - 0.04, - 0.006; p = .01), and WBC count (b = .10; 95% CI [0.009, 0.18; p = .04) was positively associated with PSA. Both the Sobel (coef. = - .004, SE = .002; z = - 2.0; p = .03) and the Aroian (coef. = - .004, SE = .002; z = - 1.9; p = .03) tests demonstrated that WBC mediated the relationship between physical activity and PSA. Additionally, among 107 participants with prostate cancer, survivors engaging in more MVPA had lower levels of WBC (b = - .04; 95% CI [ - 0.09, - 0.0009; p = .04). Conclusion Physical activity may influence PSA levels through WBC modulation; however, future research is needed to determine the direction of causality. Additionally, prostate cancer survivors engaging in higher levels of MVPA had lower levels of WBC, underscoring the importance of promoting physical activity among prostate cancer survivors.

  9. Fast and robust segmentation of white blood cell images by self-supervised learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Wang, Yong; Wang, Guoyou; Liu, Jianguo

    2018-04-01

    A fast and accurate white blood cell (WBC) segmentation remains a challenging task, as different WBCs vary significantly in color and shape due to cell type differences, staining technique variations and the adhesion between the WBC and red blood cells. In this paper, a self-supervised learning approach, consisting of unsupervised initial segmentation and supervised segmentation refinement, is presented. The first module extracts the overall foreground region from the cell image by K-means clustering, and then generates a coarse WBC region by touching-cell splitting based on concavity analysis. The second module further uses the coarse segmentation result of the first module as automatic labels to actively train a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Then, the trained SVM classifier is further used to classify each pixel of the image and achieve a more accurate segmentation result. To improve its segmentation accuracy, median color features representing the topological structure and a new weak edge enhancement operator (WEEO) handling fuzzy boundary are introduced. To further reduce its time cost, an efficient cluster sampling strategy is also proposed. We tested the proposed approach with two blood cell image datasets obtained under various imaging and staining conditions. The experiment results show that our approach has a superior performance of accuracy and time cost on both datasets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A microfluidic chip for direct and rapid trapping of white blood cells from whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingdong; Chen, Di; Yuan, Tao; Xie, Yao; Chen, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Blood analysis plays a major role in medical and science applications and white blood cells (WBCs) are an important target of analysis. We proposed an integrated microfluidic chip for direct and rapid trapping WBCs from whole blood. The microfluidic chip consists of two basic functional units: a winding channel to mix and arrays of two-layer trapping structures to trap WBCs. Red blood cells (RBCs) were eliminated through moving the winding channel and then WBCs were trapped by the arrays of trapping structures. We fabricated the PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) chip using soft lithography and determined the critical flow velocities of tartrazine and brilliant blue water mixing and whole blood and red blood cell lysis buffer mixing in the winding channel. They are 0.25 μl/min and 0.05 μl/min, respectively. The critical flow velocity of the whole blood and red blood cell lysis buffer is lower due to larger volume of the RBCs and higher kinematic viscosity of the whole blood. The time taken for complete lysis of whole blood was about 85 s under the flow velocity 0.05 μl/min. The RBCs were lysed completely by mixing and the WBCs were trapped by the trapping structures. The chip trapped about 2.0 × 103 from 3.3 × 103 WBCs. PMID:24404026

  11. Plasma and White Blood Cells Show Different miRNA Expression Profiles in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienbacher, Christine; Foco, Luisa; Picard, Anne; Corradi, Eloina; Serafin, Alice; Panzer, Jörg; Zanigni, Stefano; Blankenburg, Hagen; Facheris, Maurizio F; Giannini, Giulia; Falla, Marika; Cortelli, Pietro; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A

    2017-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis is based on the assessment of motor symptoms, which manifest when more than 50% of dopaminergic neurons are degenerated. To date, no validated biomarkers are available for the diagnosis of PD. The aims of the present study are to evaluate whether plasma and white blood cells (WBCs) are interchangeable biomarker sources and to identify circulating plasma-based microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for an early detection of PD. We profiled plasma miRNA levels in 99 L-dopa-treated PD patients from two independent data collections, in ten drug-naïve PD patients, and in unaffected controls matched by sex and age. We evaluated expression levels by reverse transcription and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and combined the results from treated PD patients using a fixed effect inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. We revealed different expression profiles comparing plasma and WBCs and drug-naïve and L-dopa-treated PD patients. We observed an upregulation trend for miR-30a-5p in L-dopa-treated PD patients and investigated candidate target genes by integrated in silico analyses. We could not analyse miR-29b-3p, normally expressed in WBCs, due to the very low expression in plasma. We observed different expression profiles in WBCs and plasma, suggesting that they are both suitable but not interchangeable peripheral sources for biomarkers. We revealed miR-30a-5p as a potential biomarker for PD in plasma. In silico analyses suggest that miR-30a-5p might have a regulatory role in mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy. Further investigations are needed to confirm miR-30a-5p deregulation and targets and to investigate the influence of L-dopa treatment on miRNA expression levels.

  12. White blood cells identification system based on convolutional deep neural learning networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, A I; Guo, Yanhui; Amin, K M; Sharawi, Amr A

    2017-11-16

    White blood cells (WBCs) differential counting yields valued information about human health and disease. The current developed automated cell morphology equipments perform differential count which is based on blood smear image analysis. Previous identification systems for WBCs consist of successive dependent stages; pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. There is a real need to employ deep learning methodologies so that the performance of previous WBCs identification systems can be increased. Classifying small limited datasets through deep learning systems is a major challenge and should be investigated. In this paper, we propose a novel identification system for WBCs based on deep convolutional neural networks. Two methodologies based on transfer learning are followed: transfer learning based on deep activation features and fine-tuning of existed deep networks. Deep acrivation featues are extracted from several pre-trained networks and employed in a traditional identification system. Moreover, a novel end-to-end convolutional deep architecture called "WBCsNet" is proposed and built from scratch. Finally, a limited balanced WBCs dataset classification is performed through the WBCsNet as a pre-trained network. During our experiments, three different public WBCs datasets (2551 images) have been used which contain 5 healthy WBCs types. The overall system accuracy achieved by the proposed WBCsNet is (96.1%) which is more than different transfer learning approaches or even the previous traditional identification system. We also present features visualization for the WBCsNet activation which reflects higher response than the pre-trained activated one. a novel WBCs identification system based on deep learning theory is proposed and a high performance WBCsNet can be employed as a pre-trained network. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Congenital and nosocomial sepsis in infants born in a regional perinatal unit: cause, outcome, and white blood cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, A; Vearncombe, M

    1987-02-01

    The incidence, cause, and outcome of sepsis and the white blood cell response were studied in 6315 infants born in a regional perinatal unit. The incidence of neonatal sepsis was 6.5 per 1000 live births. Congenital sepsis (12 cases) was overwhelming, with associated maternal infection (92%), neutropenia (75%), and high rate of mortality (50%). The most common organism was Escherichia coli (58%). Gestational age and birth weight were similar in survivors and nonsurvivors. There was a strong correlation between total white blood cell count and both mature and immature neutrophil counts in survivors but this correlation decreased substantially in neonates that died. Analysis of variance indicated that the means for polymorphonuclear leukocyte and immature neutrophil counts were significantly higher in survivors. Nosocomial sepsis (38 cases) occurred in premature low birth weight infants receiving invasive, intensive care. The most common organism was Staphylococcus epidermidis (76%). Total white blood cell, polymorphonuclear leukocyte, and immature neutrophil counts rose significantly in response to sepsis. None died. Prevention of congenital sepsis requires methods to detect early maternal-fetal infection. Providing granulocytes to neutropenic neonates with congenital sepsis might improve outcome.

  14. Segmentation of white blood cells and comparison of cell morphology by linear and naïve Bayes classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinyakupt, Jaroonrut; Pluempitiwiriyawej, Charnchai

    2015-06-30

    Blood smear microscopic images are routinely investigated by haematologists to diagnose most blood diseases. However, the task is quite tedious and time consuming. An automatic detection and classification of white blood cells within such images can accelerate the process tremendously. In this paper we propose a system to locate white blood cells within microscopic blood smear images, segment them into nucleus and cytoplasm regions, extract suitable features and finally, classify them into five types: basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte. Two sets of blood smear images were used in this study's experiments. Dataset 1, collected from Rangsit University, were normal peripheral blood slides under light microscope with 100× magnification; 555 images with 601 white blood cells were captured by a Nikon DS-Fi2 high-definition color camera and saved in JPG format of size 960 × 1,280 pixels at 15 pixels per 1 μm resolution. In dataset 2, 477 cropped white blood cell images were downloaded from CellaVision.com. They are in JPG format of size 360 × 363 pixels. The resolution is estimated to be 10 pixels per 1 μm. The proposed system comprises a pre-processing step, nucleus segmentation, cell segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection and classification. The main concept of the segmentation algorithm employed uses white blood cell's morphological properties and the calibrated size of a real cell relative to image resolution. The segmentation process combined thresholding, morphological operation and ellipse curve fitting. Consequently, several features were extracted from the segmented nucleus and cytoplasm regions. Prominent features were then chosen by a greedy search algorithm called sequential forward selection. Finally, with a set of selected prominent features, both linear and naïve Bayes classifiers were applied for performance comparison. This system was tested on normal peripheral blood smear slide images from two datasets. Two sets

  15. Correlation of circulating MMP-9 with white blood cell count in humans: effect of smoking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Snitker

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 is an emerging biomarker for several disease conditions, where white blood cell (WBC count is also elevated. In this study, we examined the relationship between MMP-9 and WBC levels in apparently healthy smoking and non-smoking human subjects.We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship of serum MMP-9 with WBC in 383 men and 356 women. Next, we divided the male population (women do not smoke in this population into three groups: never (n = 243, current (n = 76 and former (n = 64 smokers and compared the group differences in MMP-9 and WBC levels and their correlations within each group.Circulating MMP-9 and WBC count are significantly correlated in men (R(2 = 0.13, p<0.001 and women (R(2 = 0.19, p<0.001. After stratification by smoking status, MMP-9 level was significantly higher in current smokers (mean ± SE; 663.3±43.4 ng/ml, compared to never (529.7±20.6 and former smokers (568±39.3. WBC count was changed in a similar pattern. Meanwhile, the relationship became stronger in current smokers with increased correlation coefficient of r = 0.45 or R(2 = 0.21 (p<0.001 and steeper slope of ß = 1.16±0.30 (p<0.001 in current smokers, compared to r = 0.26 or R(2 = 0.07 (p<0.001 and ß = 0.34±0.10 (p<0.001 in never smokers.WBC count accounts for 13% and 19% of MMP-9 variance in men and women, respectively. In non-smoking men, WBC count accounts for 7% of MMP-9 variance, but in smoking subjects, it accounts for up to 21% of MMP-9 variance. Thus, we have discovered a previously unrecognized correlation between the circulating MMP-9 and WBC levels in humans.

  16. On Orbit Immuno-Based, Label-Free, White Blood Cell Counting System with MicroElectroMechanical Sensor (MEMS) Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and partner, Draper Laboratory, propose to develop an on-orbit immuno-based label-free white blood cell counting system using MEMS...

  17. On Orbit Immuno-Based, Label-Free, White Blood Cell Counting System with MicroElectroMechanical Sensor (MEMS) Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and our partner, Draper Laboratory, propose to develop an on orbit immuno-based, label-free, white blood cell counting system for...

  18. Image acquisition and interpretation criteria for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled white blood cell scintigraphy: results of a multicentre study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erba, Paola A. [University of Pisa Medical School (Italy). Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Veltman, Niels C. [Jeroen Bosch Hospital, ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Sollini, Martina [Arcisprdale S. Maria Nuova - IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Pacilio, Marta; Galli, Filippo [Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Signore, Alberto [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Ospedale S. Andrea Medicina Nucleare

    2014-04-15

    There is no consensus yet on the best protocol for planar image acquisition and interpretation of radiolabelled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy. This may account for differences in reported diagnostic accuracy amongst different centres. This was a multicentre retrospective study analysing 235 WBC scans divided into two groups. The first group of scans (105 patients) were acquired with a fixed-time acquisition protocol and the second group (130 patients) were acquired with a decay time-corrected acquisition protocol. Planar images were interpreted both qualitatively and semiquantitatively. Three blinded readers analysed the images. The most accurate imaging acquisition protocol comprised image acquisition at 3 - 4 h and at 20 - 24 h in time mode with acquisition times corrected for isotope decay. Using this protocol, visual analysis had high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of infection. Semiquantitative analysis could be used in doubtful cases, with no cut-off for the percentage increase in radiolabelled WBC over time, as a criterion to define a positive scan. (orig.)

  19. Image acquisition and interpretation criteria for 99mTc-HMPAO-labelled white blood cell scintigraphy: results of a multicentre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erba, Paola A.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Veltman, Niels C.; Sollini, Martina; Pacilio, Marta; Galli, Filippo; Signore, Alberto; Sapienza Univ., Rome; Sapienza Univ., Rome

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus yet on the best protocol for planar image acquisition and interpretation of radiolabelled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy. This may account for differences in reported diagnostic accuracy amongst different centres. This was a multicentre retrospective study analysing 235 WBC scans divided into two groups. The first group of scans (105 patients) were acquired with a fixed-time acquisition protocol and the second group (130 patients) were acquired with a decay time-corrected acquisition protocol. Planar images were interpreted both qualitatively and semiquantitatively. Three blinded readers analysed the images. The most accurate imaging acquisition protocol comprised image acquisition at 3 - 4 h and at 20 - 24 h in time mode with acquisition times corrected for isotope decay. Using this protocol, visual analysis had high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of infection. Semiquantitative analysis could be used in doubtful cases, with no cut-off for the percentage increase in radiolabelled WBC over time, as a criterion to define a positive scan. (orig.)

  20. The acetabulum: A prospective study of three-phase bone and indium white blood cell scintigraphy following porous-coated hip arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, S.G.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Anderson, J.H.; Callaghan, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Although few studies address the use of three-phase bone scanning (TPBS) and indium-111-labeled white blood cell scintigraphy ( 111 In-WBC) in hip arthroplasty utilizing a porous-coated prosthesis, the literature suggests that scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated patient may differ from that seen with the cemented prosthesis. In an attempt to determine the scintigraphic natural history, 25 uncomplicated porous-coated hip arthroplasties in 21 patients were prospectively studied with serial TPBS and 111I n-WBC at approximately 7 days, and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo postoperatively. This report deals with findings related to the acetabulum. All 25 prostheses (144 of 144 scans) demonstrated increased uptake on the bone-phase images. Although this activity decreased with time, 76% had persistent uptake at 24 mo. Twenty-three of 25 prostheses (126 of 140 scans) showed increased uptake on 111 In-WBC scintigraphy, invariably decreasing with time, but with 37% having significant uptake at 24 mo. Scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated porous-coated hip arthroplasty patient appear to differ from patterns described in cemented prostheses

  1. Automatic white blood cell classification using pre-trained deep learning models: ResNet and Inception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Mehdi; Jannesari, Mahboobeh; Rezaei, Zahra; Baharvand, Hossein; Totonchi, Mehdi

    2018-04-01

    This works gives an account of evaluation of white blood cell differential counts via computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system and hematology rules. Leukocytes, also called white blood cells (WBCs) play main role of the immune system. Leukocyte is responsible for phagocytosis and immunity and therefore in defense against infection involving the fatal diseases incidence and mortality related issues. Admittedly, microscopic examination of blood samples is a time consuming, expensive and error-prone task. A manual diagnosis would search for specific Leukocytes and number abnormalities in the blood slides while complete blood count (CBC) examination is performed. Complications may arise from the large number of varying samples including different types of Leukocytes, related sub-types and concentration in blood, which makes the analysis prone to human error. This process can be automated by computerized techniques which are more reliable and economical. In essence, we seek to determine a fast, accurate mechanism for classification and gather information about distribution of white blood evidences which may help to diagnose the degree of any abnormalities during CBC test. In this work, we consider the problem of pre-processing and supervised classification of white blood cells into their four primary types including Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Lymphocytes, and Monocytes using a consecutive proposed deep learning framework. For first step, this research proposes three consecutive pre-processing calculations namely are color distortion; bounding box distortion (crop) and image flipping mirroring. In second phase, white blood cell recognition performed with hierarchy topological feature extraction using Inception and ResNet architectures. Finally, the results obtained from the preliminary analysis of cell classification with (11200) training samples and 1244 white blood cells evaluation data set are presented in confusion matrices and interpreted using accuracy rate, and false

  2. Fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count are major risk factors for ischemic heart disease. The Caerphilly and Speedwell collaborative heart disease studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, J W; Baker, I A; Sweetnam, P M; Bainton, D; O'Brien, J R; Whitehead, P J; Elwood, P C

    1991-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that hemostatic factors and white blood cell count are predictive of ischemic heart disease (IHD). The relations of fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count to the incidence of IHD in the Caerphilly and Speedwell prospective studies are described. The two studies have a common core protocol and are based on a combined cohort of 4,860 middle-aged men from the general population. The first follow-up was at a nearly constant interval of 5.1 years in Caerphilly and 3.2 years in Speedwell; 251 major IHD events had occurred. Age-adjusted relative odds of IHD for men in the top 20% of the distribution compared with the bottom 20% were 4.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.6-6.5) for fibrinogen, 4.5 (95% confidence interval, 2.8-7.4) for viscosity, and 3.2 (95% confidence interval, 2.0-4.9) for white blood cell count. Associations with IHD were similar in men who had never smoked, exsmokers, and current smokers, and the results suggest that at least part of the effect of smoking on IHD is mediated through fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count. Multivariate analysis shows that white blood cell count is an independent risk factor for IHD as is either fibrinogen or viscosity, or possibly both. Jointly, these three variables significantly improve the fit of a logistic regression model containing all the main conventional risk factors. Further, a model including age, smoking habits, fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count predicts IHD as well as one in which the three hemostatic/rheological variables are replaced by total cholesterol, diastolic pressure, and body mass index. Jointly, fibrinogen, viscosity, and white blood cell count are important risk factors for IHD.

  3. High DNA stability in white blood cells and buffy coat lysates stored at ambient temperature under anoxic and anhydrous atmosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Fabre

    Full Text Available Conventional storage of blood-derived fractions relies on cold. However, lately, ambient temperature preservation has been evaluated by several independent institutions that see economic and logistic advantages in getting rid of the cold chain. Here we validated a novel procedure for ambient temperature preservation of DNA in white blood cell and buffy coat lysates based on the confinement of the desiccated biospecimens under anoxic and anhydrous atmosphere in original hermetic minicapsules. For this validation we stored encapsulated samples either at ambient temperature or at several elevated temperatures to accelerate aging. We found that DNA extracted from stored samples was of good quality with a yield of extraction as expected. Degradation rates were estimated from the average fragment size of denatured DNA run on agarose gels and from qPCR reactions. At ambient temperature, these rates were too low to be measured but the degradation rate dependence on temperature followed Arrhenius' law, making it possible to extrapolate degradation rates at 25°C. According to these values, the DNA stored in the encapsulated blood products would remain larger than 20 kb after one century at ambient temperature. At last, qPCR experiments demonstrated the compatibility of extracted DNA with routine DNA downstream analyses. Altogether, these results showed that this novel storage method provides an adequate environment for ambient temperature long term storage of high molecular weight DNA in dehydrated lysates of white blood cells and buffy coats.

  4. High DNA stability in white blood cells and buffy coat lysates stored at ambient temperature under anoxic and anhydrous atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Aurélie; Colotte, Marthe; Tuffet, Sophie; Bonnet, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Conventional storage of blood-derived fractions relies on cold. However, lately, ambient temperature preservation has been evaluated by several independent institutions that see economic and logistic advantages in getting rid of the cold chain. Here we validated a novel procedure for ambient temperature preservation of DNA in white blood cell and buffy coat lysates based on the confinement of the desiccated biospecimens under anoxic and anhydrous atmosphere in original hermetic minicapsules. For this validation we stored encapsulated samples either at ambient temperature or at several elevated temperatures to accelerate aging. We found that DNA extracted from stored samples was of good quality with a yield of extraction as expected. Degradation rates were estimated from the average fragment size of denatured DNA run on agarose gels and from qPCR reactions. At ambient temperature, these rates were too low to be measured but the degradation rate dependence on temperature followed Arrhenius’ law, making it possible to extrapolate degradation rates at 25°C. According to these values, the DNA stored in the encapsulated blood products would remain larger than 20 kb after one century at ambient temperature. At last, qPCR experiments demonstrated the compatibility of extracted DNA with routine DNA downstream analyses. Altogether, these results showed that this novel storage method provides an adequate environment for ambient temperature long term storage of high molecular weight DNA in dehydrated lysates of white blood cells and buffy coats. PMID:29190767

  5. Extraction of Nucleolus Candidate Zone in White Blood Cells of Peripheral Blood Smear Images Using Curvelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Soltanzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main part of each white blood cell (WBC is its nucleus which contains chromosomes. Although white blood cells (WBCs with giant nuclei are the main symptom of leukemia, they are not sufficient to prove this disease and other symptoms must be investigated. For example another important symptom of leukemia is the existence of nucleolus in nucleus. The nucleus contains chromatin and a structure called the nucleolus. Chromatin is DNA in its active form while nucleolus is composed of protein and RNA, which are usually inactive. In this paper, to diagnose this symptom and in order to discriminate between nucleoli and chromatins, we employ curvelet transform, which is a multiresolution transform for detecting 2D singularities in images. For this reason, at first nuclei are extracted by means of K-means method, then curvelet transform is applied on extracted nuclei and the coefficients are modified, and finally reconstructed image is used to extract the candidate locations of chromatins and nucleoli. This method is applied on 100 microscopic images and succeeds with specificity of 80.2% and sensitivity of 84.3% to detect the nucleolus candidate zone. After nucleolus candidate zone detection, new features that can be used to classify atypical and blast cells such as gradient of saturation channel are extracted.

  6. Dialysate White Blood Cell Change after Initial Antibiotic Treatment Represented the Patterns of Response in Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantiyavarong, Pichaya; Traitanon, Opas; Chuengsaman, Piyatida; Patumanond, Jayanton; Tasanarong, Adis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients with peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis usually have different responses to initial antibiotic treatment. This study aimed to explore the patterns of response by using the changes of dialysate white blood cell count on the first five days of the initial antibiotic treatment. Materials and Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. All peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis episodes from January 2014 to December 2015 were reviewed. We categorized the patterns of antibiotic response into 3 groups: early response, delayed response, and failure group. The changes of dialysate white blood cell count for each pattern were determined by multilevel regression analysis. Results. There were 644 episodes in 455 patients: 378 (58.7%) of early response, 122 (18.9%) of delayed response, and 144 (22.3%) of failure episodes. The patterns of early, delayed, and failure groups were represented by the average rate reduction per day of dialysate WBC of 68.4%, 34.0%, and 14.2%, respectively (p value patterns, which were categorized by types of responses, have variable rates of WBC declining. Clinicians should focus on the delayed response and failure patterns in order to make a decision whether to continue medical therapies or to aggressively remove the peritoneal catheter.

  7. White blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in the diagnosis of testicular cancer: a simple secondary serum tumor marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ozgur Haki; Verit, Ayhan; Sahin, Aytac; Urkmez, Ahmet; Uruc, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate white blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as markers of systemic inflammation in the diagnosis of localized testicular cancer as a malignancy with initially low volume. Thirty-six patients with localized testicular cancer with a mean age of 34.22±14.89 years and 36 healthy controls with a mean age of 26.67±2.89 years were enrolled in the study. White blood cell counts and NLR were calculated from complete blood cell counts. White blood cell counts and NLR were statistically significantly higher in patients with testicular cancer compared with the control group (ptesticular cancer besides the well-known accurate serum tumor markers as AFP (alpha fetoprotein), hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase).

  8. White blood cell and platelet count as adjuncts to standard clinical evaluation for risk assessment in patients at low probability of acute aortic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Fulvio; Cavalot, Giulia; Giachino, Francesca; Tizzani, Maria; Nazerian, Peiman; Carbone, Federica; Pivetta, Emanuele; Mengozzi, Giulio; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2017-08-01

    Pre-test probability assessment is key in the approach to suspected acute aortic syndromes (AASs). However, most patients with AAS-compatible symptoms are classified at low probability, warranting further evaluation for decision on aortic imaging. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen explore pathophysiological pathways mobilized in AASs and are routinely assayed in the workup of AASs. However, the diagnostic performance of these variables for AASs, alone and as a bundle, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that white blood cell count, platelet count and/or fibrinogen at presentation may be applied as additional tools to standard clinical evaluation for pre-test risk assessment in patients at low probability of AAS. This was a retrospective observational study conducted on consecutive patients managed in our Emergency Department from 2009 to 2014 for suspected AAS. White blood cell count, platelet count and fibrinogen were assayed during evaluation in the Emergency Department. The final diagnosis was obtained by computed tomography angiography. The pre-test probability of AAS was defined according to guidelines. Of 1210 patients with suspected AAS, 1006 (83.1%) were classified at low probability, and 271 (22.4%) were diagnosed with AAS. Within patients at low probability, presence of at least one alteration among white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl, platelet count probability, white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl and platelet count probability, the estimated risk of AAS based on the number of alterations amongst white blood cell count >9*10 3 /µl and platelet count probability to fine-tune risk assessment of AAS.

  9. Development of an SPR imaging biosensor for determination of cathepsin G in saliva and white blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodkiewicz, E.; Wojtulewski, K.; Regulska, E.

    2011-01-01

    Cathepsin G (CatG) is an endopeptidase that is associated with the early immune response. The synthetic compound cathepsin G inhibitor I (CGI-I) was tested for its ability to inhibit the activity of CatG via a new surface plasmon resonance imaging assay. CGI-I was immobilized on the gold surface of an SPR sensor that was first modified with 1-octadecanethiol. A concentration of CGI-I equal to 4.0 μg.mL -1 and a pH of 8.0 were found to give the best results. The dynamic response of the sensor ranges from 0. 25 to 1. 5 ng.mL -1 , and the detection limit is 0. 12 ng.mL -1 . The sensor was applied to detect CatG in human saliva and white blood cells. (author)

  10. Influence of Momordica charantia L. on the red and white blood cells labeling with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandao, Jose Odinilson de Caldas; Souza, Grace M. Lima de; Catanho, Maria T. Jansem de Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Momordica charantia L. is popularly known in Brazil as bitter melon and it's commonly used to treat several diseases as cancer, diabetes and to heal skin injuries. Many papers have been published showing the potential radio pharmacological activity of this plant due to its linkage with 99m Tc through some protein fractions of the extract. In this study, it was evaluated the influence of Momordica charantia L extract , labeling ( in vitro) of blood elements with sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ). In the labeling of red blood cells (in vitro), blood samples were obtained from Wistar rats and incubated with different concentrations of M. charantia, for control group was used NaCl 0.9% and added stannous chloride (SnCl 2 ) and 99m Tc. The plasma fractions (P) and the cells (C) were separated and, also, precipitated with trichloroacetic acid at 5%, obtaining the soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions. The radioactivity rate (%ATl) of each fraction was calculated. The same methodology was applied for white blood cells but these cells were separated in advance by centrifugation at 1800 rpm during 15 minutes. There weren't alterations in the labeling of red blood cells in the concentrations tested of the extract when compared with the rate of the control group neither in the insoluble fractions. However, on the white blood cells it was noticed an increase in 99m Tc uptake in the presence of M. charantia extract. So its possible to conclude, based on previous results obtained by our group, that the M. charantia L. could be used to evaluate inflammatory processes. (author)

  11. Early clinical experience in CT scanning of the abdomen using a third generation scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, L.; Churchill, R.J.; Reynes, C.J.; Marsan, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Five-second scanning offers an improvement over second generation scanners. There is no need for glucagon administration since there is virtually no objectionable artifact secondary to motion. Scans with the Photrax 4000 show resolution of structures such as gallbladder wall and renal fascia routinely. The anatomic structures visualized are more clearly identified than on second generation scans. Representative normal and pathological anatomy will be shown. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB [de

  12. Image acquisition and interpretation criteria for Tc-99m-HMPAO-labelled white blood cell scintigraphy : results of a multicentre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erba, Paola A.; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Veltman, Niels C.; Sollini, Martina; Pacilio, Marta; Galli, Filippo; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Signore, Alberto

    Purpose There is no consensus yet on the best protocol for planar image acquisition and interpretation of radiolabelled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy. This may account for differences in reported diagnostic accuracy amongst different centres. Methods This was a multicentre retrospective study

  13. Diagnosis of acute inflammatory conditions in children and adolescents using In-111 oxine white blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainey, M.A.; McDougall, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    In-111 oxine labeled white cells were used to diagnose acute inflammatory conditions in 42 children and adolescents, aged 6 weeks to 19 years. In 43 scans where a clinical correlation could be made, the test had a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 94%. There were no adverse reactions. For children the dose of In-111 recommended is 10-12 mu Ci/kg body weight to a maximum of 500 mu Ci

  14. Peripheral White Blood Cell Subsets in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated with Cetuximab: The Potential Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Z. Matić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It was demonstrated that cetuximab-induced tumor regression is based on the effects exerted by immune cells included mainly in the innate immune response. Therefore, the focus of this study was to explore the alterations in the percentages of CD16+, and/or CD56+ lymphocytes, which are comprised of NK cells, and minority of CD56+CD3+ cells, in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer before or 2 months after the treatment with cetuximab-based regimens associated with the response to therapy. The changes in the percentages of lymphocytes and granulocytes in these patients were evaluated as well. We enrolled 50 patients with wild-type KRAS metastatic colorectal cancer. Disease progression was observed in 11/50 patients (non-responders, while other patients achieved partial response or stable disease (responders. Control groups included up to 72 healthy individuals. A significant decrease in the percentages of CD56+ and CD16+CD56+ lymphocytes together with a significant decrease in the percentage of lymphocytes and an increase in the ratio of granulocyte to lymphocyte percentages were observed in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer before therapy, compared with those in the healthy individuals. In contrast to those in the responders, the percentage of CD16+ lymphocytes in the overall white blood cell pool was shown to be significantly decreased in the non-responders, together with a significantly decreased percentage of lymphocytes, a significantly increased percentage of granulocytes, and an increased ratio of granulocyte to lymphocyte percentages before treatment compared with those in the healthy controls. Two months after the initiation of the treatment, significantly decreased percentages of CD16+, CD56+, and CD16+CD56+ lymphocytes were observed in patients, compared with those determined in the healthy controls. The same changes in the amounts of circulating immune cells were also observed in the responder subgroup, but the

  15. Low Platelet to White Blood Cell Ratio Indicates Poor Prognosis for Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yusheng; Gong, Jiao; Xiao, Cuicui; Zhu, Shuguang; Zhou, Wenying; Luo, Juan; Chong, Yutian; Hu, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Background. Platelet to white blood cell ratio (PWR) was an independent prognostic predictor for outcomes in some diseases. However, the prognostic role of PWR is still unclear in patients with hepatitis B related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). In this study, we evaluated the clinical performances of PWR in predicting prognosis in HBV-related ACLF. Methods. A total of 530 subjects were recruited, including 97 healthy controls and 433 with HBV-related ACLF. Liver function, prothrombin time activity (PTA), international normalized ratio (INR), HBV DNA measurement, and routine hematological testing were performed at admission. Results . At baseline, PWR in patients with HBV-related ACLF (14.03 ± 7.17) was significantly decreased compared to those in healthy controls (39.16 ± 9.80). Reduced PWR values were clinically associated with the severity of liver disease and the increased mortality rate. Furthermore, PWR may be an inexpensive, easily accessible, and significant independent prognostic index for mortality on multivariate analysis (HR = 0.660, 95% CI: 0.438-0.996, p = 0.048) as well as model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. Conclusions . The PWR values were markedly decreased in ACLF patients compared with healthy controls and associated with severe liver disease. Moreover, PWR was an independent prognostic indicator for the mortality rate in patients with ACLF. This investigation highlights that PWR comprised a useful biomarker for prediction of liver severity.

  16. Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced arthritic rats: detailed histopathological study of the joints and white blood cell count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Taty Anna; Othman, Faizah; Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Md Isa, Nurismah; Das, Srijit

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizomes contains curcumin, an active compound which possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an accepted experimental animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. The present study aimed to observe the histological changes in the joints of experimental arthritic rats treated with curcumin. Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley (approximately 7 weeks-old) rats were randomly divided into four groups. Three groups were immunized with 150 µg collagen. All rats with established CIA, with arthritis scores exceeding 1, were orally treated with betamethasone (0.5 mg/ml/kg body weight), curcumin (110 mg/ml/kg body weight) or olive oil (1.0 ml/kg body weight) daily, for two weeks. One remaining group was kept as normal control. Treatment with 110 mg/ml/kg curcumin showed significant mean differences in the average white blood cell (WBC) count (pPannus formation scores showed that curcumin supplementation successfully suppressed the pannus formation process that occurred in the articular cartilage of the CIA joints. The mean difference for histological scores for the curcumin group was insignificant compared to the betamethasone treated group. It is concluded that supplementation of curcumin has protective effect on the histopathological and degenerative changes in the joints of CIA rats which was at par with betamethasone. PMID:27366139

  17. Transcriptome data of peripheral white blood cells from beef heifers collected at the time of artificial insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Dickinson

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive performance of heifers within their first breeding season influences the success of beef cattle operations. Therefore, a means to identify infertile and late breeding heifers before the start of the breeding season holds great promise for the future of the beef industry. Pubertal beef heifers were subjected to estrous synchronization and fixed time artificial insemination (FTAI. We collected peripheral blood from the heifers at the time of artificial insemination (AI and generated RNA sequencing data to characterize the transcriptome of peripheral white blood cells (PWBC. Following insemination, heifers were exposed to natural service for a defined breeding season, and pregnancy was evaluated to classify heifers into one of three groups: AI-pregnant, natural-bred (NB pregnant, and non-pregnant. The raw transcriptome data of PWBC is available on the NCBI GEO repository (GSE103628 where the reader can also find raw read counts and normalized gene expression data. The normalized data on transcript coverage can be visualized as a genome browser at HeiferFertilityRNAseq.org. Keywords: Biomarkers, Infertility, Pregnancy

  18. Transcriptomic profiles of peripheral white blood cells in type II diabetes and racial differences in expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Jinghe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Along with obesity, physical inactivity, and family history of metabolic disorders, African American ethnicity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D in the United States. However, little is known about the differences in gene expression and transcriptomic profiles of blood in T2D between African Americans (AA and Caucasians (CAU, and microarray analysis of peripheral white blood cells (WBCs from these two ethnic groups will facilitate our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism in T2D and identify genetic biomarkers responsible for the disparities. Results A whole human genome oligomicroarray of peripheral WBCs was performed on 144 samples obtained from 84 patients with T2D (44 AA and 40 CAU and 60 healthy controls (28 AA and 32 CAU. The results showed that 30 genes had significant difference in expression between patients and controls (a fold change of 1.4 with a P value Conclusions These newly identified genetic markers in WBCs provide valuable information about the pathophysiology of T2D and can be used for diagnosis and pharmaceutical drug design. Our results also found that AA and CAU patients with T2D express genes and pathways differently.

  19. The effects of social status on biological aging as measured by white-blood-cell telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkas, L F; Aviv, A; Valdes, A M; Hunkin, J L; Gardner, J P; Surdulescu, G L; Kimura, M; Spector, T D

    2006-10-01

    Low socio-economic status (SES) is associated with a shortened life expectancy, but its effect on aging is unknown. The rate of white-blood-cell (WBC) telomere attrition may be a biological indicator of human aging. We tested the hypothesis that SES is associated with telomere attrition independent of known risk factors influencing the aging process. We studied 1552 female twins. A venous blood sample was taken from each twin and isolated WBCs used for extraction of DNA. Terminal restriction fragment length (TRFL) was measured. Questionnaire data were collected on occupation, education, income, smoking, exercise, height and weight. Standard multiple linear regression and multivariate analyses of variance tested for associations between SES and TRFL, adjusting for covariates. A discordant twin analysis was conducted on a subset to verify findings. WBC telomere length was highly variable but significantly shorter in lower SES groups. The mean difference in TRFL between nonmanual and manual SES groups was 163.2 base pairs (bp) of which 22.9 bp (approximately 14%) was accounted for by body mass index, smoking and exercise. Comparison of TRFL in the 17 most discordant SES twin pairs confirmed this difference. Low SES, in addition to the harmful effects of smoking, obesity and lack of exercise, appears to have an impact on telomere length.

  20. Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced arthritic rats: detailed histopathological study of the joints and white blood cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Taty Anna; Othman, Faizah; Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Md Isa, Nurismah; Das, Srijit

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizomes contains curcumin, an active compound which possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an accepted experimental animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. The present study aimed to observe the histological changes in the joints of experimental arthritic rats treated with curcumin. Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley (approximately 7 weeks-old) rats were randomly divided into four groups. Three groups were immunized with 150 µg collagen. All rats with established CIA, with arthritis scores exceeding 1, were orally treated with betamethasone (0.5 mg/ml/kg body weight), curcumin (110 mg/ml/kg body weight) or olive oil (1.0 ml/kg body weight) daily, for two weeks. One remaining group was kept as normal control. Treatment with 110 mg/ml/kg curcumin showed significant mean differences in the average white blood cell (WBC) count (pcurcumin supplementation successfully suppressed the pannus formation process that occurred in the articular cartilage of the CIA joints. The mean difference for histological scores for the curcumin group was insignificant compared to the betamethasone treated group. It is concluded that supplementation of curcumin has protective effect on the histopathological and degenerative changes in the joints of CIA rats which was at par with betamethasone.

  1. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pp 1003-1008. Harmening D. Clinical Hematology and Fundamentals of Hemostasis, Fifth Edition, F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, 2009, Pp 305-328. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson R, Pincus ...

  2. White Blood Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... sample? Analysis of cell surface proteins Chromosomal analysis Cultures for bacteria Determination of the original arrangement of ...

  3. Responses of proenkephalin Peptide F to aerobic exercise stress in the plasma and white blood cell biocompartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Fragala, Maren S; van Henegouwen, Wendy R H Beijersbergen; Gordon, Scott E; Bush, Jill A; Volek, Jeff S; Triplett, N Travis; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Szivak, Tunde K; Flanagan, Shawn D; Hooper, David R; Luk, Hui-Ying; Mastro, Andrea M

    2013-04-01

    Proenkephalin Peptide F [107-140] is an enkephalin-containing peptide found predominantly within the adrenal medulla, co-packaged with epinephrine within the chromaffin granules. In vivo studies indicate that Peptide F has classic opioid analgesia effects; in vitro studies suggest potential immune cell interactions. In this investigation we examined patterns of Peptide F concentrations in different bio-compartments of the blood at rest and following sub-maximal cycle exercise to determine if Peptide F interacts with the white blood cell (WBC) bio-compartment during aerobic exercise. Eight physically active men (n=8) performed sub-maximal (80-85% V˙O2peak) cycle ergometer exercise for 30 min. Plasma Peptide F and WBC Peptide F immunoreactivity were examined pre-exercise, mid-exercise and immediately post-, 5-min post-, 15-min post-, 30-min post- and 60-min post-exercise and at similar time-points during a control condition (30 min rest). Peptide F concentrations significantly (pexercise, compared to pre-exercise concentrations. No significant increases in Peptide F concentrations in the WBC fraction were observed during or after exercise. However, a significant decrease was observed at 30 min post-exercise. An ultradian pattern of Peptide F distribution was apparent during rest. Furthermore, concentrations of T cells, B cells, NK cells, and total WBCs demonstrated significant changes in response to aerobic exercise. Data indicated that Peptide F was bound in significant molar concentrations in the WBC fraction and that this biocompartment may be one of the tissue targets for binding interactions. These data indicate that Peptide F is involved with immune cell modulation in the white blood circulatory biocompartment of blood. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The use of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime labelled white blood cells to detect subclinical inflammation of the heart after cardiopulmonary bypass in children with congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao Chiahung; Wang Yenliang; Wang Shyhjen; Hsieh Kaisheng

    1992-01-01

    Ten children (6 boys and 4 girls, aged 1-9 years old) underwent operations with a cardiopulmonary bypass, and the technetium-99m hexamehtylpropylene amine oxine ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) labelled white blood cell (WBC) heart scans were used to detect postoperative leukocyte infiltration in the hearts. The results showed that 80% (8/10) of the cases had subclinical inflammation in the hearts (grading of WBC scans ≥score 2), and a positive correlation (R=0.77) was noted between the severity of the inflammation (grading of the WBC scans) and the duration of the cardiopulmonary bypass in the operations. Another control group (9 boys and 2 girls, aged 2-13 years old) underwent operations without a cardiopulmonary bypass, and subclinical inflammation of hearts was demonstrated in only 1 case (9%) by the 99m Tc-HMPAO labelled WBC scans (grading of WBC scans 99m Tc-HMPAO labelled WBC heart scans may provide non-invasive and directly discernible evidence of subclinical inflammation in the heart due to a transient ischaemic state during a cardiopulmonary bypass, even if the clinical symptoms and signs of carditis are not apparent. (orig.)

  5. The use of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime labelled white blood cells to detect subclinical inflammation of the heart after cardiopulmonary bypass in children with congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao Chiahung; Wang Yenliang; Wang Shyhjen (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Hsieh Kaisheng (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan). Dept. of Pediatrics)

    1992-11-01

    Ten children (6 boys and 4 girls, aged 1-9 years old) underwent operations with a cardiopulmonary bypass, and the technetium-99m hexamehtylpropylene amine oxine ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) labelled white blood cell (WBC) heart scans were used to detect postoperative leukocyte infiltration in the hearts. The results showed that 80% (8/10) of the cases had subclinical inflammation in the hearts (grading of WBC scans {>=}score 2), and a positive correlation (R=0.77) was noted between the severity of the inflammation (grading of the WBC scans) and the duration of the cardiopulmonary bypass in the operations. Another control group (9 boys and 2 girls, aged 2-13 years old) underwent operations without a cardiopulmonary bypass, and subclinical inflammation of hearts was demonstrated in only 1 case (9%) by the {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO labelled WBC scans (grading of WBC scans scans may provide non-invasive and directly discernible evidence of subclinical inflammation in the heart due to a transient ischaemic state during a cardiopulmonary bypass, even if the clinical symptoms and signs of carditis are not apparent. (orig.).

  6. Role of eicosanoids and white blood cells in the beneficial effects of limited reperfusion after ischemia-reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.J.; Cambria, R.A.; Dikdan, G.; Lysz, T.W.; Hobson, R.W. II

    1990-01-01

    Limiting the rate of reperfusion blood flow has been shown to be beneficial locally in models of ischemia-reperfusion injury. We investigated the effects of this on eicosanoids (thromboxane B2, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and leukotriene B4), white blood cell activation, and skeletal muscle injury as quantitated by triphenyltetrazolium chloride and technetium-99m pyrophosphate after ischemia-reperfusion injury in an isolated gracilis muscle model in 16 anesthetized dogs. One gracilis muscle in each dog was subjected to 6 hours of ischemia followed by 1 hour of limited reperfusion and then by a second hour of normal reperfusion. The other muscle was subjected to 6 hours of ischemia followed by 2 hours of normal reperfusion. Six dogs each were used as normal reperfusion controls (NR) and limited reperfusion controls (LR), with 5 dogs being treated with a thromboxane synthetase inhibitor (LR/TSI) and another five with a leukotriene inhibitor (LR/LI). LR in all three groups (LR, LR/TSI, and LR/LI) showed a benefit in skeletal muscle injury as measured by triphenyltetrazolim chloride and technetium-99m pyrophosphate when compared with NR. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with LR regarding eicosanoid levels and white blood cell activation when compared with NR. These results demonstrate that LR produces benefits by mechanisms other than those dependent upon thromboxane A2, prostacyclin, or white blood cell activation

  7. Acute abdomen. Akutes Abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beger, H.G.; Kern, E. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    The book first presents the anatomy and physiology of the abdomen and continues with chapters discussing clinical and laboratory aspects and a suitable order of diagnostic examinations with reference to the acute processes, explaining the diagnostic tools: ultrasonography, radiography including angiography and CT, tapping techniques and endoscopy together with their basic principles, examination techniques, and diagnosis. One chapter presents a complete survey of the processes involving the entire abdomen - as e.g. peritonitis, ileus, abdominal trauma, intraperitoneal hemorrage. This chapter profoundly discusses the diagnostics and therapies including emergency measures and surgery. Problems requiring consultation among varous specialists, in internal medicine, gynecology, urology, or pediatrics, are discussed in great detail. Information for the anesthetist is given for cases of emergency. More than one third of the book is devoted to organ-specific information, dicussing the pathogenesis, diagnostics, and therapy of the oesophagus, stomach, large and small intestine, bile ducts, pankreas, liver, spleen, and the abdominal vessels and the abdominal wall. (orig.) With 153 figs., 90 tabs.

  8. White blood cells levels and PCOS: direct and indirect relationship with obesity and insulin resistance, but not with hyperandogenemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalou, Olga; Livadas, Sarantis; Karachalios, Athanasios; Tolia, Nikoleta; Kokkoris, Panayiotis; Tripolitakis, Konstantinos; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2015-01-01

    To study white blood cells count (WBC) in women suffering from PCOS and compare these results with age and BMI-matched healthy women. The specific aim of this study was to assess the possible correlations of WBC with the major components of PCOS, obesity, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. Anthropometrical, metabolic and hormonal data were analyzed from 203 women with PCOS (NIH criteria) and 76 age-matched controls. In the total population studied (N=279), WBC was significantly higher (P=0.003) in the PCOS group compared with age-matched healthy women and was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.461, pPCOS women, the role of central adiposity is assessed only in this group. Multiple regression analysis in the PCOS group, including WHR, revealed BMI, SHBG and TGL as the main predicting factors of WBC. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was also conducted and overweight/obesity was the sole independent risk factor for elevated WBC (higher tertile) (OR:0.907 CI:0.85-0.96, p=0.002). After dividing the sample based on BMI in the lean subgroups, WBC did not differ significantly between PCOS and controls, while multiple regression analysis indicated SHBG as the main predicting factor of WBC. Finally, we picked out the group of overweight/obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) women with PCOS and conducted another classification based on HOMA score (HOMA-IR≤2: insulin-sensitive women, HOMA-IR>2: insulin-resistant women) in the group of overweight and obese women with PCOS separately. In overweight women with PCOS, WBC, although higher in the group of insulin-resistant, did not differ significantly between the two groups, while in the subcategory of overweight women WBC was significantly (p=0.02) higher in the group of insulin-resistant women (HOMA-IR >2). Chronic low-grade inflammation and increased white cell count do occur in PCOS. Obesity and insulin resistance are the two leading parameters that act accumulatively in the development of leucocytosis, whereas

  9. Neutrophil to lymphocyte with monocyte to lymphocyte ratio and white blood cell count in prediction of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thang Thanh Phan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths in both sexes, while it is very difficult for screenings and early detection. Aims This study aims to clarify the role of systematic inflammation markers, including white blood cell (WBC, neutrophil (NEU, monocyte (MONO, platelet (PLT, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR, monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR in prediction of lung cancer. Methods A case-control study was conducted on 1,315 primary lung cancer patients and 1,315 healthy adults with matched age and gender at Cho Ray hospital. NLR, MLR and PLR were calculated by using neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet count which were recalled from laboratory database. With 600 cases in the derivation set, the logistic regression with univariate analysis was used to identify the impacted marker, then developing the optimal prediction model for lung cancer by logistic regression with multivariate method. The diagnostic values of optimal model consisting of sensitivity (Sen, specificity (Spe, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and the area under the ROC curve (AUC value were extracted and verified on all data, in validation set. Results The median values of WBC, NEU, MONO, PLT, NLR, MLR and PLR in lung cancer were not significantly difference between histological subtypes and clinical stages (p > 0.05, but higher than the values in control group (p < 0.01. Multivariates analysis shows that NLR, MLR and WBC were three parameters that have the significant impact of the optimal prediction model (p < 0.01. The AUC value, sensitivity and specificity of the optimal model for lung cancer detection were 0.881, 73.5 per cent (95 per cent CI:70.3–76.6 and 87.7 per cent (95 per centCI:85.2–89.9, respectively. Whereas, the PPV and NPV values of prediction model were 85.7 per cent (95 per cent CI:82.8–88.2 and 76.8 (95 per centCI:73.9–79.5, respectively. Among three

  10. Protein O-GlcNAc Modification Increases in White Blood Cells After a Single Bout of Physical Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Tamás; Kátai, Emese; Fisi, Viktória; Takács, Tamás Tibor; Stréda, Antal; Wittmann, István; Miseta, Attila

    2018-01-01

    Protein O-linked N -acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a dynamic posttranslational modification influencing the function of many intracellular proteins. Recently it was revealed that O-GlcNAc regulation is modified under various stress states, including ischemia and oxidative stress. Aside from a few contradictory studies based on animal models, the effect of exercise on O-GlcNAc is unexplored. To evaluate O-GlcNAc levels in white blood cells (WBC) of human volunteers following physical exercise. Young (age 30 ± 5.2), healthy male volunteers ( n  = 6) were enlisted for the study. Blood parameters including metabolites, ions, "necro"-enzymes, and cell counts were measured before and after a single bout of exercise (2-mile run). From WBC samples, we performed western blots to detect O-GlcNAc modified proteins. The distribution of O-GlcNAc in WBC subpopulations was assessed by flow cytometry. Elevation of serum lactic acid (increased from 1.3 ± 0.4 to 6.9 ± 1.7 mM), creatinine (from 77.5 ± 6.3 U/L to 102.2 ± 7.0 μM), and lactate dehydrogenase (from 318.5 ± 26.2 to 380.5 ± 33.2 U/L) confirmed the effect of exercise. WBC count also significantly increased (from 6.6 ± 1.0 to 8.4 ± 1.4 G/L). The level of O-GlcNAc modified proteins in WBCs showed significant elevation after exercise (85 ± 51%, p  O-GlcNAc status of WBCs. O-GlcNAc modification could be a natural process by which physical activity modulates the immune system. Further research could elucidate the role of O-GlcNAc during exercise and validate O-GlcNAc as a biomarker for fitness assessment.

  11. High white blood cell count at diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: biological background and prognostic impact. Results from the NOPHO ALL-92 and ALL-2000 studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkeviciene, G; Forestier, E; Hellebostad, M

    2011-01-01

    Prognostic impact of peripheral blood white blood cell count (WBC) at the diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) was evaluated in a population-based consecutive series of 2666 children aged 1–15 treated for ALL between 1992 and 2008 in the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland.......58) and for T-ALL (pEFS5y 0.71 vs. 0.38). Whether the inferior EFS for the subset of patients with high WBC and slow initial response to treatment reflects rare or overlooked cytogenetic aberrations as well as the factors that determine WBC levels at diagnosis awaits exploration....

  12. C-reactive protein and white blood cell levels in schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and depression - associations with mortality and psychiatric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsdal, H T; Köhler-Forsberg, O; Benros, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mental disorders have been associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers, which can affect disease trajectories. We aimed to assess levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cells (WBC) across individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression......, and to investigate associations with subsequent psychiatric admission and mortality. METHODS: We identified all adults in the Central Denmark Region during 2000-2012 with a first diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression and a baseline measurement of CRP and/or WBC count. We followed.......5mg/L) (particularly during manic states, 3.9mg/L), followed by schizophrenia (3.1mg/L), and depression (2.8mg/L), while baseline WBC count did not differ (median 7.1×10(9)/L). Elevated CRP levels were associated with increased all-cause mortality by adjusted HRs of 1.56 (95% CI: 1.02-2.38) for levels...

  13. Typical signature of DNA damage in white blood cells: a pilot study on etheno adducts in Danish mother-newborn child pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arab, K; Pedersen, Marie; Nair, J

    2009-01-01

    The impact of DNA damage commonly thought to be involved in chronic degenerative disease causation is particularly detrimental during fetal development. Within a multicenter study, we analyzed 77 white blood cell (WBC) samples from mother-newborn child pairs to see if imprinting of DNA damage...... in mother and newborn shows a similar pattern. Two adducts 1,N(6)-ethenodeoxyadenosine (epsilondA) and 3,N(4)-ethenodeoxycytidine (epsilondC) were measured by our ultrasensitive immunoaffinity (32)P-post-labeling method. These miscoding etheno-DNA adducts are generated by the reaction of lipid peroxidation...... arising from endogenous reactive aldehydes in WBC of both mother and newborn can be reliably assessed by epsilondA and epsilondC as biomarkers. The high correlation of etheno adduct levels in mother and child WBC suggests that a typical signature of DNA damage is induced similarly in fetus and mother...

  14. Usefulness of estimation of blood procalcitonin concentration versus C-reactive protein concentration and white blood cell count for therapeutic monitoring of sepsis in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kordek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was intended to assess the clinical usefulness of blood procalcitonin (PCT concentrations for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of nosocomial neonatal sepsis.Material/Methods: The enrolment criterion was sepsis clinically manifesting after three days of life. PCT concentrations were measured in venous blood from 52 infected and 88 uninfected neonates. The results were interpreted against C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations and white blood cell counts (WBC.Results: Differences between the two groups in PCT and CRP concentrations were highly significant. No significant differences between the groups were noted for WBC. The threshold value on the receiver operator characteristic curve was 2.06 ng/mL for PCT (SE 75%; SP 80.68%; PPV 62.22%; NPV 88.75%; AUC 0.805, 5.0 mg/L for CRP (SE 67.44%; SP 73.68%; PPV 42.02%; NPV 88.89%; AUC 0.801, and 11.9 x109/L for WBC (SE 51.16%; SP 50.68%; PPV 23.16%; NPV 78.13%; AUC 0.484. Procalcitonin concentrations decreased 24 hours after initiation of antibiotic therapy and reverted to the control level after 5-7 days. C-reactive protein concentrations began to decline after two days of antibiotic therapy but were still higher than in the control group after 5-7 days of treatment. No significant changes in WBC during the treatment were observed.Conclusions: Procalcitonin concentrations in blood appear to be of use for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of nosocomial infections in neonates as this parameter demonstrates greater sensitivity and specificity than C-reactive protein. White blood cell counts appear to be of little diagnostic value in the early phase of infection or for therapeutic monitoring.

  15. Prevalence and Severity of Off-Centering During Diagnostic CT: Observations From 57,621 CT scans of the Chest, Abdomen, and/or Pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin-Akintayo, Oladunni O; Alexander, Lauren F; Neill, Rebecca; Krupinksi, Elizabeth A; Tang, Xiangyang; Mittal, Pardeep K; Small, William C; Moreno, Courtney C

    2018-02-23

    To determine distances between patient centroid and gantry isocenter during CT imaging of the chest, abdomen, and/or pelvis, and to evaluate differences based on patient gender, scan region, patient position, and gantry aperture. A water phantom and an anthropomorphic phantom were imaged in the centered position in the CT gantry and at several off-centered positions. Additionally, data from 57,621 adult chest, abdomen, and/or pelvic CT acquisitions were evaluated. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using the centroid-to-isocenter data as the dependent variable and the other parameters as independent variables. The majority of patient acquisitions (83.7% (48271/57621)) were performed with the patient's centroid positioned below isocenter (mean 1.7 cm below isocenter (SD 1.8 cm); range 12.1 cm below to 7.8 cm above isocenter). Off-centering in the x-axis was less severe (mean 0.01 cm left of isocenter (SD 1.6 cm)). Distance between centroid and isocenter in the y-axis did not differ as a function of sex but did differ based on scan region, patient position, and gantry aperture. Off-centering is common during CT imaging and has been previously demonstrated to impact dose and image quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells in the detection of osteomyelitis complicated by a pre-existing condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K.; Velchik, M.G.; Alavi, A.; Mandell, G.A.; Esterhai, J.L.; Goll, S.

    1988-01-01

    Forty-six patients (23M, 23F) ranging in age from 19 to 79 yr with a clinical history of a nonunion fracture, surgery, diabetes or a soft-tissue infection were studied with [ 111 In]oxine WBCs to detect osteomyelitis. There were 27 true-positive, nine true-negative, two false-positive and one false-negative. The false-positives and the false-negative occurred in patients with soft-tissue infections overlying the area of interest. All diagnoses were confirmed by intraoperative bone biopsies and cultures. Bone biopsy and scan were performed within 2 days of each other in 39 patients. The overall sensitivity was 97% (27/28), specificity, 82% (9/11) and the diagnostic accuracy, 92% (36/39). The remaining seven patients had negative [ 111 In]WBC scans several months after positive bone biopsies and definite antibiotic treatment. This suggests that [In]WBC scans become negative after appropriate therapy is undertaken. Interobserver data was obtained from four nuclear physicians of varying experience blinded to clinical information. A high degree of agreement was found in over 90% of the cases. This study demonstrates the utility of [ 111 In]WBC scans in the diagnosis and follow-up of complicated osteomyelitis and a high level of interobserver agreement in scan interpretation

  17. The abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    Radiographic evaluation of the abdomen is obtained less often than that of the chest with the postoperative or critically ill patient. Because of the limitations in mobility with these patients, the studies are usually made with a portable radiographic unit and often require considerable assistance from the intensive care unit (ICU) staff. The technologist must use considerable care in obtaining these studies; optimal radiographic technique and careful patient positioning should result in a satisfactory radiograph so that the study will not have to be repeated. If a ''supine abdomen'' film is requested, the technologist will center the film to include the diaphragm; with a ''kidney-ureter-bladder'' film, the pelvis will be included and the diaphragm may not be seen. It is important to have as much clinical information as possible before interpreting any radiographs of the critically ill patient

  18. Acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wig J

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available 550 cases of acute abdomen have been analysed in detail includ-ing their clinical presentation and operative findings. Males are more frequently affected than females in a ratio of 3: 1. More than 45% of patients presented after 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Intestinal obstruction was the commonest cause of acute abdomen (47.6%. External hernia was responsible for 26% of cases of intestinal obstruction. Perforated peptic ulcer was the commonest cause of peritonitis in the present series (31.7% while incidence of biliary peritonitis was only 2.4%.. The clinical accuracy rate was 87%. The mortality in operated cases was high (10% while the over-all mortality rate was 7.5%.

  19. Keto analogues and amino acids supplementation induces a decrease of white blood cell counts and a reduction of muscle damage during intense exercise under thermoneutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R C P; Camerino, S R A S; França, T C L; Rodrigues, D S A; Gouveia, M G S; Ximenes-da-Silva, A; Bassini, A; Prado, E S; Cameron, L C

    2017-04-19

    This study evaluated the acute effect of keto analogue and amino acid (AA-KAAA) supplementation on both white blood cell counts and the established biomarkers of muscle damage during exercise under thermoneutral conditions. Sixteen male cyclists received a ketogenic diet for two days and were divided into two equal groups: a group taking AA-KAAA (KA) or a control group (PL). The athletes performed a two hour cycling session followed by a maximum incremental test until voluntary exhaustion (VExh). Blood samples were obtained at rest and during exercise for further hematological and biochemical analyses. Exercise-induced ammonemia increased in the PL group at VExh (75%) but remained unchanged in the KA group. Both groups exhibited a significant increase in leukocyte and neutrophil counts of ∼85% (∼13 × 10 9 L -1 ), but the shape of the lymphocytes and the eosinophil counts suggest that AA-KAAA supplementation helps prevent lymphocytosis. AA-KAAA supplementation induced a decrease in creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase levels at VExh while showing a significant decrease in lactate dehydrogenase at 120 min. We found that AA-KAAA supplementation decreases both the lymphocyte count response in blood and the established biomarkers of muscle damage after intense exercise under a low heat stress environment.

  20. De Novo Assembly of the Donkey White Blood Cell Transcriptome and a Comparative Analysis of Phenotype-Associated Genes between Donkeys and Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng-Yun; Feng, Yu-Long; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Yun-Feng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Yin-Chao; Shen, Wei; Pan, Qing-Jie; Yin, Shen; Sun, Yu-Jiang; Ma, Jun-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the mechanization of agriculture and labor-intensive tasks, humans used donkeys (Equus africanus asinus) for farm work and packing. However, as mechanization increased, donkeys have been increasingly raised for meat, milk, and fur in China. To maintain the development of the donkey industry, breeding programs should focus on traits related to these new uses. Compared to conventional marker-assisted breeding plans, genome- and transcriptome-based selection methods are more efficient and effective. To analyze the coding genes of the donkey genome, we assembled the transcriptome of donkey white blood cells de novo. Using transcriptomic deep-sequencing data, we identified 264,714 distinct donkey unigenes and predicted 38,949 protein fragments. We annotated the donkey unigenes by BLAST searches against the non-redundant (NR) protein database. We also compared the donkey protein sequences with those of the horse (E. caballus) and wild horse (E. przewalskii), and linked the donkey protein fragments with mammalian phenotypes. As the outer ear size of donkeys and horses are obviously different, we compared the outer ear size-associated proteins in donkeys and horses. We identified three ear size-associated proteins, HIC1, PRKRA, and KMT2A, with sequence differences among the donkey, horse, and wild horse loci. Since the donkey genome sequence has not been released, the de novo assembled donkey transcriptome is helpful for preliminary investigations of donkey cultivars and for genetic improvement.

  1. Segmentation of White Blood Cells From Microscopic Images Using a Novel Combination of K-Means Clustering and Modified Watershed Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghane, Narjes; Vard, Alireza; Talebi, Ardeshir; Nematollahy, Pardis

    2017-01-01

    Recognition of white blood cells (WBCs) is the first step to diagnose some particular diseases such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome, leukemia, and other blood-related diseases that are usually done by pathologists using an optical microscope. This process is time-consuming, extremely tedious, and expensive and needs experienced experts in this field. Thus, a computer-aided diagnosis system that assists pathologists in the diagnostic process can be so effective. Segmentation of WBCs is usually a first step in developing a computer-aided diagnosis system. The main purpose of this paper is to segment WBCs from microscopic images. For this purpose, we present a novel combination of thresholding, k-means clustering, and modified watershed algorithms in three stages including (1) segmentation of WBCs from a microscopic image, (2) extraction of nuclei from cell's image, and (3) separation of overlapping cells and nuclei. The evaluation results of the proposed method show that similarity measures, precision, and sensitivity respectively were 92.07, 96.07, and 94.30% for nucleus segmentation and 92.93, 97.41, and 93.78% for cell segmentation. In addition, statistical analysis presents high similarity between manual segmentation and the results obtained by the proposed method.

  2. De Novo Assembly of the Donkey White Blood Cell Transcriptome and a Comparative Analysis of Phenotype-Associated Genes between Donkeys and Horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yun Xie

    Full Text Available Prior to the mechanization of agriculture and labor-intensive tasks, humans used donkeys (Equus africanus asinus for farm work and packing. However, as mechanization increased, donkeys have been increasingly raised for meat, milk, and fur in China. To maintain the development of the donkey industry, breeding programs should focus on traits related to these new uses. Compared to conventional marker-assisted breeding plans, genome- and transcriptome-based selection methods are more efficient and effective. To analyze the coding genes of the donkey genome, we assembled the transcriptome of donkey white blood cells de novo. Using transcriptomic deep-sequencing data, we identified 264,714 distinct donkey unigenes and predicted 38,949 protein fragments. We annotated the donkey unigenes by BLAST searches against the non-redundant (NR protein database. We also compared the donkey protein sequences with those of the horse (E. caballus and wild horse (E. przewalskii, and linked the donkey protein fragments with mammalian phenotypes. As the outer ear size of donkeys and horses are obviously different, we compared the outer ear size-associated proteins in donkeys and horses. We identified three ear size-associated proteins, HIC1, PRKRA, and KMT2A, with sequence differences among the donkey, horse, and wild horse loci. Since the donkey genome sequence has not been released, the de novo assembled donkey transcriptome is helpful for preliminary investigations of donkey cultivars and for genetic improvement.

  3. A new prognostic index - leucocyte infiltration - in human cerebral infarcts by 99Tcm-HMPAO-labelled white blood cell brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.H.; Wang, P.Y.; Wang, Y.L.; Chang, L.; Wang, S.J.; Yeh, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-six patients with acute cerebral infarction were imaged by 99 Tc m -hexamethylpropylene-amine oxime (HMPAO)-labelled white blood cell brain (Tc-WBC) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The regions of interest were equally placed in the whole hemispheres of both sides with summation of all transaxial slices in the Tc-WBC SPECT. The asymmetric indices (AI) were calculated as 200 [|(right -left)|/(right + left)]. Grouping of patients with cerebral infarction was based on activities of daily living (ADL) at outcome. The results showed that the poor outcome patient group had a higher AI of Tc-WBC than that of the other patients (13.0 ± 3.0 S.E.M. versus 5.4 ± 1.0 S.E.M., and P < 0.05 by Wilcoxon rank sum test). In conclusion, the Tc-WBC SPECT may be considered as a new prognostic index to predict patient outcome in human cerebral ischaemic infarctions consistent with newly established ischaemic injury theories. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the performance of a point-of-care method for total and differential white blood cell count in clozapine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, H N; Bogers, J P A M; Cohen, D; Njo, T; Herruer, M H

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the performance of the HemoCue WBC DIFF, a point-of-care device for total and differential white cell count, primarily to test its suitability for the mandatory white blood cell monitoring in clozapine use. Leukocyte count and 5-part differentiation was performed by the point-of-care device and by routine laboratory method in venous EDTA-blood samples from 20 clozapine users, 20 neutropenic patients, and 20 healthy volunteers. From the volunteers, also a capillary sample was drawn. Intra-assay reproducibility and drop-to-drop variation were tested. The correlation between both methods in venous samples was r > 0.95 for leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts. The correlation between point-of-care (capillary sample) and routine (venous sample) methods for these cells was 0.772; 0.817 and 0.798, respectively. Only for leukocyte and neutrophil counts, the intra-assay reproducibility was sufficient. The point-of-care device can be used to screen for leukocyte and neutrophil counts. Because of the relatively high measurement uncertainty and poor correlation with venous samples, we recommend to repeat the measurement with a venous sample if cell counts are in the lower reference range. In case of clozapine therapy, neutropenia can probably be excluded if high neutrophil counts are found and patients can continue their therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Depression and anxiety symptoms are associated with white blood cell count and red cell distribution width: A sex-stratified analysis in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Mojtaba; Tayefi, Maryam; Hassanian, Seyed Mahdi; Ghaneifar, Zahra; Parizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Avan, Amir; Rahmani, Farzad; Khorasanchi, Zahra; Azarpajouh, Mahmoud Reza; Safarian, Hamideh; Moohebati, Mohsen; Heidari-Bakavoli, Alireza; Esmaeili, Habibolah; Nematy, Mohsen; Safarian, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Ferns, Gordon A; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid

    2017-10-01

    Depression and anxiety are two common mood disorders that are both linked to systemic inflammation. Increased white blood cell (WBC) count and red cell distribution width (RDW) are associated with negative clinical outcomes in a wide variety of pathological conditions. WBC is a non-specific inflammatory marker and RDW is also strongly related to other inflammatory markers. Therefore, we proposed that there might be an association between these hematological inflammatory markers and depression/anxiety symptoms. The primary objective of this study was to examine the association between depression/anxiety symptoms and hematological inflammatory markers including WBC and RDW in a large population-based study. Symptoms of depression and anxiety and a complete blood count (CBC) were measured in 9274 participants (40% males and 60% females) aged 35-65 years, enrolled in a population-based cohort (MASHAD) study in north-eastern Iran. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were evaluated using the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. The mean WBC count increased with increasing severity of symptoms of depression and anxiety among men. Male participants with severe depression had significantly higher values of RDW (panxiety symptoms had significantly higher values of RDW (panxiety. Our results suggest that higher depression and anxiety scores are associated with an enhanced inflammatory state, as assessed by higher hematological inflammatory markers including WBC and RDW, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beger, H.G.; Kern, E.

    1987-01-01

    The book first presents the anatomy and physiology of the abdomen and continues with chapters discussing clinical and laboratory aspects and a suitable order of diagnostic examinations with reference to the acute processes, explaining the diagnostic tools: ultrasonography, radiography including angiography and CT, tapping techniques and endoscopy together with their basic principles, examination techniques, and diagnosis. One chapter presents a complete survey of the processes involving the entire abdomen - as e.g. peritonitis, ileus, abdominal trauma, intraperitoneal hemorrage. This chapter profoundly discusses the diagnostics and therapies including emergency measures and surgery. Problems requiring consultation among varous specialists, in internal medicine, gynecology, urology, or pediatrics, are discussed in great detail. Information for the anesthetist is given for cases of emergency. More than one third of the book is devoted to organ-specific information, dicussing the pathogenesis, diagnostics, and therapy of the oesophagus, stomach, large and small intestine, bile ducts, pankreas, liver, spleen, and the abdominal vessels and the abdominal wall. (orig.) With 153 figs., 90 tabs [de

  7. The effects of strawberry tree water leaf extract, arbutin and hydroquinone on haematological parameters and levels of primary DNA damage in white blood cells of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurica, Karlo; Brčić Karačonji, Irena; Kopjar, Nevenka; Shek-Vugrovečki, Ana; Cikač, Tihana; Benković, Vesna

    2018-04-06

    Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L., Ericaceae) leaves represent a potent source of biologically active compounds and have been used for a long to relieve symptoms of various health impairments and diseases. Two major compounds related to their beneficial activities in animals and humans are arbutin and hydroquinone. To establish potential benefit/risk ratio associated with daily oral administration of strawberry tree water leaf extract, arbutin and hydroquinone in doses expected to be non-toxic. We performed a 14-day and a 28-day study on male and female Lewis rats and evaluated main haematological parameters and the effects of treatments on the levels of primary DNA damage in white blood cells (WBC) using the alkaline comet assay. Our findings suggest no significant changes in the haematological parameters following prolonged exposure to strawberry tree water leaf extract, arbutin, and hydroquinone. However, hydroquinone causes increased, and extract as well as arbutin decreased WBC count in male rats compared to control after 14 days of treatment. DNA damage measured in WBC of rats treated with all compounds was below 10% of the DNA in the comet tail, which indicates low genotoxicity. The genotoxic potential of strawberry water leaf extract was within acceptable limits and reflected effects of a complex chemical composition upon DNA. We also observed slight gender- and exposure time- related differences in primary DNA damage in the leucocytes of control and treated rats. Future studies should investigate which doses of strawberry tree water leaf extract would be most promising for the potential use as a substitute for bearberry leaves for treatment of urinary infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Can intrinsic human tissue radiosensitivity be correlated with late responding gene RNA expression in white blood cells using a 96 gene micro-array?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, D.; Streeter, O.; Dagliyan, G.; Hill, C.K.; Williams-Hill, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation is widely used in the treatment of cancers. It is generally believed there is a sigmoid relationship between radiation dose and probability of cure. There is also a sigmoid relationship between radiation dose and normal tissue response. Generally total radiation dose to a tumor is limited by normal tissue tolerance. It has been postulated that up to 70% of inter-individual differences in radiosensitivity may be due to genetic predisposition (Tureson I. Et al, IJROBP, 1996;36:1065). However, to date, clinicians have no way of estimating or predicting an individual's normal tissue response to radiation exposure. Thus the prescribed dose cannot be tailored to an individuals actual expected response but is an empirically derived compromise based on experience. Although a number of studies using cellular techniques have shown that human cell radiosensitivity can be measured, none of these can be performed quick enough to be used in the clinic. In this study we are looking at gene expression that occurs some 24 hours after an exposure compared to expression before any exposure in peripheral white blood cells from patients undergoing radiotherapy for various tumors. The patients will be followed for overt radiation sensitivity by standard criteria by clinicians in the Department. The main aims are: does RNA expression level in a 96 gene micro-array vary before and after radiation and do these changes in RNA expression correlate with the objective measurements of acute radiation response observed by the clinicians in the patients. The USC IRB recently approved the protocol and human consent for this study to enter 50 patients in the next 12 months using mostly head and neck and endometrial cancer patients where we can get a normal tissue sample to examine as well as the blood sample. We will present the rationale, protocol, methods and early results in detail

  9. Age-Associated ALU Element Instability in White Blood Cells Is Linked to Lower Survival in Elderly Adults: A Preliminary Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Garrett Morgan

    Full Text Available ALU element instability could contribute to gene function variance in aging, and may partly explain variation in human lifespan.To assess the role of ALU element instability in human aging and the potential efficacy of ALU element content as a marker of biological aging and survival.Preliminary cohort study.We measured two high frequency ALU element subfamilies, ALU-J and ALU-Sx, by a single qPCR assay and compared ALU-J/Sx content in white blood cell (WBCs and skeletal muscle cell (SMCs biopsies from twenty-three elderly adults with sixteen healthy sex-balanced young adults; all-cause survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues; and cardiovascular disease (CVD- and cancer-specific survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues, as planned subgroup analyses.We found greater ALU-J/Sx content variance in WBCs from elderly adults than young adults (P < 0.001 with no difference in SMCs (P = 0.94. Elderly adults with low WBC ALU-J/Sx content had worse four-year all-cause and CVD-associated survival than those with high ALU-J/Sx content (both P = 0.03 and hazard ratios (HR ≥ 3.40, while WBC ALU-J/Sx content had no influence on cancer-associated survival (P = 0.42 and HR = 0.74. SMC ALU-J/Sx content had no influence on all-cause, CVD- or cancer -associated survival (all P ≥ 0.26; HR ≤ 2.07.These initial findings demonstrate that ALU element instability occurs with advanced age in WBCs, but not SMCs, and imparts greater risk of all-cause mortality that is likely driven by an increased risk for CVD and not cancer.

  10. White blood cells and subtypes in HFE p.C282Y and wild-type homozygotes in the Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, James C; Barton, J Clayborn; Acton, Ronald T

    2017-03-01

    The major histocompatibility complex is linked to white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts in subjects unselected for HFE genotypes. We compared age, sex, body mass index, total WBC and subtypes (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils) (Beckman Coulter® Gen-S), transferrin saturation, and serum ferritin of HFE p.C282Y and wild-type (p.C282Y, p.H63D negative) homozygotes without acquired conditions that influence WBC counts. We performed regressions on WBC and subtypes. There were 161 p.C282Y homozygotes (45.3% men) and 221 wild-type homozygotes (40.3% men). Mean WBC of men and women and between HFE genotypes were similar. Mean lymphocytes were higher in male p.C282Y homozygotes: 1.6×10 9 /L [95% confidence interval: 1.5,1.7] vs. 1.4 [1.3,1.5], p=0.0002. Mean lymphocytes and basophils were higher in female p.C282Y homozygotes: 1.6 [1.5,1.7] vs. 1.4 [1.3,1.5], p=0.0002; and 0.065 [0.059,0.071] vs. 0.052 [0.051,0.054], p=0.0001, respectively. Transferrin saturation was associated with neutrophils (negative; p=0.0163). Age was associated with lymphocytes (negative; p=0.0003) and monocytes (positive; p<0.0001). Regressions on lymphocytes and basophils revealed positive associations with p.C282Y homozygosity (p=0.0043 and 0.0003, respectively). There were significant positive associations of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils. We conclude that HFE p.C282Y homozygosity is significantly associated with lymphocyte and basophil counts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CD20 positivity and white blood cell count predict treatment outcomes in Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients ineligible for pediatric-inspired chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isshiki, Yusuke; Ohwada, Chikako; Sakaida, Emiko; Onoda, Masahiro; Aotsuka, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Fukazawa, Motoharu; Cho, Ryuko; Sugawara, Takeaki; Kawaguchi, Takeharu; Hara, Satoru; Yokota, Akira

    2017-11-01

    The efficacy of conventional chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) has been controversial as post-remission therapies for adult Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. We retrospectively analyzed 96 adolescent and adult cases of Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia to evaluate whether allo-HSCT should be performed after first complete remission (1CR). In total, 34 patients received chemotherapy followed by allo-HSCT (HSCT group) and 62 received chemotherapy alone (chemotherapy group). No significant differences in the event-free survival (EFS) or overall survival were observed between the two groups. In the chemotherapy group, use of pediatric regimens was significantly associated with favorable EFS, while high white blood cell (WBC) count and CD20 positivity were associated with poor outcome. In patients who received pediatric regimens, subsequent allo-HSCT did not influence EFS. In patients who received conventional chemotherapy (adult regimen), subsequent allo-HSCT did not improve EFS. High WBC count and CD20 positivity were also significantly associated with poor EFS in patients who received adult regimens. Patients with low WBC count and absence of CD20 who received adult regimens did not benefit from allo-HSCT. Allo-HSCT may not be required in the pediatric regimen-eligible patients; however, pediatric regimen-ineligible patients with either CD20 positivity or high WBC count should receive allo-HSCT after achieving 1CR. This study was registered at http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/ as #C000016287. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Characteristics of Febrile Patients with Normal White Blood Cell Counts and High C-Reactive Protein Levels in an Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Ting Liu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Fever is one of the more common chief complaints of patients who visit emergency departments (ED. Many febrile patients have markedly elevated C-reactive protein (CRP levels and normal white blood cell (WBC counts. Most of these patients have bacterial infection and no previous underlying disease of impaired WBC functioning. We reviewed patients who visited our ED between November 2003 and July 2004. The WBC count and CRP level of patients over 18 years of age who visited the ED because of or with fever were recorded. Patients who had normal WBC count (4,000–10,000/mL and high CRP level (> 100 mg/L were included. The data, including gender, age and length of hospital stay, were reviewed. Underlying diseases, diagnosis of the febrile disease and final condition were recorded according to the chart. Within the study period, 54,078 patients visited our ED. Of 5,628 febrile adults, 214 (3.8% had elevated CRP level and normal WBC count. The major cause of febrility was infection (82.24%. Most of these patients were admitted (92.99%. There were 32 patients with malignant neoplasm, nine with liver cirrhosis, 66 with diabetes mellitus and 11 with uremia. There were no significant differences in age and gender between patients with and those without neoplasm. However, a higher inhospital mortality rate and other causes of febrility were noted in patients with neoplasm. It was not rare in febrile patients who visited the ED to have a high CRP level but normal WBC count. These patients did not necessarily have an underlying malignant neoplasm or hematologic illness. Factors other than malignant neoplasm or hematologic illness may be associated with the WBC response, and CRP may be a better indicator of infection under such conditions.

  13. The role of donor characteristics and post-granulocyte colony-stimulating factor white blood cell counts in predicting the adverse events and yields of stem cell mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Huey; Yang, Shang-Hsien; Chu, Sung-Chao; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chang, Chu-Yu; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Kao, Ruey-Ho; Li, Dian-Kun; Yang, Kuo-Liang; Wang, Tso-Fu

    2011-05-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is now widely used for stem cell mobilization. We evaluated the role of post-G-CSF white blood cell (WBC) counts and donor factors in predicting adverse events and yields associated with mobilization. WBC counts were determined at baseline, after the third and the fifth dose of G-CSF in 476 healthy donors. Donors with WBC ≥ 50 × 10(3)/μL post the third dose of G-CSF experienced more fatigue, myalgia/arthralgia, and chills, but final post-G-CSF CD34(+) cell counts were similar. Although the final CD34(+) cell count was higher in donors with WBC ≥ 50 × 10(3)/μL post the fifth G-CSF, the incidence of side effects was similar. Females more frequently experienced headache, nausea/anorexia, vomiting, fever, and lower final CD34(+) cell count than did males. Donors with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 showed higher incidences of sweat and insomnia as well as higher final CD34(+) cell counts. Donor receiving G-CSF ≥ 10 μg/kg tended to experience bone pain, headache and chills more frequently. Multivariate analysis indicated that female gender is an independent factor predictive of the occurrence of most side effects, except for ECOG > 1 and chills. Higher BMI was also an independent predictor for fatigue, myalgia/arthralgia, and sweat. Higher G-CSF dose was associated with bone pain, while the WBC count post the third G-CSF was associated with fatigue only. In addition, one donor in the study period did not complete the mobilization due to suspected anaphylactoid reaction. Observation for 1 h after the first injection of G-CSF is required to prevent complications from unpredictable side effects.

  14. Maintenance therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia revisited-Should drug doses be adjusted by white blood cell, neutrophil, or lymphocyte counts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Nersting, Jacob; Nielsen, Stine Nygaard; Heyman, Mats; Wesenberg, Finn; Kristinsson, Jon; Vettenranta, Kim; Schrøeder, Henrik; Weinshilboum, Richard; Jensen, Katrine Lykke; Grell, Kathrine; Rosthoej, Susanne

    2016-12-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (6MP) and methotrexate (MTX) based maintenance therapy is a critical phase of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. Wide interindividual variations in drug disposition warrant frequent doses adjustments, but there is a lack of international consensus on dose adjustment guidelines. To identify relapse predictors, we collected 28,255 data sets on drug doses and blood counts (median: 47/patient) and analyzed erythrocyte (Ery) levels of cytotoxic 6MP/MTX metabolites in 9,182 blood samples (median: 14 samples/patient) from 532 children on MTX/6MP maintenance therapy targeted to a white blood cell count (WBC) of 1.5-3.5 × 10 9 /l. After a median follow-up of 13.8 years for patients in remission, stepwise Cox regression analysis did not find age, average doses of 6MP and MTX, hemoglobin, absolute lymphocyte counts, thrombocyte counts, or Ery levels of 6-thioguanine nucleotides or MTX (including its polyglutamates) to be significant relapse predictors. The parameters significantly associated with risk of relapse (N = 83) were male sex (hazard ratio [HR] 2.0 [1.3-3.1], P = 0.003), WBC at diagnosis (HR = 1.04 per 10 × 10 9 /l rise [1.00-1.09], P = 0.048), the absolute neutrophil count (ANC; HR = 1.7 per 10 9 /l rise [1.3-2.4], P = 0.0007), and Ery thiopurine methyltransferase activity (HR = 2.7 per IU/ml rise [1.1-6.7], P = 0.03). WBC was significantly related to ANC (Spearman correlation coefficient, r s  = 0.77; P best hematological target for dose adjustments of maintenance therapy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Relationship between high white blood cell count and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in Korean children and adolescents: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J-M; Lee, D-C; Lee, Y-J

    2017-05-01

    Increasing evidence has indicated that insulin resistance is associated with inflammation. However, few studies have investigated the association between white blood cell (WBC) count and insulin resistance, as measured by a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a general pediatric population. This study aimed to examine the association between WBC count and insulin resistance as measured by HOMA-IR in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents. In total, 2761 participants (1479 boys and 1282 girls) aged 10-18 years were selected from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Insulin resistance was defined as a HOMA-IR value greater than the 90th percentile. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for insulin resistance were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. The mean values of most cardiometabolic variables tended to increase proportionally with WBC count quartiles. The prevalence of insulin resistance significantly increased in accordance with WBC count quartiles in both boys and girls. Compared to individuals in the lowest WBC count quartile, the odds ratio for insulin resistance for individuals in the highest quartile was 2.84 in boys and 3.20 in girls, after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and waist circumference. A higher WBC count was positively associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in Korean children and adolescents. This study suggests that WBC count could facilitate the identification of children and adolescents with insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of preapheresis white blood cell count on autologous peripheral blood stem cell collection efficiency and HSC infusion side effect rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Araci M; Kondo, Andrea T; Yokoyama, Ana Paula H; Lira, Sanny M C; Bub, Carolina B; Souza, Aline M; Cipolletta, Andrea N F; Alvarez, Kelen C; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Kutner, Jose M; Chiattone, Carlos S

    2018-01-19

    Autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell (PBSC) collection efficiency (CE) is reportedly affected by the patient's blood properties; however, studies to identify factors correlated with CE have shown inconsistent results. Additionally, variables such as stem cell graft granulocyte content and patient age, sex, and underlying disease, may be associated with hematopietic stem cell (HSC) infusion-related adverse reactions. In this study, we evaluated the correlation of preleukapheresis PB granulocyte count and PBSC harvest variables with CD34 + collection yield and efficiency, and thawed HSC infusion side effect occurrence. We evaluated data from 361 patients who had undergone autologous PBSC transplant. Large volume leukapheresis was the method for PBSC collection. Complete Blood Count and CD34 + cell enumeration were performed in the preapheresis PB and the apheresis product sample. The PBSC grafts were submitted to non-controlled rate freezing after addition of 5% DMSO plus 6% hidroxyethylstarch as a cryoprotectant solution. The cryopreserved graft was thawed in a 37°C water bath and then infused without further manipulation. The CD34 + yield was associated with preapheresis PB CD34 + count and immature granulocyte count. The PBSC CE was negatively correlated with preapheresis white blood cell (WBC), immature granulocyte and granulocyte count. The leukapheresis product total nucleated cell (TNC) and granulocyte content was correlated with the thawed graft infusion side effect occurrence. This study has shown that preapheresis PB WBC and granulocyte counts were associated with leukapheresis CE. Additionally, the leukapheresis product TNC and granulocyte content was correlated with thawed graft infusion side effect occurrence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. White blood cell count, absolute neutrophil count, as predictors of hidden bacterial infections in febrile children 1-18 months of age without focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Majali, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To study the relationship between White Blood Cell (WBC), Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) in febrile children 1-18 months of age as predictor of bacterial infection, so as to improve our predictability of bacterial infections in emergency room to decrease unnecessary admissions and antibiotic use. Methods: Retrospective review was performed on febrile patients 1-18 months of age that were admitted to hospital between August 2002 and March 2003 on the presumptive diagnosis of fever without focus, Complete septic work up was done for all patients according to local hospital protocol including Complete blood count (CBC), blood culture, urine culture, Chest X-Ray (CXR) and lumbar puncture, Patients who had history of antibiotics use within 48 hours of admission were excluded from the study, History, physical examination, laboratory and radiology data were reviewed. Data about the age, sex, temperature, presence or absence of focal bacterial infection, WBC, ANC, CXR report and body fluid culture results were collected and analyzed. Results: Thirty-four patients were reviewed in this study, Eight patients (23.5%) had bacterial infection: classified as group (2 patchy pneumonia, 3 Urinary tract infection (UTI), 2 meningitis, 1 Occult bacteremia (OB) and 26 patients (76.5%) had no evidence of bacterial infection, classified as group 2, No significant difference was found between the two groups in respect to age, sex, temperature and WBC P>0.05, while there was a significant difference between the two groups in respect to the ANC P = 0.02, also ANC had better sensitivity (78%) and specificity (89%) than WBC (sensitivity 77%, specificity 62%). Conclusion: ANC is a good predictive test for determining bacterial infection in young febrile children without focus, However there is need for other more reliable rapid cost effective measures in dealing with young febrile children at emergency department. (author)

  18. Influence of vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation on genome wide expression of white blood cells: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hossein-nezhad

    Full Text Available Although there have been numerous observations of vitamin D deficiency and its links to chronic diseases, no studies have reported on how vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation affects broad gene expression in humans. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D status and subsequent vitamin D supplementation on broad gene expression in healthy adults. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409.A randomized, double-blind, single center pilot trial was conducted for comparing vitamin D supplementation with either 400 IUs (n = 3 or 2000 IUs (n = 5 vitamin D3 daily for 2 months on broad gene expression in the white blood cells collected from 8 healthy adults in the winter. Microarrays of the 16 buffy coats from eight subjects passed the quality control filters and normalized with the RMA method. Vitamin D3 supplementation that improved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations was associated with at least a 1.5 fold alteration in the expression of 291 genes. There was a significant difference in the expression of 66 genes between subjects at baseline with vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD20 ng/ml. After vitamin D3 supplementation gene expression of these 66 genes was similar for both groups. Seventeen vitamin D-regulated genes with new candidate vitamin D response elements including TRIM27, CD83, COPB2, YRNA and CETN3 which have been shown to be important for transcriptional regulation, immune function, response to stress and DNA repair were identified.Our data suggest that any improvement in vitamin D status will significantly affect expression of genes that have a wide variety of biologic functions of more than 160 pathways linked to cancer, autoimmune disorders and cardiovascular disease with have been associated with vitamin D deficiency. This study reveals for the first time molecular finger prints that help explain the nonskeletal health benefits of vitamin D.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409.

  19. Evaluation of lactate, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, procalcitonin and immature granulocyte count as biomarkers for sepsis in emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, Brad S; Tolan, Nicole V; Wockenfus, Amy M; Block, Darci R; Baumann, Nikola A; Bryant, Sandra C; Clements, Casey M

    2017-11-01

    Lactate, white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil count, procalcitonin and immature granulocyte (IG) count were compared for the prediction of sepsis, and severe sepsis or septic shock, in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). We prospectively enrolled 501 ED patients with a sepsis panel ordered for suspicion of sepsis. WBC, neutrophil, and IG counts were measured on a Sysmex XT-2000i analyzer. Lactate was measured by i-STAT, and procalcitonin by Brahms Kryptor. We classified patients as having sepsis using a simplification of the 1992 consensus conference sepsis definitions. Patients with sepsis were further classified as having severe sepsis or septic shock using established criteria. Univariate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine odds ratio (OR), area under the ROC curve (AUC), and sensitivity/specificity at optimal cut-off for prediction of sepsis (vs. no sepsis), and prediction of severe sepsis or septic shock (vs. no sepsis). There were 267 patients without sepsis; and 234 with sepsis, including 35 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Lactate had the highest OR (1.44, 95th% CI 1.20-1.73) for the prediction of sepsis; while WBC, neutrophil count and percent (neutrophil/WBC) had OR>1.00 (psepsis or septic shock, with an odds ratio (95th% CI) of 2.70 (2.02-3.61) and AUC 0.89 (0.82-0.96). Traditional biomarkers (lactate, WBC, neutrophil count, procalcitonin, IG) have limited utility in the prediction of sepsis. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential white blood cell count and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological evidence suggests that inflammation might induce type 2 diabetes (T2D, and epidemiological studies have shown an association between higher white blood cell count (WBC and T2D. However, the association has not been systematically investigated.Studies were identified through computer-based and manual searches. Previously unreported studies were sought through correspondence. 20 studies were identified (8,647 T2D cases and 85,040 non-cases. Estimates of the association of WBC with T2D were combined using random effects meta-analysis; sources of heterogeneity as well as presence of publication bias were explored.The combined relative risk (RR comparing the top to bottom tertile of the WBC count was 1.61 (95% CI: 1.45; 1.79, p = 1.5*10(-18. Substantial heterogeneity was present (I(2 = 83%. For granulocytes the RR was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.17; 1.64, p = 1.5*10(-4, for lymphocytes 1.26 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.56, p = 0.029, and for monocytes 0.93 (95% CI: 0.68; 1.28, p = 0.67 comparing top to bottom tertile. In cross-sectional studies, RR was 1.74 (95% CI: 1.49; 2.02, p = 7.7*10(-13, while in cohort studies it was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.22; 1.79, p = 7.7*10(-5. We assessed the impact of confounding in EPIC-Norfolk study and found that the age and sex adjusted HR of 2.19 (95% CI: 1.74; 2.75 was attenuated to 1.82 (95% CI: 1.45; 2.29 after further accounting for smoking, T2D family history, physical activity, education, BMI and waist circumference.A raised WBC is associated with higher risk of T2D. The presence of publication bias and failure to control for all potential confounders in all studies means the observed association is likely an overestimate.

  1. Effect of different doses of aerobic exercise on total white blood cell (WBC and WBC subfraction number in postmenopausal women: results from DREW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M Johannsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated total white blood cell (WBC count is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and death. Aerobic exercise is associated with lower total WBC, neutrophil, and monocyte counts. However, no studies have evaluated the effect of the amount of aerobic exercise (dose on total WBC and WBC subfraction counts. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 3 different doses of aerobic exercise on changes in total WBC and WBC subfraction counts and independent effects of changes in fitness, adiposity, markers of inflammation (IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, fasting glucose metabolism, and adiponectin. METHODS: Data from 390 sedentary, overweight/obese postmenopausal women from the DREW study were used in these analyses. Women were randomized to a non-exercise control group or one of 3 exercise groups: energy expenditure of 4, 8, or 12 kcal kg(-1⋅week(-1 (KKW for 6 months at an intensity of 50% VO2peak. RESULTS: A dose-dependent decrease in total WBC counts (trend P = 0.002 was observed with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-163.1±140.0 cells/µL; mean±95%CI compared with the control (138.6±144.7 cells/µL. A similar response was seen in the neutrophil subfraction (trend P = 0.001 with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-152.6±115.1 cells/µL compared with both the control and 4KKW groups (96.4±119.0 and 21.9±95.3 cells/µL, respectively and in the 8KKW group (-102.4±125.0 cells/µL compared with the control. When divided into high/low baseline WBC categories (median split, a dose-dependent decrease in both total WBCs (P = 0.003 and neutrophils (P<0.001 was observed in women with high baseline WBC counts. The effects of exercise dose on total WBC and neutrophil counts persisted after accounting for significant independent effects of change in waist circumference and IL-6. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise training reduces total WBC and neutrophil counts, in a dose-dependent manner, in

  2. Sex based levels of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharipour, Mojgan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash; Sadeghi, Masuomeh; Khosravi, Alireza; Masjedi, Mohsen; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2013-06-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults. In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp). Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the. In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures) and for those with and without MetS. The age and smoking adjusted changes in the CRP levels and WBC counts

  3. Associations of White Blood Cell Count,Alanine Aminotransferase,and Aspartate Aminotransferase in the First Trimester withGestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-li; Li, Wei; Ping, Fan; Ma, Liang-kun; Nie, Min

    2016-06-10

    Objective To explore the associations of white blood cell (WBC) count,alanine aminotransferase (ALT),and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) in the first trimester of pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods Totally 725 GDM women and 935 women who remained euglycemic throughout pregnancy were enrolled in this study. Pre-pregnancy weight/height were recorded. WBC,ALT,and AST levels were detected between 8 and 12 weeks of pregnancy.At 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy,the glucose and insulin levels were measured. The WBC,ALT,and AST levels were compared between two groups,and the associations of WBC,ALT,and AST levels with the blood glucose and insulin levels were retrospectively analyzed. Meanwhile,the potential associations of those factors with the occurrence of GDM were analzyed. Results WBC count [9.41(8.15,10.84)?10(9)/L vs. 9.04 (7.64,10.37)?10(9)/L,P=1.0?10(-5)] and ALT levels [18.00(12.00,30.00)U/L vs. 16.00 (11.00,26.00)U/L,P=0.004] in the first trimester of pregnancy were significantly increased in GDM subjects than in normal glucose tolerance(NGT)subjects;however,the AST level showed no significant difference between these two groups [41.00 (26.00,43.00)U/L vs. 41.00 (23.00,43.00)U/L,P=0.588]. Logistic regression analysis illustrated that elevated WBC count was an independent risk factor for GDM after adjustment for age,pre-pregnancy body mass index,blood pressure,and family history of diabetes(OR=1.119,P=0.001). The ROC curve revealed that threshold of WBC count was 7.965?10(9)/L(AUC=0.566,P=1?10(-5)),which had a sensitivity of 79.4% and a specificity of 31.3%. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was positively correlated with WBC count(B=0.051,P=0.022,R(2)=0.083);1-hour blood glucose after oral 50 grams of sugar (B=0.044,P=0.001,R(2)=0.044) and fasting plasma true insulin(B=0.214,P=0.032,R(2)=0.066) were positively correlated with WBC count;1-hour true insulin after 100 grams

  4. Impact of Consuming Extra-Virgin Olive Oil or Nuts within a Mediterranean Diet on DNA Methylation in Peripheral White Blood Cells within the PREDIMED-Navarra Randomized Controlled Trial: A Role for Dietary Lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Arpón, Ana; Milagro, Fermín I.; Razquin, Cristina; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Marti, Amelia; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Riezu-Boj, José-Ignacio; Martínez, J. Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation could be reversible and mouldable by environmental factors, such as dietary exposures. The objective was to analyse whether an intervention with two Mediterranean diets, one rich in extra-virgin olive oil (MedDiet + EVOO) and the other one in nuts (MedDiet + nuts), was influencing the methylation status of peripheral white blood cells (PWBCs) genes. A subset of 36 representative individuals were selected within the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED-Navarra) trial, wi...

  5. The Impact of the Progressive Efficiency Test on a Rowing Ergometer on White Blood Cells Distribution and Clinical Chemistry Changes in Paralympic Rowers During the Preparatory Stage Before the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Robert; Buryta, Rafał; Krupecki, Krzysztof; Zając, Tomasz; Zawartka, Marek; Proia, Patrizia; Kostrzewa-Nowak, Dorota

    2017-12-01

    There is a large gap in knowledge regarding research on post-exercise blood changes in disabled athletes. There are relatively few data on adaptive mechanisms to exercise in disabled athletes, including disabled rowers. Two rowers from a Polish adaptive rowing settle TAMix2x that qualified for the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 took part in this study. They performed a progressive test on a rowing ergometer until exhaustion. The cardiorespiratory fitness measures, complete blood count, white blood cells' distribution and 30 clinical chemistry variables describing laboratory diagnostic profiles and general health were determined. The extreme effort induced changes in all studied metabolites (glucose, creatinine, urea, uric acid, total and direct bilirubin), albumin, total protein levels in both participants. Furthermore, a post-exercise increase in aspartate transaminase activity, yet a 2-fold decrease during the recovery time in both rowers were found. White blood cell count increased 2-fold after the test. The percentages of natural killer cells were higher and total T lymphocytes were lower after the exercise protocol. There were higher percentages of suppressor/cytotoxic and lower percentages of helper/inducer T lymphocyte subsets in both studied rowers. No changes in B lymphocytes distribution were observed. Lack of inflammatory symptoms during the experiment suggests a high level of rowers' biological adaptation to the physical effort. The different changes in physiological, biochemical and immunological variables are related to the adaptive mechanism to physical exercise allowing for improvement of performance.

  6. Hyperleucocytosis in paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia - the challenge of white blood cell counts above 200 × 10(9) /l. The NOPHO experience 1984-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeller, Bernward; Glosli, Heidi; Forestier, Erik

    2017-01-01

    on very high white blood cell counts (WBC >200 × 10/l). Eighty-six patients (10%) had WBC 100-199 × 109 /l and 57 (6%) had WBC ≥200 × 109 /l. Patients with WBC ≥200 × 109 /l had a high frequency of t(9;11) and a paucity of trisomy 8. Due to the high frequency of deaths within the first 2 weeks (30% vs. 1......% for all others), overall survival in this group was inferior to patients with WBC vs. 61%). Main cause of early death was intracranial haemorrhage and leucostasis. Twenty-six per cent of these patients never started antileukaemic protocol therapy. Leukapheresis or exchange transfusion...... was used in 24% of patients with hyperleucocytosis without impact on survival. Patients with hyperleucocytosis surviving the first week had identical survival as patients with lower WBC. We conclude that death within the first days after diagnosis is the major challenge in patients with high WBC...

  7. Longer telomere length in peripheral white blood cells is associated with risk of lung cancer and the rs2736100 (CLPTM1L-TERT polymorphism in a prospective cohort study among women in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lan

    Full Text Available A recent genome-wide association study of lung cancer among never-smoking females in Asia demonstrated that the rs2736100 polymorphism in the TERT-CLPTM1L locus on chromosome 5p15.33 was strongly and significantly associated with risk of adenocarcinoma of the lung. The telomerase gene TERT is a reverse transcriptase that is critical for telomere replication and stabilization by controlling telomere length. We previously found that longer telomere length measured in peripheral white blood cell DNA was associated with increased risk of lung cancer in a prospective cohort study of smoking males in Finland. To follow up on this finding, we carried out a nested case-control study of 215 female lung cancer cases and 215 female controls, 94% of whom were never-smokers, in the prospective Shanghai Women's Health Study cohort. There was a dose-response relationship between tertiles of telomere length and risk of lung cancer (odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0, 1.4 [0.8-2.5], and 2.2 [1.2-4.0], respectively; P trend = 0.003. Further, the association was unchanged by the length of time from blood collection to case diagnosis. In addition, the rs2736100 G allele, which we previously have shown to be associated with risk of lung cancer in this cohort, was significantly associated with longer telomere length in these same study subjects (P trend = 0.030. Our findings suggest that individuals with longer telomere length in peripheral white blood cells may have an increased risk of lung cancer, but require replication in additional prospective cohorts and populations.

  8. Performance evaluation of XN-1000 Sysmex blood cell count of low value of white blood cell%Sysmex XN-1000血细胞分析仪计数低值白细胞性能的评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋清清; 马萍; 丁爽

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨 Sysmex XN‐1000(后简称 XN‐1000)全自动血细胞分析仪检测白细胞计数(WBC)及分类的准确性。方法收集该院2015年1~4月门诊及住院患者及健康体检者共206例,根据人工镜检检测 WBC 结果分为高值组(WBC >10.0×109/L),健康组(4.0×109/L < WBC ≤10.0×109/L)和低值组(1.5×109/L < WBC ≤4.0×109/L)。再分别用 XN‐1000与Sysmex XE‐5000(后简称 XE‐5000)进行 WBC 并分类。采用统计学软件对3种方法的结果进行对比分析,并进行相关性分析。结果3种方法检测 WBC 结果比较,高值组和健康组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),结果具有正相关性。低值组中,XN‐1000检测结果准确性与 XE‐5000差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但是白细胞分类结果显著高于 XE‐5000(P<0.05);对于异常细胞,XN‐1000和 XE‐5000不能进行有效分类,仍需人工镜检进行分类。结论 XN‐1000全自动血细胞分析仪在 WBC 与 XE‐5000及人工镜检比较无差异统计学意义,在测定白细胞分类上 XN‐1000较 XE‐5000更准确(XN‐1000合格率91%,XE‐5000合格率63%),但仍不能完全替代人工镜检。对于异常细胞,XN‐1000不能有效分类,需与人工镜检结合。%Objective To investigate the accuracy of XN‐1000 automatic blood cell analyzer in detecting of white blood cell (WBC) count and classification .Methods A total of 206 cases including outpatients ,inpatients and health people were collected in the hospital from January to April 2015 .According to manual microscopy detection of white blood cell count results ,the cases were divided into three groups :high value of white blood cell(WBC was more than 10 .0 × 109 /L) group ,normal value of white blood cells group(WBC was more than 4 .0 × 109 /L but less than 10 .0 × 109 /L) and low value of white blood cell(WBC was more than 1 .5 × 109 /L

  9. The value of indicated computed tomography scan of the chest and abdomen in addition to the conventional radiologic work-up for blunt trauma patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deunk, J.; Dekker, H.M.; Brink, M.; Vugt, R. van; Edwards, M.J.R.; Vugt, A.B. van

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multidetector computed tomography (CT) is more sensitive and specific in detecting traumatic injuries than conventional radiology is. However, still little is known about the diagnostic value and the therapeutic impact of indicated thoraco-abdominal CT scan when it is performed in

  10. The Impact of the Progressive Efficiency Test on a Rowing Ergometer on White Blood Cells Distribution and Clinical Chemistry Changes in Paralympic Rowers During the Preparatory Stage Before the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Robert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a large gap in knowledge regarding research on post-exercise blood changes in disabled athletes. There are relatively few data on adaptive mechanisms to exercise in disabled athletes, including disabled rowers. Two rowers from a Polish adaptive rowing settle TAMix2x that qualified for the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 took part in this study. They performed a progressive test on a rowing ergometer until exhaustion. The cardiorespiratory fitness measures, complete blood count, white blood cells’ distribution and 30 clinical chemistry variables describing laboratory diagnostic profiles and general health were determined. The extreme effort induced changes in all studied metabolites (glucose, creatinine, urea, uric acid, total and direct bilirubin, albumin, total protein levels in both participants. Furthermore, a post-exercise increase in aspartate transaminase activity, yet a 2-fold decrease during the recovery time in both rowers were found. White blood cell count increased 2-fold after the test. The percentages of natural killer cells were higher and total T lymphocytes were lower after the exercise protocol. There were higher percentages of suppressor/cytotoxic and lower percentages of helper/inducer T lymphocyte subsets in both studied rowers. No changes in B lymphocytes distribution were observed. Lack of inflammatory symptoms during the experiment suggests a high level of rowers’ biological adaptation to the physical effort. The different changes in physiological, biochemical and immunological variables are related to the adaptive mechanism to physical exercise allowing for improvement of performance.

  11. Supplementation with a fish oil-enriched, high-protein medical food leads to rapid incorporation of EPA into white blood cells and modulates immune responses within one week in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Joyce; Berkhout, Marloes; Vos, Arjan P; Sijben, John W C; Calder, Philip C; Garssen, Johan; van Helvoort, Ardy

    2011-05-01

    Immune modulatory effects of EPA and DHA are well described. However, these fatty acids must be effectively incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids to modify cell function. To address the absence of human data regarding short-term incorporation, the present study investigated the incorporation of EPA and DHA into white blood cells (WBC) at different time points during 1 wk of supplementation with a medical food, which is high in protein and leucine and enriched with fish oil and specific oligosaccharides. Additionally, the effects on ex vivo immune function were determined. In a single-arm, open label study, 12 healthy men and women consumed 2 × 200 mL of medical food providing 2.4 g EPA, 1.2 g DHA, 39.7 g protein (including 4.4 g L-leucine), and 5.6 g oligosaccharides daily. Blood samples were taken at d 0 (baseline), 1, 2, 4, and 7. Within 1 d of nutritional intervention, the percentage of EPA in phospholipids of WBC increased from 0.5% at baseline to 1.3% (P blood cultures was significantly increased within 1 wk. Nutritional supplementation with a fish oil-enriched medical food significantly increased the percentage of EPA in phospholipids of WBC within 1 wk. Simultaneously, ex vivo immune responsiveness to LPS increased significantly. These results hold promise for novel applications such as fast-acting nutritional interventions in cancer patients, which should be investigated in future studies.

  12. The Impact of the Progressive Efficiency Test on a Rowing Ergometer on White Blood Cells Distribution and Clinical Chemistry Changes in Paralympic Rowers During the Preparatory Stage Before the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 – A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Robert; Buryta, Rafał; Krupecki, Krzysztof; Zając, Tomasz; Zawartka, Marek; Proia, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There is a large gap in knowledge regarding research on post-exercise blood changes in disabled athletes. There are relatively few data on adaptive mechanisms to exercise in disabled athletes, including disabled rowers. Two rowers from a Polish adaptive rowing settle TAMix2x that qualified for the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 took part in this study. They performed a progressive test on a rowing ergometer until exhaustion. The cardiorespiratory fitness measures, complete blood count, white blood cells’ distribution and 30 clinical chemistry variables describing laboratory diagnostic profiles and general health were determined. The extreme effort induced changes in all studied metabolites (glucose, creatinine, urea, uric acid, total and direct bilirubin), albumin, total protein levels in both participants. Furthermore, a post-exercise increase in aspartate transaminase activity, yet a 2-fold decrease during the recovery time in both rowers were found. White blood cell count increased 2-fold after the test. The percentages of natural killer cells were higher and total T lymphocytes were lower after the exercise protocol. There were higher percentages of suppressor/cytotoxic and lower percentages of helper/inducer T lymphocyte subsets in both studied rowers. No changes in B lymphocytes distribution were observed. Lack of inflammatory symptoms during the experiment suggests a high level of rowers’ biological adaptation to the physical effort. The different changes in physiological, biochemical and immunological variables are related to the adaptive mechanism to physical exercise allowing for improvement of performance. PMID:29340006

  13. Impact of Consuming Extra-Virgin Olive Oil or Nuts within a Mediterranean Diet on DNA Methylation in Peripheral White Blood Cells within the PREDIMED-Navarra Randomized Controlled Trial: A Role for Dietary Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpón, Ana; Milagro, Fermín I; Razquin, Cristina; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Marti, Amelia; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Riezu-Boj, José-Ignacio; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2017-12-23

    DNA methylation could be reversible and mouldable by environmental factors, such as dietary exposures. The objective was to analyse whether an intervention with two Mediterranean diets, one rich in extra-virgin olive oil (MedDiet + EVOO) and the other one in nuts (MedDiet + nuts), was influencing the methylation status of peripheral white blood cells (PWBCs) genes. A subset of 36 representative individuals were selected within the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED-Navarra) trial, with three intervention groups in high cardiovascular risk volunteers: MedDiet + EVOO, MedDiet + nuts, and a low-fat control group. Methylation was assessed at baseline and at five-year follow-up. Ingenuity pathway analysis showed routes with differentially methylated CpG sites (CpGs) related to intermediate metabolism, diabetes, inflammation, and signal transduction. Two CpGs were specifically selected: cg01081346- CPT1B / CHKB-CPT1B and cg17071192- GNAS/GNASAS , being associated with intermediate metabolism. Furthermore, cg01081346 was associated with PUFAs intake, showing a role for specific fatty acids on epigenetic modulation. Specific components of MedDiet, particularly nuts and EVOO, were able to induce methylation changes in several PWBCs genes. These changes may have potential benefits in health; especially those changes in genes related to intermediate metabolism, diabetes, inflammation and signal transduction, which may contribute to explain the role of MedDiet and fat quality on health outcomes.

  14. Computer identification of white blood cells

    CERN Document Server

    Neurath, P W; Selles, W D; Gelsema, E S; Powell, B W; Gallus, G; Vastola, E

    1973-01-01

    The hardware and software problems for an effective image processing system are described, with a real time high speed system solution as the goal. The discriminating power of the algorithms has been tested in a simulation made on the PIQUANT film scanner and is between 67 and 92% depending on the definition of accuracy. The results are expected to be of value to firms designing and building commercial equipment and to prospective purchasers of it.

  15. Sorting white blood cells in microfabricated arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelino, Judith Andrea Rose

    Fractionating white cells in microfabricated arrays presents the potential for detecting cells with abnormal adhesive or deformation properties. A possible application is separating nucleated fetal red blood cells from maternal blood. Since fetal cells are nucleated, it is possible to extract genetic information about the fetus from them. Separating fetal cells from maternal blood would provide a low cost noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for genetic defects, which is not currently available. We present results showing that fetal cells penetrate further into our microfabricated arrays than adult cells, and that it is possible to enrich the fetal cell fraction using the arrays. We discuss modifications to the array which would result in further enrichment. Fetal cells are less adhesive and more deformable than adult white cells. To determine which properties limit penetration, we compared the penetration of granulocytes and lymphocytes in arrays with different etch depths, constriction size, constriction frequency, and with different amounts of metabolic activity. The penetration of lymphocytes and granulocytes into constrained and unconstrained arrays differed qualitatively. In constrained arrays, the cells were activated by repeated shearing, and the number of cells stuck as a function of distance fell superexponentially. In unconstrained arrays the number of cells stuck fell slower than an exponential. We attribute this result to different subpopulations of cells with different sticking parameters. We determined that penetration in unconstrained arrays was limited by metabolic processes, and that when metabolic activity was reduced penetration was limited by deformability. Fetal cells also contain a different form of hemoglobin with a higher oxygen affinity than adult hemoglobin. Deoxygenated cells are paramagnetic and are attracted to high magnetic field gradients. We describe a device which can separate cells using 10 μm magnetic wires to deflect the paramagnetic cells. We present preliminary results from a test system that separates paramagnetic beads from latex beads. The separation is limited by our ability to produce the high field gradients which are necessary to separate cells according to their hemoglobin content, and we present estimates of the magnetic gradients we achieved.

  16. WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pp 1003-1008. Harmening D. Clinical Hematology and Fundamentals of Hemostasis, Fifth Edition, F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, 2009, Pp 305-328. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson R, Pincus ...

  17. White blood cell count - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the hand. The puncture site is cleaned with antiseptic, and a tourniquet (an elastic band) or blood ... or young child: The area is cleansed with antiseptic and punctured with a sharp needle or a ...

  18. Optimization of the freezing process for hematopoietic progenitor cells: effect of precooling, initial dimethyl sulfoxide concentration, freezing program, and storage in vapor-phase or liquid nitrogen on in vitro white blood cell quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J; Setroikromo, Airies C; Kraan, Marcha; Gkoumassi, Effimia; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny

    2014-12-01

    Adding dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) causes an exothermic reaction, potentially affecting their viability. The freezing method might also influence this. The aim was to investigate the effect of 1) precooling of DMSO and plasma (D/P) and white blood cell (WBC)-enriched product, 2) DMSO concentration of D/P, 3) freezing program, and 4) storage method on WBC quality. WBC-enriched product without CD34+ cells was used instead of HPCs. This was divided into six or eight portions. D/P (20 or 50%; precooled or room temperature [RT]) was added to the WBC-enriched product (precooled or RT), resulting in 10% DMSO, while monitoring temperature. The product was frozen using controlled-rate freezing ("fast-rate" or "slow-rate") and placed in vapor-phase or liquid nitrogen. After thawing, WBC recovery and viability were determined. Temperature increased most for precooled D/P to precooled WBC-enriched product, without influence of 20 or 50% D/P, but remained for all variations below 30°C. WBC recovery for both freezing programs was more than 95%. Recovery of WBC viability was higher for slow-rate freezing compared to fast-rate freezing (74% vs. 61%; p liquid nitrogen was marginal. Based on these results, precooling is not necessary. Fifty percent D/P is preferred over 20% D/P. Slow-rate freezing is preferred over fast-rate freezing. For safety reasons storage in vapor-phase nitrogen is preferred over storage in liquid nitrogen. Additional testing using real HPCs might be necessary. © 2014 AABB.

  19. Clinical utility of (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan vs. (99m)Tc-HMPAO white blood cell single-photon emission computed tomography in extra-cardiac work-up of infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Trine K; Iversen, Kasper K; Ihlemann, Nikolaj

    2017-01-01

    The extra-cardiac work-up in infective endocarditis (IE) comprises a search for primary and secondary infective foci. Whether18FDG-PET/CT or WBC-SPECT/CT is superior in detection of clinically relevant extra-cardiac manifestations in IE is unexplored. The objectives of this study were to identify...

  20. Bone scan in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, I.; Peters, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a survey carried out in 21 countries in Europe showed that bone scintigraphy comprised 16% of all paediatric radioisotope scans. Although the value of bone scans in paediatrics is potentially great, their quality varies greatly, and poor-quality images are giving this valuable technique a bad reputation. The handling of children requires a sensitive staff and the provision of a few simple inexpensive items of distraction. Attempting simply to scan a child between two adult patients in a busy general department is a recipe for an unhappy, uncooperative child with the probable result of poor images. The intravenous injection of isotope should be given adjacent to the gamma camera room, unless dynamic scans are required, so that the child does not associate the camera with the injection. This injection is best carried out by someone competent in paediatric venipunture; the entire procedure should be explained to the child and parent, who should remain with child throughout. It is naive to think that silence makes for a cooperative child. The sensitivity of bone-seeking radioisotope tracers and the marked improvement in gamma camera resolution has allowed the bone scanning to become an integrated technique in the assessment of children suspected of suffering from pathological bone conditions. The tracer most commonly used for routine bone scanning is 99m Tc diphosphonate (MDP); other isotopes used include 99m Tc colloid for bone marrow scans and 67 Ga citrate and 111 In white blood cells ( 111 In WBC) for investigation of inflammatory/infective lesions

  1. [Diagnostic laparoscopy in acute abdomen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, R; Kleemann, M; Hildebrand, P; Roblick, U J; Bruch, H-P

    2006-11-01

    Acute abdomen is not a disease in itself but a description of a complex of symptoms combined with severe abdominal pain developed within a time frame of less than 24 h. All strategies for the management of acute abdomen underline the need for an interdisciplinary approach to diagnosis and therapy. This requires focused and intelligent use of efficient diagnostic procedures. Diagnostic laparoscopy may be a key to solving the diagnostic dilemma of unspecific acute abdomen. Furthermore, it allows not only direct inspection of the abdominal cavity but also surgical intervention, if needed. In particular the rate of negative laparotomies can be reduced.

  2. Acute abdomen in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.

    1989-01-01

    The CT scans of 80 patients with both AIDS and acute abdominal pain were reviewed. CT identifiable causes of pain included perforation (four); colitides (15); septic infarctions (six); abscesses (10); bowel obstruction due to tumor (four); ascending cholangitis (two); enterovesical fistula (one); and sacral osteomyelitis (one). CT affected management in 40% of patients by narrowing diagnostic possibilities, triaging between surgical versus nonsurgical emergencies, and directing diagnostic procedures. CT was an expeditious triage modality for evaluating the critically ill patient with AIDS and acute abdominal pain

  3. A CLINICAL STUDY ON BLUNT INJURY ABDOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kishore Babu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Abdominal trauma continues to account for a large number of trauma-related injuries and deaths. Motor vehicle accidents and urban violence, respectively, are the leading causes of blunt and penetrating trauma to this area of the body. Unnecessary deaths and complications can be minimized by improved resuscitation, evaluation and treatment. The new techniques and diagnostic tools available are important in the management of abdominal trauma. These improved methods, however, still depend on experience and clinical judgment for application and determination of the best care for the injured patient. The aim of the study is to 1. Analyse the incidence, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, indications for laparotomy, therapeutic methods and morbidity & mortality rates. 2. To study nature of blunt abdominal trauma. 3. To assess patient for surgical intervention and to avoid negative laparotomy. 4. To assess morbidity rate in different organs injury. 5. To evaluate modalities of treatment, complications and prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study is a prospective study on 97 patients with Blunt injuries to the abdomen admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G. Hospital, Tirupati during October 2013-15. Inclusion Criteria Patients > 13 years, with Blunt injury to abdomen either by RTA, fall, object contact, assault giving written informed consent. Exclusion Criteria Patients <13 yrs. Blunt injuries due to blasts, patients with severe cardiothoracic and head injuries who are hemodynamically unstable. CONCLUSION Blunt Trauma to abdomen is on rise due to excessive use of motor vehicles. It poses a therapeutic and diagnostic dilemma for the attending surgeon due to wide range of clinical manifestations ranging from no early physical findings to progression to shock. So, the Trauma surgeon should rely on his physical findings in association with use of modalities like x-ray abdomen, USG abdomen and abdominal paracentesis. Hollow viscus perforations are

  4. Acute Abdomen in Pediatric Patients Admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ching Tseng

    2008-08-01

    Conclusion: The etiology of acute abdomen varied depending on the age of the patient. Acute appendicitis was the most common cause of acute abdomen in children older than 1 year of age, followed by traumatic injury. Abdominal CT scanning was a useful diagnostic imaging modality in patients with both traumatic and non-traumatic abdominal pain.

  5. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very small ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    MRI of the abdomen currently competes with CT and ultrasonography as an imaging technique for abdominal pathology. Although ultrasonography has certain advantages, such as real-time scanning, the major comparison is to be made between MR and CT. CT has slightly superior spatial resolution and minimal motion artifacts, and enables the use of contrast agents in bowel. MR, on the other hand, has improved capabilities in contrasting soft tissues and providing multiplanar imaging. The greatest advantage of CT is the experience that the medical community has gained with it over the last decade. Further development in technology and improvement in the clinical experience with MR will be important in determining its future role in abdominal imaging. Large series of clinical trials are required for further experience. Chemical spectroscopy with proton and possibly other nuclei may improve diagnostic specificity. Paramagnetic contrast agents for bowel specification would certainly improve imaging quality. Thus, MR will play a significant role in abdominal imaging in the future

  7. Electrical burns of the abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ritesh

    2013-09-01

    A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness burn wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the burned skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the area was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor area was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days.

  8. Electrical burns of the abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Srivastava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness burn wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the burned skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the area was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor area was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days.

  9. MRI of the fetal abdomen; MRT des fetalen Abdomens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoermann, M.; Brugger, P.C.; Witzani, L.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik

    2006-02-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important diagnostic component for central nervous system and thoracic diseases during fetal development. Although ultrasound remains the method of choice for observing the fetus during pregnancy, fetal MRI is being increasingly used as an additional technique for the accurate diagnosis of abdominal diseases. Recent publications confirm the value of MRI in the diagnosis of fetal gastrointestinal tract and urogenital system diseases. The following report provides an overview of MRI-examination techniques for the most frequent diseases of the abdomen. (orig.) [German] Die MRT ist ein wichtiger Bestandteil zur Diagnostik des zentralen Nervensystems und thorakaler Erkrankungen in der fetalen Entwicklung. Wenngleich der Ultraschall die Methode der Wahl zur Ueberwachung des Feten in der Schwangerschaft bleibt, bekommt die fetale MRT als zusaetzliche Untersuchungstechnik zur akkuraten Diagnostik abdomineller Erkrankungen immer groessere Bedeutung. Die neueren Publikationen bestaetigen v. a. den Stellenwert der MRT in der Diagnose von Erkrankungen des fetalen Gastrointestinaltrakts und des Urogenitalsystems. Im Folgenden soll ein Ueberblick ueber die MR-Untersuchungstechnik der haeufigsten Erkrankungen des Abdomens gegeben werden. (orig.)

  10. MRI of the fetal abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoermann, M.; Brugger, P.C.; Witzani, L.; Prayer, D.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important diagnostic component for central nervous system and thoracic diseases during fetal development. Although ultrasound remains the method of choice for observing the fetus during pregnancy, fetal MRI is being increasingly used as an additional technique for the accurate diagnosis of abdominal diseases. Recent publications confirm the value of MRI in the diagnosis of fetal gastrointestinal tract and urogenital system diseases. The following report provides an overview of MRI-examination techniques for the most frequent diseases of the abdomen. (orig.) [de

  11. 白细胞计数对B型急性主动脉夹层介入治疗患者的预后评估价值%White blood cell counts prediction prognosis of patients with type B acute aortic dissection after endovascular therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜敏; 李东泽; 曹钰; 魏薇; 张海宏; 陈瑶; 梁镰静; 万智

    2017-01-01

    目的 探讨白细胞计数(white blood cell counts,WBCc)对介入治疗的Stanford B型急性主动脉夹层患者预后的评估价值.方法 收集2012年1月~2012年12月在四川大学华西医院确诊为Stanford B型急性主动脉夹层,并行介入治疗的患者.根据患者入院时白细胞计数水平,分为72例高WBCc组(WBC>10×109/L)和59例低WBCc组(WBC≤10×109/L).收集患者的基本临床资料,血液检查结果,主要心血管不良事件,院内及院外随访期间生存状态.主要终点事件为:院内及院外随访期间死亡事件.Kaplan-Meier生存分析及多因素COX回归分析评估白细胞计数与B型急性主动夹层患者死亡率的关系.结果 本研究共纳入患者131例,其中男性97例(74%),院内死亡率为9.9%,随访中位数时间2.1年,死亡率为16%,Kaplan-Meier生存曲线分析高白细胞计数组(>10×109/L)的累计生存率明显低于低白细胞计数组(76.4% vs 93.2%,P=0.007).多因素COX回归分析显示,入院时较高白细胞计数(>10×109/L)是介入治疗的B型AAD患者死亡率的独立危险因素(HR:3.667,95% CI:1.206-11.145,P=0.022).结论 白细胞计数可作为介入治疗B型急性主动脉夹层患者死亡风险的预测因素.%Objectives To assess the viability of using white blood cell counts (WBCc) as a prognostic measure for patients with Stanford type B acute aortic dissection (AAD) after endovascular therapy (EVT).Methods The clinical data were collected from post-EVT Stanford type B AAD diagnosed in the West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2012 to December.The patients were divided into high WBCc group(> 10 × 109/L) (72 cases) and low WBCc group(≤10× 109/L)(59 cases) based on their white blood cell counts levels on admission.Collected information included patient basic clinical data,blood test results,major adverse cardiovascular events and survival status during inpatient and out-patient follow-ups.The primary end points

  12. Curative efficacy of Dezocine in treatment of receiving laparoscopic appendectomy and its effects on white blood cell count and C reactive protein%地佐辛用于腹腔镜阑尾术患者的临床效果及对白细胞计数和C反应蛋白的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁飞; 金原野; 周金萍; 刘冬炎; 蔡璐

    2017-01-01

    Objective To study curative efficacy of dezocine in treatment of receiving laparoscopic appendectomy and its effects on white blood cell count and c reactive protein.Methods 90 patients of laparoscopic appendectomy who received therapy from January 2015 to October 2016 in our hospital were selected as research objects,according to random number table,those patients were divided into the observation group and the control group,45 cases in each group.The control group was treated with sufentanil, while the observation group was treated with dezocine.Then operation index, T0 (preoperative),T1(extubation),T2(after extubation) mean arterial pressure(MAP),heart rate(HR), respiration rate(RR),isual analogue scale/score ( VAS) , ramsay score ( RSS) , white blood cell count and c reactive protein of two groups after treatment were compared .Results After treatment, MAP,HR in the observation group were significantly lower than control group [(78.30 ±6.20)mmHg vs.(86.08 ±6.09)mmHg,(76.45 ±5.90)mmHg vs.(80.48 ±5.80)mmHg,(90.82 ±9.50)time/min vs.(96.73 ±9.83)time /min,(87.21 ±8.15)time /min vs.(93.59 ±9.90)time /min](P<0.05); VAS, RSS score were significantly lower than the control group[(2.60 ±0.70)score vs.(5.29 ±0.83)score,(3.53 ±0.92)score vs.(6.38 ± 1.21)score](P<0.05); White blood cell count, c reactive protein were significantly lower than the control group[(7.92 ±2.01) ×109/L vs.(14.98 ±2.11) ×109/L,(7.90 ±2.30)mg/L vs(12.46 ±3.10)mg/L](P<0.05).Conclusion Dezocine is well for receiving laparoscopic appendectomy, obvious analgesic effect, can significantly reduce the white blood cell count and c reactive protein.%目的 研究地佐辛用于腹腔镜阑尾术患者的临床效果及对白细胞计数和C反应蛋白的影响.方法 选取2015年1月~2016年10月绍兴第二医院接诊的90例行腹腔镜阑尾术患者作为研究对象,按照随机数表法分为观察组和对照组,每组各45例,对照组采用舒芬太尼治疗,观察

  13. MRI of the abdomen – how we do it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatanov, Y.; Penkov, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Currently MR tomography in comparison with multidetector CT plays a subordinate role in the diagnostic and imaging algorithm in the study of abdomen organs. However, technical innovation occurring in magnetic resonance imaging, allow us to obtain images with high resolution at an acceptable duration of the study. Moreover assessment of the condition of the biliary system can be optimized through the use of MR cysto- pancreatography that allows non-invasive assessment of pancreatic biliary system, and the use of MR angiography, which visualized in the abdominal vessels. What you will learn: methods for approach to patient for abdominal examination; the advantages and disadvantages of different MR sequences in imaging of organs and structures in the abdomen; the advantages and disadvantages of different types MR cysto- pancreatography for the purpose of magnetic resonance tomography in patients with diseases in the abdomen. Discussion: MR is used for diseases of the organs in the abdomen especially for diagnosis and staging of neoplastic processes, to differentiate between tumors and inflammatory processes, and in the characterization of the cystic lesion. MRI scan has three main tasks in the assessment of the conditions of the organs in the abdomen: should provide a definitive diagnosis in patients with inconclusive data on abdominal ultrasound or CT scan for any pathological process , must allow proper staging of malignancies in order to preoperative assessment of the state of patient and sometimes non-resectability of the tumor formations due to their advancing, should characterize cystic lesions whose frequency increases in the conduct of routine or diagnostic CT studies. Conclusion: As a result of rapid technological progress current protocols for MR examinations of the abdomen are very different from those used 10 years ago. Most sequences can be performed during one or more breath-hold cycle and 3D sequences with thin consecutive

  14. Laparoscopy in the acute abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navez, Benoit; Navez, Julie

    2014-02-01

    Laparoscopy has become a routine procedure in the management of acute abdominal disease and can be considered both an excellent therapeutic and additional diagnostic tool in selected cases. However, a high level of expertise in laparoscopic and emergency surgery is required. Hemodynamic instability, huge abdominal distension, fecal peritonitis and perforated cancer are relative contraindications for the laparoscopic approach. In recent years, abdominal emergencies have increasingly been managed successfully by laparoscopy. In acute appendicitis, acute cholecystitis and perforated peptic ulcer, randomized controlled trials have proven that the laparoscopic approach is as safe and as effective as open surgery, with fewer complications and a quicker postoperative recovery. Other indications such as blunt and penetrating trauma to the abdomen, small bowel occlusion and perforated diverticular disease are under debate, indicating that more randomized controlled trials comparing laparoscopic and open surgery are still necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Surgical evaluation of acute abdomen in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarova, P.

    2013-01-01

    Acute abdomen in pregnancy is a disease with a low incidence. The purpose of this work was therefore to create a review of current recommended practice in diagnostics and surgical solution. I also mention surgically relevant physiological and pathological changes specific to pregnancy, differential diagnostics of acute abdomen in pregnancy and impact of the disease and its treatment on the fetus. (author)

  16. How to deal with an open abdomen?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    De Waele, Jan J

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate open abdomen treatment is one of the key elements in the management of patients who require decompressive laparotomy or in whom the abdomen is left open prophylactically. Apart from fluid control and protection from external injury, fluid evacuation and facilitation of early closure are now the goals of open abdomen treatment. Abdominal negative pressure therapy has emerged as the most appropriate method to reach these goals. Especially when combined with strategies that allow progressive approximation of the fascial edges, high closure rates can be obtained. Intra-abdominal pressure measurement can be used to guide the surgical strategy and continued attention to intra-abdominal hypertension is necessary. This paper reviews recent advances as well as identifying the remaining challenges in patients requiring open abdomen treatment. The new classification system of the open abdomen is an important tool to use when comparing the efficacy of different strategies, as well as different systems of temporary abdominal closure.

  17. Feasibility study of white blood cell count in cerebrospinal fluid and hydrothorax and ascites with Sysmex ;XN-1000 hematology analyzer%SYSMEX XN-1000血球仪在脑脊液和胸腹水白细胞计数中的可行性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶小英; 范春丽; 陆敏; 卞洁

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the feasibility of using body fluid module of Sysmex XN-1000 hematology analyzer for white blood cell count in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), hydrothorax and ascites. Methods Microscope method and Sysmex XN-1000 hematology analyzer were used to analyze 183 samples of CSF, hydrothorax and ascites at the same time. The measured results were divided into three groups:group A:0~1 000×106/L, B:1 001~5 000×106/L, C:>5 000×106/L. The results were statistically analyzed. Results Compared with the results of microscope, the results of Sysmex XN-1000 hematology analyzer showed no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). The correlation coeffi-cients of group A, B, C were 0.993, 0.984, 0.996, with the regression equation of y=1.007x-1.072, y=1.003+19.776x, y=1.241-1 419.365x, respectively. Conclusion The body fluid module of Sysmex XN-1000 hematology analyzer can be used for white blood cell count in clinical CSF and hydrothorax and ascites, with simple operation and reliable results. When the instrument is alarmed on the sample test, we should use manual microscopy review to improve the veracity and reliability of the results.%目的:探讨SYSMEX XN-1000血液分析仪(简称SYSMEX XN-1000)的体液模式在脑脊液和胸腹水白细胞计数中应用的可行性。方法分别采用手工显微镜镜检法和SYSMEX XN-1000对183例脑脊液和胸腹水标本进行白细胞计数,将所测结果按A:(0~1000)×106/L,B:(1001~5000)×106/L,C:>5000×106/L分为三组,分别进行统计学分析。结果与手工显微镜镜检法相比,SYSMEX XN-1000所测结果差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。A、B、C三组的相关系数分别为0.993、0.984、0.996,A组回归方程为y=1.007x-1.072,B组回归方程为y=1.003x+19.776,C组回归方程为y=1.241x-1419.365。结论 SYSMEX XN-1000血液分析仪可用于临床脑脊液和胸腹水中白细胞计数,其操作简单易行,结果稳定可靠,但如果仪器进行样品

  18. A prospective evaluation of the contrast, radiation dose and image quality of contrast-enhanced CT scans of paediatric abdomens using a low-concentration iodinated contrast agent and low tube voltage combined with 70% ASIR algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Zhong, Yumin; Hu, Liwei; Xue, Lianyan; Shi, Meihua; Qiu, Haisheng; Li, Jianying

    2016-09-01

    To quantitatively and subjectively assess the image quality of and radiation dose for an abdominal enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan with a low tube voltage and a low concentration of iodinated contrast agent in children. Forty-eight patients were randomised to one of the two following protocols: Group A (n=24, mean age 46.96±44.65 months, mean weight 15.71±9.11 kg, BMI 16.48±2.40 kg/m(2) ) and Group B (n=24, mean age 41.33±44.59 months, mean weight 18.15±17.67 kg, BMI 17.50±3.73 kg/m(2) ). Group A: 80 kVp tube voltage, 270 mg iodine (I)/mL contrast agent (Visipaque, GE Healthcare) and images were reconstructed using 70% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). Group B: 100 kVp tube voltage, 370 mg I/mL contrast agent (Iopamiro, Bracco) and images were reconstructed using 50% ASIR. The volume of the contrast agent was 1.30 mL/kg in both Groups A and B. The degree of enhancement and noise in the abdominal aorta (AO) in the arterial phase (AP) and the portal vein (PV) in the portal venous phase (PVP) was measured; while the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for the AO and PV were calculated. A 5-point scale was used to subjectively evaluate the image quality and image noise by two radiologists with more than 10 years of experience. Dose-length product (DLP) (mGy-cm) and CTDIvol (mGy) were calculated. Objective measurements and subjective quality scores for the two groups were compared using paired t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests, respectively. There was no significant difference in age, weight or body mass index (BMI) between the two groups (all P>.5). The iodine load in Group A (5517.3±3197.2 mg I) was 37% lower than that in Group B (8772.1±8474.6 mg I), although there was no significant difference between them (P=.111). The DLP and the CT dose index (CTDIvol ) for Group A were also lower than for Group B, but were not statistically significantly different (DLP, 104 mGy-cm±45.81 vs 224.5

  19. Indium-111 oxine labelling of white blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavender, J.P.; Silvester, D.J.; Goldman, J.; Hammersmith Hospital, London

    1978-01-01

    Following work done by Professor John McAfee and Mathew Thakur at the MRS Cyclotron Unit a method is available for labelling cells with indium-111 which results in a stable intracellular marker. The method uses indium-111-8 hydroxyquinoline (111In oxine) which is a lipoid soluble complex which goes across the cell membrane and results in the deposition of indium into various subcellular structures. It has been applied to various preparations of white cells, platelets and also malignant cells. Autologous granulocytes have been used to identify inflammatory lesions in 35 patients. By similar means autologous lymphocytes can also be labelled and reinfused. Lymphocytes have been shown in animals to circulate from the blood via the lymphatic system and then returning to the blood once more. The same phenomenon can be seen in man using indium labelled lymphocytes. Lymph nodes become visible at between 12 and 18 hours and recirculation of labelled cells can be shown on the blood activity curves. Certain problems arise concerning cell behaviour after labelling which appear due to irradiation of cells rather than chemical toxicity. (author)

  20. White Blood Cell Differentiation Using a Solid State Flow Cytometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, R.M.P.; Doornbos, R.M.P.; Hennink, E.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1993-01-01

    A flow cytometer using a solid state light source and detector was designed and built. For illumination of the sample stream two types of diode lasers (670 nm and 780 nm) were tested in a set-up designed to differentiate human leukocytes by means of light scattering. The detector is an avalanche

  1. Platelets and white blood cells in acute coronary syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jaap Jan Johannes

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, we have studied the role of leukocytes and platelets as methods to measure platelets aggregation, in the clinical management of presenting with acute coronary syndromes. We have tried to incidence and to identify predictors of adverse cardiac events with function tests or

  2. Smoking, allergy, and the differential white blood cell count.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, R G; Gross, E; Joyce, H; Holland, F; Pride, N B

    1985-01-01

    Dutch workers have proposed that people with asthma and those smokers who develop chronic airflow obstruction share a common allergic constitution. To study whether smoking itself is associated with indicators of allergy, we have examined 237 men aged 51-61 years (120 smokers, 73 ex-smokers, and 44 non-smokers) who were recruited to a long term study of lung function in 1974, at which time men with a clinical diagnosis of asthma were excluded. Smokers, ex-smokers, and non-smokers did not diff...

  3. Treatment of a case of emphysematous pyelonephritis that presented with acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ki Hoon

    2015-08-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a severe, life-threatening infection of the renal parenchyma and perinephric tissues. This condition is primarily encountered in patients with diabetes mellitus or ureteral obstruction, and is characterized by the production of intrarenal and perinephric gas. Emphysematous pyelonephritis is associated with a high degree of morbidity and a high mortality rate. A 72-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and renal calculi was referred to our emergency department following 6 days of abdominal pain. She suddenly developed pain in the entire abdomen, and was transferred. Physical examination was a distended abdomen with hypoactive bowel sounds. The tenderness was diffuse, but was most prominent in the right upper abdominal quadrant; moreover, rebound tenderness was noted. Laboratory tests revealed a white blood cell count of 4,480/mm(3), platelet count of 17,000/mm(3), creatinine level of 1.64 mg/dl, and serum glucose level of 603 mg/dl. Abdominal computed tomography indicated the presence of free air in the intraperitoneal cavity and right perirenal space, hydronephrosis of the right kidney, and stones in the right distal ureter. After 1 hour, the vital signs changed and she appeared to become drowsy. Therefore, the patient was transferred to the operation room for laparotomy. On exploration of the abdomen, 1.5 L of pus-colored fluid was removed. Although the abdominal viscera and pelvic organs were examined, hollow viscus perforation site could not be observed. Moreover, tissue necrosis and a perforation site were identified at the superior border of the right kidney. Thus, emphysematous pyelonephritis was diagnosed and she underwent right radical nephrectomy. After the surgery, the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit for postoperative management. Follow-up CT performed after 10 days showed fluid collection and hematoma at the nephrectomy site. Hence, percutaneous drainage was performed. Another

  4. Role of ultrasonography in the evaluation of children with acute abdomen in the emergency set-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviral

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute abdomen in children has been aptly described as Pandora′s box. Unlike computerized tomography (CT scan, ultrasonography (USG has no radiation hazard and the present study analyses the diagnostic yield of the USG in acute abdomen in children. Materials and Methods: Between September 2001 to October 2003, 75 patients with acute abdomen underwent clinical examination, routine biochemical tests, erect X-ray abdomen, USG and CT scan. Laparotomy and histological examination established final diagnosis. Results: The accuracy of correct diagnosis was 60%, 66.6%, 64%, 98.7% with clinical examination alone, USG alone, clinical examination combined with conventional radiography, and clinical evaluation combined with conventional radiography and USG respectively. USG helped to prevent unnecessary laparotomy in 16.3% of patients. Conclusions: USG is good investigative modality in the management of acute abdomen in children.

  5. The relationship of the levels of serum white blood cell classification, adiponectin and C-reactive protein with neurological function score and clinical prognosis in patients with cerebral infarction%白细胞分类、脂联素、C-反应蛋白水平与脑梗死患者神经功能评分及临床预后的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹春萍

    2017-01-01

    目的 探讨血清中白细胞分类、脂联素(APN)、C-反应蛋白(CRP)水平与脑梗死患者神经功能评分及临床预后的关系.方法 收集本院2015年9月-2016年9月收治的急性脑梗死患者128例,根据患者临床预后分为预后不良组(27例)和预后良好组(101例),采用ELISA法检测患者血清中白细胞分类、APN、CRP水平,采用Logisitic回归分析探讨急性脑梗死患者临床预后的危险因素.结果 预后不良组患者血清CRP、CRP/APN水平高于预后良好组,而预后不良组APN水平低于预后良好组;预后不良组患者白细胞计数、中性粒细胞比例、单核细胞比例、中性粒细胞/淋巴细胞比值均高于预后良好组患者;预后不良组患者NIHSS评分高于预后良好组患者,上述差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).CRP/APN、中性粒细胞/淋巴细胞比值、NIHSS评分是脑梗死患者死亡的独立危险因素(P<0.05).结论 急性脑梗死患者临床预后不一,血清中白细胞分类、CRP/APN水平与患者炎症反应密切相关.%Objective To investigate relationship of the levels of serum white blood cell classification,adiponectin and C-reactive protein(CRP) with neurological function score and clinical prognosis in patients with cerebral infarction.Methods 128 cases of acute cerebral infarction patients were selected in our hospital from September 2015 to September 2016.According to the clinical prognosis,patients were divided into the ideal prognosis group(101 cases) and the poor prognosis.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was used to detect the white blood cell classification,APN and CRP levels.Logisitic regression was used to explore the risk factors of clinical prognosis in patients with acute cerebral infarction.Results Serum CRP and CRP/APN levels of poor prognosis group were higher than that of the good prognosis group,while APN level was lower than that of the good prognosis group;the lymphocyte white blood cell count

  6. Neuroendocrine tumors of the abdomen; Neuroendokrine Tumoren des Abdomens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juchems, M. [Klinikum Konstanz, Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Konstanz (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasia (GEP-NEN) are a heterogeneous group of complex tumors, which is often difficult to classify due to heterogeneity and varying locations. Ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron-emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) are available for the localization of NEN as well as for the staging. In particular, nuclear medical examination methods with somatostatin analogues are of great importance since radioactively labeled receptor ligands make tumors visible with high sensitivity. CT and MRT have high detection rates for GEP-NEN and have been further improved by developments such as diffusion weighted imaging. The nuclear medical methods, however, are superior in detection, especially in gastrointestinal NEN It is important for the radiologist to become acquainted with the NEN as they can occur ubiquitously in the abdomen and should be identified as such. Since GEP-NEN are predominantly hypervascularized, a biphasic examination technique is obligatory for contrast-enhanced cross-sectional imaging. PET/CT with somatostatin analogs should be used for further diagnosis. (orig.) [German] Gastroenteropankreatische neuroendokrine Neoplasien (GEP-NEN) sind eine heterogene Gruppe komplexer Tumoren, deren Einteilung aufgrund der Heterogenitaet und unterschiedlichen Lokalisation haeufig schwerfaellt. Fuer die Lokalisation der NEN sowie zur Ausbreitungsdiagnostik und Metastasensuche stehen Ultraschalldiagnostik, Computertomographie (CT), Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) und die Positronenemissionstomographie-Computertomographie (PET-CT) zur Verfuegung. Insbesondere nuklearmedizinische Untersuchungsmethoden mit Somatostatinanaloga sind von hoher Wertigkeit, da sie ueber radioaktiv markierte Rezeptoliganden Tumoren mit hoher Sensitivitaet sichtbar machen. CT und MRT haben hohe Detektionsraten bei den GEP-NEN und konnten durch Weiterentwicklungen, wie Diffusionsbildgebung, weiter

  7. Improving abdomen tumor low-dose CT images using a fast dictionary learning based processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yang; Shi Luyao; Shu Huazhong; Luo Limin; Coatrieux, Jean-Louis; Yin Xindao; Toumoulin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In abdomen computed tomography (CT), repeated radiation exposures are often inevitable for cancer patients who receive surgery or radiotherapy guided by CT images. Low-dose scans should thus be considered in order to avoid the harm of accumulative x-ray radiation. This work is aimed at improving abdomen tumor CT images from low-dose scans by using a fast dictionary learning (DL) based processing. Stemming from sparse representation theory, the proposed patch-based DL approach allows effective suppression of both mottled noise and streak artifacts. The experiments carried out on clinical data show that the proposed method brings encouraging improvements in abdomen low-dose CT images with tumors. (paper)

  8. Obstructive acute abdomen: reviewing important points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, Marina Celli; Abud, Thiago Giansante; Reibscheid, Samuel; Szejnfeld, Jacob; Lederman, Henrique Manoel; Colleone Neto, Ramiro

    2008-01-01

    The obstructive acute abdomen is a common presentation, for which safe and effective management depends on a fast and accurate diagnosis. Conventional radiograph remains the first choice among the imaging exams because of its availability, low cost and the possibility to be done serially to follow the patient's clinical progression. The ultrasonography does not require ionizing radiation. It is a dynamic and in realtime exam. Computed tomography is used increasingly due to the provision of essential diagnostic information not apparent from radiographs, such as the confirmation of the obstruction, degree and place of the occlusion, presence of ischemia as well as the causes of the obstruction. Magnetic resonance imaging has presented great technological advances and it may play a role in the future of obstructive acute abdomen diagnosis. The objective of this pictorial essay is to review the different imaging techniques used on diagnosing obstructive acute abdomen. (author)

  9. Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever presenting as Acute Abdomen

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Araimi, Hanaa; Al-Jabri, Amal; Mehmoud, Arshad; Al-Abri, Seif

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of a 38 year-old Sri Lankan female who was referred to the surgeon on call with a picture of acute abdomen. She presented with a three-day history of fever, headache, abdominal pain and diarrhoea; however, the physical examination was not consistent with acute abdomen. Her platelet count was 22 ×109/L. A diagnosis of dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) was made and dengue serology was positive. Dengue epidemics have been associated with a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms an...

  10. Differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen. Pt. 4. Acute abdomen in children; Differenzialdiagnose des akuten Abdomens. T. 4. Akutes Abdomen im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staatz, Gundula [Universitaetsklinikum Mainz (Germany). Sektion Kinderradiologie; Schneider, Karl [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Abt. Radiologie

    2010-06-15

    The diagnostic work-up of adults with acute abdominal pain has changed significantly within the last decade and computed tomography is often used as the first imaging modality of choice. In pediatric patients with an acute abdomen, ultrasound and abdominal X-rays remain the first line procedures. Because of the radiation risk, computed tomography is only recommended in selected cases and when strongly indicated. This review is the fourth and final part within a series of reviews dealing with the diagnostic strategy in the work-up of patients with an acute abdomen. (orig.)

  11. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collaku, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The use of diffusion weighted images when performing abdomen MRI has been increased during the last years; achieving high quality images for a short period of time remains still a challenge. Learning points: We present a literature review together with our experience in optimizing the DW imaging in the abdomen, focused on creating high density ADC maps and handling the uncooperative patients. Discussion: The factors that influence the image quality are discussed as well. Conclusion: The factors that influence the image quality are discussed as well

  12. Evaluation of /sup 111/In leukocyte whole body scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, I.R.; Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.

    1979-11-01

    Indium-111 oxine, polymorphonuclear cells isolated and labeled with /sup 111/In were used for studying abscesses and inflammatory conditions. There were 64 total scans done in 59 patients, 32 male and 27 female, aged 3 to 81 years (average, 51). The original clinical diagnosis was abscess in 33 patients. The whole blood cell scan was abnormal in 12 (36%) of these, and a good clinical correlation was obtained in 11 of the 12. In the 21 with a normal scan, 18 had no evidence of abscess, yielding one false-positive and three false-negative interpretations in the abscess group. Thirteen patients had fever of unknown origin, nine had negative scans and no subsequent evidence of abscess, and four had positive scans with good correlation in three. Acute bone and joint infections were positive on scan (4/4), whereas chronic osteomyelitis was negative (0/2). Three patients with acute myocardial infarction and three of four with subacute bacterial endocarditis had normal scans. All three studies in renal transplant rejection showed positive uptake in the pelvic kidneys. Indium-111 white blood cell scans have proved useful to diagnose or exclude a diagnosis of abscess or inflammatory condition infiltrated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

  13. Evaluation of 111In leukocyte whole body scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, I.R.; Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Indium-111 oxine, polymorphonuclear cells isolated and labeled with 111 In were used for studying abscesses and inflammatory conditions. There were 64 total scans done in 59 patients, 32 male and 27 female, aged 3 to 81 years (average, 51). The original clinical diagnosis was abscess in 33 patients. The whole blood cell scan was abnormal in 12 (36%) of these, and a good clinical correlation was obtained in 11 of the 12. In the 21 with a normal scan, 18 had no evidence of abscess, yielding one false-positive and three false-negative interpretations in the abscess group. Thirteen patients had fever of unknown origin, nine had negative scans and no subsequent evidence of abscess, and four had positive scans with good correlation in three. Acute bone and joint infections were positive on scan (4/4), whereas chronic osteomyelitis was negative (0/2). Three patients with acute myocardial infarction and three of four with subacute bacterial endocarditis had normal scans. All three studies in renal transplant rejection showed positive uptake in the pelvic kidneys. Indium-111 white blood cell scans have proved useful to diagnose or exclude a diagnosis of abscess or inflammatory condition infiltrated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes

  14. Well differentiated papillary mesothelioma of abdomen- a rare case with diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Aniruddha; Mandal, Palash Kumar; Manna, Anupam; Khan, Kalyan; Pal, Subrata

    2018-01-01

    Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma is a rare tumor occurring predominantly in the peritoneum of young women, a few with history of asbestos exposure. A 28-year-old woman presented with ascites and pain abdomen. Ultrasonography and computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed a mass in the retroperitoneum measuring 15 cm × 12 cm. Histopathological examination along with immunohistochemistry (IHC) confirmed it to be a papillary mesothelioma in the peritoneum. It is difficult to differentiate from more common malignant mesothelioma and papillary adenocarcinoma, which also have poorer prognosis. The difficulty can be resolved by clinico-radiological correlation along with histopathological examination and IHC.

  15. Intestinal tuberculosis presenting as acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Majeed, F.A.; Ahmed, M.; Khan, M.N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the outcome of intestinal tuberculosis presenting as acute abdomen. Study design: Descriptive Study. Place and Duration: Bolan Medical Complex Hospital (BMC) Quetta and Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Quetta from Nov 2003 to Nov 2005 from Bolan Medical Complex and from Nov 2005 to Nov 2006 in CMH Quetta. Material and Method: Thirty seven patients of acute abdomen presenting with intestinal obstruction were admitted; 28 from emergency department and 9 from out patient department. Twenty seven patients were from BMC and 10 from CMH Quetta. Patients were diagnosed as having abdominal tuberculosis on the basis of operative findings and histopathological reports. Results: Out of 37 patients presenting with acute abdomen due to intestinal obstruction, 54% were male and 46% were female with M: F ratio of 1: 1.2. Age of the patient ranged from 20 to 50 years, with maximum frequency between 30 to 40 years. Abdominal pain was the commonest presenting feature in all patients followed by constipation in 81.1% patients. Peritonism was seen in 27% patients. Different operative procedures performed were adhesionolysis 65.8%, segmental resection 7.9%, right hemicolectomy 10.5%, stricturoplasty 7.9% and ileostomy 1.3%. Mesenteric lymph node biopsy 40.8%. Conclusion: Intestinal tuberculosis is still a very important surgical problem in our country presenting as acute abdomen. A suspicion must always be kept during laparotomy and adequate tissue histopathology should supplement the diagnosis. (author)

  16. Emergency management of acute abdomen in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Binesh; Singhi, Sunit; Lal, Sadhna

    2013-03-01

    Acute abdomen can be defined as a medical emergency in which there is sudden and severe pain in abdomen with accompanying signs and symptoms that focus on an abdominal involvement. It accounts for about 8 % of all children attending the emergency department. The goal of emergency management is to identify and treat any life-threatening medical or surgical disease condition and relief from pain. In mild cases often the cause is gastritis or gastroenteritis, colic, constipation, pharyngo-tonsilitis, viral syndromes or acute febrile illnesses. The common surgical causes are malrotation and Volvulus (in early infancy), intussusception, acute appendicitis, and typhoid and ischemic enteritis with perforation. Lower lobe pneumonia, diabetic ketoacidosis and acute porphyria should be considered in patients with moderate-severe pain with little localizing findings in abdomen. The approach to management in ED should include, in order of priority, a rapid cardiopulmonary assessment to ensure hemodynamic stability, focused history and examination, surgical consult and radiologic examination to exclude life threatening surgical conditions, pain relief and specific diagnosis. In a sick patient the initial steps include rapid IV access and normal saline 20 ml/kg (in the presence of shock/hypovolemia), adequate analgesia, nothing per oral/IV fluids, Ryle's tube aspiration and surgical consultation. An ultrasound abdomen is the first investigation in almost all cases with moderate and severe pain with localizing abdominal findings. In patients with significant abdominal trauma or features of pancreatitis, a Contrast enhanced computerized tomography (CECT) abdomen will be a better initial modality. Continuous monitoring and repeated physical examinations should be done in all cases. Specific management varies according to the specific etiology.

  17. 49 CFR 572.19 - Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Year-Old Child § 572.19 Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. (a) The lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine, abdomen and pelvis. 572.19 Section..., the lumbar spine assembly shall flex by an amount that permits the rigid thoracic spine to rotate from...

  18. CT arteriography of the upper abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasuo, K; Matsuura, K; Baba, H; Numaguchi, Y; Komaki, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1980-04-01

    The technique of CT arteriography was introduced, and CT images of the upper abdomen were explained. Very clear enhancement of parenchyma and vessels (especially portal vein) of the object organs could be obtained by CT arteriography of the upper abdomen, anatomical structures of organs were identified more easily by CT arteriography than by conventional CT, and the amount of information obtained was increased by using CT arteriography. However, the indication of CT arteriography must be limited, because of its complexity that CT arteriography is performed after angiography and involves the invasion of patients' bodies. As described in many reports, CT arteriography is useful for malignant tumors of the liver, and it is worthwhile, especially when surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma is considered. CT arteriography for organs except the liver has not been discussed sufficiently. Therefore, an application of this method for other organs must be decided after consideration of the balance of the amount of information obtained by CT arteriography with invasion to patients.

  19. IDIOPATHIC OMENTAL INFARCTION : A RARE CAUSE OF ACUTE PAIN ABDOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Nath

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Omental torsion leading on to omental infarction is an unusual cause of acute abdominal pain in adults. Often the condition mimics common causes of acute abdomen like acute cholecystitis, acute appendicitis or acute pancreatitis. A review of literature reveals that this enigmatic condition has been managed both non - operatively and by surgery in the past. We report the case of a 46 - year - old man who presented with a 4 - day history of severe right - sided abdominal pain mimicking acute cholecystitis. Abdominal CT scan revealed a right upper quadrant mass with a whirl - like appearance, suspicious for omental infarction. He was started on conservative management with analgesics and antibiotics. He improved symptomatically and was discharged

  20. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ON BLUNT INJURY ABDOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Kopperundevi; Jagadeesan; Kiruthiga

    2016-01-01

    Blunt injury abdomen is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups. Blunt trauma differs from penetrating trauma as different organs are characteristically injured by compression from blunt straining. A total of 53 cases of blunt trauma were studied in this study for the period of 1 year. In this study, commonest cause for blunt abdominal trauma was road traffic accident. The maximum incidence was noted in 20-40 middle age group of which 90% male patients were ...

  1. Doses in pediatric patients undergoing chest and abdomen CT examinations. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jornada, Tiago S.; Silva, Teogenes A. da

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a non-invasive method of image production that imparts significant doses to a patient, it is expected that pediatric CT examinations will increase the risk of induced cancer in children. In this study the effective doses in a five year-old child submitted to chest or abdomen CT scans were assessed for comparison purposes. The CTEXPO computed program was used with data from routine protocols of a 0 to 13 year-old children in two public hospitals in Belo Horizonte. Hospital A used a Siemens Dual-Slice unit with 80 kV, 41 mA and pitch 2 for chest or abdomen; hospital B used a Multislice GE unit with 120 kV, 45 mA and pitch 1 for chest and 120 kV, 55 mA. and pitch 1 for abdomen. Results of effective doses in a five year-old child were 1.7 and 1.0 mSv in hospital A and 9.1 and 7.2 mSv in hospital B, for chest and abdomen, respectively. Results were compared to the reference effective doses of 7.2 and 5.0 mSv for chest and abdomen respectively that were derived from the air kerma length product values given in ICRP publication 87. Results of hospital A showed that low dose exposures also can be achieved in CT scans of children. Results showed that even a hospital with a modern facility (hospital B) can provided doses higher than reference values if protocols are not adjusted for children. Preliminary results suggested that there is a room for optimizing children exposure submitted to CT scans. (author)

  2. 白细胞计数、C反应蛋白联合呼吸道病原体抗体检测在小儿肺炎的早期诊断价值%Value of white blood cell count, C-reactive protein combined with respiratory pathogen antibody in the early diagnosis of pneumonia in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅雅浓

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of procalcitonin(PCT),C-reactive protein(CRP)and white blood cell count(WBC)in children with different pathogenic infectious diseases diagnostic value.Methods 1300 cases of hospitalized pneumonia fromJanuary 2013 to January 2016in our hospital were selected,and the CRP,WBC,PCT and pathogens were examined and compared.Results The positive rate of CRP was 13.53%,among the 1 300 cases,the number of CRP positive was the highest among the 5 years old in the group,and there was no significant difference between the two groups.The levels of serum PCT,CRP and WBC in bacterial infection group were significantly higher than those in virus infection group,the level of CRP in mycoplasma pneumoniae infection group was significantly higher than that in virus infection group,the levels of PCT and WBC in patients with bacterial infection were significantly higher than those in Mycoplasma infection group,the difference was statistically significant(P 0.05ng/mL,CRP> 6mg/L and WBC>10×109/L were 91.07%and 90.78%respectively.The positive predictive value was 87.95%,negative predictive value of 90.78%,compared to CRP and WBC diagnosis of sensitivity,specificity were significantly increased.Conclusion When the clinical diagnosis of infection in children can be diagnosed,the first application of WBC for testing,to be initially screening,followed by CRP and pathogen detection of the disease to conduct a comprehensive assessment and identification.%目的 探讨血清降钙素原(procalcitonin,PCT)、C 反应蛋白(C-reactive protein,CRP)及白细胞计数(white blood cellcou nt,WBC)的测定在儿童不同病原感染性疾病中的诊断价值.方法 选取2013年1月~2016年1月慈溪市妇幼保健院收治的1 300 例住院肺炎患儿,对其CRP、WBC、PCT 及病原体进行检测并比较.结果 CRP 的阳性率为13.53%,1 300 例患儿中,CRP 阳性例数在5 岁组中,各类病原体感染组间表达差异无统计学意

  3. 降钙素原、C 反应蛋白、前清蛋白及白细胞计数在儿童手足口病诊断中的应用价值%Application value of procalcitonin,C-reactive protein,prealbumi and white blood cell in children with hand-foot-and-mouth disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶贵诚; 彭建明; 官燕飞; 袁斌

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application value of procalcitonin (PCT ) ,C-reactive protein (CRP) ,prealbumi (PA ) and white blood cell count (WBC))in children with hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) .Methods A total of 209 children with HFMD were classified into ordinary group (171 patients) and severe group (38 patients) according to the condition of disease ,an-other 30 healthy children were selected as the control group .The levels of PCT ,CRP ,PA and WBC in the three groups were meas-ured and compared .Results The levels of PCT ,CRP ,PA and WBC of ordinary group were 0 .16(0 .08 - 0 .34)μg/L ,11 .7(5 .0 -19 .0)mg/L ,(142 .6 ± 38 .4)mg /L and (11 .3 ± 4 .6) × 129 /L respectively ,and those of severe group were 0 .26(0 .14 - 0 .92)μg /L , 18 .4(5 .3 - 41 .4) mg /L ,(125 .5 ± 32 .9)mg/L and (13 .0 ± 5 .6) × 129 /L respectively .The PCT ,CRP ,PA and WBC in ordinary group and severe group were significantly different with those in the control group (P < 0 .05) .The PCT ,CRP and PA in severe group had statistical differences compared with those in the ordinary group (P< 0 .05) .Conclusion PCT ,CRP ,PA and WBC could be used as reference indexes of inflammation in HFMD ,and could be used in the diagnosis of HFMD in children ,PCT and PA could be used to evaluate the severity of disease .%目的:探讨降钙素原(PCT)、C 反应蛋白(CRP)、前清蛋白(PA )、白细胞(WBC)计数在儿童手足口病(HFMD)诊断中的应用价值。方法将209例 HFMD 患儿按病情分为普通病例组(171例)及重症病例组(38例),另外选择同期30例健康体检儿童纳入对照组,测定3组儿童 PCT 、CRP 、PA 及 WBC 水平,并进行比较。结果普通病例组的 PCT 、CRP 、PA 、WBC 水平分别为0.16(0.08~0.34)μg /L 、11.7(5.0~19.0)mg/L 、(142.6±38.4)mg/L 、(11.3±4.6)×129/L ,重症病例组分别为0.26(0.14~0.92)μg/L 、18.4(5.3~41.4

  4. The Practice Guidelines for Primary Care of Acute Abdomen 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayumi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Tazuma, Susumu; Furukawa, Akira; Nishii, Osamu; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Azuhata, Takeo; Itakura, Atsuo; Kamei, Seiji; Kondo, Hiroshi; Maeda, Shigenobu; Mihara, Hiroshi; Mizooka, Masafumi; Nishidate, Toshihiko; Obara, Hideaki; Sato, Norio; Takayama, Yuichi; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Miyata, Tetsuro; Maruyama, Izumi; Honda, Hiroshi; Hirata, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Since acute abdomen requires accurate diagnosis and treatment within a particular time limit to prevent mortality, the Japanese Society for Abdominal Emergency Medicine in collaboration with four other medical societies launched the Practice Guidelines for Primary Care of Acute Abdomen that were the first English guidelines in the world for the management of acute abdomen. Here we provide the highlights of these guidelines [all clinical questions (CQs) and recommendations are shown in supplementary information]. A systematic and comprehensive evaluation of the evidence for epidemiology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and primary treatment for acute abdomen was performed to develop the Practice Guidelines for Primary Care of Acute Abdomen 2015. Because many types of pathophysiological events underlie acute abdomen, these guidelines cover the primary care of adult patients with nontraumatic acute abdomen. A total of 108 questions based on 9 subject areas were used to compile 113 recommendations. The subject areas included definition, epidemiology, history taking, physical examination, laboratory test, imaging studies, differential diagnosis, initial treatment, and education. Japanese medical circumstances were considered for grading the recommendations to assure useful information. The two-step methods for the initial management of acute abdomen were proposed. Early use of transfusion and analgesia, particularly intravenous acetaminophen, were recommended. The Practice Guidelines for Primary Care of Acute Abdomen 2015 have been prepared as the first evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute abdomen. We hope that these guidelines contribute to clinical practice and improve the primary care and prognosis of patients with acute abdomen.

  5. Differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen. Pt. 4. Acute abdomen in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staatz, Gundula; Schneider, Karl

    2010-01-01

    The diagnostic work-up of adults with acute abdominal pain has changed significantly within the last decade and computed tomography is often used as the first imaging modality of choice. In pediatric patients with an acute abdomen, ultrasound and abdominal X-rays remain the first line procedures. Because of the radiation risk, computed tomography is only recommended in selected cases and when strongly indicated. This review is the fourth and final part within a series of reviews dealing with the diagnostic strategy in the work-up of patients with an acute abdomen. (orig.)

  6. The Application Value of C Reactive Protein,Procalcitonin and White Blood Cell in the Diagnosis of Blood Infections%血液感染诊断中C反应蛋白、降钙素原及白细胞计数的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊学丽; 杨凡

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application value of C reactive protein(CRP),procalcitonin(PCT) and white blood cell(WBC)in the diagnosis of blood infections.Methods From Jan.2014 to Jan.2015,total of 180 blood disease patients in Jingmen Second People′s Hospital were divided into blood disease infection group of 140 cases [ bacterial infection 58 cases( Gram-negative bacteria infection 32 cases,Gram-positive bacteria infection 26 cases),fungal infection 42 cases,virus infection 40 cases,blood disease non-infection 40 cases].Another 80 cases of healthy persons for health check-up were included as control group.The levels of CRP,PCT,WBC of each group were compared.Results The levels of CRP, PCT, WBC of the blood disease infection group [ ( 12.98 ± 2.25) g/L,(7.68 ±1.02) μg/L,(19.98 ±3.02) ×109/L] were higher than the blood disease non-infection group[(7.85 ±1.12) g/L,(0.18 ±0.06) μg/L,(12.56 ±2.11) ×109/L] and the level of the control group [(2.21 ±0.08) g/L,(0.14 ±0.02) μg/L,(7.25 ±0.98) ×109/L],CRP,WBC levels of the blood disease non-infection group were higher than the control group(P 0.05).The levels of PCT of gram-negative infections (16.21 ±2.63) g/L was higher than Gram-positive bacterial infection ( 13.41 ±2.78 ) g/L ( P 0.05).Conclusion CRP, PCT,WBC all have certain values in identifying blood infection and non-infection.Serum PCT has a good value for the identification of bacterial infections and non-bacterial infections,especially with high specificity in Gram-nega-tive bacterial infections.%目的:探讨C反应蛋白(CRP)、降钙素原(PCT)及白细胞计数(WBC)在血液感染诊断中的临床应用价值。方法选取2014年1月至2015年1月荆门市第二人民医院收治的血液疾病患者180例,根据患者血液培养结果分为血液疾病感染组140例[细菌感染58例(革兰阴性菌感染32例,革兰阳性菌感染26例),真菌感染42例,病毒感染40例],血液疾病非感染组40

  7. Imaging findings of Castleman disease of the abdomen and pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Liangping; Wang Peihua; Peng Weijun; Yang Wentao; Zhang Bei; Guan Yubao; Zhou Kangrong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this work was to analysis the most suggestive imaging findings of Castleman disease in the abdomen and pelvis and to improve the recognition of this rare disease. Methods: Ten patients with pathologically proved Castleman disease in the abdomen (n=9) and pelvis (n=1) were included in this study. Patients were 18-56 yeas old (mean=40); 7 were men and 3 women. Imaging findings (CT and MRI, n=4; only CT, n=4; only MRI, n=2) were retrospectively reviewed and correlated with clinical and pathologic findings. Results: The lesions were divided into localized (n=9) and disseminated (n=1) group. The pathologic subtypes of all 9 cases of localized disease were hyaline vascular type. Imaging findings showed a single large mass in six and a single dominant mass with small satellite nodules in three. On plain CT images, the lesions manifested as homogeneous soft masses, which is isoattenuating to muscle. After intravenous injection of contrast media, most of the masses enhanced sharply (5/7) with the attenuation similar to large arteries at arterial phase and delay scans. On MR imaging, the lesions also were homogenous and had isointense or slightly low signal intensity compared with that of muscle on T 1 weighted images and high signal intensity on T 2 weighted images, and showed contrast enhancement in a similar pattern to contrast enhanced CT. After intravenous injection of contrast media, areas of central lower radial attenuation in the mass were noted in 4 cases of large masses ( > 5 cm) and proved to be fibrotic component pathologically. The pathologic subtypes of 1 cases of disseminated disease was plasma cell type. Imaging findings showed several well-defined nodules lied in the retroperitoneal zone that enhanced sharply with the attenuation similar to large arteries after intravenous injection of contrast media. Conclusion: Imaging findings of Castleman disease in the abdomen and pelvis are closely associated with its pathology. The most

  8. Abdomen and spinal cord segmentation with augmented active shape models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhoubing; Conrad, Benjamin N; Baucom, Rebeccah B; Smith, Seth A; Poulose, Benjamin K; Landman, Bennett A

    2016-07-01

    Active shape models (ASMs) have been widely used for extracting human anatomies in medical images given their capability for shape regularization of topology preservation. However, sensitivity to model initialization and local correspondence search often undermines their performances, especially around highly variable contexts in computed-tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images. In this study, we propose an augmented ASM (AASM) by integrating the multiatlas label fusion (MALF) and level set (LS) techniques into the traditional ASM framework. Using AASM, landmark updates are optimized globally via a region-based LS evolution applied on the probability map generated from MALF. This augmentation effectively extends the searching range of correspondent landmarks while reducing sensitivity to the image contexts and improves the segmentation robustness. We propose the AASM framework as a two-dimensional segmentation technique targeting structures with one axis of regularity. We apply AASM approach to abdomen CT and spinal cord (SC) MR segmentation challenges. On 20 CT scans, the AASM segmentation of the whole abdominal wall enables the subcutaneous/visceral fat measurement, with high correlation to the measurement derived from manual segmentation. On 28 3T MR scans, AASM yields better performances than other state-of-the-art approaches in segmenting white/gray matter in SC.

  9. Critical Structure for Telescopic Movement of Honey bee (Insecta: Apidae) Abdomen: Folded Intersegmental Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jieliang; Yan, Shaoze; Wu, Jianing

    2016-01-01

    The folded intersegmental membrane is a structure that interconnects two adjacent abdominal segments; this structure is distributed in the segments of the honey bee abdomen. The morphology of the folded intersegmental membrane has already been documented. However, the ultrastructure of the intersegmental membrane and its assistive role in the telescopic movements of the honey bee abdomen are poorly understood. To explore the morphology and ultrastructure of the folded intersegmental membrane in the honey bee abdomen, frozen sections were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The intersegmental membrane between two adjacent terga has a Z-S configuration that greatly influences the daily physical activities of the honey bee abdomen. The dorsal intersegmental membrane is 2 times thicker than the ventral one, leading to asymmetric abdominal motion. Honey bee abdominal movements were recorded using a high-speed camera and through phase-contrast computed tomography. These movements conformed to the structural features of the folded intersegmental membrane. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  10. Spontaneous Spleen Rupture in a Teenager: An Uncommon Cause of Acute Abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verroiotou Maria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous spleen rupture is a rare complication of infectious diseases and it can become a potentially life-threatening condition if not diagnosed in time. A 17-year-old Greek female presented to the ER due to acute abdominal pain, mainly of the left upper quadrant. She had no recent report of trauma. The patient was pale, her blood pressure was 90/70 mmHg, and her pulse was 120 b/min. Clinical examination of the abdomen revealed muscle contraction and resistance. The patient was submitted to an ultrasound of the upper abdomen and to a CT scanning of the abdomen that revealed an extended intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to spleen rupture. Due to the patient’s hemodynamic instability, she was taken to the operation room and splenectomy was performed. Following a series of laboratory examinations, the patient was diagnosed to be positive for current cytomegalovirus infection. The postoperative course was uneventful, and in a two year follow-up the patient is symptom-free. Spontaneous spleen rupture due to Cytomegalovirus infection is a rare clinical entity, described in few case reports in the world literature and should always be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially in adolescents with no recent report of trauma.

  11. MR imaging of the abdomen in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasen, J.; Antoch, G.; Blondin, D.

    2011-01-01

    Sonography is still the method of choice for imaging diseases in pregnant women. The changed physiognomy of the women increases the known limitations of sonography while the advantages of MRI (large field of view, excellent soft-tissue contrast, sensitive diagnosis of edema) are not affected. The available sequences allow the differentiation of various pathologies. Most of these can frequently be visualized without intravenous administration of contrast material. Although the significance of techniques like DWI and ASL has not yet been explored, initial descriptions are promising and MR imaging in pregnancy will be increasingly important in the future. Therefore, knowledge of the most frequent diseases in pregnancy and their image appearance is relevant to radiologists. The advantages of MRI in comparison to sonography and its important role in imaging pathologies of the acute abdomen in pregnancy are illustrated and discussed. (orig.)

  12. Practice Guidelines for Primary Care of Acute Abdomen 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayumi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Tazuma, Susumu; Furukawa, Akira; Nishii, Osamu; Shigematsu, Kunihiro; Azuhata, Takeo; Itakura, Atsuo; Kamei, Seiji; Kondo, Hiroshi; Maeda, Shigenobu; Mihara, Hiroshi; Mizooka, Masafumi; Nishidate, Toshihiko; Obara, Hideaki; Sato, Norio; Takayama, Yuichi; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Miyata, Tetsuro; Maruyama, Izumi; Honda, Hiroshi; Hirata, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Since acute abdomen requires accurate diagnosis and treatment within a particular time limit to prevent mortality, the Japanese Society for Abdominal Emergency Medicine, in collaboration with four other medical societies, launched the Practice Guidelines for Primary Care of Acute Abdomen that were the first English guidelines in the world for the management of acute abdomen. Here we provide the highlights of these guidelines (all clinical questions and recommendations were shown in supplementary information). A systematic and comprehensive evaluation of the evidence for epidemiology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and primary treatment for acute abdomen was performed to develop the Practice Guidelines for Primary Care of Acute Abdomen 2015. Because many types of pathophysiological events underlie acute abdomen, these guidelines cover the primary care of adult patients with nontraumatic acute abdomen. A total of 108 questions based on nine subject areas were used to compile 113 recommendations. The subject areas included definition, epidemiology, history taking, physical examination, laboratory test, imaging studies, differential diagnosis, initial treatment, and education. Japanese medical circumstances were considered for grading the recommendations to assure useful information. The two-step methods for the initial management of acute abdomen were proposed. Early use of transfusion and analgesia, particularly intravenous acetaminophen, were recommended. The Practice Guidelines for Primary Care of Acute Abdomen 2015 have been prepared as the first evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute abdomen. We hope that these guidelines contribute to clinical practice and improve the primary care and prognosis of patients with acute abdomen. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  13. Unusual causes of acute abdomen in a Nigerian hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute abdomen is the most common abdominal emergency associated with high morbidity and mortality in General surgical practice. Over a 7-year period, a study of unusual causes of acute abdomen was undertaken, with the aim of identifying these causes and outcome of operative management. Eleven cases were ...

  14. Accessory spleen presenting as acute abdomen: A case report and operative management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Landmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accessory spleens are found in 10–30% of patients and are asymptomatic. Rarely, torsion of an accessory spleen can cause abdominal pain and acute abdomen. We present the case of an 8-year-old girl who arrives to the emergency room with left upper quadrant abdominal pain. CT scan revealed a non-enhancing soft tissue mass and multiple small splenules. Laparoscopy revealed a torsed accessory spleen and malrotation. Accessory spleen is a common congenital anomaly that is frequently asymptomatic. Rarely, an accessory spleen may become torsed around its vascular pedicle resulting in severe abdominal pain. Treatment is surgical resection. Torsion of accessory splenic tissue is a rare cause of acute abdomen in pediatric patients.

  15. A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen: Diagnosis and Management of Adult Colonic Intussusception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertkaya, Mehmet; Emre, Arif; Pircanoglu, Eyüp Mehmet; Yazar, Fatih Mehmet; Tepe, Murat; Cengiz, Emrah; Isler, Ali; Vicdan, Halit

    2016-01-01

    Intussusception in adults is very rarely seen, and this cause acute abdomen. A computed tomography (CT) scan, clinical suspicion, history, and a physical examination are important for the diagnosis. We present two cases of colonic intussusceptions induced by lipoma. The cases had similar locations, diagnoses, and management. Both lipomas were located close to the cecum in the ascending colon, and a right segmental colon resection was performed in both cases. The follow-up of both cases was uneventful. Although benign lesions can cause colonic intussusception, the high incidence of malignancy in colonic lesions should always be considered. Therefore, oncologic surgical procedures should be applied. The definitive diagnosis can be made by histopathology. Sertkaya M, Emre A, Pircanoglu EM, Yazar FM, Tepe M, Cengiz E, Isler A, Vicdan H. A Rare cause of Acute Abdomen: Diagnosis and Management of Adult Colonic Intussusception. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2016;6(2):179-182.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen and pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen presents greater inherent difficulties than other anatomic regions. However, new techniques now allow imaging comparable in quality to computed tomography (CT). Magnetic resonance imaging offers the advantages of greater tissue contrast, multiplanar imaging, and lack of ionizing radiation or risk of toxic reactions from iodinated contrast media. Its use remains limited by high cost, limited availability, lack of a bowel contrast agent, and long imaging time, which some patients cannot tolerate. In many areas of abdominal imaging, MRI is now comparable to CT, but because of the greater availability and lesser cost, CT remains the procedure of choice. Magnetic resonance imaging is more accurate for staging neoplasms of the liver, adrenal glands, kidneys, bladder, prostate, uterus, and cervix and may aid in diagnosis of hepatic, adrenal, and uterine masses. In selected patients, especially those in whom CT is inconclusive or those who cannot tolerate iodinated contrast material, MRI can provide valuable information. Development of faster scanning techniques and MRI contrast agents and wider availability will probably increase the usefulness of abdominal MRI. At this time, MRI complements other abdominal imaging procedures. In a small number of patients, however, it can provide unique information in a virtually risk-free manner

  17. MRI of the Body (Chest, Abdomen, Pelvis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... headsets so that the child can watch a movie while the scan is being performed. Thus, the ... the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by ...

  18. Noncommunicating isolated enteric duplication cyst in the abdomen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Surgery 2013, 9:124–126. Keywords: abdomen, children, duplication, isolated, noncommunicating. Department of Pediatric Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, .... M Abdominal pain, anorexia, fever. Ileum. Respiratory.

  19. Estimation of breast dose and cancer risk in chest and abdomen CT procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltahir, Suha Abubaker Ali

    2013-05-01

    The use of CT in medical diagnosis delivers radiation doses to patents that are higher than those from other radiological procedures. Lack of optimized protocols be an additional source of increased dose in developing countries. The aims of this study are first, to measure patient doses during CT chest and abdomen procedures, second, to estimate the radiation dose to the breast, and third to quantify the radiation risks during the procedures. Patient doses from two common CT examinations were obtained from four hospitals in Khartoum.The patient doses were estimated using measurement of CT dose indexes (CTDI), exposure-related parameters, and the IMPACT spreadsheet based on NRPB conversion factors. A large variation of mean organ doses among hospitals was observed for similar CT examinations. These variations largely originated from different CT scanning protocols used in different hospitals and scanner type. The largest range was found for CT of the chest, for which the dose varied from 2.3 to 47 (average 24.7) mSv and for abdomen CT, it was 1.6 to 18.8 (average 10.2) mSv. Radiation dose to the breast ranged from 1.6 to 32.9 mSv for the chest and 1.1 to 13.2 mSv for the abdomen. The radiation risk per procedure was high. The obtained values were mostly higher than the values of organ doses reported from the other studies. It was concluded that current clinical chest and abdomen protocols result in variable radiation doses to the breast. The magnitude of exposure may have implications for imaging strategies.(Author)

  20. Parenteral nutrition including polyamine under experimental irradiation of the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, B.B.; Fedorovskij, L.L.; Lyashchenko, Yu.N.

    1982-01-01

    White rats-males were used in experiments. Irradiation dose of abdomen area is 13.5 Gy (1400 R). Parenteral nutrition using aminoacid preparation of polyamine affects favourably during radiation damage resulted from local irradiation of abdomen area. This was manifested in weakening of gastroenteric syndrom, reduction of 3.5 day death of animals and increase of their 30 day survival rate, intensification of recovery processes in small intestine, decrease of cell devastation in bone marrow

  1. Attach importance to intervention therapy of acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuan

    2006-01-01

    Acute abdomen means a set of clinical emergency with acute abdominalgia as the primary characteristic symptom of onset, including others as the acute onset, quick symptom changes, severe illness, and oftenly need surgical treatment; therefore, acute abdomen ought to be designated within surgery domain. As interventional therapy is extensively applied in clinical medicine, now a days many victims of acute abdomen, especially those with ambiguous clinical diagnosis requiring an initial invasive examination (angiography, PTC, etc), should be referred to interventional therapy before taking an item of invasive measures. This new concept management has achieved good clinical curative effect and become one of the remarkable achievements in acute abdomen therapeutics. Such predominance finds proper expression in the following two aspects: (1) The evolution of contemporary medical iconography has made it possible to duly and accurately diagnose acute abdomen, and thus created a diagnostic predominance for us-interventionalists; (2) Intervention therapy is featured with its unique minimal invasion and massive effectiveness, and thus provides high leading edge than conventional surgical operation. The authors believe that intervention management ought to become the first-choice for treating the above mentioned acute abdomen. (authors)

  2. Contrast Enhanced US in the Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Eun; Kim, Ki Whang

    2012-01-01

    Contrast enhanced ultrasound, which was introduced in 1996, has been widely used in Europe and Eastern Asia. Ultrasound contrast agent can be classified as first generation and second generation, depending on the gas within the microbubble. With the first generation contrast agent, the high MI technique was used, and only intermittent scanning was possible due to destruction of the microbubble during scanning. Use of the second generation contrast agent with the low MI technique makes continuous scanning possible. Contrast enhanced US can be used in detection and differentiation of focal liver lesions. It is also helpful for monitoring of radiofrequency ablation and for targeting of US guided biopsy. Currently, because morphologic criteria alone may not reflect the response of the tumor to treatment, new criteria are needed for treatment evaluation after administration of anti-angiogenic agents. Contrast enhanced US could provide quantitative markers for evaluation of the response to treatment via use of dynamic contrast enhanced US. Due to cost-effectiveness, contrast enhanced US is not yet widely used in Korea; however, considering recent issues regarding contrast agent related adverse reaction, such as contrast induced nephropathy and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, and radiation exposure, contrast enhanced US might be more widely used in Korea, as an alternative imaging modality in the future.

  3. 49 CFR 572.75 - Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly and test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 6-Year-Old Child § 572.75 Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly and test procedure. (a) Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly. The lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis consist of... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lumbar spine, abdomen, and pelvis assembly and...

  4. Surgical Tips in Frozen Abdomen Management: Application of Coliseum Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazanos, Ioannis D; Manatakis, Dimitrios K; Stamos, Nikolaos; Stoidis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Wound dehiscence is a serious postoperative complication, with an incidence of 0.5-3% after primary closure of a laparotomy incision, and represents an acute mechanical failure of wound healing. Relatively recently the concept of "intentional open abdomen" was described and both clinical entities share common pathophysiological and clinical pathways ("postoperative open abdominal wall"). Although early reconstruction is the target, a significant proportion of patients will develop adhesions between abdominal viscera and the anterolateral abdominal wall, a condition widely recognized as "frozen abdomen," where delayed wound closure appears as the only realistic alternative. We report our experience with a patient who presented with frozen abdomen after wound dehiscence due to surgical site infection and application of the "Coliseum technique" for its definitive surgical management. This novel technique represents an innovative alternative to abdominal exploration, for cases of "malignant" frozen abdomen due to peritoneal carcinomatosis. Lifting the edges of the surgical wound upwards and suspending them under traction by threads from a retractor positioned above the abdomen facilitates approach to the peritoneal cavity, optimizes exposure of intra-abdominal organs, and prevents operative injury to the innervation and blood supply of abdominal wall musculature, a crucial step for subsequent hernia repair.

  5. Portable abdomen radiography. Moving to thickness-based protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Adrian A.; Reiser, Ingrid; Baxter, Tina; Zhang, Yue; Finkle, Joshua H.; Lu, Zheng Feng; Feinstein, Kate A.

    2018-01-01

    Default pediatric protocols on many digital radiography systems are configured based on patient age. However, age does not adequately characterize patient size, which is the principal determinant of proper imaging technique. Use of default pediatric protocols by inexperienced technologists can result in patient overexposure, inadequate image quality, or repeated examinations. To ensure diagnostic image quality at a well-managed patient radiation exposure by transitioning to thickness-based protocols for pediatric portable abdomen radiography. We aggregated patient thickness data, milliamperes (mAs), kilovoltage peak (kVp), exposure index (EI), source-to-detector distance, and grid use for all portable abdomen radiographs performed in our pediatric hospital in a database with a combination of automated and manual data collection techniques. We then analyzed the database and used it as the basis to construct thickness-based protocols with consistent image quality across varying patient thicknesses, as determined by the EI. Retrospective analysis of pediatric portable exams performed at our adult-focused hospitals demonstrated substantial variability in EI relative to our pediatric hospital. Data collection at our pediatric hospital over 4 months accumulated roughly 800 portable abdomen exams, which we used to develop a thickness-based technique chart. Through automated retrieval of data in our systems' digital radiography exposure logs and recording of patient abdomen thickness, we successfully developed thickness-based techniques for portable abdomen radiography. (orig.)

  6. Portable abdomen radiography. Moving to thickness-based protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Adrian A.; Reiser, Ingrid; Baxter, Tina; Zhang, Yue; Finkle, Joshua H.; Lu, Zheng Feng; Feinstein, Kate A. [University of Chicago Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2018-02-15

    Default pediatric protocols on many digital radiography systems are configured based on patient age. However, age does not adequately characterize patient size, which is the principal determinant of proper imaging technique. Use of default pediatric protocols by inexperienced technologists can result in patient overexposure, inadequate image quality, or repeated examinations. To ensure diagnostic image quality at a well-managed patient radiation exposure by transitioning to thickness-based protocols for pediatric portable abdomen radiography. We aggregated patient thickness data, milliamperes (mAs), kilovoltage peak (kVp), exposure index (EI), source-to-detector distance, and grid use for all portable abdomen radiographs performed in our pediatric hospital in a database with a combination of automated and manual data collection techniques. We then analyzed the database and used it as the basis to construct thickness-based protocols with consistent image quality across varying patient thicknesses, as determined by the EI. Retrospective analysis of pediatric portable exams performed at our adult-focused hospitals demonstrated substantial variability in EI relative to our pediatric hospital. Data collection at our pediatric hospital over 4 months accumulated roughly 800 portable abdomen exams, which we used to develop a thickness-based technique chart. Through automated retrieval of data in our systems' digital radiography exposure logs and recording of patient abdomen thickness, we successfully developed thickness-based techniques for portable abdomen radiography. (orig.)

  7. Prevention of Incisional Hernias after Open Abdomen Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Berrevoet

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of a patient with an open abdomen is difficult, and the primary closure of the fascial edges is essential to obtain the best patient outcome, regardless of the initial etiology of the open abdomen. The use of temporary abdominal closure devices is nowadays the gold standard to have the highest closure rates with mesh-mediated fascial traction as the proposed standard of care. However, the incidence of incisional hernias, although much more controlled than when leaving an abdomen open, is high and reaches up to 65%. As shown for other high-risk patient subgroups, such as obese patients, patients with an abdominal aneurysm, and patients with former -ostomy sites, the prevention of incisional hernias might be key to further optimize patient outcomes after open abdomen treatment. In this overview, current available modalities to decrease the incidence of incisional hernia are discussed. Most of these preventive options have been shown effective in giant ventral hernia repair and might work effectively in this patient cohort with open abdomen as well.

  8. Torsion of a Wandering Spleen Presenting as Acute Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Narvir Singh; Kumar, Satish

    2016-01-01

    Wandering spleen is a rare condition which if uncorrected, can result in torsion and infarction. Clinical presentation of a wandering spleen can vary from asymptomatic abdominal mass to acute abdominal pain. Radiological investigations play a pivotal role in diagnosis as the clinical diagnosis is usually impossible. We present a case of wandering spleen with torsion and complete infarction that occurred in a 32-year-old multiparous female. The diagnosis was established preoperatively on colour Doppler and CT of the abdomen with subsequent confirmation on surgery. Wandering spleen is a rare clinical condition which can present as acute abdomen. An increased awareness of this entity together with the timely use of ultrasound and CT of the abdomen can play an important role in preoperative diagnosis and surgical management

  9. Differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, Walter; Kirchhoff, Timm D.; Opherk, Jan Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The imaging of the acute abdomen has undergone fundamental changes in the recent past. The diagnostic strategy requires an up-date since ultrasound and computed-tomography have replaced classic radiography in cases of acute lower abdominal pain as well. The present contribution is the second of four reviews on this issue and focuses on the acute lower quadrant pain while part three will depict diffuse acute abdominal pain and, finally, the diagnostic strategy of the acute abdomen in childhood will be described in part four. (orig.)

  10. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen; Diffusionsgewichtete Magnetresonanztomographie des Abdomens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid-Tannwald, C.; Reiser, M.F.; Zech, C.J. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) provides qualitative and quantitative information of tissue cellularity and the integrity of cellular membranes. Since DW-MRI can be performed without ionizing radiation exposure and contrast media application, DW-MRI is a particularly attractive tool for patients with allergies for gadolinium-based contrast agents or renal failure. Recent technical developments have made DW-MRI a robust and feasible technique for abdominal imaging. DW-MRI provides information on the detection and characterization of focal liver lesions and can also visualize treatment effects and early changes in chronic liver disease. In addition DW-MRI is a promising tool for the detection of inflammatory changes in patients with Crohn's disease. (orig.) [German] Die diffusionsgewichtete (DW-)MRT ermoeglicht die Erfassung qualitativer und quantitativer Informationen bzgl. der Gewebezellularitaet und Membranintegritaet. Die DW-MRT ist insbesondere bei Patienten mit einer Allergie gegen gadoliniumhaltige Kontrastmittel oder eingeschraenkter Nierenfunktion attraktiv, da ihr Einsatz nicht mit Strahlenexposition oder Kontrastmittelgabe verbunden ist. Durch technische Weiterentwicklungen ist die robuste Anwendung der DW-MRI in der Bildgebung des Abdomens seit einiger Zeit moeglich geworden. In der Leberdiagnostik lassen sich Zusatzinformationen zur Detektion und Charakterisierung von Leberlaesionen gewinnen, aber auch Therapieerfolge dokumentieren und fruehe chronische Leberveraenderungen visualisieren. Neben ihrer Rolle bei hepatologischen und onkologischen Fragestellungen erscheint der Einsatz der DW-MRT zudem bei entzuendlichen Fragestellungen wie dem Morbus Crohn sehr viel versprechend. (orig.)

  11. Incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen, and pelvis after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with loose 125I seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Akitomo; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Nakashima, Jun; Kunieda, Etsuo; Nagata, Hirohiko; Mizuno, Ryuichi; Seki, Satoshi; Shiraishi, Yutaka; Kouta, Ryuichi; Oya, Mototsugu

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to determine the incidence of seed migration not only to the chest, but also to the abdomen and pelvis after transperineal interstitial prostate brachytherapy with loose 125 I seeds. We reviewed the records of 267 patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy with loose 125 I seeds. After seed implantation, orthogonal chest radiographs, an abdominal radiograph, and a pelvic radiograph were undertaken routinely to document the occurrence and sites of seed migration. The incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen, and pelvis was calculated. All patients who had seed migration to the abdomen and pelvis subsequently underwent a computed tomography scan to identify the exact location of the migrated seeds. Postimplant dosimetric analysis was undertaken, and dosimetric results were compared between patients with and without seed migration. A total of 19,236 seeds were implanted in 267 patients. Overall, 91 of 19,236 (0.47%) seeds migrated in 66 of 267 (24.7%) patients. Sixty-nine (0.36%) seeds migrated to the chest in 54 (20.2%) patients. Seven (0.036%) seeds migrated to the abdomen in six (2.2%) patients. Fifteen (0.078%) seeds migrated to the pelvis in 15 (5.6%) patients. Seed migration occurred predominantly within two weeks after seed implantation. None of the 66 patients had symptoms related to the migrated seeds. Postimplant prostate D90 was not significantly different between patients with and without seed migration. We showed the incidence of seed migration to the chest, abdomen and pelvis. Seed migration did not have a significant effect on postimplant prostate D90

  12. AN ANALYSIS ON HOLLOW VISCERAL INJURY AND ITS MANAGEMENT FOLLOWING BLUNT TRAUMA ABDOMEN AT A TERTIARY HEALTHCARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Sahoo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Trauma is “the neglected disease of modern developing nations.” Hollow viscous injury following blunt trauma to abdomen is not common. The incidence of hollow viscous injuries following abdominal trauma varies from 2 to 15%. The following study was conducted at Department of General Surgery, MKCG Medical College and Hospital, Berhampur, a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS All the patients admitted to MKCG Medical College and Hospital, Berhampur, with history of blunt trauma to abdomen were examined carefully. Those patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of visceral injury were identified and subjected to xray chest and abdomen erect view and ultrasound abdomen/CT scan. Those with features of pneumoperitoneum are subjected to laparotomy and treated according to location of perforation. Duration of study was from January 2016 to July 2017. RESULTS This study included people of different age groups from 13 to 65 years. Majority of the patients were men (83.5% and most common mode was found to be road traffic accident (69.6%. Most of the patients injured were young and belonged to earning group (81.44%. Most common viscera injured was ileum (37.85% Most common type of injury encountered in our study was isolated perforation and the common surgical procedure was primary closure. CONCLUSION In cases of polytrauma, blunt abdominal trauma contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality. Both the sexes were affected with a male preponderance. The most common mode of blunt trauma was found to be Road Traffic Accident (RTA. Adequate knowledge regarding suspecting intra-abdominal injuries and timely management at tertiary care centre can definitely bring a marked difference in the prognosis of polytrauma patients with history of blunt trauma to abdomen.

  13. Huge Mesenteric Lymphangioma – A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymphangiomas are benign congenital masses which occur most commonly in head and neck of children and incidence of mesenteric lymphangiomas is very rare. We report such a case of huge mesenteric lymphangioma in a 20 year old male who presented to us with acute abdomen. Pre-operative diagnosis is difficult ...

  14. Surgically treated acute abdomen at Gondar University Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study has shown what the commonest symptoms of acute abdomen are and that the outcome of emergency laparotomy may be affected by different factors. Some of these factors were duration of illness, age, presence of peritonitis, Haematocrit level and complication detection time. Since the management ...

  15. Chilaiditi's syndrome as an acute abdomen | Jambo | Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interposed loop of bowel reduced spontaneously following conservative management. Conclusion: As Chilaiditi syndrome is a rare disease entity, a high index of suspicion is required to make an accurate diagnosis. It should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses of an acute abdomen. Keywords: Acute ...

  16. Nutritional management of a patient with an open abdomen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-14

    Aug 14, 2014 ... Keywords: nutritional, management, open abdomen. Introduction ... lower than required energy intake (25 kCal/kg), and increasing it to target over the ..... Trauma and surgery lead to an intense inflammatory response and possible ... state, characterised by muscle breakdown, acute protein malnutrition ...

  17. Causes and Clinical Outcomes in Neonates with Acute Abdomen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Causes and Clinical Outcomes in Neonates with Acute Abdomen Requiring Surgery at ... Neonatal surgery is challenging, particularly in the emergency setting whereby ... Other causes included peritonitis (6.9%) and abdominal wall defects (4.7%). ... accounting for 13 cases (30.2%) and mortality was 34.9 % ( 15 neonates).

  18. Septic Arthritis of The Hip Joint presenting as Acute Abdomen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These cases illustrate the maxim that any painful movement of the hip joint with associated unexplained fever should raise suspicion of septic arthritis. The close relationship of the hip joint to the pelvis sometimes confuses hip diseases with pelvic pathologies. Key Words: Septic arthritis, acute abdomen, pathological ...

  19. Analysis of the computed tomography in the acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochhegger, Bruno; Moraes, Everton; Haygert, Carlos Jesus Pereira; Antunes, Paulo Sergio Pase; Gazzoni, Fernando; Lopes, Luis Felipe Dias

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: This study tends to test the capacity of the computed tomography in assist in the diagnosis and the approach of the acute abdomen. Material and method: This is a longitudinal and prospective study, in which were analyzed the patients with the diagnosis of acute abdomen. There were obtained 105 cases of acute abdomen and after the application of the exclusions criteria were included 28 patients in the study. Results: Computed tomography changed the diagnostic hypothesis of the physicians in 50% of the cases (p 0.05), where 78.57% of the patients had surgical indication before computed tomography and 67.86% after computed tomography (p = 0.0546). The index of accurate diagnosis of computed tomography, when compared to the anatomopathologic examination and the final diagnosis, was observed in 82.14% of the cases (p = 0.013). When the analysis was done dividing the patients in surgical and nonsurgical group, were obtained an accuracy of 89.28% (p 0.0001). The difference of 7.2 days of hospitalization (p = 0.003) was obtained compared with the mean of the acute abdomen without use the computed tomography. Conclusion: The computed tomography is correlative with the anatomopathology and has great accuracy in the surgical indication, associated with the capacity of increase the confident index of the physicians, reduces the hospitalization time, reduces the number of surgeries and is cost-effective. (author)

  20. Burst abdomen in pregnancy: A proposed management algorithm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of the burst abdomen is complex due to the co-morbidities associated with it. When coupled with intraabdominal sepsis and pregnancy, it becomes even more difficult due to the ethical issues that have to be considered when managing both mother and child. Due to the paucity of literature on this subject, ...

  1. Treatment of the complex abdomen and acute intestinal failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, F.E.E.

    2018-01-01

    Management of the complex abdomen and acute intestinal failure (IF) is challenging and requires specialized multidisciplinary treatment. Due to the small numbers and heterogeneity of the patient group high-quality evidence for some of the research questions is probably unachievable. Nevertheless,

  2. Gossypiboma of the Abdomen and Pelvis; A Recurring Error

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moi Hospital, Voi, Kenya. Correspondence to: Dr. Gilbert Maranya, P.O Box 91066-80103 Mombasa, Kenya. Email: gilbertmaranya@gmail.com. CASE SERIES. Abstract. Introduction: Gossypiboma is a retained surgical sponge commonly in the abdomen and pelvis. Risk factors include emergency and prolonged surgery.

  3. Impalement Injury to the Abdomen: Report of a Case

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... is even more demanding in environments where health-care personnel, facilities for emergency care, and communications infrastructure are absent or poorly funded and equipped. The primary objective of ... palm tree and got impaled through his lower abdomen on a sharp, freshly cut branch of a tree.

  4. Effect of different aspirin doses on arterial thrombosis after canine carotid endarterectomy: a scanning electron microscope and indium-111-labeled platelet study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercius, M.S.; Chandler, W.F.; Ford, J.W.; Swanson, D.P.; Burke, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation in arterial thrombosis, the appropriate dosage of aspirin remains quite controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different doses of aspirin (0.5 mg/kg vs. 10 mg/kg) on mural thrombus formation after carotid endarterectomy. Eighteen hours after oral aspirin administration, 20 endarterectomies were performed on mongrel dogs with the use of the operating microscope. Blood flow was then restored for 3 hours and the vessels were prepared for investigation with the scanning electron microscope. Ten endarterectomies were also performed on unmedicated dogs as controls. Five minutes before vessel unclamping, autologous indium-111-labeled platelets were administered intravenously, and the endarterectomized portions of the vessels were studied with a gamma counter system after harvesting. Group 1, the control group, revealed extensive mural thrombus consisting of platelet aggregates, fibrin, red blood cells, and white blood cells. Six of the 10 vessels in Group 2, premedicated with 0.5 mg of aspirin per kg, demonstrated varying amounts of mural thrombus. Group 3 (10 vessels), premedicated with 10 mg of aspirin per kg, revealed a platelet monolayer completely covering the exposed vessel wall media, with scattered white blood cells and infrequent fine fibrin strands overlying the platelet surface. The mean (+/- SD) radioactivity per group expressed as counts/minute/mm2 was: Group 1--2055.3 +/- 1905.5, log . 7.253 +/- 0.926; Group 2--1235.6 +/- 1234.3, log . 6.785 +/- 0.817; Group 3--526 +/- 433.06, log . 5.989 +/- 0.774

  5. The value of the abdominal radiograph in the assessment of the acute abdomen- work in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, R.; Kew, J.; Davies, R.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The value of the abdominal radiograph in the assessment of the acute abdomen was evaluated for those patients who also had abdominal ultrasound and/or CT. The value of each modality in patient management is reviewed. Retrospective review of 52 consecutive patients presented to a tertiary hospital emergency department with acute abdominal pain who underwent abdominal radiographs (AXR) and abdominal ultrasound (US) and / or computed tomography (CT) within 24 hours of presentation was undertaken. There were 37 males and 15 females. The mean age was 53 years (range 18-95y). Abdominal radiographs were reviewed by two radiologists.Two patients had two separate admissions one week apart. There were 35 normal abdominal radiographs. 19 studies showed clinically relevant abnormalities. Of the normal group, 14 out of 21 patients had abnormal findings on CT and 8 out of 16 had abnormal US examinations. Of the 19 patients with abnormal AXR, 17 out of 19 patients had abnormal CT and 2 out of 5 had abnormal ultrasound examinations. There were 5 cases where both CT scan and US was performed. The positive and negative predictive value for AXR vs CT scan was 89% and 33% respectively and for AXR vs US scan was 40% and 50% respectively. For patients with normal AXR and abnormal CT, there was only one case (a non calcified abdominal aortic aneurysm) which might have required immediate surgical intervention. The preliminary results suggest that the abnormal radiograph is sensitive in the detection of relevant abnormalities in the acute abdomen in the context of appropriate clinical selection. Both CT and ultrasound provide additional diagnostic accuracy for some indications.A further 50 patients are being reviewed and the combined results will be presented. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  6. Utility of screening computed tomography of chest, abdomen and pelvis in patients after heart transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, Tarun W.; Pavlovic-Surjancev, Biljana; Dusek, Linda; Patel, Nilamkumar; Heroux, Alain L.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Malignancy is a late cause of mortality in heart transplant recipients. It is unknown if screening computed tomography scan would lead to early detection of such malignancies or serious vascular anomalies post heart transplantation. Methods: This is a single center observational study of patients undergoing surveillance computed tomography of chest, abdomen and pelvis atleast 5 years after transplantation. Abnormal findings, included pulmonary nodules, lymphadenopathy and intra-thoracic and intra-abdominal masses and vascular anomalies such as abdominal aortic aneurysm. The clinical follow up of each of these major abnormal findings is summarized. Results: A total of 63 patients underwent computed tomography scan of chest, abdomen and pelvis at least 5 years after transplantation. Of these, 54 (86%) were male and 9 (14%) were female. Mean age was 52 ± 9.2 years. Computed tomography revealed 1 lung cancer (squamous cell) only. Non specific pulmonary nodules were seen in 6 patients (9.5%). The most common incidental finding was abdominal aortic aneurysms (N = 6 (9.5%)), which necessitated follow up computed tomography (N = 5) or surgery (N = 1). Mean time to detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms from transplantation was 14.6 ± 4.2 years. Mean age at the time of detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms was 74.5 ± 3.2 years. Conclusion: Screening computed tomography scan in patients 5 years from transplantation revealed only one malignancy but lead to increased detection of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Thus the utility is low in terms of detection of malignancy. Based on this study we do not recommend routine computed tomography post heart transplantation.

  7. Bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells: a pooled analysis of 3,600 subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricceri, F.; Godschalk, R.W.; Peluso, M.; Phillips, D.H.; Agudo, A; Georgiadis, P.; Loft, S.; Tjonneland, A.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.; Palli, D.; Perera, F.; Vermeulen, R.; Taioli, E.; Sram, R.J.; Munnia, A.; Rosa, F.; Allione, A.; Matullo, G.; Vineis, P.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bulky DNA adducts are markers of exposure to genotoxic aromatic compounds, which reflect the ability of an individual to metabolically activate carcinogens and to repair DNA damage. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a major class of carcinogens that are capable of forming

  8. Fixation of radioactive cerium-144 on white blood cells. Possibilities for use in physiopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeberhardt, A.

    1958-01-01

    From the study of the means of transport of cerium in the blood of various laboratory animals, after intra-venous injection of 144 Ce- 144 Pr without carrier, we have been able to show up the part played by the white cells in the transport of this fission product during its passage in the blood. This observation has led to the study, in vitro, of the methods of cerium fixation on the white cells, with a view to determining the possibilities of using this property for white cell labelling, the methods used up to the present not being entirely satisfactory. Using the method for the separation of the known constituents of the blood proposed by us in 1956, we have studied the cerium fixation under various conditions: - on suspensions of white cells from the rabbit, - on a suspension of human white cells, - on the white cells in whole from the rabbit. (author) [fr

  9. Bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells: a pooled analysis of 3,600 subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricceri, Fulvio; Godschalk, Roger W; Peluso, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Bulky DNA adducts are markers of exposure to genotoxic aromatic compounds, which reflect the ability of an individual to metabolically activate carcinogens and to repair DNA damage. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a major class of carcinogens that are capable of forming such add...... such adducts. Factors that have been reported to be related to DNA adduct levels include smoking, diet, body mass index (BMI), genetic polymorphisms, the season of collection of biologic material, and air pollutants....

  10. Measuring density and compressibility of white blood cells and prostate cancer cells by microchannel acoustophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune; Augustsson, Per; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel method for the determination of density and compressibility of individual particles and cells undergoing microchannel acoustophoresis in an arbitrary 2D acoustic field. Our method is a critical advancement within acoustophoretic separation of biological cells, as the ability to...

  11. The labeling of white blood cells with 99mTc and 111In complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadizad, T.; Najafi, R.

    1993-01-01

    Leukocytes have been labelled with a variety of gamma emitters and labelled (mixed) leukocytes are used clinically to detect and localize sites of abscess in the abdominal area and inflammatory processes surrounding grafts, ulcerative colitis and study of leukocyte kinetics. In this project we used 99m Tc-Sn-Pyp, 99m Tc-Hexamethyl propenylamine oxine, 111 In-Tropolone and 111 In-Oxine Sulfate for the labelling of leukocytes. All the in vitro and in vivo tests have been done to get an optimum condition for injection

  12. Changes in white blood cells in sheep blood during selenium supplementation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Písek, L.; Trávníček, J.; Salát, Jiří; Kroupová, V.; Soch, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 5 (2008), s. 255-259 ISSN 0375-8427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD523/03/H076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : ewes * immunity * T lymphocytes * CD4(+) * CD8(+) Subject RIV: GG - Livestock Rearing Impact factor: 0.659, year: 2008

  13. Bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells: a pooled analysis of 3600 subjects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ricceri, F.; Godschalk, R. W.; Peluso, M.; Philips, D. H.; Agudo, A.; Georgiadis, P.; Loft, S.; Tjonneland, A.; Raaschau-Nielsen, O.; Palli, D.; Perera, F.; Vermeulen, R.; Taioli, E.; Šrám, Radim; Munnia, A.; Rosa, F.; Allione, A.; Matullo, G.; Vineis, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2010), s. 3174-3181 ISSN 1055-9965 Grant - others:European Union ECNIS(XE) FOOD-CT-2005-513943 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : DNA adducts * biomarkers of exposure * air pollution Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.190, year: 2010

  14. Children's white blood cell counts in relation to developmental exposures to methylmercury and persistent organic pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Shamim, Z; Kielsen, Katrine

    2017-01-01

    ), and total mercury (Hg) were measured in maternal (n = 56) and children's blood at 18 months (n = 42) and 5 years (n = 54). We constructed latent functions for exposures at three different ages using factor analyses and applied structural equation models adjusted for covariates. Results Prenatal mercury....... In contrast, the 5-year PFASs concentrations were associated with higher basophil counts (B = 46% SD, 95% CI: 13, 79). Significantly reduced subpopulations of lymphocytes such as B cells, CD4-positive T helper cells and CD4 positive recent thymic emigrants may suggest cellular immunity effects...... and dysregulation of T-cell mediated immunity. Conclusion Developmental exposure to environmental immunotoxicants appears to have different impacts on WBC counts in childhood....

  15. Human truncated thioredoxin (Trx80) as a novel mitogenic cytokine for white blood cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pekkari, Klas

    2001-01-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is a 12 kDa protein present in all species with a well-conserved active site sequence comprising -Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys-, which catalyzes oxido-reductase reactions. Trx regulates the activity of transcription factors and intracellular signalling pathways, and secreted Trx is a co-cytokine with several interleukins. In addition to full-length Trx a 10 kDa C-terminally truncated form of the protein is produced mainly by monocytes. This protein has unique eosinophil...

  16. Radiation responses in peripheral white blood cells of smokers and non-smokers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Understanding the possible impact of potential confounding factors is necessary for any approach to radiation biodosimetry. Potential confounding factors have not...

  17. Effects of occupational exposure to carbon black on peripheral white blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, Yufei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Bassig, Bryan A; Ye, Meng; Zhang, Xiao; Meng, Tao; Bin, Ping; Jia, Xiaowei; Shen, Meili; Zhang, Rong; Hu, Wei; Yang, Xiaofa; Vermeulen, Roel; Silverman, Debra; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified carbon black (CB) as a possible (Group 2B) human carcinogen. Given that most CB manufacturing processes result in the emission of various types of chemicals, it is uncertain if the adverse health effects that have been observed in

  18. Radiolabeled white blood cells and direct targeting of micro-organisms for infection imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.

    2005-01-01

    Infection imaging is complicated due to multitude of factors interfering with the design of radiopharmaceuticals. More than 3 decades ago, labeled leukocytes have been introduced for infection imaging and new radiopharmaceuticals have been emerging on regular basis. However, labeled leukocytes by in vivo and in vitro methods are very effective for diagnosing various lesions such as osteomyelitis, cellulitis, diabetic foot, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease and in distinguishing prosthetic infection from loosening of prosthesis. But in vitro labeling method using 1 11I n-oxine, 9 9mT c-HMPAO or 9 9mT c-stannous colloid have the inherent limitation of personnel safety risks of infection and cross contamination. To overcome these problems, attempts have been made to directly target leukocytes by in vivo labeling techniques. There are several receptors present on the leukocytes and the granulocytes, which can be targeted with suitable ligands. These will include anti-NCA90-Fab, murine MoAb IgG 1 that is cross-reactive to antigen 95 on neutrophils, anti-CD15 antigen and DPC-11870 that targets the leukotriene B4 receptors of granulocytes. In a new approach, 9 9mT c-labeled ciprofloxacin has been developed to directly target live bacteria to detect infection by in vivo method. This approach showed considerable promise in the preliminary studies but clinical trials showed limitations. Analogs of a natural mammalian antimicrobial agents, such as Ubiquicidin were successful in animal studies and have now entered clinical trials. 9 9mT c-labeled fluconazole (a fungal antibiotic) and labeled Chitinase (1 23I -ChiB E144Q), have been developed to detect fungal infection. The ability to distinguish between fungal and bacterial infection is considered important, as patients undergoing chemotherapy are prone to fungal infection. Undoubtedly, the new trends and new radiopharmaceuticals developed for infection and inflammation imaging have contributed towards a better understanding of the underlying processes

  19. Lecithin-coated gold nanoflowers (GNFs) for CT scan imaging applications and biochemical parameters; in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Farooq; Bano, Khizra; Siddique, Ahmad Hassan; Bajwa, Sadia Zafar; Nazir, Aalia; Munawar, Anam; Shaheen, Ayesha; Saeed, Madiha; Afzal, Muhammad; Iqbal, M Zubair; Wu, Aiguo; Khan, Waheed S

    2018-01-09

    We report a novel strategy for the fabrication of lecithin-coated gold nanoflowers (GNFs) via single-step design for CT imaging application. Field-emission electron microscope confirmed flowers like morphology of the as-synthesized nanostructures. Furthermore, these show absorption peak in near-infrared (NIR) region at λ max 690 nm Different concentrations of GNFs are tested as a contrast agent in CT scans at tube voltage 135 kV and tube current 350 mA. These results are compared with same amount of iodine at same CT scan parameters. The results of in vitro CT scan study show that GNFs have good contrast enhancement properties, whereas in vivo study of rabbits CT scan shows that GNFs enhance the CT image clearly at 135 kV as compared to that of iodine. Cytotoxicity was studied and blood profile show minor increase of white blood cells and haemoglobin, whereas decrease of red blood cells and platelets.

  20. Vacuum-assisted closure of the open abdomen in a resource-limited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vacuum-assisted closure of the open abdomen in a resource-limited setting. ... Massive delays in presentation of patients with acute abdomen are common. Closure at initial laparotomy is not possible in many cases ... with an open abdomen. The management of these patients is particularly labour intensive for nursing staff.

  1. [Anesthesiological management of patients with an acute abdomen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Samir G; Wappler, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Patients with an acute abdomen present with marked deterioration in physiological and pathophysiological conditions, which make general anesthesia to a challenging but also potentially dangerous procedure. A broad and fundamental knowledge of the pathophysiologically involved mechanisms of cardiovascular functions during anesthesia and appropriate anesthesiological approach are crucial for a successful peri-operative management. The anesthesiologist's goal is to perform adequate anesthesia while maintaining cardiovascular stability. Monitoring and management of acid-base-status as well as cardiovascular functions are required to maintain sufficient tissue oxygenation during anesthesia. The postoperative anesthesiological management may also crucially influence the further course and therefore should be considered in the anesthesiological planning. Finally, adequate pain management in all these patients is an important and not to underestimate part in the treatment. This article gives an overview on the major aspects in the different fields in the anesthesiological management of patients with an acute abdomen.

  2. Diagnostics of vascular diseases as a cause for acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juchems, M.S.; Aschoff, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Vascular pathologies are rare causes of an acute abdomen. If the cause is a vascular disease a rapid diagnosis is desired as vascular pathologies are associated with high mortality. A differentiation must be made between arterial and venous diseases. An occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery is the most common reason for acute mesenteric ischemia but intra-abdominal arterial bleeding is also of great importance. Venous pathologies include thrombotic occlusion of the portal vein, the mesenteric vein and the vena cava. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is predestined for the diagnostics of vascular diseases of the abdomen. Using multiphasic contrast protocols enables reliable imaging of the arterial and venous vessel tree and detection of disorders with high sensitivity and specificity. Although conventional angiography has been almost completely replaced by MDCT as a diagnostic tool, it is still of high importance for minimally invasive interventions, for example in the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.) [de

  3. Acute abdomen. Diagnostic radiology according to principal signs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestin, G.P.

    1994-01-01

    The acute abdomen is a frequent and very often dangerous syndrome which requires sophisticated diagnostic evaluation. A decisive factor determining the following case history is efficient and exact diagnosis, calling for experienced clinical and diagnostic experts for efficient application of available methods, and correct interpretation of findings. The book offers: 1. Practice-oriented diagnostic strategies, based on 13 principal signs and constellations derived from clinical experience, presented in each chapter as a combination of - suitable differential diagnostic procedures and methods,- exhaustive description of the clinical signs and diagnostic findings specific of the various symptoms,- algorithmic presentations. 2. A special chapter on the pediatric acute abdomen. 3. The most important findings shown in more than 250 original pictures. 4. A graphical design and presentation of the information which permits quick access to the important content. (orig./CB) [de

  4. Acute abdomen: An unusual presentation of disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George I

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Varied clinical presentations of Penicillium marneffei , an opportunistic pathogen in HIV disease has been rarely described in literature. We report a patient with advanced AIDS who presented to us with prolonged fever and had features of an acute abdomen. On radiologic imaging he had features of intestinal obstruction and mesenteric lymphadenitis. A diagnosis was made possible by endoscopic biopsies of the small bowel and bone marrow culture which grew P . Marneffei . He was treated with intravenous amphotericin for 2 weeks followed by oral itraconazole. This case is reported for its rarity and unusual presentation and to sensitise clinicians and microbiologists to consider this as an aetiology in patients with advanced HIV/AIDS who present with acute abdomen, more so in patients from a distinct geographic region - South-East Asia

  5. Multi-detector computed tomography of acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leschka, Sebastian; Alkadhi, Hatem; Wildermuth, Simon; Marincek, Borut; University Hospital of Zurich

    2005-01-01

    Acute abdominal pain is one of the most common causes for referrals to the emergency department. The sudden onset of severe abdominal pain characterising the ''acute abdomen'' requires rapid and accurate identification of a potentially life-threatening abdominal pathology to provide a timely referral to the appropriate physician. While the physical examination and laboratory investigations are often non-specific, computed tomography (CT) has evolved as the first-line imaging modality in patients with an acute abdomen. Because the new multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner generations provide increased speed, greater volume coverage and thinner slices, the acceptance of CT for abdominal imaging has increased rapidly. The goal of this article is to discuss the role of MDCT in the diagnostic work-up of acute abdominal pain. (orig.)

  6. Acute abdomen: an unusual presentation of disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, I A; Sudarsanam, T D; Pulimood, A B; Mathews, M S

    2008-01-01

    Varied clinical presentations of Penicillium marneffei, an opportunistic pathogen in HIV disease has been rarely described in literature. We report a patient with advanced AIDS who presented to us with prolonged fever and had features of an acute abdomen. On radiologic imaging he had features of intestinal obstruction and mesenteric lymphadenitis. A diagnosis was made possible by endoscopic biopsies of the small bowel and bone marrow culture which grew P. Marneffei. He was treated with intravenous amphotericin for 2 weeks followed by oral itraconazole. This case is reported for its rarity and unusual presentation and to sensitise clinicians and microbiologists to consider this as an aetiology in patients with advanced HIV/AIDS who present with acute abdomen, more so in patients from a distinct geographic region--South-East Asia.

  7. Infected Congenital Epicardial Cyst Presenting as Acute Abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dribin, Timothy; Files, Matthew D; Rudzinski, Erin R; Kaplan, Ron; Stone, Kimberly P

    2016-12-01

    A previously healthy 3-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain, fever, and emesis. Laboratory and radiologic evaluation for causes of acute abdomen were negative; however, review of the abdominal x-ray demonstrated cardiomegaly with the subsequent diagnosis of pericardial cyst by echocardiogram and computed tomography. The patient underwent surgical decompression and attempted removal of the cystic structure revealing that the cyst originated from the epicardium. His abdominal pain and fever resolved postoperatively and he completed a 3-week course of ceftriaxone for treatment of Propionibacterium acnes infected congenital epicardial cyst. Emergency department physicians must maintain a broad differential in patients with symptoms of acute abdomen to prevent complications from serious cardiac or pulmonary diseases that present with symptoms of referred abdominal pain.

  8. FAST ultrasound in abdomen closed trauma: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Chacon, Cristian Alonso

    2010-01-01

    The management of polytraumatized patients has been important to know the scope and limitations of ultrasonography resources. A literature review was performed on FAST ultrasound in closed trauma in the abdomen. FAST (focused assessment with sonography for trauma) has been a study performed on the patient who has suffered both abdominal and thoracic trauma to determine the presence or absence of free fluid in these body cavities. The use is directed to locate intraabdominal drugs that may lead to bleeding and endanger the patient's life. Different techniques existent are recommended to use the original FAST as has been the extended FAST. In the United States the three diagnostic techniques generally have been: diagnostic peritoneal lavage, computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and ultrasonography for the evaluation of patients with trauma abdominal; each of them have had their own advantages and disadvantages to study [es

  9. Acute Abdomen: A Rare Presentation of Lung Cancer Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Guérin, E.; Gilbert, O.; Dequanter, D.

    2009-01-01

    Surgical emergencies caused by bowel metastases from carcinoma of the lung are very rare. We describe two cases of symptomatic gastrointestinal metastatic small cell carcinoma: the first one concerns a 69-year-old man with an acute abdomen and the second is a 72-year-old man complaining of a gastric ulcer symptoms. We also discuss the current management and the prognosis of these patients.

  10. Development of a finite element model of the human abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J B; Yang, K H

    2001-11-01

    Currently, three-dimensional finite element models of the human body have been developed for frequently injured anatomical regions such as the brain, chest, extremities and pelvis. While a few models of the human body include the abdomen, these models have tended to oversimplify the complexity of the abdominal region. As the first step in understanding abdominal injuries via numerical methods, a 3D finite element model of a 50(th) percentile male human abdomen (WSUHAM) has been developed and validated against experimental data obtained from two sets of side impact tests and a series of frontal impact tests. The model includes a detailed representation of the liver, spleen, kidneys, spine, skin and major blood vessels. Hollow organs, such as the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, gallbladder, bile ducts, ureters, rectum and adrenal glands are grouped into three bodybags in order to provide realistic inertial properties and to maintain the position of the solid organs in their appropriate locations. Using direct connections, the model was joined superiorly to a partial model of the human thorax, and inferiorly to models of the human pelvis and the lower extremities that have been previously developed. Material properties for various tissues of the abdomen were derived from the literature. Data obtained in a series of cadaveric pendulum impact tests conducted at Wayne State University (WSU), a series of lateral drop tests conducted at Association Peugeot-Renault (APR) and a series of cadaveric lower abdomen frontal impact tests conducted at WSU were used to validate the model. Results predicted by the model match these experimental data for various impact speeds, impactor masses and drop heights. Further study is still needed in order to fully validate WSUHAM before it can be used to assess various impact loading conditions associated with vehicular crashes.

  11. Acute abdomen caused by ingested chicken wishbone: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hoxha, Faton T; Hashani, Shemsedin I; Komoni, Driton S; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije H; Kurshumliu, Fisnik I; Hashimi, Medita SH; Krasniqi, Avdyl S

    2009-01-01

    Introduction An ingested foreign body often passes the gastrointestinal tract without any complications. Foreign bodies, such as dentures, fish bones, chicken bones, and toothpicks, have been known to cause perforation of the GI tract. Case presentation We are presenting a case of a fifty-year-old male with acute abdomen; diffuse fibro purulent peritonitis, i.e. ileum perforation, caused by accidentally ingesting a chicken wishbone. He was treated surgically with ileum resection, and temporar...

  12. Radiological diagnostics of abdomen and thorax. Image interpretation considering anatomical landmarks and clinical symptoms; Radiologische Diagnostik Abdomen und Thorax. Bildinterpretation unter Beruecksichtigung anatomischer Landmarken und klinischer Symptome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krombach, Gabriele A. [Universitaetsklinikum Giessen (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Mahnken, Andreas H. (ed.) [Universitaetsklinikum Marburg (Germany). Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2015-07-01

    The book on radiological diagnostics of abdomen and thorax - image interpretation considering anatomical landmarks and clinical symptoms - includes three chapters: (1) imaging of different parts of the body: thorax and abdomen. (II) Thorax: head and neck; mediastinum; heard and pericardium; large vessels; lungs and pleura; mamma. (III) Abdomen: liver; gall bladder and biliary tract; pancreas; gastrointestinal tract; spleen and lymphatic system; adrenal glands; kidneys and urinary tract; female pelvis; male pelvis.

  13. A role of abdomen in butterfly's flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Jeeva; Senda, Kei; Yokoyama, Naoto

    2017-11-01

    Butterfly's forward flight with periodic flapping motion is longitudinally unstable, and control of the thoracic pitching angle is essential to stabilize the flight. This study aims to comprehend roles which the abdominal motion play in the pitching stability of butterfly's flapping flight by using a two-dimensional model. The control of the thoracic pitching angle by the abdominal motion is an underactuated problem because of the limit on the abdominal angle. The control input of the thorax-abdomen joint torque is obtained by the hierarchical sliding mode control in this study. Numerical simulations reveal that the control by the abdominal motion provides short-term pitching stabilization in the butterfly's flight. Moreover, the control input due to a large thorax-abdomen joint torque can counteract a quite large perturbation, and can return the pitching attitude to the periodic trajectory with a short recovery time. These observations are consistent with biologists' view that living butterflies use their abdomens as rudders. On the other hand, the abdominal control mostly fails in long-term pitching stabilization, because it cannot directly alter the aerodynamic forces. The control for the long-term pitching stabilization will also be discussed.

  14. Ovarian vein thrombosis mimicking acute abdomen: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadopoulos Nikolaos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT is a rare, but serious condition that affects mostly postpartum women. A high index of suspicion is required in order to diagnose this unusual cause of abdominal pain. Case presentation A 19-year-old woman at three days postpartum was admitted to our hospital because of severe right lower quandrant abdominal pain and fever 38.5'C. Physical examination revealed an acutely ill patient and right lower quadrant tenderness with positive rebound and Giordano signs. The patient underwent appendectomy which proved to be negative for acute appendicitis. Postoperatively fever and pain persisted and abdominal CT-scan with intravenous contrast agent demonstrated a thrombosed right ovarian vein. The patient was initiated on low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH and antibiotic treatment and a month later a new abdominal CT-scan showed a patent right ovarian vein. Discussion Pathophysiologically, OVT is explained by Virchow's triad, because pregnancy is associated with a hypercoagulable state, venous stasis due to compression of the inferior vena cava by the uterus and endothelial trauma during delivery or from local inflammation. Common symptoms and signs of OVT include lower abdomen or flank pain, fever and leukocytosis usually within the first ten days after delivery. The reported incidence of OVT ranges 0,05-0,18% of pregnancies and in most cases the right ovarian vein is the one affected. Anticoagulation and antibiotics is the mainstay of treatment of OVT. Complications of OVT include sepsis, extension of the thrombus to the inferior vena cava and renal veins, and pulmonary embolism. The incidence of pulmonary embolism is reported to be 13.2% and represents the main source of mortality due to OVT. Conclusions OVT is a rare condition, usually in the postpartum period. A high index of suspicion is required for the prompt diagnosis and management especially in cases that mimic acute abdomen.

  15. Small bowel obstruction in the virgin abdomen: time to challenge surgical dogma with evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Yvonne Ying-Ru; Ngu, James Chi-Yong; Wong, Andrew Siang-Yih

    2018-01-01

    Although adhesions account for more than 70% of small bowel obstruction (SBO), they are thought to be less likely aetiologies in patients without previous abdominal surgery. Expedient surgery has historically been advocated as prudent management in these patients. Emerging evidence appears to challenge such a dogmatic approach. A retrospective analysis was performed in all SBO patients with a virgin abdomen admitted between January 2012 and August 2014. Patients with obstruction secondary to abdominal wall hernias were excluded. Patient demographics, clinical presentation, management strategy and pathology involved were reviewed. A total of 72 patients were included in the study. The majority of patients were males (66.7%), with a median age of 58 years (range: 23-101). Abdominal pain (97%) and vomiting (86%) were the most common presentations while abdominal distention (60%) and constipation (25%) were reported less frequently. Adhesions accounted for the underlying cause in 44 (62%) patients. Other aetiologies included gallstone ileus (n = 5), phytobezoar (n = 5), intussusception (n = 4), internal herniation (n = 4), newly diagnosed small bowel tumour (n = 3), mesenteric volvulus (n = 3), stricture (n = 3) and Meckel's diverticulum (n = 1). Twenty-nine (40%) patients were successfully managed conservatively while the remaining 43 (60%) underwent surgery. The intraoperative findings were in concordance with the preoperative computed tomography scan in 76% of cases. Adhesions remain prevalent despite the absence of previous abdominal surgery. Non-operative management is feasible for SBO in a virgin abdomen. Computed tomography scan can be a useful adjunct in discerning patients who may be treated non-operatively by elucidating the underlying cause of obstruction. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  16. Accuracy of Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) in Blunt Trauma Abdomen-A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Subodh; Bansal, Virinder Kumar; Muduly, Dillip Kumar; Sharma, Pawan; Misra, Mahesh C; Chumber, Sunil; Singh, Saraman; Bhardwaj, D N

    2015-12-01

    Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) is a limited ultrasound examination, primarily aimed at the identification of the presence of free intraperitoneal or pericardial fluid. In the context of blunt trauma abdomen (BTA), free fluid is usually due to hemorrhage, bowel contents, or both; contributes towards the timely diagnosis of potentially life-threatening hemorrhage; and is a decision-making tool to help determine the need for further evaluation or operative intervention. Fifty patients with blunt trauma abdomen were evaluated prospectively with FAST. The findings of FAST were compared with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT), laparotomy, and autopsy. Any free fluid in the abdomen was presumed to be hemoperitoneum. Sonographic findings of intra-abdominal free fluid were confirmed by CECT, laparotomy, or autopsy wherever indicated. In comparing with CECT scan, FAST had a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 77.27, 100, and 79.16 %, respectively, in the detection of free fluid. When compared with surgical findings, it had a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 94.44, 50, and 90 %, respectively. The sensitivity of FAST was 75 % in determining free fluid in patients who died when compared with autopsy findings. Overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FAST were 80.43, 75 and 80 %, respectively, for the detection of free fluid in the abdomen. From this study, we can safely conclude that FAST is a rapid, reliable, and feasible investigation in patients with BTA, and it can be performed easily, safely, and quickly in the emergency room with a reasonable sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. It helps in the initial triage of patients for assessing the need for urgent surgery.

  17. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  18. Ct enterography/ct abdomen and pelvis using neutral oral contrast. a new combination of natural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.O.

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose was to assess the performance of a new combination of neutral oral contrast for CT abdomen and CT Enterography in comparison with commercially available neutral oral contrast VoLumen. Seventy three consecutive patients were given sorbitol/CMC (Carboxy Methyl Cellulose) solution or VoLumen as oral contrast agent for abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan. 23 patients were male and 37 females. Age range was between 16 and 67 years. Since the use of CT scan for abdominal pathologies, there was need to separate bowel loops to localize the pathology. Three types of oral contrast can be used in CT-Scan abdomen; Positive, Neutral and negative. The above used contrasts are Neutral contrast these refers to agents that have an attenuation value similar to that of water (0-30 H).Our results show this new combination of Cc and Sorbitol to be equally good as VoLumen, for luminal distension and mural details, in duodenum and jejunum. While better than VoLumen for Ileal distension. (author)

  19. The relationship of body mass index and abdominal fat on the radiation dose received during routine computed tomographic imaging of the abdomen and pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Victoria O; McDermott, Shaunagh; Buckley, Orla; Allen, Sonya; Casey, Michael; O'Laoide, Risteard; Torreggiani, William C

    2012-11-01

    To determine the relationship of increasing body mass index (BMI) and abdominal fat on the effective dose acquired from computed tomography (CT) abdomen and pelvis scans. Over 6 months, dose-length product and total milliamp-seconds (mAs) from routine CT abdomen and pelvis scans of 100 patients were recorded. The scans were performed on a 64-slice CT scanner by using an automatic exposure control system. Effective dose (mSv) based on dose-length product, BMI, periumbilical fat thickness, and intra-abdominal fat were documented for each patient. BMI, periumbilical fat thickness, and intra-abdominal fat were compared with effective dose. Thirty-nine men and 61 women were included in the study (mean age, 56.3 years). The mean BMI was 26.2 kg/m(2). The mean effective dose was 10.3 mSv. The mean periumbilical fat thickness was 2.4 cm. Sixty-five patients had a small amount of intra-abdominal fat, and 35 had a large amount of intra-abdominal fat. The effective dose increased with increasing BMI (P abdominal fat (P abdominal fat significantly increases the effective dose received from CT abdomen and pelvis scans. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Roentogenologic diagnosis of an acute abdomen in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Makio; Chiba, Nobuyuki; Miyagi, Tetsuo (Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan))

    1983-05-01

    An acute abdomen is one of the main topics among emergency practice for children. We have experienced about 300 acute abdomen cases per year at our Children's Hospital since 1970. Radiological technologists provide a 24-hour emergency service using special knowledge and techniques in our radiological investigation. In the noenatal period esophageal atresia should be diagnosed by plain up-right film with a coiled-up rubber tube, and a contrast examination is contraindicated to prevent severe aspiration pneumonia. In the cases with intestinal atresia, the contrast examination is not necessary again, because the findings of plain film such as the distribution of air-filled intestinal loops, dilated bowel with air-fluid level gives us enough information for the diagnosis of these congenital anomalies. On the contrary, barium enema is useful and harmless for the neonatal age group. It is practical for diagnosing Hirschsprung's disease, midgut malrotation with volvulus, ileal and colonic atresia and necrotizing enterocolitis. An imperforate anus should be classified into the high and low type in the neonatal period to define the treatment. Invertogram is an only way for the differentiation of a baby without external fistula, and we have established the technique for this. The level is diagnosed by the relationship between the gas-filled rectal pouch and ischiac bone. In the infant group intussusception is the most common and urgent acute abdomen. We use a special device to fix the bady, dilute the barium with warm saline (to avoid water intoxication), limit the water pressure to within one meter, and avoid abdominal manipulation and longtime exposure. The successful reduction rate that our team has obtained is almost 85%.

  1. Roentogenologic diagnosis of an acute abdomen in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Makio; Chiba, Nobuyuki; Miyagi, Tetsuo

    1983-01-01

    An acute abdomen is one of the main topics among emergency practice for children. We have experiencing about 300 acute abdomen cases per year at our Children's Hospital since 1970. We radiological technologists provide a 24-hour emergency service using special knowledge and techniques in our radiological investigation. In the noenatal period esophageal atresia should be diagnosed by plain up-right film with a coiled-up rubber tube, and a contrast examination is contraindicated to prevent severe aspiration pneumonia. In the cases with intestinal atresia, the contrast examination is not necessary again, because the findings of plain film such as the distribution of air-filled intestinal loops, dilated bowel with air-fluid level gives us enough information for the diagnosis of these congenital anomalies. On the contrary, barium enema is useful and harmless for the neonatal age group. It is practical for diagnosing Hirschsprung's disease, midgut malrotation with volvulus, ileal and colonic atresia and necrotizing enterocolitis. An imperforate anus should be classified into the high and low type in the neonatal period to define the treatment. Invertogram is an only way for the differentiation of a baby without external fistula, and we have established the technique for this. The level is diagnosed by the relationship between the gas-filled rectal pouch and ischiac bone. In the infant group intussusception is the most common and urgent acute abdomen. We use a special device to fix the bady, dilute the barium with warm saline (to avoid water intoxication), limit the water pressure to within one meter, and avoid abdominal manipulation and longtime exposure. The successful reduction rate that our team has obtained is almost 85 %. (author)

  2. Guillain-Barre Syndrome Presenting as Acute Abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk incecik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Guillain-Barr and eacute; syndrome (GBS is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis in childhood. Symmetric weakness, headache, respiratory symptom, neuropathic pain, muscle pain, paresthesia, and facial palsy were the most common clinical presentations. We report 13-year-old boy with GBS who presented with acute abdominal pain. This is the first report, to our knowledge, first presented of acute abdomen of a pediatric patient with GBS. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 601-603

  3. Hernia interna de Quain como causa de abdomen agudo

    OpenAIRE

    García-Oria, M.; Muñoz de la Fuente, A.; Peraza Casajús, J.M.; Bodega Quiroga, I.; Martínez Pozuelo, A.; Serrano Muñoz, A

    2012-01-01

    Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 47 años de edad que consulta en urgencias por un cuadro de 8 horas de evolución, de dolor abdominal continuo y difuso, acompañado de vómitos alimentarios al inicio y biliosos después. La paciente presenta estabilidad hemodinámica permaneciendo afebril. El hemiabdomen inferior presenta signos de irritación peritoneal. En los análisis destaca la presencia de neutrofilia y leucocitosis, la radiología simple de abdomen es compatible con suboclusión de intest...

  4. MELAS syndrome presenting as an acute surgical abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindyal, S; Mistry, K; Angamuthu, N; Smith, G; Hilton, D; Arumugam, P; Mathew, J

    2014-01-01

    MELAS (mitochondrial cytopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) is a syndrome in which signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal disease are uncommon if not rare. We describe the case of a young woman who presented as an acute surgical emergency, diagnosed as toxic megacolon necessitating an emergency total colectomy. MELAS syndrome was suspected postoperatively owing to persistent lactic acidosis and neurological symptoms. The diagnosis was later confirmed with histological and genetic studies. This case highlights the difficulties in diagnosing MELAS because of its unpredictable presentation and clinical course. We therefore recommend a high index of suspicion in cases of an acute surgical abdomen with additional neurological features or raised lactate.

  5. Diagnostics of vascular diseases as a cause for acute abdomen; Diagnostik vaskulaerer Erkrankungen als Ursache fuer das akute Abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juchems, M.S. [Universitaetsklinikum Ulm, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Ulm (Germany); Aschoff, A.J. [Klinikum Kempten-Oberallgaeu, Abteilung fuer Radiologie, Kempten (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Vascular pathologies are rare causes of an acute abdomen. If the cause is a vascular disease a rapid diagnosis is desired as vascular pathologies are associated with high mortality. A differentiation must be made between arterial and venous diseases. An occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery is the most common reason for acute mesenteric ischemia but intra-abdominal arterial bleeding is also of great importance. Venous pathologies include thrombotic occlusion of the portal vein, the mesenteric vein and the vena cava. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is predestined for the diagnostics of vascular diseases of the abdomen. Using multiphasic contrast protocols enables reliable imaging of the arterial and venous vessel tree and detection of disorders with high sensitivity and specificity. Although conventional angiography has been almost completely replaced by MDCT as a diagnostic tool, it is still of high importance for minimally invasive interventions, for example in the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.) [German] Vaskulaere Pathologien sind seltene Ursachen fuer den klinischen Zustand eines akuten Abdomens. Liegt eine vaskulaere Erkrankung vor, ist jedoch aufgrund der hohen Mortalitaet eine zuegige Diagnostik von grosser Wichtigkeit. Bei den Erkrankungen der abdominellen Gefaesse sind arterielle von venoesen Ursachen zu unterscheiden. Ein Verschluss der A. mesenterica superior ist die haeufigste Ursache fuer die akute Mesenterialischaemie, daneben sind Blutungen in den abdominellen Gefaessprovinzen des arteriellen Gefaessbaums von Bedeutung. Venoese Pathologien betreffen thrombotische Verschluesse der Pfortader, der V. mesenterica und der V. cava. Die Multidetektor-CT (MDCT) ist zur Diagnostik vaskulaerer Erkrankungen des Abdominalraums praedestiniert. Mit mehrphasigen Untersuchungsprotokollen gelingt es, den arteriellen und venoesen Gefaessbaum zuverlaessig darzustellen und Erkrankungen mit hoher Sensitivitaet und Spezifitaet zu

  6. Acute abdomen due to primary omental torsion: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsironis, Apostolos; Zikos, Nikolaos; Bali, Christina; Pappas-Gogos, George; Koulas, Spiridon; Katsamakis, Nikolaos

    2013-01-01

    Primary torsion of the greater omentum is an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain that mainly affects adults in their fourth or fifth decade. It was first described by Eitel in 1899. Since then, more than 300 cases have been reported in the published literature. Clinical presentation and imaging findings are often of limited value in the diagnosis of primary omental torsion (POT). The patients usually undergo laparotomy for "acute appendicitis" or acute abdomen of poorly defined origin. To provide a detailed description of this rare cause of acute abdomen. We report a case of POT in a woman of reproductive age and discuss contemporary methods in diagnosis and management of the condition. Nowadays, laparoscopy is a safe and effective approach for the diagnosis and management of POT, with the advantages of reduced postoperative pain and hospital stay. Conservative management has also been advocated by some authors in selected patients with a preoperative diagnosis of POT based on computed tomography findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma resembling acute abdomen. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia Gómez, Gilberto Guzmán; Soto Guerrero, María Teresa; Cedillo de la Cruz, María Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma is a rare tumor of neuroectodermal origin. It presents mainly in the soft tissue of the extremities and thorax. Histologically, it is similar to Ewing's sarcoma of the bone. We present the case of a male who arrived at the emergency room with acute abdomen, leucocytosis and imaging techniques (abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography) suggestive of complicated diverticular disease. He was treated with emergency surgery. Intraoperative findings were an unsuspected tumor (20 x 15 x 15 cm). Treatment consisted of extirpation of the tumor, separating it from the adjacent viscera and followed by chemotherapy based on epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and vincristine for six cycles. Because the control abdominal CT demonstrated tumor activity in the retroperitoneum adjacent to the ascending colon and cecum, further resection was decided upon. In a review of the literature, no previous reports of extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma were found presenting as acute abdomen. Due to the rarity of this tumor, only case reports or series have been found in the literature without randomized or comparative studies. Surgery was the cornerstone of treatment, without reports of preoperative chemotherapy. If the patient's condition permits, percutaneous needle biopsy is mandatory to obtain optimum treatment as well as to improve prognosis.

  8. Adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR) 3D in low dose CT abdomen-pelvis: Effects on image quality and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, W C; Hashim, S; Karim, M K A; Bahruddin, N A; Salehhon, N; Musa, Y

    2017-01-01

    The widespread use of computed tomography (CT) has increased the medical radiation exposure and cancer risk. We aimed to evaluate the impact of AIDR 3D in CT abdomen-pelvic examinations based on image quality and radiation dose in low dose (LD) setting compared to standard dose (STD) with filtered back projection (FBP) reconstruction. We retrospectively reviewed the images of 40 patients who underwent CT abdomen-pelvic using a 80 slice CT scanner. Group 1 patients ( n =20, mean age 41 ± 17 years) were performed at LD with AIDR 3D reconstruction and Group 2 patients ( n =20, mean age 52 ± 21 years) were scanned with STD using FBP reconstruction. Objective image noise was assessed by region of interest (ROI) measurements in the liver and aorta as standard deviation (SD) of the attenuation value (Hounsfield Unit, HU) while subjective image quality was evaluated by two radiologists. Statistical analysis was used to compare the scan length, CT dose index volume (CTDI vol ) and image quality of both patient groups. Although both groups have similar mean scan length, the CTDI vol significantly decreased by 38% in LD CT compared to STD CT ( p <0.05). Objective and subjective image quality were statistically improved with AIDR 3D ( p <0.05). In conclusion, AIDR 3D enables significant dose reduction of 38% with superior image quality in LD CT abdomen-pelvis. (paper)

  9. Usefulness of CT in the diagnosis and management of acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takuya; Matsumoto, Junichi; Funakubo, Masakatsu; Yamashita, Hirotaka; Ehara, Norishige; Minowa, Yoshiyuki; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis and management of acute abdomen. Ninety-four patients with acute abdomen were enrolled. We compared the final diagnosis and management CT diagnosis and management. Then, we evaluated how many of the CT examinations were useful and the degree to which they were useful. In more than 90% of cases, CT was very useful for the diagnosis and management of acute abdomen. (author)

  10. Intussusceptions as acute abdomen caused by Burkitt lymphoma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hoxha, Faton T; Hashani, Shemsedin I; Krasniqi, Avdyl S; Kurshumliu, Fisnik I; Komoni, Driton S; Hasimja, Shpresa M; Maxhuni, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Burkitt's lymphoma is a highly malignant, aggressive and rapidly growing B-cell neoplasm, which has low long-term survival rates. The abdomen is the most frequent onset site of non endemic Burkitt's lymphoma. Symptoms are often misleading and make diagnosis difficult. Ileum intussusception as acute abdomen caused by Burkitt lymphoma is rare. Case presentation We are presenting a case of a 16 year-old male with acute abdomen, which three weeks prior initially has been surgically t...

  11. Acute abdomen. Clinical background and demands on imaging; Akutes Abdomen. Klinische Begriffsbestimmung und Anforderungen an die Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graeb, C.; Jauch, K.W. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Chirurgie, Muenchen (Germany); Reiser, M.; Graser, A. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The term ''acute abdomen'' does not describe a specific disease entity but is more a critical clinical state which incorporates very heterogeneous clinical presentations. The prognosis of any disease depends on the time frame from the onset of symptoms to the initiation of a specific therapy. For this reason there are special expectations by clinicians regarding the diagnostic assessment provided by radiology which is expected to deliver an immediate diagnosis supporting further therapeutic decisions. Along with the patient's clinical history, physical examination and blood tests, radiological diagnostics are essential for enabling a specific treatment. From a surgical point of view the radiologist is expected to help in differentiating between cases with indications for emergency surgery and cases eligible for elective surgery or conservative treatment. (orig.) [German] Der Begriff ''akutes Abdomen'' stellt keine eigenstaendige Erkrankung dar, sondern beschreibt einen kritischen klinischen Zustand, unter dessen Oberbegriff sich die unterschiedlichsten Krankheitsbilder subsumieren lassen. Das Zeitintervall zwischen dem Auftreten der ersten Symptome bis zur Einleitung einer gezielten Therapie ist fuer die Prognose der Patienten der entscheidende Faktor. Aus diesem Grund bestehen besondere Anforderungen an die bildgebende Diagnostik, die dazu beitragen soll, innerhalb kuerzester Zeit eine moeglichst genaue Diagnose zu stellen. Neben Anamnese, klinischer Untersuchung und Labordiagnostik stellt die radiologische Untersuchung einen wesentlichen Baustein vor der Therapieeinleitung dar. Aus chirurgischer Sicht muessen Krankheitsbilder, die eine sofortige Notfalloperation erforderlich machen, von Erkrankungen differenziert werden, die eine elektive Chirurgie oder ein konservatives Vorgehen indizieren. (orig.)

  12. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  13. CT Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease, lung nodules and liver masses Monitor the effectiveness of certain treatments, such as cancer treatment Detect ... scan done in a hospital or an outpatient facility. CT scans are painless and, with newer machines, ...

  14. Automatic Bolus Tracking Versus Fixed Time-Delay Technique in Biphasic Multidetector Computed Tomography of the Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adibi, Atoosa; Shahbazi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Bolus tracking can individualize time delay for the start of scans in spiral computed tomography (CT). We compared automatic bolus tracking method with fixed time-delay technique in biphasic contrast enhancement during multidetector CT of abdomen. Adult patients referred for spiral CT of the abdomen were randomized into two groups; in group 1, the arterial and portal phases of spiral scans were started 25 s and 55 s after the start of contrast material administration; in group 2, using the automatic bolus tracking software, repetitive monitoring scans were performed within the lumen of the descending aorta as the region of interest with the threshold of starting the diagnostic scans as 60 HU. The contrast enhancement of the aorta, liver, and spleen were compared between the groups. Forty-eight patients (23 males, 25 females, mean age=56.4±13.5 years) were included. The contrast enhancement of the aorta, liver, and spleen at the arterial phase was similar between the two groups (P>0.05). Regarding the portal phase, the aorta and spleen were more enhanced in the bolus-tracking group (P<0.001). The bolus tracking provided more homogeneous contrast enhancement among different patients than the fixed time-delay technique in the liver at portal phase, but not at the arterial phase. The automatic bolus-tracking method, results in higher contrast enhancement of the aorta and spleen at the portal phase, but has no effect on liver enhancement. However, bolus tracking is associated with reduced variability for liver enhancement among different patients

  15. Automatically pairing measured findings across narrative abdomen CT reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevenster, Merlijn; Bozeman, Jeffrey; Cowhy, Andrea; Trost, William

    2013-01-01

    Radiological measurements are one of the key variables in widely adopted guidelines (WHO, RECIST) that standardize and objectivize response assessment in oncology care. Measurements are typically described in free-text, narrative radiology reports. We present a natural language processing pipeline that extracts measurements from radiology reports and pairs them with extracted measurements from prior reports of the same clinical finding, e.g., lymph node or mass. A ground truth was created by manually pairing measurements in the abdomen CT reports of 50 patients. A Random Forest classifier trained on 15 features achieved superior results in an end-to-end evaluation of the pipeline on the extraction and pairing task: precision 0.910, recall 0.878, F-measure 0.894, AUC 0.988. Representing the narrative content in terms of UMLS concepts did not improve results. Applications of the proposed technology include data mining, advanced search and workflow support for healthcare professionals managing radiological measurements.

  16. Acute abdomen. Clinical background and demands on imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeb, C.; Jauch, K.W.; Reiser, M.; Graser, A.

    2010-01-01

    The term ''acute abdomen'' does not describe a specific disease entity but is more a critical clinical state which incorporates very heterogeneous clinical presentations. The prognosis of any disease depends on the time frame from the onset of symptoms to the initiation of a specific therapy. For this reason there are special expectations by clinicians regarding the diagnostic assessment provided by radiology which is expected to deliver an immediate diagnosis supporting further therapeutic decisions. Along with the patient's clinical history, physical examination and blood tests, radiological diagnostics are essential for enabling a specific treatment. From a surgical point of view the radiologist is expected to help in differentiating between cases with indications for emergency surgery and cases eligible for elective surgery or conservative treatment. (orig.) [de

  17. Intraoperative radiation in the canine para-aortic abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoopes, P.J.; Gillette, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty adult beagle dogs received intraoperatively delivered 6 MeV electrons to the para-aortic abdomen and bladder. The dogs were equally divided into 4 dose groups receiving 22 Gy, 30 Gy, 38.5 Gy and 47 Gy. The 5 cm x 8 cm radiation field included a variable portion of the left kidney, the left ureter, the abdominal aorta and vena cava, the base of the bladder and the left sciatic and femoral nerves. The lesions observed were fibroelastic proliferation of the aortic intima, severe renal atrophy and fibrosis, ureteral stenosis, bladder fibrosis and demyelinating peripheral neuropathies. Histologic, morphometric and dose response analyses are compared with responses of dogs receiving more conventional fractionated doses to a total of 60 Gy, 70 Gy or 80 Gy x-ray in 6 weeks

  18. Comparison of virtual unenhanced CT images of the abdomen under different iodine flow rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongrui; Li, Ye; Jackson, Alan; Li, Xiaodong; Huang, Ning; Guo, Chunjie; Zhang, Huimao

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effect of varying iodine flow rate (IFR) and iodine concentration on the quality of virtual unenhanced (VUE) images of the abdomen obtained with dual-energy CT. 94 subjects underwent unenhanced and triphasic contrast-enhanced CT scan of the abdomen, including arterial phase, portal venous phase, and delayed phase using dual-energy CT. Patients were randomized into 4 groups with different IFRs or iodine concentrations. VUE images were generated at 70 keV. The CT values, image noise, SNR and CNR of aorta, portal vein, liver, liver lesion, pancreatic parenchyma, spleen, erector spinae, and retroperitoneal fat were recorded. Dose-length product and effective dose for an examination with and without plain phase scan were calculated to assess the potential dose savings. Two radiologists independently assessed subjective image quality using a five-point scale. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used first to test for normal distribution. Where data conformed to a normal distribution, analysis of variance was used to compare mean HU values, image noise, SNRs and CNRs for the 4 image sets. Where data distribution was not normal, a nonparametric test (Kruskal-Wallis test followed by stepwise step-down comparisons) was used. The significance level for all tests was 0.01 (two-sided) to allow for type 2 errors due to multiple testing. The CT numbers (HU) of VUE images showed no significant differences between the 4 groups (p > 0.05) or between different phases within the same group (p > 0.05). VUE images had equal or higher SNR and CNR than true unenhanced images. VUE images received equal or lower subjective image quality scores than unenhanced images but were of acceptable quality for diagnostic use. Calculated dose-length product and estimated dose showed that the use of VUE images in place of unenhanced images would be associated with a dose saving of 25%. VUE images can replace conventional unenhanced images. VUE images are not affected by varying iodine

  19. Abdomen agudo quirúrgico en el anciano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M Valdés Jiménez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de 156 enfermos mayores de 65 años, con diagnóstico de abdomen agudo quirúrgico (AAQ, operados en el Hospital Clinicoquirúrgico «Manuel Fajardo» e ingresados en la Unidad de Cuidados Intermedios Polivalente, durante el trienio comprendido entre 1995 y 1998. Las causas más frecuentes del síndrome fueron la oclusión intestinal (58,9 %, la colecistitis aguda (13,5 % y la úlcera péptica gastroduodenal perforada (10,9 %. Las enfermedades asociadas de mayor prevalencia eran la cardiopatía isquémica (62,2 % y la hipertensión arterial (48,7 %. La mortalidad aumentó con el avance de la edad, y alcanzó el 70,4 % en los mayores de 85 años. Entre las complicaciones predominaron la infección de la herida quirúrgica (12,8 % y la bronconeumonía (5,8 %. La principal causa de muerte fue la sepsis (10,3 %A descriptive and retrospective study of 156 patients over 65 with diagnosis of acute surgical abdomen (ASA that were operated on at "Manuel Fajardo" Clinical and Surgical Hospital and admitted at the Polyvalent Intermediate Care Unit, from 1995 to 1998, was conducted. The most common causes of the syndrome were intestinal occlusion (58.9 %, acute cholecystitis (13.5 % and the gastroduodenal perforated peptic ulcer (10.9 %. The associated diseases of highest prevalence were ischemic heart disease (62.2 % and arterial hypertension (48.7 %. Mortality increased with age and amounted to 70.4 % in patients over 85. The infection of the surgical wound (12.8 % and bronchopneumonia (5.8% prevailed among the complications. Sepsis (10.3 % was the main cause of death

  20. Open abdomen and VAC® in severe diffuse peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutafchiyski, Ventsislav M; Popivanov, G I; Kjossev, K T; Chipeva, S

    2016-02-01

    Currently, the open abdomen technique is the widely recognised method for treatment of life-threatening trauma, intra-abdominal sepsis, abdominal compartment syndrome and wound dehiscence. The techniques for temporary closure using negative pressure have gained increasing popularity. Although negative pressure wound therapy has been proved as an effective method in trauma, the results in diffuse peritonitis are contradictory. Overall, 108 patients with diffuse peritonitis and open abdomen were prospectively enrolled from January 2006 to December 2013--69 treated with mesh-foil laparostomy without negative pressure and 49 with vacuum-assisted closure (VAC(®)) The primary endpoints were the rate of primary fascial closure and mortality. The secondary outcomes were the rate of complications--enteroatmospheric fistulas, intra-abdominal abscesses, wound infection and necrotising fasciitis, intensive care unit (ICU) and overall hospital stay. VAC was associated with higher overall (73% vs 53%) and late primary fascial closure rates (31% vs 7%), lower rates of necrotising fasciitis (2% vs 15%, p=0.012), intra-abdominal abscesses (10% vs 20%), enteroatmospheric fistulas (8% vs 19%), overall mortality (31% vs 53%, pVAC in comparison to the temporary abdominal closure without negative pressure in the cases with severe diffuse peritonitis. However, to a large extent, our results might be attributed to the combination of VAC with dynamic fascial closure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Attainment of dosimetric pediatrics grandeur to computed tomography examinations of the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jormada, Tiago S.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, 10% of all computerized tomography exams (CT) are made in pediatric patients. In developed countries, the practice of obtaining the dosimetric quantities (weighted index dose C w , index air kerma volumetric C vol product kerma-length P KL , CT ) and effective dose (E) in pediatric CT scans is common. In Brazil, data like these are practically nonexistent. The goal of this work is to obtain the dosimetric quantities and the dose effective in pediatric CT scans, and study its application in the optimization process. The study took place in a thermographs' Toshiba Asteion Single-Slice and a GE Brightsped's multi-slice where measurements were made with type pencil ionization chamber and a trunk's phantom of PMMA with diameter of 16 cm. In single-slice CT scanner, the results obtained for the C vol , P KL , CT and E were 18.73 mGy, 15.61 mGy and 6.87 mSv mGy.cm 343.51, respectively, whereas in multi-slice CT scanner the results were 18.81 mGy, 20.07 mGy, 441.64 mGy.cm and 8,83 mSv. There was no significant difference between the values of C w obtained already in the values of the Cvol, P KL , CT and E dose the differences between the results were quite significant. Comparing the C w and P KL , CT and with the values recommended by UCRP 87 (25 mGy for C vol and 360 mGy.cm for P KL , CT in pediatric CT scans of the abdomen), the two scanners were below reference levels for C w and not require an start on process of optimization. (author)

  2. Non-traumatic causes and the management of the open abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentula, P

    2011-04-01

    The open abdomen is increasingly used for the treatment and prevention of abdominal compartment syndrome. The leading non-traumatic conditions that may cause abdominal compartment syndrome requiring surgical decompression include secondary peritonitis, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and severe acute pancreatitis. Patients may also end up with the open abdomen when the laparotomy wound cannot be closed without tension because of excessive visceral swelling. Also, surgical complications such as laparotomy wound dehiscence, may require temporary abdominal closure techniques. In critically ill surgical patients and in situations when second-look laparotomy is mandatory the open abdomen can be utilized in a preventive manner like in damage control trauma surgery. Underlying disease and the indication for the open abdomen significantly contributes to outcome of patient with open abdomen. Non-traumatic aetiology of the open abdomen is associated with lower likelihood of primary fascial closure and higher rate of open abdomen related complications compared with traumatic aetiology. A number of temporal abdominal closure techniques have been described. Ideally, temporal abdominal closure technique should prevent the development of recurrent abdominal compartment syndrome and facilitate later primary fascia closure with low complication rate. Although fascial closure rate varies between techniques, there are few evidence-based data to support one technique over another. However, recent evolution of temporary abdominal closure techniques have decreased the number of patients with frozen abdomen and reduced the need for planned hernia management. Highest fascial closure rates have been achieved with vacuum-assisted closure systems and systems that provide continuous fascial traction.

  3. The role of open abdomen in non-trauma patient: WSES Consensus Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coccolini, Federico; Montori, Giulia; Ceresoli, Marco; Catena, Fausto; Moore, Ernest E.; Ivatury, Rao; Biffl, Walter; Peitzman, Andrew; Coimbra, Raul; Rizoli, Sandro; Kluger, Yoram; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.; Sartelli, Massimo; de Moya, Marc; Velmahos, George; Fraga, Gustavo Pereira; Pereira, Bruno M.; Leppaniemi, Ari; Boermeester, Marja A.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Maier, Ron; Bala, Miklosh; Sakakushev, Boris; Khokha, Vladimir; Malbrain, Manu; Agnoletti, Vanni; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Sugrue, Michael; Di Saverio, Salomone; Griffiths, Ewen; Soreide, Kjetil; Mazuski, John E.; May, Addison K.; Montravers, Philippe; Melotti, Rita Maria; Pisano, Michele; Salvetti, Francesco; Marchesi, Gianmariano; Valetti, Tino M.; Scalea, Thomas; Chiara, Osvaldo; Kashuk, Jeffry L.; Ansaloni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The open abdomen (OA) is defined as intentional decision to leave the fascial edges of the abdomen un-approximated after laparotomy (laparostomy). The abdominal contents are potentially exposed and therefore must be protected with a temporary coverage, which is referred to as temporal abdominal

  4. Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa on the legs and abdomen with morbid obesity in an Indian lady.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Podila S; Ghorpade, Ashok

    2008-12-15

    Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa (ENV) of the legs and abdomen in a morbidly obese woman with multiple medical problems is reported. The diagnosis was suggested by the classical clinical features and confirmed by histopathology. The patient succumbed due to her multisystem diseases. Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa involving the abdomen is uncommon and has been reported only five times in the past.

  5. Detection of active intraabdominal hemorrhage after blunt trauma: value of delayed CT scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivit, C.J. [Department of Radiology, Rainbow Babies and Children' s Hospital of the University Hospitals of Cleveland and Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Active hemorrhage is a rare finding at CT following blunt abdominal trauma. The time interval between IV contrast administration and scanning the abdomen may impact on the ability to visualize active hemorrhage at CT. We report a case of active hemorrhage associated with splenic injury that was identified only at delayed CT scanning. (orig.)

  6. Detection of active intraabdominal hemorrhage after blunt trauma: value of delayed CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivit, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    Active hemorrhage is a rare finding at CT following blunt abdominal trauma. The time interval between IV contrast administration and scanning the abdomen may impact on the ability to visualize active hemorrhage at CT. We report a case of active hemorrhage associated with splenic injury that was identified only at delayed CT scanning. (orig.)

  7. Fine focal spot size improves image quality in computed tomography abdomen and pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Yin P.; Low, Keat; Kuganesan, Ahilan [Monash Health, Diagnostic Imaging Department, 246, Clayton Road, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Lau, Kenneth K. [Monash Health, Diagnostic Imaging Department, 246, Clayton Road, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Monash University, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Victoria (Australia); Buchan, Kevin [Philips Healthcare, Clinical Science, PO Box 312, Mont Albert, Victoria (Australia); Oh, Lawrence Chia Wei [Flinders Medical Centre, Division of Medical Imaging, Bedford Park South (Australia); Huynh, Minh [Swinburne University, Department of Statistics, Data Science and Epidemiology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, Hawthorn (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    To compare the image quality between fine focal spot size (FFSS) and standard focal spot size (SFSS) in computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis (CTAP) This retrospective review included all consecutive adult patients undergoing contrast-enhanced CTAP between June and September 2014. Two blinded radiologists assessed the margin clarity of the abdominal viscera and the detected lesions using a five-point grading scale. Cohen's kappa test was used to examine the inter-observer reliability between the two reviewers for organ margin clarity. Mann-Whitney U testing was utilised to assess the statistical difference of the organ and lesion margin clarity. 100 consecutive CTAPs were recruited. 52 CTAPs were examined with SFSS of 1.1 x 1.2 mm and 48 CTAPs were examined with FFSS of 0.6 x 0.7 mm. Results showed that there was substantial agreement for organ margin clarity (mean κ = 0.759, p < 0.001) among the reviewers. FFSS produces images with clearer organ margins (U = 76194.0, p < 0.001, r = 0.523) and clearer lesion margins (U = 239, p = 0.052, r = 0.269). FFSS CTAP improves image quality in terms of better organ and lesion margin clarity. Fine focus CT scanning is a novel technique that may be applied in routine CTAP imaging. (orig.)

  8. First identification of nanoparticles on thorax, abdomen and wings of the worker bee Apis dorsata Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya Atanu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of nanoparticles on the body of the honeybee Apis dorsata Fabricius, was investigated for the first time to better understand the bee’s behaviour. These have been observed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and confirmed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. Our study clearly denotes that the Indian rock honey bee Apis dorsata possess calcium silicate and calcium phosphate nanoparticles on its body surface of 5-50 nm in diameter. In particular, the nanoparticles on the abdomen and thorax of A. dorsata have an average diameter of about 10 nanometers and they are smaller than those found on wings of the same bees which are about 20 nanometers. The nanoparticles found are different of the ones previously observed on honey bees or other insects. The origin and role of these natural nanoparticles on the body of the Indian rock bee need to be to be further investigated; more research in the subject might raise important aspects in relation to the conservation of these unique pollinators.

  9. VALIDITY OF PARACENTESIS IN DIAGNOSING BLUNT TRAUMA ABDOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Bin Abdul Majeed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Blunt abdominal trauma is a common case that comes to an emergency department and it is the most easily missed diagnosis resulting in catastrophic consequences. Delay in diagnosing a case is due to the nonspecific character of the symptoms with which it presents. Clinical signs that could be elicited in blunt trauma abdomen are equally nonspecific. Thus, to avoid delay and save the life of the patient, a doctor has to depend on various investigations to rule out blunt trauma abdomen. The modalities which help include paracentesis, diagnostic peritoneal lavage, Focused Abdominal Sonography for Trauma (FAST and ContrastEnhanced Computed Tomography (CECT. To choose the right investigation for the right patient helps in saving precious lives. Validity of each investigation, availability, condition of the patient are the main points to look into before deciding on the right investigative modality. Paracentesis is the simplest investigation that could be done in emergency department and also at the site of accident to triage the patient. Paracentesis has low sensitivity to detect blunt trauma. FAST is a better investigation with higher validity rates than paracentesis. This study aims to validate paracentesis, which is the simplest and commonest investigation used to identify blunt abdominal trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, 106 patients who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were followed up by detailed history, clinical examination, paracentesis and FAST to identify blunt abdominal trauma and then compared with a gold standard investigation, which was assigned as CECT for haemodynamically stable patients and laparotomy for haemodynamically unstable patients. Commonest organs injured in blunt trauma and their management was noted. Patients were followed up till discharge or death. Subsequently, the data were compiled using excel sheet and evaluated using tables and charts. RESULTS Paracentesis is found to have a

  10. International consensus conference on open abdomen in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiara, Osvaldo; Cimbanassi, Stefania; Biffl, Walter; Leppaniemi, Ari; Henry, Sharon; Scalea, Thomas M; Catena, Fausto; Ansaloni, Luca; Chieregato, Arturo; de Blasio, Elvio; Gambale, Giorgio; Gordini, Giovanni; Nardi, Guiseppe; Paldalino, Pietro; Gossetti, Francesco; Dionigi, Paolo; Noschese, Giuseppe; Tugnoli, Gregorio; Ribaldi, Sergio; Sgardello, Sebastian; Magnone, Stefano; Rausei, Stefano; Mariani, Anna; Mengoli, Francesca; di Saverio, Salomone; Castriconi, Maurizio; Coccolini, Federico; Negreanu, Joseph; Razzi, Salvatore; Coniglio, Carlo; Morelli, Francesco; Buonanno, Maurizio; Lippi, Monica; Trotta, Liliana; Volpi, Annalisa; Fattori, Luca; Zago, Mauro; de Rai, Paolo; Sammartano, Fabrizio; Manfredi, Roberto; Cingolani, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    A part of damage-control laparotomy is to leave the fascial edges and the skin open to avoid abdominal compartment syndrome and allow further explorations. This condition, known as open abdomen (OA), although effective, is associated with severe complications. Our aim was to develop evidence-based recommendations to define indications for OA, techniques for temporary abdominal closure, management of enteric fistulas, and methods of definitive wall closure. The literature from 1990 to 2014 was systematically screened according to PRISMA [Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses] protocol. Seventy-six articles were reviewed by a panel of experts to assign grade of recommendations (GoR) and level of evidence (LoE) using the GRADE [Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation] system, and an international consensus conference was held. OA in trauma is indicated at the end of damage-control laparotomy, in the presence of visceral swelling, for a second look in vascular injuries or gross contamination, in the case of abdominal wall loss, and if medical treatment of abdominal compartment syndrome has failed (GoR B, LoE II). Negative-pressure wound therapy is the recommended temporary abdominal closure technique to drain peritoneal fluid, improve nursing, and prevent fascial retraction (GoR B, LoE I). Lack of OA closure within 8 days (GoR C, LoE II), bowel injuries, high-volume replacement, and use of polypropylene mesh over the bowel (GoR C, LoE I) are risk factors for frozen abdomen and fistula formation. Negative-pressure wound therapy allows to isolate the fistula and protect the surrounding tissues from spillage until granulation (GoR C, LoE II). Correction of fistula is performed after 6 months to 12 months. Definitive closure of OA has to be obtained early (GoR C, LoE I) with direct suture, traction devices, component separation with or without mesh. Biologic meshes are an option for wall reinforcement if bacterial

  11. Sonographic findings of ovarian hemorrhage presenting acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Joo Sung; Lee, Eun Ju; Kang, Hae Jin; Suh, Jung Ho

    2000-01-01

    To obtain the characteristic sonographic findings of ovarian hemorrhage and investigate the usefulness of ultrasonography in the diagnosis. Forty-nine cases presenting acute abdomen diagnosed as ovarian hemorrhage by ultrasonography or surgicopathological confirmation. We observed the size and margin of the ovary, size, pattern, shape, wall and internal echogenecity of the masses and the amount of hemoperitoneum. We also performed a color Doppler study to evaluate the blood flow pattern and resistive index (RI). The age of patients were between 21-41. Most symptoms occurred from days 14 to 30 of her menstrual cycle and were presented for less than 24 hours. Twenty patients had a history of intercourse shortly before the onset of the symptom. Thirty two cases involved the right ovary while the other 17 cases involved the left. All patients had a negative urine or serum hCG test except for 4 pregnant women. The size of the ovary was measured as mean 5.1 cm and marginal irregularly was noted in 36 cases. Mixed echoic solid masses were observed in 6 cases and variable echogenecity of cystic masses were seen in 43 cases. Maximal diameter of adnexal masses were measured as mean 3.95 cm. Internal echogenecity of cystic masses appeared as mainly heterogeneous (21). Twenty two cystic masses had a thick irregular wall and 17 had a thin smooth wall. Hypoechoic rim like halo surrounding was noted in 17 cystic masses. 17 cases seemed to have a small amount of hemoperitoneum, a moderate amount in 22 cases and a large amount in 9 cases. The blood flow pattern of cystic masses showed a rim (29) and spotty (8) pattern in the color Doppler study. Measured RI was 0.41 (mean). Fertile women with the complaint of acute abdominal pain, who has the laboratory data of negative hCG test, ultrasonographic findings of enlargement of ovary with irregular margin, heterogeneous echoic cystic mass, peripheral halo surrounding the mass, hemoperitoneum and low resistance index of peripheral blood

  12. Meckel's Diverticulitis as a Cause of an Acute Abdomen in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy: Laparoscopic Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandeva, Ivilina; Kumar, Sumit; Alvi, Atif; Nosib, Hema

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Meckel's diverticulitis is an extremely rare cause of an acute abdomen in pregnancy. Its clinical presentation tends to be rather unusual and therefore commonly delaying diagnosis. The surgical method of exploration can be either by laparoscopy or through an open incision. Case Report. We report a case of a 34-year-old, P1 with previous Caesarean section, who presented at 20 weeks with worsening right-sided abdominal pain, distention, and peritonism. Ultrasound scan showed an area of a possibly thickened loop of bowel inconsistent with an appendicitis. The findings at laparoscopy were purulent fluid in the pelvis, a congested appendix, and inflamed Meckel's diverticulum. An appendectomy and excision of the diverticulum was performed using stapler technique. Discussion. Meckel's diverticulitis in pregnancy can have nonspecific presentation and poses difficulties for preoperative diagnosis. Delay in diagnosis and management poses significant maternal and fetal risks. The use of laparoscopy if the gestational age and uterine size permit its use allows a thorough exploration of the abdominal cavity and management of rarer and unexpected pathology. Laparoscopic management of acute abdomen in the midtrimester of pregnancy has been found to be safe and effective.

  13. Meckel’s Diverticulitis as a Cause of an Acute Abdomen in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy: Laparoscopic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivilina Pandeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Meckel’s diverticulitis is an extremely rare cause of an acute abdomen in pregnancy. Its clinical presentation tends to be rather unusual and therefore commonly delaying diagnosis. The surgical method of exploration can be either by laparoscopy or through an open incision. Case Report. We report a case of a 34-year-old, P1 with previous Caesarean section, who presented at 20 weeks with worsening right-sided abdominal pain, distention, and peritonism. Ultrasound scan showed an area of a possibly thickened loop of bowel inconsistent with an appendicitis. The findings at laparoscopy were purulent fluid in the pelvis, a congested appendix, and inflamed Meckel’s diverticulum. An appendectomy and excision of the diverticulum was performed using stapler technique. Discussion. Meckel’s diverticulitis in pregnancy can have nonspecific presentation and poses difficulties for preoperative diagnosis. Delay in diagnosis and management poses significant maternal and fetal risks. The use of laparoscopy if the gestational age and uterine size permit its use allows a thorough exploration of the abdominal cavity and management of rarer and unexpected pathology. Laparoscopic management of acute abdomen in the midtrimester of pregnancy has been found to be safe and effective.

  14. Cooperative scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractData mining, information retrieval and other application areas exhibit a query load with multiple concurrent queries touching a large fraction of a relation. This leads to individual query plans based on a table scan or large index scan. The implementation of this access path in most

  15. PMHS impact response in 3 m/s and 8 m/s nearside impacts with abdomen offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carl S; Madura, Nathaniel H; Schneider, Lawrence W; Klinich, Kathleen D; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2013-11-01

    Lateral impact tests were performed using seven male post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) to characterize the force-deflection response of contacted body regions, including the lower abdomen. All tests were performed using a dual-sled, side-impact test facility. A segmented impactor was mounted on a sled that was pneumatically accelerated into a second, initially stationary sled on which a subject was seated facing perpendicular to the direction of impact. Positions of impactor segments were adjusted for each subject so that forces applied to different anatomic regions, including thorax, abdomen, greater trochanter, iliac wing, and thigh, could be independently measured on each PMHS. The impactor contact surfaces were located in the same vertical plane, except that the abdomen plate was offset 5.1 cm towards the subject. The masses of the sleds and the force- deflection characteristics of the energy-absorbing interface material between the sleds were set to provide the impactor sled with a velocity profile that matched the average driver door velocity history produced in a series of side NCAP tests. Impactor padding was also selected so that average ATD pelvis and thorax responses from the same series of side NCAP tests were reproduced when the ATD used in these tests was impacted using the average door-velocity history. Each subject was first impacted on one side of the body using an initial impactor speed of 3 m/s. If a post-test CT scan and strain-gage data revealed two or fewer non-displaced rib fractures, then the PMHS was impacted on the contralateral side of the body at a speed of 8 m/s or 10 m/s. The results of tests in the 3 m/s and 8 m/s conditions were used to develop force-deflection response corridors for the abdomen, force history response corridors for the pelvis (iliac wing and greater trochanter), the midthigh, and the thorax. Response corridors for the lateral acceleration of the pelvis were also developed. Future work will compare side impact ATD

  16. [Successful treatment of hyperthyroidism simulating acute abdomen and psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kósa, D; Patakfalvi, A; Györi, L

    1992-07-19

    A 49 years old female patient entered the surgical department because of epigastric and ileocoecal pains with the symptoms of acute abdomen. A surgical intervention was performed because of supposed appendicitis, but it was not verified. During the surgical observation the patient was confused and negativistic so she was transferred to the psychiatric department. Because of loss of 20 kg weight, high blood sedimentation and anaemia she was sent to our department with the suspicion of an organic disease. A moderate exophthalmos, glittering eyes and Graefe's sign was noted, therefore hyperthyroidism was diagnosed, which was proved by Kocher's blood picture, low serum cholesterol, extremely high T3 and T4 level, and iodine storage diagram. The antithyreotic treatment resulted a dramatic improvement in the extremely serious moreover hopeless case and after a long-term treatment the patient became symptom-free without complaints. Later because of regression of hyperthyreoidism and the growing nodular goitre the patient was treated on two occasions with radioactive iodine. At present the patient is in remission.

  17. Fetal demise by umbilical cord around abdomen and stricture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shun-Jen; Chen, Chi-Huang; Wu, Gwo-Jang; Chen, Wei-Hwa; Chang, Cheng-Chang

    2010-01-01

    Umbilical cord abnormalities are accepted as conditions associated with intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD), and umbilical cord stricture is most frequently encountered. In addition, although cord entanglement with multiple loops rarely increases the perinatal mortality, it is associated with a significant increase in variable kind of morbidity such as growth restriction. We describe a 27-year-old woman, with a missed abortion history at about 10 weeks' gestation in her first pregnancy, who presented to our outpatient department at 34 4/7 weeks of gestation due to decreased fetal activity during the preceding week. No fetal heart activity and blood flow had been detected by ultrasonography and pulsed-wave Doppler. A demised fetus with umbilical cord stricture and three loops around abdomen was delivered and was weighted 1,830 g that was below the tenth percentile for the gestational age. Either umbilical cord stricture or entanglement around the body can affect the development of the fetus and even be lethal. The former might play a more important role in this case. Their etiology and the sequence of the events are still undetermined, and additional evaluation such as autopsy and further research may be needed. In addition, counsel and frequent fetal surveillance should be done in patients with previous IUFD attributed to cord stricture during next pregnancy because of undetermined risk of recurrence.

  18. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  19. Perforated duodenal ulcer -a rare cause of acute abdomen in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Bharti; Rani, Jyotsna; Huria, Anju; Gupta, Pratiksha; Dalal, Usha

    2014-09-01

    Acute abdomen during pregnancy is a medico-surgical emergency demanding concerted, synchronized specialties approach of obstetrician, surgeon and gastroenterologist. Duodenal perforation is one of the rarer causes of acute abdomen in pregnancy. Here, we report a case of duodenal perforation with peritonitis in third trimester of pregnancy requiring surgical management. Our aim of reporting this case is to stress the physicians to keep the differential of duodenal perforation also in mind while dealing with cases of acute abdomen in pregnancy and to proceed with multidisciplinary approach for better feto-maternal outcome.

  20. Frequency, Pattern and Management of Acute Abdomen in Dengue Fever in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shamim

    2010-07-01

    Conclusion: Early diagnosis and prompt conservative management of dengue acute abdomen is necessary to avoid mortality and emergency surgery-related morbidity. However, if needed, surgery can be performed with acceptable morbidity.

  1. Diseases of the hepatobiliary system as a cause of acute abdomen; Erkrankungen des hepatobiliaeren Systems als Ursache des akuten Abdomens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schima, W.; Eisenhuber-Stadler, E. [Krankenhaus Goettlicher Heiland, Abteilung fuer Radiologie und bildgebende Diagnostik, Wien (Austria); Koelblinger, C.; Kulinna-Cosentini, C.; Ba-Ssalamah, A. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2010-03-15

    Diseases of the liver and biliary system are common causes of acute abdominal pain and gallstone disease predisposes to cholecystitis and cholangiolithiasis. Sonography is the method of choice for the assessment of cholecystitis, whereas magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP) is the standard technique to detect stones in the common bile duct. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is ideal for detection of associated complications, including abscess formation and gall stone ileus. Pyogenic, amebic and fungal liver abscesses are reliably diagnosed with MDCT which can also be used for interventional radiologic therapy of liver abscesses by percutaneous aspiration or drainage procedures. The second most common cause of liver rupture after blunt trauma is spontaneous rupture of hypervascular liver tumors (i.e., HCC, adenoma, angiosarcoma) and due to medical procedures. Multi-phase contrast-enhanced MDCT can reliably detect active bleeding to guide further therapy in these cases. (orig.) [German] Die Cholezystitis ist eine der haeufigsten Ursachen fuer ein akutes Abdomen. Waehrend die Sonographie die Methode der Wahl zum Nachweis einer Cholezystolithiasis und Cholezystitis ist, steht bei der Entwicklung von Komplikationen die Multidetektorcomputertomographie (MDCT) diagnostisch im Vordergrund. Die Magnetresonanzcholangiopankreatikographie (MRCP) hat einen hohen Stellenwert bei der Abklaerung der Cholangiolithiasis, v. a. bei der Differenzialdiagnose zu anderen Ursachen einer Cholestase. Die Diagnose bakterieller, Amoeben- oder fungaler Leberabszesse kann mittels Sonographie oder MDCT rasch gestellt werden, wobei diese Methoden auch fuer die interventionelle radiologische Therapie von Leberabszessen (Punktion oder Drainage) gut geeignet sind. Die mehrphasige, kontrastmittelverstaerkte MDCT ist die Methode der Wahl fuer den Nachweis von Leberinfarkten oder -rupturen, da bei diesen Erkrankungen bzw. Verletzungsfolgen die Darstellung der

  2. Frequency, Pattern and Management of Acute Abdomen in Dengue Fever in Karachi, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Shamim

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency, pattern and management of acute abdomen in patients with dengue fever. Methods: This descriptive case series is a prospective analysis of acute abdomen in dengue fever that was performed at three secondary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan from June 1, 2005 to December 31, 2008. The inclusion criterion was all patients with confirmed diagnosis of dengue fever. Patients with incomplete laboratory, ultrasound or histopathology data were excluded...

  3. Varicella Zoster Infection: A Rare Cause of Abdominal Pain Mimicking Acute Abdomen

    OpenAIRE

    Olmez, Deniz; Boz, Alper; Erkan, Nazif

    2009-01-01

    Varicella zoster is an acute viral infection that results from reactivation of a latent varicella zoster virus. It usually occurs in adult population and immune compromised patients. It rarely occurs in healthy children. Here we present a 14 years old male with varicella zoster that had abdominal pain mimicking acute abdomen to alert others who are consulted for the differentiation of acute abdomen and others who may be consulted for pain management. Keywords Varicella zoster; Abdominal pain

  4. Open Abdomen Therapy with Vacuum and Mesh Mediated Fascial Traction After Aortic Repair: an International Multicentre Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Stefan; Seternes, Arne; Venermo, Maarit; Vikatmaa, Leena; Sörelius, Karl; Wanhainen, Anders; Svensson, Mats; Djavani, Khatereh; Björck, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Open abdomen therapy may be necessary to prevent or treat abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). The aim of the study was to analyse the primary delayed fascial closure (PDFC) rate and complications after open abdomen therapy with vacuum and mesh mediated fascial traction (VACM) after aortic repair and to compare outcomes between those treated with open abdomen after primary versus secondary operation. This was a retrospective cohort, multicentre study in Sweden, Finland, and Norway, including consecutive patients treated with open abdomen and VACM after aortic repair at six vascular centres in 2006-2015. The primary endpoint was PDFC rate. Among 191 patients, 155 were men. The median age was 71 years (IQR 66-76). Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) occurred in 69.1%. Endovascular/hybrid and open repairs were performed in 49 and 142 patients, respectively. The indications for open abdomen were inability to close the abdomen (62%) at primary operation and ACS (80%) at secondary operation. Duration of open abdomen was 11 days (IQR 7-16) in 157 patients alive at open abdomen termination. The PDFC rate was 91.8%. Open abdomen initiated at primary (N=103), compared with secondary operation (N=88), was associated with less severe initial open abdomen status (p=.006), less intestinal ischaemia (p=.002), shorter duration of open abdomen (p=.007), and less renal replacement therapy (RRT, popen abdomen initiated at primary versus secondary operation. VACM was associated with a high PDFC rate after prolonged open abdomen therapy following aortic repair. Patient outcomes seemed better when open abdomen was initiated at primary, compared with secondary operation but a selection effect is possible. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Scanning table

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Before the invention of wire chambers, particles tracks were analysed on scanning tables like this one. Today, the process is electronic and much faster. Bubble chamber film - currently available - (links can be found below) was used for this analysis of the particle tracks.

  6. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  7. Contrast material-enhanced CT of the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, E.K.; Kuhlman, J.E.; Garrity, M.; Paris, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    A randomized double-blind comparison of a nonionic contrast agent (Omnipaque) and an ionic contrast agent (Hypaque) was performed to determine any difference between the two agents in the quality and performance of computed body tomography (CT). A total of 40 patient studies were performed on a state-of-the-art CT scanner with similar scanning techniques. The contrast agent was administered intravenously as a rapid infusion in all cases. The image quality of the abdominal CT scans was good to excellent in all cases. There was no difference between the ionic and nonionic agents in terms of study quality. The 20 patients who received nonionic contrast agents had no major or minor reactions. Five of the 20 patients receiving the ionic contrast agent had a total of ten adverse reactions, including nausea and vomiting, nasal congestion, sneezing, and urticaria. The authors conclude that nonionic contrast agents provide high-quality CT scans equal to those provided by ionic agents and also result in fewer reactions and less discomfort

  8. Scanning holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natali, S.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reports on the scanning of 1000 holograms taken in HOBC at CERN. Each hologram is triggered by an interaction in the chamber, the primary particles being pions at 340 GeV/c. The aim of the experiment is the study of charm production. The holograms, recorded on 50 mm film with the ''in line'' technique, can be analyzed by shining a parallel expanded laser beam through the film, obtaining immediately above it the real image of the chamber which can then be scanned and measured with a technique half way between emulsions and bubble chambers. The results indicate that holograms can be analyzed as quickly and reliably as in other visual techniques and that to them is open the same order of magnitude of large scale experiments

  9. Bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, V.J.

    1989-01-01

    Oftentimes, in managing podiatric complaints, clinical and conventional radiographic techniques are insufficient in determining a patient's problem. This is especially true in the early stages of bone infection. Bone scanning or imaging can provide additional information in the diagnosis of the disorder. However, bone scans are not specific and must be correlated with clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evaluation. In other words, bone scanning does not provide the diagnosis but is an important bit of information aiding in the process of diagnosis. The more useful radionuclides in skeletal imaging are technetium phosphate complexes and gallium citrate. These compounds are administered intravenously and are detected at specific time intervals postinjection by a rectilinear scanner with minification is used and the entire skeleton can be imaged from head to toe. Minification allows visualization of the entire skeleton in a single image. A gamma camera can concentrate on an isolated area. However, it requires multiple views to complete the whole skeletal image. Recent advances have allowed computer augmentation of the data received from radionucleotide imaging. The purpose of this chapter is to present the current radionuclides clinically useful in podiatric patients

  10. A Link between the p53 germ line polymorphisms and white blood cells apoptosis in lung cancer patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biroš, Erik; Kohút, A.; Biroš, I.; Kalina, I.; Bogyiová, E.; Štubňa, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2002), s. 231-235 ISSN 0169-5002 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SI/340/1/97 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : apoptosis * p53 polymorphism * lung cancer Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 2.451, year: 2002

  11. Influence of nutrient intake on antioxidant capacity, muscle damage and white blood cell count in female soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravina Leyre

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soccer is a form of exercise that induces inflammatory response, as well as an increase in free radicals potentially leading to muscle injury. Balanced nutritional intake provides important antioxidant vitamins, including vitamins A, C and E, which may assist in preventing exercise-related muscle damage. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of macro/micronutrient intake on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, inflammatory and immune response in female soccer players. Methods Twenty-eight female players belonging to two soccer teams of the same professional soccer club participated in this study after being informed about the aims and procedures and after delivering written consent. Each team completed an 8-day dietary record and played one competition match the same week. Participants were divided into two groups: the REC group (who complied with recommended intakes and the NO-REC group (who were not compliant. Laboratory blood tests were carried out to determine hematological, electrolytic and hormonal variables, as well as to monitor markers of cell damage and oxidative stress. Blood samples were obtained 24 h before, immediately after and 18 h after official soccer matches. Student t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare both groups throughout the match. Results At rest, we observed that the REC group had higher levels of total antioxidant status (TAS, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and lower levels of creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in comparison to the NO-REC group. Immediately after the match, levels of TAS, GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD, LDH and % lymphocytes were higher and the % of neutrophils were lower in the REC group compared to the NO-REC group. These differences were also maintained 18 h post-match, only for TAS and GPx. Conclusions Our data reveal an association between nutritional intake and muscle damage, oxidative stress, immunity and inflammation markers. The benefit of the intake of specific nutrients may contribute to preventing the undesirable physiological effects provoked by soccer matches.

  12. Influence of nutrient intake on antioxidant capacity, muscle damage and white blood cell count in female soccer players

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Soccer is a form of exercise that induces inflammatory response, as well as an increase in free radicals potentially leading to muscle injury. Balanced nutritional intake provides important antioxidant vitamins, including vitamins A, C and E, which may assist in preventing exercise-related muscle damage. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of macro/micronutrient intake on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, inflammatory and immune response in female soccer players. Methods Twenty-eight female players belonging to two soccer teams of the same professional soccer club participated in this study after being informed about the aims and procedures and after delivering written consent. Each team completed an 8-day dietary record and played one competition match the same week. Participants were divided into two groups: the REC group (who complied with recommended intakes) and the NO-REC group (who were not compliant). Laboratory blood tests were carried out to determine hematological, electrolytic and hormonal variables, as well as to monitor markers of cell damage and oxidative stress. Blood samples were obtained 24 h before, immediately after and 18 h after official soccer matches. Student t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test was used to compare both groups throughout the match. Results At rest, we observed that the REC group had higher levels of total antioxidant status (TAS), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and lower levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in comparison to the NO-REC group. Immediately after the match, levels of TAS, GPx, superoxide dismutase (SOD), LDH and % lymphocytes were higher and the % of neutrophils were lower in the REC group compared to the NO-REC group. These differences were also maintained 18 h post-match, only for TAS and GPx. Conclusions Our data reveal an association between nutritional intake and muscle damage, oxidative stress, immunity and inflammation markers. The benefit of the intake of specific nutrients may contribute to preventing the undesirable physiological effects provoked by soccer matches. PMID:22812729

  13. Protective effect of curcumin on experimentally induced arthritic rats: detailed histopathological study of the joints and white blood cell count

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarudin, Taty Anna; Othman, Faizah; Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Md Isa, Nurismah; Das, Srijit

    2012-01-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) rhizomes contains curcumin, an active compound which possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is an accepted experimental animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. The present study aimed to observe the histological changes in the joints of experimental arthritic rats treated with curcumin. Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley (approximately 7 weeks-old) rats were randomly divided into four groups. Three groups were immunized with 150 ?g collagen. ...

  14. C-reactive protein and white blood cell count do not improve clinical decision-making in acute appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tind, Sofie; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Zimmermann-Nielsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acute appendicitis (AA) remains a diagnostic challenge as indicated by the high rate of unnecessary surgery. Blood samples, primarily C-reactive protein (CRP) and leucocyte counts, are used as a diagnostic supplement despite their relatively low sensitivities and specificities...... the blood results and re-evaluate their diagnosis. The surgeon's diagnosis before and after was compared with the final diagnosis defined by surgical findings or follow-up. The gold standard was any degree of appendicitis on histology. RESULTS: A total of 226 patients were included of whom 91 (40.3%) had...... appendicitis on histology. The surgeons changed their diagnosis in nine cases after assessing blood samples. The changes in the proportion of correct diagnoses, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values after assessing blood samples were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The results of CRP and leucocyte...

  15. Initial clinical experience with spiral CT angiography in the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaa, J.; Stehling, M.K.; Costello, P.

    1993-01-01

    The latest developments in modern CT instruments, offering scanning times of a second, opened up new possibilities in CT imaging in combination with the spiral technique. The data set normally taken with single-breath-hold technique is free of respiratory artefacts and thus is a good basis for accurate 3D image reconstruction. Spiral CTA allows a non-invasive 3D imaging of various blood vessels. Patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms of aorto-iliac bypass can be examined as outpatients within 15 minutes. (orig.) [de

  16. Abscess of urachal remnants presenting with acute abdomen: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazi Fadl

    2012-07-01

    one, with a good follow-up result. Case presentation 3: A 22-year-old Arab-Berber man, with no relevant past medical history, presented to our emergency department because of suspected acute surgical abdomen. Physical examination revealed umbilical discharge with erythema and a tender umbilical mass. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography scan confirmed the diagnosis of infected urachal sinus. Initial management was intravenous antibiotics associated with a percutaneous drainage with a good post-operative result, but a few days later, he was readmitted with the same complaint and the decision was made for surgical treatment consisting of excision of the infected urachal sinus. The clinical course was uneventful. Histological examination did not reveal any signs of malignancy. Conclusions We describe our clinical observations and an analysis of the existing literature to present the various clinical, radiological, pathological and therapeutic aspects of an abscess of urachal remnants. To the best of our knowledge, this manuscript is an original case report because this atypical presentation is rarely reported in the literature and only a few cases have been described.

  17. Acute Abdomen in Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy, An Emergency Laparoscopic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Picardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present case report demonstrates a laparoscopic approach to treat interstitial cornual pregnancy in emergency. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy develops in the uterine portion of the fallopian tube which accounts for 2–4% of all ectopic pregnancies and has the potential to cause life-threatening hemorrhage at rupture. The mortality rate for a woman diagnosed with such a pregnancy is 2–2.5%. Diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy is made by ultrasound. In this case a 32 year-old woman, Gravida 0 Parity 0 Living 0 Ectopic 1, presented to the emergency obstetrical room complaining acute abdominal pain. There was a history of 10 weeks of pregnancy but no pelvic ultrasound scan was performed before the access. A transvaginal ultrasound scan immediately performed demonstrated a gestational sac with viable fetus in the right interstitial region. Moreover there was an ultrasound evidence of hemoperitoneum. She was transferred to the operating room and an emergency laparoscopy surgery was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged two days after the surgery. Interstitial pregnancies present a difficult management problem with no absolute standard of care in literature. Laparoscopic technique is under study with favorable results. For our personal point of view a treatment via laparoscopy could be performed both in elective and in emergency cases.

  18. Abdominal compartment syndrome and open abdomen management with negative pressure devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surace, Alessandra; Ferrarese, Alessia; Marola, Silvia; Cumbo, Jacopo; Valentina, Gentile; Borello, Alessandro; Solej, Mario; Martino, Valter; Nano, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an increase of intra-abdominal pressure (IAH) to values higher than 20 mmHg, associated with reduced perfusion and organ dysfunction. There is a classification of open abdomen which stratifies patients according to the natural history of improvement or clinical deterioration. The aim of treatment is to maintain the open abdomen at the lowest level and to prevent progression to a more complex level. Surgical treatment essentially consists in abdominal decompression by leaving the abdomen open. Analysis of the literature shows that negative pressure increases the rate of primary fascial closure; entero-cutaneous fistulas are seen in a minority of cases, without seeming consequence of the application of the dressing. Open abdomen management consists of three treatment stages: acute (24-48 hours), intermediate (from 48 hours to 10 days) and late or reconstruction (from 10 days to the final closure). It's important to recognize patients at risk of IAH and the first signs of ACS and intervene early with abdominal decompression if this will establish itself. Management of the open abdomen is now facilitated by negative pressure devices, which positively affect the morbidity and mortality of patients with ACS.

  19. Acute abdomen in pregnancy requiring surgical management: a 20-case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Aysun; Sayharman, Sema Etiz; Ozel, Leyla; Unal, Ethem; Aka, Nurettin; Titiz, Izzet; Kose, Gultekin

    2011-11-01

    The obstetrician often has a difficult task in diagnosing and managing the acute abdomen in pregnancy. A reluctance to operate during pregnancy adds unnecessary delay, which may increase morbidity for both mother and fetus. In this study, we present our experience in pregnant patients with acute abdomen. Pregnant patients with acute abdomen requiring surgical exploration were enrolled from 2007 to 2010. Demographics, gestational age, symptoms, fetal loss, preterm delivery, imaging studies, operative results, postoperative complications and histopathologic evaluations were recorded. Ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies were evaluated. Data analyses were performed with Microsoft Excel and statistical evaluations were done by using Student's t-test. There were 20 patients with a mean age of 32 years. The rate of emergency surgery was seen to be significantly higher in the second trimester (pacute abdomen (30% and 15%, respectively). All patients tolerated surgery well, and postoperative complications included wound infection, 10%, preterm labor, 5%, and prolonged paralytic ileus, 5%. One patient died from advanced gastric carcinoma and the only fetal death was seen in this case. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate therapy are crucial in pregnant with acute abdomen. The use of US may be limited and CT is not desirable due to fetal irradiation. MR has thus become increasingly popular in the evaluation of such patients. Adhesive small bowel obstruction should be kept in mind as an important etiology. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of a new subcutaneous diclofenac formulation administered to three body sites: quadriceps, gluteus, and abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Salvatore; Piazza, Cateno; Vitale, Daniela Cristina; Cardì, Francesco; Gugliotta, Barbara; Drago, Filippo

    2014-02-01

    To assess the relative bioavailability of a new subcutaneous (SC) diclofenac hydroxypropyl b-cyclodextrin (HPbCD) formulation administered to three body sites: quadriceps, gluteus, and abdomen. This was a pilot, single-dose, randomized, three-way crossover relative bioavailability study. A total of 12 healthy subjects received a single SC injection of diclofenac HPbCD 50 mg/1 mL in the quadriceps, gluteus, or abdomen. The AUC was comparable after SC diclofenac HPbCD in the quadriceps, gluteus, and abdomen. The Cmax was comparable after SC administration in the quadriceps or abdomen, and ~ 17% higher in the gluteus. The absorption was rapid (30 minutes) after administration of the treatment at any site. The treatment was well tolerated. The relative bioavailability of SC diclofenac HPbCD was comparable when administered to the quadriceps, gluteus, and abdomen. The new diclofenac formulation can therefore be administered subcutaneously to any of these sites without clinically significant differences. A further adequately powered study would be necessary to reveal any differences among injection sites in terms of peak plasma concentration.

  1. Non Obstetric Acute Abdomen in Pregnancy – An Experience from Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaz Ahmad Rather

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to study the profile of pregnant patients who were managed by general surgical unit of a referral hospital in Kashmir valley for non obstetric causes of acute abdomen over a period of seven years. Methods: The study was done retrospectively after acquiring data from databank related to pregnant patients managed for acute abdomen over a period of seven years (from January 2006 to December 2012 in the general surgical department of the medical college of SK Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Kashmir. Results: 49 non obstetric acute abdomen were managed in pregnant females over a period of seven years. 23 (46.9% patients reported with a delay of more than 12 hours and 34 (69.4% cases underwent surgical interventions. Appendicitis was the commonest cause of acute abdomen and Ultrasonography was the only imaging modality utilized. Only 3 cases had preterm labor. Conclusions: Acute abdomen in pregnant females should be assessed with high level of suspicion .Delay in presentation and intervention leads to adverse outcomes.

  2. Gross anatomy of superficial fascia and future localised fat deposit areas of the abdomen in foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development and popularity of body contouring procedures such as liposuction and abdominoplasty has renewed interest in the anatomy of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous fat deposits of the abdomen. The study of anatomy of fascia and fetal adipose tissue was proposed as it may be of value in understanding the possible programing of prevention of obesity. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to understand the gross anatomy of superficial fascia of abdomen and to study the gross anatomy of future localized fat deposits (LFDs area of abdomen in fetus. Materials and Methods: Four fetus (two male & two female of four month of intrauterine life were dissected. Attachments & layers of superficial fascia and future subcutaneous fat deposit area of upper and lower abdomen were noted. Results: Superficial fascia of the abdomen was multi layered in mid line and number of layers reduced laterally as in adult. The future abdominal LFD (localized fat deposits area in fetus shows brownish-white blubbary tissue without well-defined adult fat lobules. Conclusion: The attachment and gross anatomy of superficial fascia of the fetus was similar to that in adults. The future LFD areas showed brownish white blubbary tissue with ill-defined fat lobules.

  3. Obstructive acute abdomen: reviewing important points; Abdome agudo obstrutivo: revisando pontos fundamentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Marina Celli; Abud, Thiago Giansante; Reibscheid, Samuel; Szejnfeld, Jacob; Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: nana_celli@hotmail.com; Neves, Felipe Trentin [Hospital Ipiranga, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Colleone Neto, Ramiro [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The obstructive acute abdomen is a common presentation, for which safe and effective management depends on a fast and accurate diagnosis. Conventional radiograph remains the first choice among the imaging exams because of its availability, low cost and the possibility to be done serially to follow the patient's clinical progression. The ultrasonography does not require ionizing radiation. It is a dynamic and in realtime exam. Computed tomography is used increasingly due to the provision of essential diagnostic information not apparent from radiographs, such as the confirmation of the obstruction, degree and place of the occlusion, presence of ischemia as well as the causes of the obstruction. Magnetic resonance imaging has presented great technological advances and it may play a role in the future of obstructive acute abdomen diagnosis. The objective of this pictorial essay is to review the different imaging techniques used on diagnosing obstructive acute abdomen. (author)

  4. Update on the management of non-obstetric acute abdomen in pregnant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Millet, Sebastián; Bueno Lledó, José; Granero Castro, Pablo; Gómez Gavara, Immaculada; Ballester Pla, Neus; García Domínguez, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Acute abdomen is a rare entity in the pregnant patient, with an incidence of one in 500-635 patients. Its appearance requires a quick response and an early diagnosis to treat the underlying disease and prevent maternal and fetal morbidity. Imaging tests are essential, due to clinical and laboratory masking in this subgroup. Appendicitis and complicated biliary pathology are the most frequent causes of non-obstetric acute abdomen in the pregnant patient. The decision to operate, the timing, and the surgical approach are essential for a correct management of this pathology. The aim of this paper is to perform a review and update on the diagnosis and treatment of non-obstetric acute abdomen in pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Damage control surgery by keeping the abdomen open during pregnancy: favorable outcome, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marty François

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute abdomen in advanced pregnancy is one of the most challenging surgical situations. In life-threatening situations, despite optimal management, foetus distress and preterm delivery may occur. Although laparostomy is a useful treatment of abdominal sepsis, its successful management has not been reported previously in pregnant women. Case 30-year-old woman at 23 week of pregnancy was investigated for non-specific abdominal pain. Surgical exploration revealed extensive ischemic bowel necrosis. Multiple segmental resections were performed and abdomen was left open with vacuum assisted dressing, maintained for 48 hours. At the third surgical look the continuity was restored and abdominal wall closed. The foetal condition stayed unperturbed under pharmacologic tocolysis. Pregnancy was carried to full term delivery. Conclusion Open abdomen strategy can be successfully applied in pregnant woman.

  6. Síndrome de abdomen en ciruela pasa y dextrocardia, asociación infrecuente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un neonato con Síndrome de abdomen en ciruela pasa, de sexo masculino, nacido de 36 semanas de gestación y pesó 3 650 g al nacer. El examen clínico mostró un neonato con un abdomen globuloso, con redundancia de la piel que huelga a los costados rebosantes, la palpación del abdomen no descubre la tonalidad muscular. No se palpa visceromegalia y hay presencia normal de ruidos hidroaéreos. El examen físico del tórax y cardiovascular fueron aparentemente normales. Normocéfalo y facies no peculiar. La radiografía de tórax muestra dextrocardía. La ecografía renal mostró dilatación pielocalicial. Revela además criptorquidia bilateral.

  7. Acute abdomen and ascites as presenting features of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Qian, Qi

    2012-12-27

    We describe a patient with sudden onset of abdominal pain and ascites, leading to the diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Her presentation was consistent with acute liver cyst rupture as the cause of her acute illness. A review of literature on polycystic liver disease in patients with ADPKD and current management strategies are presented. This case alerts physicians that ADPKD could occasionally present as an acute abdomen; cyst rupture related to ADPKD may be considered in the differential diagnoses of acute abdomen.

  8. Mesenteric defect with internal herniation in the pediatric emergency department: an unusual presentation of acute abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mei-Hua; Huang, Go-Shine; Chen, Jeng-Chang; Wu, Chang-Teng

    2014-04-01

    Internal herniation is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, especially in the emergency department. We report a child with acute abdomen resulting from transmesenteric internal herniation of the small bowel. Radiographic findings revealed gaseous distension of the bowel loops in the upper abdominal area with a paucity of gas in the lower abdomen. Operative finding showed gangrenous small bowel due to mesenteric defect with an internal herniation. The gangrenous bowel was resected and the patient was discharged with an uneventful outcome. We emphasize that early recognition of internal herniation warrants further evaluation and appropriate management. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Calculations on the dose decreasing and image quality improving effects of an abdomen dodger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koblinger, L.

    1974-07-01

    A Monte Carlo computer program is performed to study the effects of an abdomen dodger. For this study the inhomogeneous Snyder phantom is assumed to be irradiated by an X-ray tube operated at 80 kV. By the use of a dodger which compensates the varying thickness of the body the exposure distribution on the photoreceptor can be made more uniform and the absorbed dose decreases. As different patients have different dimensions, the results presented here cannot be applied for any given abdomen examination, but can be used as average values, characteristic for an average examination, thus applicable in the estimations for the total population. (K.A.)

  10. Comparison of radiation dose estimates, image noise, and scan duration in pediatric body imaging for volumetric and helical modes on 320-detector CT and helical mode on 64-detector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Jennifer H.; Podberesky, Daniel J.; Larson, David B.; Alsip, Christopher; Yoshizumi, Terry T.; Angel, Erin; Barelli, Alessandra; Toncheva, Greta; Egelhoff, John C.; Anderson-Evans, Colin; Nguyen, Giao B.; Frush, Donald P.; Salisbury, Shelia R.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced multidetector CT systems facilitate volumetric image acquisition, which offers theoretic dose savings over helical acquisition with shorter scan times. Compare effective dose (ED), scan duration and image noise using 320- and 64-detector CT scanners in various acquisition modes for clinical chest, abdomen and pelvis protocols. ED and scan durations were determined for 64-detector helical, 160-detector helical and volume modes under chest, abdomen and pelvis protocols on 320-detector CT with adaptive collimation and 64-detector helical mode on 64-detector CT without adaptive collimation in a phantom representing a 5-year-old child. Noise was measured as standard deviation of Hounsfield units. Compared to 64-detector helical CT, all acquisition modes on 320-detector CT resulted in lower ED and scan durations. Dose savings were greater for chest (27-46%) than abdomen/pelvis (18-28%) and chest/abdomen/pelvis imaging (8-14%). Noise was similar across scanning modes, although some protocols on 320-detector CT produced slightly higher noise. Dose savings can be achieved for chest, abdomen/pelvis and chest/abdomen/pelvis examinations on 320-detector CT compared to helical acquisition on 64-detector CT, with shorter scan durations. Although noise differences between some modes reached statistical significance, this is of doubtful diagnostic significance and will be studied further in a clinical setting. (orig.)

  11. Towards the optimisation of acoustic fields for ablative therapies of tumours in the upper abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gélat, P; Ter Haar, G; Saffari, N

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the non-invasive treatment of cancer has been demonstrated for a range of different cancers including those of the liver, kidney, prostate and breast. As a non-invasive focused therapy, HIFU offers considerable advantages over other techniques such as chemotherapy and surgical resection, in terms of its non-invasiveness and low risk of harmful side effects. There is, however, a number of significant challenges which currently hinder its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the ribcage to induce tissue necrosis at the required foci whilst minimising the formation of side lobes and sparing healthy tissue. Ribs both absorb and reflect ultrasound strongly. As such, a common side effect of focusing ultrasound in regions located behind the rib cage is the overheating of bone and surrounding tissue, which can lead to skin burns. Successful treatment of a patient with tumours in the upper abdomen therefore requires a thorough understanding of the way acoustic and thermal energy are deposited. This is likely to rely on a treatment planning procedure in which optimal source velocity distributions are obtained so as to maximise a dose quantity at the treatment sites, whilst ensuring that this quantity does not exceed a specified threshold at other field locations, particularly on the surface of the ribs. Previously, a boundary element approach based on a Generalised Minimal Residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was developed to predict the field of a multi-element HIFU array scattered by human ribs, the topology of which was obtained from CT scan data [1]. This work describes the reformulation of the boundary element equations as a least-squares minimisation problem with non-linear constraints. The methodology was subsequently tested at an excitation frequency of 100 kHz on a spherical multi-element array in the presence

  12. Towards the optimisation of acoustic fields for ablative therapies of tumours in the upper abdomen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélat, P.; ter Haar, G.; Saffari, N.

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the non-invasive treatment of cancer has been demonstrated for a range of different cancers including those of the liver, kidney, prostate and breast. As a non-invasive focused therapy, HIFU offers considerable advantages over other techniques such as chemotherapy and surgical resection, in terms of its non-invasiveness and low risk of harmful side effects. There is, however, a number of significant challenges which currently hinder its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the ribcage to induce tissue necrosis at the required foci whilst minimising the formation of side lobes and sparing healthy tissue. Ribs both absorb and reflect ultrasound strongly. As such, a common side effect of focusing ultrasound in regions located behind the rib cage is the overheating of bone and surrounding tissue, which can lead to skin burns. Successful treatment of a patient with tumours in the upper abdomen therefore requires a thorough understanding of the way acoustic and thermal energy are deposited. This is likely to rely on a treatment planning procedure in which optimal source velocity distributions are obtained so as to maximise a dose quantity at the treatment sites, whilst ensuring that this quantity does not exceed a specified threshold at other field locations, particularly on the surface of the ribs. Previously, a boundary element approach based on a Generalised Minimal Residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was developed to predict the field of a multi-element HIFU array scattered by human ribs, the topology of which was obtained from CT scan data [1]. This work describes the reformulation of the boundary element equations as a least-squares minimisation problem with non-linear constraints. The methodology was subsequently tested at an excitation frequency of 100 kHz on a spherical multi-element array in the presence

  13. The optimization of acoustic fields for ablative therapies of tumours in the upper abdomen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gélat, P.; ter Haar, G.; Saffari, N.

    2012-12-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) enables highly localized, non-invasive tissue ablation and its efficacy has been demonstrated in the treatment of a range of cancers, including those of the kidney, prostate and breast. HIFU offers the ability to treat deep-seated tumours locally, and potentially bears fewer side effects than more invasive treatment modalities such as resection, chemotherapy and ionizing radiation. There remains however a number of significant challenges which currently hinder its widespread clinical application. One of these challenges is the need to transmit sufficient energy through the ribcage to ablate tissue at the required foci whilst minimizing the formation of side lobes and sparing healthy tissue. Ribs both absorb and reflect ultrasound strongly. This sometimes results in overheating of bone and overlying tissue during treatment, leading to skin burns. Successful treatment of a patient with tumours in the upper abdomen therefore requires a thorough understanding of the way acoustic and thermal energy is deposited. Previously, a boundary element approach based on a Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES) implementation of the Burton-Miller formulation was developed to predict the field of a multi-element HIFU array scattered by human ribs, the topology of which was obtained from CT scan data (Gélat et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 5553-81). The present paper describes the reformulation of the boundary element equations as a least-squares minimization problem with nonlinear constraints. The methodology has subsequently been tested at an excitation frequency of 1 MHz on a spherical multi-element array in the presence of ribs. A single array-rib geometry was investigated on which a 50% reduction in the maximum acoustic pressure magnitude on the surface of the ribs was achieved with only a 4% reduction in the peak focal pressure compared to the spherical focusing case. This method was then compared with a binarized apodization approach

  14. Tc-99m sucralfate scanning for inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, L.M.; Becker, S.; Mekhmandarov, S.; Steinmetz, A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigated 14 patients with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by administering Tc-99m sucralfate (TcS) orally and imaging the abdomen 4 and 24 hours after dose. All patients had either barium radiographic studies or colonoscopy before the scan. The scan identified seven of nine patients who had radiologically demonstrated small-bowel lesions and four of five patients with colonic disease. The authors' preliminary experience suggests that TcS maybe a useful procedure to document location and extent of active disease. It provides information about both small and large bowel in one procedure, is noninvasive, easy to perform, and has low radiation absorbed dose

  15. MANAGEMENT OF SPLENIC INJURY AFTER BLUNT INJURY TO ABDOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bharath Prakash Reddy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The spleen is an important organ in the body’s immune system. It is the most frequently injured organ in blunt abdominal trauma. 1 Over the past several decades, diagnosis and management of splenic trauma has been evolved. The conservative, operative approach has been challenged by several reports of successful non-operative management aided by the power of modern diagnostic imaging. The aim of our prospective study was to compare non-operative management with surgery for cases of splenic injury. METHODS We conducted a prospective study of patients admitted with blunt splenic injury to our regional hospital over a three-year period (2012-2015. Haemodynamic status upon admission, FAST examination, computed tomography 2 grade of splenic tear, presence and severity of associated injuries have been taken into account to determine the treatment of choice. Therapeutic options were classified into non-operative and splenectomy. RESULTS Over a 3-year period, 24 patients were admitted with blunt splenic injury. Sixteen patients were managed operatively and eight patients non-operatively. 3,4 Non-operative management failed in one patient due to continued bleeding. The majority of grades I, II, and III splenic injuries were managed non-operatively and grades IV and V were managed operatively. Blood transfusion requirement was significantly higher among the operative group, but the operative group had a significantly longer hospital stay. Among those managed non-operatively (median age 24.5 years, a number of patients were followed up with CT scans with significant radiation exposure and unknown longterm consequences. CONCLUSION In our experience, NOM is the treatment of choice for grade I, II and III blunt splenic injuries. Splenectomy was the chosen technique in patients who met exclusion criteria for NOM, as well as for patients with grade IV and V injury.

  16. Comparison of image quality and radiation dose between combined automatic tube current modulation and fixed tube current technique in CT of abdomen and pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sanghee (Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)); Yoon, Sang-Wook; Yoo, Seung-Min; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Sang Heum; Lee, Jong Tae (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA Univ. (Korea, Republic of)), email: jansons@cha.ac.kr; Ji, Young Geon (Preventive Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA Univ. (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-12-15

    Background. Tube current is an important determinant of radiation dose and image quality in X-ray-based examination. The combined automatic tube current modulation technique (ATCM) enables automatic adjustment of the tube current in various planes (x-y and z) based on the size and attenuation of the body area scanned. Purpose. To compare image quality and radiation dose of the ATCM with those of a fixed tube current technique (FTC) in CT of the abdomen and pelvis performed with a 16-slice multidetector row CT. Material and Methods. We reviewed 100 patients in whom initial and follow-up CT of the abdomen and pelvis were performed with FTC and ATCM. All acquisition parameters were identical in both techniques except for tube current. We recorded objective image noise in liver parenchyma, subjective image noise and diagnostic acceptability by using a five-point scale, radiation dose, and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2). Data were analyzed with parametric and non-parametric statistical tests. Results. There was no significant difference in image noise and diagnostic acceptability between two techniques. All subjects had acceptable subjective image noise in both techniques. The significant reduction in radiation dose (45.25% reduction) was noted with combined ATCM (P < 0.001). There was a significant linear statistical correlation between BMI and dose reduction (r = -0.78, P < 0.05). Conclusion. The ATCM for CT of the abdomen and pelvis substantially reduced radiation dose while maintaining diagnostic image quality. Patients with lower BMI showed more reduction in radiation dose

  17. Placenta percreta causing acute abdomen in the second trimester of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Bhutta, S. Z.; Sarwar, S.

    2004-01-01

    Two cases of acute abdomen due to haemoperitoneum caused by placenta percreta in the second trimester are presented. Both had a history of previous lower segment caesarean section, a factor well-known to predispose the condition. How- ever, the rarity of the condition, presenting in mid pregnancy makes diagnosis and management difficult. Optimum ways of management are discussed. (author)

  18. Frequency, pattern and management of acute abdomen in dengue fever in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Muhammad

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency, pattern and management of acute abdomen in patients with dengue fever. This descriptive case series is a prospective analysis of acute abdomen in dengue fever that was performed at three secondary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan from June 1, 2005 to December 31, 2008. The inclusion criterion was all patients with confirmed diagnosis of dengue fever. Patients with incomplete laboratory, ultrasound or histopathology data were excluded. Among 357 patients with dengue fever, 43 (12.04%) had acute abdomen. There were 15 men and 28 women, with a median age of 29 years. These included 26 cases of acute cholecystitis, 7 cases of acute appendicitis, 7 cases of nonspecific peritonitis, and 3 cases of acute pancreatitis. Dengue hemorrhagic fever/shock syndrome was found in acute pancreatitis, and two of these patients died. Emergency surgery was required in eight patients (5 appendectomy and 3 open cholecystectomy). Substantial transfusion of blood and its components was required in eight patients who underwent emergency surgery. Early diagnosis and prompt conservative management of dengue acute abdomen is necessary to avoid mortality and emergency surgery-related morbidity. However, if needed, surgery can be performed with acceptable morbidity. Copyright © 2010 Asian Surgical Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 505 Effective Medicated Abdomen Wrapper Best External Care for Lingering Diseases Unconventional Product for Vigorous Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    505 Effective Medicated Abdomen Wrapper,a national patent product(patent num-ber 90202386.1),together with its serial products,has filled in the gaps in the field ofChina’s medical science and health care products.The development of the product wasbrought into line with the State Spark Programme by the State Commission for Science

  20. Damage control surgery and open abdomen in trauma patients with exsanguinating bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutafchiĭski, V; Popivanov, G

    2014-01-01

    Acute coagulopathy with exsanguinating bleeding occurs in 2-5% of all trauma cases carrying mortality rate near 100% after conventional management. In the last few decades, the development of damage control surgery (DCS) in combination with the technique of open abdomen led to significantly improved survival among these patients. A descriptive study based on a retrospective analysis of 12 consecutive blast victims with exsanguinating bleeding underwent DCS and open abdomen management. All patients were soldiers injured during their deployment in Iraq and Afghanistan during 2002-2007, treated by our deployed surgical teams. Vacuum Assisted Closure (V.A.C., KCI) and vacuum pack (VP) was used for a temporary closure of abdomen. A cumulative analysis of all relevant series used these methods during the period 2000-2013 was performed. DCS was applied in 12 of 114 consecutive blast victims (10.5%) with survival rate 66.7% (8/12). Eleven had open abdomen with temporary closure with V.A.C. in 6 and VP in 5. Four patients died before the definitive closure (36.4%). The survivors (n = 8) were with a mean age 28.5 years, suffered from a critical trauma with a mean Injury Severity Score 35.5. V.A.C was used in 4 of them, VP in 3. Primary closure of abdomen was achieved in 6 (85.7%) within 3.5 days and mean 1.3 dressing changes. Due to ACS, the abdomen was closed through skin suture only and a creation of planned ventral hernia in 1 patient treated with VP (1/7, 14.3%). Wound infection was observed in 1 case (14.3%). Despite the small sample size, our series clearly demonstrate the benefits of DCS and open abdomen in trauma patients with exsangiunating bleeding. The survival rate is highly dependent on the rapid implementation of DCS in properly selected patients. V.A.C. and VP provide a high rate of primary fascial closure in trauma.

  1. Detection of Hyperechoic Inflammatory Fatty Tissue during Transabdominal Ultrasonography: Diagnostic Role in Acute Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Jin; Lee, Hae Kyung; Yi, Bum Ha; Kim, Hyun Cheol

    2005-01-01

    To assess the incidence and diagnostic role of hyperechoic inflammatory fatty tissue (HIFT) in transabdominal ultrasonography (TAUS) for acute abdomen. With TAUS, we examined 98 consecutive patients (68 women, 30 men: mean age, 32 years: age range, 4-84 years) having acute abdominal pain. We examined the abdomen and pelvis by TAUS to determine the cause of acute abdomen, to check for the presence of HIFT, and to investigate whether it was easier and earlier to find the main cause and HIFT presence. We also prospectively evaluated the shape, distribution, and diagnostic role of HIFT. Final diagnoses consisted of 47 cases of acute appendicitis, 14 of enterocolitis, 13 of PID, 7 of gynecological hemoperitoneum, 5 of colonic diverticulitis, 3 of ovarian torsion, 2 of colon perforation, 2 of only presence of non-specific HIFT, 1 of mesenteric lymphadenitis, and 4 of normal. HIFT were seen in 67 patients (68.4%), including 44/47(93.6%) of acute appendicitis, 2/14(14.3%) of enterocolitis, 11/13(84.6%) of PID, 0/7 of hemoperitoneum, 5/5 of colonic diverticulitis, 0/3 of ovarian torsion, 2/2 of colon perforation, and 1/1 mesenteric lymphadenitis. HIFT were detected earlier than the main cause in 17/44 of acute appendicitis, 6/11 of PID, and 4/5 of colonic diverticulitis. In acute appendicitis, the shape of HIFT appeared as fat thickening along the mesoappendix in 12/44, fat thickening along the mesoappendix and the opposite side in 13/44, fat encircled appendix in 6/44, fatty mass wrapping abscess in 10/44, and diffuse intraperitoneal fat thickening in 3/44. In PID, HIFT appeared as a single fatty mass in the pelvis and lower abdomen in 6/11, wrapping pelvic abscess in 2/11, and multiple fatty masses scattered in abdomen and pelvis in 3/11. In colonic diverticulitis, all 5 cases appeared as hyperechoic hemispheric mass covering the inflamed diverticulum. HIFT are a usual US finding in patients with acute abdomen, particularly on abdominal and pelvic inflammatory conditions

  2. Predicting need for additional CT scan in children with a non-diagnostic ultrasound for appendicitis in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Takuya; Maeda, Shigenobu; Goldman, Ran D; Hayashi, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine which children with suspected appendicitis should be considered for a computerized tomography (CT) scan after a non-diagnostic ultrasound (US) in the Emergency Department (ED). We retrospectively reviewed patients 0-18year old, who presented to the ED with complaints of abdominal pain, during 2011-2015 and while in the hospital had both US and CT. We recorded demographic and clinical data and outcomes, and used univariate and multivariate methods for comparing patients who did and didn't have appendicitis on CT after non-diagnostic US. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression to determine what variables were independently associated with appendicitis. A total of 328 patients were enrolled, 257 with non-diagnostic US (CT: 82 had appendicitis, 175 no-appendicitis). Younger children and those who reported vomiting or had right lower abdominal quadrant (RLQ) tenderness, peritoneal signs or White Blood Cell (WBC) count >10,000 in mm 3 were more likely to have appendicitis on CT. RLQ tenderness (Odds Ratio: 2.84, 95%CI: 1.07-7.53), peritoneal signs (Odds Ratio: 11.37, 95%CI: 5.08-25.47) and WBC count >10,000 in mm 3 (Odds Ratio: 21.88, 95%CI: 7.95-60.21) remained significant after multivariate analysis. Considering CT with 2 or 3 of these predictors would have resulted in sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 67%, positive predictive value of 57% and negative predictive value of 96% for appendicitis. Ordering CT should be considered after non-diagnostic US for appendicitis only when children meet at least 2 predictors of RLQ tenderness, peritoneal signs and WBC>10,000 in mm 3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... head size in children Changes in thinking or behavior Fainting Headache, when you have certain other signs ...

  4. Role of inflammatory markers as predictors of laparotomy in patients presenting with acute abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Brendan H; Rozario, Anthony P; Olakkengil, Santosh A

    2015-10-01

    There is a need for an ideal indicator of surgery in patients presenting with acute abdomen. Several markers have been analysed, but the search still continues as none have proven effective. This study aimed to analyse and compare the predictive value of plasma procalcitonin (PCT) strip test in patients presenting with acute abdomen and identify a useful cut-off value to differentiate patients that would benefit with surgery from those that require conservative management. A prospective study was conducted in the department of general surgery from June 2012 to June 2013. Plasma PCT was estimated by the semi-quantitative strip test. The levels of plasma PCT and other routinely used markers of inflammation were analysed and compared. Of the total of 58 patients, 44 patients (76%) were men with a mean age of 45 years. Forty patients required emergency surgical intervention. A plasma PCT value of >0.5 ng/mL at admission was 80% sensitive and 100% specific for predicting need for antibiotics in patients with acute abdomen that were managed conservatively. The mean plasma PCT value in the patients undergoing surgery (5.0-10.0 ng/mL) was significantly more than in those managed conservatively (0.5-2.0 ng/mL). Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves a cut-off for plasma PCT of >5.0 ng/mL was 75% sensitive and 100% specific for considering surgical intervention in patients presenting with acute abdomen. Plasma PCT (value >5 ng/mL) could be used as an adjunct to clinical examination to predict requirement of surgery in patients presenting with acute abdomen. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. Normal sonographic anatomy of the abdomen of coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rejane G; Costa, Ana Paula A; Bragato, Nathália; Fonseca, Angela M; Duque, Juan C M; Prado, Tales D; Silva, Andrea C R; Borges, Naida C

    2013-06-23

    The use of ultrasound in veterinary medicine is widespread as a diagnostic supplement in the clinical routine of small animals, but there are few reports in wild animals. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomy, topography and abdominal sonographic features of coatis. The urinary bladder wall measured 0.11 ± 0.03 cm. The symmetrical kidneys were in the left and right cranial quadrant of the abdomen and the cortical, medullary and renal pelvis regions were recognized and in all sections. The medullary rim sign was visualized in the left kidney of two coatis. The liver had homogeneous texture and was in the cranial abdomen under the rib cage. The gallbladder, rounded and filled with anechoic content was visualized in all coatis, to the right of the midline. The spleen was identified in the left cranial abdomen following the greater curvature of the stomach. The parenchyma was homogeneous and hyperechogenic compared to the liver and kidney cortex. The stomach was in the cranial abdomen, limited cranially by the liver and caudo-laterally by the spleen. The left adrenal glands of five coatis were seen in the cranial pole of the left kidney showing hypoechogenic parenchyma without distinction of cortex and medulla. The pancreas was visualized in only two coatis. The left ovary (0.92 cm x 0.56 cm) was visualized on a single coati in the caudal pole of the kidney. The uterus, right adrenal, right ovary and intestines were not visualized. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen of coatis may be accomplished by following the recommendations for dogs and cats. It is possible to evaluate the anatomical and topographical relationships of the abdominal organs together with the knowledge of the peculiarities of parenchymal echogenicity and echotexture of the viscera.

  6. Contrast enhancement in multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) of the abdomen: intraindividual comparison of contrast media containing 300 mg versus 370 mg iodine per ml

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrendt, F.F.; Mahnken, A.H.; Keil, S.; Das, M.; Hohl, C.; Guenther, R.W.; Muehlenbruch, G.; Bauer, D.; Seidensticker, P.; Jost, E.; Wildberger, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to intraindividually evaluate the difference in intraluminal vessel and parenchyma contrast enhancement of two different iodine concentrations in multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) of the abdomen. Eighty-three patients underwent baseline and follow-up MDCT-scanning (Somatom Sensation 16; Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) of the abdomen using contrast media containing 370 mg iodine/ml (protocol A; Ultravist 370, Bayer Schering Pharma, Berlin, Germany) and 300 mg iodine/ml (protocol B; Ultravist 300). The total iodine load (37 g iodine) and the iodine delivery rate (1.29 g iodine/s) were identical for both protocols. Contrast enhancement in the portal venous phase was measured in the abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava, portal vein, liver, spleen, pancreas and kidney. Mean attenuation values were compared using paired t-test. Intraindividual comparison revealed no statistically significant differences of the mean attenuation values between protocols A and B for all anatomic sites: abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava, portal vein, liver, spleen, pancreas and kidney (all P > 0.05). Given an injection protocol with constant total iodine load and constant iodine delivery rate, the iodine concentration of contrast media does not significantly influence abdominal contrast enhancement in the portal venous phase. (orig.)

  7. Laparostomy management using the ABThera™ open abdomen negative pressure therapy system in a grade IV open abdomen secondary to acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, James E F; Gupta, Shradha; Masterson, Sarah; Sigurdsson, Helgi H

    2013-04-01

    Wound control in laparostomy for the treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension remains challenging and numerous techniques have been described. We report the first UK experience with a new commercially available device specifically designed to facilitate management of the open abdomen. A 44-year-old gentleman presented with a 3-day history of constant severe epigastric pain and associated vomiting. Amylase was markedly elevated and he was admitted for supportive management of pancreatitis, with subsequent transfer to intensive care due to severe systemic inflammatory syndrome. The patient decompensated, developing intra-abdominal hypertension with renal and respiratory failure. This was successfully managed by performing a laparostomy and using an ABThera™ Open Abdomen Negative Pressure Therapy System (KCI, San Antonio, TX). We describe its use to facilitate wound control, including enteroatmospheric fistula, allowing granulation and eventual restoration of gastrointestinal continuity 383-days after admission. We found the ABThera™ System proved to be a useful treatment adjunct, protecting intra-abdominal contents while removing large volumes of exudate and infected material from within the abdominal cavity. Complex cases such as this remain infrequent and this article provides a summary of our experience, including a review of indications for laparostomy and the underlying basic science in this difficult area. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  8. A Study of Physicochemical Properties of Subcutaneous Fat of the Abdomen and its Implication in Abdominal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Pramod; Kodavoor, Srinivas Aithal; Kotian, Sushma Rama; Yathdaka, Sudhakar Narahari; Nayak, Dayanand; Souza, Anne D; Souza, Antony Sylvan D

    2016-05-01

    The lower abdominal obesity is more resistant to absorption as compared to that of upper abdomen. Differences in the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of the upper and lower abdomen may be responsible for this variation. There is paucity of the scientific literature on the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of abdomen. The present study was undertaken to create a database of physicochemical properties of abdominal subcutaneous fat. The samples of subcutaneous fat from upper and lower abdomen were collected from 40 fresh autopsied bodies (males 33, females 7). The samples were prepared for physicochemical analysis using organic and inorganic solvents. Various physicochemical properties of the fat samples analysed were surface tension, viscosity, specific gravity, specific conductivity, iodine value and thermal properties. Data was analysed by paired and independent sample t-tests. There was a statistically significant difference in all the physicochemical parameters between males and females except surface tension (organic) and surface tension (inorganic) of upper abdominal fat, and surface tension (organic) of lower abdominal fat. In males, viscosity of upper abdominal fat was more compared to that of lower abdomen (both organic and inorganic) unlike the specific conductivity that was higher for the lower abdominal fat as compared to that of the upper abdomen. In females there were statistically significant higher values of surface tension (inorganic) and specific gravity (organic) of the upper abdomen fat as compared to that of lower abdomen. The initial and final weight loss of the lower abdominal fat as indicated by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was significantly more in males than in female. The difference in the physicochemical properties of subcutaneous fat between upper and lower abdomen and between males and females could be responsible for the variant behaviour of subcutaneous abdominal fat towards resorption.

  9. Role of computed tomography of abdomen in difficult to diagnose typhoid fever: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Wajid; Rajalakshmi, S; Sripriya, S; Madhu Bashini, M

    2018-04-01

    Background and Aim Diagnosis of typhoid is challenging when blood cultures fail to isolate Salmonella species. We report our experience with interpreting computed tomography (CT) abdomen findings in a case series of typhoid fever. Methods The case series consisted of patients who had a CT abdomen done as part of their investigations and a final diagnosis of typhoid fever. The CT films were reviewed and findings evaluated for distinctive features. Results During 2011-2017, 11 patients met the inclusion criteria. Indication for CT was pyrexia of unknown origin in the majority of patients. Review of CT films revealed mesenteric lymphadenopathy (100%), terminal ileum thickening (85%), hepatosplenomegaly (45%), retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy (18%) and ascites (9%). Conclusions Enhancing discrete mesenteric lymphadenopathy and terminal ileum thickening are non-specific findings noted in typhoid fever. Absence of matted necrotic nodes and peritoneal thickening rule out tuberculosis and raise suspicion of typhoid fever in endemic regions.

  10. Splenic rupture following idiopathic rupture of the urinary bladder presenting as acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurisic D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic rupture of the urinary bladder is an uncommon condition and represents less than 1% of all bladder rupture cases. In most of the cases the main etiological factor was heavy alcohol ingestion. A combined injury of the spleen and bladder is a very rare condition that is almost often associated with trauma and foreign bodies. In this paper we present the extremely rare clinical course of acute abdomen caused by a combined spontaneous intraperitoneal injury; spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder and spleen. According to our opinion, spontaneous bladder rupture caused by bladder distension due to alcohol ingestion led to urinary ascites and abdominal distension. Finally, repeated minor abdominal blunt trauma during everyday life, to a moderately distended abdomen caused a spontaneous splenic rupture in the patient with abnormal coagulation studies.

  11. Definitive identification of magnetite nanoparticles in the abdomen of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desoil, M [Biological Physics Department, University of Mons-Hainaut (Belgium); Gillis, P [Biological Physics Department, University of Mons-Hainaut (Belgium); Gossuin, Y [Biological Physics Department, University of Mons-Hainaut (Belgium); Pankhurst, Q A [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1E 7HN (United Kingdom); Hautot, D [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1E 7HN (United Kingdom); Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Thornburrow Drive, Hartshill, Stoke-en-Trent, ST4 7QB (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    The biogenic magnetic properties of the honeybee Apis mellifera were investigated with a view to understanding the bee's physiological response to magnetic fields. The magnetisations of bee abdomens on one hand, and heads and thoraxes on the other hand, were measured separately as functions of temperature and field. Both the antiferromagnetic responses of the ferrihydrite cores of the iron storage protein ferritin, and the ferrimagnetic responses of nanoscale magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) particles, were observed. Relatively large magnetite particles (ca. 30 nm or more), capable of retaining a remanent magnetisation at room temperature, were found in the abdomens, but were absent in the heads and thoraxes. In both samples, more than 98% of the iron atoms were due to ferritin.

  12. The Clinical anatomy of the physical examination of the abdomen: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Voin, Vlad; Topale, Nitsa; Iwanaga, Joe; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-04-01

    Physical examination of the abdomen is an essential skill. Knowledge of its clinical anatomy and application is vital for making diagnoses. Misinterpretation of anatomy during examination can have serious consequences. This review addresses understanding of the anatomy, methodology, and complications of abdominal physical examination. It includes particular reference to modern technology and investigations. Physical examination is performed for diagnostic purposes. However, the art of physical examination is declining as more and more clinicians rely on newer technology. This can have regrettable consequences: negligence, waste of time and resources, and deterioration of clinical skills. With a sound knowledge of clinical anatomy, and realization of the importance of physical examination of the abdomen, clinician, and patients alike can benefit. Clin. Anat. 30:352-356, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Mechanical response of the herniated human abdomen to the placement of different prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Gascón, Belén; Peña, Estefanía; Grasa, Jorge; Pascual, Gemma; Bellón, Juan M; Calvo, Begoña

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes a method designed to model the repaired herniated human abdomen just after surgery and examine its static mechanical response to the maximum intra-abdominal pressure provoked by a physiological movement (standing cough). The model is based on the real geometry of the human abdomen bearing a large incisional hernia with several anatomical structures differentiated by MRI. To analyze the outcome of hernia repair, the surgical procedure was simulated by modeling a prosthesis placed over the hernia. Three surgical meshes with different mechanical properties were considered: an isotropic heavy-weight mesh (Surgipro®), a slightly anisotropic light-weight mesh (Optilene®), and a highly anisotropic medium-weight mesh (Infinit®). Our findings confirm that anisotropic implants need to be positioned such that the most compliant axis of the mesh coincides with the craneo-caudal direction of the body.

  14. Entrance doses during lateral lumbar spine and antero-posterior abdomen examinations: generator waveform dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, G.D.; Underwood, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    In North Trent, UK, an entrance dose survey of lateral lumbar spine and antero-posterior (AP) abdomen examinations has been carried out in 17 radiology departments. The survey comprised 294 lateral lumbar spine and 322 AP abdomen entrance dose measurements. The mean entrance doses were found to be approximately half of the relevant national reference entrance dose levels of 30 mGy and 10 mGy, respectively. The effect of generator waveform on entrance dose was studied by separating the generators into two types: ''pulsating potential'' (PP) generators and ''constant potential'' (CP) generators for each examination. PP generators comprised 23% of the total number of examinations. The mean entrance dose and radiographic exposure factors from CP generators were found to be significantly lower than those from PP generators. The use of CP type generators, together with low attenuation components can significantly reduce patient entrance doses for these examinations. (author)

  15. Definitive identification of magnetite nanoparticles in the abdomen of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoil, M.; Gillis, P.; Gossuin, Y.; Pankhurst, Q. A.; Hautot, D.

    2005-01-01

    The biogenic magnetic properties of the honeybee Apis mellifera were investigated with a view to understanding the bee's physiological response to magnetic fields. The magnetisations of bee abdomens on one hand, and heads and thoraxes on the other hand, were measured separately as functions of temperature and field. Both the antiferromagnetic responses of the ferrihydrite cores of the iron storage protein ferritin, and the ferrimagnetic responses of nanoscale magnetite (Fe3O4) particles, were observed. Relatively large magnetite particles (ca. 30 nm or more), capable of retaining a remanent magnetisation at room temperature, were found in the abdomens, but were absent in the heads and thoraxes. In both samples, more than 98% of the iron atoms were due to ferritin.

  16. Definitive identification of magnetite nanoparticles in the abdomen of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desoil, M; Gillis, P; Gossuin, Y; Pankhurst, Q A; Hautot, D

    2005-01-01

    The biogenic magnetic properties of the honeybee Apis mellifera were investigated with a view to understanding the bee's physiological response to magnetic fields. The magnetisations of bee abdomens on one hand, and heads and thoraxes on the other hand, were measured separately as functions of temperature and field. Both the antiferromagnetic responses of the ferrihydrite cores of the iron storage protein ferritin, and the ferrimagnetic responses of nanoscale magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) particles, were observed. Relatively large magnetite particles (ca. 30 nm or more), capable of retaining a remanent magnetisation at room temperature, were found in the abdomens, but were absent in the heads and thoraxes. In both samples, more than 98% of the iron atoms were due to ferritin

  17. Acute Abdomen Due to Uncontrolled Use of Warfarin: Spontaneous Intra-abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Dal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant, which is commonly used in the treatment and prophylaxis of thromboembolic conditions. Bleeding is the primary adverse effect associated with warfarin. The majority of warfarin-related bleedings are spontaneous minor hemorrhages occurring in the subcutaneous or intramuscular tissues and can be treated by decreasing the dose of oral anticoagulants. However, although rare, it is possible to encounter spontaneous major bleedings with increased risk of mortality. Conservative approach is the preferred initial therapy for hemodynamically stable patients with major intra-abdominal hemorrhages that we define as the intermediate group patients. Nevertheless, surgery is required for hemodynamically unstable patients with acute abdominal pain in cases of ongoing active hemorrhage, generalized peritonitis, obstruction, acute abdomen, intestinal ischemia, and perforation. In this article, we present a rare case of acute abdomen and spontaneous intra-abdominal hemorrhage resulting from uncontrolled use of warfarin and a new classification requirement.

  18. Lymphangioma of the jejunal mesentery and jejunal polyps presenting as an acute abdomen in a teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasundara, Jasb; Perera, E; Chandu de Silva, M V; Pathirana, A A

    2017-03-01

    Cystic lymphangioma of the small bowel mesentery is a rare clinical entity, especially after childhood. Medical literature reveals a limited number of such cases presenting as acute abdomen due to bowel obstruction, small bowel volvulus and bleeding into the tumour. We present the management experience of an 18-year-old woman who presented with rapid onset diffuse peritonism and raised inflammatory markers. Computed tomography showed a mass in the small bowel mesentery with suspicion of segmental bowel ischaemia. Emergency laparotomy revealed a mass in the mid-jejunal mesentery close to the bowel wall with no bowel ischaemia. The patient made an uncomplicated recovery after segmental bowel resection and end-to-end anastomosis. Histology confirmed the mass as a cystic lymphangioma involving the jejunal mesentery and two small jejunal polyps. Lymphangioma could be considered in the differential diagnosis of an acute abdomen in a young adult when the presentation is atypical.

  19. Analysis of the computed tomography in the acute abdomen; Analise da tomografia computadorizada no abdome agudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochhegger, Bruno [Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Moraes, Everton [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil); Haygert, Carlos Jesus Pereira; Antunes, Paulo Sergio Pase [Hospital Universitario de Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Gazzoni, Fernando [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Porto Alegre (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital Sao Lucas; Andrade, Rubens Gabriel Feijo [Fundacao Universitaria de Cardiologia de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Cardiologia; Bueno, Leticia Rossi [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Lopes, Luis Felipe Dias [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Estatistica]. E-mail: brunorgs@pop.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Introduction: This study tends to test the capacity of the computed tomography in assist in the diagnosis and the approach of the acute abdomen. Material and method: This is a longitudinal and prospective study, in which were analyzed the patients with the diagnosis of acute abdomen. There were obtained 105 cases of acute abdomen and after the application of the exclusions criteria were included 28 patients in the study. Results: Computed tomography changed the diagnostic hypothesis of the physicians in 50% of the cases (p < 0.05), and the confidence index in 85.71% of the cases (p 0.014). Computed tomography also altered the management in 46.43% of the cases (p > 0.05), where 78.57% of the patients had surgical indication before computed tomography and 67.86% after computed tomography (p = 0.0546). The index of accurate diagnosis of computed tomography, when compared to the anatomopathologic examination and the final diagnosis, was observed in 82.14% of the cases (p = 0.013). When the analysis was done dividing the patients in surgical and nonsurgical group, were obtained an accuracy of 89.28% (p 0.0001). The difference of 7.2 days of hospitalization (p = 0.003) was obtained compared with the mean of the acute abdomen without use the computed tomography. Conclusion: The computed tomography is correlative with the anatomopathology and has great accuracy in the surgical indication, associated with the capacity of increase the confident index of the physicians, reduces the hospitalization time, reduces the number of surgeries and is cost-effective. (author)

  20. Peritoneal cavity lavage reduces the presence of mitochondrial damage associated molecular patterns in open abdomen patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Quinones, Patricia A; McCarthy, Cameron G; Mentzer, Caleb J; Wenceslau, Camilla F; Holsten, Steven B; Webb, R Clinton; O'Malley, Keith

    2017-12-01

    Mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns (mtDAMPs), such as mitochondrial DNA and N-formylated peptides, are endogenous molecules released from tissue after traumatic injury. mtDAMPs are potent activators of the innate immune system. They have similarities with bacteria, which allow mtDAMPs to interact with the same pattern recognition receptors and mediate the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Current recommendations for management of an open abdomen include returning to the operating room every 48 hours for peritoneal cavity lavage until definitive procedure. These patients are often critically ill and develop SIRS. We hypothesized that mitochondrial DAMPs are present in the peritoneal cavity fluid in this setting, and that they accumulate in the interval between washouts. We conducted a prospective pilot study of critically ill adult patients undergoing open abdomen management in the surgical and trauma intensive care units. Peritoneal fluid was collected daily from 10 open abdomen patients. Specimens were analyzed via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), via enzyme immunoassay for DNAse activity and via Western blot analysis for the ND6 subunit of the NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase, an N-formylated peptide. We observed a reduction in the expression of ND6 the day after lavage of the peritoneal cavity, that was statistically different from the days with no lavage (% change in ND6 expression, postoperative from washout: -50 ± 11 vs. no washout day, 42 ± 9; p abdomen. It is possible that increased frequency of peritoneal cavity lavage may lead to decreased systemic absorption of mtDAMPs, thereby reducing the risk of SIRS. Prospective study, Case Series, Level V.

  1. The role of US examination in the management of acute abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Guerrini, Susanna; Cioffi Squitieri, Nevada; Cagini, Lucio; Macarini, Luca; Coppolino, Francesco; Giganti, Melchiore; Volterrani, Luca

    2013-07-15

    Acute abdomen is a medical emergency, in which there is sudden and severe pain in abdomen of recent onset with accompanying signs and symptoms that focus on an abdominal involvement. It can represent a wide spectrum of conditions, ranging from a benign and self-limiting disease to a surgical emergency. Nevertheless, only one quarter of patients who have previously been classified with an acute abdomen actually receive surgical treatment, so the clinical dilemma is if the patients need surgical treatment or not and, furthermore, in which cases the surgical option needs to be urgently adopted. Due to this reason a thorough and logical approach to the diagnosis of abdominal pain is necessary. Some Authors assert that the location of pain is a useful starting point and will guide a further evaluation. However some causes are more frequent in the paediatric population (like appendicitis or adenomesenteritis) or are strictly related to the gender (i.e. gynaechologic causes). It is also important to consider special populations such as the elderly or oncologic patients, who may present with atypical symptoms of a disease. These considerations also reflect a different diagnostic approach. Today, surely the integrated imaging, and in particular the use of multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) has revolutionised the clinical approach to this condition, simplyfing the diagnosis but burdening the radiologists with the problems related to the clinical management. However although CT emerging as a modality of choice for evaluation of the acute abdomen, ultrasonography (US) remains the primary imaging technique in the majority of cases, especially in young and female patients, when the limitation of the radiation exposure should be mandatory, limiting the use of CT in cases of nondiagnostic US and in all cases where there is a discrepancy between the clinical symptoms and negative imaging at US.

  2. Acute abdomen and ascites as presenting features of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Qian, Qi

    2012-01-01

    We describe a patient with sudden onset of abdominal pain and ascites, leading to the diagnosis of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Her presentation was consistent with acute liver cyst rupture as the cause of her acute illness. A review of literature on polycystic liver disease in patients with ADPKD and current management strategies are presented. This case alerts physicians that ADPKD could occasionally present as an acute abdomen; cyst rupture related to ADPKD may be ...

  3. Acute abdomen: An unusual presentation of disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection

    OpenAIRE

    George I; Sudarsanam T; Pulimood A; Mathews M

    2008-01-01

    Varied clinical presentations of Penicillium marneffei , an opportunistic pathogen in HIV disease has been rarely described in literature. We report a patient with advanced AIDS who presented to us with prolonged fever and had features of an acute abdomen. On radiologic imaging he had features of intestinal obstruction and mesenteric lymphadenitis. A diagnosis was made possible by endoscopic biopsies of the small bowel and bone marrow culture which grew P . Marneffei . He was treated with ...

  4. Role of Definitive Radiation Therapy in Carcinoma of Unknown Primary in the Abdomen and Pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Patrick; Das, Prajnan; Varadhachary, Gauri R.; Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Krishnan, Sunil; Delclos, Marc E.; Jhingran, Anuja; Eifel, Patricia J.; Crane, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) in the abdomen and pelvis is a heterogeneous group of cancers with no standard treatment. Considered by many to be incurable, these patients are often treated with chemotherapy alone. In this study, we determined the effectiveness of radiation therapy in combination with chemotherapy in patients with CUP in the abdomen and pelvis. Patients and Methods: Medical records were reviewed for 37 patients with CUP treated with radiation therapy for disease located in the soft tissues and/or nodal basins of the abdomen and pelvis at University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer between 2002 and 2009. All patients underwent chemotherapy, either before or concurrent with radiation therapy. Patients were selected for radiation therapy on the basis of histologic type, disease extent, and prior therapy response. Twenty patients underwent definitive radiation therapy (defined as radiation therapy targeting all known disease sites with at least 45 Gy) and 17 patients underwent palliative radiation therapy. Only 6 patients had surgical resection of their disease. Patient and treatment characteristics were extracted and the endpoints of local disease control, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and treatment-related toxicity incidence were analyzed. Results: The 2-year PFS and OS rates for the entire cohort were 32% and 57%, respectively. However, in patients treated with definitive radiation therapy, the rates were 48% and 76%, and 7 patients lived more than 3 years after treatment with no evidence of disease progression. Nevertheless, radiation-associated toxicity was significant in this cohort, as 40% experienced Grade 2 or higher late toxicities. Conclusions: The use of definitive radiation therapy should be considered in selected patients with CUP in the soft tissues or nodal basins of the abdomen and pelvis.

  5. Necrotizing myofasciitis: an atypical cause of ''acute abdomen'' in an immunocompromised child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, L.F.; Frush, D.P.; O'Hara, S.M.; Bisset, G.S. III

    1998-01-01

    We report the case of an immunocompromised 15-year-old boy who presented with symptoms mimicking an ''acute abdomen'' related to necrotizing myofasciitis of the anterior abdominal wall. CT demonstrated the abdominal wall process as the cause of the patient's symptoms and sonographically guided aspiration confirmed the diagnosis. Despite prompt diagnosis and aggressive surgical debridement, the infection continued to progress and the patient died within 24 h of presentation. (orig.)

  6. Blunt liver injury with intact ribs under impacts on the abdomen: a biomechanical investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Shao

    Full Text Available Abdominal trauma accounts for nearly 20% of all severe traffic injuries and can often result from intentional physical violence, from which blunt liver injury is regarded as the most common result and is associated with a high mortality rate. Liver injury may be caused by a direct impact with a certain velocity and energy on the abdomen, which may result in a lacerated liver by penetration of fractured ribs. However, liver ruptures without rib cage fractures were found in autopsies in a series of cases. All the victims sustained punches on the abdomen by fist. Many studies have been dedicated to determining the mechanism underlying hepatic injury following abdominal trauma, but most have been empirical. The actual process and biomechanism of liver injury induced by blunt impact on the abdomen, especially with intact ribs remained, are still inexhaustive. In order to investigate this, finite element methods and numerical simulation technology were used. A finite element human torso model was developed from high resolution CT data. The model consists of geometrically-detailed liver and rib cage models and simplified models of soft tissues, thoracic and abdominal organs. Then, the torso model was used in simulations in which the right hypochondrium was punched by a fist from the frontal, lateral, and rear directions, and in each direction with several impact velocities. Overall, the results showed that liver rupture was primarily caused by a direct strike of the ribs induced by blunt impact to the abdomen. Among three impact directions, a lateral impact was most likely to cause liver injury with a minimum punch speed of 5 m/s (the momentum was about 2.447 kg.m/s. Liver injuries could occur in isolation and were not accompanied by rib fractures due to different material characteristics and injury tolerance.

  7. Bilateral ovarian teratoma presenting with a clinical picture of acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Rocchietti March

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 30-year-old patient with bilateral mature cystic teratoma (MCT of the ovaries. The patient had been complaining of mild abdominal pain for several months that had suddenly become severe. Early diagnosis at the emergency room was acute appendicitis, but definitive diagnosis was bilateral ovarian teratoma. We therefore recommend considering ovarian teratomas in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in young women in an emergency care setting.

  8. Intrarectal negative pressure system in the management of open abdomen with colorectal fistula: A case report☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetişir, Fahri; Salman, A. Ebru; Mamedov, Ruslan; Aksoy, Mustafa; Yalcin, Abdussamet; Kayaalp, Cüneyt

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION To present the management of open abdomen with colorectal fistula by application of intrarectal negative pressure system (NPS) in addition to abdominal NPS. PRESENTATION OF CASE Twenty-year old man had a history of injuries by a close-range gunshot to the abdomen eight days ago and he had been treated by bowel repairs, resections, jejunal anastomosis and Hartman's procedure. He was referred to our center after deterioration, evisceration with open abdomen and enteric fistula in septic shock. There were edematous, fibrinous bowels and large multiple fistulas from the edematous rectal stump. APACHE II, Mannheim Peritoneal Index and Björck scores were 18, 33 and 3, respectively (expected mortality 100%). After intensive care for 5 days, he was treated by abdominal and intrarectal NPS. NPS repeated for 5 times and the fistula was recovered on day 18 completely. Fascial closure was facilitated with a dynamic abdominal closure system (ABRA) and he was discharged on day 33 uneventfully. There was no herniation and any other problem after 12 months follow-up. DISCUSSION Management of fistula in OA can be extremely challenging. Floating stoma, fistula VAC, nipple VAC, ring and silo VAC, fistula intubation systems are used for isolation of the enteric effluent from OA. Several biologic dressings such as acellular dermal matrix, pedicled flaps have been used to seal the fistula opening with various success. Resection of the involved enteric loop and a new anastomosis of the intestine is very hard and rarely possible. In all of these reports, usually patients are left to heal with a giant hernia. In contrast to this, there is no hernia in our case during one year follow up period. CONCLUSION Combination of intra and extra luminal negative pressure systems and ABRA is a safe and successful method to manage open abdomen with colorectal fistula. PMID:24584042

  9. Intrarectal negative pressure system in the management of open abdomen with colorectal fistula: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetişir, Fahri; Salman, A Ebru; Mamedov, Ruslan; Aksoy, Mustafa; Yalcin, Abdussamet; Kayaalp, Cüneyt

    2014-01-01

    To present the management of open abdomen with colorectal fistula by application of intrarectal negative pressure system (NPS) in addition to abdominal NPS. Twenty-year old man had a history of injuries by a close-range gunshot to the abdomen eight days ago and he had been treated by bowel repairs, resections, jejunal anastomosis and Hartman's procedure. He was referred to our center after deterioration, evisceration with open abdomen and enteric fistula in septic shock. There were edematous, fibrinous bowels and large multiple fistulas from the edematous rectal stump. APACHE II, Mannheim Peritoneal Index and Björck scores were 18, 33 and 3, respectively (expected mortality 100%). After intensive care for 5 days, he was treated by abdominal and intrarectal NPS. NPS repeated for 5 times and the fistula was recovered on day 18 completely. Fascial closure was facilitated with a dynamic abdominal closure system (ABRA) and he was discharged on day 33 uneventfully. There was no herniation and any other problem after 12 months follow-up. Management of fistula in OA can be extremely challenging. Floating stoma, fistula VAC, nipple VAC, ring and silo VAC, fistula intubation systems are used for isolation of the enteric effluent from OA. Several biologic dressings such as acellular dermal matrix, pedicled flaps have been used to seal the fistula opening with various success. Resection of the involved enteric loop and a new anastomosis of the intestine is very hard and rarely possible. In all of these reports, usually patients are left to heal with a giant hernia. In contrast to this, there is no hernia in our case during one year follow up period. Combination of intra and extra luminal negative pressure systems and ABRA is a safe and successful method to manage open abdomen with colorectal fistula. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical course of Crohn's disease first diagnosed at surgery for acute abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latella, G; Cocco, A; Angelucci, E; Viscido, A; Bacci, S; Necozione, S; Caprilli, R

    2009-04-01

    The severity of clinical activity of Crohn's disease is high during the first year after diagnosis and decreases thereafter. Approximately 50% of patients require steroids and immunosuppressants and 75% need surgery during their lifetime. The clinical course of patients with Crohn's disease first diagnosed at surgery has never been investigated. To assess the clinical course of Crohn's disease first diagnosed at surgery for acute abdomen and to evaluate the need for medical and surgical treatment in this subset of patients. Hospital clinical records of 490 consecutive Crohn's disease patients were reviewed. Patients were classified according to the Vienna criteria. Sex, extraintestinal manifestations, family history of inflammatory bowel diseases, appendectomy, smoking habit and medical/surgical treatments performed during the follow-up period were assessed. Kaplan-Meier survival method and Cox proportional hazards regression model. Of the 490 Crohn's disease patients, 115 had diagnosis of Crohn's disease at surgery for acute abdomen (Group A) and 375 by conventional clinical, radiological, endoscopic and histologic criteria (Group B). Patients in Group A showed a low risk of further surgery (Log Rank test pacute abdomen showed a low risk for reintervention and less use of steroids and immunosuppressants during follow-up than those not operated upon at diagnosis. Early surgery may represent a valid approach in the initial management of patients with Crohn's disease, at least in the subset of patients with ileal and complicated disease.

  11. Dose estimation in CT exams of the abdomen based on values of DLP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuti, C.F.; Medeiros, R.B.; Salvadori, P.S.; Costa, D.M.C; D'lppolito, G.

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenges of multidetector computerized tomography is to minimize the risk of ionizing radiation using optimized protocols since higher doses are necessary to obtain high image quality. It was also noted that, due to the geometry in image acquisition using MDCT becomes necessary to estimate dose values consistent with the hypothesis clinically and with the specificities of the tomographic equipment. The aim of this study was to estimate the doses in abdomen exams from the data recorded on the MDCT console and dimensions obtained from DICOM images of patients undergoing different clinical protocols. Were collected, from the image DICOM of 101 exams, values of the dose length product (DLP) provided by Philips Health Care - Brilliance 64 equipment console, in order to relate them with the dose values obtained by means of thermoluminescent dosimeters ( TLD ) of CasSo 4 :Mn placed on the surface of a cylindrical simulator abdomen acrylic manufactured under the technical - operational conditions for a typical abdomen exam. From the data obtained, it was possible to find a factor of 1.16 ( 5 % ) indicating that the DLP values Brilliance 64 console underestimate the doses and this should be used with correction factor to estimate the total dose of the patient. (author)

  12. Acute Abdomen in Diabetic Patients – Analysis of Complications and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejeu Dănuț

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. We aimed to analyze the complications and mortality of acute abdomen cases in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic patients. Materials and Method. This observational, retrospective, cohort study was conducted between 2008 - 2011, on a total of 4021 cases with acute abdomen admitted to the Surgical Ward I of the Clinical County Emergency Hospital Oradea. Of these, 488 were diabetic patients and 3533 non-diabetics. Results. Women represented the majority in both groups (62.24% respectively 58.40%. Entero-mesenteric infarction and acute pancreatitis were more common in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetics. Peritonitis was more frequent in non-diabetics, with statistically significant difference (p = 0.0003. In diabetic patients the postoperative morbidity was 36.27%, significantly higher than in non-diabetic patients (14.43%. The mortality was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in nondiabetics (9.84% vs. 5.38%. Average length of stay in Surgical Ward I is 3.8 days. For non-diabetic patients, mean hospitalization for acute abdomen was 5.1 days, and for diabetics 7.8 days. Conclusions. This study showed important differences between diabetics and non-diabetic patients in the clinical evolution, complications, mortality and length of hospitalization.

  13. Honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) swing abdomen to dissipate residual flying energy landing on a wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jieliang; Huang, He; Yan, Shaoze

    2017-03-01

    Whether for insects or for aircrafts, landing is one of the indispensable links in the verification of airworthiness safety. The mechanisms by which insects achieve a fast and stable landing remain unclear. An intriguing example is provided by honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica), which use the swinging motion of their abdomen to dissipate residual flying energy and to achieve a smooth, stable, and quick landing. By using a high-speed camera, we observed that touchdown is initiated by honeybees extending their front legs or antennae and then landing softly on a wall. After touchdown, they swing the rest of their bodies until all flying energy is dissipated. We suggested a simplified model with mass-spring dampers for the body of the honeybee and revealed the mechanism of flying energy transfer and dissipation in detail. Results demonstrate that body translation and abdomen swinging help honeybees dissipate residual flying energy and orchestrate smooth landings. The initial kinetic energy of flying is transformed into the kinetic energy of the abdomen's rotary movement. Then, the kinetic energy of rotary movement is converted into thermal energy during the swinging cycle. This strategy provides more insight into the mechanism of insect flying, which further inspires better design on aerial vehicle with better landing performance.

  14. MREIT conductivity imaging of the postmortem canine abdomen using CoReHA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Kiwan; Lee, Chang-Ock; Minhas, Atul S; Kim, Young Tae; Jeong, Woo Chul; Kim, Hyung Joong; Woo, Eung Je; Kang, Byeong Teck; Park, Hee Myung; Seo, Jin Keun

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a new bio-imaging modality providing cross-sectional conductivity images from measurements of internal magnetic flux densities produced by externally injected currents. Recent experimental results of postmortem and in vivo imaging of the canine brain demonstrated its feasibility by showing conductivity images with meaningful contrast among different brain tissues. MREIT image reconstructions involve a series of data processing steps such as k-space data handling, phase unwrapping, image segmentation, meshing, modelling, finite element computation, denoising and so on. To facilitate experimental studies, we need a software tool that automates these data processing steps. In this paper, we summarize such an MREIT software package called CoReHA (conductivity reconstructor using harmonic algorithms). Performing imaging experiments of the postmortem canine abdomen, we demonstrate how CoReHA can be utilized in MREIT. The abdomen with a relatively large field of view and various organs imposes new technical challenges when it is chosen as an imaging domain. Summarizing a few improvements in the experimental MREIT technique, we report our first conductivity images of the postmortem canine abdomen. Illustrating reconstructed conductivity images, we discuss how they discern different organs including the kidney, spleen, stomach and small intestine. We elaborate, as an example, that conductivity images of the kidney show clear contrast among cortex, internal medulla, renal pelvis and urethra. We end this paper with a brief discussion on future work using different animal models

  15. Delayed rupture of thoracic aorta aneurysm following a kick to the abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Antonio; De Giorgio, Fabio; Partemi, Sara; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Carbone, Arnaldo

    2009-03-01

    Several theories have been proposed to explain the Blunt Traumatic Aortic Rupture (BTAR) because different mechanical forces act on the aorta, at anatomically susceptible sites, including shearing, torsion and stretching, but the origin, transduction and relative importance of these forces remain uncertain. We report a case of a 74-year-old man injured by a kick to the abdomen. After 2 days he felt chest pain paroxysm and weakness in his left leg. The patient was admitted to an emergency care department where he experienced sudden and severe hemodynamic deterioration, dying rapidly. The autopsy, performed 3 days later, showed haemorragic infarction of hypogastric subcutaneous tissues and revealed an extended dissecting aneurysm of the thoracic aorta with following haemopericardium. In our case we considered that a low energy compression to the abdomen, in presence of underlying atherosclerosis, caused aortic dissection rather than rupture and then the 48h time span after the traumatic event and the cardiac tamponade was enough to complete the aortic retrograde dissection. We finally emphasise the importance of the careful surveillance of any trauma close to the abdomen in view of initially unpredictable, as well as eventful injuries. The finding of early signs of neointima formation in thoracoabdominal portions of aortic dissection strongly supported our interpretation. The forensic interest of this case is correlated to the voluntary character of the inflicted injury. The culprit was thus charged with manslaughter.

  16. Abdomen - swollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a serious medical problem) Gas in the intestines from eating foods that are high in fiber (such as fruits and vegetables) Irritable bowel syndrome Lactose intolerance Ovarian cyst Partial bowel blockage Pregnancy ...

  17. SU-E-I-48: The Behavior of AEC in Scan Regions Outside the Localizer Radiograph FOV: An In Phantom Study of CT Systems From Four Vendors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supanich, M [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Bevins, N [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This review of scanners from 4 major manufacturers examines the clinical impact of performing CT scans that extend into areas of the body that were not acquired in the CT localizer radiograph. Methods: Anthropomorphic chest and abdomen phantoms were positioned together on the tables of CT scanners from 4 different vendors. All of the scanners offered an Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) option with both lateral and axial tube current modulation. A localizer radiograph was taken covering the entire extent of both phantoms and then the scanner's Chest-Abdomen-Pelvis (CAP) study was performed with the clinical AEC settings employed and the scan and reconstruction range extending from the superior portion of the chest phantom through the inferior portion of the abdomen phantom. A new study was then initiated with a localizer radiograph extending the length of the chest phantom (not covering the abdomen phantom). The same CAP protocol and AEC settings were then used to scan and reconstruct the entire length of both phantoms. Scan parameters at specific locations in the abdomen phantom from both studies were investigated using the information contained in the DICOM metadata of the reconstructed images. Results: The AEC systems on all scanners utilized different tube current settings in the abdomen phantom for the scan completed without the full localizer radiograph. The AEC system behavior was also scanner dependent with the default manual tube current, the maximum tube current and the tube current at the last known position observed as outcomes. Conclusion: The behavior of the AEC systems of CT scanners in regions not covered by the localizer radiograph is vendor dependent. To ensure optimal image quality and radiation exposure it is important to include the entire planned scan region in the localizer radiograph.

  18. SU-E-I-48: The Behavior of AEC in Scan Regions Outside the Localizer Radiograph FOV: An In Phantom Study of CT Systems From Four Vendors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supanich, M; Bevins, N

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This review of scanners from 4 major manufacturers examines the clinical impact of performing CT scans that extend into areas of the body that were not acquired in the CT localizer radiograph. Methods: Anthropomorphic chest and abdomen phantoms were positioned together on the tables of CT scanners from 4 different vendors. All of the scanners offered an Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) option with both lateral and axial tube current modulation. A localizer radiograph was taken covering the entire extent of both phantoms and then the scanner's Chest-Abdomen-Pelvis (CAP) study was performed with the clinical AEC settings employed and the scan and reconstruction range extending from the superior portion of the chest phantom through the inferior portion of the abdomen phantom. A new study was then initiated with a localizer radiograph extending the length of the chest phantom (not covering the abdomen phantom). The same CAP protocol and AEC settings were then used to scan and reconstruct the entire length of both phantoms. Scan parameters at specific locations in the abdomen phantom from both studies were investigated using the information contained in the DICOM metadata of the reconstructed images. Results: The AEC systems on all scanners utilized different tube current settings in the abdomen phantom for the scan completed without the full localizer radiograph. The AEC system behavior was also scanner dependent with the default manual tube current, the maximum tube current and the tube current at the last known position observed as outcomes. Conclusion: The behavior of the AEC systems of CT scanners in regions not covered by the localizer radiograph is vendor dependent. To ensure optimal image quality and radiation exposure it is important to include the entire planned scan region in the localizer radiograph

  19. Brain PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results on a PET scan. Blood sugar or insulin levels may affect the test results in people with diabetes . PET scans may be done along with a CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. Alternative Names Brain positron emission tomography; PET scan - brain References Chernecky ...

  20. Heart PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  1. Open abdomen procedure in managing abdominal compartment syndrome in a child with severe fungal peritonitis and sepsis after gastric perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome with increased abdominal pressure resulted in multi-organ dysfunctions can be lethal in children. The open abdomen procedure intentionally leaves the abdominal cavity open in patients with severe abdominal sepsis and abdominal compartment syndrome by temporarily relieving the abdominal pressure. We reported our experience of open abdomen procedure in successfully treating a 4-year old boy with abdominal compartment syndrome caused by severe fungal peritonitis and sepsis after gastric perforation.

  2. Synthesis of a posterior indicator protein in normal embryos and double abdomens of Smittia sp. (Chironomidae, Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäckle, H; Kalthoff, K

    1980-01-01

    In embryos of the chironomid midge Smittia, synthesis of a posterior indicator protein designated PI1 (Mr approximately 50,000; pI approximately 5.5) forecasts development of an abdomen as opposed to head and thorax. The protein is synthesized several hours before germ anlage formation. In normal embryos at early blastoderm stages, synthesis of PI1 is restricted to posterior embryonic fragments but not to pole cells. In "double-abdomen" embryos, a mirror-image duplication of the abdomen is formed by cells that would otherwise develop into head and thorax. Embryos were programmed for double-abdomen development by UV irradiation of the anterior pole, and half of them were reprogrammed for normal development by subsequent exposure to visible light (photoreversal). Correspondingly, PI1 was synthesized in anterior fragments of UV-irradiated embryos but not after photoreversal. In a control experiment, UV irradiation of the posterior pole caused neither double-abdomen formation nor PI1 synthesis in anterior fragments. The identity of PI1 formed in anterior fragments of prospective double abdomens with the protein found in posterior fragments was revealed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and limited proteolysis. Suppression of PI1 synthesis in anterior fragments of normal embryos is ascribed to the activity of cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles thought to act as anterior determinants. Images PMID:6935679

  3. 18F-FDG PET as a single imaging modality in pediatric neuroblastoma. Comparison with abdomen CT and bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Jung; Hwang, Hee Sung; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Jeong, Yong Hyu; Cho, Arthur; Lee, Jae Hoon; Yun, Mijin; Lee, Jong Doo; Kang, Won Jun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) as a single imaging agent in neuroblastoma in comparison with other imaging modalities. A total of 30 patients with pathologically proven neuroblastoma who underwent FDG PET for staging were enrolled. Diagnostic performance of FDG PET and abdomen CT was compared in detecting soft tissue lesions. FDG PET and bone scintigraphy (BS) were compared in bone metastases. Maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of primary or recurrent lesions was calculated for quantitative analysis. Tumor FDG uptake was detected in 29 of 30 patients with primary neuroblastoma. On initial FDG PET, SUVmax of primary lesions were lower in early stage (I-II) than in late stage (III-IV) (3.03 vs. 5.45, respectively, p=0.019). FDG PET was superior to CT scan in detecting distant lymph nodes (23 vs. 18 from 23 lymph nodes). FDG PET showed higher accuracy to identify bone metastases than BS both on patient-based analyses (100 vs. 94.4% in sensitivity, 100 vs. 77.8% in specificity), and on lesion-based analyses (FDG PET: 203 lesions, BS: 86 lesions). Sensitivity and specificity of FDG PET to detect recurrence were 87.5% and 93.8, respectively. FDG PET was superior to CT in detecting distant LN metastasis and to BS in detecting skeletal metastasis in neuroblastoma. BS might be eliminated in the evaluation of neuroblastoma when FDG PET is performed. (author)

  4. Foetal death in utero: detection on 99Tc-labelled leucocytoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MsGennisken, M.R.; Salehi, N.; Jenkins, B.; Better, N.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: We present the case of a 26-year-old female from Nauru who presented with recent intermittent fever and vague abdominal pain, which had persisted despite antibiotics. Past history included aplastic anaemia and neutropenia. Ultrasound was not helpful and a labelled white blood cell scan was then organised. The patient''s white blood cells were labelled with 99 mTc tin colloid by the standard in vitro technique and whole body imaging as well as SPECT imaging of the abdomen was performed at five hours on a Siemen''s triple-headed camera. The study demonstrated increased white cell concentration on the right side of the pelvis anteriorly. Subsequent computed tomographic correlation suggested the uterus and right ovary as a potential source of infection. A gynaecological opinion was sought, and dilatation and curettage performed. This revealed infected foetal products. Following the curette and intravenous antibiotics, the patient''s health improved. The patient had denied pregnancy prior to the study. In retrospect, she confirmed irregular menstrual blood loss and weight gain over several months

  5. Foetal death in utero: detection on {sup 99}Tc-labelled leucocytoscintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MsGennisken, M.R.; Salehi, N.; Jenkins, B.; Better, N. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: We present the case of a 26-year-old female from Nauru who presented with recent intermittent fever and vague abdominal pain, which had persisted despite antibiotics. Past history included aplastic anaemia and neutropenia. Ultrasound was not helpful and a labelled white blood cell scan was then organised. The patient``s white blood cells were labelled with {sup 99}mTc tin colloid by the standard in vitro technique and whole body imaging as well as SPECT imaging of the abdomen was performed at five hours on a Siemen``s triple-headed camera. The study demonstrated increased white cell concentration on the right side of the pelvis anteriorly. Subsequent computed tomographic correlation suggested the uterus and right ovary as a potential source of infection. A gynaecological opinion was sought, and dilatation and curettage performed. This revealed infected foetal products. Following the curette and intravenous antibiotics, the patient``s health improved. The patient had denied pregnancy prior to the study. In retrospect, she confirmed irregular menstrual blood loss and weight gain over several months.

  6. Non Obstetric Causes and Presentation of Acute Abdomen among the Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Monoarul; Kamal, Farah; Chowdhury, Shahanaz; Uzzaman, Monir; Aziz, Itrat

    2014-09-01

    To identify the non-obstetric causes and presentation of acute abdomen among pregnant women. This was a cross sectional hospital-based study among 128 pregnant women by face to face interview using a semi-structured questionnaire. This study was conducted at the Gynecology & Obstetric Ward of 250 Bed General Hospital, Noakhali, Bangladesh, from January to August 2013. Data were analyzed by a software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS) version 11.5 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Mean age of participants was 25±4 years. Our findings showed that 81% were Muslim, 67% were lower middle income group, as well as 47% completed primary level of education. The results revealed that 28% had biliary ascariasis, 24% had peptic ulcer disease and 10% had lower urinary tract infection. We also found that 6% had acute pyelonephritis, 6% had acute gastroenteritis, 6% had acute cholecystitis, 6% had acute appendicitis, 2% had acute pancreatitis, 3% had choledocolithiasis, 2% had ovarian solid mass, 2% had twisted ovarian cyst, 4% had renal colic, and 1% had renal calculus. In non-obstetrical presentation of acute abdomen, the study found that 84% of respondents complained their pain lasting more than 24 hours. Besides, half of respondents felt pain in epigastrium and right hypochondrium. Cramping, prickling and aching type of pain were more, while 66% suffered from continuous pain. Our results also showed that 73% did not explain any aggravating factor and relieving factor, and the rest said food, fasting state and position change aggravated pain as well as relieved pain. The study concludes that precise diagnosis of the acute abdomen in pregnant women by continual updating of abdominal assessment knowledge, and clinical skills is necessary in the management of abdominal pain in obstetric settings.

  7. Pattern and presentation of acute abdomen in a Nigerian teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agboola, John Owoade; Olatoke, Samuel Adegboyega; Rahman, Ganiyu Abebisi

    2014-05-01

    Abdominal pain of sudden onset is the hallmark of most non-traumatic emergency surgical presentations. This presents a scenario of urgency to the young surgeon who has to determine which of a myriad of disease conditions the patient is presenting with. Such a physician has to rely on experience and a sound knowledge of the local aetiological spectrum in making a clinical diagnosis. To determine the epidemiology and aetiological spectrum of diseases presenting as acute abdomen in the adult population at the hospital surgical emergency unit. Two hundred and seventy-six patients presenting at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital emergency unit and managed by the general surgeons between 1(st) of May 2009 and 30(th) of April 2010 were recruited and followed-up throughout the period of admission. The biodata and clinical information inclusive of diagnosis, investigations, treatment modality and outcome were entered in a structured questioner. Standardised treatment was given to all patients and difficulties encountered in their management were also noted. The data collected was evaluated using SPSS16. Acute abdomen constituted 9.6% of total surgical emergency admissions with patients aged 16-45 years constituting 78.3%. The commonest cause of acute abdomen was appendicitis (30.3%) followed by intestinal obstruction (27.9%), perforated typhoid ileitis 14.9% and peptic ulcer disease (7.6%), respectively. The result from the study is similar to what has been reported in other tropical settings with inflammatory lesions being the major problem. There is also a rising incidence of post-operative adhesions and gradual decline in incidence of obstructed hernia.

  8. Delayed pneumothorax after stab wound to thorax and upper abdomen: Truth or myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehtabchi, Shahriar; Morley, Eric J; Sajed, Dana; Greenberg, Oded; Sinert, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Stab wounds to the thorax and upper abdomen have the potential to cause pneumothorax (PTX). When a CXR (CXR) obtained during initial resuscitation is negative, a second CXR (CXR-2) is commonly performed with the goal of identifying delayed PTX. To assess the diagnostic yield of the CXR-2 in identifying delayed PTX. Prospective observational study of patients (age >or=13 years) with stab wounds to the thorax (chest/back) and upper abdomen with suspected PTX, in a level 1 trauma centre. Patients were included if they had a negative initial CXR followed by a repeat CXR 3-6h after the initial one. patients who died, were transferred out of the ED, or received chest tubes before the second CXR. The outcome of interest was delayed PTX. All CXR were read by an attending radiologist. To test the inter-observer agreement, another blinded radiologist reviewed 20% of CXR. Continuous data is presented as mean+/-standard deviation and categorical data as percentages with 95% confidence interval (CI). Kappa statistics were used to measure the inter-observer agreement between radiologists. Between January 2003 and December 2006 a total of 185 patients qualified for the enrollment (mean age: 28+/-10 years, age range: 13-65, 94% male). Only 2 patients (1.1%, 95% CI, 0.4- 4.1%) had PTX on the CXR-2. Both patients received chest tubes. The inter-observer agreement for radiology reports was high (kappa: 0.79). Occurrence of delayed PTX in patients with stab wounds to the thorax and upper abdomen and negative triage CXR is rare.

  9. Effective dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, F.R.A. [Centro regional de Ciencias Nucleares, CRCN/CNEN, Rua Conego Barata, 999, Tamarineira, Recife, PE (Brazil); Kramer, R.; Vieira, J.W.; Khoury, H.J. [Departamento de Energia Nuclear, DEN/UFPE, Cidade Universitaria, Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    The recently developed MAX (Male Adult voXel) and the FAXht (Female Adult voXel) head and trunk phantoms have been used to calculate organ and tissue equivalent dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen as a function of source and field parameters, like voltage, filtration, field size, focus-to-skin distance, etc. Based on the equivalent doses to twenty three organs and tissues at risk, the effective dose has been determined and compared with corresponding data for others phantoms. The influence of different radiation transport codes, different tissue compositions and different human anatomies have been investigated separately. (Author)

  10. Usefulness of the helical CT in gastro intestinally caused acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, R. A. de la; Martel, J.; Albillos, J. C.; Oliver, J. M.; Lopez, J.; Trapero, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    At present, there is a vivid debate on the role of the Helical CT (HCT) in the acute abdomen, principally on the usefulness of the non contrast HCT. We aim to present the most common semiological findings and the differential diagnoses, and to give a short description of the indications and protocols, according to the existing literature and to our experience with HCT during the last three years. We believe that the generalization of the use of HCT in emergencies avoid unnecessary surgery and shorten observation times on many occasions, with clear benefits in the clinical management of the patients. (Author) 30 refs

  11. A Rare Case of Acute Abdomen: Perforation Secondary to Intramural Hematoma at Rectosigmoid Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Yagmurkaya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Intramural hematoma is a clinical situation which is secondary to anticoagulant therapy. In this study, a chronic atrial fibrilation patient taking anticoagulant, had perforation at rectosigmoid region which was secondary to intramural hematoma, is presented. Our case was a eighty-three-year-old male presented with acute abdomen at emergency room. In computerized tomography, intraabdominal free air and hematoma at rectosigmoid region were seen. Due to these, the decision of immidiate exploration was made. This should be noted that intramural hematoma can emerge in patientd on anticoagulant theraphy without trauma. Additionally, it shold be considered that intramural hematoma can lead to lethal complication such as perforation.

  12. Factors that affect the accuracy in the precise radiotherapy for abdomen tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tieming; Ju Yongjian

    2008-01-01

    The precise radiotherapy has been widely used in the clinics. But there are many factors that affect the accuracy in the course of implementation. Finally the effect of radiotherapy is affected. These factors are reviewed. And the previous research data about the abdomen tumors is summed up. Also how the accuracy was affected by the respiratory movement, positioning, position fixed technology, weight, retraction and motion of the tumor and the situation of surrounding organs will be analyzed. At last, how to avoid these errors in clinics will be discussed. (authors)

  13. Techniques, clinical applications and limitations of 3D reconstruction in CT of the abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, Michael M.; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Sahani, Dushyant V.; Perumpillichira, James J.; Rizzo, Stephania; Saini, Sanjay; Mueller, Peter R. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States)

    2004-03-15

    Enhanced z-axis coverage with thin overlapping slices in breath-hold acquisitions with multidetector CT (MDCT) has considerably enhanced the quality of multiplanar 3D reconstruction. This pictorial essay describes the improvements in 3D reconstruction and technical aspects of 3D reconstruction and rendering techniques available for abdominal imaging. Clinical applications of 3D imaging in abdomen including liver, pancreaticobiliary system, urinary and gastrointestinal tracts and imaging before and after transplantation are discussed. In addition, this article briefly discusses the disadvantages of this-slice acquisitions including increasing numbers of transverse images, which must be reviewed by the radiologist.

  14. Techniques, clinical applications and limitations of 3D reconstruction in CT of the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, Michael M.; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Sahani, Dushyant V.; Perumpillichira, James J.; Rizzo, Stephania; Saini, Sanjay; Mueller, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    Enhanced z-axis coverage with thin overlapping slices in breath-hold acquisitions with multidetector CT (MDCT) has considerably enhanced the quality of multiplanar 3D reconstruction. This pictorial essay describes the improvements in 3D reconstruction and technical aspects of 3D reconstruction and rendering techniques available for abdominal imaging. Clinical applications of 3D imaging in abdomen including liver, pancreaticobiliary system, urinary and gastrointestinal tracts and imaging before and after transplantation are discussed. In addition, this article briefly discusses the disadvantages of this-slice acquisitions including increasing numbers of transverse images, which must be reviewed by the radiologist

  15. Comparison of CT and anatomic pathological findings of the abdomen in HIV infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosch, U.; Witt, H.; Jautzke, G.; Ruf, B.

    1990-01-01

    In a retrospective study the results of abdominal computed tomography (CT) from 48 patients, who died of the complications of HIV infection, were compared with those obtained at autopsy. The CT diagnosis was confirmed at autopsy in 39 cases (81.3%). In nine patients CT results did not correlate with the postmortal findings. This was caused by lack of cooperation, cachexia and the time between the last CT study and the death of the patients. Nevertheless, CT with its standardised imaging planes is an important method for diagnosing and monitoring HIV-related diseases of the abdomen. (orig.) [de

  16. Effective dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, F.R.A.; Kramer, R.; Vieira, J.W.; Khoury, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The recently developed MAX (Male Adult voXel) and the FAXht (Female Adult voXel) head and trunk phantoms have been used to calculate organ and tissue equivalent dose conversion coefficients for X-ray radiographs of the chest and the abdomen as a function of source and field parameters, like voltage, filtration, field size, focus-to-skin distance, etc. Based on the equivalent doses to twenty three organs and tissues at risk, the effective dose has been determined and compared with corresponding data for others phantoms. The influence of different radiation transport codes, different tissue compositions and different human anatomies have been investigated separately. (Author)

  17. Abdomen agudo ocasionado por apendicitis aguda de probable origen tuberculoso. Informe de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Montiel-Jarquín, Álvaro José; Alvarado-Ortega, Iván; Romero-Figueroa, María del Socorro; Rodríguez-Pérez, Fabiola; Rodríguez-Lima, Felipe; Loria-Castellanos, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN Antecedentes: la apendicitis aguda tuberculosa es una enfermedad rara, constituye de 0,001 % a 0,01 % de las formas clínicas de tuberculosis. Se presenta un caso de apendicitis aguda probablemente tuberculosa como causa de abdomen agudo quirúrgico. Caso clínico: hombre de 29 años con cuadro de dolor abdominal leve a moderado que se intensificó y localizó en el hemiabdomen derecho, claudicación, febrícula, vómito, mal estado general, leucocitosis de 11 300/µL y neutrofilia de 91 %....

  18. Organ dose evaluation for CT scans based on in-phantom measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haikuan; Zhuo Weihai; Chen Bo; Yi Yanling; Li Dehong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the organ doses and their distributions in different projections of CT scans. Methods: The CT values were measured and the linear absorption coefficients were derived for the main organs of the anthropomorphic phantom to compare with the normal values of human beings. The radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeters were set into various tissues or organs of the phantom for mimic measurements of the organ doses undergoing the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis CT scans, respectively. Results: The tissue equivalence of the phantom used in this study was good. The brain had the largest organ dose undergoing the head CT scan. The organ doses in thyroid, breast, lung and oesophagus were relatively large in performing the chest CT scan, while the liver, stomach, colon and lung had relatively hrge organ doses in abdomen CT practice. The doses in bone surface and colon exceeded by 50 mGy in a single pelvis CT scan. Conclusions: The organ doses and their distributions largely vary with different projections of CT scans. The organ doses of colon, bone marrow,gonads and bladder are fairly large in performing pelvis CT scan, which should be paid attention in the practice. (authors)

  19. Application of low-dose radiation protocols in survey CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Qiang; Liu Ting; Lu Tao; Xu Ke; Zhang Lin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the protocols with low-dose radiation in survey CT scans for localization. Methods: Eighty standard adult patients, head and body phantoms were recruited. Default protocols provided by operator's manual setting were that all the tube voltage for head, chest, abdomen and lumbar was 120 kV; the tube currents were 20,10,20 and 40 mA, respectively. Values of kV and mA in the low-dose experiments were optimized according to the device options. For chest and abdomen, the tube position were compared between default (0 degree) and 180 degree. Phantoms were scanned with above protocols, and the radiation doses were measured respectively. Paired t-test were used for comparisons of standard deviation in CT value, noise and exposure surface dose (ESD) between group with default protocols and group with optimized protocols. Results: The optimized protocols in low-dose CT survey scans were 80 kV, 10 mA for head, 80 kV, 10 mA for chest, 80 kV, 10 mA for abdomen and 100 kV, 10 mA for lumbar. The values of ESD for phantom scan in default and optimized protocols were 0.38 mGy/0.16 mGy in head, 0.30 mGy/0.20 mGy in chest, 0.74 mGy/0.30 mGy in abdomen and 0.81 mGy/0.44 mGy in lumbar, respectively. Compared with default protocols, the optimized protocols reduced the radiation doses 59%, 33%, 59% and 46% in head, chest, abdomen and lumbar. When tube position changed from 0 degree to 180 degree, the ESD were 0.24 mGy/0.20 mGy for chest; 0.37 mGy/0.30 mGy for abdomen, and the radiation doses were reduced 20% and 17%. Conclusion: A certain amount of image noise is increased in low-dose protocols, but image quality is still acceptable without problem in CT localization. The reduction of radiation dose and the radiation harm to patients are the superiority. (authors)

  20. Optimization of individualized abdominal scan protocol with 64-slice CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Minxia; Zhao Xinming; Song Junfeng; Zhou Chunwu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore an individualized abdominal scan protocol with a 64-slice CT scanner. Methods: From Sep. 2010 to Nov. 2010, one hundred consecutive patients, who underwent twice non-contrast-enhanced abdominal CT scans within 3 months, were enrolled in this study. For each patient, the tube current of 274 eff. mAs and 207 eff. mAs were applied respectively in the first and second abdominal scan. The imaging qualities of the two scans were evaluated retrospectively by 3 reviewers. All the individual variants,including height, weight, body mass index (BMI), the maximum transverse diameter, the anteroposterior diameter and the average maximum diameter of abdomen were recorded. A five-point scale was used for grading the image noise of eight organs, including abdominal aorta, portal vein, liver, spleen, gallbladder, pancreas, renal cortex and renal medulla. Diagnostic acceptability of CT images at three anatomic levels,including porta hepatis, pancreas and the upper pole of renal, was also evaluated by using a five-point scale. The noise value of abdominal aorta was defined as the standard deviation (SD) of CT values of aorta at the level of porta hepatis. Scatter diagram and Pearson correlation analysis were used for evaluating the linear relationship between the individual variants and the noise value of abdominal aorta, and multivariate linear regression analysis was used for evaluating the relevance between the individual variants and the noise value of aorta. Results: In this patients group, the average height was (164.6 ± 7.5) cm,the average weight was (64.3 ± 11.0) kg, the BMI was (23.7 ±3.3) kg/m 2 , the maximum transverse diameter of abdomen was (29.8 ± 2.3) cm, the anteroposterior diameter of abdomen was (23.1 ± 2.9) cm, and the average maximum diameter of abdomen was (26.5 ± 2.5) cm. Pearson correlation analysis showed significant positive linear correlation between the noise value of abdominal aorta (1 1.7 ± 3.0) and patients' weight (r=0

  1. [Efficacy of intestinal splinting in hostile abdomen secondary to postoperative flanges in pediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho-Blanchet, Eduardo; Langarica-Bulos, Mónica; Dávila-Pérez, Roberto; Fernández-Portilla, Emilio; Zalles-Vidal, Cristian; Nieto-Zermeño, Jaime

    2016-10-01

    Objetivo: Mostrar la eficacia de la FI para prolongar el tiempo libre de oclusión intestinal quirúrgica en niños con abdomen hostil secundario a bridas posquirúrgicas. Método: Análisis retrospectivo de FI por abdomen hostil de 2000 a 2011 y su seguimiento a largo plazo. Comparamos el tiempo libre de oclusión quirúrgica antes y después de la FI. Resultados: Se incluyeron 20 FI en 19 pacientes. Predominaron las causas congénitas, la mediana de edad en la cirugía fue de 6 meses, todos tenían cirugías previas con mediana de tres, y dos de ellas fueron por oclusión intestinal previa. La férula se quitó a los 28 días (mediana). Con un seguimiento de 1-183 meses, hubo una recurrencia de oclusión quirúrgica. El tiempo libre de oclusión quirúrgica posferulización fue significativamente mayor que el preferulización mediante la prueba de Wilcoxon, con un valor Z = -3.594; p = el tiempo libre de oclusión quirúrgica.

  2. Prophylaxis of radiotherapy induced diarrhea after irradiation of the pelvis or the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hombrink, J.; Voss, A.C.; Froehlich, D.; Glatzel, M.; Krauss, A.; Glaser, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Radiotherapy induced diarrhea and convulsive pain are severe side-effects of irradiation of the pelvis and the abdomen leading often to an interruption of the treatment. Up to now these side-effects were only treated symptomatically, prophylactic therapies are not known. During the years 1992 and 1993 174 patients who obtained radiotherapy in the pelvis or the abdomen because of different malignancies were observed referring to the diarrhea-prophylactic effect of Smectite (=Skilpin R ). 80 patients received Smectite at the beginning of radiotherapy, 94 patients of the controlgroup were treated with motility modifying drugs when diarrhea appeared. The following parameters were compared: Frequency, consistence and incontinence of stool, tenesmus and the onset of diarrhea. 67,0% (n=63) of the patients in the controlgroup developed diarrhea, whereas in the pretreated Smectite-group only 37,5% of the cases (n=30) developed diarrhea. The first appearance of diarrhea was at day 17 in the pretreated group and averagely at day 11 in the controlgroup. 44% of the patients in the controlgroup suffered from tenesmus versus 25% in the Smectite-group. In comparison to the symptomatic treatment of radiation enteritis the prophylactic application of Smectite is able to reduce the diarrhea from the beginning of raditherapy or at least to reduce the pathological frequency of stool and therefore to increase the quality of life. (orig.) [de

  3. Gd-DTPA: a bowel contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.; Gouliamos, A.; Clauss, W.; Kalovidouris, A.; Hadjiioannou, A.; Athanasopoulou, A.; Trakadas, S.; Papavasiliou, C.

    1992-01-01

    Forty patients with suspected pathology in the abdomen and pelvis have been investigated with MRI before and after administration of Gd-DTPA as an oral or rectal solution. The findings are analysed with respect to: (a) filling of the GI tract; (b) contrast in the region of interest, surrounding fat and vessels; (c) diagnostic yield in comparison to non-enhanced MRI and contrast CT. At a concentration of 1 mmol/l Gd-DTPA provided consistent positive contrast in the stomach and bowel in all cases. In 57.5% of cases we achieved complete filling of the GI tract. The opacification in the region of interest was good or satisfactory in 90% of cases. The diagnostic value of contrast MRI was better in 93% of cases than the non-enhanced MRI of the abdomen. In comparison with contrast CT, the contrast MRI was better or of the same value in 92% of cases. Despite the disadvantage of poor fat-to-bowel contrast (35% of cases were classified as poor), it is concluded that Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI provides good delineation of organs adjacent to the bowel so this contrast agent has potential for a future role in abdominal MRI. (orig.)

  4. Gd-DTPA: a bowel contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlahos, L. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Athens, Areteion Hospital (Greece); Gouliamos, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Athens, Areteion Hospital (Greece); Clauss, W. [Schering A. G., Berlin (Germany); Kalovidouris, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Athens, Areteion Hospital (Greece); Hadjiioannou, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Athens, Areteion Hospital (Greece); Athanasopoulou, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Athens, Areteion Hospital (Greece); Trakadas, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Athens, Areteion Hospital (Greece); Papavasiliou, C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Athens, Areteion Hospital (Greece)

    1992-08-01

    Forty patients with suspected pathology in the abdomen and pelvis have been investigated with MRI before and after administration of Gd-DTPA as an oral or rectal solution. The findings are analysed with respect to: (a) filling of the GI tract; (b) contrast in the region of interest, surrounding fat and vessels; (c) diagnostic yield in comparison to non-enhanced MRI and contrast CT. At a concentration of 1 mmol/l Gd-DTPA provided consistent positive contrast in the stomach and bowel in all cases. In 57.5% of cases we achieved complete filling of the GI tract. The opacification in the region of interest was good or satisfactory in 90% of cases. The diagnostic value of contrast MRI was better in 93% of cases than the non-enhanced MRI of the abdomen. In comparison with contrast CT, the contrast MRI was better or of the same value in 92% of cases. Despite the disadvantage of poor fat-to-bowel contrast (35% of cases were classified as poor), it is concluded that Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI provides good delineation of organs adjacent to the bowel so this contrast agent has potential for a future role in abdominal MRI. (orig.)

  5. Relationship of the Cold-Heat Sensation of the Limbs and Abdomen with Physiological Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Duc Pham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the relationship between the regional Cold-Heat sensation, the key indicator of the Cold-Heat patterns in traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM, and various biomarkers in Korean population. 734 apparently healthy volunteers aged 20 years and older were enrolled. Three scale self-report questions on the general thermal feel in hands, legs, and abdomen were examined. We found that 65% of women tended to perceive their body, particularly their hands and legs, to be cold, versus 25% of men. Energy expenditure and temperature load at resting state were lower in women, independently of body mass index (BMI. Those with warm hands and warm legs had a 0.74 and 0.52 kg/m2 higher BMI than those with cold hands and cold legs, respectively, regardless of age, gender, and body weight. Norepinephrine was higher, whereas the dynamic changes in glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test were lower in those with cold extremities, particularly hands. No consistent differences in biomarkers were found for the abdominal dimension. These results suggest that gender, BMI, the sympathetic nervous system, and glucose metabolism are potential determinants of the Cold-Heat sensation in the hands and legs, but not the abdomen.

  6. Prostheses size dependency of the mechanical response of the herniated human abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón-Allué, R; Hernández-Gascón, B; Lèoty, L; Bellón, J M; Peña, E; Calvo, B

    2016-12-01

    Hernia repairs still exhibit clinical complications, i.e. recurrence, discomfort and pain and mesh features are thought to be highly influent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the defect size and mesh type in an herniated abdominal wall using numerical models. To do so, we have started from a FE model based on a real human abdomen geometry obtained by MRI, where we have provoked an incisional hernia of three different sizes. The surgical procedure was simulated by covering the hernia with a prostheses, and three surgical meshes with distinct mechanical properties were used for the hernia repair: an isotropic heavy-weight mesh (Surgipro @ ), a slightly anisotropic light-weight mesh (Optilene @ ) and a highly anisotropic medium-weight mesh (Infinit @ ). The mechanical response of the wall to a high intraabdominal pressure (corresponding to a coughing motion) was analyzed here. Our findings suggest that the anisotropy of the mesh becomes more relevant with the increase of the defect size. Additionally, according to our results Optilene @ showed the closest deformation to the natural distensibility of the abdomen while Infinit @ should be carefully used due to its excessive compliance.

  7. Swordfish bill injury involving abdomen and vertebral column: case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drossos Charalambos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penetrating injuries of the abdomen and spinal canal that involve organic material of animal origin are extremely rare and derive from domestic and wild animal attacks or fish attacks. Case presentation In this case report we present the unique, as far as the literature is concerned, unprovoked woman's injury to the abdomen by a swordfish. There are only four cases of swordfish attacks on humans in the literature - one resulted to thoracic trauma, two to head trauma and one to knee trauma, one of which was fatal - none of which were unprovoked. Three victims were professional or amateur fishermen whereas in the last reported case the victim was a bather as in our case. Our case is the only case where organic debris of animal's origin remained in the spinal canal after penetrating trauma. Conclusions Although much has been written about the management of penetrating abdominal and spinal cord trauma, controversy remains about the optimal management. Moreover, there is little experience in the management of patients with such spinal injuries, due to the fact that such cases are extremely rare. In this report we focus on the patient's treatment with regard to abdominal and spinal trauma and present a review of the literature.

  8. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the abdomen with pulse triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muertz, P.; Pauleit, D.; Traeber, F.; Kreft, B.P.; Schild, H.H.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to reduce the influence of motion on diffusion-weighted MR images of the abdomen by pulse triggering of single-shot sequences. Methods: Five healthy volunteers were examined both without and with finger pulse-triggering of a diffusion-weighted single-shot echo planar MR imaging sequence at 1.5 T. Series of diffusion-weighted images were acquired at different phases of the cardiac cycle by varying the time delay between finger pulse and sequence acquisition. The measurements were repeated three times. The diffusion weighted images were analysed by measuring the signal intensities and by determining the ADC values within the spleen, kidney and liver. Results: The magnitude of motion artifacts on diffusion weighted images shows a strong dependence on the trigger delay. The optimum trigger delay is found to be between 500 and 600 ms. For these values the abdominal organs appear homogeneous on all diffusion weighted images and the strongest signal intensities are detected. At optimum triggering the accuracy of the apparent diffusion coefficients is up to 10 times better than without triggering. Moreover, the standard deviation of the repeated measurements is smaller than 12% for all volunteers and for all organs. Without triggering the standard deviation is larger by a factor of 4 on average. Conclusion: Pulse triggering of single-shot sequences leads to significant reduction of motion related artifacts on diffusion weighted images of the abdomen and provides more accurate and reproducible ADC values. (orig.) [de

  9. Evaluation of body simulator for chest and abdomen in digital X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Sidney S.; Cardoso, Gabriela P.; Oliveira, Giovanni Antônio P.; Batista, Adriana S.M.; Pereira, Esther Lorrayne M.

    2017-01-01

    The use of body simulators to control the quality of X-ray images is a practice that guarantees the control of essential parameters for diagnosis by the technique. The evolution of the equipment, between the analogue, digital computerized radiology (CR) and direct radiography (DR), requires evaluation of the equivalence in grayscale, of simulators, for an adjustment according to the specific technology of obtaining the image. In this sense, the present work presents the evaluation of a body simulator with regard to the representation of mean values of signal, noise and contrast obtained in chest radiographs and panoramic of the abdomen. For the thorax the cardiac region was considered as simulation target and for the abdomen simulation of the liver and small intestine. We used a retrospective study of images obtained with X-ray equipment - CR system, in which the images were studied using the ImageJ program, generating a data catalog. These were subsequently compared with those obtained experimentally using gel filled polymer body simulator. For the validation of the simulator, it was observed the gel equivalence of filling of the polymer box required to reach the image parameters of the cataloged radiographs. The results are discussed as to the physical principles of radiation interaction with biological and equivalent tissues

  10. Relationship of the Cold-Heat Sensation of the Limbs and Abdomen with Physiological Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Duong Duc; Lee, JeongHoon; Kim, GaYul; Song, JiYeon; Kim, JiEun; Leem, Chae Hun

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the relationship between the regional Cold-Heat sensation, the key indicator of the Cold-Heat patterns in traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM), and various biomarkers in Korean population. 734 apparently healthy volunteers aged 20 years and older were enrolled. Three scale self-report questions on the general thermal feel in hands, legs, and abdomen were examined. We found that 65% of women tended to perceive their body, particularly their hands and legs, to be cold, versus 25% of men. Energy expenditure and temperature load at resting state were lower in women, independently of body mass index (BMI). Those with warm hands and warm legs had a 0.74 and 0.52 kg/m 2 higher BMI than those with cold hands and cold legs, respectively, regardless of age, gender, and body weight. Norepinephrine was higher, whereas the dynamic changes in glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test were lower in those with cold extremities, particularly hands. No consistent differences in biomarkers were found for the abdominal dimension. These results suggest that gender, BMI, the sympathetic nervous system, and glucose metabolism are potential determinants of the Cold-Heat sensation in the hands and legs, but not the abdomen.

  11. Abdomen disease diagnosis in CT images using flexiscale curvelet transform and improved genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Gaurav; Saini, B S

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an abdomen disease diagnostic system based on the flexi-scale curvelet transform, which uses different optimal scales for extracting features from computed tomography (CT) images. To optimize the scale of the flexi-scale curvelet transform, we propose an improved genetic algorithm. The conventional genetic algorithm assumes that fit parents will likely produce the healthiest offspring that leads to the least fit parents accumulating at the bottom of the population, reducing the fitness of subsequent populations and delaying the optimal solution search. In our improved genetic algorithm, combining the chromosomes of a low-fitness and a high-fitness individual increases the probability of producing high-fitness offspring. Thereby, all of the least fit parent chromosomes are combined with high fit parent to produce offspring for the next population. In this way, the leftover weak chromosomes cannot damage the fitness of subsequent populations. To further facilitate the search for the optimal solution, our improved genetic algorithm adopts modified elitism. The proposed method was applied to 120 CT abdominal images; 30 images each of normal subjects, cysts, tumors and stones. The features extracted by the flexi-scale curvelet transform were more discriminative than conventional methods, demonstrating the potential of our method as a diagnostic tool for abdomen diseases.

  12. Anatomic atlas for computed tomography in the mesaticephalic dog: caudal abdomen and pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, J.E.; George, T. II.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a comprehensive anatomic atlas of CT anatomy of the dog for use by veterinary radiologists, clinicians, and surgeons. Whole-body CT images of two mature beagle dogs were made with the dogs supported in sternal recumbency and using a slice thickness of 13 mm. At the end of the CT session, each dog was euthanized, and while carefully maintaining the same position, the body was frozen. The body was then sectioned at 13-mm intervals, with the cuts matched as closely as possible to the CT slices. The frozen sections were cleaned, photographed, and radiographed using xeroradiography. Each CT image was studied and compared with its corresponding xeroradiograph and anatomic section to assist in the accurate identification of specific structures. Clinically relevant anatomic structures were identified and labeled in the three corresponding photographs (CT image, xeroradiograph, and anatomic section). In previous papers, the head and neck, and the thorax and cranial abdomen of the mesaticephalic (beagle) dog were presented. In this paper, the caudal part of the abdomen and pelvis of the bitch and male dog are presented

  13. Ruptured Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Ovary as a Cause of Acute Abdomen in Postmenopausal Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Oge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute abdomen with hemoperitoneum is a very rare entity in postmenopausal women due to gynecologic conditions. A 54-year-old, postmenopausal woman was brought to emergency department with severe abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed acute abdomen findings with 15 cm pelvic mass on the right adnexal region. Immediate exploratory laparotomy was performed. During laparotomy 1000 cc of bloodstained fluid, ruptured and actively bleeding large mass arising from right ovary was observed. Right salpingo-oopherectomy was performed in emergency conditions, and pathology report revealed an adult type of granulosa cell tumor. After this result, staging surgery was performed and patient was diagnosed as granulosa cell tumor stage 1 c. Cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin chemotherapy was given. Clinicians should be aware of granulosa cell tumors which may occur at any age and prone to rupture. Frozen section will be helpful in order to avoid incomplete surgeries especially in postmenopausal women presented with intra-abdominal bleeding.

  14. Can independent coronal multiplanar reformatted images obtained using state-of-the-art MDCT scanners be used for primary interpretation of MDCT of the abdomen and pelvis? A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, Sunit; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Mittal, Pardeep; Saini, Sanjay; Small, William C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate if coronal reformatted images can be used for primary interpretation of MDCT of the abdomen and pelvis using 64-slice MDCT. Materials and methods: IRB approval was obtained. We reviewed MDCT studies of the abdomen and pelvis of 220 consecutive patients performed with 64 row MDCT with constant scanning parameters. Based on a 0.625 mm raw data set, transverse images were reconstructed at 5 mm and coronal images at 3 mm using standard reconstruction algorithms. Reader familiarity was achieved by simultaneous evaluation of transverse and coronal reformats in an initial group of 20 separate cases for findings in consensus. Two subsequent phases of image analysis were then performed in two groups of 100 patients each. In the first phase two radiologists evaluated the added utility of simultaneous review of MDCT of transverse and coronal reformatted images over transverse images alone in 100 consecutive patients referred for MDCT of the abdomen and pelvis. In the second phase, the same radiologists evaluated whether coronal multiplanar reformats could be used for primary interpretation of MDCT of the abdomen and pelvis in a separate but similar cohort of 100 consecutive abdominopelvic MDCT studies. The number of lesion(s), their location, size of smallest lesion, presence of artifacts and likely diagnosis were noted at each image interpretation. Image quality and confidence for interpretation was evaluated using five-point and three-point scale, respectively. The time required for primary interpretation of coronal reformats and transverse images were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Both readers detected additional findings (n = 37, 35), respectively, on simultaneous review of transverse and coronal reformats as compared with transverse images alone (p < 0.001). Excellent interobserver agreement was noted (r = 0.94-0.96). Both readers detected additional findings (n = 62, 53), respectively, on

  15. Results of emergency management of acute abdomen in adults based on clinical assessment and basic imaging investigations: are advanced imaging techniques always necessary for successful treatment?

    OpenAIRE

    Sangram Karandikar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The term acute abdomen refers to signs and symptoms of abdominal pain and tenderness, a clinical presentation that may require emergency surgical treatment. Patients suffering from both, surgical as well as medical diseases may present with acute abdomen. The main objectives of the study are to identify common causes of acute abdomen, to assess the need for urgent surgical intervention in these patients and to evaluate role of basic diagnostic techniques and need of advanced imagi...

  16. Radiopharmaceutical scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to dispersions useful in preparing radiopharmaceutical scanning agents, to technetium labelled dispersions, to methods for preparing such dispersions and to their use as scanning agents

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special ... is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine ...

  18. Nuclear Heart Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Nuclear Heart Scan Nuclear Heart Scan Also known as Nuclear Stress Test , ... Learn More Connect With Us Contact Us Directly Policies Privacy Policy Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Accessibility ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake ... you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special instructions ...

  20. RBC nuclear scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  1. Laparoscopic management of ovarian dysgerminoma presenting with acute abdomen caused by adnexal torsion in a 17-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akihiro; Mori, Masahiko; Sakai, Kotaro; Mitsui, Takashi; Nakamura, Hiromi

    2009-02-01

    Ovarian dysgerminoma cases very rarely present with acute abdomen due to adnexal torsion and the successful laparoscopic management of such a case has not been reported previously. A 17-year-old sexually inactive high school girl presenting with acute abdomen was referred to our emergency department. Transabdominal ultrasonography showed the presence of homogeneous tumor in the lower abdomen. Emergency laparoscopic surgery was performed and left ovarian tumor with adnexal torsion was identified. Left salpingo-oophorectomy was performed carefully to avoid damaging the tumor capsule and the excised tissue was removed after retrieval in an endobag. The histopathological diagnosis was pure ovarian dysgerminoma. The postoperative course was uneventful. Laparoscopic management with careful postoperative follow-up to monitor recurrence could be a treatment option in a young girl with dysgerminoma, if the disease condition is detected in the early stage.

  2. Scanning gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, L.W.; Batter, J.F. Jr.; Stout, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning system for a gamma camera providing for the overlapping of adjacent scan paths is described. A collimator mask having tapered edges provides for a graduated reduction in intensity of radiation received by a detector thereof, the reduction in intensity being graduated in a direction normal to the scanning path to provide a blending of images of adjacent scan paths. 31 claims, 15 figures

  3. [The acute (surgical) abdomen - epidemiology, diagnosis and general principles of management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, R T; Petersen, M; Lippert, H; Meyer, F

    2010-06-01

    This review comments on epidemiology, diagnosis and general principles of surgical management in patients with acute abdomen. DEFINITION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY: The most common cause of acute abdominal pain is non-specific abdominal pain (24 - 44.3 % of the study populations), followed by acute appendicitis (15.9 - 28.1 %), acute biliary disease (2.9 - 9.7 %) and bowel obstruction or diverticulitits in elderly patients. Acute appendicitis represents the cause of surgical intervention in two-thirds of the children with acute abdomen. A standardised physical examination combined with ultrasonography (US) represents the initial investigation in patients with acute abdominal pain. Due to the risk associated with radiation and due to the costs, a selective use of CT imaging is recommended. The work-flow given in this paper restricts the use of CT imaging to less than 50 % of patients with acute abdominal pain. Diagnostic laparoscopy should be considered in patients without a specific diagnosis after appropriate imaging and as an alternative to active clinical observation which is the current practice in patients with non-specific abdominal pain. Acute small bowel obstruction has previously been considered as a relative contraindication for laparoscopic management, but it has been shown in the meantime that laparoscopic treatment is an elegant tool for the management of simple band small bowel obstruction. Bedside diagnostic laparoscopy is recommended in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute abdomen or sepsis of unknown origin, in suspicion of acute cholecystitis, diffuse gut hypoperfusion and mesenteric ischaemia or in refractory lactic acidosis, especially after cardiac surgery. Early administration of analgesia to patients with acute abdominal pain in the emergency department will reduce the patient's discomfort without impairing clinically important diagnostic accuracy and is recommended on the basis of some prospective randomised trials. However, the impact on

  4. Evaluation of the usefulness of computed tomography on diagnosis and management of acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takehiro; Yagihashi, Nobuo; Osawa, Tadaharu; Harada, Osamu; Ito, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) in diagnosing and managing acute abdomen. Subjects were 91 patients admitted complaining of acute abdominal pain and divided into two groups-those undergoing CT within 24 hours of admission (emergency CT group, n=70), those without CT (Non-CT group, n=21). The emergency CT group was subdivided into those with bowel obstruction (bowel obstruction group, n=29), those with acute appendicitis and other diseases necessitating differential diagnosis (appendicitis group, n=36), those with perforation of the digestive tract (perforation group, n=4), and other disease (n=1). We evaluated the accuracy of admission diagnosis retrospectively in each group. The final diagnosis of the bowel obstruction group was adhesive bowel obstruction in 16, colon cancer in 5, external hernia in 3 and other in 5. That in the appendicitis group was acute appendicitis in 25, colonic diverticulitis in 3, pelvic inflammatory disease in 3, ovarian hemorrhage in 2 and other in 5. The origin of perforation in the perforation group was upper digestive tract in 2 and lower digestive tract in 2. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of admission diagnosis in the emergency CT group was 91.1, 100 and 91.4%, respectively. The accuracy of admission diagnosis was 96.5% in the bowel obstruction group, 88.9% in the appendicitis group and 75.9% in the perforation group. Patients who could not be diagnosed precisely consisted of 6 patients in the emergency CT group. Those who could not be diagnosed precisely included 3 with pericecal abscess, 1 with acute appendicitis, 1 with stercoral perforation of the sigmoid colon and 1 with impacted bezoar in the small intestine. Evaluated retrospectively, 4 patients were able to be diagnosed by CT on admission. In diagnosis of acute abdomen, CT was useful in differential diagnosis of bowel obstruction and acute appendicitis, detection of fine free air, and determine of perforated sites. Emergency CT was thus

  5. Accuracy and precision of flash glucose monitoring sensors inserted into the abdomen and upper thigh compared with the upper arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleer, Sara; Mathieu, Chantal; Nobels, Frank; Gillard, Pieter

    2018-06-01

    Nowadays, most Belgian patients with type 1 diabetes use flash glucose monitoring (FreeStyle Libre [FSL]; Abbott Diabetes Care, Alameda, California) to check their glucose values, but some patients find the sensor on the upper arm too visible. The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy and precision of FSL sensors when placed on different sites. A total of 23 adults with type 1 diabetes used three FSL sensors simultaneously for 14 days on the upper arm, abdomen and upper thigh. FSL measurements were compared with capillary blood glucose (BG) measurements obtained with a built-in FSL BG meter. The aggregated mean absolute relative difference was 11.8 ± 12.0%, 18.5 ± 18.4% and 12.3 ± 13.8% for the arm, abdomen (P = .002 vs arm) and thigh (P = .5 vs arm), respectively. Results of Clarke error grid analysis for the arm and thigh were similar (zone A: 84.9% vs 84.5%; P = .6), while less accuracy was seen for the abdomen (zone A: 69.4%; P = .01). Apart from the first day, the accuracy of FSL sensors on the arm and thigh was more stable across the 14-day wear duration than accuracy of sensors on the abdomen, which deteriorated mainly during week 2 (P < .0005). The aggregated precision absolute relative difference was markedly lower for the arm/thigh (10.9 ± 11.9%) compared with the arm/abdomen (20.9 ± 22.8%; P = .002). Our results indicate that the accuracy and precision of FSL sensors placed on the upper thigh are similar to the upper arm, whereas the abdomen performed unacceptably poorly. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Severe acute abdomen caused by symptomatic Meckel's diverticulum in three children with trisomy 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Anri; Kumada, Tomohiro; Furukawa, Oki; Nozaki, Fumihito; Hiejima, Ikuko; Shibata, Minoru; Kusunoki, Takashi; Fujii, Tatsuya

    2015-10-01

    Meckel's diverticulum (MD) is the most prevalent congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract and often presents a diagnostic challenge. Patients with trisomy 18 frequently have MD, but the poor prognosis and lack of consensus regarding management for neonates has meant that precise information on the clinical manifestations in infants and children with MD is lacking. We describe the cases of three children with trisomy 18 who developed symptomatic MD. Intussusception was diagnosed in Patient 1, intestinal volvulus in Patient 2, and gastrointestinal bleeding in Patient 3. All three patients underwent surgical treatment and only the Patient 1 died due to pulmonary hypertensive crisis. The other two patients experienced no further episodes of abdominal symptoms. In patients with trisomy 18, although consideration of postoperative complications and prognosis after surgical treatment is necessary, symptomatic MD should carry a high index of suspicion in patients presenting with acute abdomen. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Difficult airway management with bonfils fiberscope in case of emergency: acute abdomen with ileus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldini, Branka; Novotny, Zdenko; Letica-Brnadić, Renata; Brkljacić, Ana; Bartolek, Dubravka

    2012-09-01

    This clinical report describes an emergency case of a 49-year-old man, ASA E III status, with clinical symptoms of acute abdomen and ileus, who was scheduled for urgent surgery. Predictors of difficult intubation (Mallampati test Class III, short thyro-mental (management decided on one attempt of Bonfils fiberoptic intubation as primary intervention and urgent tracheotomy, if needed, as secondary intervention. Immediately after assuming supine position on the operating table, the patient lost consciousness and cardiac arrest developed. Successful intubation with oxygenation was followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Upon stabilization of the patient's vital functions, urgent surgery was performed. In the emergency case presented, we succeeded quickly to secure the airway with Bonfils fiberoptic intubation, which allowed for appropriate oxygenation and starting resuscitation. The high risk of the possible aspiration was avoided by timely provision of airway in the experienced anesthetist's hands.

  8. Principles of three-dimensional printing and clinical applications within the abdomen and pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastawrous, Sarah; Wake, Nicole; Levin, Dmitry; Ripley, Beth

    2018-04-04

    Improvements in technology and reduction in costs have led to widespread interest in three-dimensional (3D) printing. 3D-printed anatomical models contribute to personalized medicine, surgical planning, and education across medical specialties, and these models are rapidly changing the landscape of clinical practice. A physical object that can be held in one's hands allows for significant advantages over standard two-dimensional (2D) or even 3D computer-based virtual models. Radiologists have the potential to play a significant role as consultants and educators across all specialties by providing 3D-printed models that enhance clinical care. This article reviews the basics of 3D printing, including how models are created from imaging data, clinical applications of 3D printing within the abdomen and pelvis, implications for education and training, limitations, and future directions.

  9. A Case Involving Needles in the Medulla Oblongata, Cervical Spinal Cord, and Abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao-Yu; Li, Da; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Li-Wei; Zhang, Jun-Ting

    2014-10-01

    It is extremely rare to encounter intracranial foreign bodies caused by penetrating injuries other than gunshot wounds or low-velocity wounds. We present a case describing a 5-year-old girl with metallic foreign bodies in the medulla oblongata, cervical spinal cord, and abdomen. The foreign bodies may have been there and remained silent for several years until the patient developed nausea and vomiting that persisted for 3 months. A craniotomy and a laparotomy were performed after a thorough discussion. Five pieces of metallic foreign bodies were removed, and the patient had a good outcome. Despite the precarious location of the needles in the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord, this rare case supports the use of surgery to remove the foreign bodies.

  10. [Abdomen specific bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) methods for evaluation of abdominal fat distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Midori; Hirata, Masakazu; Hosoda, Kiminori; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2013-02-01

    Two novel bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) methods have been developed recently for evaluation of intra-abdominal fat accumulation. Both methods use electrodes that are placed on abdominal wall and allow evaluation of intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) easily without radiation exposure. Of these, "abdominal BIA" method measures impedance distribution along abdominal anterior-posterior axis, and IAFA by BIA method(BIA-IAFA) is calculated from waist circumference and the voltage occurring at the flank. Dual BIA method measures impedance of trunk and body surface at the abdominal level and calculates BIA-IAFA from transverse and antero-posterior diameters of the abdomen and the impedance of trunk and abdominal surface. BIA-IAFA by these two BIA methods correlated well with IAFA measured by abdominal CT (CT-IAFA) with correlatipn coefficient of 0.88 (n = 91, p abdominal adiposity in clinical study and routine clinical practice of metabolic syndrome and obesity.

  11. SPLENIC INFARCTION: an intriguing and important cause of pain abdomen in high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Hota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with Sickle cell trait (SCT are usually asymptomatic. They are usually unaware of their condition unless they have a family history. There are specific situations, where these people suffer from the effects of sickle cell trait. Splenic syndrome at high altitude is one of the specific problems. It is usually seen after a patient with SCT has been inducted to high altitude like in case of mountaineers and military personnel deployed in high altitude warfare. Pain abdomen due to splenic infarction in individuals with SCT is one of the manifestations. These patients, if diagnosed in time, they can be spared from unnecessary surgical interventions. We present herewith our experience of splenic infarction due to SCT in high altitude and their management.

  12. Non-traumatic acute abdomen in the adult: a critical review of imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago-Tellez, C.; Boos, S.; Heinemann, F.; Wenz, W.

    1992-01-01

    Two different series collected at the University Hospital of Freiburg are presented as a basis for the critical appraisal of available imaging tests and their correlation with anatomic pain sites. The first series comprises 284 patients of non-traumatic acute abdomen admitted to the emergency department during 1990. The radiological approach revealed an increased use of immediate ultrasound (58%) followed by plain film radiography (53%), contrast studies (15%), and computed tomography (9.8%). Five groups of entities were identified according to the diagnostic imaging procedure prior to surgery. In a second series, the clinical presentation, the distribution and the efficacy of imaging studies for the confirmation of acute mesenteric ischemia were evaluated in 55 patients over a period of 14 years. A reduced mortality rate emphasizes the value of early and agressive diagnosis and angiographic management. (orig.)

  13. Delayed diagnosis of a heterotopic pregnancy as a cause of acute abdomen: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Turkan Ayan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heterotopic pregnancy is a life threating condition of intrauterine and extrauterine gestations which occur at the same time. We report a delayed diagnosed case of heterotopic pregnancy. Case: A 31 year-old primigravida was referred to our Emergency Gynaecology Service complicated by acute abdomen. She had been treated with clomiphene citrate and on admission intrauterine a missed abortus of about 8 weeks complicated by a large subchorionic hematoma was detected. Emergency laparotomy was performed because of diffuse intra-abdominal haemorrhage. A right-sided ectopic focus was recognized and excised, and dilatation - curettage was performed. Coclusion: Delay in diagnosing the condition can be fatal to both the mother and the intrauterine fetus. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(3.000: 207-208

  14. An Extremely Rare Case of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Floating Benign Mesenchymal Mass in Abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Kati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man admitted to the urology outpatient clinic with major symptoms of right-side pain and intermittent lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs such as low urine flow rate, dysuria, and frequency. Uroflowmetry showed low urine flow, and laboratory tests revealed no pathology. Ultrasound (US showed a 7 cm calcific mass above the bladder and a kidney cyst with a diameter of 5.3 cm in the upper pole of the right kidney. Enhanced computed tomography confirmed the US findings. Laparoscopic transperitoneal renal cyst decortication was performed. There was no sign of additional tumors. An independent mass in the abdomen was diagnosed, and the mass was removed. Based on the pathology, the diagnosis was a benign mesenchymal calcific mass. This is the first report of LUTSs due to a free benign mesenchymal mass in the published literature.

  15. Gadolinium-DTPA as an oral contrast medium for MR tomography of the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahe, T.; Doelken, W.; Lackner, K.; Houselog, M.

    1990-01-01

    150 MR examinations of the upper abdomen were carried out after the oral administration of 5 ml/kg body weight of a gadolinium DTPA formulation (1.0 mmol/l, 15 g/l manitol), with reference to the delineation of the pancreas, the liver and intra-abdominal fat. For comparison, 100 MR examinations without oral opacification of the G.I. tract were evaluated. Contrast administration resulted in a signal-intensive demonstration of the G.I tract for all measurement sequences. The intraluminal contrast improved the distinction between normal and abnormal structures, T 1 and T 2 sequences and the demonstration of fat on T 2 -weighted series. T 1 -weighted series showed the best diagnostic results. In 25% there was meteorism and diarrhoea within 24 hours of the administration of the oral contrast. (orig.) [de

  16. Whole-abdomen radiotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma using twice-daily fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liauw, Stanley L.; Yeh, Alexander M.; Morris, Christopher G.; Olivier, Kenneth R.; Mendenhall, Nancy Price

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To report the tolerability and efficacy of twice-daily whole-abdomen irradiation (WAI) for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Methods and Materials: Of 123 patients treated for NHL with WAI, 37% received previous chemotherapy, 28% received WAI as part of comprehensive lymphatic irradiation (CLI), and 32% received WAI for palliation. The median dose to the whole abdomen was 25.0 Gy, followed by a median tumor boost of 9.8 Gy in 58 patients. Fractionation was 1.0 Gy once daily (54%) or 0.8 Gy twice daily (46%). Blood counts were measured weekly. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.3 years, local control was 72% and overall survival was 55% at 5 years. Median time of WAI was 42 days for once-daily treatment and 32 days for twice-daily treatment. Patients receiving twice-daily WAI did not have a significantly higher rate of acute side effects (e.g., nausea, diarrhea, platelet or red blood cell toxicity). Overall, acute thrombocytopenia was the most frequent side effect of treatment; 24 of 96 patients (25%) with available hematologic data had Grade 3+ toxicity. There was no acute Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity and no late small bowel obstruction. Multiple regression indicated that patients with four or less involved sites and disease size ≤6 cm had improved local control and overall survival. Conclusions: Twice-daily WAI using 0.8 Gy/fraction does not appear to have any greater toxicity compared with once-daily treatment using 1 Gy/fraction. Small doses per fraction (0.8-1 Gy/fx) are effective, tolerated well in the acute setting, and associated with a low rate of late toxicity

  17. The deceased organ donor with an "open abdomen": proceed with caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, A C; Vedula, G V; Horan, J; Dellicarpini, K; Pak, S-W; Daly, T; Samstein, B; Kato, T; Emond, J C; Guarrera, J V

    2012-06-01

    In solid organ transplantation, the disparity between donor supply and patients awaiting transplant continues to increase. The organ shortage has led to relaxation of historic contraindications to organ donation. A large percentage of deceased organ donors have been subjected to traumatic injuries, which can often result in intervention that leads to abdominal packing and intensive care unit resuscitation. The donor with this "open abdomen" (OA) presents a situation in which the risk of organ utilization is difficult to quantify. There exists a concern for the potential of a higher risk for both bacterial and fungal infections, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens because of the prevalence of antibiotic use and critical illness in this population. No recommendations have been established for utilization of organs from these OA donors, because data are limited. Herein, we report a case of a 21-year-old donor who had sustained a gunshot wound to his abdomen, resulting in a damage-control laparotomy and abdominal packing. The donor subsequently suffered brain death, and the family consented to organ donation. A multiorgan procurement was performed with respective transplantation of the procured organs (heart, liver, and both kidneys) into 4 separate recipients. Peritoneal swab cultures performed at the time of organ recovery grew out MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the day after procurement, subsequently followed by positive blood and sputum cultures as well. All 4 transplant recipients subsequently developed infections with MDR P. aeruginosa, which appeared to be donor-derived with similar resistance patterns. Appropriate antibiotic coverage was initiated in all of the patients. Although 2 of the recipients died, mortality did not appear to be clearly associated with the donor-derived infections. This case illustrates the potential infectious risk associated with organs from donors with an OA, and suggests that aggressive surveillance for occult infections

  18. Ferric ammonium citrate as a positive bowel contrast agent for MR imaging of the upper abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivelitz, D.; Taupitz, M.; Hamm, B. [Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Gehl, H.B. [Medizinische Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Heuck, A. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik; Krahe, T. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Lodemann, K.P. [Bracco-Byk Gulden GmbH, Konstanz (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and diagnostic efficacy of two different doses of ferric ammonium citrate as a paramagnetic oral contrast agent for MR imaging of the upper abdomen. Material and methods: Ninety-nine adult patients referred for MR imaging for a known or suspected upper abdominal pathology were included in this randomized multicenter double-blind clinical trial. Imaging was performed with spin-echo (T1- and T2-weighted) and gradient-echo (T1-weighted) techniques before and after administration of either 1200 mg or 2400 mg of ferric ammonium citrate dissolved in 600 ml of water. Safety analysis included monitoring of vital signs, assessment of adverse events, and laboratory testing. Efficacy with regard to organ distension, contrast distribution, bowel enhancement and delineation of adjacent structures was graded qualitatively. Results: No serious adverse events were reported for either of the two concentrations. A total of 31 minor side effects were noted, of which significantly more occurred in the higher dose group (p<0.01). The diagnostic confidence in defining or excluding disease was graded as better after contrast administration for 48% of all images. Marked or moderate enhancement of the upper gastrointestinal tract was achieved at both doses in 69.5% of cases with no evident difference between the two doses. The higher dose tended to show better results in terms of the contrast assessment parameters. Conclusion: Ferric ammonium citrate is a safe and effective oral contrast agent for MR imaging of the upper abdomen at two different dose levels. The higher dose showed a tendency toward better imaging results while the lower dose caused significantly fewer side effects. Therefore, the 1200 mg dose can be recommended in view of the risk-to-benefit ratio. (orig.)

  19. Correlation between image quality of CT scan and amount of intravenous contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Dae Young; Choi, Dae Seob; Kim, Seung Hyup; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Im, Jung Gi; Han, Moon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Jong Hyo; Han, Man Chung

    1993-01-01

    A blind, comparative clinical study was performed prospectively to examine the correlation between image quality of CT scan in terms of contrast enhancement effect and amount of intravenous contrast media. A total of 357 patients were randomized into two groups. Ionic high-osmolality contrast media (68% meglumine ioglicate) was administered intravenously as 100 ml bolus in one group and as 50 ml bolus in the other group. Statistically significant differences of image quality were found in CT scans of the brain, head and neck, chest and abdomen (p 0.05). We suggest that amount of contrast media may be reduced in pelvis CT without significant degradation of image quality

  20. Sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m antral scan in the diagnosis of retained gastric antrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.H.; P'eng, F.K.; Yeh, P.H.

    1984-01-01

    Retained gastric antrum (RGA) is a major factor in recurrent peptic ulcer. We studied 121 patients with proven anastomotic ulcers following subtotal gastrectomy and Billroth II reconstruction with sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m to determine the presence of RGA. Of the patients, 59 required surgery, 22 had RGA, and 16 had a positive scan for RGA. This noninvasive examination has 100% specificity. If RGA is identified before operation, minimal time is wasted in exploration of the abdomen, which is especially important in dealing with emergency cases. When an antral scan is negative for RGA, the surgeon is still advised to search for this condition

  1. Localization of Hodgkin's disease and lymphomas by 67-gallium substraction scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krolikiewicz, H; Maruyama, Y; Deland, F H; Beihn, R M; Hafner, T; Utley, J F

    1977-01-01

    /sup 67/Ga-subtraction scan was found to be useful and a promising new method for the pre-treatment evaluation of the patient with Hodgkin's disease or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The scan appeared to be most accurate in the neck, chest, and axillary regions. It appears to offer a means of increasing the accuracy of evaluating the abdomen, the para-aortic and pelvic regions. It may be a useful method for the follow-up to detect recurrences. It was an easily performed, safe, non-invasive test, well tolerated and accepted by patients.

  2. Sci-Fri AM: MRI and Diagnostic Imaging - 02: Quality Improvement: Diagnostic Reference Levels for Interior Health CT exams – L-Spine, Chest/Abdomen/pelvis, Abdomen/Pelvis, Head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarnason, Thorarin

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic Reference Levels are used to optimize patient dose and image quality in the clinical setting. It is assumed that the majority of exams are of diagnostic quality, or the radiologists would request protocol adjustments. By investigating the dose indicator distributions from all scanners, the upper DRL can be set to the 75th percentile of the distribution and a lower DRL can be set to the 10th percentile. Scanners using doses consistently outside the upper/lower DRL range can be adjusted accordingly. 11 CT scanners, all contributing to the American College of Radiology Dose Index Registry (ACR DIR) were used in this study. Dose indicator data were compiled from the ACR DIR data and local DRLs established. Scanners with median doses outside the upper/lower DRL were followed-up with. Using effective dose and exam volumes, collective dose was determined before and after protocol adjustments to evaluate the effect of this quality improvement effort. The quality initiative is complete for L-spine and Chest/Abdomen/Pelvis exams and only initial surveys were completed for Head and Abdomen/Pelvis examsg. Median Scanner Dose reductions were 8.8 and 4.9 % for L-spine and Chest/Abdomen/Pelvis exams, respectively, resulting with collective dose reductions of 0.7 and 3.2 person•Sv/yr. Follow-up is ongoing for Abdomen/Pelvis and Head exams.

  3. Sci-Fri AM: MRI and Diagnostic Imaging - 02: Quality Improvement: Diagnostic Reference Levels for Interior Health CT exams – L-Spine, Chest/Abdomen/pelvis, Abdomen/Pelvis, Head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjarnason, Thorarin [Diagnostic Imaging / Interior Health, Mathematics, Statistics, Physics & Computer Science / UBCO (Canada); Radiology / UBC (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Diagnostic Reference Levels are used to optimize patient dose and image quality in the clinical setting. It is assumed that the majority of exams are of diagnostic quality, or the radiologists would request protocol adjustments. By investigating the dose indicator distributions from all scanners, the upper DRL can be set to the 75th percentile of the distribution and a lower DRL can be set to the 10th percentile. Scanners using doses consistently outside the upper/lower DRL range can be adjusted accordingly. 11 CT scanners, all contributing to the American College of Radiology Dose Index Registry (ACR DIR) were used in this study. Dose indicator data were compiled from the ACR DIR data and local DRLs established. Scanners with median doses outside the upper/lower DRL were followed-up with. Using effective dose and exam volumes, collective dose was determined before and after protocol adjustments to evaluate the effect of this quality improvement effort. The quality initiative is complete for L-spine and Chest/Abdomen/Pelvis exams and only initial surveys were completed for Head and Abdomen/Pelvis examsg. Median Scanner Dose reductions were 8.8 and 4.9 % for L-spine and Chest/Abdomen/Pelvis exams, respectively, resulting with collective dose reductions of 0.7 and 3.2 person•Sv/yr. Follow-up is ongoing for Abdomen/Pelvis and Head exams.

  4. Management of the open abdomen: clinical recommendations for the trauma/acute care surgeon and general surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Luis G

    2016-09-01

    Traditionally, the surgical approach to managing abdominal injuries was to assess the extent of trauma, repair any damage and close the abdomen in one definitive procedure rather than leave the abdomen open. With advances in medicine, damage control surgery using temporary abdominal closure methods is being used to manage the open abdomen (OA) when closure is not possible. Although OA management is often observed in traumatic injuries, the extension of damage control surgery concepts, in conjunction with OA, for the management of the septic patient requires that the general surgeon who is faced with these challenges has a comprehensive knowledge of this complex subject. The purpose of this article is to provide guidance to the acute care and general surgeon on the use of OA negative pressure therapy (OA-NPT; ABTHERA™ Open Abdomen Negative Pressure Therapy System, KCI, an ACELITY Company, San Antonio, TX) for OA management. A literature review of published evidence, clinical recommendations on managing the OA and a case study demonstrating OA management using OA-NPT have been included. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Abdomen after a Puestow procedure: postoperative CT appearance, complications, and potential pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, K S; Paulson, E K; Frederick, M G; Keogan, M T; Pappas, T N

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate the postoperative computed tomographic (CT) appearance, complications, and potential pitfalls after a Puestow procedure (lateral side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy). Forty CT examinations were performed after the Puestow procedure in 20 patients. Images were retrospectively reviewed by three radiologists. The pancreaticojejunal anastomosis was identified at 30 examinations and was immediately anterior to the pancreatic body or tail. The anastomosis contained fluid or gas on 11 scans and oral contrast material on four scans. On 15 scans, the anastomosis appeared as collapsed bowel without gas, fluid, or oral contrast material. The Roux-en-Y loop was identified on 28 (70%) scans and contained fluid or gas on 16 scans and oral contrast material on six scans. The Roux-en-Y loop appeared as collapsed bowel on six scans. When the anastomosis or Roux-en-Y loop contained fluid and gas, the appearance mimicked that of a pancreatic or parapancreatic abscess. Peripancreatic stranding was present on 28 scans and was due to either ongoing pancreatitis or postoperative change. Complications included 15 transient fluid collections, three abscesses, four pseudocysts, one hematoma, and one small-bowel and Roux-en-Y obstruction. Knowledge of the anatomy after a Puestow procedure is essential for accurate interpretation of CT scans.

  6. Morphology of the adult male and pupal exuviae of Glyptotendipes (Glyptotendipes) glaucus (Meigen 1818) (Diptera, Chironomidae) using scanning electron microscope (SEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kownacki, Andrzej; Woznicka, Olga; Szarek-Gwiazda, Ewa; Michailova, Paraskeva; Czaplicka, Anna

    2017-02-27

    In this paper, a study of the morphology of the pupa and male imago of Glyptotendipes (G.) glaucus (Meigen 1818) was carried out, with the aid of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM provided additional valuable information on the morphology of the species. Adult male head, antenna, wing, leg, abdomen, hypopygium, pupal cephalothorax and abdomen were examined. It is emphasized that SEM was not often used in Chironomidae studies. The present results confirm SEM as a suitable approach in carrying out morphological and taxonomical descriptions of Chironomidae species.

  7. Missed injuries in the era of the trauma scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Christy M; Daley, Brian J; Ormsby, Christine B; Enderson, Blaine

    2011-02-01

    A rapid computed tomography technique or "trauma scan" (TS) provides high-resolution studies of the head, cervical spine, chest, abdomen, and pelvis. We sought to determine whether TS has decreased missed injuries. A previous study of TS found a 3% missed rate. After institutional review board approval, trauma patients from January 2001 through December 2008 were reviewed for delayed diagnosis (DD) of injury to the head, cervical spine, chest, abdomen, or pelvis. Missed extremity injuries were excluded. Injury Severity Score, length of stay, type of injury, outcomes, and days to detection were captured. Of 26,264 patients reviewed, 90 patients had DD, with an incidence of 0.34%. DD most commonly presented on day 2. Injuries included 16 bowel/mesentery, 12 spine, 11 pelvic, 8 spleen, 6 diaphragm, 5 clavicle, 4 scapula, 4 cervical spine, 4 intracranial, 4 sternum, 3 maxillofacial, 3 liver, 2 heart/aorta, 2 vascular, 2 urethra/bladder, 2 pneumothorax, and 2 pancreas/common bile duct. DD resulted in 1 death, 6 prolonged intensive care unit stays, 19 operative interventions, and 38 additional interventions. TS is an effective way of evaluating trauma patients for intracranial, cervical spine, chest, abdomen, and pelvic injuries that have the potential to impact morbidity and mortality. The incidence of injuries missed in these crucial areas has been reduced at our institution by the use of this radiographic modality. The most common missed injury remains bowel, and so a high index of suspicion and the tertiary survey must remain a mainstay of therapy.

  8. Lung PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging; ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  9. Scanning of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robillard, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Centers against cancer of Caen, Angers, Montpellier, Strasbourg and 'the Curie Foundation' have confronted their experience in detection of bone metastases by total body scanning. From the investigation by this procedure, of 1,467 patients with cancer, it results: the confrontation between radio and scanning shows a rate of false positive and false negative identical to the literature ones; the countage scanning allows to reduce the number of false positive; scanning allows to direct bone biopsy and to improve efficiency of histological examination [fr

  10. Independent predictors of enteric fistula and abdominal sepsis after damage control laparotomy: results from the prospective AAST Open Abdomen registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Matthew J; Dubose, Joseph J; Scalea, Thomas M; Holcomb, John B; Shrestha, Binod; Okoye, Obi; Inaba, Kenji; Bee, Tiffany K; Fabian, Timothy C; Whelan, James F; Ivatury, Rao R

    2013-10-01

    Enterocutaneous fistula (ECF), enteroatmospheric fistula (EAF), and intra-abdominal sepsis/abscess (IAS) are major challenges for surgeons caring for patients undergoing damage control laparotomy after trauma. To determine independent predictors of ECF, EAF, or IAS in patients undergoing damage control laparotomy after trauma, using the AAST Open Abdomen Registry. The AAST Open Abdomen registry of patients with an open abdomen following damage control laparotomy was used to identify patients who developed ECF, EAF, or IAS and to compare these patients with those without these complications. Univariate analyses were performed to compare these groups of patients. Variables from univariate analyses differing at P IAS. Fourteen level I trauma centers. A total of 517 patients with an open abdomen following damage control laparotomy. Complication of ECF, EAF, or IAS. More patients in the ECF/EAF/IAS group than in the group without these complications underwent bowel resection (63 of 111 patients [57%] vs 133 of 406 patients [33%]; P 48 hours after surgery, the ECF/EAF/IAS group received more colloids (P IAS group underwent almost twice as many abdominal reexplorations as did the group without these complications (mean [SD] number, 4.1 [4.1] vs 2.2 [3.4]; P IAS were a large bowel resection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.56 [95% CI, 1.88-6.76]; P 48 hours of between 5 and 10 L (AOR, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.15-3.88]; P = .02) or more than 10 L (AOR, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.04-3.57]; P = .04), and an increasing number of reexplorations (AOR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.06-1.21]; P IAS in patients with an open abdomen after damage control laparotomy.

  11. Evaluation of amylase and lipase levels in blunt trauma abdomen patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subodh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are studies to prove the role of amylase and lipase estimation as a screening diagnostic tool to detect diseases apart from acute pancreatitis. However, there is sparse literature on the role of serum and urine amylase, lipase levels, etc to help predict the specific intra-abdominal injury after blunt trauma abdomen (BTA. Aim: To elucidate the significance of elevation in the levels of amylase and lipase in serum and urine samples as reliable parameters for accurate diagnosis and management of blunt trauma to the abdomen. Materials and Methods: A prospective analysis was done on the trauma patients admitted in Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center, AIIMS, with blunt abdomen trauma injuries over a period of six months. Blood and urine samples were collected on days 1, 3, and 5 of admission for the estimation of amylase and lipase, liver function tests, serum bicarbonates, urine routine microscopy for red blood cells, and complete hemogram. Clinical details such as time elapsed from injury to admission, type of injury, trauma score, and hypotension were noted. Patients were divided into groups according to the single or multiple organs injured and according to their hospital outcome (dead/discharged. Wilcoxon′s Rank sum or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare median values in two/three groups. Data analysis was performed using STATA 11.0 statistical software. Results: A total of 55 patients with median age 26 (range, 6-80 years, were enrolled in the study. Of these, 80% were males. Surgery was required for 20% of the patients. Out of 55 patients, 42 had isolated single organ injury [liver or spleen or gastrointestinal tract (GIT or kidney]. Patients with pancreatic injury were excluded. In patients who suffered liver injuries, urine lipase levels on day 1, urine lipase/amylase ratio along with aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP on days 1, 3, and 5, were found to

  12. Evaluation of amylase and lipase levels in blunt trauma abdomen patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Subodh; Sagar, Sushma; Subramanian, Arulselvi; Albert, Venencia; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Kapoor, Nitika

    2012-04-01

    There are studies to prove the role of amylase and lipase estimation as a screening diagnostic tool to detect diseases apart from acute pancreatitis. However, there is sparse literature on the role of serum and urine amylase, lipase levels, etc to help predict the specific intra-abdominal injury after blunt trauma abdomen (BTA). To elucidate the significance of elevation in the levels of amylase and lipase in serum and urine samples as reliable parameters for accurate diagnosis and management of blunt trauma to the abdomen. A prospective analysis was done on the trauma patients admitted in Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center, AIIMS, with blunt abdomen trauma injuries over a period of six months. Blood and urine samples were collected on days 1, 3, and 5 of admission for the estimation of amylase and lipase, liver function tests, serum bicarbonates, urine routine microscopy for red blood cells, and complete hemogram. Clinical details such as time elapsed from injury to admission, type of injury, trauma score, and hypotension were noted. Patients were divided into groups according to the single or multiple organs injured and according to their hospital outcome (dead/discharged). Wilcoxon's Rank sum or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare median values in two/three groups. Data analysis was performed using STATA 11.0 statistical software. A total of 55 patients with median age 26 (range, 6-80) years, were enrolled in the study. Of these, 80% were males. Surgery was required for 20% of the patients. Out of 55 patients, 42 had isolated single organ injury [liver or spleen or gastrointestinal tract (GIT) or kidney]. Patients with pancreatic injury were excluded. In patients who suffered liver injuries, urine lipase levels on day 1, urine lipase/amylase ratio along with aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) on days 1, 3, and 5, were found to be significant. Day 1 serum amylase, AST, ALT, hemoglobin, and

  13. A STUDY OF POST-SURGICAL COMPLICATIONS IN ACUTE ABDOMEN CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhooma Reddy Muthyala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The most common causes of the acute abdomen are acute appendicitis which may be perforated, typhoid ileal perforation, acute intestinal obstruction, gastroduodenal perforations, nonspecific abdominal pain, abdominal injuries, and acute cholecystitis. A summary of all the acute complications taken together will be the fact that all are associated with post-surgical complications. A sincere effort has been made to study the post-operative complications that a surgeon encounters while treating the acute abdomen cases. This study is intended to help the practising surgeons who deal with such complications. It also is intended to help the doctors who practice to identify such complications and thus refer the patients for immediate intervention. METHODS This study was conducted in the Department of General Surgery, Government Medical College, Nizamabad, Telangana. This study was done from June 2013 to May 2016. One hundred sixty patients who were admitted in the hospital after surgery for acute abdominal conditions were considered for the study. Thorough clinical examination was conducted and the complications that were encountered were noted and the complications were treated as per the need of the hour. The complications faced by the treating surgeon in each and every entity that was discussed earlier was duly noted and statistical analysis was conducted. All the statistical analysis was done using the latest SPSS software 2015 (California. RESULT In our study, the mean age of the study population was found to be 29.8 years. That means the majority of the patients who turn up in the Department of Emergency is young and generally in the third decade of life. In Acute Intestinal Obstruction and blunt abdominal injuries, significance of mortality is high (p<0.05. CONCLUSION The study was successful in proving that abdominal injuries are the main factors of causing morbidity and mortality in the younger generation. The surgical mode of

  14. Study of dosimetric quantities and image quality in pediatric examinations of chest and abdomen computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva

    2013-01-01

    This work had the objective to achieve the knowledge of the dosimetric quantities related to chest and abdomen computed tomography (CT) examinations of pediatric patients, in Belo Horizonte city. The reason of this work is based on the fact that the probability of health detriment in children, which it may be caused by radiation, is higher than in adults. Besides, although in many countries the knowledge and control of patient doses is a normal procedure, this safety culture does not exist in Brazil. Another objective of this work was to compare the dosimetric quantity values with the Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs); when it was needed, an optimization process was applied and the quality of the diagnostic image obtained with the optimized technical parameters was analyzed. This study was carried out in five hospitals, where the weighted air kerma index (Cw), the volumetric air kerma index (Cvol), the air kerma - length product (PKL,CT), the Effective Dose (E) and the Normalized Effective Dose (En) were determined; three methods were adopted for measurements: the ionization chamber inside a chest pediatric phantom, radiochromic films and the CT-EXPO software. The optimization process was applied to a single hospital through variations in the current (mA) and voltage (kV) of the x-ray tube for the protocols used for abdomen CT examinations. The analysis of the quality of the diagnostic image was done by Normal Distribution and ROC analysis; spatial resolution analysis was used through MTF determination and the noise level was judged in terms quantitative and qualitative. Results of the dosimetric quantities showed that they significantly differed between single-slice and multi-slice tomography units, but their values were always below the recommended DRLs. The optimized values of the dosimetric quantities obtained after the optimization process showed that it was possible to reduce the radiation exposure of pediatric patient without losing the image quality

  15. Model PET Scan Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Amber; Gazdovich, Jennifer; Redouté, Oriane; Reverte, Juan Manuel; Shelley, Samantha; Todorova, Vesela

    2018-05-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to antimatter and how it, along with other modern physics topics, is utilized in positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It further describes a hands-on activity for students to help them gain an understanding of how PET scans assist in detecting cancer. Modern physics topics provide an exciting way to introduce students to current applications of physics.

  16. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Marie; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    With a Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) a vibrating surface is automatically scanned over predefined grid points, and data processed for displaying vibration properties like mode shapes, natural frequencies, damping ratios, and operational deflection shapes. Our SLDV – a PSV-500H from...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ...

  18. Transverse section scanning mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, E.J.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus is described for scanning a transverse, radionuclide scan-field using an array of focussed collimators. The collimators are movable tangentially on rails, driven by a single motor via a coupled screw. The collimators are also movable in a radial direction on rails driven by a step motor via coupled screws and bevel gears. Adjacent bevel gears rotate in opposite directions so adjacent collimators move in radially opposite directions. In use, the focal point of each collimator scans at least half of the scan-field, e.g. a human head located in the central aperture, and the electrical outputs of detectors associated with each collimator are used to determine the distribution of radioactive emission intensity at a number of points in the scan-field. (author)

  19. LIDAR COMBINED SCANNING UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The results of lidar combined scanning unit development for locating leaks of hydrocarbons are presented The unit enables to perform high-speed scanning of the investigated space in wide and narrow angle fields. Method. Scanning in a wide angular field is produced by one-line scanning path by means of the movable aluminum mirror with a frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 20 degrees of swing. Narrowband scanning is performed along a spiral path by the deflector. The deflection of the beam is done by rotation of the optical wedges forming part of the deflector at an angle of ±50. The control function of the scanning node is performed by a specialized software product written in C# programming language. Main Results. This scanning unit allows scanning the investigated area at a distance of 50-100 m with spatial resolution at the level of 3 cm. The positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space is 15'. The developed scanning unit gives the possibility to browse the entire investigated area for the time not more than 1 ms at a rotation frequency of each wedge from 50 to 200 Hz. The problem of unambiguous definition of the beam geographical coordinates in space is solved at the software level according to the rotation angles of the mirrors and optical wedges. Lidar system coordinates are determined by means of GPS. Practical Relevance. Development results open the possibility for increasing the spatial resolution of scanning systems of a wide range of lidars and can provide high positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space.

  20. A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen: Urinary Bladder Rupture due to Foley Catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Engin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Urinary bladder rupture is usually found due to blunt or penetrating traumas and iatrogenic injuries, and spontaneous intraperitoneal perforation is very rare. 57 years old male patient was consulted to general surgery department due to abdominal pain, nausia-vomiting and fever. He had Diabetes Mellitus, Multiple Sclerosis, Leriche Syndrome and operation for benign prostatic hypertrophy 5 years ago on his medical history which the case catheterised him urinary bladder himself frequently in nonsterile conditions. He did not care about sterility. On physical examination, suprapubic defence and rebound was noted more prominently on right lower quadrant. He was taken to operating room with the diagnosis of acute abdomen. On exploration, infection was seen on all layers of the whole urinary bladder, abscess formation and necrosis causing a microperforation which is detected by methylene blue was also present. Intraabdominal abscess drainage, cystostomy and primary suturing of the urinary bladder was performed. Patient died due to sepsis at the 9.th post operative day.

  1. Whole abdomen irradiation in epithelial ovarian cancer - state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocheva, L.

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (OC) as a malignancy which poses multiple challenges has led to growing attention and concern during recent years. The not very noteworthy treatment results achieved during the last three decades with contemporary chemotherapeutic schemes have led to the need for research and development of new therapeutic approaches, as well as to a resurgence of interest in radiotherapy (RT) as part of a combined modality approach and as salvage therapy for patients with small volume persistent disease after primary cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy. This article reviews the state of the art of whole abdomen irradiation (WAI) (excluding the moving strip field technique) as part of the complex treatment of epithelial OC. The prognostic factors and risk groups of epithelial OC are discussed as indicators for WAI, giving in detail the applied treatment modalities, fractionation and total doses. Toxicity and second primary malignancies following WAI are analyzed. The clinical experience accumulated during the last decades, as adjuvant, consolidative, salvage and palliative WAI in combined treatment of epithelial OC, is presented. Current issues in the radiotherapeutic management are discussed along with ideas for future clinical research directions. (author)

  2. INTRA-ABDOMINAL INFECTION AND ACUTE ABDOMEN-EPIDEMIOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF SURGICAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dušan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Intra-abdominal infections are multifactorial and present an complex inflammatory response of the peritoneum to microorganisms followed by exudation in the abdominal cavity and systemic response Despite advances in management and critical care of patients with acute generalized peritonitis due to hollow viscus perforation, prognosis is still very poor, with high mortality rate. Early detection and adequate treatment is essential to minimize complications in the patient with acute abdomen. Prognostic evaluation of complicated IAI by modern scoring systems is important to assess the severity and the prognosis of the disease. Control of the septic source can be achieved either by nonoperative or operative means. Nonoperative interventional procedures include percutaneous drainages of abscesses. The management of primary peritonitis is non-surgical and antibiotic- treatment. The management of secondary peritonitis include surgery to control the source of infection, removal of toxins, bacteria, and necrotic tissue, antibiotic therapy, supportive therapy and nutrition. "Source control" is sine qua non of success and adequate surgical procedure involves closure or resection of any openings into the gastrointestinal tract, resection of inflamed tissue and drainage of all abdominal and pelivic collections.

  3. Treatments and other prognostic factors in the management of the open abdomen: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristaudo, Adam T; Jennings, Scott B; Hitos, Kerry; Gunnarsson, Ronny; DeCosta, Alan

    2017-02-01

    The open abdomen (OA) is an important approach for managing intra-abdominal catastrophes and continues to be the standard of care. Despite this, challenges remain with it associated with a high incidence of complications and poor outcomes. The objective of this article is to perform a systematic review in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to identify prognostic factors in OA patients in regard to definitive fascial closure (DFC), mortality and intra-abdominal complications. An electronic database search was conducted involving Medline, Excerpta Medica, Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cumulative Index to Nursing, and Allied Health Literature and Clinicaltrials.gov. All studies that described prognostic factors in regard to the above outcomes in OA patients were eligible for inclusion. Data collected were synthesized by each outcome of interest and assessed for methodological quality. Thirty-one studies were included in the final synthesis. Enteral nutrition, organ dysfunction, local and systemic infection, number of reexplorations, worsening Injury Severity Score, and the development of a fistula appeared to significantly delay DFC. Age and Adult Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation version II score were predictors for in-hospital mortality. Failed DFC, large bowel resection and >5 to 10 L of intravenous fluids in 5 to 10 and >10 L of intravenous fluids in management of OA patients will avoid prolonged treatment and facilitate early DFC. Future research should focus on the development of a prognostic model. Systematic review, level III.

  4. Improved regression models for ventilation estimation based on chest and abdomen movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shaopeng; Gao, Robert; He, Qingbo; Staudenmayer, John; Freedson, Patty

    2012-01-01

    Non-invasive estimation of minute ventilation is important for quantifying the intensity of physical activity of individuals. In this paper, several improved regression models are presented, based on the measurement of chest and abdomen movements from sensor belts worn by subjects (n = 50) engaged in 14 types of physical activity. Five linear models involving a combination of 11 features were developed, and the effects of different model training approaches and window sizes for computing the features were investigated. The performance of the models was evaluated using experimental data collected during the physical activity protocol. The predicted minute ventilation was compared to the criterion ventilation measured using a bidirectional digital volume transducer housed in a respiratory gas exchange system. The results indicate that the inclusion of breathing frequency and the use of percentile points instead of interdecile ranges over a 60 s window size reduced error by about 43%, when applied to the classical two-degrees-of-freedom model. The mean percentage error of the minute ventilation estimated for all the activities was below 7.5%, verifying reasonably good performance of the models and the applicability of the wearable sensing system for minute ventilation estimation during physical activity. (paper)

  5. An Experience of an Individual With a Chronic Wound in an Open Abdomen: A Grounded Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Ramírez, Alejandra

    2017-06-01

    The open abdomen (OA) surgical technique has become an option for treating complex abdominal injuries; however, complications leading to late closure conditions might arise. In these cases the wound must be left open, which greatly impacts the patient's life. The author aims to describe the experiences of individuals with a chronic OA wound. Qualitative design using grounded theory was utilized. This study was carried out with a group of 28 adults who were treated with OA technique and whose wound had remained open for more than a month in duration and only received outpatient wound care. Data were collected through open interviews and examined under continuous comparison. The average age of the respondents was 45 years, and their wound, treated with OA due to severe abdominal infection, remained open between 2 months and 8 years. An emergent theory was developed to describe how people facing this experience undergo a process of 4 stages: 1) finding an OA wound upon waking, 2) feeling desperate about the healing process and the limitations involved, 3) regaining control of their life, and 4) taking advantage of their second chance at life with an OA wound. This study provides insight for nurses and other health care professionals into the experiences of patients with a chronic OA wound and proposes an emerging theory based on the conceptualization of these experiences.

  6. Ileum perforation due to accidental chicken bone ingestion a rare cause of the acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doklestić Krstina S.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of foreign bodies is not an uncommon occurrence, but most of them will pass through the gastrointestinal tract without consequences. Complication such as perforation is rare. We present a case of small bowel perforation secondary to the accidental ingestion of a chicken bone. The patient presented with abdominal pain, constipation and vomiting. Clinical examination confirmed generalized abdominal tenderness and rebound tenderness. Abdominal radiography showed multiple dilated loops of small bowel, and abdominal ultrasound (US showed inflammatory changes on small bowel loops, with free fluid and fluid collection around intestinal loops. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy. Intra operative findings revealed diffuse fibro purulent peritonitis with abscess between central small bowels loops. At about 60 cm from Bauchini valve we found a perforation of ileum at the anti-mesenteric site caused by a sharp chicken wishbone. The patient was treated with resection of the ileum segment (10 cm and primary end-to-end anastomosis. Even that intestinal perforation by a foreign body is rare, physicians should consider possibility of intestinal perforation by a foreign body in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in patients presenting with abdominal pain.

  7. Multidetector CT of blunt traumatic venous injuries in the chest, abdomen, and pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, Brian P; Steenburg, Scott D

    2011-01-01

    Venous injuries as a result of blunt trauma are rare. Even though current protocols for multidetector computed tomography (CT) of patients with trauma are designed to evaluate primarily the solid organs and arteries, blunt venous injuries may nevertheless be identified, or at least suspected, on the basis of the multidetector CT findings. Venous injuries are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Diagnosis of a possible venous injury is crucial because the physical findings of a venous injury are nonspecific and may be absent. This article aims to make the radiologist aware of various venous injuries caused by blunt trauma and to provide helpful hints to aid in the identification of venous injuries. Multidetector CT technology, in combination with interactive manipulation of the raw dataset, can be useful in the creation of multiplanar reconstructed images and in the identification of a venous injury caused by blunt trauma. Familiarity with direct and indirect signs of venous injuries, as well as with examples of blunt traumatic venous injuries in the chest, abdomen, and pelvis, will help in the diagnosis of these injuries.

  8. Radiotherapy of ovarian epithelial cancer by total orthogonal field irradiation of the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delouche, G.; Valinta, D.; Bachelot, F.

    1981-01-01

    Isotopic intraperitoneal curietherapy by 32 P is the simplest method for irradiating the peritoneum, but it has only limited indications. This irradiation has usually to be given by the percutaneous route, but because of the size of the region to be irradiated it raises delicate problems poorly resolved by the traditional methods applied. For this reason, a particular method is suggested including, among other characteristics: 4 orthogonal fields; 2 sessions daily, irradiating one part of the abdomen in the morning and the other part in the afternoon; spreading of the doses in confirmity with current specifications; and modulation of the total dose as a function of the maximum size of the tumoral remnants. Abdominal radiotherapy is currently the method of choice in cases where lesions are in their early stages, in so far as chemotherapy, much more restrictive for the patient, has not yet demonstrated its long-term efficacy. A controlled clinical study is necessary in order to determine the most effective method [fr

  9. Jejunal Diverticulosis Presented with Acute Abdomen and Diverticulitis Complication: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidan, Nurdan; Mermi, Esra Ummuhan; Acay, Mehtap Beker; Murat, Muammer; Zobaci, Ethem

    2015-01-01

    Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare, usually asymptomatic disease. Its incidence increases with age. If symptomatic, diverticulosis may cause life-threatening acute complications such as diverticulitis, perforation, intestinal hemorrhage and obstruction. In this report, we aimed to present a 67-year-old male patient with jejunal diverticulitis accompanying with abdominal pain and vomiting. A 67-year-old male patient complaining of epigastric pain for a week and nausea and fever for a day presented to our emergency department. Ultrasonographic examination in our clinic revealed diverticulum-like images with thickened walls adjacent to the small intestine loops, and increase in the echogenicity of the surrounding mesenteric fat tissue. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography showed multiple diverticula, thickened walls with showing contrast enhancement and adjacent jejunum in the left middle quadrant, increased density of the surrounding mesenteric fat tissue, and mesenteric lymph nodes. The patient was hospitalized by general surgery department with the diagnosis of jejunal diverticulitis. Conservative intravenous fluid administration and antibiotic therapy were initiated. Clinical symptoms regressed and the patient was discharged from hospital after 2 weeks. In cases of diverticulitis it should be kept in mind that in patients with advanced age and pain in the left quadrant of the abdomen, diverticular disease causing mortality and morbidity does not always originate from the colon but might also originate from the jejunum

  10. Acute abdomen in a patient with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrić Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH syndrome is a malformation of female genital tract (incidence 1 in 4000 female newborn children. It appears as a result of a disorder in the development of Millerian cannals. Etiology is unknown. Syndrome MRKH is the most frequent cause of primary amenorrhoea (90%. Patients with MRKH have a normal female phenotype, with normal pubic hairness and thelarche, and female karyotype (46XX followed by primary amenorrhoea. Hormonal status corresponds to healthy women, where the appearance of ovarian tumors and tumors on rudiment parts of uterus is possible. Case report. We presented a case of acute abdomen in a patient with previously not diagnosed MRKH. The diagnosis was done during the operation. Small pelvis and an abdominal part were filled with torquated tumor lump, where ovaries, oviducts, uterus or something resembling rudiment of uterus were not recognized through careful examination. Furthemore, the patient had a short, dead-end vagina. Tumorectomy was done and hystopathological finding showed the presence of vascular leiomyoma. Conclusion. The diagnosis of complex syndromes, such as MRKH, can, despite modern diagnostics, be absent for non-medical and psycho-social reasons. We can expect ovarian and uterine pathology on hypoplastic structures in these patients, as well as in healthy women. Vascular leiomyoma in the patients with MRKH was not found in the available literature.

  11. The open abdomen and temporary abdominal closure systems--historical evolution and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quyn, A J; Johnston, C; Hall, D; Chambers, A; Arapova, N; Ogston, S; Amin, A I

    2012-08-01

    Several techniques for temporary abdominal closure have been developed. We systematically review the literature on temporary abdominal closure to ascertain whether the method can be tailored to the indication. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and relevant meeting abstracts until December 2009 were searched using the following headings: open abdomen, laparostomy, VAC (vacuum assisted closure), TNP (topical negative pressure), fascial closure, temporary abdominal closure, fascial dehiscence and deep wound dehiscence. The data were analysed by closure technique and aetiology. The primary end-points included delayed fascial closure and in-hospital mortality. The secondary end-points were intra-abdominal complications. The search identified 106 papers for inclusion. The techniques described were VAC (38 series), mesh/sheet (30 series), packing (15 series), Wittmann patch (eight series), Bogotá bag (six series), dynamic retention sutures (three series), zipper (15 series), skin only and locking device (one series each). The highest facial closure rates were seen with the Wittmann patch (78%), dynamic retention sutures (71%) and VAC (61%). Temporary abdominal closure has evolved from simple packing to VAC based systems. In the absence of sepsis Wittmann patch and VAC offered the best outcome. In its presence VAC had the highest delayed primary closure and the lowest mortality rates. However, due to data heterogeneity only limited conclusions can be drawn from this analysis. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. Childhood motocross truncal injuries: high-velocity, focal force to the chest and abdomen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Raelene D; Potter, D Dean; Osborn, John B; Zietlow, Scott; Zarroug, Abdalla E; Moir, Christopher R; Ishitani, Michael B; McIntosh, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To review the need for operative intervention and critical care services for motocross truncal injuries in children. Design cohort Retrospective review of patients identified via the hospital trauma registry. Setting Our Level 1 Pediatric Trauma Center serves five motocross tracks. These patients require frequent medical care for injuries. Participants All patients ≤17 years of age with truncal injuries sustained during motocross activities, between 2000 and 2011, were identified through the trauma registry. Primary and secondary outcome measures Operative intervention, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, length of stay, morbidity and demographics were reviewed. Results Motocross injured 162 children. Thirty (18.5%) were thoracic or abdominal injuries. Operative intervention was required in eight (27%) patients. Mean injury severity score (ISS) was 11.8. ICU admission was required in 50% and average hospital length of stay was 4.1 days. The most common injuries include pulmonary contusion, pneumothorax, spleen and liver lacerations. 13% of subjects suffered truncal injury from motocross on more than one occasion. Conclusions Paediatric motocross-related truncal injuries are significant. Surgical intervention is required in 27% of patients. The lower ISS incurred from motocross combined with high surgical and ICU admission rates suggests focal high-impact injuries to the chest and abdomen. Despite significant injury, 13% of motocross patients suffer recurrent injuries. Parents and children need injury prevention education. PMID:23166134

  13. Evaluation of the usefulness and validity of imaging diagnosis for acute abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takehiro; Sudo, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the usefulness and validity of imaging diagnosis for acute abdomens. Sixty-one patients who had complained of acute abdominal pain upon hospital admittance were and divided into four groups according to the diagnostic imaging modalities that were used: X-ray alone (X-P group, n=11), ultrasonography (US group, n=12), computed tomography (CT group, n=14), and both ultrasonography and CT (US/CT group, n=24). The diagnosis made at the time of admission was also evaluated, and the patients were divided into three groups and analyzed statistically: bowel obstructions (bowel obstruction group, n=20), acute appendicitis or other diseases necessitating a differential diagnosis (appendicitis group, n=35), and perforations of the digestive tract (perforation group, n=6). X-ray and CT examinations were useful for making a diagnosis in the bowel obstruction and perforation groups. Ultrasonography was regarded as important in the appendicitis group. The accuracy of the diagnosis made upon admission was 95.0% in the bowel obstruction group, 88.6 % in the appendicitis group, and 100 % in the perforation group. Although a prospective evaluation is necessary, CT appears to be useful for diagnosing bowel obstructions and perforations of the digestive tract. Although ultrasonography is useful for diagnosing acute appendicitis, CT is recommended in patients in whom a differential diagnosis is difficult to obtain. (author)

  14. Acute and delayed effect of (-) deprenyl and (-) 1-phenyl-2-propylaminopentane (PPAP) on the serotonin content of peritoneal cells (white blood cells and mast cells).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, G; Kovács, P; Pállinger, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Acute and delayed (hormonal imprinting) effect of (-) deprenyl and its derivative without MAO-B inhibitory activity (-) PPAP, were studied on cells of the peritoneal fluid (lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes and mast cells) by flow cytometric and confocal microscopic analysis. Thirty minutes after treatment of 6-week-old female animals, deprenyl was ineffective while PPAP significantly increased the serotonin level of these cells. Three weeks after treatment at weaning, deprenyl drastically decreased the serotonin level of each cell type, while PPAP moderately but significantly increased the serotonin level of monocytes, granulocytes and mast cells. This means that the two related molecules have different effects on the immune cells, which seem to be independent of MAO-B inhibition. The experiments emphasize the necessity of studying the prolonged effects of biologically active molecules, even if they are without acute effects. As serotonin is a modulator of the immune system, the influence on immune cells of the molecules studied can contribute to their enhancing effect. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Methyl DNA adducts, DNA repair, and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase mutations in peripheral white blood cells from patients with malignant melanoma treated with dacarbazine and hydroxyurea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philip, P.A.; Souliotis, V.L.; Harris, A.L.; Salisbury, A.; Tates, A.D.; Mitchell, K.; Delft, J.H.M. van; Ganesan, T.S.; Kyrtopoulos, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Dacarbazine (DTIC) is a DNA-methylating drug used in the treatment of malignant melanoma. Among the DNA dducts induced by DTIC are N7-methylguanine (N7-meG) and O6-methylguamne (O6-meG). The latter adduct, in particular, may be important in the mutagenic as well as the cytotoxic activity of DTIC.

  16. The impact of "Ramadan fasting period" on total and differential white blood cells, haematological indices, inflammatory biomarker, respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests of healthy and asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, V R; Alavinezhad, A; Boskabady, M H

    2016-01-01

    There is no conclusive evidence regarding the effect of fasting on different features in asthmatic patients. In the present study, the effect of Ramadan fasting in asthmatic patients and healthy control was studied. Haematological indices, inflammatory mediators, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and respiratory symptoms were evaluated in 15 asthmatic patients compared to 14 healthy matched control group before and after the one-month fasting period in Ramadan. The change in each parameter from the beginning to the end of Ramadan was calculated and referred to as "variation during Ramadan". The values of MCH, MCHC in both groups and monocyte counts in asthmatic patients, were significantly increased but platelet count was reduced in asthmatic and controls respectively compared to pre-Ramadan fasting period (Pfasting month (Pfasting month in both groups were non-significantly higher compared to pre-fasting values except FVC. Respiratory symptoms in asthmatic patients were non-significantly but wheeze-o was significantly reduced after Ramadan fasting period in asthma group (Pfasting period between two groups, although reduction of hs-CRP in asthmatic group was non-significantly higher than control group. These results show that Ramadan fasting period has no negative impact on asthma and may have some positive effect on asthma severity with regard to reduction of hs-CRP concentration and chest wheeze. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Maintenance therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia revisited—Should drug doses be adjusted by white blood cell, neutrophil, or lymphocyte counts?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Nersting, Jacob; Nielsen, Stine Nygaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 6-Mercaptopurine (6MP) and methotrexate (MTX) based maintenance therapy is a critical phase of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. Wide interindividual variations in drug disposition warrant frequent doses adjustments, but there is a lack of international consensus on dose...... levels of 6-thioguanine nucleotides or MTX (including its polyglutamates) to be significant relapse predictors. The parameters significantly associated with risk of relapse (N = 83) were male sex (hazard ratio [HR] 2.0 [1.3-3.1], P = 0.003), WBC at diagnosis (HR = 1.04 per 10 × 10(9) /l rise [1...

  18. High white blood cell count is associated with a worsening of insulin sensitivity and predicts the development of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Weyer, Christian; Lindsay, Robert S

    2002-01-01

    in Pima Indians. We measured WBC in 352 nondiabetic Pima Indians (215 men and 137 women, aged 27 +/- 6 years [means +/- SD], body fat 32 +/- 8%, WBC 8,107 +/- 2,022 cells/mm(3)) who were characterized for body composition (by hydrodensitometry or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), glucose tolerance (by 75...... action and the development of type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a chronic activation of the immune system may play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes....

  19. A hormone map of human immune cells showing the presence of adrenocorticotropic hormone, triiodothyronine and endorphin in immunophenotyped white blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pállinger, Éva; Csaba, György

    2008-01-01

    The amounts of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), endorphin and triiodothyronine (T3) in twenty-six blood samples from men and women who were healthy or had non-haematological diseases were determined by flow cytometry. Lymphocytes were immunophenotyped using monoclonal antibodies against cell surface antigens, and monocytes and granulocytes were separated by their size and granularity (using forward-scatter versus side-scatter dot plots). Each hormone was found in each cell type. The hormone content of lymphocytes was balanced, but the concentration of ACTH was significantly lower in activated T cells, that of endorphin was significantly lower in natural killer (NK) cells, and that of T3 was lower in both cell types compared with values for all lymphocytes. Monocytes and granulocytes contained very significantly more hormones than lymphocytes or monocytes. The concentration of endorphin was an order of magnitude higher in granulocytes than in monocytes or lymphocytes, reflecting the pain-relieving role of granulocytes during inflammation. Compared with monocytes, in granulocytes there was a higher concentration of ACTH and a lower concentration of T3, which suggests selective hormone production by these cells. PMID:18005034

  20. Incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with ascites. Diagnostic value of white blood cell count and pH measurement in ascitic fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, J S; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Hegnhøj, J

    1991-01-01

    During a 21-month period, 65 consecutive patients admitted with ascites were included in a prospective study of the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and paracentesis was performed on admission. The ascitic fluid was cultured, ascitic leucocytes were counted and pH was measured....... Bacterial growth was found in five patients with chronic liver disease, who were diagnosed as having spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), since no intra-abdominal focus could be demonstrated. Thus, the incidence of SBP in this material was 7.7% (95% confidence limits: 2.5-17%). SBP was caused...