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Sample records for white spot lesions

  1. Management of post-orthodontic white spot lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonesson, Mikael; Bergstrand, Fredrik; Gizani, Sotiria

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The management of post-orthodontic white spot lesions is based on remineralization strategies or a minimal-invasive camouflage of the lesions. AIM: The aim of this systematic review was to identify and assess the quality of evidence for the various clinical technologies......-orthodontic white spot lesions. Further well-performed controlled clinical trials with long-term follow-up are needed to establish best clinical practice....

  2. Assessment of White Spot Lesions and In-Vivo Evaluation of the Effect of CPP-ACP on White Spot Lesions in Permanent Molars of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjal, Deepti; Garg, Shalini; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Sethi, Harsimran Singh

    2016-05-01

    As hindrance of remineralisation process occurs during orthodontic therapy resulting in decalcification of enamel because number of plaque retention sites increases due to banding and bonding of appliances to teeth. The present analytic study was undertaken to assess the occurrence of white spot lesions in permanent molars of children with and without orthodontic therapy and to evaluate the effect of Casein PhosphoPeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP) on white spot lesions in post-orthodontic patients in a given period of time. The study comprised of examination of 679 first permanent molars which were examined to assess the occurrence of smooth surface white spot lesions in children of 8 to 16 years age group. Group I comprised subjects without any orthodontic treatment and Group II comprised of subjects who had undergone orthodontic therapy. The sample size was calculated using the epi-info6 computer package. Treatment group included 20 post-orthodontic patients examined with at least one white spot lesion within the enamel who received remineralizing cream (GC Tooth Mousse, Recaldent, GC Corporation.) i.e., CPP-ACP cream two times a day for 12 consecutive weeks. Computerized image analysis method was taken to evaluate white spot lesions. These frequency and percentages were compared with chi-square test. For comparison of numeric data, paired t-test was used. Of the total 278 (49.6%) first permanent molars showed occurrence of smooth surface white spot lesions out of 560 in Group I and 107 (89.9%) first permanent molars showed presence of white spot lesions out of 119 debanded first permanent molars of children examined in Group II. CPP-ACP therapy group showed reduction in severity of codes which was found to be highly significant after 12 weeks and eight weeks on gingival-third, p-value (spot lesions on teeth undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy according to the present study.

  3. Prevention and treatment of white spot lesions in orthodontic patients

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    Maryam Khoroushi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decalcification of enamel, appearing as white spot lesions (WSLs, around fixed orthodontic appliances is a major challenge during and after fixed orthodontic treatment by considering the fact that the goal of orthodontic treatment is to enhance facial and dental esthetic appearance. Banded or bonded teeth exhibit a significantly higher rate of WSLs compared to the controls with no braces as fixed appliances and the bonding materials promote retention of biofilms. These lesions are managed in the first step by establishing good oral hygiene habits and prophylaxis with topical fluorides, including high-fluoride toothpastes, fluoride mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, fluoride-containing bonding materials, and elastic ligatures. Recently, other materials and methods have been recommended, including the application of casein phosphopeptides-amorphous calcium phosphate, antiseptics, probiotics, polyols, sealants, laser, tooth bleaching agents, resin infiltration, and microabrasion. This article reviews the currently used methods to manage enamel demineralization during and after orthodontic treatment and the risk factors and preventive measures based on the latest evidence.

  4. Fluoride varnish reduces white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment.

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    Shafi, Imran

    2008-01-01

    This was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) set in a community dental practice. The test varnish was a commercially available product, Fluor Protector (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), containing 0.1% fluoride as difluorosilane in a polyurethane varnish base. The placebo varnish applied had an identical composition but without fluoride. The incidence and prevalence of white spot lesions (WSL) on the upper incisors, cuspids and premolars were recorded, as scored from digital photographs by two independent examiners. In the case of disagreement, cases were re-examined until a consensus was achieved. The incidence of WSL during the treatment period was 7.4% in the fluoride varnish group compared with 25.3% placebo group (P <0.001). The mean progression score was significantly lower in the fluoride varnish group than in the placebo group, (0.8 +/- 2.0 vs 2.6 +/- 2.8; P <0.001). The absolute risk reduction was 18% and the number-needed-to-treat was calculated to be 5.5 (95% confidence interval, 3.7-10.9). The results strongly suggest that regular topical fluoride varnish applications may reduce the development of WSL adjacent to the bracket base during treatment with fixed appliances.

  5. White-spot Lesions and Gingivitis Microbiotas in Orthodontic Patients

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    Tanner, A.C.R.; Sonis, A.L.; Lif Holgerson, P.; Starr, J.R.; Nunez, Y.; Kressirer, C.A.; Paster, B.J.; Johansson, I.

    2012-01-01

    White-spot lesions (WSL) associated with orthodontic appliances are a cosmetic problem and increase risk for cavities. We characterized the microbiota of WSL, accounting for confounding due to gingivitis. Participants were 60 children with fixed appliances, aged between 10 and 19 yrs, half with WSL. Plaque samples were assayed by a 16S rRNA-based microarray (HOMIM) and by PCR. Mean gingival index was positively associated with WSL (p = 0.018). Taxa associated with WSL by microarray included Granulicatella elegans (p = 0.01), Veillonellaceae sp. HOT 155 (p gingivitis by microarray included: Gemella sanguinis (p = 0.002), Actinomyces sp. HOT 448 (p = 0.003), Prevotella cluster IV (p = 0.021), and Streptococcus sp. HOT 071/070 (p = 0.023); and levels of S. mutans (p = 0.02) and Bifidobacteriaceae (p = 0.012) by qPCR. Species’ associations with WSL were minimally changed with adjustment for gingivitis level. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis yielded good discrimination between children with and those without WSL. Granulicatella, Veillonellaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae, in addition to S. mutans and S. wiggsiae, were associated with the presence of WSL in adolescents undergoing orthodontic treatment. Many taxa showed a stronger association with gingivitis than with WSL. PMID:22837552

  6. [Effect of resin infiltration treatment on the colour of white spot lesions].

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    Zhao, Xiaoyi; Gao, Xuejun

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of resin infiltration and fluoride solution on masking different demineralized white spot lesions by assessing color change. Artificial white spot lesions were produced on 60 human molars. Each sample had at least two enamel surfaces opened (named A and B). The samples were randomly divided into groups 1, 2, and 3 according to their time of demineralization (24, 48, and 72 h). After demineralization, the A spot of each sample was treated by resin infiltration. The B spot was treated with 0.1% fluoride solution daily for 30 days. After the remineralization of the B spot, resin infiltration was used again on the B spot of each sample. Color assessment was performed by a spectrophotometer in five distinct stages: baseline, after the production of artificial caries, after resin infiltration of A spots, after 30 days of fluoride solution treatment of B spots, and after resin infiltration of remineralized B spots. Before demineralization, the L* values of spots A and B in all groups were not significantly different (P > 0.05), whereas the L* values of spots A and B were significantly increased after demineralization. The L* values of A spots recovered significantly after treatment by resin infiltration (P 0.05) after fluoride treatment compared with that after demineralization. After resin infiltration on B spots, the L* values recovered but could not reach the baseline nor the level of A spots treated by resin infiltration only. Resin infiltration is a more effective treatment for masking white spot lesions than traditional fluoride treatment. The effect of masking white spot lesions has certain relationships with the degree of demineralization and activity of the lesion.

  7. Treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesions with casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bröchner, Ann; Christensen, Carsten; Kristensen, Bjarne

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of topical applications of 10% casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on white spot lesions (WSL) detected after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Sixty healthy adolescents with >/=1 clinically visible WSL at debonding were...... findings were largely reflected by the clinical scores. No side effects were reported. Topical treatment of white spot lesions after debonding of orthodontic appliances with a casein phosphopeptide-stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate agent resulted in significantly reduced fluorescence and a reduced...

  8. Quantification of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets with image analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, C.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Derks, A.; Katsaros, C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of image analysis for diagnosis and quantification of artificial white spot lesions on digital photographs before and after removal of orthodontic brackets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Enamel demineralization was artificially induced on the labial surface of 20 teeth

  9. Effect of caries infiltration technique and fluoride therapy on the colour masking of white spot lesions.

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    Rocha Gomes Torres, Carlos; Borges, Alessandra Buhler; Torres, Luciana Marcondes Sarmento; Gomes, Isabela Silva; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Simões

    2011-03-01

    A carious lesion is initiated through the subsurface demineralization of enamel, and presents clinically as a white spot, interfering with the aesthetics. This lesion should not receive restorative treatment because it is capable of remineralization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of different treatments on masking white spot lesions by assessing the colour change. Artificial white spot lesions were produced in bovine enamel of 60 cylindrical-shaped samples. The samples were randomly divided into four groups: CON (control) - immersion in artificial saliva; DF - daily application of 0.05% fluoride solution; WF - weekly application of 2% fluoride gel; and IC - resin infiltration (Icon(®) - DMG). The assessment of colour was performed by a spectrophotometer in four distinct stages: baseline, after the production of artificial caries; after 4 weeks; after 8 weeks; and after a new acid challenge. The ΔL values were calculated at each stage in relation to the baseline colour. The application of RM ANOVA revealed significant differences between the factors' treatment and time (p=0.001). For the interaction between factors there were no significant differences (p=0.27). The Tukey's test (pwhite spot lesions. Also, after a new acid challenge, the group infiltrated with low viscosity resin presented the lowest means of colour change. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. A review on prevention and treatment of post-orthodontic white spot lesions - evidence-based methods and emerging technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrand, Fredrik; Twetman, Svante

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to update the evidence for primary and secondary prevention (treatment) of white spot lesions (WSL) adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances.......The aim of this paper was to update the evidence for primary and secondary prevention (treatment) of white spot lesions (WSL) adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances....

  11. Microhardness and Roughness of Infiltrated White Spot Lesions Submitted to Different Challenges.

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    Neres, É Y; Moda, M D; Chiba, E K; Briso, Alf; Pessan, J P; Fagundes, T C

    A white spot lesion is the first clinical sign of a caries lesion and represents mineral loss from the enamel subsurface. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microhardness and surface roughness of white spot lesions after application of a resin infiltrant and subjection to different challenges. Caries-like lesions were induced in bovine enamel discs (n=50), and the specimens were randomly divided into five study groups (n=10): demineralized enamel (negative control, G1), infiltrated enamel (G2), infiltrated enamel submitted to brushing (G3), infiltrated enamel submitted to pH cycling (G4), and infiltrated enamel submitted to artificial aging (G5). Half of each enamel surface was used as its own positive control. Roughness data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Dunn test. Results from microhardness were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey test for multiple comparisons. The level of significance was set at 5%. Microhardness and roughness values obtained from the test side of the specimens were significantly lower compared with the sound enamel for all groups. Microhardness values obtained for G2, G3, and G5 were not significantly different. Values found for G1 were significantly lower compared with those for G2, G3, and G5. The lowest microhardness values were observed for G4, which was significantly different from the other groups. Surface roughness was not significantly different between G2 and G3. The resin infiltrant presented superiority over the unprotected white spot lesions, as they were more resistant to mechanical and aging challenges. However, resin infiltration was not able to reestablish the properties of sound enamel and was not resistant to a new cariogenic challenge.

  12. Preventive effect of ozone on the development of white spot lesions during multibracket appliance therapy.

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    Kronenberg, Otmar; Lussi, Adrian; Ruf, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    To test the null hypotheses: (1) there is no difference in the caries protective effect of ozone and Cervitec/Fluor Protector during multibracket (MB) appliance therapy, and (2) DIAGNOdent and quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) are not superior to a visual evaluation of initial caries lesions. Twenty right-handed patients with a very poor oral hygiene who required full MB appliance therapy were analyzed during 26 months. In a split-mouth-design, the four quadrants of each patient were either treated with ozone, a combination of Cervitec and Fluor Protector, or served as untreated controls. The visible plaque index (VPI) and white spot formation were analyzed clinically. DIAGNOdent and QLF were used for a quantitative assessment of white spot formation. The average VPI in all four dental arch quadrants amounted to 55.6% and was independent of the preventive measure undertaken. In the quadrants treated with Cervitec/Fluor Protector, only 0.7% of the areas developed new, clinically visible white spots. This was significantly (P Fluor Protector during MB therapy was superior to ozone, and a visual evaluation of initial caries lesions was superior to both DIAGNOdent and QLF.

  13. Bonding brackets on white spot lesions pretreated by means of two methods

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    Julia Sotero Vianna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS of brackets bonded to demineralized enamel pretreated with low viscosity Icon Infiltrant resin (DMG and glass ionomer cement (Clinpro XT Varnish, 3M Unitek with and without aging. Methods: A total of 75 bovine enamel specimens were allocated into five groups (n = 15. Group 1 was the control group in which the enamel surface was not demineralized. In the other four groups, the surfaces were submitted to cariogenic challenge and white spot lesions were treated. Groups 2 and 3 were treated with Icon Infiltrant resin; Groups 4 and 5, with Clinpro XT Varnish. After treatment, Groups 3 and 5 were artificially aged. Brackets were bonded with Transbond XT adhesive system and SBS was evaluated by means of a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey post-hoc test. Results: All groups tested presented shear bond strengths similar to or higher than the control group. Specimens of Group 4 had significantly higher shear bond strength values (p < 0.05 than the others. Conclusion: Pretreatment of white spot lesions, with or without aging, did not decrease the SBS of brackets.

  14. In vitro study of white spot lesion: Maxilla and mandibular teeth

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    Alizae Marny Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of resin infiltration on colour changes and surface roughness of artificial white spot lesions (WSLs on maxillary and mandibular premolar. Materials and methods: Sixty (60 extracted sound Maxilla (Mx and Mandibular (Mn premolars were randomly divided into 2 groups (test and control. Artificial WSLs were produced on buccal surface of teeth and were immersed in artificial saliva for 8 weeks. Colour components (L∗, a∗, b∗ and surface roughness (Sa∗ were assessed on 40 teeth using colour difference meter RD-100 and Alicona® Infinite Focus profilometer respectively. The measurements were done at baseline (T1, directly after artificial WSLs (T2, after 24 hours immersed in saliva and application of resin (T3 and immersion in artificial saliva for 1 (T4, 2 (T5, 4 (T6, 6 (T7 and 8 (T8 weeks. SEM images analysis were carried out on 20 teeth in four time points. Results: The values of L∗ (lightness, b∗ (yellow/blue and Sa∗ (surface roughness are gradually reduced to the baseline value. Whereas, the value of a∗ gradually increased with distinct treatment time to achieve the baseline value. The higher value of L∗ and Sa∗, the whiter the lesion suggesting higher degree of enamel demineralization and surface roughness. Lower L∗ values suggest a masking colour effect. Conclusion: The material produced favorable esthetics on colour and the surface roughness of teeth at distinct treatment times. It is recommended to be used to improve WSL post orthodontic treatment. Keywords: Esthetics, Infiltrant, Surface roughness, White spot lesion

  15. Current technology and techniques in re-mineralization of white spot lesions: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podray, Susan S.

    White Spot lesions are a common iatrogenic occurrence on patients who are treated with fixed orthodontic appliances. There is a dynamic chemical interaction between enamel and saliva at the tooth surface that allow a lesion to have phase changes involving demineralization of enamel and reminerlization. This is due to calcium and phosphate dissolved in saliva that is deposited onto the tooth surface or removed depending on the surrounding pH. Caseinphosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is gaining popularity in dentistry as a way to increase the available level of calcium and phosphate in plaque and saliva to improve the chemical gradient so that if favors reminerlization. The aim of our investigation is to search the available current literature and formulate a recommendation for use of CPP-ACP in orthodontics. Publications from the following electronic databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Science Direct. Searches from August 2010 to April 1st 2012 were performed under the terms "MI Paste OR Recaldent OR caseinphosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate OR CPP-ACP or tooth mousse". The searches yielded 155 articles, These were reviewed for relevance based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Articles with inappropriate study design or no outcome measures at both baseline and end point were also excluded. 13 articles were deemed of relevance with a high quality study design and were included in this study for evaluation. The current literature suggests a preventative treatment regimen in which MI Paste Plus is used. It should be delivered once daily prior to bed after oral hygiene for 3 minutes in a fluoride tray, throughout orthodontic treatment. It should be recommended for high risk patients determined by poor oral hygiene, as seen by the inability to remove plaque from teeth and appliances. This protocol may prevent or assist in the remineralization of enamel white spot lesions during and after orthodontic treatment.

  16. Prevention and Treatment of White Spot Lesions During and After Treatment with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: a Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatiene, Kristina; Borisovaite, Marija; Lapenaite, Egle

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the systematic literature review is to update the evidence for the prevention of white spot lesions, using materials containing fluoride and/or casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate during and after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Information search for controlled studies on humans published between January 2008 and February 2016 was performed in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, The Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria were: the English language, study on humans, patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances, randomized or quasi-randomized controlled clinical studies fluoride-containing product or casein derivates used throughout the appliance therapy or straightaway after debonding. 326 articles were reviewed (Embase 141, PubMed 129, ScienceDirect 41, Cochrane 15). Twelve clinical studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Use of fluoridated toothpaste had a remineralizing effect on white spot lesions (WSLs) (P < 0.05); fluoride varnish and casein supplements were effective in prevention and early treatment of WSLs (P < 0.05). Early detection of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment would allow implementing preventive measures to control the demineralization process before lesions progress. The systemic review has showed that the usage of fluoride and casein supplements in ameliorating white spot lesions during and after fixed orthodontic treatment is significantly effective. However the use of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate can be more beneficial than fluoride rinse in the reduction of demineralization spots.

  17. Prevention and Treatment of White Spot Lesions During and After Treatment with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances: a Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Lopatiene

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the systematic literature review is to update the evidence for the prevention of white spot lesions, using materials containing fluoride and/or casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate during and after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Material and Methods: Information search for controlled studies on humans published between January 2008 and February 2016 was performed in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, The Cochrane Library. Inclusion criteria were: the English language, study on humans, patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances, randomized or quasi-randomized controlled clinical studies fluoride-containing product or casein derivates used throughout the appliance therapy or straightaway after debonding. Results: 326 articles were reviewed (Embase 141, PubMed 129, ScienceDirect 41, Cochrane 15. Twelve clinical studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria. Use of fluoridated toothpaste had a remineralizing effect on white spot lesions (WSLs (P < 0.05; fluoride varnish and casein supplements were effective in prevention and early treatment of WSLs (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Early detection of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment would allow implementing preventive measures to control the demineralization process before lesions progress. The systemic review has showed that the usage of fluoride and casein supplements in ameliorating white spot lesions during and after fixed orthodontic treatment is significantly effective. However the use of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate can be more beneficial than fluoride rinse in the reduction of demineralization spots.

  18. Effect of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri on white spot lesion development in orthodontic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gizani, Sotiria; Petsi, Georgia; Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of daily intake of lozenges containing probiotic bacteria on white spot lesion (WSL) formation as well as on salivary lactobacilli (LB) and mutans streptococci (MS) counts, in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment...... and randomly allocated to a test or placebo group. Subjects in the test group were instructed to take one probiotic lozenge containing two strains of Lactobacillus reuteri once daily. An identical lozenge without active bacteria was used in the placebo group. Dental plaque, WSL, and salivary MS and LB levels....../CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Daily intake of probiotic lozenges did not seem to affect the development of WSL during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances....

  19. Measuring color change of tooth enamel by in vitro remineralization of white spot lesion.

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    Betina Tolcachir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective colour determination is based on calculating the colorimetric distance (ΔE within a colour space. So far, the most used colour space in dentistry is CIE L*a*b (Comission Internationale de l´Éclairage. CIE L*C*h* has been recently developed, showing a better correlation with the perception of the human eye. Objective: To determine the ability of an in vitro remineralisation substance to blend the colour of white spot lesions (WSL with sound enamel, determining ΔE by using the CIE L*C*h* colour space. Methods: In vitro WSL was generated by immersing 10 samples obtained from human third molars in a demineralization solution for 72h. Amorphous calcium phosphate stabilized by casein phosphopeptide (CPP-ACP was then applied for 60 days while maintaining the samples in artificial saliva at 37ºC. To evaluate the colour of enamel, images were taken from the samples placed in specifically designed silicone moulds after generating the WSL (pre-stage and after remineralisation by scanning, applying the colorimetric distance equation (ΔE*CMC according to the Colour Measurement Committee. Results: Treatment with CPP-ACP caused a significant ΔE decrease with respect to the pre-stage (p<0.001, while the analysis of parameters that make up the colour showed a reduction in the difference of hue (∆H (p<0.001 and brightness (∆L (p<0.01 after applying CPP-ACP. Discussion: CPP-ACP penetrated to the depth of the white spot lesion, making its appearance similar to that of the sound enamel, probably because of the formation of different mineral phases than that of the original structure, although pores were not completely filled.

  20. [Resin infiltration of white spot lesions during the fixed orthodontic appliance therapy].

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    Ogodescu, A; Ogodescu, Emilia; Talpoş, S; Zetu, Irina

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the evolution of resin infiltrated white spot lesions (WSLs) during 10 month of fixed orthodontic appliance therapy using the photographic examination method. Twelve patients with mild decalcifications prior to the orthodontic treatment were examined once each month. At aggravation of the WSLs, by patients who fail to maintain good oral hygiene, the brackets were taken down, the lesions were infiltrated with resin (ICON) and the brackets were bonded in place. WSLs were evaluated from intraoral photographs taken before and during the treatment. 35.2% of existing lesions aggravated in the first 6 months of treatment. 41.2 % of the W.S.L. were considered severe and were infiltrated. In the next 10 month of orthodontic treatment 92.5% of the infiltrated WSLs were clinically stable. This clinical study showed a positive evolution of the resin infiltrated WSLs during the fixed orthodontic therapy. This is especially important for patients with long periods of treatment like interdisciplinary orthodontic-orthognathic surgery cases or patients that are refractory to oral hygiene measures.

  1. In vitro progression of artificial white spot lesions sealed with an infiltrant resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelani, R; Zandona, A F; Lippert, F; Kamocka, M M; Eckert, G

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of an infiltrant resin (Icon, DMG Chemisch-Pharmazeutische Fabrik GmbH, Hamburg, Germany) to prevent artificial lesion progression in vitro when used to impregnate white spot lesions and also assessed the effect of saliva contamination on resin infiltration. Enamel specimens (n=252) were prepared and covered with nail varnish, leaving a window of sound enamel. After demineralization (pH 5.0; four weeks), specimens were divided into six groups (n=42 per group): group 1, 2% fluoride gel (positive control); group 2, resin infiltrant; group 3, resin infiltrant + fluoride gel; group 4, no treatment (negative control); group 5, resin infiltrant application after saliva contamination; and group 6, resin infiltrant + fluoride gel after saliva contamination. Specimens from each group were cut perpendicular to the surface, and one-half of each specimen was exposed to a demineralizing solution for another four weeks. The other half was set aside as a record of initial lesion depth and was used later in the determination of lesion progression. Lesion progression and infiltrant penetration were measured using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and transverse microradiography (TMR). For lesion depth, based on CLSM, groups 2 and 3 showed the least changes when submitted to demineralization challenge, followed by group 1, then groups 5 and 6, and finally group 4. There were no significant differences between groups 2 and 3 or groups 5 and 6 in their ability to inhibit further lesion progression (p<0.05). Based on TMR, groups 2 and 3 also showed the fewest changes when submitted to demineralization challenge, followed by group 5, then groups 1 and 6, and finally group 4. In terms of mineral loss as measured by TMR, all groups that contained fluoride (groups 1, 3, and 6) show less percentage change in mineral loss than the groups that did not contain fluoride (groups 2, 4, and 5). It can be concluded that infiltrant penetration into early

  2. The effect of fractional CO2 laser irradiation on remineralization of enamel white spot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poosti, Maryam; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Moosavi, Horieh; Najjaran, Hoda

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the combined effect of fractional CO(2) laser irradiation and fluoride on treatment of enamel caries. Sixty intact premolars were randomly assigned into four groups and then stored in a demineralizing solution to induce white spot lesions. Tooth color was determined at baseline (T1) and after demineralization (T2). Afterwards, the teeth in group 1 remained untreated (control), while group 2 was exposed to an acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel for 4 min. In groups 3 and 4, a fractional CO(2) laser was applied (10 mJ, 200 Hz, 10 s) either before (group 3) or through (group 4) the APF gel. The teeth were then immersed in artificial saliva for 90 days while subjected to daily fluoride mouthrinse and weekly brushing. Color examinations were repeated after topical fluoride application (T3) and 90 days later (T4). Finally, the teeth were sectioned, and microhardness was measured at the enamel surface and at 30 and 60 μ from the surface. In both lased groups, the color change between T1 and T4 stages (∆E(T1-T4)) was significantly lower than those of the other groups (p Laser irradiation followed by fluoride application (group 3) caused a significant increase in surface microhardness compared to APF alone and control groups (p laser before fluoride therapy is suggested for recovering the color and rehardening of demineralized enamel.

  3. A novel biomimetic orthodontic bonding agent helps prevent white spot lesions adjacent to brackets.

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    Manfred, Lauren; Covell, David A; Crowe, Jennifer J; Tufekci, Eser; Mitchell, John C

    2013-01-01

    To compare changes in enamel microhardness adjacent to orthodontic brackets after using bonding agents containing various compositions of bioactive glass compared to a traditional resin adhesive following a simulated caries challenge. Extracted human third molars (n  =  10 per group) had orthodontic brackets bonded using one of four novel bioactive glass (BAG)-containing orthodontic bonding agents (BAG-Bonds) or commercially available Transbond-XT. The four new adhesives contained BAG in varying percentages incorporated into a traditional resin monomer mixture. Teeth were cycled through low-pH demineralizing and physiologic-pH remineralizing solutions once each day over 14 days. Microhardness was measured on longitudinal sections of the teeth 100, 200, and 300 µm from the bracket edge and beneath the brackets, at depths of 25 to 200 µm from the enamel surface. Normalized hardness values were compared using three-way analysis of variance. Significantly less reduction in enamel microhardness was found with the experimental adhesives at depths of 25 and 50 µm at all distances from the bracket edge. In all groups, there were no significant changes in enamel microhardness past 125-µm depth. Results varied with the different BAG-Bonds, with 81BAG-Bond showing the smallest decrease in enamel microhardness. The BAG-Bonds tested in this study showed a reduction in the amount of superficial enamel softening surrounding orthodontic brackets compared to a traditional bonding agent. The results indicate that clinically, BAG-Bonds may aid in maintaining enamel surface hardness, therefore helping prevent white spot lesions adjacent to orthodontic brackets.

  4. Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions.

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    Gilbert, Kenneth; Joseph, Raphael; Vo, Alex; Patel, Trusha; Chaudhry, Samiya; Nguyen, Uyen; Trevor, Amy; Robinson, Erica; Campbell, Margaret; McLennan, John; Houran, Farielle; Wong, Tristan; Flann, Kendra; Wages, Melissa; Palmer, Elizabeth A; Peterson, John; Engle, John; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A

    2014-01-01

    Mutans streptococci (MS) are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC), and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3-6) with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs), white spot lesions (WSLs) and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10-20) from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ≥50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1-6 strains. In many patients (N=11), single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4), primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and the aciduric potential of these strains may influence susceptibility in the

  5. Children with severe early childhood caries: streptococci genetic strains within carious and white spot lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Gilbert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Mutans streptococci (MS are one of the major microbiological determinants of dental caries. The objectives of this study are to identify distinct MS and non-MS streptococci strains that are located at carious sites and non-carious enamel surfaces in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC, and assess if cariogenic MS and non-cariogenic streptococci might independently exist as primary bacterial strains on distinct sites within the dentition of individual children. Design: Dental plaque from children (N=20; aged 3–6 with S-ECC was collected from carious lesions (CLs, white spot lesions (WSLs and non-carious enamel surfaces. Streptococcal isolates (N=10–20 from each site were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR to identify MS, and arbitrarily primed-PCR for assignment of genetic strains. Primary strains were identified as ≥50% of the total isolates surveyed at any site. In several cases, strains were characterized for acidurity using ATP-driven bioluminescence and subjected to PCR-determination of potential MS virulence products. Identification of non-MS was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: Sixty-four independent MS or non-MS streptococcal strains were identified. All children contained 1–6 strains. In many patients (N=11, single primary MS strains were identified throughout the dentition. In other patients (N=4, primary MS strains were identified within CLs that were distinct from primary strains found on enamel. Streptococcus gordonii strains were identified as primary strains on enamel or WSLs in four children, and in general were less aciduric than MS strains. Conclusions: Many children with S-ECC contained only a single primary MS strain that was present in both carious and non-carious sites. In some cases, MS and non-cariogenic S. gordonii strains were found to independently exist as dominant strains at different locations within the dentition of individual children, and

  6. Effect of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri on white spot lesion development in orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizani, Sotiria; Petsi, Georgia; Twetman, Svante; Caroni, Crys; Makou, Margarita; Papagianoulis, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of daily intake of lozenges containing probiotic bacteria on white spot lesion (WSL) formation as well as on salivary lactobacilli (LB) and mutans streptococci (MS) counts, in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study design with two parallel arms was employed. Patients (n = 85, mean age 15.9 years) with maxillary braces on at least eight anterior teeth and a remaining treatment period of 7-24 months were finally enrolled and randomly allocated to a test or placebo group. Subjects in the test group were instructed to take one probiotic lozenge containing two strains of Lactobacillus reuteri once daily. An identical lozenge without active bacteria was used in the placebo group. Dental plaque, WSL, and salivary MS and LB levels were recorded at baseline and immediately after debonding. The groups were balanced at baseline. The mean duration of the intervention was 17 months and the total dropout rate was 10 per cent. There were no differences in the incidence of WSL between the groups at debonding. The patients had generally a neglected oral hygiene, both at baseline and at the follow-up. The levels of salivary LB were significantly reduced in both groups (P < 0.05) at the time of debonding compared with baseline, while no alterations of the MS counts were unveiled. WSL were scored from photos that may not fully mirror the clinical situation. Chair-side tests estimate the counts of selected bacteria in saliva and do not reflect the entire microbiota. The invention was implemented approximately 6 months after the onset of the fixed appliances and some lesions may have been present at bonding. Daily intake of probiotic lozenges did not seem to affect the development of WSL during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved

  7. White spot lesions after orthodontic fixed appliance treatment : The effectiveness of MI Paste Plus® as a remineralising agent: A randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerens, M.W.

    2018-01-01

    In this thesis, research is being described that aims at secondary prevention of white spot lesions (WSL), i.e., the remineralisation of these lesions. Also methods to monitor existing WSL in time and methods to predict risk of the formation of WSL are analysed. As described in this thesis, the

  8. Critical evaluation of incidence and prevalence of white spot lesions during fixed orthodontic appliance treatment: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaj, Dhinahar; Venkatachalapathy, Sudhakar; Tandon, Akshay; Pereira, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Development of dental caries, specifically, white spot lesions (WSLs), continues to be a well-recognized and troubling side effect of orthodontic fixed appliance therapy, despite vast improvement in preventive dental techniques and procedures. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate, determine, and summarize the incidence and prevalence rates of WSLs during orthodontic treatment that have been published in the literature. According to predetermined criteria, databases were searched for appropriate studies. References of the selected articles and relevant reviews were searched for any missed publications. In the 14 studies evaluated for WSLs, the incidence of new carious lesions formed during orthodontic treatment in patients was 45.8% and the prevalence of lesions in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment was 68.4%. The incidence and prevalence rates of WSLs in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment are quite high and significant. This widespread problem of WSL development is an alarming challenge and warrants significant attention from both patients and providers, which should result in greatly increased emphasis on effective caries prevention.

  9. Detection of white spot lesions by segmenting laser speckle images using computer vision methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavinho, Luciano G; Araujo, Sidnei A; Bussadori, Sandra K; Silva, João V P; Deana, Alessandro M

    2018-05-05

    This paper aims to develop a method for laser speckle image segmentation of tooth surfaces for diagnosis of early stages caries. The method, applied directly to a raw image obtained by digital photography, is based on the difference between the speckle pattern of a carious lesion tooth surface area and that of a sound area. Each image is divided into blocks which are identified in a working matrix by their χ 2 distance between block histograms of the analyzed image and the reference histograms previously obtained by K-means from healthy (h_Sound) and lesioned (h_Decay) areas, separately. If the χ 2 distance between a block histogram and h_Sound is greater than the distance to h_Decay, this block is marked as decayed. The experiments showed that the method can provide effective segmentation for initial lesions. We used 64 images to test the algorithm and we achieved 100% accuracy in segmentation. Differences between the speckle pattern of a sound tooth surface region and a carious region, even in the early stage, can be evidenced by the χ 2 distance between histograms. This method proves to be more effective for segmenting the laser speckle image, which enhances the contrast between sound and lesioned tissues. The results were obtained with low computational cost. The method has the potential for early diagnosis in a clinical environment, through the development of low-cost portable equipment.

  10. Evaluation of a novel approach in the prevention of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, J; Walsh, L J; Naser-Ud Din, S; Ngo, H; Manton, D J

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the relative efficacy of a resin fissure sealant, nano-filled self-adhesive protective coating, resin infiltrant, glass ionomer cement (GIC), and GIC containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) in preventing the formation of subsurface lesions of enamel (SLE) adjacent to orthodontic brackets by acting as an enamel surface sealant (ESS). Eighty-five enamel specimens with molar tubes bonded at their centre were randomly divided into five groups, each treated with a different material at the bracket's periphery. Specimens were stored in an acetate demineralization solution at pH 4.5 for 7 days at 37 °C then imaged using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) to determine the difference in fluorescence (∆F) between sound- and acid-exposed enamel. Lesion cross-sections were then examined using backscattered scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to measure lesion depth. The use of GIC alone or incorporating CPP-ACP significantly reduced ∆F compared with other materials. Backscattered SEM images showed no measurable demineralization for enamel treated with either GIC material in contrast with other groups, which showed statistically significant demineralization levels. The fluoride-releasing effects and CPP-ACP benefits of the GIC materials show promise as an effective ESS in inhibiting enamel demineralization adjacent to orthodontic brackets. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  11. Effect of ultrasonic, sonic and rotating-oscillating powered toothbrushing systems on surface roughness and wear of white spot lesions and sound enamel: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandé-Gatón, Patrícia; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra da; Faraoni, Juliana Jendiroba; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; Lucisano, Marília Pacífico; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da; Nelson Filho, Paulo

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of ultrasonic, sonic and rotating-oscillating powered toothbrushing systems on surface roughness and wear of white spot lesions and sound enamel. 40 tooth segments obtained from third molar crowns had the enamel surface divided into thirds, one of which was not subjected to toothbrushing. In the other two thirds, sound enamel and enamel with artificially induced white spot lesions were randomly assigned to four groups (n=10) : UT: ultrasonic toothbrush (Emmi-dental); ST1: sonic toothbrush (Colgate ProClinical Omron); ST2: sonic toothbrush (Sonicare Philips); and ROT: rotating-oscillating toothbrush (control) (Oral-B Professional Care Triumph 5000 with SmartGuide). The specimens were analyzed by confocal laser microscopy for surface roughness and wear. Data were analyzed statistically by paired t-tests, Kruskal-Wallis, two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-test (α= 0.05). The different powered toothbrushing systems did not cause a significant increase in the surface roughness of sound enamel (P> 0.05). In the ROT group, the roughness of white spot lesion surface increased significantly after toothbrushing and differed from the UT group (Pspot lesion compared with sound enamel, and this group differed significantly from the ST1 group (Pspot lesion increased surface roughness and wear. None of the powered toothbrushing systems (ultrasonic, sonic and rotating-oscillating) tested caused significant alterations on sound dental enamel. However, conventional rotating-oscillating toothbrushing on enamel with white spot lesion increased surface roughness and wear. Copyright©American Journal of Dentistry.

  12. Colour improvement and stability of white spot lesions following infiltration, micro-abrasion, or fluoride treatments in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetkiner, Enver; Wegehaupt, Florian; Wiegand, Annette; Attin, Rengin; Attin, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    White spot lesions (WSLs) are unwelcome side effects of fixed appliances that compromise the treatment outcome. Recently, infiltration of WSLs has been introduced as a viable treatment alternative. The objective was to evaluate the colour improvement of WSLs and their stability against discolouration following infiltration, fluoride, or micro-abrasion treatments in vitro. Artificial WSLs were created in bovine enamel (N = 96) using acidic buffer solution (pH 5, 10 days) and were randomly allocated to four groups. Specimens were treated with infiltration (Icon, DMG), fluoride (Elmex Caries Protection, GABA), and micro-abrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent) or remained untreated (control). Groups were discoloured for 24 hours in tea or tea + citric acid. Colour components and visible colour change (L*, a*, b*, ΔE) were measured spectrophotometrically on following time points: baseline, after WSL formation, after treatment, and during discolouration (8, 16, and 24 hours). Data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. WSL formation increased (L*) in all groups. Only infiltration reduced this effect to baseline. Highest ΔE improvement was obtained by infiltration and micro-abrasion followed by fluoride. This improvement was stable only for infiltration during discolouration. L*, a*, and b* changed significantly during discolouration in all groups except infiltration. Within the same treatment group, discolouration solutions did not differ significantly. In vitro testing cannot replicate the actual mode of colour improvement or stability but can be used for ranking materials and techniques. Infiltration and micro-abrasion treatments were capable of diminishing the whitish appearance of WSLs. Only infiltrated WSLs were stable following discolouration challenge. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Camouflage effects following resin infiltration of postorthodontic white-spot lesions in vivo: One-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Amely; Helms, Hans-Joachim; Knösel, Michael

    2015-05-01

    To assess camouflage effects by concealment of postorthodontic white-spot lesions (WSLs) to sound adjacent enamel (SAE) achieved over 12 months with resin infiltration (Icon, DMG, Hamburg, Germany). Twenty subjects (trial teeth nteeth = 111) who had received resin infiltration treatment of noncavitated postorthodontic WSLs were contacted for a 1-year follow-up assessment of CIE-L*a*b* colors (T12). Color and lightness (CIE-L*a*b*) data for WSLs and SAE were compared to baseline data assessed before infiltration (T0) and those assessed after 6 months (T6), using a spectrophotometer. The target parameter was the difference between the summarized color and lightness values (ΔEWSL/SAE). Intergroup (WSL, SAE) and intertime comparisons (T0 vs T6, T12) were performed using paired t-tests at a significance level of α = 5%. Nine subjects (trial teeth nteeth = 49; male/female ratio 5/4; age range 13-19 years) were available at T12. After the highly significant reduction of ΔEWSL/SAE discrepancies between T0 and T6, analysis of 12-month records revealed color and lightness discrepancy of WSL vs SAE that was significantly decreased compared with baseline, indicating an assimilation of WSL color to SAE appearance after infiltration, while an additional reduction of discrepancies between T6 and T12 was not significant. As color and lightness characteristics of the Icon infiltrant as well as the esthetic camouflage effects achieved by WSL infiltration were not altered significantly or clinically relevant after 12 months, the method of resin infiltration can be recommended for an enduring esthetic improvement of postorthodontic WSL.

  14. Management of white spots: resin infiltration technique and microabrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hye Son

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report compared the effectiveness of resin infiltration technique (Icon, DMG with microabrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent Products, Inc. in management of white spot lesions. It demonstrates that although neither microabrasion nor resin infiltration technique can remove white spot lesions completely, resin infiltration technique seems to be more effective than microabrasion. Therefore resin infiltration technique can be chosen preferentially for management of white spot lesions and caution should be taken for case selection.

  15. An In Vitro Study on the Effect of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Fluoride Solutions on Color Improvement of White Spot Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Farzanegan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of remineralizing agents to improve the color of white spot lesions (WSL is an important aspect that should be investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 0.05% amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP, 0.5% ACP, and 0.05% fluoride solutions, as well as artificial saliva on the color improvement of white spot lesions (WSLs. In this in vitro study, 50 human premolar teeth were randomly classified into five groups. At baseline, all the samples were assessed by using a colorimeter (E0. Then, white spot lesions were induced on the surface of the teeth by means of a pH-cycling model, and the colorimeter was used again (E1. Afterwards, samples of the 1st and 2nd groups were kept in 0.05% ACP and 0.5% ACP solutions for 1 min/day, respectively. The 3rd group specimens were placed in 0.05% fluoride solution for 1 min/day. The other two groups were kept in artificial saliva and distilled in water separately. All the samples were assessed by the colorimeter for a third time (E2. We found no significant difference between the groups in ∆E1. There was also no significant difference among 0.05% ACP solution, 0.5% ACP solution, 0.05% fluoride solution, and artificial saliva considering ∆E2. However, a significant difference was noted between the above-mentioned solutions and distilled water in ∆E2. With respect to ∆E3, there were considerable differences between ACP solution and artificial saliva. The same results were obtained for the difference between fluoride solution and artificial saliva. However, no significant difference was found among 0.05% ACP, 0.5% ACP, and 0.05% fluoride solutions in terms of ∆E3. In Conclusion, ACP is as effective as fluoride in the color improvement of WSLs and the recommended treatment for this purpose is daily use of 0.05% ACP, 0.5% ACP or 0.05% fluoride solutions.

  16. Efficacy of fluoride varnish for preventing white spot lesions and gingivitis during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances-a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschneck, Christian; Christl, Jan-Joachim; Reicheneder, Claudia; Proff, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The development of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets and gingivitis is a common problem during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. This prospective randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial investigated the preventive efficacy of a one-time application of two commonly used fluoride varnishes in patients with low to moderate caries risk. Ninety adolescent orthodontic patients with a low to moderate caries risk were prospectively randomized to three groups of 30 patients each: (1) standardized dental hygiene with fluoride toothpaste and one-time application of placebo varnish (control) or (2) of elmex® fluid or (3) of Fluor Protector S on all dental surfaces at the start of fixed therapy. The extent of enamel demineralization and gingivitis was determined with the ICDAS and the gingivitis index (GI) at baseline and after 4, 12, and 20 weeks. Each treatment group showed a significant increase of the ICDAS index, but not of the GI over the course of time with no significant intergroup differences detectable. A one-time application of fluoride varnish at the start of orthodontic treatment did not provide any additional preventive advantage over sufficient dental hygiene with fluoride toothpaste with regard to formation of white spots and gingivitis in patients with a low to moderate caries risk. In dental practice, patients often receive an application of fluoride varnish at the start of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. However, the efficacy of this procedure is still unclear.

  17. Determining the Effect of Calculus, Hypocalcification, and Stain on Using Optical Coherence Tomography and Polarized Raman Spectroscopy for Detecting White Spot Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Huminicki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT and polarized Raman spectroscopy (PRS have been shown as useful methods for distinguishing sound enamel from carious lesions ex vivo. However, factors in the oral environment such as calculus, hypocalcification, and stain could lead to false-positive results. OCT and PRS were used to investigate extracted human teeth clinically examined for sound enamel, white spot lesion (WSL, calculus, hypocalcification, and stain to determine whether these factors would confound WSL detection with these optical methods. Results indicate that OCT allowed differentiating caries from sound enamel, hypocalcification, and stain, with calculus deposits recognizable on OCT images. ANOVA and post-hoc unequal N HSD analyses to compare the mean Raman depolarization ratios from the various groups showed that the mean values were statistically significant at P<.05, except for several comparison pairs. With the current PRS analysis method, the mean depolarization ratios of stained enamel and caries are not significantly different due to the sloping background in the stained enamel spectra. Overall, calculus and hypocalcification are not confounding factors affecting WSL detection using OCT and PRS. Stain does not influence WSL detection with OCT. Improved PRS analysis methods are needed to differentiate carious from stained enamel.

  18. An in vitro comparison of quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital and spectrophotometer on monitoring artificial white spot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Eun; Kim, Baek-Il

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of quantitative light-induced fluorescence-digital (QLF-D) compared to a spectrophotometer in monitoring progression of enamel lesions. To generate artificial caries with various severities of lesion depths, twenty bovine specimens were immersed in demineralizing solution for 40 days. During the production of the lesions, repeat measurements of fluorescence loss (ΔF) and color change (ΔE) were performed in six distinct stages after the demineralization of the specimens: after 3, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 days of exposure to the demineralizing solution. Changes in the ΔF values in the lesions were analyzed using the QLF-D, and changes in the ΔE values in lesions were analyzed using a spectrophotometer. The repeated measures ANOVA of ΔF and ΔE values were used to determine whether there are significant differences at different exposure times in the demineralizing solution. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was analyzed between ΔF and ΔE. The ΔF values significantly decreased based on the demineralizing period (pmonitoring color changes. Our findings demonstrate that QLF-D are a more efficient and stable tool for early caries detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    10 cohorts. To assess the relative contribution of genetic factors to progression of WML, we compared in 7 cohorts risk models including demographics, vascular risk factors plus single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been shown to be associated cross-sectionally with WML in the current......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...... associated with WML progression in elderly participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. METHODS: Heritability of WML progression was calculated in the Framingham Heart Study. The genome-wide association study included 7773 elderly participants from...

  20. Duodenal White Spots Mimicking Intestinal Candidiasis: Report of Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Turk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal white spots are mentioned in these nonspecific lesions until recently. Although there is not enough studies about duedonal white spots yet; these lesions described in a separate syndrome. Here now we reported a case that we diagnosed multiple Duodenal white spots mimicking intestinal candidiasis. Clinical manifestation and endoscopic appearance of lesions gave rise to thought intestinal candidiasis histopathological examination revealed us several duodenitis. There was no evidence of fungal infection in PAS staining. Early after endoscopy patient took treatment of Lansoprozole at the 30 mg dose and bismuth salicylate. Patients compliant declined and control endoscopy exposed white duodenal spots cleared away three months later. Duodenal white spots are becoming to be designated as a separate disease even a syndrome. Etiology of duodenal white spots must be determined carefully during endoscopy. Sometimes it is difficult to make the correct diagnosis by appearance of lesion; in such cases histopathological examination can be useful both differential diagnosis of disease and determination of etiological factor. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(4.000: 249-252

  1. In Vitro Comparison Of Fluoride Gel Alone and in Combination With Er,Cr:YSGG Laser on Reducing White Spot Lesions in Primary Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaasadollah, Fatemeh; Asnaashari, Mohammad; Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh; Jafary, Maral

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Laser therapy has been suggested as a method for caries-prevention, and ErCr:YSGG laser is increasingly used in dentistry. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of fluoride gel alone and in conjunction with Er,Cr:YSGG laser for remineralization of white spot lesions (WSLs) in primary teeth. Methods: This study was conducted on 20 primary teeth with WSLs extracted for orthodontic reasons. Three sections were made of each tooth at the site of WSLs. The surface area of WSLs was measured under a stereomicroscope at ×25 magnification. Samples were assigned to 3 groups of control (group 1), exposure to 1.23% APF gel for 4 minutes (group 2) and Er,Cr:YSGG laser (0.5 W power, 20 Hz frequency, 60% water, 40% air, pulse duration of 5±1 seconds) plus fluoride (group 3). All samples were stored in artificial saliva for 10 days and then the surface area of the WSLs was measured again under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, MannWhitney and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Results: The reduction in surface area of the WSLs was significantly different between the control and fluoride ( P laser plus fluoride groups ( P laser plus fluoride groups was not significant ( P =0.265). Comparison of the surface area of WSLs before and after the intervention showed no significant difference in group one ( P =0.737) while this difference in groups 2 ( P laser irradiation plus 1.23% APF gel was not significantly different from the application of fluoride gel alone in enhancing the remineralization of WSLs.

  2. The Potential of Self-assembling Peptides for Enhancement of In Vitro Remineralisation of White Spot Lesions as Measured by Quantitative Laser Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golland, Luca; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Schätzle, Marc

    To test the remineralisation potential of a single application of self-assembling peptides or acidic fluoride solution using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) in vitro. Bovine enamel disks were prepared, and white spot lesions were created on one half of the disk with an acidic buffer solution. After demineralisation, disks were allocated into three groups of 11 specimens each. Group A served as a control group and received no treatment. Group B had a single application of fluoride, and group C was treated once with self-assembling peptides. All disks were embedded in a plastic mold (diameter 15 mm, height 9 mm) with an a-silicone, and remineralisation was initiated using a pH-cycling protocol for five days. Four experimental regions on each disk were measured prior to the start of the study (T0), after demineralisation (T1) and after the remineralisation process (T2) using QLF. After demineralisation, all areas showed a distinct loss of fluorescence, with no statistically significant difference between the groups (ΔF from -69.3 to -10.2). After remineralisation, samples of group B (treated with fluoride) showed a statistically significant fluorescence increase (ΔF from T1 to T2 15.2 ± 7.3) indicating remineralisation, whereas the samples of control group A and group C (treated with self-assembling peptides) showed no significant changes in ΔF of 1.1 ± 1.9 and 2.5 ± 1.9, respectively. Application of self-assembling peptides on demineralised bovine enamel did not lead to increased fluorescence using QLF, indicating either lack of remineralisation or irregular crystals. Increased fluorescence using QLF indicated mineral gain following a single application of a highly concentrated fluoride.

  3. White-centred retinal haemorrhages (Roth spots).

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, R.; James, B.

    1998-01-01

    Roth spots (white-centred retinal haemorrhages) were classically described as septic emboli lodged in the retina of patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis. Indeed many have considered Roth spots pathognomonic for this condition. More recent histological evidence suggests, however, that they are not foci of bacterial abscess. Instead, they are nonspecific and may be found in many other diseases. A review of the histology and the pathogenesis of these white-centred haemorrhages will be p...

  4. White-centred retinal haemorrhages (Roth spots).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, R; James, B

    1998-10-01

    Roth spots (white-centred retinal haemorrhages) were classically described as septic emboli lodged in the retina of patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis. Indeed many have considered Roth spots pathognomonic for this condition. More recent histological evidence suggests, however, that they are not foci of bacterial abscess. Instead, they are nonspecific and may be found in many other diseases. A review of the histology and the pathogenesis of these white-centred haemorrhages will be provided, along with the work-up of the differential diagnosis.

  5. Sustainable control of white spot disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

    White spot disease caused by the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 is a serious problem in freshwater aquaculture worldwide. This parasitosis is of frequent occurrence in both conventional earth pond fish farms and in fish farms using new high technology re-circulation systems...

  6. Lanthanum deposition corresponds to white lesions in the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Urata, Haruo; Tanaka, Takehiro; Kawano, Seiji; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Kimoto, Katsuhiko; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2018-05-23

    Although lanthanum deposition in the stomach has been most frequently reported to occur as white lesions, no study has investigated whether the white lesions observed during esophagogastroduodenoscopy are truly lanthanum-related. Here, we retrospectively investigated the amount of lanthanum in endoscopic biopsy specimens. We reviewed four patients showing gastric white spots or annular whitish mucosa in the gastric white lesions (Bw) and peripheral mucosa where the white substance was not endoscopically observed (Bp) during biopsy. We also reviewed three patients with diffuse whitish mucosa and three patients with no whitish lesions. We performed scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry to quantify the lanthanum elements (wt%) in the biopsy specimens. The amount of lanthanum in the Bw ranged from 0.15-0.31 wt%, whereas that of Bp was 0.00-0.13 wt%. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The amount of lanthanum in the Bw, endoscopically presented with white spots or annular whitish mucosa, was significantly higher than that of no whitish lesions (0.05-0.14 wt%, P < 0.05). The amount of lanthanum was also higher in the diffuse whitish mucosa (0.21-0.23 wt%) compared with no whitish lesions (P < 0.01). This study is the first to reveal that pathological lanthanum deposition corresponds to the endoscopically observed white lesions in the gastric mucosa. Therefore, during esophagogastroduodenoscopy, physicians should pay attention to possible presence of white lesions in patients treated with oral lanthanum carbonate to ensure prompt identification of associated issues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence of different types of brackets and efficacy of two chlorhexidine mouthwashes on oral hygiene and the incidence of white spot lesions in adolescents during the orthodontic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurišić, Sanja; Kozomara, Davorin; Jurić, Hrvoje; Verzak, Željko; Jurišić, Gordan

    2016-12-01

    To detect the effect of two different types of brackets (ceramic and stainless steel) and investigate the effectiveness of two chlorhexidine mouthwashes 0.2% (CHX) on oral hygiene status and incidence of white spot lesions (WSLs) in adolescents wearing fixed orthodontic appliance. One hundred and twenty subjects (aged 11 to 18 years, mean age 14.5 years) were divided into six equal groups according to brackets type and to different mouthwashes: Group 1: metal brackets and conventional CHX, Group 2: metal brackets and CHX with anti-discoloration system (CHX-ADS), Group 3: ceramic brackets and conventional CHX, Group 4: ceramic brackets and CHX-ADS, Group 5: metal brackets and water correction flavors mouthwash (placebo), Group 6: ceramic brackets and placebo. Four weeks after the placement of fixed orthodontic appliance the subjects were provided with three different mouthwashes for use during the next two weeks. Assessment was carried out according to oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) and WSL index performed: prior to placement of the appliance (baseline), four weeks, six weeks, eighteen weeks, and thirty weeks after the placement. The data were then subjected to statistical analysis. Group 4 showed reduction in the OHI-S scores when compared to the Group 5 (in the 6 th week), and Group 6 (in the 6 th and 18 th week), which was statistically significant, Pbrackets and the usage of CHX-ADS resulted in better oral hygiene status and lower incidence of WSLs.

  8. White spot syndrome virus epizootic in cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Lin, W-H; Wang, P-C; Tsai, M-A; Hsu, J-P; Chen, S-C

    2013-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused significant losses in shrimp farms worldwide. Between 2004 and 2006, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) were collected from 220 farms in Taiwan to determine the prevalence and impact of WSSV infection on the shrimp farm industry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis detected WSSV in shrimp from 26% of farms. Juvenile shrimp farms had the highest infection levels (38%; 19/50 farms) and brooder shrimp farms had the lowest (5%; one of 20 farms). The average extent of infection at each farm was as follows for WSSV-positive farms: post-larvae farms, 71%; juvenile farms, 61%; subadult farms, 62%; adult farms, 49%; and brooder farms, 40%. Characteristic white spots, hypertrophied nuclei and basophilic viral inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of gills and tail fans, appendages, cephalothorax and hepatopancreas, and virions of WSSV were observed. Of shrimp that had WSSV lesions, 100% had lesions on the cephalothorax, 96% in gills and tail fans, 91% on appendages and 17% in the hepatopancreas. WSSV was also detected in copepoda and crustaceans from the shrimp farms. Sequence comparison using the pms146 gene fragment of WSSV showed that isolates from the farms had 99.7-100% nucleotide sequence identity with four strains in the GenBank database--China (AF332093), Taiwan (AF440570 and U50923) and Thailand (AF369029). This is the first broad study of WSSV infection in L. vannamei in Taiwan. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. White spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp-a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sangamaheswaran, A.P.; Jeyaseelan, M.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The white spot viral disease in penaeid shrimp affects the development of the global shrimp industry. This paper reviews the viruses that cause the disease, the transmission of the virus, diagnosis and preventive measures.

  10. Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... β-integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV infection was examined. The results showed ... Introduction. White spot ... denatured conditions and renatured by successive 12 h incu- bations with 6, 4, ...

  11. White Matter Lesion Progression in LADIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Berghold, Andrea; Jokinen, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression has been advocated as a surrogate marker in intervention trials on cerebral small vessel disease. We assessed the rate of visually rated WML progression, studied correlations between lesion progression and cognition, and estimated sample...... sizes for clinical trials with pure WML progression vs combined WML progression-cognitive outcomes. METHODS: Those 394 participants of the Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study (LADIS) study with magnetic resonance imaging scanning at baseline and 3-year follow-up were analyzed. WML progression rating...

  12. [Assessment of antibacterial efficacy of ozone therapy in treatment of caries at the white spot stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makeeva, I M; Turkina, A Yu; Margaryan, E G; Paramonov, Yu O; Polyakova, M A

    Effect on cariogenic flora is the key toremineralizing therapy efficacy in treatment of initial caries (at the white spot stage). Ozone in dentistry is used as a highly effective antibacterial agent. Treatment of white spot lesions with the ozone-air mixture leads to significant increase of efficacy in non-invasive treatment of initial caries. clinical and microbiological assessment of antibacterial efficacy of ozone therapy in treatment of caries at the white spot stage. The trial recruited 86 patients for non-invasive treatment of caries at the white spot stage which included the complex of professional oral hygiene, medicamental treatment of white spot lesions with hydrogen peroxide 3% and chlorhexidinedigluconate 0,2%, treatment with the ozone-air mixture and application of hydroxyapatite Са2+. Material for microbiological study was received before the treatment, after the complex of professional oral hygiene and medicamental treatment of white spot lesions conducted as well as after the treatment with the ozone-air mixture. Before the treatment up to 16 kinds of microorganisms on the surface of white spot lesion were detected with the following shares: S. mutans (19.9%), S. salivarius (15.1%), S. epidermidis (8.7%), S. mitis (6.5%), Lactobacillus (6.5%) and different kinds of staphylococci (10.8%). After the complex of professional oral hygiene and medicamental treatment conducted decrease in number of cariogenic microorganisms was indicated as follows: S. mutans - from 1·105 to 1·104, S. salivarius - from 1·107 to 1·106, S. epidermidis - from 1·105 to 1·104, S. mitis - from 1·104 to 1·103, Lactobacillus - from 1·104 tо 1·103. After the treatment of tooth enamel with the ozone-air mixture increase in microorganisms was not observed. The efficacy of ozone on cariogenic microorganisms exceeds significantly the efficacy of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 0,2% chlorhexidinedigluconate. It is strongly advisable to include ozone in protocol of non

  13. Reproductive Biology of the White-spotted Rabbitfish, Siganus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive biology of the white-spotted rabbitfish, Siganus canaliculatus, was studied on the Arabian Sea coast of Oman between April 2005 and March 2007. The males matured (L50) at 22.6 cm and females attained maturity at 23.9 cm TL when both were close to one year of age. The population of S. canaliculatus ...

  14. Immune defence White Spot Syndrome Virus infected shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important viral pathogen of cultured penaeid shrimp worldwide. Since the initial discovery of the virus inTaiwanin 1992, it has spread to shrimp farming regions in Southeast Asia, the

  15. Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The recognition and attachment of virus to its host cell surface is a critical step for viral infection. Recent research revealed that -integrin was involved in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this study, the interaction of -integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV infection was ...

  16. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture, and its rampant spread has resulted in great economic loss. Identification of host cellular proteins interacting with WSSV will help in unravelling the repertoire of host proteins involved in WSSV infection. In this study, we have employed ...

  17. Automated measurement of local white matter lesion volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Lijn, Fedde; Verhaaren, Benjamin F. J.; Ikram, M. Arfan

    2012-01-01

    in a periventricular region close to the ventricles and a subcortical zone further away. In this work we present a novel automated method for local white matter lesion volume quantification in magnetic resonance images. The method segments and measures the white matter lesion volume in 43 regions defined...

  18. White spot syndrome virus inactivation study by using gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidareh, Marzieh; Sedeh, Farahnaz Motamedi; Soltani, Mehdi; Rajabifar, Saeed; Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Dashtiannasab, Aghil

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). White spot syndrome virus is a pathogen of major economic importance in cultured penaeid shrimp industries. White spot disease can cause mortalities reaching 100% within 3-10 days of gross signs appearing. During the period of culture, immunostimulant agents and vaccines may provide potential methods to protect shrimps from opportunistic and pathogenic microrganisms. In this study, firstly, WSSV was isolated from infected shrimp and then multiplied in crayfish. WSSV was purified from the infected crayfish haemolymph by sucrose gradient and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo virus titration was performed in shrimp, Penaeus semisulcatus. The LD50 of live virus stock was calculated 10 5.4/mL. Shrimp post-larvae (1-2 g) were treated with gamma-irradiated (different doses) WSSV (100 to 10-4 dilutions) for a period of 10 days. The dose/survival curve for irradiated and un-irradiated WSSV was drawn; the optimum dose range for inactivation of WSSV and unaltered antigenicity was obtained 14-15 kGy. This preliminary information suggests that shrimp appear to benefit from treatment with gammairradiated WSSV especially at 14-15 KGy.

  19. A DARK SPOT ON A MASSIVE WHITE DWARF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, Alexandros; Curd, Brandon; Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Bell, Keaton J.; Winget, D. E.; Winget, K. I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Brown, Warren R. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hermes, J. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Dufour, Patrick [Institut de recherche sur les exoplanétes (iREx), Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2015-12-01

    We present the serendipitous discovery of eclipse-like events around the massive white dwarf SDSS J152934.98+292801.9 (hereafter J1529+2928). We selected J1529+2928 for time-series photometry based on its spectroscopic temperature and surface gravity, which place it near the ZZ Ceti instability strip. Instead of pulsations, we detect photometric dips from this white dwarf every 38 minutes. Follow-up optical spectroscopy observations with Gemini reveal no significant radial velocity variations, ruling out stellar and brown dwarf companions. A disintegrating planet around this white dwarf cannot explain the observed light curves in different filters. Given the short period, the source of the photometric dips must be a dark spot that comes into view every 38 minutes due to the rotation of the white dwarf. Our optical spectroscopy does not show any evidence of Zeeman splitting of the Balmer lines, limiting the magnetic field strength to B < 70 kG. Since up to 15% of white dwarfs display kG magnetic fields, such eclipse-like events should be common around white dwarfs. We discuss the potential implications of this discovery on transient surveys targeting white dwarfs, like the K2 mission and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  20. Oral White Lesions: Presentation and Comparison of Oral Submucous Fibrosis with Other Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, A.; Aman, N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare oral submucous fibrosis with other white oral lesions for presentation and associated factors. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Departments of Oral Medicine and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ibad Institute of Oral Health Sciences (DIKIOHS), Karachi, from May 2008 to May 2009. Methodology: Patients presenting with oral white lesions were selected by consecutive non-purposive sampling and clinico-demographic data was collected. For patients with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), additional information like duration of habits, maximal incisal opening (MIO), presence of any other associated lesion were noted. OSF was compared with other white lesions for any association between characteristic of subjects. Chi-square and independent t-tests for determining the statistical significance at p < 0.05. Results: OSF was present in 59.6% (n = 106) of the 178 patients; other white lesions were 40.4% (n = 72). The mean age of patients with OSF was 34 +- 12.7 years and 45.81 +- 16.2 years in patients with other white lesions, (p < 0.0001). Items containing areca nut were consumed more by patients with OSF, with a significant (p < 0.0001) compared to patients with other white lesions. Conclusion: OSF was the predominant white lesion in patients examined at DIKIOHS. Areca nut was found to be chewed more by patients with OSF and still longer by patients with SCC. (author)

  1. Endogenous retrovirus insertion in the KIT oncogene determines white and white spotting in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Victor A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Wallace, Andrea Coots; Roelke, Melody; Kehler, James; Leighty, Robert; Eizirik, Eduardo; Hannah, Steven S; Nelson, George; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Connelly, Catherine J; O'Brien, Stephen J; Ryugo, David K

    2014-08-01

    The Dominant White locus (W) in the domestic cat demonstrates pleiotropic effects exhibiting complete penetrance for absence of coat pigmentation and incomplete penetrance for deafness and iris hypopigmentation. We performed linkage analysis using a pedigree segregating White to identify KIT (Chr. B1) as the feline W locus. Segregation and sequence analysis of the KIT gene in two pedigrees (P1 and P2) revealed the remarkable retrotransposition and evolution of a feline endogenous retrovirus (FERV1) as responsible for two distinct phenotypes of the W locus, Dominant White, and white spotting. A full-length (7125 bp) FERV1 element is associated with white spotting, whereas a FERV1 long terminal repeat (LTR) is associated with all Dominant White individuals. For purposes of statistical analysis, the alternatives of wild-type sequence, FERV1 element, and LTR-only define a triallelic marker. Taking into account pedigree relationships, deafness is genetically linked and associated with this marker; estimated P values for association are in the range of 0.007 to 0.10. The retrotransposition interrupts a DNAase I hypersensitive site in KIT intron 1 that is highly conserved across mammals and was previously demonstrated to regulate temporal and tissue-specific expression of KIT in murine hematopoietic and melanocytic cells. A large-population genetic survey of cats (n = 270), representing 30 cat breeds, supports our findings and demonstrates statistical significance of the FERV1 LTR and full-length element with Dominant White/blue iris (P < 0.0001) and white spotting (P < 0.0001), respectively. Copyright © 2014 David et al.

  2. A Dark Spot on a Massive White Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, Alexandros; Bell, Keaton J.; Curd, Brandon; Brown, Warren R.; Hermes, J. J.; Dufour, Patrick; Wisniewski, John P.; Winget, D. E.; Winget, K. I.

    2015-12-01

    We present the serendipitous discovery of eclipse-like events around the massive white dwarf SDSS J152934.98+292801.9 (hereafter J1529+2928). We selected J1529+2928 for time-series photometry based on its spectroscopic temperature and surface gravity, which place it near the ZZ Ceti instability strip. Instead of pulsations, we detect photometric dips from this white dwarf every 38 minutes. Follow-up optical spectroscopy observations with Gemini reveal no significant radial velocity variations, ruling out stellar and brown dwarf companions. A disintegrating planet around this white dwarf cannot explain the observed light curves in different filters. Given the short period, the source of the photometric dips must be a dark spot that comes into view every 38 minutes due to the rotation of the white dwarf. Our optical spectroscopy does not show any evidence of Zeeman splitting of the Balmer lines, limiting the magnetic field strength to B Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  3. MR imaging of white matter lesions in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, W.L.; Longo, F.; Norman, D.

    1987-01-01

    Autopsy reports have shown white-matter abnormalities from infection of the brain by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the agent that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The authors observed abnormal signal on T2-weighted images in the white matter of approximately one third of all AIDS patients. Of 50 patients with white-matter lesions, approximately two thirds had no clinical or biopsy evidence of cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, PML, or lymphoma. Several patients were shown at autopsy to have isolated evidence of HIV encephalitis. The authors conclude that white-matter lesions are common in AIDS and are frequently caused by infection with HIV. Some MR findings may be helpful in characterizing these lesions, but the various etiologies are often indistinguishable

  4. Focusing on butterfly eyespot focus: uncoupling of white spots from eyespot bodies in nymphalid butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Masaki; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-01-01

    Developmental studies on butterfly wing color patterns often focus on eyespots. A typical eyespot (such as that of Bicyclus anynana) has a few concentric rings of dark and light colors and a white spot (called a focus) at the center. The prospective eyespot center during the early pupal stage is known to act as an organizing center. It has often been assumed, according to gradient models for positional information, that a white spot in adult wings corresponds to an organizing center and that the size of the white spot indicates how active that organizing center was. However, there is no supporting evidence for these assumptions. To evaluate the feasibility of these assumptions in nymphalid butterflies, we studied the unique color patterns of Calisto tasajera (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae), which have not been analyzed before in the literature. In the anterior forewing, one white spot was located at the center of an eyespot, but another white spot associated with either no or only a small eyespot was present in the adjacent compartment. The anterior hindwing contained two adjacent white spots not associated with eyespots, one of which showed a sparse pattern. The posterior hindwing contained two adjacent pear-shaped eyespots, and the white spots were located at the proximal side or even outside the eyespot bodies. The successive white spots within a single compartment along the midline in the posterior hindwing showed a possible trajectory of a positional determination process for the white spots. Several cases of focus-less eyespots in other nymphalid butterflies were also presented. These results argue for the uncoupling of white spots from eyespot bodies, suggesting that an eyespot organizing center does not necessarily differentiate into a white spot and that a prospective white spot does not necessarily signify organizing activity for an eyespot. Incorporation of these results in future models for butterfly wing color pattern formation is encouraged.

  5. Impact of spot size on plan quality of spot scanning proton radiosurgery for peripheral brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dongxu, E-mail: dongxu-wang@uiowa.edu; Dirksen, Blake; Hyer, Daniel E.; Buatti, John M.; Sheybani, Arshin; Dinges, Eric; Felderman, Nicole; TenNapel, Mindi; Bayouth, John E.; Flynn, Ryan T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To determine the plan quality of proton spot scanning (SS) radiosurgery as a function of spot size (in-air sigma) in comparison to x-ray radiosurgery for treating peripheral brain lesions. Methods: Single-field optimized (SFO) proton SS plans with sigma ranging from 1 to 8 mm, cone-based x-ray radiosurgery (Cone), and x-ray volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were generated for 11 patients. Plans were evaluated using secondary cancer risk and brain necrosis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: For all patients, secondary cancer is a negligible risk compared to brain necrosis NTCP. Secondary cancer risk was lower in proton SS plans than in photon plans regardless of spot size (p = 0.001). Brain necrosis NTCP increased monotonically from an average of 2.34/100 (range 0.42/100–4.49/100) to 6.05/100 (range 1.38/100–11.6/100) as sigma increased from 1 to 8 mm, compared to the average of 6.01/100 (range 0.82/100–11.5/100) for Cone and 5.22/100 (range 1.37/100–8.00/100) for VMAT. An in-air sigma less than 4.3 mm was required for proton SS plans to reduce NTCP over photon techniques for the cohort of patients studied with statistical significance (p = 0.0186). Proton SS plans with in-air sigma larger than 7.1 mm had significantly greater brain necrosis NTCP than photon techniques (p = 0.0322). Conclusions: For treating peripheral brain lesions—where proton therapy would be expected to have the greatest depth-dose advantage over photon therapy—the lateral penumbra strongly impacts the SS plan quality relative to photon techniques: proton beamlet sigma at patient surface must be small (<7.1 mm for three-beam single-field optimized SS plans) in order to achieve comparable or smaller brain necrosis NTCP relative to photon radiosurgery techniques. Achieving such small in-air sigma values at low energy (<70 MeV) is a major technological challenge in commercially available proton therapy systems.

  6. Impact of spot size on plan quality of spot scanning proton radiosurgery for peripheral brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dongxu; Dirksen, Blake; Hyer, Daniel E.; Buatti, John M.; Sheybani, Arshin; Dinges, Eric; Felderman, Nicole; TenNapel, Mindi; Bayouth, John E.; Flynn, Ryan T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the plan quality of proton spot scanning (SS) radiosurgery as a function of spot size (in-air sigma) in comparison to x-ray radiosurgery for treating peripheral brain lesions. Methods: Single-field optimized (SFO) proton SS plans with sigma ranging from 1 to 8 mm, cone-based x-ray radiosurgery (Cone), and x-ray volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were generated for 11 patients. Plans were evaluated using secondary cancer risk and brain necrosis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: For all patients, secondary cancer is a negligible risk compared to brain necrosis NTCP. Secondary cancer risk was lower in proton SS plans than in photon plans regardless of spot size (p = 0.001). Brain necrosis NTCP increased monotonically from an average of 2.34/100 (range 0.42/100–4.49/100) to 6.05/100 (range 1.38/100–11.6/100) as sigma increased from 1 to 8 mm, compared to the average of 6.01/100 (range 0.82/100–11.5/100) for Cone and 5.22/100 (range 1.37/100–8.00/100) for VMAT. An in-air sigma less than 4.3 mm was required for proton SS plans to reduce NTCP over photon techniques for the cohort of patients studied with statistical significance (p = 0.0186). Proton SS plans with in-air sigma larger than 7.1 mm had significantly greater brain necrosis NTCP than photon techniques (p = 0.0322). Conclusions: For treating peripheral brain lesions—where proton therapy would be expected to have the greatest depth-dose advantage over photon therapy—the lateral penumbra strongly impacts the SS plan quality relative to photon techniques: proton beamlet sigma at patient surface must be small (<7.1 mm for three-beam single-field optimized SS plans) in order to achieve comparable or smaller brain necrosis NTCP relative to photon radiosurgery techniques. Achieving such small in-air sigma values at low energy (<70 MeV) is a major technological challenge in commercially available proton therapy systems

  7. IMAGE PROCESSING FOR DETECTION OF ORAL WHITE SPONGE NEVUS LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajdeep Mitra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available White Sponge Nevus is a rear hereditary disease in human causes incurable white lesions in oral mucosa. Appropriate history, clinical examination along with biopsy and cytological studies are helpful for diagnosis of this disorder. Identification can also be made in alternative way by applying image processing technique using Watershed segmentation with MATLAB software. The applied techniques are effective and reliable for early accurate detection of the disease as alternative of expertise clinical and time taking laboratory investigations.

  8. White spot syndrome virus molecular epidemiology: relation with shrimp farming and disease outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Tuyet, H.

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the causative agent of white spot disease (WSD), has been responsible for most shrimp production losses around the world since the early 1990s. Previous research has focused mainly on the characterization of WSSV genomic variation to gain a better insight in the

  9. Oral white lesion-histomorhological assessment and associated risk factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orakzai, G.; Nisa, W.U.; Orakzai, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    Oral white lesions constitute a major clinical problem in Pakistan and South Asian countries. The study was done with the objective to analyse oral white lesions histologically and clinically, and evaluate association between various risk factors in different ages, gender, ethnic groups, sites and sizes of the lesion. Methods: A total of 80 patients presenting with oral white lesions were included in this cross-sectional study conducted at Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi. The biopsy sample was fixed in 10% formalin and after standardized processing, slides were prepared, stained by Hematoxylin and Eosin, with special stains when required. The histo-pathological diagnosis of lesion was recorded. Mean and standard deviation were calculated for quantitative variable. Frequency and percentages were calculated for qualitative variables. Results: Out of total 80 patients 43 were females and 37 males. The mean age of cases was 47.92 years. Majority of the patients were between 30-39 years. Buccal mucosa was affected in majority of the cases (55%), followed by lateral border of tongue 17.5% and lip mucosa (8.8%). No risk factor had been observed in almost half of the patients. Histologically Lichen Planus was the most common lesion (32.5%), followed by chronic nonspecific inflammation in (22.5%), keratosis without dysplasia (10%), keratosis with dysplasia (8.8%), Pemphigus vulgaris (7.5%), fungal infestation (5%) and Squamous cell carcinoma (3.8%). Conclusion: Oral Lichen Planus was the most common oral white lesion in our set up, with buccal mucosa involved in majority of the cases. Association between histo-pathological diagnosis with age and gender was insignificant. However, significant association was observed between histopathological diagnosis and site. Among risk factors significant association was seen between snuff dippers and pan users. (author)

  10. Small white matter lesion detection in cerebral small vessel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoorian, Mohsen; Karssemeijer, Nico; van Uden, Inge; de Leeuw, Frank E.; Heskes, Tom; Marchiori, Elena; Platel, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common finding on magnetic resonance images of elderly people. White matter lesions (WML) are important markers for not only the small vessel disease, but also neuro-degenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Volumetric measurements such as the "total lesion load", have been studied and related to these diseases. With respect to SVD we conjecture that small lesions are important, as they have been observed to grow over time and they form the majority of lesions in number. To study these small lesions they need to be annotated, which is a complex and time-consuming task. Existing (semi) automatic methods have been aimed at volumetric measurements and large lesions, and are not suitable for the detection of small lesions. In this research we established a supervised voxel classification CAD system, optimized and trained to exclusively detect small WMLs. To achieve this, several preprocessing steps were taken, which included a robust standardization of subject intensities to reduce inter-subject intensity variability as much as possible. A number of features that were found to be well identifying small lesions were calculated including multimodal intensities, tissue probabilities, several features for accurate location description, a number of second order derivative features as well as multi-scale annular filter for blobness detection. Only small lesions were used to learn the target concept via Adaboost using random forests as its basic classifiers. Finally the results were evaluated using Free-response receiver operating characteristic.

  11. Exclusion of EDNRB and KIT as the basis for white spotting in Border Collies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinos, D; Rine, J

    2000-01-01

    White spotting patterns in mammals can be caused by mutations in the genes for the endothelin B receptor and c-Kit, whose protein products are necessary for proper migration, differentiation or survival of the melanoblast population of cells. Although there are many different dog breeds that segregate white spotting patterns, no genes have been identified that are linked to these phenotypes. An intercross was generated from a female Newfoundland and a male Border Collie and the white spotting phenotypes of the intercross progeny were evaluated by measuring percentage surface area of white in the puppies. The Border Collie markings segregated as a simple autosomal recessive (7/25 intercross progeny had the phenotype). Two candidate genes, for the endothelin B receptor (EDNRB) and c-Kit (KIT), were evaluated for segregation with the white spotting pattern. Polymorphisms between the Border Collie and Newfoundland were identified for EDNRB using Southern analysis after a portion of the canine gene had been cloned. Polymorphisms for KIT were identified using a microsatellite developed from a bacterial artificial chromosome containing the canine gene. Both EDNRB and KIT were excluded as a cause of the white spotting pattern in at least two of the intercross progeny. Although these genes have been implicated in white spotting in other mammals, including horses, pigs, cows, mice and rats, they do not appear to be responsible for the white spotting pattern found in the Border Collie breed of dog.

  12. Automated detection of Lupus white matter lesions in MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Roura Perez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain magnetic resonance imaging provides detailed information which can be used to detect and segment white matter lesions (WML. In this work we propose an approach to automatically segment WML in Lupus patients by using T1w and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR images. Lupus WML appear as small focal abnormal tissue observed as hyperintensities in the FLAIR images. The quantification of these WML is a key factor for the stratification of lupus patients and therefore both lesion detection and segmentation play an important role. In our approach, the T1w image is first used to classify the three main tissues of the brain, white matter (WM, gray matter (GM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, while the FLAIR image is then used to detect focal WML as outliers of its GM intensity distribution. A set of post-processing steps based on lesion size, tissue neighborhood, and location are used to refine the lesion candidates. The proposal is evaluated on 20 patients, presenting qualitative and quantitative results in terms of precision and sensitivity of lesion detection (True Positive Rate (62% and Positive Prediction Value (80% respectively as well as segmentation accuracy (Dice Similarity Coefficient (72%. Obtained results illustrate the validity of the approach to automatically detect and segment lupus lesions. Besides, our approach is publicly available as a SPM8/12 toolbox extension with a simple parameter configuration.

  13. Deep insight into white spot syndrome virus vaccines: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Badhul Haq

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV, the causative virus of the disease, is found in most shrimp farming areas of the world, where it causes large economic losses to the shrimp farming industry. The potentially fatal virus has been found to be a threat not only to all shrimp species, but also to other marine and freshwater crustaceans, such as crab and crayfish. To date, no effective prophylactic treatment measures are available for viral infections in shrimp and other crustaceans. Due to current aquaculture practices and the broad host range of WSSV, intervention strategies including vaccination against this virus would be pivotal to save and protect shrimp farming. Several achievements have been attained in the search of novel vaccines for WSSV. DNA vaccination, recombinant vaccines, oral vaccination techniques and gene therapy are some of the thrust areas of focus for scientists and researchers. This review article highlights the recent trends in the development of WSSV vaccines either as DNA vaccines or recombinant vaccines and their functioning strategies as suggested by the researchers worldwide.

  14. Suction generation in white-spotted bamboo sharks Chiloscyllium plagiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilga, Cheryl D; Sanford, Christopher P

    2008-10-01

    After the divergence of chondrichthyans and teleostomes, the structure of the feeding apparatus also diverged leading to alterations in the suction mechanism. In this study we investigated the mechanism for suction generation during feeding in white-spotted bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium plagiosum and compared it with that in teleosts. The internal movement of cranial elements and pressure in the buccal, hyoid and pharyngeal cavities that are directly responsible for suction generation was quantified using sonomicrometry and pressure transducers. Backward stepwise multiple linear regressions were used to explore the relationship between expansion and pressure, accounting for 60-96% of the variation in pressure among capture events. The progression of anterior to posterior expansion in the buccal, hyoid and pharyngeal cavities is accompanied by the sequential onset of subambient pressure in these cavities as prey is drawn into the mouth. Gape opening triggers the onset of subambient pressure in the oropharyngeal cavities. Peak gape area coincides with peak subambient buccal pressure. Increased velocity of hyoid area expansion is primarily responsible for generating peak subambient pressure in the buccal and hyoid regions. Pharyngeal expansion appears to function as a sink to receive water influx from the mouth, much like that of compensatory suction in bidirectional aquatic feeders. Interestingly, C. plagiosum generates large suction pressures while paradoxically compressing the buccal cavity laterally, delaying the time to peak pressure. This represents a fundamental difference from the mechanism used to generate suction in teleost fishes. Interestingly, pressure in the three cavities peaks in the posterior to anterior direction. The complex shape changes that the buccal cavity undergoes indicate that, as in teleosts, unsteady flow predominates during suction feeding. Several kinematic variables function together, with great variation over long gape cycles to

  15. Suppression of Shrimp Melanization during White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-01-01

    The melanization cascade, activated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, plays a key role in the production of cytotoxic intermediates, as well as melanin products for microbial sequestration in invertebrates. Here, we show that the proPO system is an important component of the Penaeus monodon shrimp immune defense toward a major viral pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmproPO(s) resulted in increased cumulative shrimp mortality after WSSV infection, whereas incubation of WSSV with an in vitro melanization reaction prior to injection into shrimp significantly increased the shrimp survival rate. The hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity of WSSV-infected shrimp was extremely reduced at days 2 and 3 post-injection compared with uninfected shrimp but was fully restored after the addition of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that WSSV probably inhibits the activity of some proteinases in the proPO cascade. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays, the viral protein WSSV453 was found to interact with the proPO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) of P. monodon. Gene silencing of WSSV453 showed a significant increase of PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp, whereas co-silencing of WSSV453 and PmPPAE2 did not, suggesting that silencing of WSSV453 partially restored the PO activity via PmPPAE2 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Moreover, the activation of PO activity in shrimp plasma by PmPPAE2 was significantly decreased by preincubation with recombinant WSSV453. These results suggest that the inhibition of the shrimp proPO system by WSSV partly occurs via the PmPPAE2-inhibiting activity of WSSV453. PMID:25572398

  16. Suppression of shrimp melanization during white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-03-06

    The melanization cascade, activated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, plays a key role in the production of cytotoxic intermediates, as well as melanin products for microbial sequestration in invertebrates. Here, we show that the proPO system is an important component of the Penaeus monodon shrimp immune defense toward a major viral pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmproPO(s) resulted in increased cumulative shrimp mortality after WSSV infection, whereas incubation of WSSV with an in vitro melanization reaction prior to injection into shrimp significantly increased the shrimp survival rate. The hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity of WSSV-infected shrimp was extremely reduced at days 2 and 3 post-injection compared with uninfected shrimp but was fully restored after the addition of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that WSSV probably inhibits the activity of some proteinases in the proPO cascade. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays, the viral protein WSSV453 was found to interact with the proPO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) of P. monodon. Gene silencing of WSSV453 showed a significant increase of PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp, whereas co-silencing of WSSV453 and PmPPAE2 did not, suggesting that silencing of WSSV453 partially restored the PO activity via PmPPAE2 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Moreover, the activation of PO activity in shrimp plasma by PmPPAE2 was significantly decreased by preincubation with recombinant WSSV453. These results suggest that the inhibition of the shrimp proPO system by WSSV partly occurs via the PmPPAE2-inhibiting activity of WSSV453. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Antiviral property of marine actinomycetes against white spot syndrome virus in penaeid shrimps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.S.; Philip, R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Aquaculture farms, particularly in Southeast Asia are facing severe crisis due to increasing incidences of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). Actinomycetes have provided many important bioactive compounds of high prophylactic and therapeutic value...

  18. White matter lesions of the aging brain visualized on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomura, Noriaki; Shindou, Masaaki; Hashimoto, Manabu; Kato, Toshio; Monma, Keiji; Segawa, Yasuhiko.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to study the relationship between the severity of the white matter lesions (WMLs) and aging. We reviewed 215 subjects (11-88 years of age) referred for MR imaging performed between June 1988 and August 1989 on a 0.5T superconducting MR imager. The spin echo technique of image acquisition was used, with TR 1800 ms and TE 120 ms. All subjects were free from neurological abnormalities. The patterns of MR imaging of the incidental WMLs were divided into four grades; grades 0-3 (grade 0, no lesions; grade 1, lesions confined to one lobe; grade 2, lesions beyond one lobe; grade 3, confluent periventricular lesions). We investigated the relationships among the prevalence of WMLs, the grading of WMLs, age, and hypertension. Furthermore, we analyzed the grading of WMLs in relation to the degree of brain atrophy (bicaudate index) and the prevalence of basal ganglionic lesions. The mean age of grade 0 (n=90), grade 1 (n=36), grade 2 (n=58) and grade 3 (n=31) was 43.4±13.2, 57.3±7.3, 63.5±10.8 and 71.6±8.5. The statistical difference of age between grade 0 and 1 (p 160 mmHg) showed higher grading of WMLs than other subjects. There was a statistical difference in the bicaudate index between grade 0 and 2 (p<0.001), and grade 0 and 3 (p<0.001). Of the 89 subjects of grade 2 or 3, 47 (53%) had basal ganglionic and/or thalamic lesions. It was confirmed that WMLs of neurologically healthy subjects significantly correlated with aging. In addition, hypertension accelerated WMLs. (author)

  19. The 2010 Saturn's Great White Spot: Observations and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, A.

    2011-12-01

    On December 5, 2010, a major storm erupted in Saturn's northern hemisphere at a planetographic latitude of 37.7 deg [1]. These phenomena are known as "Great White Spots" (GWS) and they have been observed once per Saturn year since the first case confidently reported in 1876. The last event occurred at Saturn's Equator in 1990 [2]. A GWS differs from similar smaller-scale storms in that it generates a planetary-scale disturbance that spreads zonally spanning the whole latitude band. We report on the evolution and motions of the 2010 GWS and its associated disturbance during the months following the outbreak, based mainly on high quality images obtained in the visual range submitted to the International Outer Planet Watch PVOL database [3], with the 1m telescope at Pic-du-Midi Observatory and the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory. The GWS "head source" extinguished by June 2011 implying that it survived about 6 months. Since this source is assumed to be produced by water moist convection, a reservoir of water vapor must exist at a depth of 10 bar and at the same time a disturbance producing the necessary convergence to trigger the ascending motions. The high temporal sampling and coverage allowed us to study the dynamics of the GWS in detail and the multi-wavelength observations provide information on its cloud top structure. We present non-linear simulations using the EPIC code of the evolution of the potential vorticity generated by a continuous Gaussian heat source extending from 10 bar to about 1 bar, that compare extraordinary well to the observed cloud field evolution. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. The presentation is done on behalf of the team listed in Reference [1]. [1]Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 475, 71-74 (2011) [2]Sánchez-Lavega A., et al., Nature, 353, 397-401 (1991) [3]Hueso R., et al., Planet. Space Sci., 58, 1152-1159 (2010).

  20. White matter lesions in psychiatric patients: a retrospective MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, T.; Teichmann, E.; Hofmann, E.; Schmidtke, A.; Warmuth-Metz, M.; Nadjmi, M.

    1992-01-01

    T2-weighted MRI scans of psychiatric patients with at least one white matter lesion (WML) were compared to 83 non-psychiatric controls with respect to WML number and distribution. MANOVA resulted in significant effects for sex, age and patient group with respect to WML number. In the psychiatric patients, infratentorial WML prevailed in organic psychoses. WML number was positively correlated with age with the exception of right temporal lobe WML. Based on WML spatial distribution, four patient clusters were found. Clusters with widely distributed WML comprised older patients with late onset of illness; right frontal and temporal WML were associated with mania, euphoria and unstable mood. (orig.)

  1. Use of cDNA microarray to isolate differentially expressed genes in White Spot Virus infected shrimp (penaeus stylirostris)

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Arun K.; Klimpel, Kurt R.; Bullis, Robert A.; McClenaghan, Leroy R.

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the etiologic agent of white spot disease, is currently the most important viral pathogen infecting penaeid shrimp worldwide. Since the initial report, white spot disease has caused losses of catastrophic proportion to shrimp aquaculture globally. Although considerable progress has been made in characterizing the WSSV and developing detection methods, information on the host genes involved in the immune response in shrimp due to WSSV infection is not availabl...

  2. Malnutrition and cerebral white matter lesions in dialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Masanori; Mukai, Kazumitsu; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Sanada, Daisuke; Shibata, Takanori; Kawamura, Mitsuru; Akizawa, Tadao; Wakasa, Mikio

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between nutritional status and the severity of cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) in dialysis patients. Subjects consisted of 28 patients with end-stage renal failure who underwent regular hemodialysis in the affiliated hospitals of Showa University Hospital. All subjects underwent brain MRI and various clinical and laboratory tests. All subjects were divided into three groups based on the following criteria. Group I was defined as having 0 or 1 of the 4 findings of malnutrition (body mass index 2 , total lymphocyte counts 3 , serum albumin concentrations <3.5 g/dL, normalized protein catabolic rate <0.9 g/kg/day). Group II was defined as having 2 of these 4 findings, and group III was defined as having 3 or all of these 4 findings. WMLs detected on T2-weightd MRI were rated using the semiquantitative method yielding two continuous variables (perivascular hyperintensity (PVH) scores, deep subcortical white matter hyperintensity (DSWMH) scores). PVH and DSWMH scores were significantly higher in patients in groups III and II compared to that of those in group I. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the four findings of malnourishment described above had significant impact on PVH and DSWMH scores. These findings suggest that nutritional status (especially malnutrition) in dialysis patients may be involved in the severity of WMLs. (author)

  3. White spot syndrome virus envelope protein VP28 is involved in the systemic infection of shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M.C.W.; Witteveldt, J.; Snippe, M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large DNA virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans. The virus particles contain at least five major virion proteins, of which three (VP26, VP24, and VP15) are present in the rod-shaped nucleocapsid and two (VP28 and VP19) reside in the envelope. The mode of

  4. Transcriptional analysis of the ribonucleotide reductase genes in shrimp white spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsai, M.F.; Lo, C.F.; Hulten, van M.C.W.; Tzeng, H.F.; Chou, C.M.; Huang, C.J.; Wang, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    The causative agent of white spot syndrome (WSS) is a large double-stranded DNA virus, WSSV, which is probably a representative of a new genus, provisionally called Whispovirus. From previously constructed WSSV genomic libraries of a Taiwan WSSV isolate, clones with open reading frames (ORFs) that

  5. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haryadi, D.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Vlak, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina

  6. Protection of Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus using a WSSV subunit vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveldt, J.; Vlak, J.M.; Hulten, van M.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    Although invertebrates lack a true adaptive immune response, the potential to vaccinate Penaeus monodon shrimp against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using the WSSV envelope proteins VP19 and VP28 was evaluated. Both structural WSSV proteins were N-terminally fused to the maltose binding protein

  7. Fitness and virulence of an ancestral White Spot Syndrome Virus isolate from shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, H.; Duijse, J.J.A.; Zuidema, D.; Hulten, van M.C.W.; Vlak, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus, the type species of the virus family Nimaviridae, is a large dsDNA virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans. Genomic analysis of three completely sequenced WSSV isolates identified two major polymorphic loci, ¿variable region ORF14/15¿ and ¿variable region ORF23/24¿.

  8. Protection of Penaeus monodon against White Spot Syndrome Virus by oral vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveldt, J.; Cifuentes, C.; Vlak, J.M.; Hulten, van M.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) occurs worldwide and causes high mortality and considerable economic damage to the shrimp farming industry. No adequate treatments against this virus are available. It is generally accepted that invertebrates such as shrimp do not have an adaptive immune response

  9. Virion composition and genomics of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M.C.W.

    2001-01-01


    Since its first discovery in Taiwan in 1992, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused major economic damage to shrimp culture. The virus has spread rapidly through Asia and reached the Western Hemisphere in 1995 (Texas), where it continued its devastating effect

  10. [Congenital "kissing" lesions: Nevus or "café au lait" spot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, A; Boccara, O; Fraitag, S; Fusade, T; Picard, A; Kadlub, N

    2016-12-01

    "Café au lait" spots (CLS) are pigmented skin lesions principally located at the trunk and the limbs. Histologically, CLSs consist in an excessive pigmentation of the epidermis, with no risk of malignant transformation. The "kissing" nevus is a rare pigmented congenital nevus affecting both lower and upper eyelids in a mirror layout. As other nevi, it presents a theoretical risk of malignant transformation. These two pigmented lesions are responsible for aesthetic discomfort when affecting the face. Three patients presenting with a congenital pigmented lesion affecting the two eyelids in a mirror layout are presented. In two cases, the lesions, initially considered as "kissing" nevi, were classified as CLSs. The diagnosis of CLS was made on a biopsy in one patient and after surgery in the other one. Pigmented mirror layout lesions, called "kissing" lesions, are exclusively described for the nevi. We describe two cases of CLSs affecting the eyelids in a mirror layout. Difficulties in diagnostic are exposed and the possible treatments are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Different associations of white matter lesions with depression and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jun-Young

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To test the hypothesis that white matter lesions (WML are primarily associated with regional frontal cortical volumes, and to determine the mediating effects of these regional frontal cortices on the associations of WML with depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. Methods Structural brains MRIs were performed on 161 participants: cognitively normal, cognitive impaired but not demented, and demented participants. Lobar WML volumes, regional frontal cortical volumes, depressive symptom severity, and cognitive abilities were measured. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify WML volume effects on frontal cortical volume. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the MRI-depression and the MRI-cognition path relationships. Results WML predicted frontal cortical volume, particularly in medial orbirtofrontal cortex, irrespective of age, gender, education, and group status. WML directly predicted depressive score, and this relationship was not mediated by regional frontal cortices. In contrast, the association between WML and cognitive function was indirect and mediated by regional frontal cortices. Conclusions These findings suggest that the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in older adults may differ.

  12. Oxidative Glial Cell Damage Associated with White Matter Lesions in the Aging Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mashhadi, Sufana; Simpson, Julie E; Heath, Paul R; Dickman, Mark; Forster, Gillian; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol; Ince, Paul G; Wharton, Stephen B

    2015-09-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are common in brain aging and are associated with dementia. We aimed to investigate whether oxidative DNA damage and occur in WML and in apparently normal white matter in cases with lesions. Tissue from WML and control white matter from brains with lesions (controls lesional) and without lesions (controls non-lesional) were obtained, using post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging-guided sampling, from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Oxidative damage was assessed by immunohistochemistry to 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxoguanosine (8-OHdG) and Western blotting for malondialdehyde. DNA response was assessed by phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), p53, senescence markers and by quantitative Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) panel for candidate DNA damage-associated genes. 8-OHdG was expressed in glia and endothelium, with increased expression in both WML and controls lesional compared with controls non-lesional (P glial dysfunction. Their expression in apparently normal white matter in cases with WML suggests that white matter dysfunction is not restricted to lesions. The role of this field-effect lesion pathogenesis and cognitive impairment are areas to be defined. © 2014 The Authors. Brain Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Neuropathology.

  13. MRI of paraventricular white matter lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Analysis by diffusion-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segawa, Fuminori; Kinoshita, Masao (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Ohashi Hospital); Kishibayashi, Jun; Kamada, Kazuhiko; Sunohara, Nobuhiko

    1994-09-01

    Magnetic resonance images in some cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) revealed abnormal signals in both the paraventriculer white matter and in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule. We examined T[sub 2]- and diffusion-weighted MR images of these lesions in 18 cases of ALS. There were symmetrical high-signal areas in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule in all of the cases. The high-signal areas in the internal capsule corresponded to the pyramidal tracts in the anatomical atlas by Talairach. In 5 of the cases of ALS, T[sub 2]-weighted MR images showed discrete paraventricular white matter lesions as well. The mean age of the ALS patients with paraventricular white matter lesions was higher than that of the ALS patients without such lesions. Proton densities calculated from the conventional MR images were higher in both the capsular and paraventricular lesions. The diffusion coefficients perpendicular to the pyramidal tract in the internal capsular lesions were within the normal range, where as the diffusion coefficients in the paraventricular lesions were increased in all directions. Thus, diffusion anisotropy was lost in the paraventricular lesions. These findings are similar to those observed in the white matter lesions of cerebro-vascular origin. As a result, the pathology of the paraventricular lesions in ALS was confirmed to be different from that of the internal capsular lesions. (author).

  14. MRI of paraventricular white matter lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Analysis by diffusion-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segawa, Fuminori; Kinoshita, Masao; Kishibayashi, Jun; Kamada, Kazuhiko; Sunohara, Nobuhiko.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance images in some cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) revealed abnormal signals in both the paraventriculer white matter and in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule. We examined T 2 - and diffusion-weighted MR images of these lesions in 18 cases of ALS. There were symmetrical high-signal areas in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule in all of the cases. The high-signal areas in the internal capsule corresponded to the pyramidal tracts in the anatomical atlas by Talairach. In 5 of the cases of ALS, T 2 -weighted MR images showed discrete paraventricular white matter lesions as well. The mean age of the ALS patients with paraventricular white matter lesions was higher than that of the ALS patients without such lesions. Proton densities calculated from the conventional MR images were higher in both the capsular and paraventricular lesions. The diffusion coefficients perpendicular to the pyramidal tract in the internal capsular lesions were within the normal range, where as the diffusion coefficients in the paraventricular lesions were increased in all directions. Thus, diffusion anisotropy was lost in the paraventricular lesions. These findings are similar to those observed in the white matter lesions of cerebro-vascular origin. As a result, the pathology of the paraventricular lesions in ALS was confirmed to be different from that of the internal capsular lesions. (author)

  15. Kidney lesions in Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a light-, immunofluorescence-, and electron-microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, W. D.; Croker, B. P.; Tisher, C. C.

    1979-01-01

    The essential pathologic lesion in Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a vasculitis that may involve the kidneys as well as the heart, brain, skin, and subcutaneous tissues. Histopathologic information concerning the response of the kidneys in RMSF is rather limited, however. In this study renal tissue from 17 children who died of RMSF was examined by light, electron, and immunofluorescence microscopy. A lymphocytic or mixed inflammation, or both, involving vessels and interstitium of the kidney was found in all patients. In addition, 10 patients had histologic evidence of acute tubular necrosis, and another 3 had glomerular lesions consisting of focal segmental tuft necrosis or increased cellularity secondary to neutophilic infiltration, or both. Immunofluorescence- and electron-microscopic studies failed to demonstrate immune-complex deposition within glomeruli, a finding that suggests that immunoglobulin and classic immune complexes were not involved in the pathogenesis of the renal lesions at the time of death. These findings suggest the possibility that the pathogenesis of the renal lesion in RMSF may be due to a direct action of the organism (Rickettsia rickettsii) on the vessel wall. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 PMID:525676

  16. White spots on Smoke rings by Bruce Nauman: a case study on contemporary art conservation using microanalytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafalda, Ana Cardeira; da Câmara, Rodrigo Bettencourt; Strzelec, Patrick; Schiavon, Nick; Mirão, José; Candeias, António; Carvalho, Maria Luísa; Manso, Marta

    2015-02-01

    The artwork "Smoke Rings: Two Concentric Tunnels, Non-Communicating" by Bruce Nauman represents a case study of corrosion of a black patina-coated Al-alloy contemporary artwork. The main concern over this artwork was the widespread presence of white spots on its surface. Alloy substrate, patina, and white spots were characterized by means of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. Alloy substrate was identified as an aluminum alloy 6,000 series Al-Si-Mg. Patina's identified composition confirmed the documentation provided by the atelier. Concerning the white spots, zircon particles were found on patina surface as external elements.

  17. A simple repeat polymorphism in the MITF-M promoter is a key regulator of white spotting in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Baranowska Körberg

    Full Text Available The white spotting locus (S in dogs is colocalized with the MITF (microphtalmia-associated transcription factor gene. The phenotypic effects of the four S alleles range from solid colour (S to extreme white spotting (s(w. We have investigated four candidate mutations associated with the s(w allele, a SINE insertion, a SNP at a conserved site and a simple repeat polymorphism all associated with the MITF-M promoter as well as a 12 base pair deletion in exon 1B. The variants associated with white spotting at all four loci were also found among wolves and we conclude that none of these could be a sole causal mutation, at least not for extreme white spotting. We propose that the three canine white spotting alleles are not caused by three independent mutations but represent haplotype effects due to different combinations of causal polymorphisms. The simple repeat polymorphism showed extensive diversity both in dogs and wolves, and allele-sharing was common between wolves and white spotted dogs but was non-existent between solid and spotted dogs as well as between wolves and solid dogs. This finding was unexpected as Solid is assumed to be the wild-type allele. The data indicate that the simple repeat polymorphism has been a target for selection during dog domestication and breed formation. We also evaluated the significance of the three MITF-M associated polymorphisms with a Luciferase assay, and found conclusive evidence that the simple repeat polymorphism affects promoter activity. Three alleles associated with white spotting gave consistently lower promoter activity compared with the allele associated with solid colour. We propose that the simple repeat polymorphism affects cooperativity between transcription factors binding on either flanking sides of the repeat. Thus, both genetic and functional evidence show that the simple repeat polymorphism is a key regulator of white spotting in dogs.

  18. Interaction between a dark spot and a two-dimensional nonlinear photonic lattice with fully incoherent white light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhaohong; Liu, Simin; Guo, Ru; Song, Tao; Zhu, Nan

    2007-01-01

    We study experimentally the interaction of a dark spot with a nonlinear photonic lattice with fully incoherent white light emitted from an incandescent bulb in the self-defocussing photovoltaic media when the dark spot is aimed at different positions of lattices with different lattice spacing. In this case a host of novel phenomena is demonstrated, including dark spot induced lattice dislocation-deformation, the annihilation of the dark spot and so on. Results demonstrate that the interaction between incoherent dark spot and photonic lattice is always attraction and the large-spacing photonic lattice is analogous to the continuous medium

  19. Transmission of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Possible Use of Physical Barrier as Preventive Measure (Transmisi White Spot Syndrome Virus dan Penggunaan Barier Fisik Sebagai Upaya Pencegahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Taslihan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Penyakit bercak putih viral hingga saat ini masih menjadi masalah dalam budidaya udang. Munculnya penyakit tersebut diikuti kematian massal, sehingga menimbulkan kerugian besar. Penyakit yang disebabkan white spots syndrome virus (WSSV menular cepat dari satu petakan tambak ke petakan lain. Penelitian bertujuan melakukan uji kuantitas WSSV pada transmisi virus baik melalui air dan kohabitasi. Metode penelitian adalah bioassay dilakukan skala laboratorium. Penularan melalui air disimulasi pada akuarium disekat dengan 3 jenis kasa berukuran pori berbeda, yaitu 300μ, 700μ dan 2 mm. Kohabitasi dilakukan dengan memelihara udang terinfeksi WSSV secara buatan dengan udang dan moluska sehat. Hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa WSSV menimbulkan infeksi pada udang sehat yang ditempatkan terpisah dari udang sakit menggunakan sekat kasa. Virus bercak putih juga menular secara kohabitasi udang sakit dengan udang sehat baik dari udang windu ke udang windu (sejenis maupun udang windu ke udang vannamei (berlainan jenis. Hasi penelitian menunjukkan bahwa trisipan bukan karier WSSV, karena tidak menularkan. Analisis LT-50 (lethal time 50% didapatkan bahwa udang yang diuji tantang WSSV melalui inkubasi dengan air mengandung ekstrak WSSV didapatkan konsentrasi 2,75x102 WSSV copy.mL-1 menyebabkan kematian 50% dalam waktu 108 jam atau hampir lima hari. Penggunaan kasa putih meskipun tidak sepenuhnya menahan, dapat menghambat sebagian transmisi WSSV. Hasil kajian memberikan gambaran tentang kecepatan penyebaran WSSV di lingkungan budidaya udang serta memberikan panduan bagaimana mengendalikan WSSV. Kata kunci: penyakit, transmisi WSSV, udang, kohabitasi, trisipan White spot viral disease has devastated shrimp industry in Indonesia. The emergence of this disease is always followed by massive death causing huge losses. Disease is caused by a virus namely White spots syndrome virus (WSSV is rapidly transmitted from one pond to other ponds. This study aims to quantify

  20. Seven-Tesla Magnetization Transfer Imaging to Detect Multiple Sclerosis White Matter Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I-Jun; Lim, Su-Yin; Tanasescu, Radu; Al-Radaideh, Ali; Mougin, Olivier E; Tench, Christopher R; Whitehouse, William P; Gowland, Penny A; Constantinescu, Cris S

    2018-03-01

    Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging at 3 Tesla (T) field strength is the most sensitive modality for detecting white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis. While 7T FLAIR is effective in detecting cortical lesions, it has not been fully optimized for visualization of white matter lesions and thus has not been used for delineating lesions in quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the normal appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of 7T magnetization-transfer-weighted (MT w ) images in the detection of white matter lesions compared with 3T-FLAIR. Fifteen patients with clinically isolated syndrome, 6 with multiple sclerosis, and 10 healthy participants were scanned with 7T 3-dimensional (D) MT w and 3T-2D-FLAIR sequences on the same day. White matter lesions visible on either sequence were delineated. Of 662 lesions identified on 3T-2D-FLAIR images, 652 were detected on 7T-3D-MT w images (sensitivity, 98%; 95% confidence interval, 97% to 99%). The Spearman correlation coefficient between lesion loads estimated by the two sequences was .910. The intrarater and interrater reliability for 7T-3D-MT w images was good with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 98.4% and 81.8%, which is similar to that for 3T-2D-FLAIR images (ICC 96.1% and 96.7%). Seven-Tesla MT w sequences detected most of the white matter lesions identified by FLAIR at 3T. This suggests that 7T-MT w imaging is a robust alternative for detecting demyelinating lesions in addition to 3T-FLAIR. Future studies need to compare the roles of optimized 7T-FLAIR and of 7T-MT w imaging. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Neuroimaging published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society of Neuroimaging.

  1. Determinants of cerebral white matter lesions: A longitudinal population based MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F. de Leeuw (Frank)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractW hite matter lesions are frequently found on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging scans of elderly non-demented and demented people. l-4 The pathogenesis of white matter lesions is largely unknown. However age and high diastolic and systolic blood pressure levels and indicators of

  2. Regional distribution of cerebral white matter lesions years after preeclampsia and eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, Marjon J.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Aukes, Annet M.; Bolte, Antoinette C.; Faas, Marijke M.; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; de Groot, Jan C.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the distribution of cerebral white matter lesions in women who had eclampsia, preeclampsia, or normotensive pregnancies. The pathophysiology of these lesions, more often seen in formerly eclamptic and preeclamptic women, is unclear but may be related to a predisposition for

  3. Mutations in MITF and PAX3 Cause “Splashed White” and Other White Spotting Phenotypes in Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter, Marlis; Brooks, Samantha A.; Burger, Dominik; Drögemüller, Cord; Gerber, Vincent; Henke, Diana; Janda, Jozef; Jude, Rony; Magdesian, K. Gary; Matthews, Jacqueline M.; Poncet, Pierre-André; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Tozaki, Teruaki; Wilkinson-White, Lorna; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Rieder, Stefan; Leeb, Tosso

    2012-01-01

    During fetal development neural-crest-derived melanoblasts migrate across the entire body surface and differentiate into melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells. Alterations in this precisely regulated process can lead to white spotting patterns. White spotting patterns in horses are a complex trait with a large phenotypic variance ranging from minimal white markings up to completely white horses. The “splashed white” pattern is primarily characterized by an extremely large blaze, often accompanied by extended white markings at the distal limbs and blue eyes. Some, but not all, splashed white horses are deaf. We analyzed a Quarter Horse family segregating for the splashed white coat color. Genome-wide linkage analysis in 31 horses gave a positive LOD score of 1.6 in a region on chromosome 6 containing the PAX3 gene. However, the linkage data were not in agreement with a monogenic inheritance of a single fully penetrant mutation. We sequenced the PAX3 gene and identified a missense mutation in some, but not all, splashed white Quarter Horses. Genome-wide association analysis indicated a potential second signal near MITF. We therefore sequenced the MITF gene and found a 10 bp insertion in the melanocyte-specific promoter. The MITF promoter variant was present in some splashed white Quarter Horses from the studied family, but also in splashed white horses from other horse breeds. Finally, we identified two additional non-synonymous mutations in the MITF gene in unrelated horses with white spotting phenotypes. Thus, several independent mutations in MITF and PAX3 together with known variants in the EDNRB and KIT genes explain a large proportion of horses with the more extreme white spotting phenotypes. PMID:22511888

  4. Paradoxical embolisation and cerebral white matter lesions in dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purandare, N.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; McCollum, C.; Jackson, A.; Burns, A.

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the relationship between spontaneous cerebral emboli (SCE), patent foramen ovale (PFO) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on cerebral MRI in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). SCE were identified by transcranial Doppler of the middle

  5. Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging of Unusual White Matter Lesion in a Patient with Menkes Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Shin; Ryoo, Jae Wook; Choi, Dae Seob; Cho, Jae Min; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Shin, Hee Suk

    2007-01-01

    We report here on the diffusion-weighted imaging of unusual white matter lesions in a case of Menkes disease. On the initial MR imaging, the white matter lesions were localized in the deep periventricular white matter in the absence of diffuse cortical atrophy. The lesion showed diffuse high signal on the diffusion weighted images and diffuse progression and persistent hyperintensity on the follow up imaging. Our case suggests that the white matter lesion may precede diffuse cortical atrophy in a patient with Menkes disease. Menkes disease is an X-linked disorder that's caused by impaired intracellular transport of copper. We describe here the DWI findings of unusual and progressive white matter lesions in a case of Menkes disease. Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive disorder, and it is due to an inborn error of copper metabolism. The cause of Menkes disease has been isolated to a genetic defect in copper-transporting adenosine triphosphatase, and this results in low levels of intracellular copper. It is characterized clinically by failure to thrive, retarded mental and motor development, clonic seizure and peculiarly coarse, sparse and colorless scalp hair. These clinical findings can be explained by a dysfunction of the copper-dependent enzymes

  6. Executive dysfunctions in migraine with and without aura: what is the role of white matter lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pira, Francesco; Reggio, Ester; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Sanfilippo, Cristina; Maci, Tiziana; Cavallaro, Tiziana; Zappia, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Executive dysfunctions and white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging have been reported in migraine. The aim of this study was to determine whether any correlation between these 2 variables exists. Forty-four subjects affected by migraine with or without aura were compared with 16 healthy subjects. A battery of neuropsychological tests assessing executive functions was administered to all subjects. Number and total volume of white matter lesions were assessed in the whole brain and in the frontal lobe. The performances of both groups of migraineurs, with and without aura, were significantly worse when compared with controls on Boston Scanning Test. Moreover, we found lower performances compared with controls respectively on Frontal Assessment Battery in patients with migraine with aura and on Controlled Oral Word Association Test in patients with migraine without aura. Nineteen patients (43.2%) and one control subject (6.2%) had white matter lesions. We did not find any significant correlation between white matter lesions load and neuropsychological performances. On the basis of our results, white matter lesions load on magnetic resonance imaging do not seem to contribute to neuropsychological performances deficit in migraineurs. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  7. Computerized tomographic evaluation of chronic ischemic lesions in cerebral white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanouchi, Hiroshi; Tohgi, Hideo; Iio, Masahiro; Tomonaga, Masanori.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the correlation between the low density areas and periventricular lucency (PVL) on CT and the histopathologic changes of chronic ischemic lesions in cerebral white matter. Thirty seven brains from chronic cases with stroke and 17 brains from patients who showed PVLs on CT were examined histologically. CT scans were performed using GE CT/T. Chronic ischemic lesions with severe demyelination or diffuse cavitation were detected as low density areas on CT. But if associated with severe gliosis, those lesions could not be detected on CT. Areas with myelin pallor could not be detected on CT. In some cases diffuse ischemic lesions as demyelination and cavitation were found in the areas corresponding to PVLs on CT. However, they were not always expressed on CT. Other cases with PVL had no histological changes in the frontal white matter. In conclusion, chronic ischemic lesions in the cerebral white matter could not always be detected as low density areas on CT. This may be partly because decreased density due to demyelination and cavitation was counterbalanced by severe gliosis which tends to increase the density. In some cases PVLs were related to diffuse ischemic lesions in the frontal white matter, but this was not always the case. (author)

  8. Clinicopathologic Correlation of White, Non scrapable Oral Mucosal Surface Lesions: A Study of 100 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidullah, Mohammed; Raghunath, Vandana; Karpe, Tanveer; Akifuddin, Syed; Imran, Shahid; Dhurjati, Venkata Naga Nalini; Aleem, Mohammed Ahtesham; Khatoon, Farheen

    2016-02-01

    White, non scrapable lesions are commonly seen in the oral cavity. Based on their history and clinical appearance, most of these lesions can be easily diagnosed, but sometimes diagnosis may go wrong. In order to arrive to a confirmative diagnosis, histopathological assessment is needed in many cases, if not all. 1) To find out the prevalence of clinically diagnosed oral white, non scrapable lesions. 2) To find out the prevalence of histopathologically diagnosed oral white, non scrapable lesions. 3) To correlate the clinical and histopathological diagnosis in the above lesions. A total of 100 cases of oral white, non scrapable lesions were included in the study. Based on their history and clinical presentation, clinical provisional diagnosis was made. Then biopsy was done and confirmatory histopathological diagnosis was given and both were correlated. In order to correlate clinical and histopathological diagnosis Discrepancy Index (DI) was calculated for all the cases. Based on clinical diagnosis, there were 59 cases (59%) of leukoplakia, 29 cases (29%) of lichen planus and six cases (6%) of lichenoid reaction; whereas, based on histopathological diagnosis, there were 66 cases (66%) of leukoplakia epithelial hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis (leukoplakia) and 30 cases (30%) of lichen planus. Seventy eight clinically diagnosed cases (78%) correlated with the histopathological diagnosis and 22 cases (22%) did not correlate. The total discrepancy index was 22%. A clinician needs to be aware of oral white, non scrapable lesions. Due to the overlapping of many clinical features in some of these lesions and also due to their malignant potential, a histopathological confirmative diagnosis is recommended.

  9. Automated Bayesian Segmentation of Microvascular White-Matter Lesions in the ACCORD-MIND Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herskovits, E. H.; Bryan, R. N.; Yang, F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Automatic brain-lesion segmentation has the potential to greatly expand the analysis of the relationships between brain function and lesion locations in large-scale epidemiologic studies, such as the ACCORD-MIND study. In this manuscript we describe the design and evaluation of a Bayesian lesion-segmentation method, with the expectation that our approach would segment white-matter brain lesions in MR images without user intervention. Materials and Methods: Each ACCORD-MIND subject has T1-weighted, T2-weighted, spin-density-weighted, and FLAIR sequences. The training portion of our algorithm first registers training images to a standard coordinate space; then, it collects statistics that capture signal-intensity information, and residual spatial variability of normal structures and lesions. The classification portion of our algorithm then uses these statistics to segment lesions in images from new subjects, without the need for user intervention. We evaluated this algorithm using 42 subjects with primarily white-matter lesions from the ACCORD-MIND project. Results: Our experiments demonstrated high classification accuracy, using an expert neuro radiologist as a standard. Conclusions: A Bayesian lesion-segmentation algorithm that collects multi-channel signal-intensity and spatial information from MR images of the brain shows potential for accurately segmenting brain lesions in images obtained from subjects not used in training. (authors)

  10. Distribution of ischemic leukoaraiosis in MRI. A difference from white matter lesions in CADASIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimoto, Hidekazu; Ohtani, Ryo; Wakita, Hideaki; Lin, Jin-Xi; Miki, Yukio; Mizuno, Toshiki

    2005-01-01

    Previously, the distribution of white matter lesions in cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) has been reported to be distinct from those in patients with ischemic leukoaraiosis and Binswanger's disease. In earlier European studies, diagnostic significance of white matter lesions in the temporopolar region (Tp), medial frontopolar region (Fp) and external capsule (EC) was stressed in diagnosing CADASIL. More recently, however, high sensitivity and specificity of Tp lesions have been demonstrated. In Japan, prevalence of CADASIL is lower, and those of ischemic leukoaraiosis and Binswanger's disease, likely related to small artery disease, are much higher than in Caucasian countries. Therefore, we examined the frequencies of CADASIL-associated lesions in 17 non-demented patients with ischemic leukoaraiosis and 20 patients with Binswanger's disease. The Binswanger's disease group showed a significantly lower scores for Hasegawa Dementia Rating Scale Revised (HDSR) and a higher prevalence of hypertension, compared to the ischemic leukoaraiosis group. There was only 1 patient with Tp lesions in each group, while Fp lesions were found in 12% and 50% in the ischemic leukoaraiosis group and Binswanger's disease group, respectively, and EC lesions in 59% and 80%. These results indicated that Tp lesions were useful diagnostic marker in diagnosing CADASIL, whereas Fp and EC lesions were non-specifically observed. (author)

  11. Molecular Mechanisms of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection and Perspectives on Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Verbruggen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its emergence in the 1990s, White Spot Disease (WSD has had major economic and societal impact in the crustacean aquaculture sector. Over the years shrimp farming alone has experienced billion dollar losses through WSD. The disease is caused by the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV, a large dsDNA virus and the only member of the Nimaviridae family. Susceptibility to WSSV in a wide range of crustacean hosts makes it a major risk factor in the translocation of live animals and in commodity products. Currently there are no effective treatments for this disease. Understanding the molecular basis of disease processes has contributed significantly to the treatment of many human and animal pathogens, and with a similar aim considerable efforts have been directed towards understanding host–pathogen molecular interactions for WSD. Work on the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis in aquatic crustaceans has been restricted by a lack of sequenced and annotated genomes for host species. Nevertheless, some of the key host–pathogen interactions have been established: between viral envelope proteins and host cell receptors at initiation of infection, involvement of various immune system pathways in response to WSSV, and the roles of various host and virus miRNAs in mitigation or progression of disease. Despite these advances, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain; for example, the roles of the majority of WSSV proteins are still unknown. In this review we assess current knowledge of how WSSV infects and replicates in its host, and critique strategies for WSD treatment.

  12. Prevalence and distribution of White Spot Syndrome Virus in cultured shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, A; Nandi, S P; Siddique, M A; Sanyal, S K; Sultana, M; Hossain, M A

    2015-02-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a dsDNA virus causing White Spot Syndrome Disease (WSSD) in shrimp with almost 100% morality rate within 3-10 days. In Bangladesh, WSSD is one of the major impediments of shrimp farming. This study first investigated the prevalence and distribution of WSSV in cultured shrimps of the coastal regions in Bangladesh. A total of 60 shrimp samples, collected from the 25 shrimp farms of different coastal regions (Satkhira, Khulna, Bagerhat and Cox's Bazar), were analysed during 2013-2014 by conventional PCR using VP28 and VP664 gene-specific primers; 39 of 60 samples were found WSSV positive. SYBR green real-time PCR using 71-bp amplicon for VP664 gene correlated well with conventional PCR data. The prevalence rates of WSSV among the collected 60 samples were Satkhira 79%, Khulna 50%, Bagerhat 38% and Cox's Bazar 25%. Sequencing of WSSV-positive PCR amplicons of VP28 showed 99% similarity with WSSV NCBI Ref/Seq Sequences. Molecular analysis of the VP28 gene sequences of WSSV revealed that Bangladeshi strains phylogenetically affiliated to the strains belong to India. This work concluded that WSSV infections are widely distributed in the coastal regions cultured shrimp in Bangladesh. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Detection of white matter lesion regions in MRI using SLIC0 and convolutional neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Pedro Henrique Bandeira; Valente, Thales Levi Azevedo; Diniz, João Otávio Bandeira; Silva, Aristófanes Corrêa; Gattass, Marcelo; Ventura, Nina; Muniz, Bernardo Carvalho; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro

    2018-04-19

    White matter lesions are non-static brain lesions that have a prevalence rate up to 98% in the elderly population. Because they may be associated with several brain diseases, it is important that they are detected as soon as possible. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) provides three-dimensional data with the possibility to detect and emphasize contrast differences in soft tissues, providing rich information about the human soft tissue anatomy. However, the amount of data provided for these images is far too much for manual analysis/interpretation, representing a difficult and time-consuming task for specialists. This work presents a computational methodology capable of detecting regions of white matter lesions of the brain in MRI of FLAIR modality. The techniques highlighted in this methodology are SLIC0 clustering for candidate segmentation and convolutional neural networks for candidate classification. The methodology proposed here consists of four steps: (1) images acquisition, (2) images preprocessing, (3) candidates segmentation and (4) candidates classification. The methodology was applied on 91 magnetic resonance images provided by DASA, and achieved an accuracy of 98.73%, specificity of 98.77% and sensitivity of 78.79% with 0.005 of false positives, without any false positives reduction technique, in detection of white matter lesion regions. It is demonstrated the feasibility of the analysis of brain MRI using SLIC0 and convolutional neural network techniques to achieve success in detection of white matter lesions regions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Computerized detection method for asymptomatic white matter lesions in brain screening MR images using a clustering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Takuya; Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Hara, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    Asymptomatic white matter lesions are frequently identified by the screening system known as Brain Dock, which is intended for the detection of asymptomatic brain diseases. The detection of asymptomatic white matter lesions is important because their presence is associated with an increased risk of stroke. Therefore, we have developed a computerized method for the detection of asymptomatic white matter lesions in order to assist radiologists in image interpretation as a ''second opinion''. Our database consisted of T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images obtained from 73 patients. The locations of the white matter lesions were determined by an experienced neuroradiologist. In order to restrict the area to be searched for white matter lesions, we first segmented the cerebral region in T 1 -weighted images by applying thresholding and region-growing techniques. To identify the initial candidate lesions, k-means clustering with pixel values in T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images was applied to the segmented cerebral region. To eliminate false positives (FPs), we determined the features, such as location, size, and circularity, of each of the initial candidate lesions. Finally, a rule-based scheme and a quadratic discriminant analysis with these features were employed to distinguish between white matter lesions and FPs. The results showed that the sensitivity for the detection of white matter lesions was 93.2%, with 4.3 FPs per image, suggesting that our computerized method may be useful for the detection of asymptomatic white matter lesions in T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images. (author)

  15. Neonatal deep white matter venous infarction and liquefaction: a pseudo-abscess lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruess, Lynne; Rusin, Jerome A.; Dent, Carly M.; Tiarks, Hailey J.; Yoshida, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Deep white matter hemorrhagic venous infarction with subsequent cavitation due to necrosis and liquefaction has been described in neonates and may be associated with infection and meningitis. In our experience, the MRI pattern of these lesions is confused with the pattern seen with cerebral abscesses. The purpose of our study was to characterize the MRI findings of post infarction necrosis and liquefaction after hemorrhagic deep white matter venous infarction in infants and to distinguish these lesions from cerebral abscesses. An institutional review board approved a retrospective review of imaging records to identify all patients with cerebral venous infarction at a children's hospital during a 10-year period. Nine infants had deep white matter hemorrhagic venous infarction with white matter fluid signal cavitary lesions. A diagnosis of cerebral abscess was considered in all. The imaging and laboratory findings in these patients are reviewed and compared to descriptions of abscesses found in the literature. There were six female and three male infants. The mean age at presentation was 20 days (range: 0-90 days), while the corrected age at presentation was less than 30 days for all patients. Seven patients presented with seizures and signs of infection; one infant presented with lethargy and later proved to have protein C deficiency. MRI was performed 0-12 days from presentation in these eight patients. Another patient with known protein C deficiency underwent MRI at 30 days for follow-up of screening US abnormalities. There were a total of 38 deep cerebral white matter fluid signal cavitary lesions: 25 frontal, 9 parietal, 2 temporal, 2 occipital. Larger lesions had dependent debris. All lesions had associated hemorrhage and many lesions had evidence of adjacent small vessel venous thrombosis. Lesions imaged after gadolinium showed peripheral enhancement. Three lesions increased in size on follow-up imaging. Three patients, two with meningitis confirmed via

  16. Neonatal deep white matter venous infarction and liquefaction: a pseudo-abscess lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruess, Lynne; Rusin, Jerome A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States); The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health, Columbus, OH (United States); Dent, Carly M.; Tiarks, Hailey J.; Yoshida, Michelle A. [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Deep white matter hemorrhagic venous infarction with subsequent cavitation due to necrosis and liquefaction has been described in neonates and may be associated with infection and meningitis. In our experience, the MRI pattern of these lesions is confused with the pattern seen with cerebral abscesses. The purpose of our study was to characterize the MRI findings of post infarction necrosis and liquefaction after hemorrhagic deep white matter venous infarction in infants and to distinguish these lesions from cerebral abscesses. An institutional review board approved a retrospective review of imaging records to identify all patients with cerebral venous infarction at a children's hospital during a 10-year period. Nine infants had deep white matter hemorrhagic venous infarction with white matter fluid signal cavitary lesions. A diagnosis of cerebral abscess was considered in all. The imaging and laboratory findings in these patients are reviewed and compared to descriptions of abscesses found in the literature. There were six female and three male infants. The mean age at presentation was 20 days (range: 0-90 days), while the corrected age at presentation was less than 30 days for all patients. Seven patients presented with seizures and signs of infection; one infant presented with lethargy and later proved to have protein C deficiency. MRI was performed 0-12 days from presentation in these eight patients. Another patient with known protein C deficiency underwent MRI at 30 days for follow-up of screening US abnormalities. There were a total of 38 deep cerebral white matter fluid signal cavitary lesions: 25 frontal, 9 parietal, 2 temporal, 2 occipital. Larger lesions had dependent debris. All lesions had associated hemorrhage and many lesions had evidence of adjacent small vessel venous thrombosis. Lesions imaged after gadolinium showed peripheral enhancement. Three lesions increased in size on follow-up imaging. Three patients, two with meningitis confirmed via

  17. The role of white matter lesions in cognitive impairment of vascular origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, D.

    2003-01-01

    Abnormalities involving the cerebral white matter, in particular the centrum semiovale, are a subject of great current interest. Partly this is because modern neuroimaging methods detect white matter changes with increasing frequency in persons older than 60 years and also because these abnormalities may be associated with specific neuro behavioral deficits, including cognitive impairment. The significance of these changes, as well as their pathophysiological background is incompletely understood. The aim of this paper is to critically review the existing knowledge about the role of the white matter lesions, based on the critical analysis of over 100 publications (most appearing in the last decade). (author)

  18. Characterization of ORF89 - A latency-related gene of white spot syndrome virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.S.; Khadijah, Siti; Kwang, Jimmy

    2004-01-01

    Open reading frame 89 (ORF89) is one of the three genes that are believed to be involved in the latent infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Here, we report the structure and functional characterization of ORF89. cDNA sequencing, 5' RLM-RACE, and 3' RLM-RACE showed that ORF89 gene is transcribed into an unspliced mRNA of 4436 nucleotides, which is predicted to encode a protein of 1437 amino acids. ORF89 expressed an approximately 165-kDa protein in Sf9 cells that localized in the nucleus. Amino acids 678-683 were found to be essential for nuclear localization. Cotransfection assays demonstrated that ORF89 protein repressed its own promoter as well as those of a protein kinase and the thymidine-thymidylate kinase genes of WSSV. SYBR Green real-time PCR indicated that the repression occurred at the transcriptional level

  19. Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus on wild and farm crustaceans from Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Galaviz José Reyes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome is a viral disease affecting wild and farm crustaceans that serve as reservoirs. Previous reports have demonstrated high genomic variation in WSS viruses (WSSV isolated from distinct geographical regions. In this study, we collected wild shrimps (Litopenaeus stylirostris, crabs (Callinectes arcuatus and farmed shrimp (L. vannamei in Sonora, Mexico, between 2008 and 2010. DNA was extracted, and the variable regions and transposase genes were subjected to PCR and sequencing. Compared to strains of WSSV from other sites, Mexican samples exhibited a distinct number of repeat units (RUs in ORF94, ORF75 and ORF125, which ranged between 1-11, 3-15, and 8-11 RUs respectively, and a unique single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 48 of ORF94. A total of six Mexican genotypes were found in organism from shrimp farm and natural environment.

  20. Mud crab susceptibility to disease from white spot syndrome virus is species-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sritunyalucksana Kallaya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on a report for one species (Scylla serrata, it is widely believed that mud crabs are relatively resistant to disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. We tested this hypothesis by determining the degree of susceptibility in two species of mud crabs, Scylla olivacea and Scylla paramamosain, both of which were identified by mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal gene analysis. We compared single-dose and serial-dose WSSV challenges on S. olivacea and S. paramamosain. Findings In a preliminary test using S. olivacea alone, a dose of 1 × 106 WSSV copies/g gave 100% mortality within 7 days. In a subsequent test, 17 S. olivacea and 13 S. paramamosain were divided into test and control groups for challenge with WSSV at 5 incremental, biweekly doses starting from 1 × 104 and ending at 5 × 106 copies/g. For 11 S. olivacea challenged, 3 specimens died at doses between 1 × 105 and 5 × 105 copies/g and none died for 2 weeks after the subsequent dose (1 × 106 copies/g that was lethal within 7 days in the preliminary test. However, after the final challenge on day 56 (5 × 106 copies/g, the remaining 7 of 11 S. olivacea (63.64% died within 2 weeks. There was no mortality in the buffer-injected control crabs. For 9 S. paramamosain challenged in the same way, 5 (55.56% died after challenge doses between 1 × 104 and 5 × 105 copies/g, and none died for 2 weeks after the challenge dose of 1 × 106 copies/g. After the final challenge (5 × 106 copies/g on day 56, no S. paramamosain died during 2 weeks after the challenge, and 2 of 9 WSSV-infected S. paramamosain (22.22% remained alive together with the control crabs until the end of the test on day 106. Viral loads in these survivors were low when compared to those in the moribund crabs. Conclusions S. olivacea and S. paramamosain show wide variation in response to challenge with WSSV. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain are susceptible to white spot disease, and S. olivacea is more

  1. Functional identification of the non-specific nuclease from white spot syndrome virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Lin Shumei; Yanga Feng

    2005-01-01

    The product encoded by the wsv191 gene from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is homologous with non-specific nucleases (NSN) of other organisms. To functionally identify the protein, the wsv191 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with 6His-tag at C-terminal. The fusion protein (termed as rWSSV-NSN) was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography under denatured conditions, renatured and characterized by three methods. The results showed that rWSSV-NSN could hydrolyze both DNA and RNA. 5'-RACE result revealed that the transcription initiation site of the wsv191 gene was located at nucleotide residue G of the predicted ATG triplet. Therefore, we concluded that the next ATG should be the genuine translation initiation codon of the wsv191 gene. Western blot analysis revealed that the molecular mass of natural WSSV-NSN was 37 kDa

  2. The effects of a thermophile metabolite, tryptophol, upon protecting shrimp against white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Jin, Min

    2015-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a shrimp pathogen responsible for significant economic loss in commercial shrimp farms and until now, there has been no effective approach to control this disease. In this study, tryptophol (indole-3-ethanol) was identified as a metabolite involved in bacteriophage-thermophile interactions. The dietary addition of tryptophol reduced the mortality in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus when orally challenged with WSSV. Our results revealed that 50 mg/kg tryptophol has a better protective effect in shrimp than 10 or 100 mg/kg tryptophol. WSSV copies in shrimp were reduced significantly (P shrimp, and thus holds significant promise as a novel and efficient therapeutic approach to control WSSV in shrimp aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression, purification and crystallization of two major envelope proteins from white spot syndrome virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xuhua; Hew, Choy Leong

    2007-01-01

    The crystallization of the N-terminal transmembrane region-truncated VP26 and VP28 of white spot syndrome virus is described. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major virulent pathogen known to infect penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. VP26 and VP28, two major envelope proteins from WSSV, have been identified and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In order to facilitate purification and crystallization, predicted N-terminal transmembrane regions of approximately 35 amino acids have been truncated from both VP26 and VP28. Truncated VP26 and VP28 and their corresponding SeMet-labelled proteins were purified and the SeMet proteins were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 were obtained using a reservoir consisting of 0.1 M citric acid pH 3.5, 3.0 M sodium chloride and 1%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350, whereas SeMet VP28 was crystallized using a reservoir solution consisting of 25% polyethylene glycol 8000, 0.2 M calcium acetate, 0.1 M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 1.5%(w/v) 1,2,3-heptanetriol. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 diffract to 2.2 Å resolution and belong to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.92, c = 199.31 Å. SeMet-labelled VP28 crystallizes in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 105.33, b = 106.71, c = 200.37 Å, and diffracts to 2.0 Å resolution

  4. Expression, purification and crystallization of two major envelope proteins from white spot syndrome virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xuhua; Hew, Choy Leong, E-mail: dbshewcl@nus.edu.sg [Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2007-07-01

    The crystallization of the N-terminal transmembrane region-truncated VP26 and VP28 of white spot syndrome virus is described. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major virulent pathogen known to infect penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. VP26 and VP28, two major envelope proteins from WSSV, have been identified and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In order to facilitate purification and crystallization, predicted N-terminal transmembrane regions of approximately 35 amino acids have been truncated from both VP26 and VP28. Truncated VP26 and VP28 and their corresponding SeMet-labelled proteins were purified and the SeMet proteins were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 were obtained using a reservoir consisting of 0.1 M citric acid pH 3.5, 3.0 M sodium chloride and 1%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350, whereas SeMet VP28 was crystallized using a reservoir solution consisting of 25% polyethylene glycol 8000, 0.2 M calcium acetate, 0.1 M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 1.5%(w/v) 1,2,3-heptanetriol. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 diffract to 2.2 Å resolution and belong to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.92, c = 199.31 Å. SeMet-labelled VP28 crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 105.33, b = 106.71, c = 200.37 Å, and diffracts to 2.0 Å resolution.

  5. Essential oils of Varronia curassavica accessions have different activity against white spot disease in freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro Nizio, Daniela Aparecida; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Yudi; Maria, Alexandre Nizio; Carneiro, Paulo César Falanghe; França, Carina Caroline Silva; da Costa Sousa, Natalino; de Andrade Brito, Fabiany; Sampaio, Taís Santos; de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank, Maria; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of essential oils from Varronia curassavica accessions against different stages of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Essential oils from each accession were tested in vitro at the concentrations 0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 200 mg/L. The VCUR-001, VCUR-202, VCUR-509, and VCUR-601 accessions presented the major compounds α-pinene, germacrene D-4-ol, (E)-caryophyllene and epiglobulol, and sabinene, respectively. These isolated compounds were tested in vitro at a concentration proportional to that found in the essential oil which caused 100% mortality of the parasite. The concentrations of 10 and 50 mg/L of the essential oil of accession VCUR-202 provided 100% mortality of trophonts and tomonts, respectively. For the accession VCUR-509, 100% mortality of trophonts and tomonts was observed at concentrations 75 and 200 mg/L of essential oil, respectively. The same mortality was observed at concentration 200 mg/L in both stages of the parasite for the other accessions. The major compounds α-pinene, sabinene, and the (E)-caryophyllene + epiglobulol mixture caused 100% mortality of trophonts and tomonts. The in vivo assay for white spot disease control was performed in a therapeutic bath of 1 h with the essential oil of accession VCUR-202 at concentrations of 0.5 and 2.0 mg/L. A significant reduction of about 30% of trophonts on infected fish was observed, independent of the oil concentration. The V. curassavica essential oil, especially the VCUR-202 accession, is a potential source of raw material for the formulation and commercialization of bioproducts to control freshwater white spot disease in fish.

  6. White Matter Lesion Progression: Genome-Wide Search for Genetic Influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Hofer (Edith); M. Cavalieri (Margherita); J.C. Bis (Joshua); C. DeCarli (Charles); M. Fornage (Myriam); S. Sigurdsson (Sigurdur); V. Srikanth (Velandai); S. Trompet (Stella); B.F.J. Verhaaren (Benjamin); C. Wolf (Christiane); Q. Yang (Qiong Fang); H.H.H. Adams (Hieab); P. Amouyel (Philippe); A. Beiser (Alexa); B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); M. Callisaya (Michele); G. Chauhan (Ganesh); A.J.M. De Craen (Anton J. M.); C. Dufouil (Carole); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); I. Ford; P. Freudenberger (Paul); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); G. Heiss (Gerardo); A. Hofman (Albert); T. Lumley (Thomas); O. Martinez (Oliver); B. Mazoyer (Bernard); C. Moran (Chris); W.J. Niessen (Wiro); T.G. Phan (Thanh); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); C.L. Satizabal (Claudia L.); N. Sattar (Naveed); S. Schilling (Sabrina); D.K. Shibata (Dean); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); G.D. Smith; D.J. Stott (David. J.); K.D. Taylor (Kent); R. Thomson (Russell); A.M. Töglhofer (Anna Maria); C. Tzourio (Christophe); M.A. van Buchem (Mark); J. Wang (Jing); R.G.J. Westendorp (Rudi); B. Gwen Windham; M.W. Vernooij (Meike); A.P. Zijdenbos; R.J. Beare (Richard); S. Debette (Stéphanie); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); L.J. Launer (Lenore); W.T. Longstreth Jr; T.H. Mosley (Thomas H.); S. Seshadri (Sudha); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); R. Schmidt (Reinhold)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground and Purpose-White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic

  7. The presence of brain white matter lesions in relation to preeclampsia and migraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, I. R.; van Oosterhout, W. P. J.; de Groot, J. C.; Terwindt, G. M.; Zeeman, G. G.

    Introduction Identifying female-specific risk markers for cerebrovascular disease is becoming increasingly important. Both migraine and preeclampsia have been associated with higher incidence of brain white matter lesions (WML) and stroke. We assessed the association between WML and migraine among

  8. White Matter Lesions, Carotid and Coronary Atherosclerosis in Late-Onset Depression and Healthy Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devantier, Torben Albert; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Poulsen, Mikael Kjær

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are more common in individuals with late-onset or late-life depression. It has been proposed that carotid atherosclerosis may predispose to WMLs by inducing cerebral hypoperfusion. This hemodynamic effect of carotid atherosclerosis could be importa...

  9. Serum carotenoids and cerebral white matter lesions : The Rotterdam Scan Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, T; Launer, LJ; de Groot, JG; de Leeuw, FE; Oudkerk, M; van Gijn, J; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    OBJECTIVES: To study the relation between serum levels of carotenoids and white matter lesions (WMLs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DESIGN: Evaluation of cross-sectional data from a cohort study. SETTING: The Rotterdam Scan Study. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and three nondemented older persons,

  10. Are white matter lesions directly associated with cognitive impairment in patients with lacunar infarcts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. van Swieten (John); S. Staal (S.); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); M.M.A. Derix (M. M A); J. van Gijn (Jan)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractForty-four patients (mean age 66, SD 8 years) with either clinical evidence of a focal lacunar syndrome (n = 36) or with disorders of memory or gait (n = 8) in the presence of a lacunar infarct on CT were studied for cognitive functioning and for the presence of white matter lesions on

  11. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryadi, D; Verreth, J A J; Verdegem, M C J; Vlak, J M

    2015-05-01

    Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina et al. 2013); therefore, it is a potential propagative vector for virus transmission. The major aim of this study was to determine whether WSSV can be transmitted from naturally infected Dendronereis spp. to specific pathogen-free (SPF) Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) through feeding. WSSV was detected in naturally infected Dendronereis spp. and Penaeus monodon Fabricius from a traditional shrimp pond, and the positive animals were used in the current experiment. WSSV-infected Dendronereis spp. and P. monodon in a pond had a point prevalence of 90% and 80%, respectively, as measured by PCR. WSSV was detected in the head, gills, blood and mid-body of Dendronereis spp. WSSV from naturally infected Dendronereis spp was transmitted to SPF L. vannamei and subsequently from this shrimp to new naïve-SPF L. vannamei to cause transient infection. Our findings support the contention that Dendronereis spp, upon feeding, can be a source of WSSV infection of shrimp in ponds. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) exposed to low and high salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Carreño, Santiago; Valencia-Yáñez, Ricardo; Correa-Sandoval, Francisco; Ruíz-García, Noé; Díaz-Herrera, Fernando; Giffard-Mena, Ivone

    2014-09-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has a worldwide distribution and is considered one of the most pathogenic and devastating viruses to the shrimp industry. A few studies have explored the effect of WSSV on shrimp acclimated to low (5 practical salinity units [psu]) or high ([40 psu) salinity conditions. In this work, we analysed the physiological response of WSSV-infected Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles that were acclimated to different salinities (5, 15, 28, 34 and 54 psu). We evaluated the osmotic response and survival of the shrimp at different times after infection (0 to 48 hours), and we followed the expression levels of a viral gene (vp664) in shrimp haemolymph using real-time PCR. Our results indicate that the susceptibility of the shrimp to the virus increased at extreme salinities (5 and 54 psu), with higher survival rates at 15 and 28 psu, which were closer to the iso-osmotic point (24.7 psu, 727.5 mOsmol/kg). Acute exposure to the virus made the haemolymph less hyperosmotic at 5 and 15 psu and less hypo-osmotic at higher salinities ([28 psu). The capacity of white shrimp to osmoregulate, and thus survive, significantly decreased following WSSV infection. According to our results, extreme salinities (5 or 54 psu) are more harmful than seawater.

  13. Variability in hematology of white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) in different living environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Lily A; Alexander, Amy B; Campbell, Terry W

    2017-07-01

    Elasmobranch hematology continues to reveal new peculiarities within this specialized field. This report compares total hematologic values from the same white-spotted bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) housed in different environments. We compared the hemograms one year apart, using a standardized Natt-Herrick's technique. The total white blood cell (WBC) counts of the sharks were statistically different between the two time points (initial median total WBC count = 18,920 leukocytes/μl, SD = 8,108; 1 year later total WBC count = 1,815 leukocytes/μl, SD = 1,309). The packed cell volumes were additionally found to be statistically different (19%, SD = 2.9 vs. 22%, SD = 2.0). Analysis revealed the only differences between the time points were the temperature and stocking densities at which these sharks were housed. This report emphasizes the need for a thorough understanding of the husbandry of an elasmobranch prior to interpretation of a hemogram and suggests that reference intervals should be created for each environment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Production of polyclonal antiserum specific to the 27.5 kDa envelope protein of white spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    You, Z.O.; Nadala, E.C.B.; Yang, J.S.; Hulten, van M.C.W.; Loh, P.C.

    2002-01-01

    A truncated version of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) 27.5 kDa envelope protein was expressed as a histidine tag fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The bacterial expression system allowed the production of up to 10 mg of purified recombinant protein per liter of bacterial culture. Antiserum

  15. Evaluation of white spot syndrome virus variable DNA loci as molecular markers of virus spread at intermediate spatiotemporal scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Thi Minh Dieu,; Marks, H.; Zwart, M.P.; Vlak, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Variable genomic loci have been employed in a number of molecular epidemiology studies of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), but it is unknown which loci are suitable molecular markers for determining WSSV spread on different spatiotemporal scales. Although previous work suggests that multiple

  16. Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Xuan, T.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vlak, J.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood.

  17. Identification of Stressors that Affect White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Infection and Outbreak in Pond Cultured Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendencia Alapide, E.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been a big problem to the worldwide shrimp industry. Exposure to stressors related to physicochemical water parameters affect WSSV infection but not all WSSV infections result in outbreaks. This paper describes a detailed monitoring of important physicochemical

  18. Mixed-genotype white spot syndrome virus infections of shrimp are inversely correlated with disease outbreaks in ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyet Hoa, T.T.; Zwart, M.P.; Phuong, N.T.; Oanh, D.T.H.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Outbreaks of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp culture and its relation to virus virulence are not well understood. Here we provide evidence that the presence of WSSV mixed-genotype infections correlate with lower outbreak incidence and that disease outbreaks correlate with single-genotype

  19. siRNA injection induces sequence-independent protection in Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenberg, M.; Heinhuis, B.; Zuidema, D.; Vlak, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major disease in crustaceans, particularly shrimp, due to the current intensity of aquaculture practices. Novel strategies including vaccination to control this virus would be highly desirable. However, invertebrates lack a true adaptive immune response system

  20. On the role of the polychaete Dendronereis spp. i the transmission of white spot syndrome virus in shrimp ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrina, Haryadi

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is by far the most devastating shrimp virus. Control measures have lowered the WSSV incidence to various degrees, but the pathogen remains plaguing shrimp culture worldwide. Continuous exposure may cause WSSV to adapt and infect non-crustacean benthic fauna in

  1. Nucleocapsid protein VP15 is the basic DNA binding protein of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveldt, J.; Vermeesch, A.M.G.; Langenhof, M.; Lang, de A.; Vlak, J.M.; Hulten, van M.C.W.

    2005-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is type species of the genus Whispovirus of the new family Nimaviridae. Despite the elucidation of its genomic sequence, very little is known about the virus as only 6% of its ORFs show homology to known genes. One of the structural virion proteins, VP15, is part of

  2. Fully automatic detection of deep white matter T1 hypointense lesions in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Lothar; Tewes, Anja; Suppa, Per; Opfer, Roland; Buchert, Ralph; Winkler, Gerhard; Raji, Alaleh

    2013-12-01

    A novel method is presented for fully automatic detection of candidate white matter (WM) T1 hypointense lesions in three-dimensional high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. By definition, T1 hypointense lesions have similar intensity as gray matter (GM) and thus appear darker than surrounding normal WM in T1-weighted images. The novel method uses a standard classification algorithm to partition T1-weighted images into GM, WM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). As a consequence, T1 hypointense lesions are assigned an increased GM probability by the standard classification algorithm. The GM component image of a patient is then tested voxel-by-voxel against GM component images of a normative database of healthy individuals. Clusters (≥0.1 ml) of significantly increased GM density within a predefined mask of deep WM are defined as lesions. The performance of the algorithm was assessed on voxel level by a simulation study. A maximum dice similarity coefficient of 60% was found for a typical T1 lesion pattern with contrasts ranging from WM to cortical GM, indicating substantial agreement between ground truth and automatic detection. Retrospective application to 10 patients with multiple sclerosis demonstrated that 93 out of 96 T1 hypointense lesions were detected. On average 3.6 false positive T1 hypointense lesions per patient were found. The novel method is promising to support the detection of hypointense lesions in T1-weighted images which warrants further evaluation in larger patient samples.

  3. Magnetization transfer imaging of periventricular white matter lesions in patients with multi-infarct dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Imon, Yukari; Asano, Tetsuichi; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Takasaki, Masaru

    1998-01-01

    Using magnetization transfer (MT) imaging, we studied the underlying pathological conditions of periventricular hyperintense (PVH) white matter changes seen on T2-weighted MR images of patients with multi-infarct dementia. Twenty-two patients with multiple lacunar infarcts and PVH lesions, including 11 with dementia (diagnosed as multi-infarct dementia) and 11 without dementia, and 10 control subjects (with multiple lacunes, but no PVH lesion) were studied using the MT technique. MT ratios (MTRs) were calculated for PVH lesions (normal-appearing frontal white matter in controls) and the genu of the corpus callosum. Signal intensities on T2-weighted images in PVH lesions of patients were significantly higher than those in normal-appearing white matter of controls, while there were no significant differences in signal intensity in the genu of the corpus callosum among the dementia, non-dementia and control groups. However, MTRs in patients with PVH lesions were significantly lower than those in controls, and MTRs in demented patients were significantly lower than those in non-demented patients. Moreover, MTRs in the genu of the corpus callosum of demented patients were significantly lower than in those in non-demented patients and controls. MTRs in PVH lesions and the genu of the corpus callosum significantly correlated with Hasegawa's dementia scale score. These results suggest that there is some difference in histopathologic changes of PVH lesions between demented and non-demented patients and that the pathological substrate in the corpus callosum may play a role in inducing cognitive decline. Studies with MT imaging may allow the characterization of different pathological conditions that cannot be visualized by conventional MRI. (author)

  4. Simultaneous Whole-Brain Segmentation and White Matter Lesion Detection Using Contrast-Adaptive Probabilistic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puonti, Oula; Van Leemput, Koen

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new generative model for simultaneous brain parcellation and white matter lesion segmentation from multi-contrast magnetic resonance images. The method combines an existing whole-brain segmentation technique with a novel spatial lesion model based on a convolutional...... restricted Boltzmann machine. Unlike current state-of-the-art lesion detection techniques based on discriminative modeling, the proposed method is not tuned to one specific scanner or imaging protocol, and simultaneously segments dozens of neuroanatomical structures. Experiments on a public benchmark dataset...... in multiple sclerosis indicate that the method’s lesion segmentation accuracy compares well to that of the current state-of-the-art in the field, while additionally providing robust whole-brain segmentations....

  5. Blood Pressure Control in Aging Predicts Cerebral Atrophy Related to Small-Vessel White Matter Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle C. Kern

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral small-vessel damage manifests as white matter hyperintensities and cerebral atrophy on brain MRI and is associated with aging, cognitive decline and dementia. We sought to examine the interrelationship of these imaging biomarkers and the influence of hypertension in older individuals. We used a multivariate spatial covariance neuroimaging technique to localize the effects of white matter lesion load on regional gray matter volume and assessed the role of blood pressure control, age and education on this relationship. Using a case-control design matching for age, gender, and educational attainment we selected 64 participants with normal blood pressure, controlled hypertension or uncontrolled hypertension from the Northern Manhattan Study cohort. We applied gray matter voxel-based morphometry with the scaled subprofile model to (1 identify regional covariance patterns of gray matter volume differences associated with white matter lesion load, (2 compare this relationship across blood pressure groups, and (3 relate it to cognitive performance. In this group of participants aged 60–86 years, we identified a pattern of reduced gray matter volume associated with white matter lesion load in bilateral temporal-parietal regions with relative preservation of volume in the basal forebrain, thalami and cingulate cortex. This pattern was expressed most in the uncontrolled hypertension group and least in the normotensives, but was also more evident in older and more educated individuals. Expression of this pattern was associated with worse performance in executive function and memory. In summary, white matter lesions from small-vessel disease are associated with a regional pattern of gray matter atrophy that is mitigated by blood pressure control, exacerbated by aging, and associated with cognitive performance.

  6. Anterior temporal white matter lesions in myotonic dystrophy with intellectual impairment: an MRI and neuropathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, A.; Tashiro, K.; Terae, S.; Fujita, M.

    1998-01-01

    We studied 12 patients with myotonic dystrophy using MRI and the Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), to see it specific MRI findings were associated with intellectual impairment. We also compared them with the neuropathological findings in an autopsy case of MD with intellectual impairment. Mild intellectual impairment was found in 8 of the 12 patients. On T 2-weighted and proton density-weighted images, high-intensity areas were seen in cerebral white matter in 10 of the 12 patients. In seven of these, anterior temporal white-matter lesions (ATWML) were found; all seven had mild intellectual impairment (MMSE 22-26), whereas none of the four patients with normal mentation had ATWML. In only one of the eight patients with intellectual impairment were white-matter lesions not found. Pathological findings were severe loss and disordered arrangement of myelin sheaths and axons in addition to heterotopic neurons within anterior temporal white matter. Bilateral ATWML might be a factor for intellectual impairment in MD. The retrospective pathological study raised the possibility that the ATWML are compatible with focal dysplasia of white matter. (orig.)

  7. A Frameshift Mutation in KIT is Associated with  White Spotting in the Arabian Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Holl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While the typical Arabian camel is characterized by a single colored coat, there are rare populations with white spotting patterns. White spotting coat patterns are found in virtually all domesticated species, but are rare in wild species. Theories suggest that white spotting is linked to the domestication process, and is occasionally associated with health disorders. Though mutations have been found in a diverse array of species, fewer than 30 genes have been associated with spotting patterns, thus providing a key set of candidate genes for the Arabian camel. We obtained 26 spotted camels and 24 solid controls for candidate gene analysis. One spotted and eight solid camels were whole genome sequenced as part of a separate project. The spotted camel was heterozygous for a frameshift deletion in KIT (c.1842delG, named KITW1 for White spotting 1, whereas all other camels were wild‐type (KIT+/KIT+. No additional mutations unique to the spotted camel were detected in the EDNRB, EDN3, SOX10, KITLG, PDGFRA, MITF, and PAX3 candidate white spotting genes. Sanger sequencing of the study population identified an additional five kITW1/KIT+ spotted camels. The frameshift results in a premature stop codon five amino acids downstream, thus terminating KIT at the tyrosine kinase domain. An additional 13 spotted camels tested KIT+/KIT+, but due to phenotypic differences when compared to the KITW1/KIT+ camels, they likely represent an independent mutation. Our study suggests that there are at least two causes of white spotting in the Arabian camel, the newly described KITW1 allele and an uncharacterized mutation.

  8. White Matter Brain Lesions in Midlife Familial Hypercholesterolemic Patients at 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, S.A.; O' Regan, D.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Neuwirth, C.; Potter, E.; Tosi, I.; Hajnal, J.V.; Naoumova, R.P. (Imaging Sciences Dept. and Clinical Research Facility, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London (GB))

    2008-03-15

    Background: Patients with hypercholesterolemia of 60 years and older have an increased risk for white matter brain lesions and dementia. Purpose: To investigate whether patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) develop white matter lesions at 3-Tesla (T) MRI as early as in midlife. Material and Methods: Non-diabetic, non-smoking, and non-hypertensive heterozygous FH patients on treatment with maximally tolerated dose of a statin for more than 5 years (n = 14) and matched controls (n = 22) aged 25 to 60 years of age were studied. Imaging was performed at 3T with a fluid-attenuated T2-weighted MR pulse sequence and a T1-weighted spin-echo pulse sequence following 10 ml of i.v. gadopentetate dimeglumine. Images were evaluated by two independent readers. Fasting blood samples were taken. Student's t test was employed at P<0.05. Results: Three volunteers and one FH patient had white matter lesions (P<0.53). No other evidence of past ischemic stroke was observed. Mean total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in the FH group (6.0+-1.1 vs. 5.1+-0.9 mmol/l, P<0.02 and 4.1+-0.9 vs. 3.1+-0.8 mmol/l, P<0.004, respectively). Conclusion: Heterozygous FH patients on statin treatment in the age range of 25 to 60 years are not at increased risk of white matter lesions at 3T MRI

  9. White Matter Brain Lesions in Midlife Familial Hypercholesterolemic Patients at 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, S.A.; O'Regan, D.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Neuwirth, C.; Potter, E.; Tos i, I.; Hajnal, J.V.; Naoumova, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Patients with hypercholesterolemia of 60 years and older have an increased risk for white matter brain lesions and dementia. Purpose: To investigate whether patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) develop white matter lesions at 3-Tesla (T) MRI as early as in midlife. Material and Methods: Non-diabetic, non-smoking, and non-hypertensive heterozygous FH patients on treatment with maximally tolerated dose of a statin for more than 5 years (n = 14) and matched controls (n = 22) aged 25 to 60 years of age were studied. Imaging was performed at 3T with a fluid-attenuated T2-weighted MR pulse sequence and a T1-weighted spin-echo pulse sequence following 10 ml of i.v. gadopentetate dimeglumine. Images were evaluated by two independent readers. Fasting blood samples were taken. Student's t test was employed at P<0.05. Results: Three volunteers and one FH patient had white matter lesions (P<0.53). No other evidence of past ischemic stroke was observed. Mean total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in the FH group (6.0±1.1 vs. 5.1±0.9 mmol/l, P<0.02 and 4.1±0.9 vs. 3.1±0.8 mmol/l, P<0.004, respectively). Conclusion: Heterozygous FH patients on statin treatment in the age range of 25 to 60 years are not at increased risk of white matter lesions at 3T MRI

  10. Identification of Antipathogenic Bacterial Coral Symbionts Against Porites Ulcerative White Spots Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adah, Nor; Sabdono, Agus; Diah Permata Wijayanti, dan

    2018-02-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are ecosystems that are vulnerable and susceptible to damage due to the exploitation of ocean resources. One of the factors that cause coral damage is the disease that attacks the coral. Porites Ulcerative White Spots (PUWS) is a coral disease found in Indonesia and attacks the coral genera Porites allegedly caused by pathogenic microbial attacks. The purpose of this study was to identify the symbiotic bacteria on healthy coral that have antipatogenic potency against PUWS. The method used in this research was descriptive explorative. Sampling was done in Kemujan Island, Karimunjawa. Bacteria were isolated from healthy coral and coral affected by PUWS disease. Streak method was used to purify coral bacteria, while overlay and agar diffusion were used to test antipathogenic activity. Bacterial identification was carried out based on polyphasic approach. The results of this study showed that coral bacterial symbionts have antipathogenic activity against PUWS disease. The selected bacteria NM 1.2, NM 1.3 and KPSH 5. NM1.2 were closely related to Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra and Bacillus flexus, respectively.

  11. Tissue distribution of metals in white-fronted geese and spot-billed ducks from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2013-07-01

    This study presents concentrations of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb and Cd in livers, kidneys, muscles and bones of white-fronted geese Anser albifrons (geese) and spot-billed ducks Anas poecilorhyncha (ducks). Iron in livers, kidneys and muscles, Zn in muscles, Mn and Cd in every tissue, Cu in livers, muscles and bones and Pb in bones differed between species, and there were significant differences among tissues in both species. Essential elements such as Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations were within the background levels. Lead concentrations in livers of 7 of 14 geese and 7 of 19 ducks and in bones of 4 of 19 ducks exceeded background concentrations for waterfowl (5 μg/g dw for the liver, 10 μg/g dw for the bone). Almost all samples of both species had the background Cd concentrations in the liver (33 of 33 geese and ducks) and kidney (14 geese and 18 ducks). Tissue concentrations of Cd were greater in geese than ducks. In contrast, tissue concentrations of Pb in bones were greater in ducks than in geese. These different trends for Cd and Pb reflect a short and/or long term difference in exposure and degree of accumulation of these metals.

  12. Characterization and interactome study of white spot syndrome virus envelope protein VP11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Jing Liu

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is a large enveloped virus. The WSSV viral particle consists of three structural layers that surround its core DNA: an outer envelope, a tegument and a nucleocapsid. Here we characterize the WSSV structural protein VP11 (WSSV394, GenBank accession number AF440570, and use an interactome approach to analyze the possible associations between this protein and an array of other WSSV and host proteins. Temporal transcription analysis showed that vp11 is an early gene. Western blot hybridization of the intact viral particles and fractionation of the viral components, and immunoelectron microscopy showed that VP11 is an envelope protein. Membrane topology software predicted VP11 to be a type of transmembrane protein with a highly hydrophobic transmembrane domain at its N-terminal. Based on an immunofluorescence assay performed on VP11-transfected Sf9 cells and a trypsin digestion analysis of the virion, we conclude that, contrary to topology software prediction, the C-terminal of this protein is in fact inside the virion. Yeast two-hybrid screening combined with co-immunoprecipitation assays found that VP11 directly interacted with at least 12 other WSSV structural proteins as well as itself. An oligomerization assay further showed that VP11 could form dimers. VP11 is also the first reported WSSV structural protein to interact with the major nucleocapsid protein VP664.

  13. Neutralization of White Spot Syndrome Virus by Monoclonal Antibodies against Viral Envelope Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Hui Shih

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs recognizing envelope proteins of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV, 6E1 against VP28 and 3E8 against VP19, were applied to demonstrate their neutralizing ability to this virus by using both in vitro and in vivo assays. Mixtures of MAb 6E1 with virus filtrate were inoculated into the primary explant monolayer culture derived from the lymphoid Oka organs of Penaeus monodon. Mab was likely to neutralize the infectivity of virus to monolayer since cytopathic effects were apparently blocked in experiment group. WSSV was titrated using Blue-Cell ELISA and the neutralizing index was calculated to be 6.90 for 6EI and 5.83 for 3E8. Neutralized virus fluids injected intramuscularly into post larvae of P. monodon. The shrimp in the positive control, which were injected with WSSV only showed an increasing mortality and a 100% mortality was reached at day 34, whereas no shrimp died in the negative control. The mortality for 6E1 was 6.7% and for 3E8 was 13.3%. These results suggest that Mabs recognizing the WSSV envelope proteins could neutralize viral infectivity to both cultured cells and shrimp.

  14. On the formation of white-spot defects in a superalloy VAR ingot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grignard, Jean Francois; Soller, Aude; Jourdan, Julien; Bellot, Jean-Pierre; Jardy, Alain [Institut Jean Lamour (UMR 7198), Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, Nancy Cedex (France)

    2011-07-15

    For the production of nickel-based superalloys for the aerospace industry, strict control of the macrostructure of the product is necessary to avoid the appearance of potentially fatal defects. Our study focuses on the prevention of ''white spots'' in the alloy IN 718. These defects, which are small volumes of a few millimeters of characteristic length, are depleted in niobium. They are known to result from the fall of metal fragments in the liquid pool during VAR processing. According to their history in the liquid metal, these fragments could not being remelted before being trapped in the mushy zone and then give rise to defects. A model calculates the heat transfer in such a precursor to simulate its melting during his stay in the bath. The validation of the predicted melting kinetics requires a series of immersive experiences of synthetic defects in a metal bath. The model and experiments have demonstrated the initial solidification of a layer of metal around the precursor. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Hematological changes in white spot syndrome virus-infected shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Osbeck)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shouming; Zhan, Wenbin; Xing, Jing; Li, Jun; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jing

    2008-08-01

    The pathological changes of hemocytes in the haemolymph and hepatopancreas were examined in experimentally and naturally WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infected Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The results showed that the pathological manifestations of hemocytes were similar among moribund shrimps infected via injection, feeding and by nature. Firstly, the total hemocyte counts (THCs) in WSSV-infected shrimp were significantly lower than those in healthy shrimp. Secondly, necrotic, broken and disintegrated cells were often observed, and a typical hematolysis was present in the haemolymph smear of WSSV-infected shrimp. Thirdly, necrosis and typical apoptosis of hemocytes were detected with TEM in the peripheral haemolymph of WSSV-infected shrimp. Hyalinocytes and semi-granulocytes with masses of WSSVs in their nuclei often appeared, whereas no granular hemocytes with WSSV were found in the hepatopancreas of moribund infected shrimps. All our results supported that hemocytes were the main target cells of WSSV, and hyalinocytes and semigranular hemocytes seemed to be more favorable for WSSV infection in F. chinensis.

  16. Recent insights into host-pathogen interaction in white spot syndrome virus infected penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, M S; Ponniah, A G

    2015-07-01

    Viral disease outbreaks are a major concern impeding the development of the shrimp aquaculture industry. The viral disease due to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) observed in early 1990s still continues unabated affecting the shrimp farms and cause huge economic loss to the shrimp aquaculture industry. In the absence of effective therapeutics to control WSSV, it is important to understand viral pathogenesis and shrimp response to WSSV at the molecular level. Identification and molecular characterization of WSSV proteins and receptors may facilitate in designing and development of novel therapeutics and antiviral drugs that may inhibit viral replication. Investigations into host-pathogen interactions might give new insights to viral infectivity, tissue tropism and defence mechanism elicited in response to WSSV infection. However, due to the limited information on WSSV gene function and host immune response, the signalling pathways which are associated in shrimp pathogen interaction have also not been elucidated completely. In the present review, the focus is on those shrimp proteins and receptors that are potentially involved in virus infection or in the defence mechanism against WSSV. In addition, the major signalling pathways involved in the innate immune response and the role of apoptosis in host-pathogen interaction is discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate protects Kuruma shrimp Marsupeneaus japonicus from white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Sun, Baozhen; Zhu, Fei

    2018-07-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin in green tea and exhibits potential antibacterial and anticancer activities. In this study, EGCG was used in pathogen-challenge experiments in shrimp to discover its effect on the innate immune system of an invertebrate. Kuruma shrimp Marsupeneaus japonicus was used as an experimental model and challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus. Pathogen-challenge experiments showed that EGCG pretreatment significantly delayed and reduced mortality upon WSSV and V. alginolyticus infection, with VP-28 copies of WSSV also reduced. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed the positive influence of EGCG on several innate immune-related genes, including IMD, proPO, QM, myosin, Rho, Rab7, p53, TNF-alpha, MAPK, and NOS, and we observed positive influences on three immune parameters, including total hemocyte count and phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, by EGCG treatment. Additionally, results showed that EGCG treatment significantly reduced apoptosis upon V. alginolyticus challenge. These results indicated the positive role of EGCG in the shrimp innate immune system as an enhancer of immune parameters and an inhibitor of apoptosis, thereby delaying and reducing mortality upon pathogen challenge. Our findings provide insight into potential therapeutic or preventive functions associated with EGCG to enhance shrimp immunity and protect shrimp from pathogen infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Selection of shrimp breeders free of white spot syndrome and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cesar de Mello Junior

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to select surviving breeders of Litopenaeus vannamei from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV outbreak, adapted to local climatic conditions and negatively diagnosed for WSSV and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV, and to evaluate if this strategy is a viable alternative for production in Santa Catarina, Brazil. A total of 800 males and 800 females were phenotypically selected in a farm pond. Nested-PCR analyses of 487 sexually mature females and 231 sexually mature males showed that 63% of the females and 55% of the males were infected with IHHNV. Animals free of IHHNV were tested for WSSV, and those considered double negative were used for breeding. The post-larvae produced were stocked in nine nursery tanks for analysis. From the 45 samples, with 50 post-larvae each, only two were positive for IHHNV and none for WSSV. Batches of larvae diagnosed free of virus by nested-PCR were sent to six farms. A comparative analysis was carried out in growth ponds, between local post-larvae and post-larvae from Northeast Brazil. Crabs (Chasmagnathus granulata, blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus, and sea hares (Aplysia brasiliana, which are possible vectors of these viruses, were also evaluated. The mean survival was 55% for local post-larvae against 23.4% for post-larvae from the Northeast. Sea hares showed prevalence of 50% and crabs of 67% of WSSV.

  19. Dual function of the pectoral girdle for feeding and locomotion in white-spotted bamboo sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Ariel L; Scott, Bradley; Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2017-07-26

    Positioned at the intersection of the head, body and forelimb, the pectoral girdle has the potential to function in both feeding and locomotor behaviours-although the latter has been studied far more. In ray-finned fishes, the pectoral girdle attaches directly to the skull and is retracted during suction feeding, enabling the ventral body muscles to power rapid mouth expansion. However, in sharks, the pectoral girdle is displaced caudally and entirely separate from the skull (as in tetrapods), raising the question of whether it is mobile during suction feeding and contributing to suction expansion. We measured three-dimensional kinematics of the pectoral girdle in white-spotted bamboo sharks during suction feeding with X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology, and found the pectoral girdle consistently retracted about 11° by rotating caudoventrally about the dorsal scapular processes. This motion occurred mostly after peak gape, so it likely contributed more to accelerating captured prey through the oral cavity and pharynx, than to prey capture as in ray-finned fishes. Our results emphasize the multiple roles of the pectoral girdle in feeding and locomotion, both of which should be considered in studying the functional and evolutionary morphology of this structure. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. An Optimized Clustering Approach for Automated Detection of White Matter Lesions in MRI Brain Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anitha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Settings White Matter lesions (WMLs are small areas of dead cells found in parts of the brain. In general, it is difficult for medical experts to accurately quantify the WMLs due to decreased contrast between White Matter (WM and Grey Matter (GM. The aim of this paper is to
    automatically detect the White Matter Lesions which is present in the brains of elderly people. WML detection process includes the following stages: 1. Image preprocessing, 2. Clustering (Fuzzy c-means clustering, Geostatistical Possibilistic clustering and Geostatistical Fuzzy clustering and 3.Optimization using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. The proposed system is tested on a database of 208 MRI images. GFCM yields high sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 94% and overall accuracy of 93% over FCM and GPC. The clustered brain images are then subjected to Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. The optimized result obtained from GFCM-PSO provides sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 94% and accuracy of 95%. The detection results reveals that GFCM and GFCMPSO better localizes the large regions of lesions and gives less false positive rate when compared to GPC and GPC-PSO which captures the largest loads of WMLs only in the upper ventral horns of the brain.

  1. Exploring DeepMedic for the purpose of segmenting white matter hyperintensity lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Fiona; Cheng, Bastian; Golsari, Amir; Weiler, Florian; Gregori, Johannes; Thomalla, Götz; Klein, Jan

    2018-02-01

    DeepMedic, an open source software library based on a multi-channel multi-resolution 3D convolutional neural network, has recently been made publicly available for brain lesion segmentations. It has already been shown that segmentation tasks on MRI data of patients having traumatic brain injuries, brain tumors, and ischemic stroke lesions can be performed very well. In this paper we describe how it can efficiently be used for the purpose of detecting and segmenting white matter hyperintensity lesions. We examined if it can be applied to single-channel routine 2D FLAIR data. For evaluation, we annotated 197 datasets with different numbers and sizes of white matter hyperintensity lesions. Our experiments have shown that substantial results with respect to the segmentation quality can be achieved. Compared to the original parametrization of the DeepMedic neural network, the timings for training can be drastically reduced if adjusting corresponding training parameters, while at the same time the Dice coefficients remain nearly unchanged. This enables for performing a whole training process within a single day utilizing a NVIDIA GeForce GTX 580 graphics board which makes this library also very interesting for research purposes on low-end GPU hardware.

  2. A Novel Detection Platform for Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus Using an ICP11-Dependent Immunomagnetic Reduction (IMR) Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing-Hsien; Lin, Yu-Chen; Ho, Chia-Shin; Yang, Che-Chuan; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Chang, Jui-Feng; Li, Chun-Yuan; Cheng, Cheng-Shun; Huang, Jiun-Yan; Lee, Yen-Fu; Hsu, Ming-Hung; Lin, Feng-Chun; Wang, Hao-Ching; Lo, Chu-Fang; Yang, Shieh-Yueh; Wang, Han-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Shrimp white spot disease (WSD), which is caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), is one of the world's most serious shrimp diseases. Our objective in this study was to use an immunomagnetic reduction (IMR) assay to develop a highly sensitive, automatic WSSV detection platform targeted against ICP11 (the most highly expressed WSSV protein). After characterizing the magnetic reagents (Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles coated with anti ICP11), the detection limit for ICP11 protein using IMR was approximately 2 x 10(-3) ng/ml, and the linear dynamic range of the assay was 0.1~1 x 10(6) ng/ml. In assays of ICP11 protein in pleopod protein lysates from healthy and WSSV-infected shrimp, IMR signals were successfully detected from shrimp with low WSSV genome copy numbers. We concluded that this IMR assay targeting ICP11 has potential for detecting the WSSV.

  3. Whole genome sequencing reveals a novel deletion variant in the KIT gene in horses with white spotted coat colour phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürig, N; Jude, R; Holl, H; Brooks, S A; Lafayette, C; Jagannathan, V; Leeb, T

    2017-08-01

    White spotting phenotypes in horses can range in severity from the common white markings up to completely white horses. EDNRB, KIT, MITF, PAX3 and TRPM1 represent known candidate genes for such phenotypes in horses. For the present study, we re-investigated a large horse family segregating a variable white spotting phenotype, for which conventional Sanger sequencing of the candidate genes' individual exons had failed to reveal the causative variant. We obtained whole genome sequence data from an affected horse and specifically searched for structural variants in the known candidate genes. This analysis revealed a heterozygous ~1.9-kb deletion spanning exons 10-13 of the KIT gene (chr3:77,740,239_77,742,136del1898insTATAT). In continuity with previously named equine KIT variants we propose to designate the newly identified deletion variant W22. We had access to 21 horses carrying the W22 allele. Four of them were compound heterozygous W20/W22 and had a completely white phenotype. Our data suggest that W22 represents a true null allele of the KIT gene, whereas the previously identified W20 leads to a partial loss of function. These findings will enable more precise genetic testing for depigmentation phenotypes in horses. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  4. Porcine skin visible lesion thresholds for near-infrared lasers including modeling at two pulse durations and spot sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, C P; Polhamus, G D; Roach, W P; Stolarski, D J; Schuster, K J; Stockton, K L; Rockwell, B A; Chen, Bo; Welch, A J

    2006-01-01

    With the advent of such systems as the airborne laser and advanced tactical laser, high-energy lasers that use 1315-nm wavelengths in the near-infrared band will soon present a new laser safety challenge to armed forces and civilian populations. Experiments in nonhuman primates using this wavelength have demonstrated a range of ocular injuries, including corneal, lenticular, and retinal lesions as a function of pulse duration. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) laser safety standards have traditionally been based on experimental data, and there is scant data for this wavelength. We are reporting minimum visible lesion (MVL) threshold measurements using a porcine skin model for two different pulse durations and spot sizes for this wavelength. We also compare our measurements to results from our model based on the heat transfer equation and rate process equation, together with actual temperature measurements on the skin surface using a high-speed infrared camera. Our MVL-ED50 thresholds for long pulses (350 micros) at 24-h postexposure are measured to be 99 and 83 J cm(-2) for spot sizes of 0.7 and 1.3 mm diam, respectively. Q-switched laser pulses of 50 ns have a lower threshold of 11 J cm(-2) for a 5-mm-diam top-hat laser pulse.

  5. Incidental white matter lesions identified on magnetic resonance images of normal Japanese individuals; Correlation with age and hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Kida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takayuki; Iwakoshi, Takanori; Niwa, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Tatsuya [Komaki City Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1994-05-01

    Incidental white matter high-intensity lesions are frequently seen on T[sub 2]-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images of the brain in older people. The incidence increases with advancing age or hypertension. Brain MR images of 59 normal individuals were examined to analyze this phenomenon. The total number of white matter high-intensity lesions correlated significantly with age (p=0.004) or systolic blood pressure (p=0.03). The 60- to 69-year-old group demonstrated a very close correlation of white matter lesions with systolic (p=0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.01), in contrast to the 50- to 59-year-old group. Hypertensive subjects in their 60s are thought to develop more white matter lesions than subjects in their 50s. (author).

  6. Performance of iron spot test with Arabic bread made from fortified white wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Erin; Aburto, Nancy; Masa'd, Hanan; Wirth, James; Sullivan, Kevin; Serdula, Mary

    2012-09-01

    The iron spot test (IST) is a simple qualitative technique for determining the presence of added iron in fortified flour. IST performance in bread has never been investigated. If found to perform well, the IST has the potential to provide a field-friendly method for testing bread and thus support the monitoring and evaluation of flour fortification programs. To assess the performance of the IST in Arabic bread made from white wheat flour. Bread samples were collected from 1,737 households during a national micronutrient survey in Jordan. A subsample of Arabic bread (n = 44) was systematically selected for testing by both the IST and spectrophotometry (criterion reference). Performance measures (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values) were calculated using five cutoffs to define the presence of added iron, including > or = 15.0 ppm (approximate level of natural iron in Arabic bread) and four additional cutoffs based on test performance. The iron contents of samples testing negative by IST ranged from 10.4 to 18.4 ppm, with one outlier at 41.0 ppm, which was excluded from subsequent analyses. The iron contents of samples testing positive by IST ranged from 16.1 to 38.4 ppm. With the exception of negative predictive values for the two lowest cutoffs (> or = 15.0 and > or = 16.1 ppm), all performance measures exceeded 83.3%. These results show promise for the IST as an inexpensive, field-friendly method for testing bread that could have a useful role in the monitoring and evaluation process for flour fortification programs.

  7. Dynamics of Saturn’s 2010 Great White Spot from high-resolution Cassini ISS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, Ricardo; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; del Río-Gaztelurrutia, T.

    2012-10-01

    On December 5th 2010 a storm erupted in Saturn’s North Temperate latitudes which were experiencing early spring season. The storm quickly developed to a planet-wide disturbance of the Great White Spot type. The ISS instrument onboard Cassini acquired its first images of the storm on 23th December 2010 and performed repeated observations with a variety of spatial resolutions over the nearly 10 months period the storm continued active. Here we present an analysis of two of the image sequences with better spatial resolution of the mature storm when it was fully developed and very active. We used an image correlation algorithm to measure the cloud motions obtained from images separated 20 minutes and obtained 16,000 wind tracers in a domain of 60 degrees longitude per 20 degrees in latitude. Intense zonal and meridional motions accompanied the storm and reached values of 120 m/s in particular regions of the active storm. The storm released a chain of anticyclonic and cyclonic vortices at planetocentric latitudes of 36° and 32° respectively. The short time difference between the images results in estimated wind uncertainties of 15 m/s that did not allow to perform a complete analysis of the turbulence and kinetic spectrum of the motions. We identify locations of the updrafts and link those with the morphology in different observing filters. The global behaviour of the storm was examined in images separated by 10 hours confirming the intensity of the winds and the global behaviour of the vortices. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN project AYA2009-10701 with FEDER funds, by Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07 and by Universidad País Vasco UPV/EHU through program UFI11/55.

  8. Evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-10-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) β-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tangential flow ultrafiltration for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp pond water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavandi, S V; Ananda Bharathi, R; Satheesh Kumar, S; Dineshkumar, N; Saravanakumar, C; Joseph Sahaya Rajan, J

    2015-06-15

    Water represents the most important component in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission pathway in aquaculture, yet there is very little information. Detection of viruses in water is a challenge, since their counts will often be too low to be detected by available methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In order to overcome this difficulty, viruses in water have to be concentrated from large volumes of water prior to detection. In this study, a total of 19 water samples from aquaculture ecosystem comprising 3 creeks, 10 shrimp culture ponds, 3 shrimp broodstock tanks and 2 larval rearing tanks of shrimp hatcheries and a sample from a hatchery effluent treatment tank were subjected to concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration (UF) using tangential flow filtration (TFF). Twenty to 100l of water from these sources was concentrated to a final volume of 100mL (200-1000 fold). The efficiency of recovery of WSSV by TFF ranged from 7.5 to 89.61%. WSSV could be successfully detected by PCR in the viral concentrates obtained from water samples of three shrimp culture ponds, one each of the shrimp broodstock tank, larval rearing tank, and the shrimp hatchery effluent treatment tank with WSSV copy numbers ranging from 6 to 157mL(-1) by quantitative real time PCR. The ultrafiltration virus concentration technique enables efficient detection of shrimp viral pathogens in water from aquaculture facilities. It could be used as an important tool to understand the efficacy of biosecurity protocols adopted in the aquaculture facility and to carry out epidemiological investigations of aquatic viral pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Shrimp miRNAs regulate innate immune response against white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkascholkul, Napol; Somboonviwat, Kulwadee; Asakawa, Shuichi; Hirono, Ikuo; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs of RNA interference pathways that regulate gene expression through partial complementary base-pairing to target mRNAs. In this study, miRNAs that are expressed in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected Penaeus monodon, were identified using next generation sequencing. Forty-six miRNA homologs were identified from WSSV-infected shrimp hemocyte. Stem-loop real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that 11 out of 16 selected miRNAs were differentially expressed upon WSSV infection. Of those, pmo-miR-315 and pmo-miR-750 were highly responsive miRNAs. miRNA target prediction revealed that the miRNAs were targeted at 5'UTR, ORF, and 3'UTR of several immune-related genes such as genes encoding antimicrobial peptides, signaling transduction proteins, heat shock proteins, oxidative stress proteins, proteinases or proteinase inhibitors, proteins in blood clotting system, apoptosis-related proteins, proteins in prophenoloxidase system, pattern recognition proteins and other immune molecules. The highly conserved miRNA homolog, pmo-bantam, was characterized for its function in shrimp. The pmo-bantam was predicted to target the 3'UTR of Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (KuSPI). Binding of pmo-bantam to the target sequence of KuSPI gene was analyzed by luciferase reporter assay. Correlation of pmo-bantam and KuSPI expression was observed in lymphoid organ of WSSV-infected shrimp. These results implied that miRNAs might play roles as immune gene regulators in shrimp antiviral response. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Reprint of "evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2015-02-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) β-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Scavenger Receptor C Mediates Phagocytosis of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Restricts Virus Proliferation in Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Chong; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Yang, Hui-Ting; Sun, Jie-Jie; Xu, Ling; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2016-01-01

    Scavenger receptors are an important class of pattern recognition receptors that play several important roles in host defense against pathogens. The class C scavenger receptors (SRCs) have only been identified in a few invertebrates, and their role in the immune response against viruses is seldom studied. In this study, we firstly identified an SRC from kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus, designated MjSRC, which was significantly upregulated after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge at the mRNA and protein levels in hemocytes. The quantity of WSSV increased in shrimp after knockdown of MjSRC, compared with the controls. Furthermore, overexpression of MjSRC led to enhanced WSSV elimination via phagocytosis by hemocytes. Pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated the interaction between MjSRC and the WSSV envelope protein. Electron microscopy observation indicated that the colloidal gold-labeled extracellular domain of MjSRC was located on the outer surface of WSSV. MjSRC formed a trimer and was internalized into the cytoplasm after WSSV challenge, and the internalization was strongly inhibited after knockdown of Mjβ-arrestin2. Further studies found that Mjβ-arrestin2 interacted with the intracellular domain of MjSRC and induced the internalization of WSSV in a clathrin-dependent manner. WSSV were co-localized with lysosomes in hemocytes and the WSSV quantity in shrimp increased after injection of lysosome inhibitor, chloroquine. Collectively, this study demonstrated that MjSRC recognized WSSV via its extracellular domain and invoked hemocyte phagocytosis to restrict WSSV systemic infection. This is the first study to report an SRC as a pattern recognition receptor promoting phagocytosis of a virus. PMID:28027319

  13. Combined exposure of carps (Cyprinus carpio L.) to cyanobacterial biomass and white spot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palikova, Miroslava; Navratil, Stanislav; Papezikova, Ivana; Ambroz, Petr; Vesely, Tomas; Pokorova, Dagmar; Mares, Jan; Adamovsky, Ondrej; Navratil, Lukas; Kopp, Radovan

    2012-01-01

    Under environmental conditions, fish can be exposed to multiple stressors including natural toxins and infectious agents at the same time. This study brings new knowledge on the effects of controlled exposure to multiple stressors in fish. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that influence of cyanobacterial biomass and an infection agent represented by the white spot disease can combine to enhance the effects on fish. Common carps were divided into four groups, each with 40 specimens for 20 days: control group, cyanobacterial biomass exposed group, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis-infected fish (Ich) and cyanobacterial biomass-exposed fish + Ichthyophthirius multifiliis-infected fish. During the experiment we evaluated the clinical signs, mortality, selected haematological parameters, immune parameters and toxin accumulation. There was no mortality in control fish and cyanobacterial biomass-exposed fish. One specimen died in Ichthyophthirius multifiliis-infected fish and the combined exposure resulted in the death of 13 specimens. The whole leukocyte counts (WBC) of the control group did not show any significant differences. Cyanobacteria alone caused a significant increase of the WBC on day 13 (p≤0.05) and on day 20 (p≤0.01). Also, I. multifiliis caused a significant elevation of WBC (p≤0.01) on day 20. Co-exposition resulted in WBC increased on day 13 and decrease on day 20, but the changes were not significant. It is evident from the differential leukocyte counts that while the increase of WBC in the group exposed to cyanobacteria was caused by elevation of lymphocytes, the increase in the group infected by I. multifiliis was due to the increase of myeloid cells. It well corresponds with the integral of chemiluminescence in the group infected by I. multifiliis, which is significantly elevated on day 20 in comparison with all other groups. We can confirm additive action of different agents on the immune system of fish. While single agents seemed to

  14. Thalamic diffusion differences related to cognitive function in white matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Andújar, Marina; Soriano-Raya, Juan José; Miralbell, Júlia; López-Cancio, Elena; Cáceres, Cynthia; Bargalló, Núria; Barrios, Maite; Arenillas, Juan Francisco; Toran, Pere; Alzamora, Maite; Clemente, Imma; Dávalos, Antoni; Mataró, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are related to cognitive deficits, probably due to a disruption of frontal-subcortical circuits. We explored thalamic diffusion differences related to white matter lesions (WMLs) and their association with cognitive function in middle-aged individuals. Ninety-six participants from the Barcelona-AsIA Neuropsychology Study were included. Participants were classified into groups based on low grade and high grade of periventricular hyperintensities (PVHs) and deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs). Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was used to study thalamic diffusion differences between groups. Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values in significant areas were calculated for each subject and correlated with cognitive performance. Participants with high-grade PVHs and DWMHs showed lower FA thalamic values compared to those with low-grade PVHs and DWMHs, respectively. Decreased FA thalamic values in high-grade DWMHs, but not high-grade PVH, were related to lower levels of performance in psychomotor speed, verbal fluency, and visuospatial skills. Thalamic diffusion differences are related to lower cognitive function only in participants with high-grade DWMHs. These results support the hypothesis that fronto-subcortical disruption is associated with cognitive function only in DWMHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of an immunodot test to manage white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) during cultivation of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patil, R.; Palaksha, K.J.; Anil, T.M.; Guruchannabasavanna; Patil, P.; Shankar, K.M.; Mohan, C.V.; Sreepada, R.A.

    A monoclonal antibody-based immunodot test was compared to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for managing white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) on shrimp farms at Kundapur and Kumta situated in Udupi and Uttar Kannada Districts, respectively...

  16. QTL for white spot syndrome virus resistance and the sex-determining locus in the Indian black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nicholas A; Gopikrishna, Gopalapillay; Baranski, Matthew; Katneni, Vinaya Kumar; Shekhar, Mudagandur S; Shanmugakarthik, Jayakani; Jothivel, Sarangapani; Gopal, Chavali; Ravichandran, Pitchaiyappan; Gitterle, Thomas; Ponniah, Alphis G

    2014-08-28

    Shrimp culture is a fast growing aquaculture sector, but in recent years there has been a shift away from tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon to other species. This is largely due to the susceptibility of P. monodon to white spot syndrome virus disease (Whispovirus sp.) which has impacted production around the world. As female penaeid shrimp grow more rapidly than males, mono-sex production would be advantageous, however little is known about genes controlling or markers associated with sex determination in shrimp. In this study, a mapped set of 3959 transcribed single nucleotide polymorphisms were used to scan the P. monodon genome for loci associated with resistance to white-spot syndrome virus and sex in seven full-sibling tiger shrimp families challenged with white spot syndrome virus. Linkage groups 2, 3, 5, 6, 17, 18, 19, 22, 27 and 43 were found to contain quantitative trait loci significantly associated with hours of survival after white spot syndrome virus infection (P shrimp.

  17. The value of T1-weighted images in the differentiation between MS, white matter lesions, and subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (SAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlenbrock, D.; Sehlen, S.

    1989-07-01

    The aim of the study was to define reliable criteria for the differentiation of MR imaging between patients with MS and with 'vascular' white matter lesions/SAE. We examined 35 patients with proven MS according to the Poser criteria and 35 patients with other white matter lesions and/or SAE. The result is that with MR a differentiation can be achieved provided that T1-weighted spin-echo sequences are included and the different pattern of distribution is considered. MS plaques are predominantly located in the subependymal region, vascular white matter lesions are mainly located in the water-shed of the superficial middle cerebral branches and the deep perforating long medullary vessels in the centrum semiovale. Infratentorial lesions are more often seen in MS. Confluence at the lateral ventricles is frequently accompanied by confluent abnormalities around the third ventricle, Sylvian aqueduct, and fourth ventricle, which is uncommon in SAE. In MS many lesions visible on T2-weighted images have a cellular or intracellular composition that renders them visible also on T1-weighted ones as regions with low signal intensity and more or less distinct boundary. 'Vascular' white matter lesions and SAE mainly represent demyelination and can therefore be seen on T2-weighted images, but corresponding low signal intensity lesions on T1-weighted images are uncommon. In some exceptions there are such lesions with low signal representing lacunar infarcts or widened Virchow-Robin-spaces. (orig.).

  18. MR imaging identification of white-matter lesions in uncomplicated chronic alcoholism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, M.; Amicarelli, I.; DiCesare, E.; Rossi, A.; Stratta, P.; Casacchia, M.; Passariello, R.

    1987-01-01

    Chronic alcoholics may have central nervous system (CNS) lesions, such as microvasculitis, or glial, neural, and myelinic degeneration, as has been documented in postmortem studies on patients with Wernicke disease, corpus callosum degeneration, or central pontine myelinolisis. The presence of early white matter diseases can aslo be projected in patients not suffering the neurologic complications of alcoholism. Thirty-five alcoholics (DSM-III criteria) and 35 healthy controls underwent MR imaging at 0.5 T (repetition time/echo time = 1,800/30-120 msec). Subjects older than 60 years or who had CNS injuries or clinically evident hepatopathies were excluded. Besides the aspecific corticosubcortical and cerebellar atrophy, MR imaging disclosed multiple round hyperintense areas in the white matter of 14 patients but in none of the healthy controls. These results suggest early involvement of the brain in chronic alcoholism

  19. Comparing Cerebral White Matter Lesion Burdens between Parkinson’s Disease with and without Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ah Choi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral white matter lesions (CWMLs have been suggested to be associated with an increased risk of dementia, disability, and death. CWMLs are more common in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD than in normal elderly individuals of comparable age. Only a few studies have been done to determine whether CWMLs may influence cognitive decline in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Fully developed PD with concurrent AD was reported to likely cause impaired cognition in spite of accumulating evidence suggesting that PD with dementia (PDD is more closely associated with Lewy body (LB pathology. Currently, contradictory data on the neuropathology of dementia in PD require further prospective clinicopathological studies in larger cohorts to elucidate the impact of AD and α-synuclein (SCNA pathologies on the cognitive status in these disorders. Previous reports did not suggest CWMLs to be associated with an increased risk of PDD. After adjusting for age at death, age at onset of PD, and duration of PD, our recent study investigating CWMLs in PDD via autopsy has shown a positive correlation between the burden of CWMLs and PDD. The frequent co-existence of both LB and AD lesions suggests that both pathologies independently or synergistically contribute to both movement disorders and cognitive impairment. The individual and cumulative burden of CWMLs, LB lesions, and AD lesions may synergistically contribute to cognitive decline in LB disorders such as PDD.

  20. Punctate white matter lesions in infants: new insights using susceptibility-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Tetsu; Vries, Linda S. de; Benders, Manon J.N.L.; Groenendaal, Floris; Takahara, Taro; Nikkels, Peter G.J.

    2011-01-01

    Punctate white matter lesions (PWML) are recognized with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as hypersignal on T1-weighted imaging and hyposignal on T2-weighted imaging. Our aim was to assess how often a hemorrhagic component was present in PWML using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Seventeen preterm (gestational age, 25-34 weeks) and seven full-term infants (age at MRI, 37-42 weeks) with PWML were included. Seven preterm infants had sequential MRIs. PWML were diagnosed with conventional MRI and compared with SWI, where signal loss is suggestive of hemorrhage. The pattern of associated brain lesions was taken into account, and the percentage of lesions with signal loss on SWI was calculated for each infant. A significantly higher percentage of signal loss on SWI (median, 93.9%) was found among infants with germinal matrix and intraventricular hemorrhage as the primary diagnosis (n = 8) compared to those with a primary diagnosis of white matter injury (n = 14; median, 14.2%; p < 0.01). In the infants with serial MRIs, a reduction in the number of PWML and/or signal loss on SWI was noted at term equivalent age. In the patient who died, cystic lesions, associated with hemorrhage and gliosis, were demonstrated on histology. SWI can distinguish hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic PWML. Signal loss on SWI was more common when PWML were associated with an intraventricular hemorrhage. Longitudinal imaging showed a decrease in the number of PWML over time, with some PWML no longer showing signal loss on SWI, suggesting early gliosis. (orig.)

  1. Preclinical cerebral network connectivity evidence of deficits in mild white matter lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying eLiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available White matter lesions (WMLs are notable for their high prevalence and have been demonstrated to be a potential neuroimaging biomarker of early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. This study aimed to identify the brain functional and structural mechanisms underlying cognitive decline observed in mild WMLs. Multi-domain cognitive tests, as well as resting-state, diffusion tensor and structural images were obtained on 42 mild WMLs and 42 age/sex-matched healthy controls. For each participant, we examined the functional connectivity of three resting-state networks related to the changed cognitive domains: the default mode network (DMN and the bilateral fronto-parietal network (FPN. We also performed voxel-based morphometry analysis to compare whole-brain gray matter volume, atlas-based quantification of the white matter tracts interconnecting the RSNs, and the relationship between functional connectivity and structural connectivity. We observed functional connectivity alterations in the DMN and the right FPN combined with related white matter integrity disruption in mild WMLs. However, no significant gray matter atrophy difference was found. Furthermore, the right precuneus functional connectivity in the DMN exhibited a significantly negative correlation with the memory test scores. Our study suggests that in mild WMLs, dysfunction of RSNs might be a consequence of decreased white matter structural connectivity, which further affects cognitive performance.

  2. Methods used for prevention of white spot lesion development during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbusch, A.E.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Mulder, J.; Sanden, W.J.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to survey methods that Dutch orthodontists use to prevent development or progression of enamel decalcifications during orthodontic treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pre-tested questionnaire was sent by post to all orthodontists in the Netherlands with a

  3. Antioxidant Effect of Orange Peel Extract on Chemical Quality, Sensory Properties, and Black Spots of Farmed White Shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Vakili

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Black spots are a major problem in commercial shrimp species and can have negative effects on shrimps' appearance, quality, shelf life, economic value, and product acceptance by consumers. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of orange peel extract on chemical and sensory qualities as well as black spots on Litopenaeus vannamei species of white farmed shrimp. Methods: Samples included treated shrimps at concentration of 150 g, orange peel extract for 30 minutes, and control shrimps. After storage for 10 days at 1 ± 4 °C, the samples’ chemical and sensory evaluations were performed with an interval of 5 days. Results: pH factors, peroxide value, and total volatile network (TVN of treated samples were significantly lower compared to those of the control samples (P < 0.05. There was no significant difference in the moisture content. Black spots did not appear in the treated sample until the end of refrigerated storage, but melanosis appeared in control shrimp 5 days after storage. Conclusion: The results showed that because of having antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, orange peel extract improved shrimps' chemical and sensory qualities and reduced their black spots in the refrigerator temperature.

  4. Age dependent white matter lesions and brain volume changes in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Larsson, H B; Thomsen, C

    1994-01-01

    The brain of 142 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 80 years were investigated using MR imaging. The number and size of the white matter hyperintensity lesions (WMHL) in the cerebral hemispheres were determined. Furthermore, the volume of the cerebral hemispheres and of the lateral ventricles was meas......The brain of 142 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 80 years were investigated using MR imaging. The number and size of the white matter hyperintensity lesions (WMHL) in the cerebral hemispheres were determined. Furthermore, the volume of the cerebral hemispheres and of the lateral ventricles...... was measured. An almost linear increase in the number of volunteers with WMHL was seen with aging for males and females. With aging a significant decrease in the volume of the cerebral hemispheres was found for males, and a significant increase in the volume of the lateral ventricles was seen for both males...... and females. Our results suggest that with aging central atrophy increases more (relatively) than cortical atrophy. No correlation was found between the decreasing volume of the cerebral hemispheres and the increasing number and size of WMHL, nor between the increasing volume of the lateral ventricles...

  5. Vascular Care in Patients With Alzheimer Disease With Cerebrovascular Lesions Slows Progression of White Matter Lesions on MRI The Evaluation of Vascular Care in Alzheimer's Disease (EVA) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, Edo; Gouw, Alida A.; Scheltens, Philip; van Gool, Willem A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose-White matter lesions (WMLs) and cerebral infarcts are common findings in Alzheimer disease and may contribute to dementia severity. WMLs and lacunar infarcts may provide a potential target for intervention strategies. This study assessed whether multicomponent vascular care in

  6. Effects of Microencapsulated Synbiotic Administration at Different Dosages against heavy co-infection of White Spot Disease (WSD and Vibrio harveyi in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunarty Yunarty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available White spot disease (WSD is one of infectious disease in shrimp caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. This study aimed to determine the dosage immunological effects and growth performances of microencapsulated synbiotic (Bacillus NP5 and mannan oligosaccharide at different dosages on Pacific white shrimp.  The microencapsulated synbiotic   was administered as feed supplementation  against the co-infection of   WSSV and Vibrio harveyi. Synbiotic was encapsulated by spray drying method, further feed supplemented to Pacific white shrimp for 30 days at a  dosages of 0.5% (A, 1% (B, 2% (C and control treatments, i.e. without any microencapsulated synbiotic administration as positive control (D and negative control (E. The challenge test was performed on day 30 after feeding supplementation, then the experimental shrimps were injected by WSSV intramuscularly   at the infective dosage of 104 copies.-ml-1. Afterwards,   24 hours after WSSV injection the shrimps were immersed in water contained cells suspension of V. harveyi  at the cells population dosage of 106 CFU-.ml-1. All synbiotic treatments showed better results with the values of Total Haemocyte Count (THC, Phenoloxidase (PO and Respiratory Burst (RB, were higher (P<0.05 compared to positive control. The specific growth rates (SGR of A, B and C showed higher than both controls of D and E. The feed conversion ratio (FCR value of synbiotic treatments were lower (P<0.05 than both controls. However, the administration of microencapsulated synbiotic have not been able to prevent heavy impact of WSSV and V. harveyi co-infection due to lower SR and mortality pattern which continued to increase.   Keywords: Synbiotic, Litopenaeus vannamei, WSSV, Vibrio harveyi, co-infection

  7. Retrospective Study on Laser Treatment of Oral Vascular Lesions Using the "Leopard Technique": The Multiple Spot Irradiation Technique with a Single-Pulsed Wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hidetaka; Ohshiro, Takafumi; Romeo, Umberto; Noguchi, Tadahide; Maruoka, Yutaka; Gaimari, Gianfranco; Tomov, Georgi; Wada, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Kae; Ohshiro, Toshio; Asamura, Shinichi

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of laser treatment of oral vascular lesions using the multiple spot irradiation technique with a single-pulsed wave. In laser therapy for vascular lesions, heat accumulation induced by excessive irradiation can cause adverse events postoperatively, including ulcer formation, resultant scarring, and severe pain. To prevent heat accumulation and side effects, we have applied a multiple pulsed spot irradiation technique, the so-called "leopard technique" (LT) to oral vascular lesions. This approach was originally proposed for laser treatment of nevi. It can avoid thermal concentration at the same spot and spare the epithelium, which promotes smooth healing. The goal of the study was to evaluate this procedure and treatment outcomes. The subjects were 46 patients with 47 oral vascular lesions treated with the LT using a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm), including 24 thick lesions treated using a combination of the LT and intralesional photocoagulation. All treatment outcomes were satisfactory without serious complications such as deep ulcer formation, scarring, bleeding, or severe swelling. Laser therapy with the LT is a promising less-invasive treatment for oral vascular lesions.

  8. Risk factors associated with white spot syndrome virus infection in a Vietnamese rice-shrimp farming system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsin, F; Turnbull, J F; Hao, N V; Mohan, C V; Phi, T T; Phuoc, L H; Tinh, N T; Morgan, K L

    2001-10-29

    White spot disease (WSD) is a pandemic disease caused by a virus commonly known as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Several risk factors for WSD outbreaks have been suggested. However, there have been very few studies to identify risk factors for WSD outbreaks in culture systems. This paper presents and discusses the risk factors for WSSV infection identified during a longitudinal observational study conducted in a Vietnamese rice-shrimp farming system. A total of 158 variables were measured comprising location, features of the pond, management practices, pond bottom quality, shrimp health and other animals in the pond. At the end of the study period WSSV was detected in 15 of the 24 ponds followed through the production cycle (62.5%). One hundred and thirty-nine variables were used in univariate analyses. All the variables with a p-value Hemigrapsus spp. crabs during the first month of production, feeding vitamin premix or legumes, presence of high numbers of shrimp with bacterial infection and the presence of larger mud crabs or gobies at harvest. No associations were detected with WSSV at harvest and stocking density, presence, or number or weight of wild shrimp in the pond. The multivariate model to identify outcomes associated with WSSV infection highlighted the presence of high mortality as the main variable explaining the data. The results obtained from this study are discussed in the context of WSD control and areas requiring further investigation are suggested.

  9. Differences in organotin accumulation in relation to life history in the white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohji, Madoka; Harino, Hiroya; Arai, Takaomi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Otolith Sr:Ca ratios in sea-run type were higher than those in freshwater-residents. → TBT and TPT concentrations in sea-run type were higher than those in freshwater-residents. → Sea-run type have higher risk of TBT and TPT than freshwater-residents in white-spotted charr. - Abstract: To examine the accumulation pattern of organotins (OTs) in relation to the migration of diadromous fish, tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) and their derivatives were determined in the muscle tissue of both sea-run (anadromous) and freshwater-resident (nonanadromous) types of the white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis. Ontogenic changes in otolith strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were examined along life history transect to discriminate migration type. Mean Sr:Ca ratio from the core to the edge of the otolith in sea-run individuals was significantly higher than those in freshwater-resident one. There were no significant correlations in S. leucomaenis between OT accumulation and various biological characteristics. It is noteworthy that TBT and TPT concentrations in sea-run type were significantly higher than those in freshwater-resident individuals, although they are both of the same species. These results suggest that sea-run S. leucomaenis have a higher ecological risk of OT exposure than freshwater-residents during their life histories.

  10. A basic study on lesion detectability for hot spot imaging of positron emitters with dedicated PET and positron coincidence gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hong; Inoue, Tomio; Tian, Mei; Alyafei, Saleh; Oriuchi, Noboru; Khan, Nasim; Endo, Keigo; Li Sijin

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the correlations of detectability and the semi-quantification for hot spot imaging with positron emitters in positron emission tomography (PET) and with a positron coincidence detection system (PCD). Phantom study results for the measurement of the lesion-to-background (L/B) ratio ranged from 2.0 to 30.3, and detectability for hot spot lesion of PET and PCD were performed to correspond to clinical conditions. The detectability and semi-quantitative evaluation of hot spots from 4.4 mm to 36.9 mm in diameter were performed from the PET and PCD images. There were strong correlations between the L/B ratios derived from PET and PCD hot spot images and actual L/B ratios; but the L/B ratio derived from PET was higher than that from PCD with a significant difference of 10% to 54.8%. The detectability of hot spot imaging of PCD was lower than that of PET at 64.8% (PCD) versus 77.8% (PET). Even the actual L/B ratio was 8.0, hot spots more than 10.6 mm in diameter could be clearly identified with PCD imaging. The same identification could be achieved with PET imaging even when the actual L/B ratio was 4.0. This detailed investigation indicated that FDG PCD yielded results comparable to FDG PET on visual analysis and semi-quantitative analysis in detecting hot spots in phantoms, but semi-quantitative analysis of the L/B ratio with FDG PCD was inferior to that with FDG PET and the detectability of PCD in smaller hot spots was significantly poor. (author)

  11. Skin Lesions in European Hibernating Bats Associated with Geomyces destructans, the Etiologic Agent of White-Nose Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Puechmaille, S?bastien J.; Ohlendorf, Bernd; M?hldorfer, Kristin; Bosch, Thijs; G?rf?l, Tam?s; Passior, Karsten; Kurth, Andreas; Lacremans, Daniel; Forget, Fr?d?ric

    2013-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has claimed the lives of millions of hibernating insectivorous bats in North America. Its etiologic agent, the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, causes skin lesions that are the hallmark of the disease. The fungal infection is characterized by a white powdery growth on muzzle, ears and wing membranes. While WNS may threaten some species of North American bats with regional extinction, infection in hibernating bats in Europe seems not to be associated with si...

  12. Transient Global Amnesia with Reversible White Matter Lesions: A Variant of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Nakamizo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient global amnesia (TGA is a self-limited disease characterized by isolated amnesia, which resolves within 24 h. In contrast, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is a potentially life-threatening disease that usually presents with seizures, altered mental status, headache, and visual disturbances. It is characterized by reversible vasogenic edema that predominantly involves the parieto-occipital subcortical white matter as shown by neuroimaging studies. To date, there have been no reported cases of PRES with a clinical course resembling TGA. Here we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with isolated amnesia and headache. On admission, her blood pressure was 187/100 mmHg. She had complete anterograde amnesia and slight retrograde amnesia without other neurological findings. After the treatment of her hypertension, the amnesia resolved within 24 h. Although the initial magnetic resonance image (MRI was almost normal, the fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR images of the MRI on the next day revealed several small foci of high intensity areas in the fronto-parieto-occipital subcortical white matter, presumed to be vasogenic edema in PRES. The lesions disappeared one month later. This case suggests that PRES can mimic the clinical course of TGA. PRES should be considered in the differential diagnosis for TGA.

  13. Regional white matter lesions predict falls in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogama, Noriko; Sakurai, Takashi; Shimizu, Atsuya; Toba, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Preventive strategy for falls in demented elderly is a clinical challenge. From early-stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients show impaired balance and gait. The purpose of this study is to determine whether regional white matter lesions (WMLs) can predict balance/gait disturbance and falls in elderly with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) or AD. Cross-sectional. Hospital out-patient clinic. One hundred sixty-three patients diagnosed with aMCI or AD were classified into groups having experienced falls (n = 63) or not (n = 100) in the previous year. Cognition, depression, behavior and psychological symptoms of dementia, medication, and balance/gait function were evaluated. Regional WMLs were visually analyzed as periventricular hyperintensity in frontal caps, bands, and occipital caps, and as deep white matter hyperintensity in frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, basal ganglia, thalamus, and brain stem. Brain atrophy was linearly measured. The fallers had a greater volume of WMLs and their posture/gait performance tended to be worse than nonfallers. Several WMLs in particular brain regions were closely associated with balance and gait impairment. Besides polypharmacy, periventricular hyperintensity in frontal caps and occipital WMLs were strong predictors for falls, even after potential risk factors for falls were considered. Regional white matter burden, independent of cognitive decline, correlates with balance/gait disturbance and predicts falls in elderly with aMCI and AD. Careful insight into regional WMLs on brain magnetic resonance may greatly help to diagnose demented elderly with a higher risk of falls. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Meningitis and white matter lesions due to Streptococcus mitis in a previously healthy child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiş, Reyhan; Yüksel, Ciğdem Nükhet; Derundere, Umit; Yiş, Uluç

    2011-10-01

    Streptococcus mitis, an important member of viridans streptococci, is found in the normal flora of the oropharynx, gastrointestinal tract, female genital tract and skin. Although it is of low pathogenicity and virulence, it may cause serious infections in immunocompromised patients. Meningitis caused by S.mitis has been described in patients with previous spinal anesthesia, neurosurgical procedure, malignancy, bacterial endocarditis with neurological complications and alcoholics, but it is rare in patients who are previously healthy. In this report, a rare case of meningoencephalitis caused by S.mitis developed in a previously healthy child has been presented. A previously healthy eight-year-old girl who presented with fever, altered state of consciousness, and headache was hospitalized in intensive care unit with the diagnosis of meningitis. Past history revealed that she was treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate for acute sinusitis ten days before her admission. Whole blood count revealed the followings: hemoglobin 13 g/dl, white blood cell count 18.6 x 109/L (90% neutrophils), platelet count 200 x 109/L and 150 leucocytes were detected on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination. Protein and glucose levels of CSF were 80 mg/dl and 40 mg/dl (concomitant blood glucose 100 mg/dl), respectively. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed widespread white matter lesions, and alpha-hemolytic streptococci were grown in CSF culture. The isolate was identified as S.mitis with conventional methods, and also confirmed by VITEK2 (bioMerieux, France) and API 20 STREP (bioMerieux, France) systems. Isolate was found susceptible to penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracycline, cefotaxime, vancomycin and chloramphenicol. Regarding the etiology, echocardiography revealed no vegetation nor valve pathology, and peripheral blood smear showed no abnormality. Immunoglobulin and complement levels were within normal limits. Ongoing inflammation in maxillary sinuses detected in

  15. Dietary ambon lumut banana stem extract Musa cavendishii var. dwarf Paxton as an immunostimulant for white spot disease prevention in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afriani Ramadhan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was aimed to evaluate the dietary ambon lumut banana Musa cavendishii var. dwarf Paxton stem extract on the immune responses, growth, and survival rate of Pacific white shrimp against white spot disease. Ambon banana steam extract was obtained by maceration method using ethanol. The shrimps fed by pellet containing ambon banana stem extracts with different dosages for 29 days, i.e designated as 0.1 (A; 0.3 (B, and 0.5 (C g/kg, the diet treatment without ambon banana stem extract without challenged test (K-, and diet treatment without ambon banana stem extract with challenged test (K+. Each treatment consisted of three replications. Feeding was conducted for 29 days of maintenance (four times a day. The results showed that the immune responses (average total hemocyte count: 45.15×106 cells/mL, phenoloxidase activity 1.03±0.08 OD, respiratory burst 0.95±0.04 OD, phagocytic activity 94.33±1.53%, growth (specific growth rate: 7.79±0.06%/day, feed ratio conversion was 52±0.01, and survival of treatment C (survival rate 100% were higher compared with the treatment K+ (total hemocyte count: 3.83×106 cells/mL, phenoloxidase activity 0.04±0.01 OD, respiratory burst 0.18±0.06 OD,  phagocytic activity 5.67±0.58%, specific growth rate: 2.61±0.08%/day, feed conversion ratio 2.11±0.02, survival rate: 50%. Therefore, banana stem extract at a dose of 0.5 g/kg everyday diet can be used to improve growth and nonspecific immune system against white spot disease on Pacific white shrimp. Keywords: Pacific white shrimp, white spot disease, immune response, Ambon banana stem extract  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji dosis optimal ekstrak batang pisang ambon melalui pakan dalam meningkatkan respon imun, pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup udang putih terhadap penyakit white spot. Ekstrak batang pisang ambon lumut Musa cavendishii var. dwarf  Paxton menggunakan metode maserasi dengan menggunakan pelarut etanol. Pakan

  16. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome stability maintained over six passages through three different penaeid shrimp species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhupriya, M; Saravanan, P; Otta, S K; Amarnath, C Bala; Arulraj, R; Bhuvaneswari, T; Praveena, P Ezhil; Jithendran, K P; Ponniah, A G

    2014-08-21

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) replicates rapidly, can be extremely pathogenic and is a common cause of mass mortality in cultured shrimp. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences present in the open reading frame (ORF)94, ORF125 and ORF75 regions of the WSSV genome have been used widely as genetic markers in epidemiological studies. However, reports that VNTRs might evolve rapidly following even a single transmission through penaeid shrimp or other crustacean hosts have created confusion as to how VNTR data is interpreted. To examine VNTR stability again, 2 WSSV strains (PmTN4RU and LvAP11RU) with differing ORF94 tandem repeat numbers and slight differences in apparent virulence were passaged sequentially 6 times through black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, Indian white shrimp Feneropenaeus indicus or Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. PCR analyses to genotype the ORF94, ORF125 and ORF75 VNTRs did not identify any differences from either of the 2 parental WSSV strains after multiple passages through any of the shrimp species. These data were confirmed by sequence analysis and indicate that the stability of the genome regions containing these VNTRs is quite high at least for the WSSV strains, hosts and number of passages examined and that the VNTR sequences thus represent useful genetic markers for studying WSSV epidemiology.

  17. CLUSTER MODEL FOR EXTENSIVE GIANT TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon Fab. TO PREVENT TRANSMISSION OF WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Taslihan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV has become epidemic in Indonesia and affecting shrimp aquaculture interm of its production. White spot syndrome virus is transmitted from one to other ponds, through crustacean, included planktonic copepode as carrier for WSSV and through water from affected shrimp pond. A cluster model, consist of shrimp grow out ponds surrounded by non-shrimp pond as a role of biosecurity has been developed. The model aimed to prevent white spot virus transmission in extensive giant tiger shrimp pond. The study was conducted in two sites at Demak District, Central Java Province. As the treatment, a cluster consist of three shrimp ponds in site I, and two shrimp ponds in site II, each was surrounded by buffer ponds rearing only finfish. As the control, five extensive shrimp grow out ponds in site I and three shrimp grow out ponds in site II, with shrimp pond has neither applied biosecurity nor surrounded by non-shrimp pond as biosecurity as well considered as control ponds. The results found that treatment of cluster shrimp ponds surrounded by non-shrimp ponds could hold shrimp at duration of culture in the grow out pond (DOC 105.6±4.5 days significantly much longer than that of control that harvested at 60.9±16.0 days due to WSSV outbreak. Survival rate in trial ponds was 77.6±3.6%, significantly higher than that of control at 22.6±15.8%. Shrimp production in treatment ponds has total production of 425.1±146.6 kg/ha significantly higher than that of control that could only produced 54.5±47.6 kg/ha. Implementation of Better Management Practices (BMP by arranging shrimp ponds in cluster and surrounding by non-shrimp ponds proven effectively prevent WSSV transmission from traditional shrimp ponds in surrounding area.

  18. Intellectual impairment and brain MRI findings in myotonic dystrophy. With a special reference to hippocampal atrophy and white matter lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Etsuko; Takahashi, Satoshi; Yonezawa, Hisashi

    1995-01-01

    We performed a correlative study between intellectual impairment, CTG repeat expansion and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities, including hippocampal atrophy, white matter lesions and ventricular dilatation in 15 patients with myotonic dystrophy (MD). They included 4 males and 11 females aged from 20 to 66 years, averaging 43 years of age and 15 years of duration of illness. Nine patients had intellectual impairment (WAIS-R<80). Negative correlations were found between full scale IQ (FSIQ), duration of illness (p<0.05) and CTG repeat expansion (p<0.05). Compared with normal controls, the patients with MD showed a significant reduction in size of the hippocampal head (p<0.01), which was positively correlated to FSIQ, verbal IQ and performance IQ levels (p<0.05). Ten patients had white matter lesions. Severer white matter lesions tended to be recognized in patients with longer duration of illness and with decreased FSIQ level. These results suggest that hippocampal atrophy and white matter lesions are related to intellectual impairment in patients with MD. (author)

  19. Cardiac diastolic dysfunction is associated with cerebral white matter lesions in elderly patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masugata, Hisashi; Senda, Shoichi; Goda, Fuminori [Kagawa Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Miki, Kagawa (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    Cerebral white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are considered to be the result of brain ischemic injury and a risk factor for clinical stroke. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the cardiac diastolic function and cerebral white matter lesions in elderly patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis. The study subjects were 55 patients (75{+-}7 years) with risk factors for atherosclerosis including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular events were excluded from the study. Cerebral white matter lesions, which were defined as exhibiting high intensity regions on brain MRI, were evaluated with the degrees of periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) according to the Japanese Brain Dock Guidelines of 2003. Peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E' velocity) was measured by tissue Doppler echocardiography, and was used as a parameter of cardiac diastolic function. The mean value of E' velocity was decreased due to the cardiac diastolic dysfunction (5.2{+-}1.4 cm/s). In addition, the E' velocity was inversely correlated with the degree of PVH ({rho}=-0.701, p<0.001). Stepwise regression analysis showed that the decrease in the E' velocity ({beta} coefficient=-0.42, p<0.001) and the presence of hypertension ({beta} coefficient=0.31, p=0.001) were independent determinants of the degree of PVH. Thus, cardiac diastolic dysfunction is correlated to the severity of cerebral white matter lesions, suggesting the cardio-cerebral connection in elderly patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis. (author)

  20. Evaluation of Animal Hazard to Spot-Seeded White Ash In Central Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.E. Russell

    1976-01-01

    Screen protection of seedspots more than doubled white ash seedling establishnient on forested sites of the Cumberland Plateau. For 3 years seeds were sown in fall and spring and given either no protection, or covered with 1-inch mesh screen, or covered with ¼-inch mesh hardware cloth. Unprotected seeds and those covered with 1-inch mesh screen suffered heavy...

  1. Effect of multiple infections with white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio anguillarum on Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L.): mortality and viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, I K; Qiao, G; Kim, S-K

    2014-10-01

    Multiple infections are commonly found in practical shrimp culture and may cause more serious consequences than infections by one pathogen only. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of multiple infections with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio anguillarum on Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L.), mortality, WSSV replication in vivo and host immune response. In the WSSV single-infection group (WSSV load, 2 × 10(2) copies μL(-1)), mean cumulative mortality was 29.2%. In the V. anguillarum single-infection group, cumulative mortality was 12.5% when shrimp were challenged by 10(5) CFU mL(-1) of bacteria. In the co- and super-infection groups, 37.5% and 50% cumulative mortalities, respectively, were observed at a lower bacterial concentration of 10(3) CFU mL(-1), suggesting that shrimp with multiple infections died earlier and more frequently than singly infected shrimp. WSSV load after injection was tracked over time by TaqMan quantitative PCR. WSSV load increased more rapidly in the multiple-infection groups than in the single-infection group. Additionally, mRNA expression of the genes encoding prophenoloxidase 1 and 2, which are closely involved in innate immunity in shrimp, was down-regulated more extensively in multiple-infection groups than in single-infection groups, as indicated by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Identification of highly expressed host microRNAs that respond to white spot syndrome virus infection in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Penaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, D G; Chen, X L; Xie, D X; Zhao, Y Z; Yang, Q; Wang, H; Li, Y M; Chen, X H

    2015-05-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play an important role in regulating both adaptive and innate immunity. Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is the most widely farmed crustacean species in the world. However, little is known about the role miRNAs play in shrimp immunity. To understand the impact of viral infection on miRNA expression in shrimp, we used high-throughput sequencing technology to sequence two small RNA libraries prepared from L. vannamei under normal and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenged conditions. Approximately 19,312,189 and 39,763,551 raw reads corresponding to 17,414,787 and 28,633,379 high-quality mappable reads were obtained from the two libraries, respectively. Twelve conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNA that were highly expressed (>100 RPM) in L. vannamei were identified. Of the identified miRNAs, 8 were differentially expressed in response to the virus infection, of which 1 was upregulated and 7 were downregulated. The prediction of miRNA targets showed that the target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were related to immunity, apoptosis, and development functions. Our study provides the first characterization of L. vannamei miRNAs in response to WSSV infection, which will help to reveal the roles of miRNAs in the antiviral mechanisms of shrimp.

  3. Localization of VP28 on the baculovirus envelope and its immunogenicity against white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus monodon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Musthaq, S.; Madhan, Selvaraj; Sahul Hameed, A.S.; Kwang, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large dsDNA virus responsible for white spot disease in shrimp and other crustaceans. VP28 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV and plays a crucial role in viral infection. In an effort to develop a vaccine against WSSV, we have constructed a recombinant baculovirus with an immediate early promoter 1 which expresses VP28 at an early stage of infection in insect cells. Baculovirus expressed rVP28 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that rVP28 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired rVP28 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. Using this baculovirus displaying VP28 as a vaccine against WSSV, we observed a significantly higher survival rate of 86.3% and 73.5% of WSSV-infected shrimp at 3 and 15 days post vaccination respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR also indicated that the WSSV viral load in vaccinated shrimp was significantly reduced at 7 days post challenge. Furthermore, our RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the recombinant baculovirus was able to express VP28 in vivo in shrimp tissues. This study will be of considerable significance in elucidating the morphogenesis of WSSV and will pave the way for new generation vaccines against WSSV.

  4. Variable RNA expression from recently acquired, endogenous viral elements (EVE) of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utari, Heny Budi; Soowannayan, Chumporn; Flegel, Timothy W; Whityachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Kruatrachue, Maleeya

    2017-11-01

    The viral accommodation hypothesis proposes that endogenous viral elements (EVE) from both RNA and DNA viruses are being continually integrated into the shrimp genome by natural host processes and that they can result in tolerance to viral infection by fortuitous production of antisense, immunospecific RNA (imRNA). Thus, we hypothesized that previously reported microarray results for the presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) open reading frames (ORFs) formerly called 151, 366 and 427 in a domesticated giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) breeding stock might have represented expression from EVE, since the stock had shown uninterrupted freedom from white spot disease (WSD) for many generations. To test this hypothesis, 128 specimens from a current stock generation were confirmed for freedom from WSSV infection using two nested PCR detection methods. Subsequent nested-PCR testing revealed 33/128 specimens (26%) positive for at least one of the ORF at very high sequence identity (95-99%) to extant WSSV. Positive results for ORF 366 (now known to be a fragment of the WSSV capsid protein gene) dominated (28/33 = 84.8%), so 9 arbitrarily selected 366-positive specimens were tested by strand-specific, nested RT-PCR using DNase-treated RNA templates. This revealed variable RNA expression in individual shrimp including no RNA transcripts (n = 1), sense transcripts only (n = 1), antisense transcripts only (n = 2) or transcripts of both sense (n = 5). The latter 7 expression products indicated specimens producing putative imRNA. The variable types and numbers of the EVE and the variable RNA expression (including potential imRNA) support predictions of the viral accommodation hypothesis that EVE are randomly produced and expressed. Positive nested PCR test results for EVE of ORF 366 using DNA templates derived from shrimp sperm (germ cells), indicated that they were heritable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Two White Spot Syndrome Virus MicroRNAs Target the Dorsal Gene To Promote Virus Infection in Marsupenaeus japonicus Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Huang, Xin; Cui, Yalei; Sun, Jiejie; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2017-04-15

    In eukaryotes, microRNAs (miRNAs) serve as regulators of many biological processes, including virus infection. An miRNA can generally target diverse genes during virus-host interactions. However, the regulation of gene expression by multiple miRNAs has not yet been extensively explored during virus infection. This study found that the Spaztle (Spz)-Toll-Dorsal-antilipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) signaling pathway plays a very important role in antiviral immunity against invasion of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp ( Marsupenaeus japonicus ). Dorsal , the central gene in the Toll pathway, was targeted by two viral miRNAs (WSSV-miR-N13 and WSSV-miR-N23) during WSSV infection. The regulation of Dorsal expression by viral miRNAs suppressed the Spz-Toll-Dorsal-ALF signaling pathway in shrimp in vivo , leading to virus infection. Our study contributes novel insights into the viral miRNA-mediated Toll signaling pathway during the virus-host interaction. IMPORTANCE An miRNA can target diverse genes during virus-host interactions. However, the regulation of gene expression by multiple miRNAs during virus infection has not yet been extensively explored. The results of this study indicated that the shrimp Dorsal gene, the central gene in the Toll pathway, was targeted by two viral miRNAs during infection with white spot syndrome virus. Regulation of Dorsal expression by viral miRNAs suppressed the Spz-Toll-Dorsal-ALF signaling pathway in shrimp in vivo , leading to virus infection. Our study provides new insight into the viral miRNA-mediated Toll signaling pathway in virus-host interactions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Crowding of white shrimp Litopenaeus vananmei depresses their immunity to and resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Chen, Li-Li; Huang, Chien-Lun; Hsieh, Jen-Fang; Li, Chang-Che

    2015-07-01

    Immunity parameters and the expression levels of several immune-related proteins, including lipopolysaccharide and β-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), intergin β (IB), prophenoloxidase (proPO) I, proPO II, α2-macroglobulin (α2-M), cytosolic mangangese superoxide dismutase (cytMnSOD), mitochondria manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), lysozyme, and penaeidin 3a were examined in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared at stocking densities of 2, 10, 20, 30, and 40 shrimp L(-1) after 3, 6, and 12 h. All immune parameters including haemocyte count, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and haemolymph protein were negatively related to density and time. The PO activity, SOD activity, and lysozyme activity of shrimp reared at 10 shrimp L(-1) after 12 h significantly decreased. The transcript levels of these immune-related proteins were down-regulated in shrimp reared at 20, 30, and 40 shrimp L(-1) after 12 h. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to Vibrio alginolyticus were significantly lower in shrimp reared at 30 and 40 shrimp L(-1) after 12 h. The mortality rates of shrimp reared at 20 and 40 shrimp L(-1) were significantly higher than shrimp reared at 2 shrimp L(-1) over 12-144 h and 12-48 h, respectively. Shrimp reared at high densities (>10 shrimp L(-1)) exhibited decreased resistance against pathogens as evidenced by reductions in immune parameters together with decreased expression levels of immune-related proteins, indicating perturbations of the immune system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary administration of a Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract enhances the immune response and resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirustananun, Nuttarin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Liou, Chyng-Hwa; Chen, Li-Li; Sim, Su Sing; Chiew, Siau Li

    2011-12-01

    The haemogram, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, lysozyme activity, and the mitotic index of haematopoietic tissue (HPT) were examined after the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei had been fed diets containing the hot-water extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg(-1) for 7-35 days. Results indicated that these parameters directly increased with the amount of extract and time, but slightly decreased after 35 days. RBs, SOD activity, and GPx activity reached the highest levels after 14 days, whereas PO and lysozyme activities reached the highest levels after 28 days. In a separate experiment, white shrimp L. vannamei, which had been fed diets containing the extract for 14 days, were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 2 × 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 1 × 10(3) copies shrimp(-1), and then placed in seawater. The survival rate of shrimp fed the extract-containing diets was significantly higher than that of shrimp fed the control diet at 72-144 h post-challenge. We concluded that dietary administration of the G. tenuistipitata extract at ≤1.0 g kg(-1) could enhance the innate immunity within 14 days as evidenced by the increases in immune parameters and mitotic index of HPT in shrimp and their enhanced resistance against V. alginolyticus and WSSV infections. Shrimp fed the extract-containing diets showed a higher and continuous increase in the humoral response indicating its persistent role in innate immunity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. White matter hyperintensity and stroke lesion segmentation and differentiation using convolutional neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Guerrero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available White matter hyperintensities (WMH are a feature of sporadic small vessel disease also frequently observed in magnetic resonance images (MRI of healthy elderly subjects. The accurate assessment of WMH burden is of crucial importance for epidemiological studies to determine association between WMHs, cognitive and clinical data; their causes, and the effects of new treatments in randomized trials. The manual delineation of WMHs is a very tedious, costly and time consuming process, that needs to be carried out by an expert annotator (e.g. a trained image analyst or radiologist. The problem of WMH delineation is further complicated by the fact that other pathological features (i.e. stroke lesions often also appear as hyperintense regions. Recently, several automated methods aiming to tackle the challenges of WMH segmentation have been proposed. Most of these methods have been specifically developed to segment WMH in MRI but cannot differentiate between WMHs and strokes. Other methods, capable of distinguishing between different pathologies in brain MRI, are not designed with simultaneous WMH and stroke segmentation in mind. Therefore, a task specific, reliable, fully automated method that can segment and differentiate between these two pathological manifestations on MRI has not yet been fully identified. In this work we propose to use a convolutional neural network (CNN that is able to segment hyperintensities and differentiate between WMHs and stroke lesions. Specifically, we aim to distinguish between WMH pathologies from those caused by stroke lesions due to either cortical, large or small subcortical infarcts. The proposed fully convolutional CNN architecture, called uResNet, that comprised an analysis path, that gradually learns low and high level features, followed by a synthesis path, that gradually combines and up-samples the low and high level features into a class likelihood semantic segmentation. Quantitatively, the proposed CNN

  9. White matter lesions in watershed territories studied with MRI and parenchymography: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkner, K; Lovblad, K.O.; Yilmaz, H; Alimenti, A.; Delavelle, J; Ruefenacht, D.A. [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Sekoranja, L; Sztajzel, R [University Hospital of Geneva, Clinic of Neurology, Geneva 14 (Switzerland)

    2005-06-01

    Brain aging affects an increasing segment of the population and the role of chronic cerebrovascular disease is considered to be one of the main parameters involved. For this purpose we compared retrospectively MRI data with digitized subtraction angiography (DSA) data in a group of 50 patients focusing onto the watershed area of the carotid artery vascular territories. In order to evaluate the presence of white matter lesions (WML) in the hemispheric watershed areas, coronal fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery or axial T2 weighted MRI images of patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular insufficiency areas were compared with the capillary phase of DSA studies in anterior-posterior projection. Presence of cerebrovascular occlusive disease was evaluated on DSA using North American symptomatic carotid endarterectomy trial criteria and including evaluation of collateral vascular supply. Pathological MRI findings in the region of the watershed territories correlated overall in 66% of cases with a defect or delayed filling on DSA. In the case of asymmetrical MRI findings, there was a pathological finding of the capillary phase in the watershed area in 92% of DSA studies. Hypoperfusion in the capillary phase of the watershed area as seen on DSA correlated with the stenosis degree of the concerned carotid artery. Our findings suggest that asymmetrical findings of WML in the watershed areas as seen on MRI are caused by hemodynamic effect and a differentiation between small vessel disease and a consequence of distant stenosis may be possible under such conditions. (orig.)

  10. Relationship of white matter lesions and severity of pushing behavior after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yuji; Amimoto, Kazu; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Fukata, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Masahide; Uchino, Akira; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Makita, Shigeru

    2017-12-01

    [Purpose] The relationship between white matter lesions (WMLs) and pushing behavior (PB) is still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether damage from WMLs affects the functional outcome of PB after acute stroke. [Subjects and Methods] In total, 37 patients were included. PB was assessed using the standardized Scale for Contraversive Pushing (SCP). Stroke types were classified as total anterior circulation infarct (TACI), partial anterior circulation infarct (PACI), or lacunar syndrome using the Bamford classification. WML severity was categorized into four groups using the Fazekas visual scale. Thereafter, patients were divided into 4 groups according to the stroke type and/or presence of WMLs. The SCP, Trunk Control Test (TCT), Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS), and Barthel Index were the outcome measures. [Results] The SCP and TCT in patients with PACI without WMLs were better than those in patients with TACI with or without WMLs. Regarding SCP, TCT, and SIAS, patients with TACI had poorer values compared with PACI, regardless of WML severity. Barthel Index efficiency was not significantly different between the groups. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that moderate to severe WMLs and PACI had a relationship with PB severity and truncal balance.

  11. White spot syndrome virus isolates of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricious) in India are similar to exotic isolates as revealed by polymerase chain reaction and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S S; Shekhar, M S

    2005-07-01

    Microbiological analysis of samples collected from cases of white spot disease outbreaks in cultured shrimp in different farms located in three regions along East Coast of India viz. Chidambram (Tamil Nadu), Nellore (Andhra Pradesh) and Balasore (Orissa), revealed presence of Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Aeromonas spp. but experimental infection trials in Penaeus monodon with these isolates did not induce any acute mortality or formation of white spots on carapace. Infection trials using filtered tissue extracts by oral and injection method induced mortality in healthy P. monodon with all samples and 100% mortality was noted by the end of 7 day post-inoculation. Histopathological analysis demonstrated degenerated cells characterized by hypertrophied nuclei in gills, hepatopancreas and lymphoid organ with presence of intranuclear basophilic or eosino-basophilic bodies in tubular cells and intercellular spaces. Analysis of samples using 3 different primer sets as used by other for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) generated 643, 1447 and 520bp amplified DNA products in all samples except in one instance. Variable size virions with mean size in the range of 110 x 320 +/- 20 nm were observed under electron microscope. It could be concluded that the viral isolates in India involved with white spot syndrome in cultured shrimp are similar to RV-PJ and SEMBV in Japan, WSBV in Taiwan and WSSV in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, China and Japan.

  12. Indel-II region deletion sizes in the white spot syndrome virus genome correlate with shrimp disease outbreaks in southern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Tuyet, H.; Zwart, M.P.; Phuong, N.T.; Oanh, D.T.H.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Sequence comparisons of the genomes of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) strains have identified regions containing variable-length insertions/deletions (i.e. indels). Indel-I and Indel-II, positioned between open reading frames (ORFs) 14/15 and 23/24, respectively, are the largest and the most

  13. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus in improved-extensive and semi-intensive shrimp production systems: A molecular epidemiology study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyet Hoa, T.T.; Zwart, M.P.; Phuong, N.T.; Vlak, J.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) can be transmitted horizontally through water, via carrier organisms and/or by cannibalism of infected shrimp, but also vertically through infected broodstock. However the mode(s) of WSSV transmission in shrimp farming systems and

  14. Low numbers of repeat units in variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) regions of white spot syndrome virus are correlated with disease outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Tuyet, H.; Zwart, M.P.; Phuong, N.T.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important pathogen in shrimp farming systems worldwide including the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The genome of WSSV is characterized by the presence of two major 'indel regions' found at ORF14/15 and ORF23/24 (WSSV-Thailand) and three regions with variable

  15. A radiological study of cerebral white matter lesions in patients with dementia using diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindo, Hiroaki; Hanyu, Haruo; Kakizaki, Dai; Abe, Kimihiko; Takasaki, Masaru

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the changes in water diffusion in the cerebral white matter and the corpus callosum in 12 patients with Binswanger's disease (BD), and 19 patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), including 12 without (AD-) and 7 with periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) lesions (AD+), using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) in the anterior and posterior white matter were significantly higher in patients with BD and AD than in 12 age-matched controls. The ADCs were significantly higher in AD (+) than in AD (-) patients. Anisotropic ratios (ARs), defined as diffusion restricted perpendicular to the direction of the nerve fibers, were significantly higher in BD and AD (+) patients, and even in AD (-) patients, than in the controls. ARs in the anterior white matter were significantly higher in BD than in AD (+), while in the posterior white matter the ratios were significantly higher in AD (+) rather than BD patients. The ADCs and ARs in the genu of the corpus callosum were significantly higher in patients with BD and AD (+) compared to the control subjects, while ADCs and ARs in the splenium were significantly higher in patients with AD (+) and AD (-) than in those with BD. These results suggest that mild myelin loss occurs in AD patients even in apparently normal white matter and in the splenium of the corpus callosum. A definite loss of myelin and axons, including incomplete infarction, occurs preferentially in anterior white matter in BD, while in posterior white matter in AD (+), as seen on T2-weighted images as PVH. Studies with diffusion-weighted MRI may allow the characterization of different pathological processes and enable the demonstration of underlying white matter lesion in patients with dementia that cannot be visualized by conventional MRI. (author)

  16. White lesions in the oral cavity: A clinicopathological study from a tertiary care dermatology centre in Kerala, India

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    S M Simi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: White lesions in the oral cavity may be benign, pre-malignant or malignant. There are no signs and symptoms which can reliably predict whether a leukoplakia will undergo malignant change or not. Many systemic conditions appear initially in the oral cavity and prompt diagnosis and management can help in minimizing disease progression and organ destruction. Aim : The aim of the paper was to study the clinical and histopathological patterns of white lesions in the oral cavity presented at the study setting and to study the factors associated with the histopathological patterns of the lesions. Settings and Design: A hospital based cross-sectional study of patients with white lesions in the oral cavity attending the Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram was done. Materials and Methods: After taking a detailed history, microscopic examination of Potassium hydroxide smear and an oral biopsy with histopathologial examination was done. Results : Out of the 50 patients in the study, clinically the diagnoses made were Lichen planus (32 patients; 64%, Frictional Keratosis (4;8%, Dysplasia (2;4%, Oral Hairy Leukoplakia (1;2%, Pemphigus Vulgaris (2;4%, Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (1;2%, Oral Submucous fibrosis (3;6% and Oral Candidiasis alone (5;10%. Out of the 45 patients who had undergone biopsy, 25 (55.6% had Lichen planus, 9 (20% had Frictional Keratosis and mild Dysplasia was found in 4 (8.9% patients. Conclusion : The measure of agreement between the clinical and pathological diagnosis was only 32%. Older age, difficulty in opening the mouth, consumption of non-smoked tobacco, site of the lesion (gingival, floor of mouth or lingual vestibule and presence of tenderness on the lesion were significantly associated with Dysplasia.

  17. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with hypertrophy of the cauda equina and concomitant demyelinating white matter lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl-Wagner, B.B.; Staebler, A.; Reiser, M.

    2005-01-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) is thought to almost exclusively affect the peripheral nervous system. We report the case of a 48-year-old patient with a longstanding history of HMSN type I who developed signs and symptoms of a cauda equina compression and of a central nervous system relapsing-remitting demyelinating white matter disease. Gross enlargement of the cauda equina fibers was detected by MR imaging of the lumbar spine. Cranial MR imaging revealed demyelinating white matter lesions. This case suggests that peripheral neuropathic mechanisms may also affect the central myelin in HMSN type I

  18. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with hypertrophy of the cauda equina and concomitant demyelinating white matter lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertl-Wagner, B.B.; Staebler, A.; Reiser, M. [Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Helmchen, C. [Univ. Luebeck (Germany). Klinik fuer Neurologie; Fassmann, F. [Zentrum fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) is thought to almost exclusively affect the peripheral nervous system. We report the case of a 48-year-old patient with a longstanding history of HMSN type I who developed signs and symptoms of a cauda equina compression and of a central nervous system relapsing-remitting demyelinating white matter disease. Gross enlargement of the cauda equina fibers was detected by MR imaging of the lumbar spine. Cranial MR imaging revealed demyelinating white matter lesions. This case suggests that peripheral neuropathic mechanisms may also affect the central myelin in HMSN type I.

  19. Vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of white matter lesions on MRI: the evaluation of vascular care in Alzheimer's disease (EVA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Edo; Gouw, Alida A; Scheltens, Philip; van Gool, Willem A

    2010-03-01

    White matter lesions (WMLs) and cerebral infarcts are common findings in Alzheimer disease and may contribute to dementia severity. WMLs and lacunar infarcts may provide a potential target for intervention strategies. This study assessed whether multicomponent vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of WMLs and prevents occurrence of new infarcts. A randomized controlled clinical trial, including 123 subjects, compared vascular care with standard care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions on MRI. Progression of WMLs, lacunes, medial temporal lobe atrophy, and global cortical atrophy were semiquantitatively scored after 2-year follow-up. Sixty-five subjects (36 vascular care, 29 standard care) had a baseline and a follow-up MRI and in 58 subjects, a follow-up scan could not be obtained due to advanced dementia or death. Subjects in the vascular care group had less progression of WMLs as measured with the WML change score (1.4 versus 2.3, P=0.03). There was no difference in the number of new lacunes or change in global cortical atrophy or medial temporal lobe atrophy between the 2 groups. Vascular care in patients with Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular lesions slows progression of WMLs. Treatment aimed at vascular risk factors in patients with early Alzheimer disease may be beneficial, possibly in an even earlier stage of the disease.

  20. The association between cognitive function and white matter lesion location in older adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolandzadeh Niousha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintaining cognitive function is essential for healthy aging and to function autonomously within society. White matter lesions (WMLs are associated with reduced cognitive function in older adults. However, whether their anatomical location moderates these associations is not well-established. This review systematically evaluates peer-reviewed evidence on the role of anatomical location in the association between WMLs and cognitive function. Methods In accordance with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA statement, databases of EMBASE, PUBMED, MEDLINE, and CINAHL, and reference lists of selected papers were searched. We limited our search results to adults aged 60 years and older, and studies published in the English language from 2000 to 2011. Studies that investigated the association between cognitive function and WML location were included. Two independent reviewers extracted: 1 study characteristics including sample size, sample characteristic, and study design; 2 WML outcomes including WML location, WML quantification method (scoring or volume measurement, strength of the MRI magnet in Tesla, and MRI sequence used for WML detection; and 3 cognitive function outcomes including cognitive tests for two cognitive domains of memory and executive function/processing speed. Results Of the 14 studies included, seven compared the association of subcortical versus periventricular WMLs with cognitive function. Seven other studies investigated the association between WMLs in specific brain regions (e.g., frontal, parietal lobes and cognitive function. Overall, the results show that a greater number of studies have found an association between periventricular WMLs and executive function/processing speed, than subcortical WMLs. However, whether WMLs in different brain regions have a differential effect on cognitive function remains unclear. Conclusions Evidence suggests that periventricular

  1. Preoperative White Matter Lesions Are Independent Predictors of Long-Term Survival after Internal Carotid Endarterectomy

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    Niku Oksala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs predict long-term survival of conservatively treated acute stroke patients with etiology other than carotid stenosis. In carotid endarterectomy patients, WMLs are associated with severe carotid stenosis and unstable plaques, with the risk of perioperative complications and with increased 30-day perioperative risk of death. However, no data exist on their effect on postoperative long-term survival, a factor important when considering the net benefit from carotid endarterectomy. Whether this effect is independent of classical risk factors and indications for surgery is not known either. We hypothesized that WMLs could be evaluated from preoperative routine computed tomography (CT scans and are predictors of postoperative survival, independent of classical cardiovascular risk factors, indication category and degree of carotid stenosis. Methods: A total of 353 of 481 (73.4% consecutive patients subjected to carotid endarterectomy due to different indications, i.e. asymptomatic stenosis (n = 28, 7.9%, amaurosis fugax (n = 52, 14.7%, transient ischemic attack (n = 135, 38.2% or ischemic stroke (n = 138, 39.1%, from prospective vascular registries during the years 2001-2010 with digital preoperative CT scans, were included in the study. WMLs were rated by a radiologist (Wahlund criteria in a blinded fashion. Internal carotid artery (ICA stenoses were angiographically graded (Results: WML severity could be assessed with a substantial intraobserver agreement (Spearman's rho 0.843, p Conclusions: WMLs in a preoperative CT scan provide a substantially reliable estimate of postoperative long-term survival of carotid endarterectomy patients independent of currently used criteria, i.e. cardiovascular risk factors, indication category and degree of ipsilateral ICA stenosis.

  2. A 3D model of the membrane protein complex formed by the white spot syndrome virus structural proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Shiang Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of white spot disease have had a large negative economic impact on cultured shrimp worldwide. However, the pathogenesis of the causative virus, WSSV (whit spot syndrome virus, is not yet well understood. WSSV is a large enveloped virus. The WSSV virion has three structural layers surrounding its core DNA: an outer envelope, a tegument and a nucleocapsid. In this study, we investigated the protein-protein interactions of the major WSSV structural proteins, including several envelope and tegument proteins that are known to be involved in the infection process. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present report, we used coimmunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid assays to elucidate and/or confirm all the interactions that occur among the WSSV structural (envelope and tegument proteins VP51A, VP19, VP24, VP26 and VP28. We found that VP51A interacted directly not only with VP26 but also with VP19 and VP24. VP51A, VP19 and VP24 were also shown to have an affinity for self-interaction. Chemical cross-linking assays showed that these three self-interacting proteins could occur as dimers. CONCLUSIONS: From our present results in conjunction with other previously established interactions we construct a 3D model in which VP24 acts as a core protein that directly associates with VP26, VP28, VP38A, VP51A and WSV010 to form a membrane-associated protein complex. VP19 and VP37 are attached to this complex via association with VP51A and VP28, respectively. Through the VP26-VP51C interaction this envelope complex is anchored to the nucleocapsid, which is made of layers of rings formed by VP664. A 3D model of the nucleocapsid and the surrounding outer membrane is presented.

  3. Gene expression profiling in gill tissues of White spot syndrome virus infected black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by DNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, M S; Gomathi, A; Gopikrishna, G; Ponniah, A G

    2015-06-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) continues to be the most devastating viral pathogen infecting penaeid shrimp the world over. The genome of WSSV has been deciphered and characterized from three geographical isolates and significant progress has been made in developing various molecular diagnostic methods to detect the virus. However, the information on host immune gene response to WSSV pathogenesis is limited. Microarray analysis was carried out as an approach to analyse the gene expression in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in response to WSSV infection. Gill tissues collected from the WSSV infected shrimp at 6, 24, 48 h and moribund stage were analysed for differential gene expression. Shrimp cDNAs of 40,059 unique sequences were considered for designing the microarray chip. The Cy3-labeled cRNA derived from healthy and WSSV-infected shrimp was subjected to hybridization with all the DNA spots in the microarray which revealed 8,633 and 11,147 as up- and down-regulated genes respectively at different time intervals post infection. The altered expression of these numerous genes represented diverse functions such as immune response, osmoregulation, apoptosis, nucleic acid binding, energy and metabolism, signal transduction, stress response and molting. The changes in gene expression profiles observed by microarray analysis provides molecular insights and framework of genes which are up- and down-regulated at different time intervals during WSSV infection in shrimp. The microarray data was validated by Real Time analysis of four differentially expressed genes involved in apoptosis (translationally controlled tumor protein, inhibitor of apoptosis protein, ubiquitin conjugated enzyme E2 and caspase) for gene expression levels. The role of apoptosis related genes in WSSV infected shrimp is discussed herein.

  4. Thickening and enhancement of multiple cranial nerves in conjunction with cystic white matter lesions in early infantile Krabbe disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beslow, Lauren A.; Boennemann, Carsten G. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Neurology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schwartz, Erin S. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Neuroradiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-06-15

    We present serial MR findings in a child ultimately diagnosed with the early infantile form of Krabbe disease. MR showed typical features of Krabbe disease including cerebellar and brainstem hyperintensity, periventricular and deep white matter hyperintensity, and cerebral atrophy. In addition, the combination of both enlargement and enhancement of multiple cranial nerves in conjunction with unusual cystic lesions adjacent to the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles was previously unreported and expands the spectrum of imaging findings in early Krabbe disease. (orig.)

  5. Cardiac diastolic dysfunction is associated with cerebral white matter lesions in elderly patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masugata, Hisashi; Senda, Shoichi; Goda, Fuminori

    2008-01-01

    Cerebral white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are considered to be the result of brain ischemic injury and a risk factor for clinical stroke. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the cardiac diastolic function and cerebral white matter lesions in elderly patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis. The study subjects were 55 patients (75±7 years) with risk factors for atherosclerosis including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Patients with symptomatic cerebrovascular events were excluded from the study. Cerebral white matter lesions, which were defined as exhibiting high intensity regions on brain MRI, were evaluated with the degrees of periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) according to the Japanese Brain Dock Guidelines of 2003. Peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E' velocity) was measured by tissue Doppler echocardiography, and was used as a parameter of cardiac diastolic function. The mean value of E' velocity was decreased due to the cardiac diastolic dysfunction (5.2±1.4 cm/s). In addition, the E' velocity was inversely correlated with the degree of PVH (ρ=-0.701, p<0.001). Stepwise regression analysis showed that the decrease in the E' velocity (β coefficient=-0.42, p<0.001) and the presence of hypertension (β coefficient=0.31, p=0.001) were independent determinants of the degree of PVH. Thus, cardiac diastolic dysfunction is correlated to the severity of cerebral white matter lesions, suggesting the cardio-cerebral connection in elderly patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis. (author)

  6. Advances in the processing of policromat images as diagnostic method to determine white spot syndrome virus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Sanchez, Cristina M.; Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Montoya-Rodriguez, L.; Garcia-Gasca, A.; Fajer Avila, Emma J.; Pacheco-Marges, R.

    2004-10-01

    White spot syndrome (WSSV) is a viral disease which affects many crustacean species including commercial shrimps. Adequate, precise and quick methods to diagnose on time the presence of the disease in order to apply different strategies to avoid the dispersion and to reduce mortalities is necessary. Histopathology is an important diagnostic method. However, histopathology has the problem that requires time to prepare the histological slides and time to arrive to some diagnosis because this depend on the nature of the tissues, the pathogen(s) to find, the number of organisms, number of slides to analyze and the skill of the technician. This paper try to demonstrate the sensibility of one digital system of processing and recognition of images using color correlation with phase filters, to identify inclusion bodies of WSSV. Infected tissues were processed to obtain histological slides and to verify that the inclusion bodies observed were of WSV, in situ hybridization were carried out. The sensibility results of the recognition of the inclusion bodies of WSSV with the color correlation program was 86.1%. The highest percentage of recognition was in nervous system and tegument glands with 100%. The values in the stomach epithelium and heart tissue was 78.45% of recognition. Tissues with the lowest recognition values were lymphoid organ and hematopoietic tissue. It is necessary further studies to increase the sensibility and to obtain the specificity.

  7. Graphene oxide based fluorescence resonance energy transfer and loop-mediated isothermal amplification for white spot syndrome virus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiwijit, U; Phokaratkul, D; Kampeera, J; Lomas, T; Wisitsoraat, A; Kiatpathomchai, W; Tuantranont, A

    2015-10-20

    Graphene oxide (GO) is attractived for biological or medical applications due to its unique electrical, physical, optical and biological properties. In particular, GO can adsorb DNA via π-π stacking or non-covalent interactions, leading to fluorescence quenching phenomenon applicable for bio-molecular detection. In this work, a new method for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-DNA detection is developed based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between GO and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled probe (FITC-probe). The fluorescence quenching efficiency of FITC-probe was found to increase with increasing GO concentration and reached 98.7% at a GO concentration of 50 μg/ml. The fluorescence intensity of FITC-probe was recovered after hybridization with WSSV LAMP product with an optimal hybridization time of 10 min and increased accordingly with increasing amount of LAMP products. The detection limit was estimated to be as low as 10 copies of WSSV plasmid DNA or 0.6 fg of the total DNA extracted from shrimp infected with WSSV. In addition, no cross reaction was observed with other common shrimp viral pathogens. Therefore, the GO-FRET-LAMP technique is promising for fast, sensitive and specific detection of DNAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV Interact with Litopenaeus vannamei Peritrophin-Like Protein (LvPT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Xie

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is a major pathogen in shrimp cultures. The interactions between viral proteins and their receptors on the surface of cells in a frontier target tissue are crucial for triggering an infection. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H library was constructed using cDNA obtained from the stomach and gut of Litopenaeus vannamei, to ascertain the role of envelope proteins in WSSV infection. For this purpose, VP37 was used as the bait in the Y2H library screening. Forty positive clones were detected after screening. The positive clones were analyzed and discriminated, and two clones belonging to the peritrophin family were subsequently confirmed as genuine positive clones. Sequence analysis revealed that both clones could be considered as the same gene, LV-peritrophin (LvPT. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction between LvPT and VP37. Further studies in the Y2H system revealed that LvPT could also interact with other WSSV envelope proteins such as VP32, VP38A, VP39B, and VP41A. The distribution of LvPT in tissues revealed that LvPT was mainly expressed in the stomach than in other tissues. In addition, LvPT was found to be a secretory protein, and its chitin-binding ability was also confirmed.

  9. Assessing Virulence and Transmission Rates of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Two Ecologically Important Palaemonid Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C.; Keesee, B.; Philippoff, C.; Curran, S.; Lotz, J.; Powell, E.

    2016-02-01

    Investigators, including three REU interns, conducted an experiment to quantify parameters for an epidemiological model designed to estimate disease transmission in marine invertebrates. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a highly pathogenic disease affecting commercially important penaeid shrimp fisheries worldwide. The virus devastates penaeid shrimp but other varieties of decapods may serve as reservoirs for disease by being less susceptible to WSSV or refractory to disease. Non-penaeid crustaceans are less susceptible to WSSV, and different species have variable resistance to the disease leading to different potential to serve as reservoirs for transmission of the disease to coastal penaeid fisheries. This study investigates virulence and transmission rates of WSSV in two palaemonid shrimp which are keystone members of coastal food webs, and effects of species interactions on transmission rates of WSSV are estimated in a laboratory setting as a proxy for natural habitats. Two species of grass shrimp were exposed to a Chinese strain of WSSV through feeding the test individuals with previously prepared, inoculated penaeid shrimp. Replicated tanks containing 30 animals were exposed to the virus in arenas containing one or both species for 24 hours, then isolated in 1 liter tanks and monitored. During the isolation period moribund individuals were preserved for later analysis. After 7 days all test individuals were analyzed using qPCR to determine WSSV presence and load in DNA. From these data transmission rates, mortality, and viral concentration were quantified and used as parameters in a simple epidemiological model.

  10. Microarray and RT-PCR screening for white spot syndrome virus immediate-early genes in cycloheximide-treated shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wangjing; Chang Yunshiang; Wang Chunghsiung; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Lo Chufang

    2005-01-01

    Here, we report for the first time the successful use of cycloheximide (CHX) as an inhibitor to block de novo viral protein synthesis during WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infection. Sixty candidate IE (immediate-early) genes were identified using a global analysis microarray technique. RT-PCR showed that the genes corresponding to ORF126, ORF242 and ORF418 in the Taiwan isolate were consistently CHX-insensitive, and these genes were designated ie1, ie2 and ie3, respectively. The sequences for these IE genes also appear in the two other WSSV isolates that have been sequenced. Three corresponding ORFs were identified in the China WSSV isolate, but only an ORF corresponding to ie1 was predicted in the Thailand isolate. In a promoter activity assay in Sf9 insect cells using EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) as a reporter, ie1 showed very strong promoter activity, producing higher EGFP signals than the insect Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (OpMNPV) ie2 promoter

  11. Shrimp miR-12 Suppresses White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection by Synchronously Triggering Antiviral Phagocytosis and Apoptosis Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Le; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence has indicated that the innate immune system can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). However, the mechanism underlying miRNA-mediated simultaneous activation of multiple immune pathways remains unknown. To address this issue, the role of host miR-12 in shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) antiviral immune responses was characterized in the present study. The results indicated that miR-12 participated in virus infection, host phagocytosis, and apoptosis in defense against white spot syndrome virus invasion. miR-12 could simultaneously trigger phagocytosis, apoptosis, and antiviral immunity through the synchronous downregulation of the expression of shrimp genes [PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) and BI-1(transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 6)] and the viral gene (wsv024). Further analysis showed that miR-12 could synchronously mediate the 5′–3′ exonucleolytic degradation of its target mRNAs, and this degradation terminated in the vicinity of the 3′ untranslated region sequence complementary to the seed sequence of miR-12. Therefore, the present study showed novel aspects of the miRNA-mediated simultaneous regulation of multiple immune pathways. PMID:28824612

  12. Application of a Label-Free Immunosensor for White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Shrimp Cultivation Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiyapoka, Thanyaporn; Deachamag, Panchalika; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Bunsanong, Nittaya; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote; Loyprasert-Thananimit, Suchera

    2015-10-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen affecting the shrimp industry worldwide. In a preliminary study, WSSV binding protein (WBP) was specifically bound to the VP26 protein of WSSV. Therefore, we have developed the label-free affinity immunosensor using the WBP together with anti-GST-VP26 for quantitative detection of WSSV in shrimp pond water. When the biological molecules were immobilized on a gold electrode to form a self-assembled monolayer, it was then used to detect WSSV using a flow injection system with optimized conditions. Binding between the different copies of WSSV and the immobilized biological molecules was detected by an impedance change (ΔZ″) in real time. The sensitivity of the developed immunosensor was in the linear range of 1.6 × 10(1)-1.6 × 10(6) copies/μl. The system was highly sensitive for the analysis of WSSV as shown by the lack of impedance change when using yellow head virus (YHV). The developed immunosensor could be reused up to 37 times (relative standard deviation (RSD), 3.24 %) with a good reproducibility of residual activity (80-110 %). The immunosensor was simple to operate, reliable, reproducible, and could be applied for the detection and quantification of WSSV in water during shrimp cultivation.

  13. An Elegant Analysis of White Spot Syndrome Virus Using a Graphene Oxide/Methylene Blue based Electrochemical Immunosensor Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Anusha; Devi, K. S. Shalini; Raja, Sudhakaran; Senthil Kumar, Annamalai

    2017-04-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major devastating virus in aquaculture industry. A sensitive and selective diagnostic method for WSSV is a pressing need for the early detection and protection of the aquaculture farms. Herein, we first report, a simple electrochemical immunosensor based on methylene blue dye (MB) immobilized graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE/GO@MB) for selective, quick (35 ± 5 mins) and raw sample analysis of WSSV. The immunosensor was prepared by sequential modification of primary antibody, blocking agent (bovine serum album), antigen (as vp28 protein), secondary antibody coupled with horseradish peroxidase (Ab2-HRP) on the GCE/GO@MB. The modified electrode showed a well-defined redox peak at an equilibrium potential (E1/2), -0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl and mediated H2O2 reduction reaction without any false positive result and dissolved oxygen interferences in pH 7 phosphate buffer solution. Under an optimal condition, constructed calibration plot was linear in a range of 1.36 × 10-3 to 1.36 × 107 copies μL-1 of vp28. It is about four orders higher sensitive than that of the values observed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot based WSSV detection techniques. Direct electrochemical immunosensing of WSSV in raw tissue samples were successfully demonstrated as a real sample system.

  14. Novel Insights into Antiviral Gene Regulation of Red Swamp Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, Infected with White Spot Syndrome Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaokui Yi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV, one of the major pathogens of Procambarus clarkii, has caused severe disruption to the aquaculture industry of P. clarkii in China. To reveal the gene regulatory mechanisms underlying WSSV infection, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed among WSSV-infected susceptible individuals (GS, viral resistant individuals (GR, and a non-infected control group (GC. A total of 61,349 unigenes were assembled from nine libraries. Subsequently, 515 and 1033 unigenes exhibited significant differential expression in sensitive and resistant crayfish individuals compared to the control group (GC. Many differentially expressed genes (e.g., C-type lectin 4, Peroxinectin, Prophenoloxidase, and Serine/threonine-protein kinase observed in GR and GS play critical roles in pathogen recognition and viral defense reactions after WSSV infection. Importantly, the glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate pathway was identified to play critical roles in defense to WSSV infection for resistant crayfish individuals by upregulating the chondroitin sulfate related genes for the synthesis of WSSV-sensitive, functional chondroitin sulfate chains containing E units. Numerous genes and the key pathways identified between resistant and susceptible P. clarkii individuals provide valuable insights regarding antiviral response mechanisms of decapoda species and may help to improve the selective breeding of P. clarkii WSSV-resistance.

  15. Vaccination with multimeric recombinant VP28 induces high protection against white spot syndrome virus in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taengchaiyaphum, Suparat; Nakayama, Hideki; Srisala, Jiraporn; Khiev, Ratny; Aldama-Cano, Diva January; Thitamadee, Siripong; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2017-11-01

    To improve the efficacy of WSSV protection, multimeric (tetrameric) recombinant VP28 (4XrVP28) was produced and tested in comparison with those of monomeric VP28 (1XrVP28). In vitro binding of either 1XrVP28 or 4XrVP28 to shrimp hemocyte surface was evident as early as 10 min after protein inoculation. Similar results were obtained in vivo when shrimp were injected with recombinant proteins that the proteins bound to the hemocyte surface could be detected since 5 min after injection. Comparison of the WSSV protection efficiencies of 1XrVP28 or 4XrVP28 were performed by injection the purified 1XrVP28 or 4XrVP28 (22.5 μg/shrimp) and WSSV inoculum (1000 copies/shrimp) into shrimp. At 10 dpi, while shrimp injected with WSSV inoculum reached 100% mortality, shrimp injected with 1XrVP28 + WSSV or 4XrVP28 + WSSV showed relative percent survival (RPS) of 67% and 81%, respectively. PCR quantification revealed high number of WSSV in the moribund shrimp of WSSV- and 1XrVP28+WSSV-injected group. In contrast, lower number of WSSV copies were found in the survivors both from 1XrVP28+WSSV- or 4XrVP28+WSSV- injected groups. Histopathological analysis demonstrated the WSSV infected lesions found in the moribund from WSSV-infected group and 1XrVP28+WSSV-injected group, but less or none in the survivors. ELISA demonstrated that 4XrVP28 exhibited higher affinity binding to rPmRab7, a WSSV binding protein essential for WSSV entry to the cell than 1XrVP28. Taken together, the protection against WSSV in shrimp could be improved by application of multimeric rVP28. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acral melanocytic lesions in the United States: Prevalence, awareness, and dermoscopic patterns in skin-of-color and non-Hispanic white patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madankumar, Reshmi; Gumaste, Priyanka V; Martires, Kathryn; Schaffer, Panta R; Choudhary, Sonal; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Arora, Harleen; Kallis, Penelope J; Patel, Shailee; Damanpour, Shadi; Sanchez, Margaret I; Yin, Natalie; Chan, Aegean; Sanchez, Miguel; Polsky, David; Kanavy, Holly; Grichnik, James M; Stein, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma has increased mortality compared with other melanoma subtypes and disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Acral melanocytic lesions have not been well studied in diverse populations of the United States. We sought to assess the prevalence, awareness, and dermoscopic patterns of acral melanocytic lesions in skin-of-color and non-Hispanic white patients. We prospectively examined the palms and soles of 1052 patients presenting to dermatology clinics in New York, NY, and Miami, FL, from October 2013 to April 2015. Acral melanocytic lesions were observed in 36% of our cohort. Skin-of-color patients were more likely to have acral melanocytic lesions than non-Hispanic white patients (P < .01). Acral melanocytic lesions correlated with increased mole counts, particularly on non-Hispanic white patients. The majority of lesions demonstrated benign dermoscopic patterns. We observed 2 lesions with the parallel ridge pattern in our cohort, both found to be atypical nevi on biopsy specimen. Patients often lacked awareness of the presence of their lesions. Interobserver variability in assessing dermoscopic patterns is a limitation. Melanocytic lesions of the palms and soles are common, particularly in a cohort of multiple ethnicities from the United States. Dermoscopy of acral lesions is an important clinical tool for diagnosis and management of these lesions. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lesions found at routine meat inspection on finishing pigs are associated with production system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hanne; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2017-01-01

    raised in conventional free-range and organic free-range production systems had higher odds for white liver-spots (ORPA, 5–7), tail lesions (ORPA, 3–4), arthritis (ORPA, 3), skin lesions (ORPA, 3), bone fractures (ORPA, 2), septicaemia (ORPA, 1.1–1.5) and abscesses (ORPA, 1.1–1.3) at slaughter. Pairwise...... correlation coefficients 21–35%) on the occurrence of white liver-spots, tail lesions, skin lesions and airway infections. These results suggest possibilities for herd-level management interventions of the problems studied...

  18. Presence of a central vein within white matter lesions on susceptibility weighted imaging: a specific finding for multiple sclerosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lummel, Nina; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer; Schoepf, Veronika; Burke, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging depicts the perivenous extent of multiple sclerosis white matter lesions (MS-WML) in vivo by directly visualizing their centrally running vein. The aim of this study was to investigate the specificity of this finding for MS. Fifteen patients with MS and 15 patients with microangiopathic white matter lesions (mWML) underwent 3T MRI, including a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence (FLAIR) and a susceptibility weighted angiography (SWAN). All WMLs were identified on FLAIR and assigned to one of the following localizations: supratentorial peripheral, supratentorial periventricular, or infratentorial. Subsequently, the presence of a central vein within these lesions was assessed on SWAN. A total of 711 MS-WMLs and 1,119 m-WMLs were identified on FLAIR, all of which could also be visualized on SWAN. A central vein was detectable in 80% of the MS-WMLs and in 78% of the m-WMLs (in 73% and 76% of the peripheral, in 92% and 94% of the periventricular, and in 71% and 75% of the infratentorial MS-WMLs and m-WMLs, respectively). With regard to the supratentorial peripheral lesions, significantly more m-WMLs showed a central vein compared to the MS-WMLs. For the other localizations, there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to the percentage of lesions with central vein. Our results indicate that the detection of a central vein within a WML should not be considered a specific finding for MS; it is also found in WMLs of other etiologies. (orig.)

  19. Patient-specific 3D FLAIR for enhanced visualization of brain white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Refaat E; Pednekar, Amol S; Govindarajan, Koushik A; Sun, Xiaojun; Riascos, Roy F; Ramírez, María G; Hasan, Khader M; Lincoln, John A; Nelson, Flavia; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2017-08-01

    To improve the conspicuity of white matter lesions (WMLs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) using patient-specific optimization of single-slab 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sixteen MS patients were enrolled in a prospective 3.0T MRI study. FLAIR inversion time and echo time were automatically optimized for each patient during the same scan session based on measurements of the relative proton density and relaxation times of the brain tissues. The optimization criterion was to maximize the contrast between gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), while suppressing cerebrospinal fluid. This criterion also helps increase the contrast between WMLs and WM. The performance of the patient-specific 3D FLAIR protocol relative to the fixed-parameter protocol was assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Patient-specific optimization achieved a statistically significant 41% increase in the GM-WM contrast ratio (P < 0.05) and 32% increase in the WML-WM contrast ratio (P < 0.01) compared with fixed-parameter FLAIR. The increase in WML-WM contrast ratio correlated strongly with echo time (P < 10 -11 ). Two experienced neuroradiologists indicated substantially higher lesion conspicuity on the patient-specific FLAIR images over conventional FLAIR in 3-4 cases (intrarater correlation coefficient ICC = 0.72). In no case was the image quality of patient-specific FLAIR considered inferior to conventional FLAIR by any of the raters (ICC = 0.32). Changes in proton density and relaxation times render fixed-parameter FLAIR suboptimal in terms of lesion contrast. Patient-specific optimization of 3D FLAIR increases lesion conspicuity without scan time penalty, and has potential to enhance the detection of subtle and small lesions in MS. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:557-564. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  20. Presence of a central vein within white matter lesions on susceptibility weighted imaging: a specific finding for multiple sclerosis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lummel, Nina; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Schoepf, Veronika [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Medical University of Vienna, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria); Burke, Michael [GE Healthcare, Solingen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Susceptibility weighted imaging depicts the perivenous extent of multiple sclerosis white matter lesions (MS-WML) in vivo by directly visualizing their centrally running vein. The aim of this study was to investigate the specificity of this finding for MS. Fifteen patients with MS and 15 patients with microangiopathic white matter lesions (mWML) underwent 3T MRI, including a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence (FLAIR) and a susceptibility weighted angiography (SWAN). All WMLs were identified on FLAIR and assigned to one of the following localizations: supratentorial peripheral, supratentorial periventricular, or infratentorial. Subsequently, the presence of a central vein within these lesions was assessed on SWAN. A total of 711 MS-WMLs and 1,119 m-WMLs were identified on FLAIR, all of which could also be visualized on SWAN. A central vein was detectable in 80% of the MS-WMLs and in 78% of the m-WMLs (in 73% and 76% of the peripheral, in 92% and 94% of the periventricular, and in 71% and 75% of the infratentorial MS-WMLs and m-WMLs, respectively). With regard to the supratentorial peripheral lesions, significantly more m-WMLs showed a central vein compared to the MS-WMLs. For the other localizations, there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to the percentage of lesions with central vein. Our results indicate that the detection of a central vein within a WML should not be considered a specific finding for MS; it is also found in WMLs of other etiologies. (orig.)

  1. Comparison of organotin accumulation on the white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis between sea-run and freshwater-resident types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohji, Madoka; Harino, Hiroya; Arai, Takaomi

    2011-01-01

    To examine the accumulation pattern of organotin compounds (OTs) in relation to the migration of diadromous fish, tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) compounds and their derivatives were determined in the muscle tissue of both sea-run (anadromous) and freshwater-resident (nonanadromous) types of the white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis. There were generally no significant correlations between the TBT and TPT accumulation and various biological characteristics such as the total length (TL), body weight (BW), age and sex in S. leucomaenis. It is noteworthy that the TBT and TPT concentrations in sea-run white-spotted charr were significantly higher than in freshwater-resident individuals, although they are intraspecies. These results suggest that the sea-run S. leucomaenis has a higher ecological risk of TBT and TPT exposure than the freshwater-residents during their life history.

  2. Relationship between white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) loads and characterizations of water quality in Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds during the tropical storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J S; Li, Z J; Wen, G L; Wang, Y L; Luo, L; Zhang, H J; Dong, H B

    2016-01-01

    An in-situ experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of tropical storm on the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) loads in Litopenaeus vannamei rearing ponds. White spot syndrome virus loads, heterotrophic bacteria, Vibrio and water quality (including temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, pH, NH 4 -N, and NO 2 -N) were continually monitored through one tropical storm. The WSSV loads decreased when tropical storm made landfall, and substantially increased when typhoon passed. The variation of WSSV loads was correlated with DO, temperature, heterotrophic bacteria count, and ammonia-N concentrations. These results suggested that maintaining high level DO and promoting heterotrophic bacteria growth in the shrimp ponds might prevent the diseases' outbreak after the landfall of tropical storm.

  3. Diffusion tensor imaging, white matter lesions, the corpus callosum, and gait in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gait impairment is common in the elderly, especially affected by stroke and white matter hyper intensities found in conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is more sensitive to white matter damage than conventional MRI. The relationship between DTI measure...

  4. Deep versus periventricular white matter lesions and cognitive function in a community sample of middle-aged participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Raya, Juan José; Miralbell, Júlia; López-Cancio, Elena; Bargalló, Núria; Arenillas, Juan Francisco; Barrios, Maite; Cáceres, Cynthia; Toran, Pere; Alzamora, Maite; Dávalos, Antoni; Mataró, Maria

    2012-09-01

    The association of cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) with cognitive status is not well understood in middle-aged individuals. Our aim was to determine the specific contribution of periventricular hyperintensities (PVHs) and deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs) to cognitive function in a community sample of asymptomatic participants aged 50 to 65 years. One hundred stroke- and dementia-free adults completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and brain MRI protocol. Participants were classified according to PVH and DWMH scores (Fazekas scale). We dichotomized our sample into low grade WMLs (participants without or with mild lesions) and high grade WMLs (participants with moderate or severe lesions). Analyses were performed separately in PVH and DWMH groups. High grade DWMHs were associated with significantly lower scores in executive functioning (-0.45 standard deviations [SD]), attention (-0.42 SD), verbal fluency (-0.68 SD), visual memory (-0.52 SD), visuospatial skills (-0.79 SD), and psychomotor speed (-0.46 SD). Further analyses revealed that high grade DWMHs were also associated with a three- to fourfold increased risk of impaired scores (i.e.,<1.5 SD) in executive functioning, verbal fluency, visuospatial skills, and psychomotor speed. Our findings suggest that only DWMHs, not PVHs, are related to diminished cognitive function in middle-aged individuals. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1-12).

  5. Comparison of white spot syndrome virus infection resistance between Exopalaemon carinicauda and Litopenaeus vannamei under different salinity stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qianqian; Yu, Ge; Sun, Ming; Li, Jitao; Li, Jian

    2017-12-01

    Exopalaemon carinicauda is one of the important economic shrimp species in China, and can tolerate a wide range of salinities. However, its disease resistance remains to be unclear in comparison with other shrimp species under salinity stress. In this study, the resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of E. carinicauda and Litopenaeus vannamei was determined by comparing their hemocyanin (Hc) and phenoloxidase (PO) activities under different salinity stresses. In E. carinicauda, the PO activity and Hc gene transcript abundance showed a coherent pattern of increase and decrease while Hc content showed a slightly decrease with Vibrio anguillarum and WSSV infections. For both E. carinicauda and L. vannamei under salinity stress, the PO activity showed a positive correlation with the salinity while the Hc content and expression level of its gene increased significantly in salinities of 5, 15 and 25 g L-1. The survival rate of E. carinicauda with WSSV infection was higher than that of L. vannamei in the first 24 h under different salinity stresses. Drastic mortality of E.carinicauda and L. vannamei appeared at 48 h and 3 h post-injection, respectively. Furthermore, compared with L. vannamei, E. carinicauda displayed higher PO activity, Hc content and abundance of Hc gene mRNA. The results collectively indicated that Hc and PO have obviously functional connection in resisting pathogens and tolerating salinity stress, and PO activity and Hc gene mRNA abundance may reflect the resistance of shrimp to disease. E. carinicauda has higher level of immune potential than L. vannamei, suggesting its greater capacity in resisting pathogens under salinity stresses.

  6. Influence of white spot syndrome virus infection on hepatopancreas gene expression of `Huanghai No. 2' shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianhong; Shi, Xiaoli; Kong, Jie; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Cao, Baoxiang; Liu, Ning; Lu, Xia; Li, Xupeng; Deng, Kangyu; Cao, Jiawang; Zhang, Yingxue; Zhang, Hengheng

    2017-10-01

    To elucidate the molecular response of shrimp hepatopancreas to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, microarray was applied to investigate the differentially expressed genes in the hepatopancreas of `Huanghai No. 2' ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis). A total of 59137 unigenes were designed onto a custom-made 60K Agilent chip. After infection, the gene expression profiles in the hepatopancreas of the shrimp with a lower viral load at early (48-96 h), peak (168-192 h) and late (264-288 h) infection phases were analyzed. Of 18704 differentially expressed genes, 6412 were annotated. In total, 5453 differentially expressed genes (1916 annotated) expressed at all three phases, and most of the annotated were either up- or down-regulated continuously. These genes function diversely in, for example, immune response, cytoskeletal system, signal transduction, stress resistance, protein synthesis and processing, metabolism among others. Some of the immune-related genes, including antilipopolysaccharide factor, Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor, C-type lectin and serine protease encoding genes, were up-regulated after WSSV infection. These genes have been reported to be involved in the anti-WSSV responses. The expression of genes related to the cytoskeletal system, including β-actin and myosin but without tubulin genes, were down-regulated after WSSV infection. Astakine was found for the first time in the WSSV-infected F. chinensis. To further confirm the expression of differentially expressed genes, quantitative real-time PCR was performed to test the expression of eight randomly selected genes and verified the reliability and accuracy of the microarray expression analysis. The data will provide valuable information to understanding the immune mechanism of shrimp's response to WSSV.

  7. Studies of the viral binding proteins of shrimp BP53, a receptor of white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Gao, Xiao-Xiao; Huang, Jie; Liang, Yan

    2016-02-01

    The specific binding between viral attachment proteins (VAPs) of a virus and its cellular receptors on host cells mediates virus entry into host cells, which triggers subsequent viral infections. Previous studies indicate that F1 ATP synthase β subunit (named BP53), is found on the surface of shrimp cells and involved in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection by functioning as a potential viral receptor. Herein, in a far-western blotting assay, three WSSV proteins with molecular weights of 28 kDa, 37 kDa, and >50 kDa were found to interact with BP53. The 28 kDa and 37 kDa proteins were identified as the envelope protein VP28 and VP37 of WSSV respectively, which could be recognized by the polyclonal antibodies. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent binding assays revealed that VP37 contributed to almost 80% of the binding capability for BP53 compared with the same amount of total WSSV protein. The relationship between BP53 and its complementary interacting protein, VP37, was visualized using a co-localization assay. Bound VP37 on the cell surface co-localized with BP53 and shared a similar subcellular location on the outer surface of shrimp cells. Pearson's correlation coefficients reached to 0.67 ± 0.05 and the Mander's overlap coefficients reached 0.70 ± 0.05, which indicated a strong relationship between the localization of BP53 and bound rVP37. This provides evidence for an interaction between BP53 and VP37 obtained at the molecular and cellular levels, supporting the hypothesis that BP53 serves as a receptor for WSSV by binding to VP37. The identification of the viral binding proteins of shrimp BP53 is helpful for better understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of WSSV to infect shrimp at the cellular level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Mechanism of Synchronous Precise Regulation of Two Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus Targets by a Viral MicroRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yaodong; Ma, Tiantian; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), important factors in animal innate immunity, suppress the expressions of their target genes by binding to target mRNA’s 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTRs). However, the mechanism of synchronous regulation of multiple targets by a single miRNA remains unclear. In this study, the interaction between a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) miRNA (WSSV-miR-N32) and its two viral targets (wsv459 and wsv322) was characterized in WSSV-infected shrimp. The outcomes indicated that WSSV-encoded miRNA (WSSV-miR-N32) significantly inhibited virus infection by simultaneously targeting wsv459 and wsv322. The silencing of wsv459 or wsv322 by siRNA led to significant decrease of WSSV copies in shrimp, showing that the two viral genes were required for WSSV infection. WSSV-miR-N32 could mediate 5′–3′ exonucleolytic digestion of its target mRNAs, which stopped at the sites of target mRNA 3′UTRs close to the sequence complementary to the miRNA seed sequence. The complementary bases (to the target mRNA sequence) of a miRNA 9th–18th non-seed sequence were essential for the miRNA targeting. Therefore, our findings presented novel insights into the mechanism of miRNA-mediated suppression of target gene expressions, which would be helpful for understanding the roles of miRNAs in innate immunity of invertebrate. PMID:29230209

  9. Transcriptome analysis of Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) hepatopancreas in response to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) under experimental infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shengping; Mao, Yong; Wang, Jun; Liu, Min; Zhang, Man; Su, Yongquan

    2017-11-01

    Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) is one of the most valuable crustacean species in capture fisheries and mariculture in the Indo-West Pacific. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a highly virulent pathogen which has seriously threatened Kuruma shrimp aquaculture sector. However, little information is available in relation to underlying mechanisms of host-virus interaction in Kuruma shrimp. In this study, we performed a transcriptome analysis from the hepatopancreas of Kuruma shrimp challenged by WSSV, using Illumina-based RNA-Seq. A total of 39,084,942 pair end (PE) reads, including 19,566,190 reads from WSSV-infected group and 19,518,752 reads from non-infected (control) group, were obtained and assembled into 33,215 unigenes with an average length of 503.7 bp and N50 of 601 bp. Approximately 17,000 unigenes were predicted and classified based on homology search, gene ontology, clusters of orthologous groups of proteins, and biological pathway mapping. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 2150 up-regulated and 1931 down-regulated, were found. Among those, 805 DEGs were identified and categorized into 14 groups based on their possible functions. Many genes associated with JAK-STAT signaling pathways, Integrin-mediated signal transduction, Ras signaling pathways, apoptosis and phagocytosis were positively modified after WSSV challenge. The proteolytic cascades including Complement-like activation and Hemolymph coagulations likely participated in antiviral immune response. The transcriptome data from hepatopancreas of Kuruma shrimp under WSSV challenge provided comprehensive information for identifying novel immune related genes in this valuable crustacean species despite the absence of the genome database of crustaceans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Novel Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Participates in White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF signaling pathway is known to play key roles in endothelial cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, vascular permeability, inhibition of apoptosis, and virus infection. In the present study, a novel VEGFR gene (LvVEGFR2 was identified and characterized from Litopenaeus vannamei. The deduced amino acid sequence of LvVEGFR2 possessed typical features of VEGFRs reported in other species, including six IG-like domains, a transmembrane motif, a protein kinase (PK domain, and one tyrosine-PK active site. The transcripts of LvVEGFR2 were mainly detected in hemocytes and lymphoid organ (Oka. Subcellular localization analysis showed that LvVEGFR2 was a membrane protein. Its expression level was obviously upregulated in hemocytes and Oka of the shrimp after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection. Knockdown of LvVEGFR2 gene expression by double-strand RNA mediated interference could lead to a decrease of virus copy number in WSSV-infected shrimp. The interaction between LvVEGFR2 and different LvVEGFs (LvVEGF1, LvVEGF2, and LvVEGF3 in shrimp was analyzed at the transcription level and protein level, respectively. Knockdown of LvVEGF2 or LvVEGF3 could downregulate the expression level of LvVEGFR2, and injection of the recombinant LvVEGF2 or LvVEGF3 could upregulate the expression level of LvVEGFR2. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that LvVEGFR2 could interact with LvVEGF2 and LvVEGF3 directly. The study improved our understanding on the VEGF signaling pathway of shrimp and its role during WSSV infection.

  11. Injected phage-displayed-VP28 vaccine reduces shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei mortality by white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Lucero, G; Manoutcharian, K; Hernández-López, J; Ascencio, F

    2016-08-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important viral pathogen for the global shrimp industry causing mass mortalities with huge economic losses. Recombinant phages are capable of expressing foreign peptides on viral coat surface and act as antigenic peptide carriers bearing a phage-displayed vaccine. In this study, the full-length VP28 protein of WSSV, widely known as potential vaccine against infection in shrimp, was successfully cloned and expressed on M13 filamentous phage. The functionality and efficacy of this vaccine immunogen was demonstrated through immunoassay and in vivo challenge studies. In ELISA assay phage-displayed VP28 was bind to Litopenaeus vannamei immobilized hemocyte in contrast to wild-type M13 phage. Shrimps were injected with 2 × 10(10) cfu animal(-1) single dose of VP28-M13 and M13 once and 48 h later intramuscularly challenged with WSSV to test the efficacy of the vaccine against the infection. All dead challenged shrimps were PCR WSSV-positive. The accumulative mortality of the vaccinated and challenged shrimp groups was significantly lower (36.67%) than the unvaccinated group (66.67%). Individual phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was assayed on 8 and 48 h post-vaccination. No significant difference was found in those immunological parameters among groups at any sampled time evaluated. For the first time, phage display technology was used to express a recombinant vaccine for shrimp. The highest percentage of relative survival in vaccinated shrimp (RPS = 44.99%) suggest that the recombinant phage can be used successfully to display and deliver VP28 for farmed marine crustaceans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interaction of the Small GTPase Cdc42 with Arginine Kinase Restricts White Spot Syndrome Virus in Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ji-Dong; Jiang, Hai-Shan; Wei, Tian-Di; Zhang, Ke-Yi; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2017-03-01

    Many types of small GTPases are widely expressed in eukaryotes and have different functions. As a crucial member of the Rho GTPase family, Cdc42 serves a number of functions, such as regulating cell growth, migration, and cell movement. Several RNA viruses employ Cdc42-hijacking tactics in their target cell entry processes. However, the function of Cdc42 in shrimp antiviral immunity is not clear. In this study, we identified a Cdc42 protein in the kuruma shrimp ( Marsupenaeus japonicus ) and named it Mj Cdc42. Mj Cdc42 was upregulated in shrimp challenged by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The knockdown of Mj Cdc42 and injection of Cdc42 inhibitors increased the proliferation of WSSV. Further experiments determined that Mj Cdc42 interacted with an arginine kinase ( Mj AK). By analyzing the binding activity and enzyme activity of Mj AK and its mutant, Δ Mj AK, we found that Mj AK could enhance the replication of WSSV in shrimp. Mj AK interacted with the envelope protein VP26 of WSSV. An inhibitor of AK activity, quercetin, could impair the function of Mj AK in WSSV replication. Further study demonstrated that the binding of Mj Cdc42 and Mj AK depends on Cys 271 of Mj AK and suppresses the WSSV replication-promoting effect of Mj AK. By interacting with the active site of Mj AK and suppressing its enzyme activity, Mj Cdc42 inhibits WSSV replication in shrimp. Our results demonstrate a new function of Cdc42 in the cellular defense against viral infection in addition to the regulation of actin and phagocytosis, which has been reported in previous studies. IMPORTANCE The interaction of Cdc42 with arginine kinase plays a crucial role in the host defense against WSSV infection. This study identifies a new mechanism of Cdc42 in innate immunity and enriches the knowledge of the antiviral innate immunity of invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. White spot syndrome virus induces metabolic changes resembling the warburg effect in shrimp hemocytes in the early stage of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Tung; Aoki, Takashi; Huang, Yun-Tzu; Hirono, Ikuo; Chen, Tsan-Chi; Huang, Jiun-Yan; Chang, Geen-Dong; Lo, Chu-Fang; Wang, Han-Ching

    2011-12-01

    The Warburg effect is an abnormal glycolysis response that is associated with cancer cells. Here we present evidence that metabolic changes resembling the Warburg effect are induced by a nonmammalian virus. When shrimp were infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), changes were induced in several metabolic pathways related to the mitochondria. At the viral genome replication stage (12 h postinfection [hpi]), glucose consumption and plasma lactate concentration were both increased in WSSV-infected shrimp, and the key enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), showed increased activity. We also found that at 12 hpi there was no alteration in the ADP/ATP ratio and that oxidative stress was lower than that in uninfected controls. All of these results are characteristic of the Warburg effect as it is present in mammals. There was also a significant decrease in triglyceride concentration starting at 12 hpi. At the late stage of the infection cycle (24 hpi), hemocytes of WSSV-infected shrimp showed several changes associated with cell death. These included the induction of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP), increased oxidative stress, decreased glucose consumption, and disrupted energy production. A previous study showed that WSSV infection led to upregulation of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which is known to be involved in both the Warburg effect and MMP. Here we show that double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) silencing of the VDAC reduces WSSV-induced mortality and virion copy number. For these results, we hypothesize a model depicting the metabolic changes in host cells at the early and late stages of WSSV infection.

  14. Unilaterally and rapidly progressing white matter lesion and elevated cytokines in a patient with Tay-Sachs disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayase, Tomomi; Shimizu, Jun; Goto, Tamako; Nozaki, Yasuyuki; Mori, Masato; Takahashi, Naoto; Namba, Eiji; Yamagata, Takanori; Momoi, Mariko Y

    2010-03-01

    We report the case of a girl with Tay-Sachs disease who had convulsions and deteriorated rapidly after an upper respiratory infection at the age of 11 months. At the age of 16 months, her seizures became intractable and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and marked swelling in the white matter and basal nucelei of the right hemisphere. Her seizures and right hemisphere lesion improved with glycerol and dexamethasone treatment. When dexamethasone was discontinued, her symptoms worsened and lesions later appeared in the left hemisphere. Her cerebrospinal fluid showed elevated levels of the cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-5. It is considered that inflammation contributes to disease progression in Tay-Sachs disease.

  15. Moderate Physical Activity Mediates the Association between White Matter Lesion Volume and Memory Recall in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian E Cooke

    Full Text Available Increased survival rates among breast cancer patients have drawn significant attention to consequences of both the presence of cancer, and the subsequent treatment-related impact on the brain. The incidence of breast cancer and the effects of treatment often result in alterations in the microstructure of white matter and impaired cognitive functioning. However, physical activity is proving to be a successful modifiable lifestyle factor in many studies that could prove beneficial to breast cancer survivors. This study investigates the link between white matter lesion volume, moderate physical activity, and cognition in breast cancer survivors following treatment compared to non-cancer age-matched controls. Results revealed that brain structure significantly predicted cognitive function via mediation of physical activity in breast cancer survivors. Overall, the study provided preliminary evidence suggesting moderate physical activity may help reduce the treatment related risks associated with breast cancer, including changes to WM integrity and cognitive impairment.

  16. Skin lesions in European hibernating bats associated with Geomyces destructans, the etiologic agent of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Bosch, Thijs; Görföl, Tamás; Passior, Karsten; Kurth, Andreas; Lacremans, Daniel; Forget, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has claimed the lives of millions of hibernating insectivorous bats in North America. Its etiologic agent, the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, causes skin lesions that are the hallmark of the disease. The fungal infection is characterized by a white powdery growth on muzzle, ears and wing membranes. While WNS may threaten some species of North American bats with regional extinction, infection in hibernating bats in Europe seems not to be associated with significant mortality. We performed histopathological investigations on biopsy samples of 11 hibernating European bats, originating from 4 different countries, colonized by G. destructans. One additional bat was euthanized to allow thorough examination of multiple strips of its wing membranes. Molecular analyses of touch imprints, swabs and skin samples confirmed that fungal structures were G. destructans. Additionally, archived field notes on hibernacula monitoring data in the Harz Mountains, Germany, over an 11-year period (2000-2011) revealed multiple capture-recapture events of 8 banded bats repeatedly displaying characteristic fungal colonization. Skin lesions of G. destructans-affected hibernating European bats are intriguingly similar to the epidermal lesions described in North American bats. Nevertheless, deep invasion of fungal hyphae into the dermal connective tissue with resulting ulceration like in North American bats was not observed in the biopsy samples of European bats; all lesions found were restricted to the layers of the epidermis and its adnexae. Two bats had mild epidermal cupping erosions as described for North American bats. The possible mechanisms for any difference in outcomes of G. destructans infection in European and North American bats still need to be elucidated.

  17. Skin lesions in European hibernating bats associated with Geomyces destructans, the etiologic agent of white-nose syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Wibbelt

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS has claimed the lives of millions of hibernating insectivorous bats in North America. Its etiologic agent, the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, causes skin lesions that are the hallmark of the disease. The fungal infection is characterized by a white powdery growth on muzzle, ears and wing membranes. While WNS may threaten some species of North American bats with regional extinction, infection in hibernating bats in Europe seems not to be associated with significant mortality. We performed histopathological investigations on biopsy samples of 11 hibernating European bats, originating from 4 different countries, colonized by G. destructans. One additional bat was euthanized to allow thorough examination of multiple strips of its wing membranes. Molecular analyses of touch imprints, swabs and skin samples confirmed that fungal structures were G. destructans. Additionally, archived field notes on hibernacula monitoring data in the Harz Mountains, Germany, over an 11-year period (2000-2011 revealed multiple capture-recapture events of 8 banded bats repeatedly displaying characteristic fungal colonization. Skin lesions of G. destructans-affected hibernating European bats are intriguingly similar to the epidermal lesions described in North American bats. Nevertheless, deep invasion of fungal hyphae into the dermal connective tissue with resulting ulceration like in North American bats was not observed in the biopsy samples of European bats; all lesions found were restricted to the layers of the epidermis and its adnexae. Two bats had mild epidermal cupping erosions as described for North American bats. The possible mechanisms for any difference in outcomes of G. destructans infection in European and North American bats still need to be elucidated.

  18. Correlation between white matter damage and gray matter lesions in multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-mei Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We observed the characteristics of white matter fibers and gray matter in multiple sclerosis patients, to identify changes in diffusion tensor imaging fractional anisotropy values following white matter fiber injury. We analyzed the correlation between fractional anisotropy values and changes in whole-brain gray matter volume. The participants included 20 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 healthy volunteers as controls. All subjects underwent head magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Our results revealed that fractional anisotropy values decreased and gray matter volumes were reduced in the genu and splenium of corpus callosum, left anterior thalamic radiation, hippocampus, uncinate fasciculus, right corticospinal tract, bilateral cingulate gyri, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus in multiple sclerosis patients. Gray matter volumes were significantly different between the two groups in the right frontal lobe (superior frontal, middle frontal, precentral, and orbital gyri, right parietal lobe (postcentral and inferior parietal gyri, right temporal lobe (caudate nucleus, right occipital lobe (middle occipital gyrus, right insula, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cingulate gyrus. The voxel sizes of atrophic gray matter positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in white matter association fibers in the patient group. These findings suggest that white matter fiber bundles are extensively injured in multiple sclerosis patients. The main areas of gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis are the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, caudate nucleus, parahippocampal gyrus, and cingulate gyrus. Gray matter atrophy is strongly associated with white matter injury in multiple sclerosis patients, particularly with injury to association fibers.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of hypothalamus hypophysis axis lesions; Relationship between posterior pituitary function and posterior bright spot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiina, Takeki; Uno, Kimiichi; Arimizu, Noboru; Yoshida, Sho (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Yamada, Kenichi

    1990-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 0.5T superconductive machine was performed to the thirty three cases with a variety of the sellar and parasellar tumors and with dysfunction of the hypothalamus-hypophysis axis. Posterior pituitary bright spot (PBS) on T1 weighted image was evaluated with the pituitary hormonal function. These cases were 12 cases of post-treated tumors including pituitary adenoma (9 patients), suprasellar germinoma (2 patients) and craniopharyngioma (one patient), and non-tumorous conditions including 15 cases of central diabetes insipidus (DI), Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH) (one patient), Sheehan's syndrome (3 patients) and anorexia nervosa (2 patients). Pituitary bright spot was not seen in all 19 cases with overt DI. On the other hand, PBS was not seen in 9 cases without overt DI. Three cases of these 9 cases showing Sheehan's syndrome with insufficient antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion was considered as the state of subclinical DI. Posterior bright spot was not seen in all 13 cases of empty sella including partial empty sella. The results suggested that disappearance of PBS represents abnormality or loss of posterior pituitary function and also it was considered to be closely related to the empty sella. (author).

  20. Increased frequency of white matter lesions in patients with osteonecrosis (WMLeOn) of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M. E-mail: gmhadji@med.uth.gr; Karantanas, Apostolos H.; Zibis, Aristidis; Dardiotis, Efthimios; Aggelakis, Konstantinos; Papadimitriou, Alexandros; Malizos, Konstantinos

    2004-06-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are commonly seen in cerebral MR imaging in normal and demented elderly people or young people suffering from migraine. We present data showing that WML are detected in an unexpectedly high frequency (56.9%) in patients with non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head compared to age and sex-matched controls. We designated the coexistence of WML and osteonecrosis as white matter lesions in osteonecrosis (WMLeON). We examined the possible association of WMLeON with hyperlipidaemia and other risk factors for WML or osteonecrosis of the femoral head. The frequency of history of corticosteroid treatment was statistically lower in patients with WMLeON (58.6%) compared to those without it (90.1%) (P=0.03). We found no association of WMLeON with diabetes, stroke, hyperlipidaemia, migraine, smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, or systemic lupus erythematosus. Although, the clinical significance of WMLeON is still unknown, this finding supports, at least, the hypothesis that non-traumatic osteonecrosis is indeed a multisystem disorder rather than a disease of human skeleton.

  1. Vascular risk factors, atherosclerosis, cerebral white matter lesions and cerebral perfusion in a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.J.; Breteler, M.M.B.; Hasan, D.; Krenning, E.P.; Bots, M.L.; Grobbee, D.E.; Swieten, J.C. van; Harskamp, F. van; Hofman, A.

    1996-01-01

    We studied risk factors for cerebral vascular disease (blood pressure and hypertension, factor VIIc, factor VIIIc, fibrinogen), indicators of atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness and plaques in the carotid artery) and cerebral white matter lesions in relation to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 60 persons (aged 65-85 years) recruited from a population-based study. rCBF was assessed with single-photon emission tomography using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO). Statistical analysis was performed with multiple linear regression with adjustment for age, sex and ventricle-to-brain ratio. A significant positive association was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and temporo-parietal rCBF. In analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for the relation of low diastolic blood pressure (≤60 mmHg) and low temporo-parietal rCBF. Levels of plasma fibrinogen were inversely related to parietal rCBF, with a threshold effect of high fibrinogen levels (>3.2 g/l) and low rCBF. Increased atherosclerosis was related to low rCBF in all cortical regions, but these associations were not significant. No consistent relation was observed between severity of cerebral white matter lesions and rCBF. Our results may have implications for blood pressure control in the elderly population. (orig.)

  2. Yeast Surface Display of Two Proteins Previously Shown to Be Protective Against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananphongmanee, Vorawit; Srisala, Jiraporn; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Boonchird, Chuenchit

    2015-01-01

    Cell surface display using the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris has been extensively developed for application in bioindustrial processes. Due to the rigid structure of their cell walls, a number of proteins have been successfully displayed on their cell surfaces. It was previously reported that the viral binding protein Rab7 from the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (PmRab7) and its binding partner envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) could independently protect shrimp against WSSV infection. Thus, we aimed to display these two proteins independently on the cell surfaces of 2 yeast clones with the ultimate goal of using a mixture of the two clones as an orally deliverable, antiviral agent to protect shrimp against WSSV infection. PmRab7 and VP28 were modified by N-terminal tagging to the C-terminal half of S. cerevisiae α-agglutinin. DNA fragments, harboring fused-gene expression cassettes under control of an alcohol oxidase I (AOX1) promoter were constructed and used to transform the yeast cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies specific to both proteins demonstrated that mutated PmRab7 (mPmRab7) and partial VP28 (pVP28) were localized on the cell surfaces of the respective clones, and fluorescence intensity for each was significantly higher than that of control cells by flow cytometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) using cells displaying mPmRab7 or pVP28 revealed that the binding of specific antibodies for each was dose-dependent, and could be saturated. In addition, the binding of mPmRab7-expressing cells with free VP28, and vice versa was dose dependent. Binding between the two surface-expressed proteins was confirmed by an assay showing agglutination between cells expressing complementary mPmRab7 and pVP28. In summary, our genetically engineered P. pastoris can display biologically active mPmRab7 and pVP28 and is now ready for evaluation of efficacy in protecting shrimp against WSSV by oral

  3. Impact of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) co-infection on survival of penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Song, Xiaoling; Huang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an important viral pathogen that infects farmed penaeid shrimp, and the threat of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection to shrimp farming has become increasingly severe. Viral and bacterial cross or superimposed infections may induce higher shrimp mortality. We used a feeding method to infect Litopenaeus vannamei with WSSV and then injected a low dose of V. parahaemolyticus (WSSV+Vp), or we first infected L. vannamei with a low-dose injection of V. parahaemolyticus and then fed the shrimp WSSV to achieve viral infection (Vp+WSSV). The eff ect of V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV co-infection on survival of L. vannamei was evaluated by comparing cumulative mortality rates between experimental and control groups. We also spread L. vannamei hemolymph on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar plates to determine the number of Vibrio, and the WSSV copy number in L. vannamei gills was determined using an absolute quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. LvMyD88 and Lvakt gene expression levels were detected in gills of L. vannamei by real-time PCR to determine the cause of the diff erent mortality rates. Our results show that (1) the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the WSSV+Vp group reached 100% on day 10 after WSSV infection, whereas the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the Vp+WSSV group and the WSSV-alone control group approached 100% on days 11 and 13 of infection; (2) the number of Vibrio in the L. vannamei group infected with V. parahaemolyticus alone declined gradually, whereas the other groups showed significant increases in the numbers of Vibrio ( P<0.05); (3) the WSSV copy numbers in the gills of the WSSV+Vp, Vp+WSSV, and the WSSV-alone groups increased from 105 to 107 /mg tissue 72, 96, and 144 h after infection, respectively. These results suggest that V. parahaemolyticus infection accelerated proliferation of WSSV in L. vannamei and vice versa. The combined accelerated proliferation of both V

  4. Yeast Surface Display of Two Proteins Previously Shown to Be Protective Against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV in Shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorawit Ananphongmanee

    Full Text Available Cell surface display using the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris has been extensively developed for application in bioindustrial processes. Due to the rigid structure of their cell walls, a number of proteins have been successfully displayed on their cell surfaces. It was previously reported that the viral binding protein Rab7 from the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (PmRab7 and its binding partner envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV could independently protect shrimp against WSSV infection. Thus, we aimed to display these two proteins independently on the cell surfaces of 2 yeast clones with the ultimate goal of using a mixture of the two clones as an orally deliverable, antiviral agent to protect shrimp against WSSV infection. PmRab7 and VP28 were modified by N-terminal tagging to the C-terminal half of S. cerevisiae α-agglutinin. DNA fragments, harboring fused-gene expression cassettes under control of an alcohol oxidase I (AOX1 promoter were constructed and used to transform the yeast cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies specific to both proteins demonstrated that mutated PmRab7 (mPmRab7 and partial VP28 (pVP28 were localized on the cell surfaces of the respective clones, and fluorescence intensity for each was significantly higher than that of control cells by flow cytometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA using cells displaying mPmRab7 or pVP28 revealed that the binding of specific antibodies for each was dose-dependent, and could be saturated. In addition, the binding of mPmRab7-expressing cells with free VP28, and vice versa was dose dependent. Binding between the two surface-expressed proteins was confirmed by an assay showing agglutination between cells expressing complementary mPmRab7 and pVP28. In summary, our genetically engineered P. pastoris can display biologically active mPmRab7 and pVP28 and is now ready for evaluation of efficacy in protecting shrimp against

  5. A novel white spot syndrome virus protein WSSV164 controls prophenoloxidases, PmproPOs in shrimp melanization cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Senapin, Saengchan; Hirono, Ikuo; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Amparyup, Piti

    2018-09-01

    Melanization, mediated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO)-activating system, is an important innate immune response in invertebrates. The implication of the proPO system in antiviral response and the suppression of host proPO activation by the viral protein have previously been demonstrated in shrimp. However, the molecular mechanism of viral-host interactions in the proPO cascade remains largely unexplored. Here, we characterized the viral protein, namely, WSSV164, which was initially identified from the forward suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library of the PmproPO1/2 co-silenced black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon that was challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Using the yeast two-hybrid system, WSSV164 was found to interact with the PmproPO2 protein. The subsequent validation assay by co-immunoprecipitation revealed that WSSV164 directly bound to both PmproPO1 and PmproPO2. The gene silencing experiment was carried out to explore the role of WSSV164 in the control of the proPO pathway in shrimp, and the results showed that suppression of WSSV164 can restore PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp hemolymph. The recombinant proteins of PmproPO1 and PmproPO2 were produced in Sf-9 cells and were shown to be successfully activated by exogenous trypsin and endogenous serine proteinases from shrimp hemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS), yielding PO activity in vitro. Moreover, the activated PO activity in shrimp HLS was dose-dependently reduced by the recombinant WSSV164 protein, suggesting that WSSV164 may interfere with the activation of the proPO system in shrimp. Taken together, these results suggest an alternative infection route of WSSV through the encoded viral protein WSSV164 that binds to the PmproPO1 and PmproPO2 proteins, interfering with the activation of the melanization cascade in shrimp. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectivity of prebiotic mannan oligosaccharides as the immunity enhancer and growth response on whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei against white spot disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linuwih Aluh Prastiti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the immune response and growth performance of white shrimp administered with prebiotic mannan oligosaccharides (MOS with dosages of (0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.8% in diet and used in the feeding trial. Shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei (the initial average weight was 3.416±0.064 g were fed at satiation, three times a day. A completely randomized design was used  in the study. Shrimps were cultured at the stock density of 15 shrimps 40/L for each treatment in triplicates. After 30 days of the feeding trial, shrimp were challenged with white spot syndrome virus filtrate by intramuscular injection. The total gut bacteria, total haemocyte count (THC, phenoloxydase (PO, and respiratory burst (RB activity were observed 4 times, before the experiment, day 30th before challenge test, day 32nd after challenge test, and day 36th the end of the experiment. The shrimp survival was observed at day 36th to evaluate the immune responses. The results showed that THC, PO activity, RB activity, growth performance, and shrimp survival administered with prebiotic 0.8% were significantly higher (P<0.05 than control. The administration of prebiotic with dose 0.8% was the best result and could effectively improve the immune responses and growth performance of whiteleg shrimp. Keywords: prebiotic, whiteleg shrimp, white spot disease  ABSTRAK Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi respons imun dan performa pertumbuhan pada udang vaname yang diberi prebiotik mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS dengan dosis berbeda (0%, 0,2%, 0,4%, dan 0,8% pada pakan. Udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei (dengan rata-rata bobot 3,41 ± 0,06 g diberi pakan tiga kali sehari secara at satiation. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap. Udang dipelihara dengan kepadatan 15 ekor per 40/L pada setiap perlakuan dengan tiga kali pengulangan. Setelah 30 hari pemberian pakan, udang diuji tantang menggunakan white spot syndrome virus dengan

  7. FLAIR* to visualize veins in white matter lesions: A new tool for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campion, T.; Turner, B.P.; Schmierer, K.; Smith, R.J.P.; Altmann, D.R.; Brito, G.C.; Evanson, J.; George, I.C.; Sati, P.; Reich, D.S.; Miquel, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    To explore the potential of a post-processing technique combining FLAIR and T_2* (FLAIR*) to distinguish between lesions caused by multiple sclerosis (MS) from cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) in a clinical setting. FLAIR and T_2* head datasets acquired at 3T of 25 people with relapsing MS (pwRMS) and ten with pwSVD were used. After post-processing, FLAIR* maps were used to determine the proportion of white matter lesions (WML) showing the 'vein in lesion' sign (VIL), a characteristic histopathological feature of MS plaques. Sensitivity and specificity of MS diagnosis were examined on the basis of >45% VIL"+ and >60% VIL"+ WML, and compared with current dissemination in space (DIS) MRI criteria. All pwRMS had >45% VIL"+ WML (range 58-100%) whilst in pwSVD the proportion of VIL"+ WML was significantly lower (0-64%; mean 32±20%). Sensitivity based on >45% VIL"+ was 100% and specificity 80% whilst with >60% VIL"+ as the criterion, sensitivity was 96% and specificity 90%. DIS criteria had 96% sensitivity and 40% specificity. FLAIR* enables VIL"+ WML detection in a clinical setting, facilitating differentiation of MS from SVD based on brain MRI. (orig.)

  8. FLAIR* to visualize veins in white matter lesions: A new tool for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campion, T.; Turner, B.P.; Schmierer, K. [Queen Mary University of London, Blizard Institute (Neuroscience), London (United Kingdom); Barts Health NHS Trust, Emergency Care and Acute Medicine Clinical Academic Group Neuroscience, The Royal London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Smith, R.J.P. [Queen Mary University of London, Blizard Institute (Neuroscience), London (United Kingdom); Gloucestershire Hospitals NHS Trust, Cheltenham (United Kingdom); Altmann, D.R. [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Department of Medical Statistics, London (United Kingdom); Brito, G.C. [Queen Mary University of London, Blizard Institute (Neuroscience), London (United Kingdom); Evanson, J. [Barts Health NHS Trust, Emergency Care and Acute Medicine Clinical Academic Group Neuroscience, The Royal London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); George, I.C. [NIH, Translational Neuroradiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yale School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, New Haven, CT (United States); Sati, P.; Reich, D.S. [NIH, Translational Neuroradiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD (United States); Miquel, M.E. [Barts Health NHS Trust, Emergency Care and Acute Medicine Clinical Academic Group Neuroscience, The Royal London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Queen Mary University of London, William Harvey Research Institute (Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit), London (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-15

    To explore the potential of a post-processing technique combining FLAIR and T{sub 2}* (FLAIR*) to distinguish between lesions caused by multiple sclerosis (MS) from cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) in a clinical setting. FLAIR and T{sub 2}* head datasets acquired at 3T of 25 people with relapsing MS (pwRMS) and ten with pwSVD were used. After post-processing, FLAIR* maps were used to determine the proportion of white matter lesions (WML) showing the 'vein in lesion' sign (VIL), a characteristic histopathological feature of MS plaques. Sensitivity and specificity of MS diagnosis were examined on the basis of >45% VIL{sup +} and >60% VIL{sup +} WML, and compared with current dissemination in space (DIS) MRI criteria. All pwRMS had >45% VIL{sup +} WML (range 58-100%) whilst in pwSVD the proportion of VIL{sup +} WML was significantly lower (0-64%; mean 32±20%). Sensitivity based on >45% VIL{sup +} was 100% and specificity 80% whilst with >60% VIL{sup +} as the criterion, sensitivity was 96% and specificity 90%. DIS criteria had 96% sensitivity and 40% specificity. FLAIR* enables VIL{sup +} WML detection in a clinical setting, facilitating differentiation of MS from SVD based on brain MRI. (orig.)

  9. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based flow-through immunoassay (FTA) for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, R; Shankar, K M; Kumar, B T N; Kulkarni, A; Patil, P; Moger, N

    2013-09-01

    A flow-through immunoassay (FTA), an improved version of immunodot, was developed using a nitrocellulose membrane baked onto adsorbent pads enclosed in a plastic cassette to detect white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. Sharp purple dots developed with WSSV against the white background of the nitrocellulose membrane. The detection limits of WSSV by the FTA and immunodot were 0.312 and 1.2 μg mL(-1) crude WSSV protein, respectively. The FTA could be completed in 8-10 min compared with 90 min for immunodot. The FTA was 100 times more sensitive than 1-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in between that of the 1- and 2-step PCR protocol recommended by the Office of International Epizootics (OIE). In experimental, orally infected shrimp post-larvae, WSSV was first detected 14, 16 and 18 h post-infection (hpi) by FTA, immunodot and one-step PCR, respectively. The FTA detected WSSV 2 and 4 h earlier than immunodot and one-step PCR, respectively. The FTA was more sensitive (25/27) than one-step PCR (23/27) and immunodot (23/27) for the detection of WSSV from white spot disease outbreak ponds. The reagent components of the FTA were stable giving expected results for 6 m at 4-8 °C. The FTA is available as a rapid test kit called 'RapiDot' for the early detection of WSSV under field conditions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Fiber tract-specific white matter lesion severity Findings in late-life depression and by AGTR1 A1166C genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Warren D; Zhao, Zheen; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Payne, Martha E; Steffens, David C; Krishnan, Ranga R; Hauser, Elizabeth; MacFall, James R

    2013-02-01

    Past work demonstrated that late-life depression is associated with greater severity of ischemic cerebral hyperintense white matter lesions, particularly frontal lesions. However, these lesions are also associated with other neuropsychiatric deficits, so these clinical relationships may depend on which fiber tracts are damaged. We examined the ratio of lesion to nonlesioned white matter tissue within multiple fiber tracts between depressed and nondepressed elders. We also sought to determine if the AGTR1 A1166C and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms contributed to vulnerability to lesion development in discrete tracts. The 3T structural MR images and blood samples for genetic analyses were acquired on 54 depressed and 37 nondepressed elders. Lesion maps were created through an automated tissue segmentation process and applied to a probabilistic white matter fiber tract atlas allowing for identification of the fraction of the tract occupied by lesion. The depressed cohort exhibited a significantly greater lesion ratio only in the left upper cingulum near the cingulate gyrus (F((1,86)) = 4.62, P = 0.0344), supporting past work implicating cingulate dysfunction in the pathogenesis of depression. In the 62 Caucasian subjects with genetic data, AGTR1 C1166 carriers exhibited greater lesion ratios across multiple tracts including the anterior thalamic radiation and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. In contrast, BDNF Met allele carriers exhibited greater lesion ratios only in the frontal corpus callosum. Although these findings did not survive correction for multiple comparisons, this study supports our hypothesis and provides preliminary evidence that genetic differences related to vascular disease may increase lesion vulnerability differentially across fiber tracts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Automated, quantitative measures of grey and white matter lesion burden correlates with motor and cognitive function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M. Pagnozzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available White and grey matter lesions are the most prevalent type of injury observable in the Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs of children with cerebral palsy (CP. Previous studies investigating the impact of lesions in children with CP have been qualitative, limited by the lack of automated segmentation approaches in this setting. As a result, the quantitative relationship between lesion burden has yet to be established. In this study, we perform automatic lesion segmentation on a large cohort of data (107 children with unilateral CP and 18 healthy children with a new, validated method for segmenting both white matter (WM and grey matter (GM lesions. The method has better accuracy (94% than the best current methods (73%, and only requires standard structural MRI sequences. Anatomical lesion burdens most predictive of clinical scores of motor, cognitive, visual and communicative function were identified using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection operator (LASSO. The improved segmentations enabled identification of significant correlations between regional lesion burden and clinical performance, which conform to known structure-function relationships. Model performance was validated in an independent test set, with significant correlations observed for both WM and GM regional lesion burden with motor function (p < 0.008, and between WM and GM lesions alone with cognitive and visual function respectively (p < 0.008. The significant correlation of GM lesions with functional outcome highlights the serious implications GM lesions, in addition to WM lesions, have for prognosis, and the utility of structural MRI alone for quantifying lesion burden and planning therapy interventions.

  12. Automated, quantitative measures of grey and white matter lesion burden correlates with motor and cognitive function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnozzi, Alex M; Dowson, Nicholas; Doecke, James; Fiori, Simona; Bradley, Andrew P; Boyd, Roslyn N; Rose, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    White and grey matter lesions are the most prevalent type of injury observable in the Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs) of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Previous studies investigating the impact of lesions in children with CP have been qualitative, limited by the lack of automated segmentation approaches in this setting. As a result, the quantitative relationship between lesion burden has yet to be established. In this study, we perform automatic lesion segmentation on a large cohort of data (107 children with unilateral CP and 18 healthy children) with a new, validated method for segmenting both white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) lesions. The method has better accuracy (94%) than the best current methods (73%), and only requires standard structural MRI sequences. Anatomical lesion burdens most predictive of clinical scores of motor, cognitive, visual and communicative function were identified using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection operator (LASSO). The improved segmentations enabled identification of significant correlations between regional lesion burden and clinical performance, which conform to known structure-function relationships. Model performance was validated in an independent test set, with significant correlations observed for both WM and GM regional lesion burden with motor function (p < 0.008), and between WM and GM lesions alone with cognitive and visual function respectively (p < 0.008). The significant correlation of GM lesions with functional outcome highlights the serious implications GM lesions, in addition to WM lesions, have for prognosis, and the utility of structural MRI alone for quantifying lesion burden and planning therapy interventions.

  13. "Blind spots" in forensic autopsy: improved detection of retrobulbar hemorrhage and orbital lesions by postmortem computed tomography (PMCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, P M; Egli, T C; Bolliger, S A; Berger, N; Ampanozi, G; Thali, M J; Schweitzer, W

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate the occurrence of retrobulbar hemorrhage (RBH) with mechanism of injury, external signs and autopsy findings to postmortem computed tomography (PMCT). Six-teen subjects presented with RBH and underwent PMCT, external inspection and conventional autopsy. External inspection was evaluated for findings of the bulbs, black eye, raccoon eyes and Battle's sign. Fractures of the viscerocranium, orbital lesions and RBH were evaluated by PMCT. Autopsy and PMCT was evaluated for orbital roof and basilar skull fracture. The leading manner of death was accident with central regulatory failure in cases of RBH (31.25%). Imaging showed a high sensitivity in detection of orbital roof and basilar skull fractures (100%), but was less specific compared to autopsy. Volume of RBH (0.1-2.4ml) correlated positively to the presence of Battle's sign (pautopsy. PMCT was superior in detecting osseous lesions, scrutinizing autopsy as the gold standard. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro remineralization of in vivo and in vitro formed enamel lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iijima, Y; Takagi, O; Ruben, J; Arends, J

    1999-01-01

    Thin sections of natural white spot enamel lesions (WS) and of artificial in vitro lesions (VL) were remineralized simultaneously in vitro. The sections, clamped in a PMMA holder, were microradiographed at baseline and after remineralization in a calcium- and phosphate-containing solution (pH = 7.0;

  15. Effectiveness of MI Paste Plus and Remin Pro on remineralization and color improvement of postorthodontic white spot lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Heravi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The application of either MI Paste Plus or Remin Pro was effective in reducing the area, increasing the mineral content and improving the appearance of demineralized enamel, indicating that these products could be recommended for managing postorthodontic WSLs.

  16. Effect of Repeated Acid Challenges on the Color Stability of Resin-Infiltrated Enamel White Spot Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    strict attention to light sources. This study was conducted in commercial fluorescent lighting that was energized for at least 30 minutes before...2), 180-190. Torres C, Borges A, Torres L, Gomes I, Oliveira R. (2011). Effect of caries infiltration technique and fluoride therapy on the colour

  17. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis concomitant with multifocal subcortical white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Jin; Chen, Bu-Dong; Qi, Dong

    2015-07-08

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is a severe autoimmune disorder characterized by severe psychiatric symptoms, seizures, decreased consciousness, autonomic dysregulation, and dyskinesias. Multifocal subcortical white matter lesions on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffuse weighted images have rarely been reported in previous literature, and serial magnetic resonance imaging changes after plasma exchange have not been presented before. A previously healthy 24-year-old Chinese woman presented with acute psychiatric symptoms characterized by fear and agitation followed by decreased consciousness, dyskinesias, and seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hyperintense lesions on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffuse weighted images in bilateral subcortical white matter. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed a mild pleocytosis with lymphocytic predominance. Protein and glucose levels were normal. Aquaporin-4 antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were negative. Identification of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis. She was initially treated with combined intravenous immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone without improvement. Plasma exchange was then initiated with good response; the patient made a full recovery after several cycles of plasma exchange. Repeat magnetic resonance imaging performed 1 month after plasma exchange showed partial resolution of the hyperintense lesions in bilateral subcortical white matter, and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging 2 months after plasma exchange showed complete resolution. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis may be concomitant with multifocal subcortical white matter lesions. Such lesions may resolve after appropriate immunotherapy.

  18. Pink spot, white spot: the pineal skylight of the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea Vandelli 1761) skull and its possible role in the phenology of feeding migrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, John; Jones, T. Todd; Work, Thierry M.; Balazs, George H.

    2014-01-01

    Leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, which have an irregular pink area on the crown of the head known as the pineal or ‘pink spot’, forage upon jellyfish in cool temperate waters along the western and eastern margins of the North Atlantic during the summer. Our study showed that the skeletal structures underlying the pink spot in juvenile and adult turtles are compatible with the idea of a pineal dosimeter function that would support recognition of environmental light stimuli. We interrogated an extensive turtle sightings database to elucidate the phenology of leatherback foraging during summer months around Great Britain and Ireland and compared the sightings with historical data for sea surface temperatures and day lengths to assess whether sea surface temperature or light periodicity/levels were likely abiotic triggers prompting foraging turtles to turn south and leave their feeding grounds at the end of the summer. We found that sea temperature was too variable and slow changing in the study area to be useful as a trigger and suggest that shortening of day lengths as the late summer equilux is approached provides a credible phenological cue, acting via the pineal, for leatherbacks to leave their foraging areas whether they are feeding close to Nova Scotia or Great Britain and Ireland.

  19. Lesion Distribution and Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis in Elk and White-Tailed Deer in South-Western Manitoba, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd K. Shury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance for Mycobacterium bovis in free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus from south-western Manitoba was carried out from 1997 to 2010 to describe the lesions, epidemiology, and geographic distribution of disease. Tissues were cultured from animals killed by hunters, culled for management, blood-tested, or found opportunistically. Period prevalence in elk was approximately six times higher than deer, suggesting a significant reservoir role for elk, but that infected deer may also be involved. Prevalence was consistently higher in elk compared to deer in a small core area and prevalence declines since 2003 are likely due to a combination of management factors instituted during that time. Older age classes and animals sampled from the core area were at significantly higher risk of being culture positive. Positive elk and deer were more likely to be found through blood testing, opportunistic surveillance, and culling compared to hunting. No non-lesioned, culture-positive elk were detected in this study compared to previous studies in red deer.

  20. Application of Spirulina platensis for prevention of white spot syndrome virus in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemtanon, P.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the extract of Spirulina platensis were examined in vitro to inhibit white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and application of dry S. platensis in diet for prevention of white spot syndrome (WSS in post larvae and juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. The results showed that the lowest concentration of the extract for inhibiting WSSV was 0.01 mg/ml, while the optimum concentration was found to be 0.1 mg/ ml in which the mortality rate of the shrimp was 4 percents and infection was not detected from survivalshrimp by the immunohistochemistry method.Furthermore, The results showed that the survival rate of the post larvae fed on steamed egg containing dry S. platensis 5 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control (p<0.05 when challenged with WSSV and no WSSV infected shrimp examine by polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. In the case of juvenile shrimp, the survival rate of shrimp fed pellets containing dry S. platensis 10 g/kg of diet was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05 after challenging with WSSV. Moreover percent of WSSV infection in the survival shrimp using the immunohistochemistry method was lower than that of the control group.

  1. Products of different chemical groups to control maize white spotProdutos de diferentes grupos químicos no controle da mancha branca do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseu dos Santos Pedro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the evaluation of different products used to control maize white spot, a leaf disease caused by the bacterium Pantoea ananatis. Six products from different chemical groups were used for this experiment, and they were tested on the susceptible hybrid HS200. Parameters, such as severity (%, area under disease progress curve (AUDPC, and productivity, have been estimated. The treatment with oxytetracyline resulted higher grain productivity for maize. Natural products, such as Rocksil and Pyroligneous acid, even though they are used as supplement for plants, were not effective in controlling the maize white spot. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes produtos no controle da mancha branca do milho, doença foliar causada pela bactéria Pantoea ananatis. Para o experimento foram utilizados seis produtos pertencentes a diferentes grupos químicos, testados no híbrido suscetível HS200. Avaliaramse as variáveis severidade, área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD e a produtividade de grãos. O tratamento com oxitetraciclina resultou maior produtividade de grãos da cultura do milho. Produtos naturais testados no experimento, como Rocksil e Ácido Pirolenhoso, utilizados como suplementos nutricionais para as plantas, não foram eficientes no controle da mancha branca do milho.

  2. BONE STRENGTH (ossis tibiae OF NATIVE PIGS ZŁOTNICKA SPOTTED BREED AND CROSSBREDS OF POLISH LARGE WHITE AND PoLISH LANDRACE PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech KAPELAŃSKI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the bone strength traits in two groups of pigs different in terms of genetic value, fast growth capability and meat deposition in the body. The study covered 33 fatteners of the Złotnicka Spotted breed (ZŁP and 20 crossbreds F1 (Polish Large White x Polish Landrace. Tibial bones were obtained following slaughter and evaluated in terms of properties and geometry, as well as bending and compressive strength. Mineral composition of the bone tissue was also established, i.e.: ash, Ca, P, Na, K, Zn and Mg. The significance of differences between the traits demonstrated by pigs in both groups subject to the study was estimated, with calculated overall correlations between the primary bone properties. The results confirmed significant differences in terms of geometry of the bones in both animal groups. In the ZŁP breed pigs, compared to the F1 crossbred group (PLW x PL, the outside and inside diameters of the tibial shaft were smaller (P ≤ 0.01, yet the average thickness of the wall of the bone was slightly larger. The bending force required to fracture the bone turned out to be lower in Złotnicka Spotted pigs, the opposite of the results obtained with regard to the compressive strength. Furthermore, calcium content, calcium-phosphorus ratio (Ca : P and sodium content were highly statistically or significantly larger in the bone tissue of the Złotnicka Spotted pigs. Consequently, the final results show that the bone strength demonstrated by modern pig breeds subject to intensive selection focused on high growth rate and increased meat deposition is in no way lower than the same trait recognized in the Złotnicka Spotted breed kept in preservative breeding conditions.

  3. Susceptibility of juvenile European lobster Homarus gammarus to shrimp products infected with high and low doses of white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, K S; Munro, J; Uglow, B; Small, H J; Stentiford, G D

    2012-08-27

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important pathogen known to affect the sustainability and growth of the global penaeid shrimp farming industry. Although most commonly associated with penaeid shrimp farmed in warm waters, WSSV is also able to infect, cause disease in and kill a wide range of other decapod crustaceans, including lobsters, from temperate regions. In 2005, the European Union imported US$500 million worth of raw frozen or cooked frozen commodity products, much of which originated in regions positive for white spot disease (WSD). The presence of WSSV within the UK food market was verified by means of nested PCR performed on samples collected from a small-scale survey of supermarket commodity shrimp. Passage trials using inoculum derived from commodity shrimp from supermarkets and delivered by injection to specific pathogen-free Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei led to rapid mortality and pathognomonic signs of WSD in the shrimp, demonstrating that WSSV present within commodity shrimp was viable. We exposed a representative European decapod crustacean, the European lobster Homarus gammarus, to a single feeding of WSSV-positive, supermarket-derived commodity shrimp, and to positive control material (L. vannamei infected with a high dose of WSSV). These trials demonstrated that lobsters fed positive control (high dose) frozen raw products succumbed to WSD and displayed pathognomonic signs associated with the disease as determined by means of histology and transmission electron microscopy. Lobsters fed WSSV-positive, supermarket-derived commodity shrimp (low dose) did not succumb to WSD (no mortality or pathognomonic signs of WSD) but demonstrated a low level or latent infection via PCR. This study confirms susceptibility of H. gammarus to WSSV via single feedings of previously frozen raw shrimp products obtained directly from supermarkets.

  4. Atrophy of the corpus callosum correlates with white matter lesions in patients with cerebral ischaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, K.; Yamadori, A.; Constans, J.M.; Courtheoux, P.; Theron, J.; Viader, F.

    2000-01-01

    Many studies of white matter high signal (WMHS) on T2-weighted MRI have disclosed that it is related to cerebral ischaemia and to brain atrophy. Atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) has also been studied in relation to ischaemia. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to ischaemia. We therefore assessed CC, WMHS and brain atrophy in patients with risk factors without strokes (the risk factor group) and in those with infarcts (the infarct group), to investigate the relationships between these factors. We studied 30 patients in the infarct group, 14 in the risk factor group, and 29 normal subjects. Using axial T1-weighted MRI, cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement (brain atrophy) were visually rated. Using axial T2-weighted MRI, WMHS was assessed in three categories: periventricular symmetrical, periventricular asymmetrical and subcortical. Using the mid-sagittal T1-weighted image, the CC was measured in its anterior, posterior, midanterior and midposterior portions. In the normal group, no correlations were noted between parameters. In the infarct group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy, and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After removing the effects of age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations were noted between some CC measures and subcortical WMHS. In the risk factor group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After allowance for age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations between some CC measures and periventricular WMHS remained. The hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to cerebral ischaemia was supported by other analyses. Namely, for correlations between the extent of infarcts and partial CC atrophy in patients with anterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) and with posterior MCA infarcts, there were significant correlations between the extent of infarct and midanterior CC atrophy in the former, and posterior

  5. Atrophy of the corpus callosum correlates with white matter lesions in patients with cerebral ischaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meguro, K.; Yamadori, A. [Section of Neuropsychology, Division of Disability Science, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, 980-8575 Sendai (Japan); Constans, J.M.; Courtheoux, P.; Theron, J. [MR Unit, University of Caen School of Medicine, Caen (France); Viader, F. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Caen School of Medicine, Caen (France)

    2000-06-01

    Many studies of white matter high signal (WMHS) on T2-weighted MRI have disclosed that it is related to cerebral ischaemia and to brain atrophy. Atrophy of the corpus callosum (CC) has also been studied in relation to ischaemia. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to ischaemia. We therefore assessed CC, WMHS and brain atrophy in patients with risk factors without strokes (the risk factor group) and in those with infarcts (the infarct group), to investigate the relationships between these factors. We studied 30 patients in the infarct group, 14 in the risk factor group, and 29 normal subjects. Using axial T1-weighted MRI, cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement (brain atrophy) were visually rated. Using axial T2-weighted MRI, WMHS was assessed in three categories: periventricular symmetrical, periventricular asymmetrical and subcortical. Using the mid-sagittal T1-weighted image, the CC was measured in its anterior, posterior, midanterior and midposterior portions. In the normal group, no correlations were noted between parameters. In the infarct group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy, and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After removing the effects of age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations were noted between some CC measures and subcortical WMHS. In the risk factor group, there were significant correlations between CC and brain atrophy and between CC atrophy and WMHS. After allowance for age, gender and brain atrophy, significant correlations between some CC measures and periventricular WMHS remained. The hypothesis that CC atrophy could be due to cerebral ischaemia was supported by other analyses. Namely, for correlations between the extent of infarcts and partial CC atrophy in patients with anterior middle cerebral artery (MCA) and with posterior MCA infarcts, there were significant correlations between the extent of infarct and midanterior CC atrophy in the former, and posterior

  6. Hypertension and white matter lesions are independently associated with apathetic behavior in healthy elderly subjects. The Sefuri brain MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Hiroshi; Takashima, Yuki; Mori, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Manabu; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Uchino, Akira; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Apathy is defined as a syndrome of primary loss of motivation not attributable to emotional distress, intellectual impairment or consciousness disturbance. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of vascular risk factors and silent ischemic brain lesions on apathetic behavior of community-dwelling elderly subjects. Brain MRI and other medical examinations were performed on 222 non-demented community-dwelling elderly subjects (96 men and 126 women, average age 70.1 years). The apathy group was defined as the most apathetic quintile determined by Starkstein's apathy scale. Silent infarction, deep white matter lesions (DWMLs) and periventricular hyperintensities were detected in 12.2, 39.2 and 22.5%, respectively. Linear regression analysis (Pearson) revealed that the scores on the apathy scale correlated slightly but significantly with logarithmically transformed scores of the Modified Stroop Test (r=0.135, P=0.045), but not with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The apathy group tended to have more high blood pressure (141.6/82.6 vs. 136.1/79.6 mmHg), less prevalent hyperlipidemia (18 vs. 35%) and lower serum albumin. Multivariate analysis (the forward stepwise method of logistic analysis) revealed an independent correlation between the apathy and grade of DWMLs (odds ratio 1.826, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.129-2.953 per grade) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (odds ratio 1.055, 95% CI 1.0 14-1.098 per mmHg) after adjusting for possible confounders. The mean apathy scale score in the DBP≥90 mmHg group was significantly lower (more apathetic) than that in the DBP<80 group (P=0.011, analysis of covariance). This study showed that hypertension and DWMLs are independently associated with apathy in healthy elderly subjects. (author)

  7. Prevention of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection on Penaeus monodon by Immersion in CEPM Extract of Avicennia sp. and Sonneratia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wahjuningrum

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality and survival rate are still being the problem that hampers the productivity of black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon culture.  Impaired quality of larval shrimp and environmental conditions can confer shrimp be infected by diseases, including viruses such as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV.  Prevention of disease infection using chemicals can offer negative impacts on water, pathogen resistance and consumers.  This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of an alternative prevention compound as liquid mangrove extract (CEPM from Avicennia sp. and Sonneratia sp. By immersion in different dose of CEPM, i.e. 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm, the patogenicity of WSSV was found to be different.  Patogenicity of WSSV decreased after treatment by CEPM, hence this could be used to induce shrimp immunity.  Optimum dose of CEPM was 250 ppm, which could increased survival rate of shrimp after challenging by WSSV, up to 98.4% shrimp survived. Keywrods: WSSV, black tiger shrimp, extract, Avicennia sp., Sonneratia sp.   ABSTRAK Kualitas dan kelangsungan hidup merupakan masalah yang masih membatasi produktivitas budidaya udang windu Penaeus monodon. Kondisi udang dan kualitas lingkungan yang kurang baik dapat menyebabkan udang terserang penyakit, termasuk yang disebabkan oleh virus termasuk white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Upaya pengendaliannya menggunakan bahan kimia secara berlebih dapat menimbulkan dampak negatif bagi lingkungan perairan, kesehatan konsumen dan menimbulkan resistensi patogen. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui efektivitas bahan alternatif berupa cairan ekstrak pohon mangrove (CEPM dari jenis Avicennia sp. dan Sonneratia sp. sebagai upaya pencegahan. Dengan perendaman beberapa konsentrasi yang berbeda (250, 500, 750 dan 1000 ppm penggunaan cairan ekstrak pohon mangrove (CEPM Avicennia sp. dan Sonneratia sp., memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap patogenitas WSSV dan udang uji pada setiap perlakuan. Tingkat

  8. Skin lesions and inoculation eschars at the tick bite site in spotted fever group rickettsioses: experience from a patient series in eastern crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanakis, Antonis; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The main clinical signs and symptoms caused by a rickettsial infection typically begin 6-10 days after the bite and are accompanied by nonspecific findings such as fever, headache and muscle pain. The diagnosis is mainly based on serological tests, however antibody presentation may be delayed, at least at the early stages of the disease, while seroconversion is usually detected 10-15 days after disease onset. Culture is difficult, requires optimized facilities and often proves negative. Under this scope, the presence of a characteristic inoculation eschar at the bite site may prove a useful clinical tool towards the early suspicion and diagnosis/differential diagnosis of tick-borne rickettsioses, even before the onset of rash and fever or serological confirmation. We describe herein the presence of skin lesions and/or an inoculation eschar at the tick bite site in 17 patients diagnosed, by molecular means, as suffering from spotted fever group rickettsioses. The detection of the pathogen's DNA in biopsy samples proved to be a useful means for early rickettsiae detection and identification. Moreover, the presence of an infiltrated erythema always seemed to precede the appearance of an eschar by 2-5 days and the initiation of fever by 1-10 days; these two signs might also prove useful in the context of the final diagnosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. New multispectral MRI data fusion technique for white matter lesion segmentation: method and comparison with thresholding in FLAIR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del C Valdes Hernandez, Maria; Ferguson, Karen J.; Chappell, Francesca M.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.

    2010-01-01

    Brain tissue segmentation by conventional threshold-based techniques may have limited accuracy and repeatability in older subjects. We present a new multispectral magnetic resonance (MR) image analysis approach for segmenting normal and abnormal brain tissue, including white matter lesions (WMLs). We modulated two 1.5T MR sequences in the red/green colour space and calculated the tissue volumes using minimum variance quantisation. We tested it on 14 subjects, mean age 73.3 ± 10 years, representing the full range of WMLs and atrophy. We compared the results of WML segmentation with those using FLAIR-derived thresholds, examined the effect of sampling location, WML amount and field inhomogeneities, and tested observer reliability and accuracy. FLAIR-derived thresholds were significantly affected by the location used to derive the threshold (P = 0.0004) and by WML volume (P = 0.0003), and had higher intra-rater variability than the multispectral technique (mean difference ± SD: 759 ± 733 versus 69 ± 326 voxels respectively). The multispectral technique misclassified 16 times fewer WMLs. Initial testing suggests that the multispectral technique is highly reproducible and accurate with the potential to be applied to routinely collected clinical MRI data. (orig.)

  10. Molecular cloning and recombinant expression of the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region from a brazilian white spot syndrome virus isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Braunig

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fragment of the VP28 coding sequence from a Brazilian WSSV isolate (BrVP28 was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3 pLysS strain in order to produce the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region. The expression resulted in a protein of about 21 kDa, which was purified under denaturing conditions, resulting in a final highly purified BrVP28 preparation. The recombinant protein obtained can be used in several biotechnology applications, such as the production of monoclonal antibodies which could be used in the development of diagnostic tools as well as in the studies on the characterization of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV isolated in Brazil.

  11. Lateral flow assay for rapid detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using a phage-displayed peptide as bio-recognition probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulabhusan, Prabir Kumar; Rajwade, Jyutika M; Sahul Hameed, A S; Paknikar, Kishore M

    2017-06-01

    White spot disease caused by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has a major socio-economic impact on shrimp farming in India. It has been realized that a field-usable diagnostic capable of rapid detection of WSSV can prevent huge economic losses in disease outbreaks. In this work, we explored the possibility of using a peptide as bio-recognition probe in a field-usable device for the detection of WSSV from infected shrimps and prawns. A commercially available random phage-display library was screened against rVP28 (a major structural protein of WSSV, expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli). A bacteriophage clone VP28-4L was obtained, and its binding to purified rVP28 protein as well as WSSV from infected shrimp Litopaeneus vannamei tissue was confirmed by ELISA and western blot. The apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (K d ,app) was calculated to be 810 nM. VP28-4L did not show cross-reactivity with any other shrimp viruses. A 12-mer peptide (pep28, with the sequence 'TFQAFDLSPFPS') displayed on the VP28-4L was synthesized, and its diagnostic potential was evaluated in a lateral flow assay (LFA). Visual detection of WSSV could be achieved using biotinylated-pep28 and streptavidin-conjugated gold nanoparticles. In LFA, 12.5 μg/mL of the virus could be detected from L. vannamei gill tissue homogenate within 20 min. Pep28 thus becomes an attractive candidate in bio-recognition of WSSV in field-usable diagnostic platforms benefitting the aquaculture sector.

  12. Validation of a commercial insulated isothermal PCR-based POCKIT test for rapid and easy detection of white spot syndrome virus infection in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Long Tsai

    Full Text Available Timely pond-side detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV plays a critical role in the implementation of bio-security measures to help minimize economic losses caused by white spot syndrome disease, an important threat to shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. A portable device, namely POCKIT™, became available recently to complete fluorescent probe-based insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR, and automatic data detection and interpretation within one hour. Taking advantage of this platform, the IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system was established to allow simple and easy WSSV detection for on-site users. The assay was first evaluated for its analytical sensitivity and specificity performance. The 95% limit of detection (LOD of the assay was 17 copies of WSSV genomic DNA per reaction (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 24 copies per reaction. The established assay has detection sensitivity similar to that of OIE-registered IQ2000™ WSSV Detection and Protection System with serial dilutions of WSSV-positive Litopenaeus vannamei DNA. No cross-reaction signals were generated from infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV, monodon baculovirus (MBV, and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV positive samples. Accuracy analysis using 700 L. vannamei of known WSSV infection status shows that the established assayhassensitivity93.5% (95% CI: 90.61-95.56% and specificity 97% (95% CI: 94.31-98.50%. Furthermore, no discrepancy was found between the two assays when 100 random L. vannamei samples were tested in parallel. Finally, excellent correlation was observed among test results of three batches of reagents with 64 samples analyzed in three different laboratories. Working in a portable device, IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system allows reliable, sensitive and specific on-site detection of WSSV in L. vannamei.

  13. Astakine LvAST binds to the β subunit of F1-ATP synthase and likely plays a role in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei defense against white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gao-Feng; Liang, Yan; Xue, Qinggang; Lu, Jin-Feng; Cheng, Jun-Jun; Huang, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Cytokines play a critical role in innate and adaptive immunity. Astakines represent a group of invertebrate cytokines that are related to vertebrate prokineticin and function in promoting hematopoiesis in crustaceans. We have identified an astakine from the white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei and named it LvAST in a previous research. In the present research, we investigated the interactions among LvAST, the envelope protein VP37 of white spot syndrome virus (i.e., WSSV), and the β subunit of F1-ATP synthase (ATPsyn-β) of the white shrimp (i.e., BP53) using binding assays and co-precipitations. We also examined the effects of LvAST on shrimp susceptibility to WSSV. We found that LvAST and VP37 competitively bound to BP53, but did not bind to each other. Shrimps that had been injected with recombinant LvAST exhibited significantly lower mortality and longer survival time in experimental infections by WSSV. In contrast, shrimps whose LvAST gene expression had been inhibited by RNA interference showed significantly higher WSSV infection intensity and shorter survival time following viral challenges. These results suggested that LvAST and WSSV both likely use ATPsyn-β as a receptor and LvAST plays a role in shrimp defense against WSSV infection. This represented the first research showing the involvement of astakines in host antiviral immunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Xenon contrast CT-CBF measurements in patients with pre- and post-correction of platelet hyper-aggregability, and in the white matter lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Shigekiyo

    2004-01-01

    About 10 years ago, the author found that, patients with headache, vertigo, dizziness and dementia, had a high prevalence (about 70%) of platelet hyper-aggregability which was especially prevalent (up to 100%) in Binswanger's dementia. Correction of the platelet hyper-aggregability in those patients led to remarkable improvement of symptoms. Based on this effective result with treatment of platelet hyper-aggregability, the author hypothesized that patients may show improvement or recovery of cerebral blood flow from the decreased blood flow by the correction of the platelet hyper-aggregability. The present report consist of two parts: 1) comparison of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after correction of platelet hyper-aggregability, 2) measurements of CBF in patients with severe white matter lesions, and the CBF within white matter lesions. The results of 1) showed CBF was decreased by about 20 to 30% before treatment and marked increase to normal CBF after correction of platelet hyper-aggregability, particularly in the thalamus and cortex. The increase was statistically significant except in bilateral frontal cortex and bilateral anterior white matter and left posterior white matter. From these results, it is confirmed that platelet hyper-aggregability is associated with decreased CBF, and after correction of platelet hyper-aggregability, CBF increases markedly. The results of 2) showed moderate to severe decreases of blood flow in all areas of the brain, and marked decreases of CBF in white matter lesions, 12.8±2.7 m1/100 g/min on average, which corresponded approximately to 60% of normal white matter CBF. (author)

  15. Efficacy of double-stranded RNA against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV non-structural (orf89, wsv191 and structural (vp28, vp26 genes in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César M. Escobedo-Bonilla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. RNA interference (RNAi is a promising tool against viral infections. Previous works with RNAi showed different antiviral efficacies depending on the silenced gene. This work evaluated the antiviral efficacy of double-stranded (ds RNA against two non-structural (orf89, wsv191 WSSV genes compared to structural (vp26, vp28 genes to inhibit an experimental WSSV infection. Gene orf89 encodes a putative regulatory protein and gene white spot virus (wsv191 encodes a nonspecific nuclease; whereas genes vp26 and vp28 encode envelope proteins, respectively. Molecules of dsRNA against each of the WSSV genes were intramuscularly injected (4 μg per shrimp into a group of shrimp 48 h before a WSSV challenge. The highest antiviral activity occurred with dsRNA against orf89, vp28 and vp26 (cumulative mortalities 10%, 10% and 21%, respectively. In contrast, the least effective treatment was wsv191 dsRNA (cumulative mortality 83%. All dead animals were WSSV-positive by one-step PCR, whereas reverse-transcription PCR of all surviving shrimp confirmed inhibition of virus replication. This study showed that dsRNA against WSSV genes orf89, vp28 and vp26 were highly effective to inhibit virus replication and suggest an essential role in WSSV infection. Non-structural WSSV genes such as orf89 can be used as novel targets to design therapeutic RNAi molecules against WSSV infection.

  16. Effects of stocking density on growth performance, carcass traits, and foot pad lesions of White Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, M; Jiang, Y; Tang, J; Wen, Z G; Huang, W; Hou, S S

    2014-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of stocking density on growth performance, carcass yield, and foot pad lesions of White Pekin ducks from hatch to 14 d of age (experiment 1) and from 14 to 42 d of age (experiment 2), respectively. All ducks were reared in raised plastic wire-floor pens with a pen size of 30 m(2), and males and females were mixed at a ratio of 1:1 in each pen of both experiments. In experiment 1, a total of 10,200 ducks that were 1 d old were allotted to 20 pens according to the stocking densities of 13, 15, 17, 19, and 21 birds/m(2) (or 8.4, 9.7, 10.9, 11.9, and 13.0 kg of actually achieved BW/m(2)), respectively, with 4 replicates per treatment. In experiment 2, a total of 3,150 ducks that were 14 d old were allotted to 15 pens according to the stocking densities of 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 birds/m(2) (or 17.0, 20.3, 23.6, 26.9, and 29.9 kg of actually achieved BW/m(2)), respectively, with 3 replicates per treatment. The stocking density had significant effects on final BW and weight gain of starter and growing ducks (P 0.05). The final BW and weight gain of starter and growing ducks all decreased with increasing density (P ducks were reduced significantly as stocking density increased from 17 to 21 birds/m(2) (P ducks decreased significantly when stocking density was 9 birds/m(2) (P ducks (P > 0.05). © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Multifocal white matter lesions associated with the D313Y mutation of the α-galactosidase A gene.

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    Malte Lenders

    Full Text Available White matter lesions (WML are clinically relevant since they are associated with strokes, cognitive decline, depression, or epilepsy, but the underlying etiology in young adults without classical risk factors still remains elusive. Our aim was to elucidate the possible clinical diagnosis and mechanisms leading to WML in patients carrying the D313Y mutation in the α-galactosidase A (GLA gene, a mutation that was formerly described as nonpathogenic. Pathogenic GLA mutations cause Fabry disease, a vascular endothelial glycosphingolipid storage disease typically presenting with a symptom complex of renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular manifestations. We performed in-depths clinical, biochemical and genetic examinations as well as advanced magnetic resonance imaging analyses in a pedigree with the genetically determined GLA mutation D313Y. We detected exclusive neurologic manifestations of the central nervous system of the "pseudo"-deficient D313Y mutation leading to manifest WML in 7 affected adult family members. Furthermore, two family members that do not carry the mutation showed no WML. The D313Y mutation resulted in a normal GLA enzyme activity in leukocytes and severely decreased activities in plasma. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that GLA D313Y is potentially involved in neural damage with significant WML, demonstrating the necessity of evaluating patients carrying D313Y more thoroughly. D313Y might broaden the spectrum of hereditary small artery diseases of the brain, which preferably occur in young adults without classical risk factors. In view of the existing causal therapy regime, D313Y should be more specifically taken into account in these patients.

  18. Relationship between white matter lesions and regional cerebral blood flow changes during longitudinal follow up in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Takuya; Kimura, Noriyuki; Aso, Yasuhiro; Takemaru, Makoto; Kimura, Yuki; Ishibashi, Masato; Matsubara, Etsuro

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between baseline white matter lesions (WML) and changes in regional cerebral blood flow during longitudinal follow up of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). A total of 38 patients with AD were included in the study (16 men, 22 women; mean age 77.8 years). All patients were evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination and brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography at baseline with an approximately 2-year follow up. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the presence of WML on magnetic resonance imaging. Single-photon emission computed tomography data were analyzed using a voxel-by-voxel group analysis with Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 and region of interest analysis using FineSRT. Changes in Mini-Mental State Examination scores and regional cerebral blood flow were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Mean Mini-Mental State Examination scores in AD patients with WML significantly decreased from 19.4 ± 4.8 to 15.5 ± 6.5 (P = 0.003). Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 and FineSRT analysis showed more severe and widespread regional cerebral blood flow reduction, mainly in the frontal and mesial temporal regions in AD patients with WML compared with those without WML. Baseline WML could predict a rapid progression of cognitive and brain functional impairment during longitudinal follow up in AD. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 836-842. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  19. Multifocal white matter lesions associated with the D313Y mutation of the α-galactosidase A gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, Malte; Duning, Thomas; Schelleckes, Michael; Schmitz, Boris; Stander, Sonja; Rolfs, Arndt; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Brand, Eva

    2013-01-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are clinically relevant since they are associated with strokes, cognitive decline, depression, or epilepsy, but the underlying etiology in young adults without classical risk factors still remains elusive. Our aim was to elucidate the possible clinical diagnosis and mechanisms leading to WML in patients carrying the D313Y mutation in the α-galactosidase A (GLA) gene, a mutation that was formerly described as nonpathogenic. Pathogenic GLA mutations cause Fabry disease, a vascular endothelial glycosphingolipid storage disease typically presenting with a symptom complex of renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular manifestations. We performed in-depths clinical, biochemical and genetic examinations as well as advanced magnetic resonance imaging analyses in a pedigree with the genetically determined GLA mutation D313Y. We detected exclusive neurologic manifestations of the central nervous system of the "pseudo"-deficient D313Y mutation leading to manifest WML in 7 affected adult family members. Furthermore, two family members that do not carry the mutation showed no WML. The D313Y mutation resulted in a normal GLA enzyme activity in leukocytes and severely decreased activities in plasma. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that GLA D313Y is potentially involved in neural damage with significant WML, demonstrating the necessity of evaluating patients carrying D313Y more thoroughly. D313Y might broaden the spectrum of hereditary small artery diseases of the brain, which preferably occur in young adults without classical risk factors. In view of the existing causal therapy regime, D313Y should be more specifically taken into account in these patients.

  20. G673 could be a novel mutational hot spot for intragenic suppressors of pheS5 lesion in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponmani, Thangaraj; Munavar, M Hussain

    2014-06-01

    The pheS5 Ts mutant of Escherichia coli defined by a G293 → A293 transition, which is responsible for thermosensitive Phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase has been well studied at both biochemical and molecular level but genetic analyses pertaining to suppressors of pheS5 were hard to come by. Here we have systematically analyzed a spectrum of Temperature-insensitive derivatives isolated from pheS5 Ts mutant and identified two intragenic suppressors affecting the same base pair coordinate G673 (pheS19 defines G673 → T673 ; Gly225 → Cys225 and pheS28 defines G673 → C673 ; Gly225 → Arg225). In fact in the third derivative, the intragenic suppressor originally named pheS43 (G673 → C673 transversion) is virtually same as pheS28. In the fourth case, the very pheS5 lesion itself has got changed from A293 → T293 (named pheS40). Cloning of pheS(+), pheS5, pheS5-pheS19, pheS5-pheS28 alleles into pBR322 and introduction of these clones into pheS5 mutant revealed that excess of double mutant protein is not at all good for the survival of cells at 42°C. These results clearly indicate a pivotal role for Gly225 in the structural/functional integrity of alpha subunit of E. coli PheRS enzyme and it is proposed that G673 might define a hot spot for intragenic suppressors of pheS5. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Encephalopathy with intracerebral calcification, white matter lesions, growth hormone deficiency, microcephaly, and retinal degeneration: two sibs confirming a probably distinct entity.

    OpenAIRE

    Bönnemann, C G; Meinecke, P; Reich, H

    1991-01-01

    Two sibs with an encephalopathy, including intracerebral calcification and white matter lesions, dwarfism owing to growth hormone deficiency, and retinal degeneration are reported. The onset of the disease in both patients occurred with retardation of motor development during the first year of life. Later, dwarfism, mental retardation, spasticity, ataxia, and retinal degeneration became apparent. These cases probably represent some form of connatal leucodystrophy. The differential diagnosis i...

  2. Liver spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun ...

  3. Cognitive deficits are associated with frontal and temporal lobe white matter lesions in middle-aged adults living in the community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bunce

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between brain white matter lesions and cognitive impairment in old age is well established. However, little is known about this association in midlife. As this information will inform policy for early preventative healthcare initiatives, we investigated non-periventricular frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobe white matter hyperintensities (WMH in relation to cognitive function in 428 (232 women community-dwelling adults aged 44 to 48 years. RESULTS: Frontal white matter lesions were significantly associated with greater intraindividual RT variability in women, while temporal WMH were associated with face recognition deficits in men. Parietal and occipital lobe lesions were unrelated to cognitive performance. These findings did not differ when education and a range of health variables, including vascular risk factors, were taken into account. CONCLUSION: Gender differences in WMH-cognition associations are discussed, and we conclude that small vessel disease is present in midlife and has functional consequences which are generally not recognized. Preventative strategies should, therefore, begin early in life.

  4. Dietary Administration of Yeast β 1,3 1,6 Glucan on Immunity and Survival Rate of White Indian Shrimp, Fennerpenaeus indicus Challenged with White Spot Syndrome Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Ghaednia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The potency of dietary β 1,3 1,6 glucan (BG, derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in stimulating the non-specific immunity of white Indian shrimp, Fennerpenaeus indicus (Milne-Edwards, 1837 and improving its resistance to white spot syndrome disease were investigated. F. indicus (11.32±1.20 g were fed for 20 days on a series of treatment diets containing graded levels of BG (blank control, 0 as control, 2, 10, 20 g kg-1 feed and were then challenged by injection of WSSV virus. Total haemocyte count (THC, total plasma protein (TPP, phagocytic activity (PA and Bacterial Clearance activity (BC were measured at days 0, 7, 14, 21 after BG feeding, and shrimp survival rate was also recorded daily after challenge. THC, TPP, PA and BC of the 10 and 20 g kg-1 BG treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05 by day 14 than control and 2 g kg-1 treatment shrimp. Survival rate of shrimp fed with the diet containing 10 and 20 g kg-1 BG after 21 days, were 53.32±5.77 and 48.32±5.77%, respectively. Accordingly, oral administration of BG at an optimal level of 10 g kg-1 diet for 20 days efficaciously stimulate the immune defense and improve the survival rate of WSV-infected F. indicus.

  5. Per os infectivity of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in white-legged shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and role of peritrophic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuong, Khuong Van; Tuan, Vo Van; Li, Wenfeng; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; Nauwynck, Hans

    2016-02-29

    As earlier observations on peroral infectivity of WSSV in white-legged shrimp are conflicting, here, a standardized peroral intubation technique was used to examine (i) the role of the physical composition of the viral inoculum and (ii) the barrier function of the PM. In a first experiment, the infectivity of a WSSV stock was compared by determining the SID50 by intramuscular injection, peroral inoculation or via feeding. The following titers were obtained: 10(8.77) SID50/g by intramuscular injection, 10(1.23) SID50/g by peroral inoculation and 10(0.73) SID50/g by feeding. These results demonstrated that 10(7.54)-10(8.03) infectious virus is needed to infect shrimp by peroral inoculation and via feeding. Next, it was examined if damage of the PM may increase the susceptibility for WSSV by peroral route. The infectivity of a virus stock was tested upon peroral inoculation of shrimp with and without removal of the PM and compared with the infectivity upon intramuscular inoculation. The virus titers obtained upon intramuscular injection and peroral inoculation of shrimp with and without PM were 10(8.63), 10(1.13) and 10(1.53) SID50/mL, respectively. This experiment confirmed the need of 10(7.1)-10(7.5) infectious virus to infect shrimp via peroral route and showed that the removal of the PM slightly but not significantly (p > 0.05) facilitated the infection of shrimp. This study indicated that WSSV contaminated feed is poorly infectious via peroral route, whereas it is highly infectious when injected into shrimp. The PM plays a minor role as internal barrier of shrimp against WSSV infection.

  6. Spatial Epidemiology and Risk Factor Analysis of White Spot Disease in the Shrimp Farming Industry of Sinaloa, Mexico, from 2005 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniesa, A; Mardones, F O; Chávez, M C; Montoya, L; Cabanillas, J A; de Blas, I; Martínez-López, B

    2017-10-01

    White spot disease (WSD), caused by the white spot syndrome virus, is currently one of the primary causes of mortality and economic losses in the shrimp farming industry worldwide. In Mexico, shrimp production is one of the most important primary activities generating an annual income of USD 711 million. However, WSD introduction in 1999 had a devastating impact for the Mexican shrimp industry. The aim of this study was to characterize the WSD spatio-temporal patterns and to identify the primary risk factors contributing to WSD occurrence from 2005 to 2011 in Sinaloa, Mexico. We used data collected by the 'Comité Estatal de Sanidad Acuícola de Sinaloa' from 2005 to 2011 regarding WSD outbreaks as well as environmental, production and husbandry factors at farm level. The spatio-temporal patterns of WSD were described using space-time scan statistics. The effect of 52 variables on the time to WSD outbreak occurrence was assessed using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Results reveal that WSD risk and survival time were not homogeneously distributed as suggested by the significant clusters obtained using the space-time permutation model and the space-time exponential model, respectively. The Cox model revealed that the first production cycle [hazard ratio (HR) = 11.31], changes from 1 to 1.4°C of temperature oscillation caused by 'El Niño'/'La Niña' events (HR = 1.44) and high average daily growths (HR = 1.26) were significantly associated with lower survival (i.e. shorter time to WSD outbreak) on farm. Conversely, shrimp weight at the moment of the outbreak (HR = 0.159), changes from -0.9 to -0.5°C of temperature oscillation caused by 'El Niño'/'La Niña' events (HR = 0.540), high superficial water temperature during the pound stocking (HR = 0.823) and high (>100) number of days of culture (HR = 0.830) were factors associated with higher survival. Results are expected to inform the design of risk-based, intervention strategies to

  7. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-01-01

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B12 injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The author...

  8. Recurrent focal choroidal excavation following multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) associated with acute idiopathic blind spot enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbarpoor Bonyadi, Mohammad Hossein; Hassanpour, Kiana; Soheilian, Masoud

    2018-04-01

    To present a recurrent case of conforming focal choroidal excavation (FCE) following multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) in a 25-year-old woman. Following spontaneous MEWDS sings resolution our patient noted a recurrent decrease in vision. Repeated OCT revealed elevation and mild disruption of RPE layer at fovea without previous angiographic MEWDS signs. At this time, short-term systemic steroid therapy was started and visual acuity became normal. Following quiescence of the new-onset phase, the conforming type of FCE located in inferior macula appeared in OCT. In the following next 2 years recurrence of presumptive focal subfoveal choriocapillaritis occurred for three times presenting with blurred vision. During every acute attack, above-mentioned FCE disappeared and returned back again after resolution of presumptive focal choriocapillaritis. This is the first and unique case of recurrent type of FCE following MEWDS. It seems to disappear during active phase of presumptive focal choriocapillaritis and then returns after the eye has become quiescent.

  9. Effect of Argemone mexicana active principles on inhibiting viral multiplication and stimulating immune system in Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei against white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanikumar, Pandi; Daffni Benitta, Dani Joel; Lelin, Chinnadurai; Thirumalaikumar, Eswaramoorthy; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2018-04-01

    Argemone mexicana called as Mexican prickly poppy is a species of poppy found in Mexico and now widely naturalized in many parts of the world with broad range of bioactivities including anthelmintic, cures lepsory, skin-diseases, inflammations and bilious fevers. Plant parts of A. mexicana were serially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and performed antiviral and immunostimulant screening against WSSV and Vibrio harveyi respectively. The control groups succumbed to death 100% within three days, whereas the mortality was significantly (P shrimp group respectively. The same trend was reflected in the immunostimulant screening also. Different diets were prepared by the concentrations of 100 (AD-1), 200 (AD-2), 300 (AD-3) and 400 (AD-4) mg kg -1 using A. mexicana stem and root ethyl acetate extracts and fed to Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei weighed about 9.0 ± 0.5 g for 30 days. The control groups fed with the normal diets devoid of A. mexicana extracts. The antiviral screening results revealed that, the ethyl acetate extract of the stem and root were effectively suppressed the WSSV and it reflected in the lowest cumulative mortality of treated shrimps. After termination of feeding trials, group of shrimps from control and each experimental group were challenged with virulent WSSV by intramuscular (IM) injection and studied cumulative mortality, molecular diagnosis by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. Control group succumbed to 100% death within four days, whereas the survival was significantly (P shrimp groups respectively. qRT PCR results with positive correlation analysis revealed that, the WSSV copies were gradually decreased when increasing the A. mexicana extracts in the diets. The highest concentrations (300 and 400 mg g -1 ) of A. mexicana extracts in the diets helped to reduce the protein level significantly (P < 0.05) after WSSV challenge. The diets

  10. White matter lesions and brain atrophy in systemic lupus erythematosus patients: correlation to cognitive dysfunction in a cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus patients using different definition models for neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannerfelt, B; Nystedt, J; Jönsen, A; Lätt, J; van Westen, D; Lilja, A; Bengtsson, A; Nilsson, P; Mårtensson, J; Sundgren, P C

    2018-06-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of white matter lesions, atrophy of the hippocampus and corpus callosum, and their correlation with cognitive dysfunction (CD), in patients diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Seventy SLE patients and 25 healthy individuals (HIs) were included in the study. To evaluate the different SLE and neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE) definition schemes, patients were grouped both according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) definition, as well as the more stringent ACR-Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics definition. Patients and HIs underwent a 3 Tesla brain MRI and a standardized neuropsychological test. MRI data were evaluated for number and volume of white matter lesions and atrophy of the hippocampus and corpus callosum. Differences between groups and subgroups were evaluated for significance. Number and volume of white matter lesions and atrophy of the hippocampus and corpus callosum were correlated to cognitive dysfunction. Results The total volume of white matter lesions was significantly larger in SLE patients compared to HIs ( p = 0.004). However, no significant differences were seen between the different SLE subgroups. Atrophy of the bilateral hippocampus was significantly more pronounced in patients with NPSLE compared to those with non-NPSLE (right: p = 0.010; left p = 0.023). Significant negative correlations between cognitive test scores on verbal memory and number and volume of white matter lesions were present. Conclusion SLE patients have a significantly larger volume of white matter lesions on MRI compared to HIs and the degree of white matter lesion volume correlates to cognitive dysfunction, specifically to verbal memory. No significant differences in the number or volume of white matter lesions were identified between subgroups of SLE patients regardless of the definition model used.

  11. Generation of recombinant monoclonal antibodies to study structure-function of envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus from shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuzhen; Zhang Xiaohua; Yuan Li; Xu Tao; Rao Yu; Li Jia; Dai Heping

    2008-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. VP28 is one of the most important envelope proteins of WSSV. In this study, a recombinant antibody library, as single-chain fragment variable (scFv) format, displayed on phage was constructed using mRNA from spleen cells of mice immunized with full-length VP28 expressed in Escherichia coli. After several rounds of panning, six scFv antibodies specifically binding to the epitopes in the N-terminal, middle, and C-terminal regions of VP28, respectively, were isolated from the library. Using these scFv antibodies as tools, the epitopes in VP28 were located on the envelope of the virion by immuno-electron microscopy. Neutralization assay with these antibodies in vitro suggested that these epitopes may not be the attachment site of WSSV to host cell receptor. This study provides a new way to investigate the structure and function of the envelope proteins of WSSV

  12. Shrimp miR-10a Is Co-opted by White Spot Syndrome Virus to Increase Viral Gene Expression and Viral Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Yan Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Members of the microRNA miR-10 family are highly conserved and play many important roles in diverse biological mechanisms, including immune-related responses and cancer-related processes in certain types of cancer. In this study, we found the most highly upregulated shrimp microRNA from Penaeus vannamei during white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection was miR-10a. After confirming the expression level of miR-10a by northern blot and quantitative RT-PCR, an in vivo experiment showed that the viral copy number was decreased in miR-10a-inhibited shrimp. We found that miR-10a targeted the 5′ untranslated region (UTR of at least three viral genes (vp26, vp28, and wssv102, and plasmids that were controlled by the 5′ UTR of these genes produced enhanced luciferase signals in transfected SF9 cells. These results suggest a previously unreported role for shrimp miR-10a and even a new type of host–virus interaction, whereby a co-opts the key cellular regulator miR-10a to globally enhance the translation of viral proteins.

  13. Peritrophin-like protein from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) involved in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in digestive tract challenged with reverse gavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shijun; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-11-01

    The peritrophic membrane plays an important role in the defense system of the arthropod gut. The digestive tract is considered one of the major tissues targeted by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. In this study, the nucleotide sequence encoding peritrophin-like protein of Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) was amplified from a yeast two-hybrid library of L. vannamei. The epitope peptide of LvPT was predicted with the GenScript OptimumAntigen™ design tool. An anti-LvPT polyclonal antibody was produced and shown to specifically bind a band at 27 kDa, identified as LvPT. The LvPT protein was expressed and its concentration determined. LvPT dsRNA (4 μg per shrimp) was used to inhibit LvPT expression in shrimp, and a WSSV challenge experiment was then performed with reverse gavage. The pleopods, stomachs, and guts were collected from the shrimp at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h post-infection (hpi). Viral load quantification showed that the levels of WSSV were significantly lower in the pleopods, stomachs, and guts of shrimp after LvPT dsRNA interference than in those of the controls at 48 and 72 hpi. Our results imply that LvPT plays an important role during WSSV infection of the digestive tract.

  14. Inactivation of Anisakis simplex L3 in the flesh of white spotted conger (Conger myriaster) by high hydrostatic pressure and its effect on quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hoon; Park, Shin Young; Ha, Sang-Do

    2016-06-01

    Koreans consume much seafood; the country is surrounded on the east, west and south by the sea. Koreans have eaten raw sashimi for a long time. However, a concern in the raw sea food industry is that the parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex L3 occurs naturally in marine fish. Thus, the fishery industry needs a non-thermal processing method. High hydrostatic pressure (HPP) has been demonstrated to be effective. White spotted conger flesh containing 20 live larvae was exposed to different pressures (150 and 200 MPa for 1 and 5 min; 250 and 300 MPa each for 1 min). The viability of A. simplex L3 was significantly (p  0.05) in any of the Hunter colour ('L', 'a' and 'b') values were found after HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min. The fresh treated at 300 MPa for 1 min scored hedonic scale. However, the flesh treated at 200 MPa for 5 min scored > 5.0 ('like') for all sensory parameters. This study suggested that HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min could potentially be used for the inactivation of A. simplex L3 in raw fishery food products without any concomitant changes in their colour or sensory qualities.

  15. Low numbers of repeat units in variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) regions of white spot syndrome virus are correlated with disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, T T T; Zwart, M P; Phuong, N T; de Jong, M C M; Vlak, J M

    2012-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important pathogen in shrimp farming systems worldwide including the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The genome of WSSV is characterized by the presence of two major 'indel regions' found at ORF14/15 and ORF23/24 (WSSV-Thailand) and three regions with variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) located in ORF75, ORF94 and ORF125. In the current study, we investigated whether or not the number of repeat units in the VNTRs correlates with virus outbreak status and/or shrimp farming practice. We analysed 662 WSSV samples from individual WSSV-infected Penaeus monodon shrimp from 104 ponds collected from two important shrimp farming regions of the Mekong Delta: Ca Mau and Bac Lieu. Using this large data set and statistical analysis, we found that for ORF94 and ORF125, the mean number of repeat units (RUs) in VNTRs was significantly lower in disease outbreak ponds than in non-outbreak ponds. Although a higher mean RU number was observed in the improved-extensive system than in the rice-shrimp or semi-intensive systems, these differences were not significant. VNTR sequences are thus not only useful markers for studying WSSV genotypes and populations, but specific VNTR variants also correlate with disease outbreaks in shrimp farming systems. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. PmVRP15, a Novel Viral Responsive Protein from the Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon, Promoted White Spot Syndrome Virus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatanavicharn, Tipachai; Prapavorarat, Adisak; Jaree, Phattarunda; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2014-01-01

    Suppression subtractive hybridization of Penaeus monodon hemocytes challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has identified the viral responsive gene, PmVRP15, as the highest up-regulated gene ever reported in shrimps. Expression analysis by quantitative real time RT-PCR revealed 9410–fold up-regulated level at 48 h post WSSV injection. Tissue distribution analysis showed that PmVRP15 transcript was mainly expressed in the hemocytes of shrimp. The full-length cDNA of PmVRP15 transcript was obtained and showed no significant similarity to any known gene in the GenBank database. The predicted open reading frame of PmVRP15 encodes for a deduced 137 amino acid protein containing a putative transmembrane helix. Immunofluorescent localization of the PmVRP15 protein revealed it accumulated around the nuclear membrane in all three types of shrimp hemocytes and that the protein was highly up-regulated in WSSV-infected shrimps. Double-stranded RNA interference-mediated gene silencing of PmVRP15 in P. monodon significantly decreased WSSV propagation compared to the control shrimps (injected with GFP dsRNA). The significant decrease in cumulative mortality rate of WSSV-infected shrimp following PmVRP15 knockdown was observed. These results suggest that PmVRP15 is likely to be a nuclear membrane protein and that it acts as a part of WSSV propagation pathway. PMID:24637711

  17. Shrimp miR-10a Is Co-opted by White Spot Syndrome Virus to Increase Viral Gene Expression and Viral Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiun-Yan; Kang, Shih-Ting; Chen, I-Tung; Chang, Li-Kwan; Lin, Shih-Shun; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Chu, Chia-Ying; Lo, Chu-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Members of the microRNA miR-10 family are highly conserved and play many important roles in diverse biological mechanisms, including immune-related responses and cancer-related processes in certain types of cancer. In this study, we found the most highly upregulated shrimp microRNA from Penaeus vannamei during white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection was miR-10a. After confirming the expression level of miR-10a by northern blot and quantitative RT-PCR, an in vivo experiment showed that the viral copy number was decreased in miR-10a-inhibited shrimp. We found that miR-10a targeted the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of at least three viral genes ( vp26, vp28 , and wssv102 ), and plasmids that were controlled by the 5' UTR of these genes produced enhanced luciferase signals in transfected SF9 cells. These results suggest a previously unreported role for shrimp miR-10a and even a new type of host-virus interaction, whereby a co-opts the key cellular regulator miR-10a to globally enhance the translation of viral proteins.

  18. Occurrence of white spot syndrome virus in shrimp culturing waters and its brunt in specific pathogen free Litopenaeus vannamei with particular allusion to molecular verdicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Badhul Haq

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the water samples and shrimp samples in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV affecting and non-affecting zone. Methods: A total of 12 samples specific pathogen free Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei; adult shrimp and larvae were randomly collected. Their genomic DNA was isolated and subjected to PCR. Histopathological identifications were carried out, and the hematopoietic tissues with basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies characteristic were observed in moderate WSSV infected L. vannamei. Results: The PCR analysis showed the appearance of a prominent band from the PCR amplified product of WSSV-DNA at internal control band 848 bp at non-infected areas. Although low infection positive bands (20 copies were shown at 296 bp continued from initial stage of the infection region. On a moderate and ascetic level were observed as 650 bp and 910 bp (200 and 2 000 copies, during the severe out break periods. The gill epithelial cells were edematous and nuclei were hypertrophied with basophilic inclusions, but no pathological changes or hypertrophied nuclei were observed in any of L.vannamei tissues in WSSV uninfected region. The Intranuclear inclusion bodies characteristics of high level of WSSV infection presented in the gill region. Conclusions: The present study is significant, which investigated the level of WSSV transmission from the infected tiger prawn P.monodon to SPFL. vannamei in the WSSV impact region of Tamil Nadu coastal waters.

  19. [Indocyanine green angiography in "multiple evanescent white dot syndrome" (MEWDS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desarnaulds, A B; Borruat, F X; Herbort, C P; de Courten, C

    1998-05-01

    Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) is a benign acquired chorioretinal disorder occurring mostly in young adults. Its pathophysiology is unknown. To describe the results of indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in MEWDS. Four patients with MEWDS were investigated by ICGA. In all cases, ICGA revealed numerous choroidal hypofluorescent lesions that largely outnumbered the lesions visible with either fundoscopy or fluorescein angiography. Three cases showed a blind spot enlargement on perimetry associated with the presence of a large peripapillary hypofluorescent zone on ICGA. Three cases showed macular granularity on fundoscopy correlating with a significant subfoveal hypfluorescent lesion on ICGA. Evolution was always favorable with disappearance of the hypofluorescent choroidal lesions. Our results confirm that MEWDS is primarily a choroidal disorder. The blind spot enlargement and the macular granularity, frequently detected in MEWDS, result from larger peripapillary and subfoveal choroidal lesions.

  20. Dietary administration of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. Willd.) DC water extract enhances immune response and survival rate against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Chung; Chang, Yueh-Ping; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Liu, Chun-Hung; Wong, Saou-Lien; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Hsieh, Shu-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC., a perennial plant belonging to the Asteraceae family, is originated from the tropical area of Asia. The total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity were examined after white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei had been fed diets containing the water extract of G. bicolor at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) for 7-28 days. The results indicated that these parameters increased accordingly with the amount of extract and time. THCs of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 1.0 and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1) were significantly higher than that fed the control diet for 14-28 days. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g (kg diet)(-1), the PO, RBs, and lysozyme activities reached the highest levels after 7 days, whereas SOD activity reached the highest levels after 14 days. In a separate experiment, white shrimp L. vannamei fed the diets containing the G. bicolor extract for 28 days were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 3 × 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 1 × 10(3) copies shrimp(-1). The survival rate of the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets was significantly higher than that of the shrimp fed the control diet at 48-144 h post challenge V. alginolyticus and WSSV. For the shrimp fed the G. bicolor diets at 0.5, 1 and 2 g (kg diet)(-1) under challenges of V. alginolyticus and WSSV, their LPS- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA expressions were significantly higher than those of the challenged control shrimp at 12-96 and 24-144 h post-challenge, respectively. We concluded that dietary administration of a G. bicolor extract could enhance the innate immunity within 28 days as evidenced by the increases in immune parameters (PO, RBs, and lysozyme) and antioxidant enzyme (SOD) activities of shrimp to against V. alginolyticus and WSSV

  1. A simple non-enzymatic method for the preparation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) DNA from the haemolymph of Marsupenaeus japonicus using FTA matrix cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakaran, R; Mekata, T; Kono, T; Supamattaya, K; Linh, N T H; Suzuki, Y; Sakai, M; Itami, T

    2009-07-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an important shrimp pathogen responsible for large economic losses for the shrimp culture industry worldwide. The nucleic acids of the virus must be adequately preserved and transported from the field to the laboratory before molecular diagnostic analysis is performed. Here, we developed a new method to isolate WSSV-DNA using Flinders Technology Associates filter paper (FTA matrix card; Whatman) without centrifugation or hazardous steps involved. FTA technology is a new method allowing the simple collection, shipment and archiving of nucleic acids from haemolymph samples providing DNA protection against nucleases, oxidation, UV damage, microbial and fungal attack. DNA samples prepared from 10-fold dilutions of moribund shrimp haemolymph using FTA matrix cards were analysed using semi-quantitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were compared with two commercially available DNA isolation methods, the blood GenomicPrep Mini Spin Kit (GE Healthcare) and the DNAzol (Invitrogen). Sequence analysis was performed for the DNA samples prepared using the various isolation procedures and no differences in the sequence among these methods were identified. Results based on the initial copy number of DNA prepared from the GenomicPrep Mini Spin Kit are a little more sensitive than the DNA prepared from FTA matrix cards, whereas the DNAzol method is not suitable for blood samples. Our data shows the efficiency of retention capacity of WSSV-DNA samples from impregnated FTA matrix cards. Matrix cards were easy to store and ship for long periods of time. They provide ease of handling and are a reliable alternative for sample collection and for molecular detection and characterization of WSSV isolates.

  2. Identification of Litopenaeus vannamei BiP as a novel cellular attachment protein for white spot syndrome virus by using a biotinylation based affinity chromatography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zengzhi; Chen, Meng; Wang, Jingting; Li, Zhuoyu; Geng, Xuyun; Sun, Jinsheng

    2018-05-05

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a dangerous threat to shrimp farming that also attacks a wide range of crustaceans. Knowledge of the surface protein-protein interactions between the pathogen and host is very crucial to unraveling the molecular pathogenesis mechanisms of WSSV. In this study, LvBiP (Litopenaeus vannamei immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein) was identified as a novel WSSV binding protein of L. vannamei by a biotinylation based affinity chromatography method. By using pull-down and ELISA assays, the binding of recombinant LvBiP to WSSV was proved to be specific and ATP- dependent. The interaction was also confirmed by the result of co-immunoprecipitation assay. Immunofluorescence studies revealed the co-localization of LvBiP with WSSV on the cell surface of shrimp haemocytes. Additionally, LvBiP is likely to play an important role in WSSV infection. Treatment of gill cellular membrane proteins (CMPs) with purified rLvBiP and antibody that specifically recognizes LvBiP, led to a significant reduction in the binding of WSSV to gill CMPs. In the in vivo neutralization assay, rLvBiP and anti-LvBiP polyclonal antibody partially blocked the infection of WSSV. Taken together, the results indicate that LvBiP, a molecular chaperon of the HSP70 family, is a novel host factor involved at the step of attachment of the WSSV to the host cells and a potential candidate of therapeutic target. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Shrimp hemocyte homeostasis-associated protein (PmHHAP) interacts with WSSV134 to control apoptosis in white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apitanyasai, Kantamas; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2018-05-01

    Hemocyte homeostasis-associated protein (PmHHAP) was first identified as a viral-responsive gene, due to a high upregulation in transcription following white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Functional studies using RNA interference have suggested that PmHHAP is involved in hemocyte homeostasis by controlling apoptosis during WSSV infection. In this study, the role of PmHHAP in host-viral interactions was further investigated. Yeast two-hybrid assay and co-immunoprecipitation revealed that PmHHAP binds to an anti-apoptosis protein, WSSV134. The viral protein WSSV134 is a late protein of WSSV, expressed 24 h post infection (hpi). Gene silencing of WSSV134 in WSSV-infected shrimp resulted in a reduction of the expression level of the viral replication marker genes VP28, wsv477, and ie-1, which suggests that WSSV134 is likely involved in viral propagation. However, co-silencing of PmHHAP and WSSV134 counteracted the effects on WSSV infection, which implies the importance of the host-pathogen interaction between PmHHAP and WSSV134 in WSSV infection. In addition, caspase 3/7 activity was noticeably induced in the PmHHAP and WSSV134 co-silenced shrimp upon WSSV infection. Moreover, PmHHAP and WSSV134 inhibited caspase-induced activation of PmCasp in vitro in a non-competitive manner. Taken together, these results suggest that PmHHAP and WSSV134 play a role in the host-pathogen interaction and work concordantly to control apoptosis in WSSV infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anti-melanization mechanism of the white spot syndrome viral protein, WSSV453, via interaction with shrimp proPO-activating enzyme, PmproPPAE2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Eum, Jai-Hoon; Strand, Michael R; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2017-04-01

    Inhibition of the host melanization reaction, activated by the prophenoloxidase activating (proPO) system, is one of the crucial evasion strategies of pathogens. Recently, the shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), was found to inhibit melanization in the shrimp Penaeus monodon. The viral protein WSSV453 was previously shown to interact with PO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) and reported to be involved in suppressing the shrimp melanization response after WSSV infection. Here, we characterized how WSSV453 inhibits melanization. WSSV453 is a non-structural viral protein, which was first detected in shrimp haemocytes at 6 hours post-infection (hpi) by WSSV and in shrimp plasma at 24 hpi. We produced recombinant proteins for three components of the P. monodon proPO system: PmproPPAE2, PmproPO1 and PmproPO2. Functional assays showed that active PmPPAE2 processed PmproPO1 and 2 to produce functional PO. Incubation of WSSV453 with PmproPPAE2 dose-dependently reduced PmPPAE2 activity toward PmPO1 or PmPO2. In contrast, WSSV453 had no effect on activated PmPPAE2. The addition of active PmPPAE2 to WSSV-infected shrimp plasma at day 2 post-infection also rescued PO activity. Taken together, these results indicate that the anti-melanization activity of WSSV is due to WSSV453, which interacts with PmproPPAE2 and interferes with its activation to active PmPPAE2.

  5. The novel white spot syndrome virus-induced gene, PmERP15, encodes an ER stress-responsive protein in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Jiann-Horng; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Wang, Yu-Bin; Lin, Chung-Yen; Lo, Chu-Fang

    2015-04-01

    By microarray screening, we identified a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-strongly induced novel gene in gills of Penaeus monodon. The gene, PmERP15, encodes a putative transmembrane protein of 15 kDa, which only showed some degree of similarity (54-59%) to several unknown insect proteins, but had no hits to shrimp proteins. RT-PCR showed that PmERP15 was highly expressed in the hemocytes, heart and lymphoid organs, and that WSSV-induced strong expression of PmERP15 was evident in all tissues examined. Western blot analysis likewise showed that WSSV strongly up-regulated PmERP15 protein levels. In WSSV-infected hemocytes, immunofluorescence staining showed that PmERP15 protein was colocalized with an ER enzyme, protein disulfide isomerase, and in Sf9 insect cells, PmERP15-EGFP fusion protein colocalized with ER -Tracker™ Red dye as well. GRP78, an ER stress marker, was found to be up-regulated in WSSV-infected P. monodon, and both PmERP15 and GRP78 were up-regulated in shrimp injected with ER stress inducers tunicamycin and dithiothreitol. Silencing experiments showed that although PmERP15 dsRNA-injected shrimp succumbed to WSSV infection more rapidly, the WSSV copy number had no significant changes. These results suggest that PmERP15 is an ER stress-induced, ER resident protein, and its induction in WSSV-infected shrimp is caused by the ER stress triggered by WSSV infection. Furthermore, although PmERP15 has no role in WSSV multiplication, its presence is essential for the survival of WSSV-infected shrimp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular characterization of shrimp harbinger transposase derived 1 (HARBI1)-like and its role in white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio alginolyticus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baozhen; Qian, Xiyi; Zhu, Fei

    2018-07-01

    The role of the nuclease, HARBI1-like protein (mjHARBI1-like) in the innate immunity of Marsupenaeus japonicus was explored in this study. The 1361 bp cDNA sequence of mjHARBI1-like was cloned from M. japonicus using RACE. RT-qPCR analysis results showed that the gills and hepatopancreas of M. japonicus were the main tissues where mjHARBI1-like is expressed. In addition, it was also found that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or Vibrio alginolyticus challenge could stimulate mjHARBI1-like expression. After mjHARBI1-likewas inhibited, expression of immune genes such as toll, p53, myosin, and proPO were significantly downregulated (P shrimp hemocytes, hemocyanin and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were up-regulated significantly (P shrimp was significantly advanced by double-strand RNA interference (dsRNAi) of mjHARBI1-like. Apoptosis studies indicated that mjHARBI1-dsRNA treatment caused a reduction in hemocyte apoptosis in bacterial and viral groups. In addition, phagocytosis experiments illustrated that mjHARBI1-dsRNA treatment led to a lower phagocytosis rate in hemocytes of V. alginolyticus-challenged shrimp. It was also found that knockdown of mjHARBI1-like inhibited shrimp phenoloxidase (PO) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and total hemocyte count (THC) after WSSV or V. alginolyticus infection. These data indicate a regulative role of mjHARBI1-likein the immunity of shrimp in response to pathogen infection. Resultantly, it was concluded that mjHARBI1-like might have a positive effect on the anti-WSSV immune response of shrimp by regulating apoptosis, THC, PO activity, and SOD activity. Additionally, mjHARBI1-like might promote anti-V. alginolyticus infection by participating in regulating phagocytosis, apoptosis, SOD activity, PO activity, and THC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular cloning of Kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus endonuclease-reverse transcriptase and its positive role in white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio alginolyticus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiongchao; Sun, Baozhen; Zhu, Fei

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the function of endonuclease-reverse transcriptase (mjERT) in Marsupenaeus japonicus. The 1129 bp cDNA sequence of mjERT was cloned from M. japonicus using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR, and RT-qPCR analysis indicated that mjERT was highly expressed in the gills and hepatopancreas of M. japonicus. We also found that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or Vibrio alginolyticus challenge could enhance the expression of mjERT. When mjERT was inhibited, immune genes such as toll, p53, hemocyanin and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were significantly down-regulated (P shrimp, while myosin was significantly up-regulated (P shrimps was significantly increased following mjERT RNA interfere (RNAi). Apoptosis data provided information to suggest that mjERT-dsRNA challenge caused less apoptosis in hemocytes in both the disease-free and viral group. We also revealed that mjERT-dsRNA treatment resulted in a lower phagocytosis rate in the hemocytes of V. alginolyticus-challenged shrimp. Finally, we found that the absence of mjERT had an significantly negative impact upon shrimp phenoloxidase (PO) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total hemocyte count (THC) following WSSV or V. alginolyticus infection, indicating a regulative role for mjERT in the innate immunity of shrimp in response to pathogenic infection. In summary, we concluded that mjERT might promote the anti-WSSV immune response of shrimp by regulating apoptosis, PO activity, THC and SOD activity, and also exert a positive role in the immune response against V. alginolyticus by regulating phagocytosis, SOD activity, PO activity and THC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The efficacy of Poly-β-Hydroxy Butyrate (PHB)/biosurfactant derived from Staphylococcus hominis against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica, M; Priyanka, T; Akshaya, Murugesan; Rajeswari, V; Sivakumar, Lingappa; Somasundaram, S T; Shenbhagarathai, R

    2017-12-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is one of the most important causative agents of Penaeid shrimps diseases that incur heavy losses to the shrimp aquaculture. It has severe impact on the sustainability and the production of Penaeus monodon. Hence, the present study focussed on the investigation of Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate/biosurfactant as immunostimulants against WSSV infected shrimps. Infection of WSSV was periodically checked in all the experimental shrimps using PCR diagnostic kit. After ensuring all shrimps were free of viral infection, experiments were carried out to analyze the nonspecific immune responses (prophenol oxidase, nitro blue tetrazolium reduction assay and total haemocyte count) both in control and experimental group. Further, gills and muscles of Penaeus monodon were subjected to proteome analysis after treated it with PHB/biosurfactant independently in the concentration of 2% and 5% each. Increase in the level of haemocytes was observed in both PHB (26 ± 2 × 10⁴ cells)/biosurfactant (28 ± 2 × 10 4  cells) treated shrimps, when compared with control (17 ± 2 × 10⁴ cells). proPhenolOxidase (proPO) activity was also enhanced in treated groups compared to WSSV infected shrimps. Less production of superoxide anion was observed in control and treated groups. Differences in the protein expression was analyzed in muscle tissue of control, WSSV infected and PHB/biosurfactant treated shrimps. Our finding suggested that partial substitution of feed with 2% PHB and biosurfactant showed increased rate on the survival of WSSV infected P. monodon which might be due to either the over expression/down regulation of proteins that play a vital role in enhancing the immune system/the progression of the disease respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Roth spots in pernicious anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Mavin; Nag, Satyajit

    2011-04-19

    Roth spots are white-centred retinal haemorrhages, previously thought to be pathognomonic for subacute bacterial endocarditis. A number of other conditions can be associated with Roth spots. In this case, the authors describe the association of Roth spots and pernicious anaemia. This association has been rarely described in the medical literature. Correct diagnosis and treatment with intramuscular vitamin B(12) injections resulted in complete resolution of the anaemia and Roth spots. The authors hope to alert clinicians to think of various differentials of Roth spots, and initiate prompt investigation and management.

  10. MR Imaging Evaluation of Intracerebral Hemorrhages and T2 Hyperintense White Matter Lesions Appearing after Radiation Therapy in Adult Patients with Primary Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dong Hyun; Song, Sang Woo; Yun, Tae Jin; Kim, Tae Min; Lee, Se-Hoon; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Sung-Hye; Park, Chul-Kee; Kim, Il Han; Choi, Seung Hong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the frequency and severity of intracerebral hemorrhages and T2 hyperintense white matter lesions (WMLs) following radiation therapy for brain tumors in adult patients. Of 648 adult brain tumor patients who received radiation therapy at our institute, magnetic resonance (MR) image data consisting of a gradient echo (GRE) and FLAIR T2-weighted image were available three and five years after radiation therapy in 81 patients. Intracerebral hemorrhage was defined as a hypointense dot lesion appearing on GRE images after radiation therapy. The number and size of the lesions were evaluated. The T2 hyperintense WMLs observed on the FLAIR sequences were graded according to the extent of the lesion. Intracerebral hemorrhage was detected in 21 (25.9%) and 35 (43.2) patients in the three- and five-year follow-up images, respectively. The number of intracerebral hemorrhages per patient tended to increase as the follow-up period increased, whereas the size of the intracerebral hemorrhages exhibited little variation over the course of follow-up. T2 hyperintense WMLs were observed in 27 (33.3%) and 32 (39.5) patients in the three and five year follow-up images, respectively. The age at the time of radiation therapy was significantly higher (p T2 hyperintense WMLs than in those without lesions. Intracerebral hemorrhages are not uncommon in adult brain tumor patients undergoing radiation therapy. The incidence and number of intracerebral hemorrhages increased over the course of follow-up. T2 hyperintense WMLs were observed in more than one-third of the study population.

  11. Distribution of eastern equine encephalomyelitis viral protein and nucleic acid within central nervous tissue lesions in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiupel, M; Fitzgerald, S D; Pennick, K E; Cooley, T M; O'Brien, D J; Bolin, S R; Maes, R K; Del Piero, F

    2013-11-01

    An outbreak of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) occurred in Michigan free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during late summer and fall of 2005. Brain tissue from 7 deer with EEE, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, was studied. Detailed microscopic examination, indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC), and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used to characterize the lesions and distribution of the EEE virus within the brain. The main lesion in all 7 deer was a polioencephalomyelitis with leptomeningitis, which was more prominent within the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and brainstem. In 3 deer, multifocal microhemorrhages surrounded smaller vessels with or without perivascular cuffing, although vasculitis was not observed. Neuronal necrosis, associated with perineuronal satellitosis and neutrophilic neuronophagia, was most prominent in the thalamus and the brainstem. Positive IHC labeling was mainly observed in the perikaryon, axons, and dendrites of necrotic and intact neurons and, to a much lesser degree, in glial cells, a few neutrophils in the thalamus and the brainstem, and occasionally the cerebral cortex of the 7 deer. There was minimal IHC-based labeling in the cerebellum and hippocampus. ISH labeling was exclusively observed in the cytoplasm of neurons, with a distribution similar to IHC-positive neurons. Neurons positive by IHC and ISH were most prominent in the thalamus and brainstem. The neuropathology of EEE in deer is compared with other species. Based on our findings, EEE has to be considered a differential diagnosis for neurologic disease and meningoencephalitis in white-tailed deer.

  12. 南中国斑节对虾养殖中控制白斑综合症病的理论和策略%Theory and Strategies for Controlling White Spot Syndrome (WSS) of Cultured Penaeus monodon in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the causative agent of white spot syndrome (WSS) of cultured penaeid shrimps. WSS breaks out and prevails in cultured penaeid shrimps in many countries and regions of the world, especially in southeast Asia. WSSV is the virus most severe damaging to the cultured penaeid shrimps in the world. At the present time, the control of the outbreaks of WSSV will recover and develop the penaeid shrimp cultures in China and even in the world.

  13. White matter lesions and temporal lobe atrophy related to incidence of both dementia and major depression in 70-year-olds followed over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, P; Olesen, P J; Simoni, M; Pantoni, L; Östling, S; Kern, S; Guo, X; Skoog, I

    2015-05-01

    A number of studies have suggested associations between dementia and depression in older adults. One reason could be that these disorders share structural correlates, such as white matter lesions (WMLs) and cortical atrophy. No study has examined whether these lesions precede both dementia and depression independently of each other in the general population. Whether WMLs and cortical atrophy on computed tomography predict dementia and depression was investigated in a population-based sample of 70-year-olds (n = 380) followed over 10 years. Exclusion criteria were dementia, major depression, history of stroke and a Mini-Mental State Examination score below 26 at baseline in 2000-2001. Dementia was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition, revised, and depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition. Primary outcomes included dementia and major depression at 10-year follow-up. Adjusted logistic regression models, including both WMLs and temporal lobe atrophy, showed that moderate to severe WMLs [odds ratio (OR) 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-12.76] and temporal lobe atrophy (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.13-7.60) predicted dementia during a 10-year follow-up independently of major depression. Similarly, both moderate to severe WMLs (OR 3.84, 95% CI 1.25-11.76) and temporal lobe atrophy (OR 2.52, 95% CI 1.06-5.96) predicted depression even after controlling for incident dementia. White matter lesions and temporal lobe atrophy preceded 10-year incidence of both dementia and depression in 70-year-olds. Shared structural correlates could explain the reported associations between dementia and depression. These brain changes may represent independent and complementary pathways to dementia and depression. Strategies to slow progression of vascular pathology and neurodegeneration could indirectly prevent both dementia and depression in older adults. © 2015 EAN.

  14. Tract-specific fractional anisotropy predicts cognitive outcome in a community sample of middle-aged participants with white matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Raya, Juan José; Miralbell, Júlia; López-Cancio, Elena; Bargalló, Núria; Arenillas, Juan Francisco; Barrios, Maite; Cáceres, Cynthia; Toran, Pere; Alzamora, Maite; Dávalos, Antoni; Mataró, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) have been consistently related to cognitive dysfunction but the role of white matter (WM) damage in cognitive impairment is not fully determined. Diffusion tensor imaging is a promising tool to explain impaired cognition related to WMLs. We investigated the separate association of high-grade periventricular hyperintensities (PVHs) and deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs) with fractional anisotropy (FA) in middle-aged individuals. We also assessed the predictive value to cognition of FA within specific WM tracts associated with high-grade WMLs. One hundred participants from the Barcelona-AsIA Neuropsychology Study were divided into groups based on low- and high-grade WMLs. Voxel-by-voxel FA were compared between groups, with separate analyses for high-grade PVHs and DWMHs. The mean FA within areas showing differences between groups was extracted in each tract for linear regression analyses. Participants with high-grade PVHs and participants with high-grade DWMHs showed lower FA in different areas of specific tracts. Areas showing decreased FA in high-grade DWMHs predicted lower cognition, whereas areas with decreased FA in high-grade PVHs did not. The predictive value to cognition of specific WM tracts supports the involvement of cortico-subcortical circuits in cognitive deficits only in DWMHs.

  15. Involvement of lipoprotein(a) phenotypes in the etiology of cerebral white matter lesion seen in the elderly with geriatric syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Toshiki; Koyama, Syun-ichi; Kanetaka, Hidekazu; Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Arai, Hisayuki

    2009-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], an apolipoprotein(a) combined with apoB100 protein and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, has a variety of phenotypes, mainly due to the number of kringle 4 type 2 within the apolipoprotein(a), and kringle 4 type 2 is extremely similar to plasminogen. Lp(a) is well-known as a risk factor for atherosclerosis, however, the association between Lp(a) phenotypes and the etiology of cerebral white matter lesion, so-called leukoaraiosis seen commonly in the elderly, remains unclear. We therefore conducted a study in 113 elderly patients with geriatric syndrome by assessing MR images and determining the Lp(a) phenotypes. They were divided into 4 groups according to the Fazekas scale for grading leukoaraiosis, and we compared the distribution of Lp(a) phenotypes and background factors in each group. Factors related to severe leuko-araiosis were also studied by multivariate analysis. There were no significant differences in age or gender among groups. Alzheimer disease and cardioembolic stroke were frequently seen in groups without leukoaraiosis or with mild leukoaraiosis, whereas the frequencies of vascular risks, previous history of stroke and vascular dementia were high in group with severe leukoaraiosis. Multivariate analysis showed strong association of S4 homozygote of the Lp(a) phenotype to severe leukoaraiosis, indicating the S4 homozygote as an independent factor for severe leukoaraiosis as well as hypertension, a high level of Lp(a) of 40 mg/dl or more. Among all patients, a high Lp(a) level and S4 homozygote, showing a low level of Lp(a), were seen in 20.4%, respectively. This contradictory finding that high levels of Lp(a) and S4 homozygote were both associated with severe leukoaraiosis indicated the possibility of different mechanisms for developing white matter lesions; a high level of Lp(a) (LDL cholesterol and apoB100 protein rich) promotes atherosclerosis of major arteries such as the carotid artery, while S4 homozygote [low

  16. Low pre-existing gray matter volume in the medial temporal lobe and white matter lesions are associated with postoperative cognitive dysfunction after cardiac surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Maekawa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD is recognized as a complication in the elderly after cardiac surgery. Imaging of the brain provides evidence of neurodegeneration in elderly patients; however, abnormalities in brain structure and their relation to POCD are uncertain. This pilot study investigated whether loss of gray matter in the bilateral medial temporal lobe (MTL, seen in preoperative MRI, was associated with POCD. METHODS: Data were collected prospectively on 28 elderly patients scheduled for elective cardiac surgery. MRI of the brains of all patients were assessed for prior cerebral infarctions, and carotid and intracranial arterial stenosis. Patients also completed six neuropsychological tests of memory, attention and executive function before and after surgery. POCD was defined as an individual decrease in more than two tests of at least 1 standard deviation from the group baseline mean for that test. The degree of gray matter loss in the MTL of each patient was calculated using voxel-based morphometry with three-dimensional, T1-weighted MRI. This represented the degree of gray matter change as a Z score. RESULTS: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was identified in 8 of the 28 patients (29%. Patients with POCD had significantly more white matter lesions on MRI, and greater loss of gray matter in the bilateral MTL (average Z score 2.0±0.9 than patients without POCD. An analysis by stepwise logistic regression identified gray matter loss in the MTL and cerebral infarctions on MRI as independent predictors of POCD. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings suggested that reduced gray matter in the bilateral MTL and white matter lesions existed in brains of elderly cardiac surgery patients who experienced POCD. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are needed to confirm these findings.

  17. Conceptual elaboration versus direct lexical access in WAIS-similarities: differential effects of white-matter lesions and gray matter volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellström, Åke

    2017-09-18

    Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) subscale Similarities have been classified as a test of either verbal comprehension or of inductive reasoning. The reason may be that items divide into two categories. We tested the hypothesis of heterogeneity of items in WAIS-Similarities. Consecutive patients at a memory clinic and healthy controls participated in the study. White-matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and normalized temporal lobe volumes were measured based on Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI), and tests of verbal memory and attention were used in addition to WAIS-Similarities to collect behavioural data. Factor analysis supported the hypothesis that two factors are involved in the performance of WAIS-similarities: (1) semiautomatic lexical access and (2) conceptual elaboration. These factors were highly correlated but provided discriminative diagnostic information: In logistic regression analyses, scores of the lexical access factor and of the conceptual elaboration factor discriminated patients with mild cognitive impairment from Alzheimer's disease patients and from healthy controls, respectively. High scores of WMH, indicating periventricular white-matter lesions, predicted factor scores of direct lexical access but not those of conceptual elaboration, which were predicted only by medial and lateral temporal lobe volumes.

  18. Nonlethal screening of bat-wing skin with the use of ultraviolet fluorescence to detect lesions indicative of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Gregory G; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Barton, Hazel; Gumbs, John F; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Overton, Barrie; Bandouchova, Hana; Bartonička, Tomáš; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, Jiri; Zukal, Jan; Blehert, David S

    2014-07-01

    Definitive diagnosis of the bat disease white-nose syndrome (WNS) requires histologic analysis to identify the cutaneous erosions caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus [formerly Geomyces] destructans (Pd). Gross visual inspection does not distinguish bats with or without WNS, and no nonlethal, on-site, preliminary screening methods are available for WNS in bats. We demonstrate that long-wave ultraviolet (UV) light (wavelength 366-385 nm) elicits a distinct orange-yellow fluorescence in bat-wing membranes (skin) that corresponds directly with the fungal cupping erosions in histologic sections of skin that are the current gold standard for diagnosis of WNS. Between March 2009 and April 2012, wing membranes from 168 North American bat carcasses submitted to the US Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center were examined with the use of both UV light and histology. Comparison of these techniques showed that 98.8% of the bats with foci of orange-yellow wing fluorescence (n=80) were WNS-positive based on histologic diagnosis; bat wings that did not fluoresce under UV light (n=88) were all histologically negative for WNS lesions. Punch biopsy samples as small as 3 mm taken from areas of wing with UV fluorescence were effective for identifying lesions diagnostic for WNS by histopathology. In a nonlethal biopsy-based study of 62 bats sampled (4-mm diameter) in hibernacula of the Czech Republic during 2012, 95.5% of fluorescent (n=22) and 100% of nonfluorescent (n=40) wing samples were confirmed by histopathology to be WNS positive and negative, respectively. This evidence supports use of long-wave UV light as a nonlethal and field-applicable method to screen bats for lesions indicative of WNS. Further, UV fluorescence can be used to guide targeted, nonlethal biopsy sampling for follow-up molecular testing, fungal culture analysis, and histologic confirmation of WNS.

  19. Nonlethal screening of bat-wing skin with the use of ultraviolet fluorescence to detect lesions indicative of white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Gregory G.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Barton, Hazel; Gumbs, John F.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Overton, Barrie; Bandouchova, Hana; Bartonička, Tomáš; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, Jiri; Zukal, Jan; Blehert, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of the bat disease white-nose syndrome (WNS) requires histologic analysis to identify the cutaneous erosions caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus [formerly Geomyces] destructans (Pd). Gross visual inspection does not distinguish bats with or without WNS, and no nonlethal, on-site, preliminary screening methods are available for WNS in bats. We demonstrate that long-wave ultraviolet (UV) light (wavelength 368–385 nm) elicits a distinct orange–yellow fluorescence in bat-wing membranes (skin) that corresponds directly with the fungal cupping erosions in histologic sections of skin that are the current gold standard for diagnosis of WNS. Between March 2009 and April 2012, wing membranes from 168 North American bat carcasses submitted to the U.S. Geological Survey National Wildlife Health Center were examined with the use of both UV light and histology. Comparison of these techniques showed that 98.8% of the bats with foci of orange–yellow wing fluorescence (n = 80) were WNS-positive based on histologic diagnosis; bat wings that did not fluoresce under UV light (n = 88) were all histologically negative for WNS lesions. Punch biopsy samples as small as 3 mm taken from areas of wing with UV fluorescence were effective for identifying lesions diagnostic for WNS by histopathology. In a nonlethal biopsy-based study of 62 bats sampled (4-mm diameter) in hibernacula of the Czech Republic during 2012, 95.5% of fluorescent (n = 22) and 100% of nonfluorescent (n = 40) wing samples were confirmed by histopathology to be WNS positive and negative, respectively. This evidence supports use of long-wave UV light as a nonlethal and field-applicable method to screen bats for lesions indicative of WNS. Further, UV fluorescence can be used to guide targeted, nonlethal biopsy sampling for follow-up molecular testing, fungal culture analysis, and histologic confirmation of WNS.

  20. Brain white matter demyelinating lesions and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a patient with C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Santos, Miguel; Caldeira, Inês; Gromicho, Marta; Pronto-Laborinho, Ana; de Carvalho, Mamede

    2017-10-01

    A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. It has been described before four patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and C9orf72-ALS. However, C9orf72 positivity is not associated with increased risk of MS. Inflammatory pathways related to NF-κB have been linked to ALS and MS, and appear to be important in C9orf72-ALS patients. A 42-year-old woman presented with progressive bulbar symptoms for 9 months. Neurological examination disclosed spastic dysarthria, atrophic tongue with fasciculations, brisk jaw and limb tendon reflexes, and bilateral Hoffman sign. Electrophysiological assessment confirmed ALS. Brain MRI revealed multiple and bilateral juxtacortical and periventricular inflammatory changes, some with gadolinium-enhancement, configuring a probable MS-like pattern. CSF evaluation was unremarkable, with no oligoclonal bands. Visual and somatosensory evoked potentials were normal. Follow-up brain MRI 6 months later showed two new lesions in two relatively characteristic locations of MS, with no gadolinium-enhancement. Genetic screening revealed a C9orf72 expansion. As patient had no clinical manifestation of MS, a diagnosis of radiologically isolated syndrome was considered. We speculate that these demyelinating lesions might facilitate expressivity of C9orf72 expansion, through NF-κB activation. This plausible association may lead to the identification of a therapeutic target in this subgroup of C9orf72-ALS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of white-matter lesions on the risk of periprocedural stroke after carotid artery stenting versus endarterectomy in the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS): a prespecified analysis of data from a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, J.; Davagnanam, I.; Worp, H.B. van der; Venables, G.S.; Lyrer, P.A.; Featherstone, R.L.; Brown, M.M.; Jager, H.R.; Leeuw, F.E. de; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Vliet, J.A. van der; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Findings from randomised trials have shown a higher early risk of stroke after carotid artery stenting than after carotid endarterectomy. We assessed whether white-matter lesions affect the perioperative risk of stroke in patients treated with carotid artery stenting versus carotid

  2. Effects of near infrared laser radiation associated with photoabsorbing cream in preventing white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Ângela Sueli Soares Braga; Hanashiro, Fernando Seishim; de Sant'Anna, Giselle Rodrigues; Steagall Júnior, Washington; Barbosa, Patrícia Silva; de Souza-Zaroni, Wanessa Christine

    2014-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of a low-power infrared laser on the inhibition of bovine enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets. Near infrared lasers have been suggested as alternative approaches because they may produce an increase in resistance to dental caries. Forty-eight blocks of enamel obtained from bovine incisor teeth were divided into six groups: Group 1 (control), without treatment; Group 2 (C), photoabsorbing cream; Group 3 (CF), photoabsorbing cream with fluoride; Group 4 (L), irradiation with low-level infrared laser (λ=830 nm) at an energy density of 4.47 J/cm2; Group 5 (L+C), photoabsorbing cream followed by low-level infrared laser irradiation; and Group 6 (L+CF), photoabsorbing cream with fluoride followed by low-level infrared laser irradiation. After these procedures, the enamel blocks received an assortment of orthodontic brackets and were then submitted to pH cycling to simulate a highly cariogenic challenge. The enamel surface demineralization around the orthodontic brackets, according to the different treatments, was quantified by fluorescence loss analysis by quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). The fluorescence loss, expressed as ΔF (percentage of loss fluorescence), was statistically examined by analysis of variance and the Tukey test. The control group (-10.48±2.85) was statistically similar to Group C (-14.52±7.80), which presented the lowest values of ΔF when compared with Groups FC (-3.67±3.21), L (-2.79±1.68), CL (-1.05±0:50), and CFL (-0.60±0:43). However, Groups FC, L, CL, and CFL showed no statistically significant differences among them. It can be concluded that both the low-level infrared laser and photoabsorbing cream with fluoride were effective in inhibiting the development of caries in enamel around orthodontic brackets, even in situations of high cariogenic challenge.

  3. A prospective, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial on the effects of a fluoride rinse on white spot lesion development and bleeding in orthodontic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaaij, N.C.W.; van der Veen, M.H.; van der Kaaij, M.A.E.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Demineralizations around orthodontic brackets are a main disadvantage of orthodontic treatment. Several methods have been advocated to prevent their development, such as fluoride rinses or varnishes. In this randomized clinical trial, a fluoride rinse (a combination of sodium fluoride and amine

  4. Bier spots

    OpenAIRE

    Ahu Yorulmaz,; Seray Kulcu Cakmak; Esra Ar?; Ferda Artuz

    2015-01-01

    Also called as physiologic anemic macules, Bier spots are small, hypopigmented irregularly shaped macules against a background of diffuse erythema, which creates an appearance of speckled vascular mottling of the skin. Bier spots most commonly appear on distal portions of the limbs though there are case reports describing diffuse involvement, which also affect trunk and mucous membranes of the patient. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Bier spots still need to be elu...

  5. [Total brain T2-hyperintense lesion-volume and the axonal damage in the normal-appearing white matter of brainstem in early lapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Lozano, A M; Martínez-Bisbal, M C; Boscá-Blasco, I; Valero-Merino, C; Coret-Ferrer, F; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Martínez-Granados, B; Celda, B; Casanova-Estruch, B

    To evaluate the relationship between the total brain T2-hyperintense lesion volume (TBT2LV) and the axonal damage in the normal-appearing white matter of brainstem measured by 1H-MRS in a group of early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. 40 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and ten sex- and age-matched healthy subjects were prospectively studied for two years. T2-weighted MR and 1H-MRS imaging were acquired at time of recruitment and at year two. The TBT2LV was calculated with a semiautomatic program; N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho) resonances areas were integrated with jMRUI program and the ratios were calculated for four volume elements that represented the brainstem. At basal study we obtained an axonal loss (as a decrement of NAA/ Cho ratio) in the group of patients compared with controls (p = 0.017); this axonal loss increased at the second year of the follow-up for patients (NAA/Cho decrease, p = 0.004, and NAA/Cr decrease, p = 0.002) meanwhile control subjects had no significant metabolic changes. Higher lesion load was correlated with a poor clinical outcome, being the correlation between the basal TBT2LV and the Expanded Disability Status Scale at second year (r = 0.299; p = 0.05). Besides, axonal loss was not homogeneous for all multiple sclerosis patients, being stronger in the subgroup of patients with high basal TBT2LV (p = 0.043; ANOVA). Our data suggest that axonal damage is early in multiple sclerosis and higher in patients high basal TBT2LV, suggesting a possible relationship between these two phenomena.

  6. Prevalence of renal lesions in slaughtered cattle in Shiraz, Iran, and detection of Leptospira in them by nested PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghadosi, Vahideh; Hosseinzadeh, Saeid; Shekarforoush, Seyed Shahram; Samiei, Azadeh

    2016-12-01

    Renal diseases in cattle are frequently not recognized due to the subclinical conditions. Some species of Leptospira are the main cause of infectious agents that damage the kidneys and lead to abortion and economic losses in cattle and are also of major concern in the public health. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of renal lesions of slaughtered cattle in the Shiraz abattoir and to determine the correlation between rejected kidneys and infection with Leptospira using nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques. Out of 1000 inspected animals, 205 (20.5 %) revealed the renal lesions. Chronic nephritis (7.5 %), white-spotted kidney (7.3 %), and petechial hemorrhage (3.5 %) were the most prevalent forms of the lesions. A direct correlation between increasing the age and significant increase in the rate of lesions was also observed (P = 0.03). Using nested PCR-RFLP assay, 40.8 % of the tested kidneys were turned to be infected to the pathogenic species of Leptospira. The risk of infection of the kidneys with white spot to pathogenic species of Leptospira (53.8 %) was more than that of the kidneys with other lesions (25.0 %) (P = 0.014). The odd ratio indicates that the kidneys with white spot lesions are likely to be infected with pathogenic species of Leptospira, five times greater than other lesions. This study showed that renal lesions especially white-spotted kidney, which were considerably associated with Leptospira in slaughtered cattle in Shiraz, were very high. This is important in terms of public health and in particular, increases the risk of transmission of disease to human specially in the high-risk careers including farmers, veterinarians, and abattoir workers.

  7. Differences in prefrontal, limbic, and white matter lesion volumes according to cognitive status in elderly patients with first-onset subsyndromal depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Young Lee

    Full Text Available The purpose of this preliminary study was to test the hypothesis that subsyndromal depression is associated with the volume of medial prefrontal regional gray matter and that of white matter lesions (WMLs in the brains of cognitively normal older people. We also explored the relationships between subsyndromal depression and medial prefrontal regional gray matter volume, limbic regional gray matter volume, and lobar WMLs in the brains of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD. We performed a cross-sectional study comparing patients with subsyndromal depression and nondepressed controls with normal cognition (n = 59, MCI (n = 27, and AD (n = 27, adjusting for sex, age, years of education, and results of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Frontal WML volume was greater, and right medial orbitofrontal cortical volume was smaller in cognitively normal participants with subsyndromal depression than in those without subsyndromal depression. No volume differences were observed in medial prefrontal, limbic, or WML volumes according to the presence of subsyndromal depression in cognitively impaired patients. The absence of these changes in patients with MCI and AD suggests that brain changes associated with AD pathology may override the changes associated with subsyndromal depression.

  8. Chronic Use of Aspirin and Total White Matter Lesion Volume: Results from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Andrea; Ammann, Eric; Espeland, Mark A; Kelley, Brendan J; Manson, JoAnn E; Wallace, Robert; Robinson, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between aspirin and subclinical cerebrovascular heath, we evaluated the effect of chronic aspirin use on white matter lesions (WML) volume among women. Chronic aspirin use was assessed in 1365 women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Differences in WML volumes between aspirin users and nonusers were assessed with linear mixed models. A number of secondary analyses were performed, including lobe-specific analyses, subgroup analyses based on participants' overall risk of cerebrovascular disease, and a dose-response relationship analysis. The mean age of the women at magnetic resonance imaging examination was 77.6 years. Sixty-one percent of participants were chronic aspirin users. After adjusting for demographic variables and comorbidities, chronic aspirin use was nonsignificantly associated with 4.8% (95% CI: -6.8%, 17.9%) larger WML volumes. These null findings were confirmed in secondary and sensitivity analyses, including an active comparator evaluation where aspirin users were compared to users of nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen. There was a nonsignificant difference in WML volumes between aspirin users and nonusers. Further, our results suggest that chronic aspirin use may not have a clinically significant effect on WML volumes in women. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The relationship between right-to-left shunt and brain white matter lesions in Japanese patients with migraine: a single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Akio; Suzuki, Keisuke; Takekawa, Hidehiro; Takashima, Ryotaro; Suzuki, Ayano; Suzuki, Shiho; Hirata, Koichi

    2017-12-01

    There may be a link between right-to-left shunt (RLs) and brain white matter lesions (WMLs) in patients with migraine. In this study, we assessed the relationship between WMLs and RLs in Japanese migraine patients. A total of 107 consecutive patients with migraine with (MA) and without aura (MWOA) were included in this study. Contrast transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to detect RLs. WMLs were graded using brain magnetic resonance imaging based on well-established criteria. The prevalence of RLs was significantly increased in the WMLs positive group (n = 24) compared with the WMLs negative group (n = 83) (75.0% vs. 47.0%, p = 0.015). In prevalence of WMLs between MA and MWOA patients, there were no statistical differences (p = 0.410). Logistic regression analysis adjusted by age and disease duration of migraine identified an RLs-positive status as the sole determinant for the presence of WMLs (OR = 6.15; 95% CI 1.82-20.8; p = 0.003) CONCLUSION: Our study suggests a possible link between RLs and WMLs in Japanese patients with migraine.

  10. A Patient with Fragile X-Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome Presenting with Executive Cognitive Deficits and Cerebral White Matter Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku Kasuga

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects males who are carriers of a premutation of a CGG expansion in the FMR1 gene. In Asian populations, FXTAS has rarely been reported. Here, we report the case of a Japanese FXTAS patient who showed predominant executive cognitive deficits as the main feature of his disease. In contrast, the patient exhibited only very mild symptoms of intention tremor and ataxia, which did not interfere with daily activities. A gene analysis revealed that the patient carried a premutation of a CGG expansion (111 CGG repeats in the FMR1 gene. The mRNA expression level of FMR1 in the patient was 1.5-fold higher than in controls. On brain MRI scans, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images showed high-intensity lesions in the middle cerebellar peduncles and the cerebral white matter, with a frontal predominance. The present case extends previous notions regarding the cognitive impairment in FXTAS patients. Recognizing FXTAS patients with predominant cognitive impairment from various ethnic backgrounds would contribute to our understanding of the phenotypic variation of this disease.

  11. Bier spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Yorulmaz,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Also called as physiologic anemic macules, Bier spots are small, hypopigmented irregularly shaped macules against a background of diffuse erythema, which creates an appearance of speckled vascular mottling of the skin. Bier spots most commonly appear on distal portions of the limbs though there are case reports describing diffuse involvement, which also affect trunk and mucous membranes of the patient. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Bier spots still need to be elucidated, Bier spots have been suggested to be a vascular anomaly caused by vasoconstriction of small vessels. In addition, several diseases have been proposed to be associated with Bier spots, including scleroderma renal crisis, cryoglobulinemia, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, alopecia areata and hypoplasia of the aorta, although it has not been shown whether these associations are casual or coincidental. The clinical presentation of Bier spots is quite typical. These tiny whitish macules easily become prominent when the affected limb is placed in a dependent position and fade away when the limb is raised. Here we report a case of Bier spots in a 32-year-old male patient with characteristical clinical manifestations.

  12. Pelacakan Virus Bercak Putih pada Udang Vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei di Lombok dengan Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (DETECTION OF WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS IN LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI IN LOMBOK ISLAND USING REAL-TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Arafani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is one of the most threatening diseases in shrimp and othercrustaceans affecting global shrimp farming. Since firstly detected in Taiwan in 1992, the disease hasspread globally and followed with considerable socio-economic consequences. This research was performedto detect the WSSV infection in shrimp farming in Lombok Island’s (West Nusa Tenggara using real-timepolymerase chain reaction. Samples of vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei were collected from several shrimpfarming in Lombok. Results indicated that the spread of WSSV has reached shrimp farms in Lombok,especially in Lendang Jae, West Lombok. Therefore, a biosurveillance program is strongly recommendedto government to avoid and halt the spread of the disease in East Indonesia region .

  13. Age Spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Age Spots Treatment Options Learn more about treatment ...

  14. Spotted inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2010-01-01

    We describe new scenarios for generating curvature perturbations when inflaton (curvaton) has significant interactions. We consider a ''spot'', which arises from interactions associated with an enhanced symmetric point (ESP) on the trajectory. Our first example uses the spot to induce a gap in the field equation. We observe that the gap in the field equation may cause generation of curvature perturbation if it does not appear simultaneous in space. The mechanism is similar to the scenario of inhomogeneous phase transition. Then we observe that the spot interactions may initiate warm inflation in the cold Universe. Creation of cosmological perturbation is discussed in relation to the inflaton dynamics and the modulation associated with the spot interactions

  15. Influence of cross-breeding of native breed sows of Zlotnicka spotted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was the estimation of the cross-breeding influence of Zlotnicka spotted sows with boars of polish large white and Duroc breeds on carcass traits of fatteners. 50 pigs were divided into four groups: Zlotnicka spotted (ZS), Zlotnicka spotted x polish large white (ZS x PLW), Zlotnicka spotted x Duroc (ZS x D) ...

  16. Fundus Autofluorescence in Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marcondes Penha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient complained of photopsia and vision loss in the left eye for two days, with visual acuity of 20/32. Right eye was normal. Funduscopy revealed foveal granularity and gray-white lesions in the posterior pole, mainly temporal to the fovea. The lesions (dots and spots, along with a few other areas surrounding them, showed hyperautofluorescence on autofluorescence imaging. Fluorescein angiogram (FA depicted some early hyperfluorescent dots with late staining. Indocyanine green angiogram (ICGA showed hypofluorescent lesions in a greater number compared with funduscopy, autofluorescence, and FA. Thirty days later, BCVA was 20/20 in both eyes and the complimentary exams were almost normal, despite an ICGA that showed few small hypofluorescent lesions. This case supports the hypothesis that the choroidal involvement occurs primarily in MEWDS, with secondary involvement of the RPE and the neurosensory retina.

  17. SPOT Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; hide

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  18. [Choroidal neovascularization followed in a patient with "Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome" (MEWDS) -- a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, U; Palmowski, A M; Weich, C-M; Ruprecht, K W

    2004-12-01

    Since the description of the "multiple evanescent white dot syndrome" (MEWDS) by Jampol et al, choroiditis has been in the focus of interest. But the classical type of MEWDS was an exceptional case in clinical routine. A 48-year-old female presented to our hospital with a sudden unilateral visual acuity decrease and an extension of the blind spot. Ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein angiography revealed typical multiple grey-white chorioretinal patches of the same stage with lesion areas of about 100 - 200 microm compatible with the diagnose of MEWDS. Although visual acuity increased continuously the patient developed a classical choroidal neovascularization within 4 weeks. She was treated with PDT and visual acuity as well as the ophthalmoscopic diagnosis remained stable. In spite of visual improvement in MEWDS, regular control is recommended. In addition we propose to consider the diagnosis of MEWDS if an enlargement of the blind spot and CNV without lesions of the retinal pigment epithelium are diagnosed.

  19. MONEY LAUNDERING AS AN ISOLATED PHENOMENON AND LEADING FACTOR IN WHITE-COLLAR CRIMINALITY, PUTS MOLDOVA CASE JUDICIARY ON THE SPOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob RUB

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Money laundering is a leading factor in white-collar criminality, with a big effect upon Gross National Product of the Israeli and Moldova economies. Israel and Moldova have made the first steps In order to cope with money laundering phenomenon. The model of handling the phenomenon in the USA has been studied that constitutes a role model of fighting money laundering. The vast majority (77% of all frauds were committed by individuals working in one of six departments: accounting, operations, sales, executive/upper management, customer service and purchasing. In Moldova, money laundering for the most part is connected to traditional forms and activities sources of illegal proceeds .Moldova is a transit country for money laundering. A money-laundering scandal is casting Moldova’s judiciary in an unfavorable light and is raising concerns about the government’s commitment to reforms needed to keep European Union integration on track. It is a need to address corruption as a national priority, and the priority of the relations between the EU and Moldova. The money laundering scandal indicates that Moldova is reluctant to wade deeply into judicial reform. In fact, the laundered of $20 billion, is an amount more than twice the size of Moldova’s GDP in 2013, and may be that it is just the tip of the iceberg, probably. White-collar criminality in Israel and Moldova means success of coping of the enforcement and judicial systems. In order to cope with this phenomenon, Israel makes its first steps. Anyway, the message must pave the way through a creation of a new model for dealing with reduction the isolated phenomenon of money laundering in both states.SPĂLAREA DE BANI, UN FENOMEN IZOLAT ŞI UN FACTOR IMPORTANT ÎN CRIMINALITATEA GULERELOR ALBE, PUNE PRACTICA JUDICIARĂ DIN REPUBLICA MOLDOVA INTR-O SITUAŢIE DIFICILĂSpălarea de bani este un factor important în criminalitatea gulerelor albe, având un efect semnificativ asupra produ-sului na

  20. Nonlethal screening of bat-wing skin with the use of ultraviolet fluorescence to detect lesions indicative of white-nose syndrome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turner, G. G.; Meteyer, C. U.; Barton, H.; Gumbs, J. F.; Reeder, D. M.; Overton, B.; Banďouchová, H.; Bartonička, T.; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, J.; Zukal, Jan; Blehert, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2014), s. 566-573 ISSN 0090-3558 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bats * Chiroptera * dermatomycosis * fungal infection * ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence * white-nose syndrome Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.355, year: 2014

  1. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spotted fever on the foot Rocky Mountain spotted fever, petechial rash Antibodies Deer and dog tick References McElligott SC, Kihiczak GG, Schwartz RA. Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other rickettsial infections. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann ...

  2. Proton density differences in signal characteristics of multiple sclerosis plaques versus white matter lesions of small vessel disease and vasculitis on high-field strength MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyster, R.G.; Siegal, T.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines if variations in signal intensity characteristics on multi-spin-echo images obtained with a high-field-strength magnet can be useful in differentiating demyelinating plaques of multiple sclerosis from other pathologic white matter processes due to small vessel disease and vasculities. Using the first of two multi-spin-echo images obtained with a General Electric 1.5-T magnet, the investigators compared signal intensity characteristics in 30 patients with a firm clinical diagnosis of multiple sclerosis versus a control group of 30 patients with a known clinical history of small-vessel disease and vasculitis are isodense to gray matter on proton-density images

  3. Gastro-intestinal handling of water and solutes in three species of elasmobranch fish, the white-spotted bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium plagiosum, little skate, Leucoraja erinacea and the clear nose skate Raja eglanteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W Gary; Dasiewicz, Patricia J; Liban, Suadi; Ryan, Calen; Taylor, Josi R; Grosell, Martin; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2010-04-01

    The present study reports aspects of GI tract physiology in the white-spotted bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium plagiosum, little skate, Leucoraja erinacea and the clear nose skate, Raja eglanteria. Plasma and stomach fluid osmolality and solute values were comparable between species, and stomach pH was low in all species (2.2 to 3.4) suggesting these elasmobranchs may maintain a consistently low stomach pH. Intestinal osmolality, pH and ion values were comparable between species, however, some differences in ion values were observed. In particular Ca(2+) (19.67+/-3.65mM) and Mg(2+) (43.99+/-5.11mM) were high in L. erinacea and Mg(2+) was high (130.0+/-39.8mM) in C. palgiosum which may be an indication of drinking. Furthermore, intestinal fluid HCO(3)(-) values were low (8.19+/-2.42 and 8.63+/-1.48mM) in both skates but very high in C. plagiosum (73.3+/-16.3mM) suggesting ingested seawater may be processed by species-specific mechanisms. Urea values from the intestine to the colon dropped precipitously in all species, with the greatest decrease seen in C. plagiosum (426.0+/-8.1 to 0mM). This led to the examination of the molecular expression of both a urea transporter and a Rhesus like ammonia transporter in the intestine, rectal gland and kidney in L. erinacea. Both these transporters were expressed in all tissues; however, expression levels of the Rhesus like ammonia transporter were orders of magnitude higher than the urea transporter in the same tissue. Intestinal flux rates of solutes in L. erinacea were, for the most part, in an inward direction with the notable exception of urea. Colon flux rates of solutes in L. erinacea were all in an outward direction, although absolute rates were considerably lower than the intestine, suggestive of a much tighter epithelia. Results are discussed in the context of the potential role of the GI tract in salt and water, and nitrogen, homeostasis in elasmobranchs.

  4. Characterization of enamel caries lesions in rat molars using synchrotron X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Free, R.D.; DeRocher, K.; Stock, S.R.; Keane, D.; Scott-Anne, K.; Bowen, W.H.; Joester, D. (Rochester); (NWU)

    2017-08-18

    Dental caries is a ubiquitous infectious disease with a nearly 100% lifetime prevalence. Rodent caries models are widely used to investigate the etiology, progression and potential prevention or treatment of the disease. To explore the suitability of these models for deeper investigations of intact surface zones during enamel caries, the structures of early-stage carious lesions in rats were characterized and compared with previous reports on white spot enamel lesions in humans. Synchrotron X-ray microcomputed tomography non-destructively mapped demineralization in carious rat molar specimens across a range of caries severity, identifying 52 lesions across the 30 teeth imaged. Of these lesions, 13 were shown to have intact surface zones. Depth profiles of fractional mineral density were qualitatively similar to lesions in human teeth. However, the thickness of the surface zone in the rat model ranges from 10 to 58 µm, and is therefore significantly thinner than in human enamel. These results indicate that a fraction of lesions in rat caries possess an intact surface zone and are qualitatively similar to human lesions at the micrometer scale. This suggests that rat caries models may be a suitable analog through which to investigate the structure of surface zone enamel and its role during dental caries.

  5. Aeromonas hydrophila-associated skin lesions and septicaemia in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Turutoglu

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is one of the most common bacteria associated with the aquatic environment. There are , however, limited data on A. hydrophila infection in crocodilians. The aim of this report is to describe a case of skin lesions and septicaemia associated with A. hydrophila in a Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. A captive male crocodile in the Zoological Park of Antalya (Turkey was found dead without showing signs of any disease. Gross examination showed brown or red-spotted skin lesions of varying size. These lesions were mostly scattered over the abdomen and occasionally on the tail and feet. At necropsy, numerous white, multifocal and randomly distributed areas were seen on the liver. Gram-stained smears from skin and liver lesions showed Gram-negative bacilli arranged in clusters. Pure cultures of A. hydrophila were recovered from skin, internal organs and blood. Isolates were found to be susceptible to ceftiofur, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, oxytetracycline, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, neomycin, gentamicin, and lincomycin + neomycin. A pathogenicity test was performed using this isolate on 4 male 2-year-old New Zealand white rabbits. Local abscesses formed in 2 rabbits injected subcutaneously and the 2 that were injected intraperitoneally died as a result of septicaemia. In conclusion, this report has shown that A. hydrophila may cause skin lesions and even death due to septicaemia in crocodiles.

  6. Molecular and histological characterization of age spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wonseon; Yin, Lanlan; Smuda, Christoph; Batzer, Jan; Hearing, Vincent J.; Kolbe, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    Age spots, also called solar lentigines and lentigo senilis, are light brown to black pigmented lesions of various sizes that typically develop in chronically sun-exposed skin. It is well known that age spots are strongly related to chronic sun exposure and are associated with photodamage and an increased risk for skin cancer, however, the mechanism(s) underlying their development remain poorly understood. We used immunohistochemical analysis and microarray analysis to investigate the processes involved in their formation, focusing on specific markers associated with the functions and proliferation of melanocytes and keratinocytes. A total of 193 genes were differentially expressed in age spots but melanocyte pigment genes were not among them. The increased expression of keratins 5 and 10, markers of basal and suprabasal keratinocytes, respectively, in age spots suggests that the increased proliferation of basal keratinocytes combined with the decreased turnover of suprabasal keratinocytes leads to the exaggerated formation of rete ridges in lesional epidermis which in turn disrupts the normal processing of melanin upwards from the basal layer. Based on our results, we propose a model for the development of age spots that explains the accumulation of melanin and the development of extensive rete ridges in those hyperpigmented lesions. PMID:27621222

  7. Avaliação de produtos químicos comerciais, in vitro e in vivo, no controle da doença foliar, mancha branca do milho, causada por Pantoea ananatis Evaluation of commercial chemical products, in vitro and in vivo in the control of foliar disease, maize white spot, caused by Pantoea ananais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Aparecida Bomfeti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma bactéria identificada como Pantoea ananatis foi recentemente isolada de lesões jovens da doença mancha branca do milho de plantas naturalmente infectadas. Esta bateria reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos da doença quando inoculada em plantas de milho em casa de vegetação. Estudos anteriores realizados por outros autores demonstraram que o controle desta doença em condições de campo foi obtido pelo uso de fungicidas, principalmente o Mancozeb, nas fases iniciais de seu desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a freqüência de isolamento da bactéria P. ananatis a partir de plantas infectadas coletadas na região de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, e reproduzir sintomas da doença através de inoculações artificiais em plantas de milho em casa de vegetação. Utilizando os produtos químicos testados anteriormente por outros autores para o controle desta doença a campo, foi também objetivo deste trabalho avaliar o potencial destes produtos na inibição da bactéria tanto em condições de laboratório como em condições de infecção natural. Os resultados mostraram que P. ananatis foi isolada em 40% das lesões jovens coletadas a campo e quando inoculada em casa de vegetação sob condições controladas reproduziu sintomas semelhantes aos observados a campo. Entre os produtos químicos testados, o fungicida Mancozeb mostrou-se eficiente no controle da doença a campo, em concordância com os relatos anteriores. Este produto inibiu completamente o crescimento da bactéria em laboratório, explicando os resultados obtidos a campo. Os demais produtos não foram eficientes no controle a campo e eles também não inibiram a bactéria em laboratório. Estes resultados representam evidências adicionais de que a bactéria P. ananatis é o agente causal da doença mancha branca do milho.A bacterium identified as Pantoea ananatis was recently isolated from young lesions of the disease maize white spot from infected plants in

  8. The Association between Cerebral White Matter Lesions and Plasma Omega-3 to Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Ratio to Cognitive Impairment Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Suwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Cerebral white matter hyperintensity (WMH with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has a potential for predicting cognitive impairment. Serum polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA levels are important for evaluating the extent of atherosclerosis. We investigated whether abnormal PUFA levels affected WMH grading and cognitive function in patients without significant cognitive impairment. Methods. Atherosclerotic risk factors, the internal carotid artery (ICA plaque, and serum ratios of eicosapentaenoic to arachidonic acids (EPA/AA and docosahexaenoic to arachidonic acids (DHA/AA were assessed in 286 patients. The relationship among these risk factors, WMH, and cognitive function was evaluated using WMH grading and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Results. The development of WMH was associated with aging, hypertension, ICA plaques, and a low serum EPA/AA ratio (<0.38, obtained as the median value but was not related to dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and a low serum DHA/AA ratio (<0.84, obtained as the median value. In addition, the MMSE score deteriorated slightly with the progression of WMH (29.7 ± 1.0 compared to 28.4 ± 2.1, P<0.0001. Conclusions. The progression of WMH was associated with a low serum EPA/AA ratio and accompanied minimal deterioration in cognitive function. Sufficient omega-3 PUFA intake may be effective in preventing the development of cognitive impairment.

  9. SpotADAPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2015-01-01

    by Amazon Web Services (AWS). The users aiming for the spot market are presented with many instance types placed in multiple datacenters in the world, and thus it is difficult to choose the optimal deployment. In this paper, we propose the framework SpotADAPT (Spot-Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical...... of typical analytical workloads and real spot price traces. SpotADAPT's suggested deployments are comparable to the theoretically optimal ones, and in particular, it shows good cost benefits for the budget optimization -- on average SpotADAPT is at most 0.3% more expensive than the theoretically optimal...

  10. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Credit: CDC A male cayenne tick, Amblyomma cajennense, ... and New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases are becoming ...

  11. A longitudinal study of occlusal caries in Newark New Jersey school children: relationship between initial dental finding and the development of new lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Kenneth; Fairlie, Karen; Ferrandiz, Javier; Nasri-Heir, Cibele

    2012-01-01

    Objective Dental caries is a significant public health problem especially amongst children from low-income backgrounds. This longitudinal study examined the development of new occlusal caries in 227 Newark, NJ children ages 10–18. The role of previous caries experience and the presence of occlusal white and dark lesions in predicting the development of new lesions were examined. Design At each visit, the patient’s teeth were given a visual-tactile examination and the subject’s decayed; missing and filled (DMFS) score was determined. Next, molars lacking probeable caries or restorations were examined using transillumination for occlusal white and dark spots. This examination was repeated periodically. A Cox proportional hazard was used to analyze data concerning the development of new occusal caries in molars. Results The longitudinal data indicates that patients who were caries free at visit-1 developed significantly fewer occlusal caries during the longitudinal study. The hazard ratio for subjects who had first-visit caries was 2.27 compared to caries free subjects. Intact molars with occlusal white or dark lesions had caries hazard ratios of 0.78 and 1.49 respectively, compared to molars lacking initial color changes. Conclusion Having a prior caries history places the subject at increased risk of developing future caries. Teeth with dark lesions but not white lesions are at significantly increased risk for developing decay. White lesions may represent remineralizing or slowly progressing lesions. The results of this study can help identify patients and tooth surfaces at risk for future occlusal decay. PMID:22841633

  12. Tumours in white suckers from Lake Michigan tributaries: Pathology and prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Vicki S.; Walsh, H.L.; Braham, R.P.; Hahn, C. M.; Mazik, P.; McIntyre, P.B.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and histopathology of neoplastic lesions were assessed in white suckerCatostomus commersonii captured at two Lake Michigan Areas of Concern (AOCs), the Sheboygan River and Milwaukee Estuary. Findings were compared to those observed at two non-AOC sites, the Root and Kewaunee rivers. At each site, approximately 200 adult suckers were collected during their spawning migration. Raised skin lesions were observed at all sites and included discrete white spots, mucoid plaques on the body surface and fins and large papillomatous lesions on lips and body. Microscopically, hyperplasia, papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma were documented. Liver neoplasms were also observed at all sites and included both hepatocellular and biliary tumours. Based on land use, the Kewaunee River was the site least impacted by human activities previously associated with fish tumours and had significantly fewer liver neoplasms when compared to the other sites. The proportion of white suckers with liver tumours followed the same patterns as the proportion of urban land use in the watershed: the Milwaukee Estuary had the highest prevalence, followed by the Root, Sheboygan and Kewaunee rivers. The overall skin neoplasm (papilloma and carcinoma) prevalence did not follow the same pattern, although the percentage of white suckers with squamous cell carcinoma exhibited a similar relationship to land use. Testicular tumours (seminoma) were observed at both AOC sites but not at the non-AOC sites. Both skin and liver tumours were significantly and positively associated with age but not sex.

  13. White Matter Lesion Assessment in Patients with Cognitive Impairment and Healthy Controls: Reliability Comparisons between Visual Rating, a Manual, and an Automatic Volumetrical MRI Method—The Gothenburg MCI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Olsson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related white matter lesions (WML are a risk factor for stroke, cognitive decline, and dementia. Different requirements are imposed on methods for the assessment of WML in clinical settings and for research purposes, but reliability analysis is of major importance. In this study, WML assessment with three different methods was evaluated. In the Gothenburg mild cognitive impairment study, MRI scans from 152 participants were used to assess WML with the Fazekas visual rating scale on T2 images, a manual volumetric method on FLAIR images, and FreeSurfer volumetry on T1 images. Reliability was acceptable for all three methods. For low WML volumes (2/3 of the patients, reliability was overall lower and nonsignificant for the manual volumetric method. Unreliability in the assessment of patients with low WML with manual volumetry may mainly be due to intensity variation in the FLAIR sequence used; hence, intensity standardization and normalization methods must be used for more accurate assessments. The FreeSurfer segmentations resulted in smaller WML volumes than the volumes acquired with the manual method and showed deviations from visible hypointensities in the T1 images, which quite likely reduces validity.

  14. Assessment of natural enamel lesions with optical coherence tomography in comparison with microfocus x-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espigares, Jorge; Sadr, Alireza; Hamba, Hidenori; Shimada, Yasushi; Otsuki, Masayuki; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. A technology to characterize early enamel lesions is needed in dentistry. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive method that provides high-resolution cross-sectional images. The aim of this study is to compare OCT with microfocus x-ray computed tomography (μCT) for assessment of natural enamel lesions in vitro. Ten human teeth with visible white spot-like changes on the enamel smooth surface and no cavitation (ICDAS code 2) were subjected to imaging by μCT (SMX-100CT, Shimadzu) and 1300-nm swept-source OCT (Dental SS-OCT, Panasonic Health Care). In μCT, the lesions appeared as radiolucent dark areas, while in SS-OCT, they appeared as areas of increased signal intensity beneath the surface. An SS-OCT attenuation coefficient based on Beer–Lambert law could discriminate lesions from sound enamel. Lesion depth ranged from 175 to 606  μm in SS-OCT. A correlation between μCT and SS-OCT was found regarding lesion depth (R=0.81, p<0.001) and also surface layer thickness (R=0.76, p<0.005). The images obtained clinically in real time using the dental SS-OCT system are suitable for the assessment of natural subsurface lesions and their surface layer, providing comparable images to a laboratory high-resolution μCT without the use of x-ray. PMID:26158079

  15. Effectiveness of fluoride sealant in the prevention of carious lesions around orthodontic brackets: an OCT evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Santos, Mariana de Jesus; de Souza, Camilla Andrade; Leão, Jorge César Borges; Braz, Ana Karla Souza; de Araujo, Renato Evangelista; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This article aimed to evaluate in vitro the efficiency of Pro Seal fluoride sealant application in the prevention of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets. Material and Methods: Brackets were bonded to the buccal surface of bovine incisors, and five groups were formed (n = 15) according to the exposure of teeth to oral hygiene substances and the application of enamel sealant: G1 (control), only brushing was performed with 1.450 ppm fluoride; G2 (control) brushing associated with the use of mouthwash with 225 ppm fluoride; G3, only Pro Seal sealant application was performed with 1.000 ppm fluoride; G4 Pro Seal associated with brushing; G5 Pro Seal associated with brushing and mouthwash. Experimental groups alternated between pH cycling and the procedures described. All specimens were kept at a temperature of 37 °C throughout the entire experiment. Both brushing and immersion in solutions were performed within a time interval of one minute, followed by washing in deionized water three times a day for 28 days. Afterwards, an evaluation by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) of the spectral type was performed. In each group, a scanning exam of the white spot lesion area (around the sites where brackets were bonded) and depth measurement of carious lesions were performed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to determine whether there were significant differences among groups. For post hoc analysis, Tukey test was used. Results: There was statistically significant difference between groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.003), 1 and 3 (p = 0.008), 1 and 4 (p = 0.000) and 1 and 5 (p = 0.000). The group in which only brushing was performed (Group 1) showed deeper enamel lesion. Conclusion: Pro Seal sealant alone or combined with brushing and/or brushing and the use of a mouthwash with fluoride was more effective in protecting enamel, in comparison to brushing alone. PMID:26691968

  16. Laser Spot Center Detection and Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Xu, Zhengjie; Fu, Deli; Hu, Cong

    2018-04-01

    High efficiency and precision of the pot center detection are the foundations of avionics instrument navigation and optics measurement basis for many applications. It has noticeable impact on overall system performance. Among them, laser spot detection is very important in the optical measurement technology. In order to improve the low accuracy of the spot center position, the algorithm is improved on the basis of the circle fitting. The pretreatment is used by circle fitting, and the improved adaptive denoising filter for TV repair technology can effectively improves the accuracy of the spot center position. At the same time, the pretreatment and de-noising can effectively reduce the influence of Gaussian white noise, which enhances the anti-jamming capability.

  17. Digital spot mammography using an add-on upright unit: diagnostic application in daily practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesurolle, Benoit; Mignon, Francois; Ariche-Cohen, Michele; Kao, Ellen; Gagnon, Jean H.; Goumot, Pierre-Alain

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: To present the use of digital spot mammography (DSM) in a diagnostic practice. Methods and patients: Digital spot images of 779 women requiring a spot compression or a spot magnification view were collected. The digital images were acquired on a digital spot upright unit using a 61 mmx61 mm field of view. Lesions reported included masses, calcifications, and areas of distortions. Results: 1065 lesions required additional views with DSM. Lesions reported included masses (n=113), masses and microcalcifications (n=53), spiculated masses (n=34), architectural distortions (n=16), and microcalcifications (n=849). DSMs were considered to be adequate in 97.7% of patients. Unsatisfactory exams resulted from difficulties encountered in targeting the area of interest at the beginning of our experience. Conclusion: DSM, most commonly used to perform interventional procedures, can also be used in a diagnostic practice taking advantage of post-processing of images not available with conventional spot compression and magnification

  18. Spot market for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colhoun, C.

    1982-01-01

    The spot market is always quoted for the price of uranium because little information is available about long-term contracts. A review of the development of spot market prices shows the same price curve swings that occur with all raw materials. Future long-term contracts will probably be lower to reflect spot market prices, which are currently in the real-value range of $30-$35. An upswing in the price of uranium could come in the next few months as utilities begin making purchases and trading from stockpiles. The US, unlike Europe and Japan, has already reached a supply and demand point where the spot market share is increasing. Forecasters cannot project the market price, they can only predict the presence of an oscillating spot or a secondary market. 5 figures

  19. Efficacy of 1.23% APF gel applications on incipient carious lesions: a double-blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Menezes Bonow

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this double-blind randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of 1.23% APF gel application on the arrest of active incipient carious lesions in children. Sixty 7- to 12-year-old children, with active incipient lesions were included in the study. Children were divided randomly into 2 groups: 1.23% APF gel and placebo gel applications. Each group received 8 weekly applications of treatment. The lesions were re-evaluated at the 4th and 8th appointments. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate relative risks of the presence of active white spot lesions. Groups showed similar results (PR = 1.67; CI 95% 0.69–3.98. The persistence of at least 1 active lesion was associated with a higher number of lesions in the baseline (PR = 2.67; CI 95% 1.19–6.03, but not with sugar intake (PR = 1.06; CI 95% 0.56–2.86 and previous exposure to fluoride dentifrice (PR = 1.26; CI 95% 0.49–2.29. The trial demonstrates the equivalence of the treatments. The use of the APF gel showed no additional benefits in this sample of children exposed to fluoridated water and dentifrice. The professional dental plaque removal in both groups may also account for the resulting equivalence of the treatments.

  20. Investigation of likely causes of white patch formation on irradiated WWER fuel rod claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibilashvili, Yu.K.; Velioukhanov, V.P.; Ioltoukhovski, A.Y.; Pogodin, V.P.

    1999-01-01

    The information concerning white patches observed on fuel cladding surfaces has been analytically treated. The analysis shows at least three kinds of the white patch appearance: bright white spots which appear to be loose corrosion product deposits disclosing corrosion pits upon spalling; indistinct streaks with separate pronounced spots 1-2 in dia. The spots seem to be thin superficial deposits; light-coloured dense uniform crud distributed over the surface of fuel claddings and fuel assembly jackets. (author)

  1. Feijoeiro manteiga, planta-teste para os vírus de vira-cabeça e da necrose branca do fumo A bean variety useful as a local-lesion test plant for tomato spotted wilt and Brazilian tobacco streak viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Costa

    1957-01-01

    mistura de búfer e sulfito de sódio deu o maior aumento.Out of 200 bean varieties tested, plants of the var. Manteiga were the most sensitive to tomato spotted wilt (TSW and Brazilian tobacco streak (BTS viruses. The inoculated plants developed local chlorotic spots adequate for counts within 3-6 days after inoculation with the TSW virus; pin point or rings in 2-4 days following inoculation with the BTS virus. Bean plants with the primary leaves 2/3 expanded or slightly older gave better results for the TSW virus, whereas they were more sensitive to BTS virus when 2/3 expanded or slightly younger. The TSW virus did not become systemic in the bean plants. Most strains of the BTS virus also did not become systemic in the inoculated plants. A yellow strain of this virus usually did. Sodium sulfite at 0.01 M added to the infected tissues during extraction of the inoculum increased the number of lesions formed in the bean leaves inoculated with the TSW virus; the increase was greater when extraction was made in presence of phosphate buffer at pH 7 and at the concentration of 0.1 M. A mixture of buffer and sulfite did not cause a greater increase than buffer alone. Por the BTS virus the addition of sodium sulfite at 0.01 M during extraction gave a large increase in the number of lesions; buffer alone caused only a small increase, but a mixture of buffer and sodium sulfite gave the highest increase. Phosphate buffer at 0.05 M and with pH 7 or 8, added prior to extraction, gave a higher number of lesions in case of both viruses than the same concentration of buffer at pH 5 or 6. The use of butter at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.0125 M were tried and did not cause great differences in the number of local lesions, but the best ones seemed to be 0.05 or 0.025 M. Four concentrations of sodium sulfite, 0.1, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.0125 M were compared as diluents for the same inocula in presence of phosphate buffer. The two lowest ones gave the highest number of lesions for both

  2. White Ring; White ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H.; Yuzawa, H. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    White Ring is a citizen`s gymnasium used for figure skating and short track speed skating games of 18th Winter Olympic Games in 1998. White Ring is composed of a main-arena and a sub-arena. For the main-arena with an area 41mtimes66m, an ice link can be made by disengaging the potable floor and by flowing brine in the bridged polystyrene pipes embedded in the concrete floor. Due to the fortunate groundwater in this site, well water is used for the outside air treatment energy in 63% during heating and in 35% during cooling. Ammonia is used as a cooling medium for refrigerating facility. For the heating of audience area in the large space, heat load from the outside is reduced by enhancing the heat insulation performance of the roof of arena. The audience seats are locally heated using heaters. For the White Ring, high quality environment is realized for games through various functions of the large-scale roof of the large space. Success of the big event was expected. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  4. External and internal resin infiltration of natural proximal subsurface caries lesions: A valuable enhancement of the internal tunnel restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielbassa, Andrej M; Ulrich, Ina; Werth, Vanessa D; Schüller, Christoph; Frank, Wilhelm; Schmidl, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this ex-vivo study was to evaluate both the external and the internal penetration ability of a resin infiltrant into natural proximal and macroscopically intact white spot lesions, and to merge this approach with the internal tunnel preparation concept. 20 premolars and 20 molars with proximal subsurface lesions (ICDAS, code 2) and respective radiographic lesion depths extending into the middle third of dentin (D2 lesions) were selected and divided into two groups. Treatment needs were confirmed using digital imaging fiber-optic transillumination and laser fluorescence. Deproteinization (NaOCl; 2%) followed, and lesions of Group 1 (control; n = 20) were etched (HCl; 15%) and externally infiltrated (Icon). Accordingly, the specimens of Group 2 (n = 20) were treated with the resin infiltrant from external; then, internal Class I tunnels were prepared, lesions were internally infiltrated (Icon), and the occlusal cavities were restored (G-ænial Flo X) after etching (H3PO4 gel; 40%). Teeth were cut perpendicular to the proximal lesion surfaces, and percentage infiltrations were analyzed using confocal laser microscopy and a dedicated image manipulation program (GIMP). Regarding the external infiltration, no differences between both groups were detected (P = .114; Mann-Whitney). Additional internal application of the resin infiltrant significantly increased the percentage amount of enamel lesion infiltration (P External and internal infiltration seem to complement the internal tunnel approach, thus remediating the drawbacks of the latter by occluding and stabilizing the porous areas of the proximal caries lesion, and preserving both the marginal ridge and the proximal contact area.

  5. Arc cathode spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrade, H.O.

    1989-01-01

    Arc spots are usually highly unstable and jump statistically over the cathode surface. In a magnetic field parallel to the surface, preferably they move in the retrograde direction; i.e., opposite to the Lorentzian rule. If the field is inclined with respect to the surface, the spots drift away at a certain angle with respect to the proper retrograde direction (Robson drift motion). These well-known phenomena are explained by one stability theory

  6. Lesion bacterial communities in American lobsters with diet-induced shell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Robert A; Metzler, Anita; Tlusty, Michael; Smolowitz, Roxanna M; Leberg, Paul; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y

    2012-04-26

    In southern New England, USA, shell disease affects the profitability of the American lobster Homarus americanus fishery. In laboratory trials using juvenile lobsters, exclusive feeding of herring Clupea harengus induces shell disease typified initially by small melanized spots that progress into distinct lesions. Amongst a cohabitated, but segregated, cohort of 11 juvenile lobsters fed exclusively herring, bacterial communities colonizing spots and lesions were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA amplified using 1 group-specific and 2 universal primer sets. The Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria predominated in both spots and lesions and included members of the orders Flavobacteriales (Bacteriodetes), Rhodobacterales, Rhodospirillales and Rhizobiales (Alphaproteobacteria), Xanthomonadales (Gammaproteobacteria) and unclassified Gammaproteobacteria. Bacterial communities in spot lesions displayed more diversity than communities with larger (older) lesions, indicating that the lesion communities stabilize over time. At least 8 bacterial types persisted as lesions developed from spots. Aquimarina 'homaria', a species commonly cultured from lesions present on wild lobsters with epizootic shell disease, was found ubiquitously in spots and lesions, as was the 'Candidatus Kopriimonas aquarianus', implicating putative roles of these species in diet-induced shell disease of captive lobsters.

  7. TV spots' impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-bakly, S

    1994-09-01

    The Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Center of the State Information Service was established in 1979 for the purpose of providing information to the people on the population issue. The Ministry of Information has accorded the State Information Service free TV and radio air time for family planning dramas and spots. In the early years information campaigns were organized to make people aware of the population problem by slogans, songs, and cartoons. Around 1984 misconceptions about family planning and contraceptives were attacked through a number of TV and radio spots. A few years later 21 spots on specific contraceptive methods were broadcast which were aired for three years over 3000 times. They were extremely successful. The impact of these TV spots was one of the major reasons why the contraceptive prevalence rate increased from 30% in 1984 to 38% in 1988 and 47% in 1992. Spots were also broadcast about the social implications of large families. The TV soap opera "And The Nile Flows On", with the family planning message interwoven into it, was very well received by the target audience. A program entitled "Wedding of the Month" features couples who know family planning well. The most successful radio program is a 15-20 minute long quiz show for residents of the villages where the Select Villages Project is being implemented. The State Information Service has 60 local information centers in the 26 governorates of Egypt that make plans for the family planning campaign. In 1992 the Minya Initiative, a family planning project was implemented in the Minya Governorate. As a result, the contraceptive prevalence rate rose from 22% to 30% over 18 months. A new project, the Select Village Project, was developed in 1993 that replicates the Minya Initiative on the village level in other governorates. This new project that was implemented in sixteen governorates.

  8. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

  9. Hot spots on Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee

    2001-01-01

    A 61 year-old woman underwent perfusion and inhalation lung scan for the evaluation of pulmonary thromboembolism. Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan showed multiple round hot spots in both lung fields. Tc-99m DTPA aerosol inhalation lung scan and chest radiography taken at the same time showed normal findings. A repeated perfusion lung scan taken 24 hours later demonstrated no abnormalities. Hot spots on perfusion lung scan can be caused by microsphere clumping due to faulty injection technique by radioactive embolization from upper extremity thrombophlebitis after injection. Focal hot spots can signify zones of atelectasis, where the hot spots probably represent a failure of hypoxic vasoconstriction. Artifactual hot spots due to microsphere clumping usually appear to be round and in peripheral location, and the lesions due to a loss of hypoxic vasoconstriction usually appear to be hot uptakes having linear borders. Although these artifactual hot spots have been well-known, we rarely encounter them. This report presents a case with artifactual hot spots due to microsphere clumping on Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan

  10. A possible dominant white gene in Jersey cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sponenberg D Phillip

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A white heifer ("Snow" was born in 1991 from coloured registered Jersey parents. She produced six calves sired by coloured Jersey bulls: three white bull calves, two white heifer calves, and one coloured bull calf. One of the white bull calves was mated with 40 Hereford × Friesian yearling heifers (white face, predominantly black body with some white patches. The 38 resulting calves included 16 white and 22 coloured calves. Twelve of the 16 white calves were heifers and four were bulls. Red or black spotting was recorded on some white calves. The results are consistent with an autosomal dominant mutant causing the white phenotype. The mutation appears to have arisen spontaneously in Snow, then passing to her white progeny and white grand-progeny. The white individuals varied from entirely white in a few cases, to most having some residual small areas of red or black pigmentation in patterns not typical of other reported white spotting patterns of cattle.

  11. Poisson Spot with Magnetic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Matthew; Everhart, Michael; D'Arruda, Jose

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a unique method for obtaining the famous Poisson spot without adding obstacles to the light path, which could interfere with the effect. A Poisson spot is the interference effect from parallel rays of light diffracting around a solid spherical object, creating a bright spot in the center of the shadow.

  12. On the Spot: Oceans

    OpenAIRE

    Male, Alan; Butterfield, Moira

    2000-01-01

    This a children's non-fiction, knowledge bearing picture book that is part of a Reader's Digest series called 'On the Spot'. The series deals with a range of topics related to the natural world and this one introduces its young audience to the ecosystems of the oceans. \\ud The publication was illustrated and designed by the author (Alan Male) and is technically described as a board book with interactive 'pop up' features, specifically conceived to engage children's discovery and learning thro...

  13. El spot electoral negativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available l spot político tiene durante la campaña un objetivo final inequívoco: la consecución del voto favorable. Se dirige al cuerpo electoral a través de la televisión y de Internet, y presenta, en muchos casos, un planteamiento negativo, albergando mensajes destinados a la crítica frontal contra el adversario, más que a la exposición de propuestas propias. Este artículo se centra en el análisis del spot electoral negativo, en aquellas producciones audiovisuales construidas sin más causa que la reprobación del contrincante. Se trata de vídeos que, lejos de emplearse en difundir las potencialidades de la organización y las virtudes de su candidato –además de su programa electoral–, consumen su tiempo en descalificar al oponente mediante la transmisión de mensajes, muchas veces, ad hominem. Repasamos el planteamiento negativo del spot electoral desde su primera manifestación, que en España data de 1996, año de emisión del conocido como vídeo del dóberman, sin olvidar otros ejemplos que completan el objeto de estudio.

  14. Laser induced white lighting of tungsten filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strek, W.; Tomala, R.; Lukaszewicz, M.

    2018-04-01

    The sustained bright white light emission of thin tungsten filament was induced under irradiation with focused beam of CW infrared laser diode. The broadband emission centered at 600 nm has demonstrated the threshold behavior on excitation power. Its intensity increased non-linearly with excitation power. The emission occurred only from the spot of focused beam of excitation laser diode. The white lighting was accompanied by efficient photocurrent flow and photoelectron emission which both increased non-linearly with laser irradiation power.

  15. Approximal sealings on lesions in neighbouring teeth requiring operative treatment: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena, Alvaro; Bakhshandeh, Azam; Ekstrand, Kim Rud

    2018-02-07

    With this in vitro study we aimed to assess the possibility of precise application of sealant on accessible artificial white spot lesions (WSL) on approximal surfaces next to a tooth surface under operative treatment. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether the use of magnifying glasses improved the application precision. Fifty-six extracted premolars were selected, approximal WSL lesions were created with 15% HCl gel and standardized photographs were taken. The premolars were mounted in plaster-models in contact with a neighbouring molar with Class II/I-II restoration (Sample 1) or approximal, cavitated dentin lesion (Sample 2). The restorations or the lesion were removed, and Clinpro Sealant was placed over the WSL. Magnifying glasses were used when sealing half the study material. The sealed premolar was removed from the plaster-model and photographed. Adobe Photoshop was used to measure the size of WSL and sealed area. The degree of match between the areas was determined in Photoshop. Interclass agreement for WSL, sealed, and matched areas were found as excellent (κ = 0.98-0.99). The sealant covered 48-100% of the WSL-area (median = 93%) in Sample 1 and 68-100% of the WSL-area (median = 95%) in Sample 2. No statistical differences were observed concerning uncovered proportions of the WSL-area between groups with and without using magnifying glasses (p values ≥ .19). However, overextended sealed areas were more pronounced when magnification was used (p = .01). The precision did not differ between the samples (p = .31). It was possible to seal accessible approximal lesions with high precision. Use of magnifying glasses did not improve the precision.

  16. Bilateral Macular Roth Spots as a Manifestation of Subacute Endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Ceglowska, Karolina; Nowomiejska, Katarzyna; Kiszka, Agnieszka; Koss, Michael J.; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Rejdak, Robert

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of impaired vision in the right eye (OD). The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (LogMAR) was 1.1 for the right eye and 0.0 for the left eye (OS). Fundus examination revealed white-centered hemorrhages resembling Roth spots in both macular regions. The spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed intraretinal pseudocysts and hyperreflective deposits in the areas corresponding to the Roth spots. Conducted blood tests revealed el...

  17. Minimally invasive trans-portal resection of deep intracranial lesions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raza, S.M.; Recinos, P.F.; Avendano, J.; Adams, H.; Jallo, G.I.; Quinones-Hinojosa, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The surgical management of deep intra-axial lesions still requires microsurgical approaches that utilize retraction of deep white matter to obtain adequate visualization. We report our experience with a new tubular retractor system, designed specifically for intracranial applications,

  18. The Spotting Distribution of Wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In wildfire science, spotting refers to non-local creation of new fires, due to downwind ignition of brands launched from a primary fire. Spotting is often mentioned as being one of the most difficult problems for wildfire management, because of its unpredictable nature. Since spotting is a stochastic process, it makes sense to talk about a probability distribution for spotting, which we call the spotting distribution. Given a location ahead of the fire front, we would like to know how likely is it to observe a spot fire at that location in the next few minutes. The aim of this paper is to introduce a detailed procedure to find the spotting distribution. Most prior modelling has focused on the maximum spotting distance, or on physical subprocesses. We will use mathematical modelling, which is based on detailed physical processes, to derive a spotting distribution. We discuss the use and measurement of this spotting distribution in fire spread, fire management and fire breaching. The appendix of this paper contains a comprehensive review of the relevant underlying physical sub-processes of fire plumes, launching fire brands, wind transport, falling and terminal velocity, combustion during transport, and ignition upon landing.

  19. Emerging hot spot analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    Traditionally, focus in the transport field, both politically and scientifically, has been on private cars and public transport. Freight transport has been a neglected topic. Recent years has seen an increased focus upon congestion as a core issue across Europe, resulting in a great need for know...... speed data for freight. Secondly, the analytical methods used, space-time cubes and emerging hot spot analysis, are also new in the freight transport field. The analysis thus estimates precisely how fast freight moves on the roads in Northern Jutland and how this has evolved over time....

  20. Pleural Mass Lesion Containing Calcium Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Kurkcuoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available   A 30 year-old man was admitted with of chest pain. Had a x-ray and computed tomography showed calcified pleural mass . Lesions in the white-colored, dense mud was the consistency of the material.

  1. Brain lesions several years after eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukes, Annet M.; de Groot, Jan C.; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; Zeeman, Gerda G.

    OBJECTIVE: Eclampsia is thought to have no long-term neurological consequences. We aimed to delineate the neurostructural sequelae of eclampsia, in particular brain white matter lesions, utilizing high-resolution 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). STUDY DESIGN: Formerly eclamptic women were

  2. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Jump to navigation the WHITE HOUSE President Donald J. Trump Get in Touch Home Briefing Room From the ... For All Americans The Administration The Administration President Donald J. Trump Vice President Mike Pence First Lady Melania Trump ...

  3. Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Jing-Yan Zhang1 2 Qing-Hui Liu1 Jie Huang1. Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao, 266071, P. R. China; Shanghai Ocean University, 999 Hucheng Ring Road, Pudong, Shanghai, China ...

  4. Reproductive Biology of the White-spotted Rabbitfish, Siganus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    somatic index, fecundity, sex ratio. Abstract—The ... canaliculatus spawned twice a year, with major activity during November-February and minor activity ..... at 18 cm SL in Singapore (Soh, 1976, cited by ... Al-Habsi S (2009b) Biology, stock.

  5. Spots and White Light Flares in an L Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Program GN-2012A-Q-37) GMOS spectrograph (Hook et al. 2004) when a series of flares occurred. A spectrum of the most powerful flare in its impulsive...10:14 Hα HeI HeI HeI OI Fig. 4. Gemini-North GMOS spectra of W1906+40 in quiescence (below) and in flare. Note the broad Hα, atomic emission lines

  6. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-11-06

    assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify the host ..... and early feature of cell death in different cell types triggered to die with different suicidal stimuli (Ucker et al. 2012).

  7. Significance of localization of nonpalpable breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Ki Keun; Choi, Hyun Ju [Yongdong Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-12-15

    As mammography has become more popular for the evaluation of breast symptoms and for the screening of asymptomatic women, the smaller lesions are being detected before they become palpable, therefore preoperative localization became necessary. This has led to the development of several methods for preoperative localization of nonpalpable lesions. Authors analyzed 50 cases with preoperative localization in 45 patients which had abnormal findings on film mammogram or ultrasonomammogram since October 1985 through March 1990 at Yongdong Severance Hospital, College of Medicine, Yonsei University. The results were as follows: 1. Techniques of localization were spot method in 8 cases, conventional needle localization method in 38 cases and Kopan's needle localization method in 4 cases. 2. The most common mammographic indication for localization was focal calcifications in 29 cases(58%), which was followed by a newly developed mass in 25 cases(50%). 3. Outcome of pathologically confirmed diagnosis put into benign lesions in 37 cases(74%) and malignant lesions in 13 cases(26%). 4. Among the cases with localization of lesions which has suggested as benign lesions in film and ultrasonomammogram,all cases(100%) were confirmed in benign lesions pathologically. Among the cases with localization of lesions which has suggested as malignant lesions in film and ultrasonomammogram, pathologic malignant has been proved of 44% and possible histopathologic precursor of malignant was resulted in 25% such as atypical hyperplasia and adenosis. Conclusively, authors consider that the abnormal areas should be removed in their entirety with the sacrifice of minimum volume of contiguous normal breast tissue through the preoperative localization, hence our preoperative localization has contributed favorable prognosis based on material lesions in early stage breast cancer.

  8. Significance of localization of nonpalpable breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Ki Keun; Choi, Hyun Ju

    1990-01-01

    As mammography has become more popular for the evaluation of breast symptoms and for the screening of asymptomatic women, the smaller lesions are being detected before they become palpable, therefore preoperative localization became necessary. This has led to the development of several methods for preoperative localization of nonpalpable lesions. Authors analyzed 50 cases with preoperative localization in 45 patients which had abnormal findings on film mammogram or ultrasonomammogram since October 1985 through March 1990 at Yongdong Severance Hospital, College of Medicine, Yonsei University. The results were as follows: 1. Techniques of localization were spot method in 8 cases, conventional needle localization method in 38 cases and Kopan's needle localization method in 4 cases. 2. The most common mammographic indication for localization was focal calcifications in 29 cases(58%), which was followed by a newly developed mass in 25 cases(50%). 3. Outcome of pathologically confirmed diagnosis put into benign lesions in 37 cases(74%) and malignant lesions in 13 cases(26%). 4. Among the cases with localization of lesions which has suggested as benign lesions in film and ultrasonomammogram,all cases(100%) were confirmed in benign lesions pathologically. Among the cases with localization of lesions which has suggested as malignant lesions in film and ultrasonomammogram, pathologic malignant has been proved of 44% and possible histopathologic precursor of malignant was resulted in 25% such as atypical hyperplasia and adenosis. Conclusively, authors consider that the abnormal areas should be removed in their entirety with the sacrifice of minimum volume of contiguous normal breast tissue through the preoperative localization, hence our preoperative localization has contributed favorable prognosis based on material lesions in early stage breast cancer

  9. Visual attention capacity after right hemisphere lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill

    2007-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in visual short-term memory (VSTM) including the neural basis of the function. Processing speed, another main aspect of visual attention capacity, has received less investigation. For both cognitive functions human lesion studies are sparse. We used...... statistically to lesion location and size measured by MRI. Visual processing speed was impaired in the contralesional hemifield for most patients, but typically preserved ipsilesionally, even after large cortico-subcortical lesions. When bilateral deficits in processing speed occurred, they were related...... to damage in the right middle frontal gyrus or leukoaraiosis. The storage capacity of VSTM was also normal for most patients, but deficits were found after severe leukoaraiosis or large strokes extending deep into white matter. Thus, the study demonstrated the importance of white-matter connectivity...

  10. Models of spots and flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory experiments in recent years have shown that there are many more ways to drive a plasma out of equilibrium than to preserve equilibrium. In that sense, it is perhaps easier to understand why flares should occur in a stellar atmosphere than why a long-lived feature such as a dark spot should persist. The author summarizes work on the equilibrium structure of cool spots in the sun and stars. Since spots involve complex interactions between convective flows and magnetic fields, he needs to refer to observations for help in identifying the dominant processes which should enter into the modelling. His summary therefore begins by discussing certain relevant properties of spots in the solar atmosphere. The next sections deal with the magnetic fields in spots, the stability of spots, spot cooling and missing flux. The author concludes that spots should be viewed not simply as cool areas, but rather as engines which do the work of converting the energy of convective flows into flare-compatible form. (Auth.)

  11. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  12. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-07-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that > 21% of the serum samples had antibodies aaainst spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  13. Advances in spot curing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burga, R.

    1999-01-01

    A brief review of spot curing technology was presented. The process which a spot of energy of a specific wavelength bandwidth and irradiance is used to cause a coating, encapsulant or adhesive to change from a liquid to a solid state

  14. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  15. Coral disease physiology: the impact of Acroporid white syndrome on Symbiodinium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roff, G.; Kvennefors, E. C. E.; Ulstrup, Karin Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Acroporid white syndrome, a disease-like syndrome from the Great Barrier Reef, results from degenerative host tissue at lesion borders. Tissue preceding lesion borders appears visually healthy, but it is currently unclear whether the endosymbiotic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) are physiologically...

  16. The impact of eggshell colour and spot area in Japanese quails: II. Slaughter and carcass characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Alasahan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was carried out to investigate the effects of eggshell colour and spot properties (colour and size of the spot area on growth performance and carcass traits of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica eggs. Study material were allocated to five groups according to their eggshell and spot colours: black spots on greyish white coloured eggshell (I, blue spots on greyish white coloured eggshell (II, diffuse brown spots on greyish brown coloured eggshell (III, brown spots on light green colored eggshell (IV, and small brown spots on greyish brown coloured eggshell (V. The size of the spotted area was determined in each egg group using digital image analysis. The groups did not differ for body weight and length of the shank at the end of the growth period. However, the groups differed significantly for carcass yield after slaughter (not eviscerated and carcass yield. These parameters were highest in Group I (82.08 and 76.09% and lowest in Group III (80.20 and 73.86%. Digital image analysis demonstrated that heart length, cardiac fat area, gizzard width, and intestine length varied between the groups. Cardiac fat area was largest in Group III (0.86 cm2 and smallest in Group V (0.65 cm2. Gizzard width was greatest in Group I (2.63 cm and smallest in Group V (2.47 cm. Intestine length was greatest in Group V (78.45 cm and smallest in Group IV (72.39 cm. Body weight, shank length, and slaughter and carcass weight do not vary in relation to eggshell colour or the size of the spotted area. The lengths of intestine and heart, gizzard width, and cardiac fat area do vary in relation to eggshell colour or the size of the spotted area.

  17. Loss of white matter integrity is associated with gait disorders in cerebral small vessel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, K.F. de; Tuladhar, A.M.; Norden, A.G.W. van; Norris, D.G.; Zwiers, M.P.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2011-01-01

    Gait disturbances are common in the elderly. Cerebral small vessel disease, including white matter lesions and lacunars infarcts, is thought to disrupt white matter tracts that connect important motor regions, hence resulting in gait disturbances. Pathological studies have demonstrated abnormalities

  18. The effect of laser unit on photodynamic therapy spot size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari-Shahrezaei, Siamak; Binder, Susanne; Stur, Michael

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effect of the laser unit on photodynamic therapy (PDT) spot size. A calibrated Gullstrand-type model eye was used for this study. The axial length of the model eye was set to different values ranging from 22.2 to 27.0 mm, and the actual spot size from the laser console was recorded for treating a spot of 4 mm in the center of the artificial fundus using two different laser units (Coherent Opal laser; Coherent Inc, Santa Clara, California, USA and Zeiss Visulas laser; Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc, Dublin, California, USA) and two indirect contact laser lenses (Volk PDT laser lens and Volk Area Centralis lens; Volk Optical Inc, Mentor, Ohio, USA). From myopia to hyperopia, the total deviation from the intended spot size was -22.5% to -7.5% (Opal laser and PDT laser lens), and -17.5% to +2.5% (Visulas laser and PDT laser lens), -12.5% to +7.5% (Opal laser and Area Centralis lens), and -7.5% to +10% (Visulas laser and Area Centralis lens). The used laser unit has a significant effect on PDT spot size in this model. These findings may be important for optimizing PDT of choroidal neovascular lesions.

  19. White Paranoia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørholt, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by Alain Robbe-Grillet’s novel La Jalousie (1957), the essay contends that Michael Haneke’s Caché (2005) takes its viewers inside a postcolonial white paranoia which is, arguably, the root cause of the exclusion, segregation and racist discrimination that many immigrants from the former ...

  20. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  1. The Role of Light-Induced Fluorescence in the Treatment of Smooth Surface Carious Lesions with Icon Infiltration and the Results After 1 Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabaktchieva R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Caries infiltration is a novel technique that brings out immediate esthetic improvement in the opacity of the white spot lesions. Light-induced fluorescence method is a modern caries diagnostic method. In this study SoproLife camera (Acteon, France was applied for diagnosing and follow-up of the results. The aims of this in vivo study are to test the role of light-induced fluorescence method (SoploLife camera in the diagnosis of non-cavitated smooth surfaces carious lesions (ICDAS codes 1 and 2 of primary and permanent teeth and in the follow-up period immediately after application, 6 months and 1 year after applying ICON material (DMG. Teeth: n = 90; primary teeth: 6 kids; n = 40 teeth; permanent teeth: 6 patients; n = 50 teeth. Visual examination by ICDAS without probe, dry for 10 s with 3-in-1 syringe using lightening; SoproLife camera (450 nm, digital photos. LIF method applied with SoproLife camera (Diagnostic mode with day light and blue light is more accurate than visual examination only when applied for single tooth diagnose. Moreover, LIF method for single tooth is more accurate in following up the effect of non-operative treatment of smooth surfaces lesions than using digital images. ICON is a material that stops the progression of non-cavitated smooth surfaces carious lesions in both primary and permanent teeth and make the aesthetic result better up to 1 year following the procedure.

  2. Spotting psychopaths using technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Sarah; Adeli, Hojjat

    2015-01-01

    For the past three and a half decades, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the self-report Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) have been the standard measures for the diagnosis of psychopathy. Technological approaches can enhance these diagnostic methodologies. The purpose of this paper is to present a state-of-the-art review of various technological approaches for spotting psychopathy, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional MRI (fMRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and other measures. Results of EEG event-related potential (ERP) experiments support the theory that impaired amygdala function may be responsible for abnormal fear processing in psychopathy, which can ultimately manifest as psychopathic traits, as outlined by the PCL-R or PPI-R. Imaging studies, in general, point to reduced fear processing capabilities in psychopathic individuals. While the human element, introduced through researcher/participant interactions, can be argued as unequivocally necessary for diagnosis, these purely objective technological approaches have proven to be useful in conjunction with the subjective interviewing and questionnaire methods for differentiating psychopaths from non-psychopaths. Furthermore, these technologies are more robust than behavioral measures, which have been shown to fail.

  3. Spot Welding of Honeycomb Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohal, V.

    2017-08-01

    Honeycomb structures are used to prepare meals water jet cutting machines for textile. These honeycomb structures are made of stainless steel sheet thickness of 0.1-0.2 mm. Corrugated sheet metal strips are between two gears with special tooth profile. Hexagonal cells for obtaining these strips are welded points between them. Spot welding device is three electrodes in the upper part, which carries three welding points across the width of the strip of corrugated sheet metal. Spot welding device filled with press and advance mechanisms. The paper presents the values of the regime for spot welding.

  4. MR in phenylketonuria-related brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezortova, M.; Hajek, M.; Tintra, J.; Hejcmanova, L.; Sykova, E.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Phenylketonuria (PKU) patients were examined by different MR techniques to explain the pathological changes observed in periventricular white brain matter using conventional MR imaging. Material and Methods: Fifteen patients with treated classical PKU were examined by 1 H spectroscopy, relaxometry and diffusion imaging on a whole-body 1.5-T MR imager. Results: Known PKU lesions characterized by T2 enhancement in periventricular white matter were observed in all patients. The MR spectra from the lesioned areas showed a significant decrease in choline concentration. The mean ADC of water decreased and tortuosity increased in PKU lesions compared to control data. Conclusion: The results support the following hypothesis: The T2 increase in the PKU lesion reflects a raised concentration of free water molecules (about 15%) that have an increased trajectory between collisions compared to the same region in controls. The increase in water mobility might be explained by changes in extracellular space volume and myelin sheaths, which, presumably, have a different geometry with more hydrophobic sites in PKU patients. The changes result in increased tortuosity and may be confirmed by the loss of anisotropy in PKU lesions

  5. MR in phenylketonuria-related brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezortova, M.; Hajek, M.; Tintra, J. [Inst. for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague (Czech Republic); Hejcmanova, L. [Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic). 3rd Medical Faculty; Sykova, E. [Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic). 2nd Medical Faculty

    2001-09-01

    Purpose: Phenylketonuria (PKU) patients were examined by different MR techniques to explain the pathological changes observed in periventricular white brain matter using conventional MR imaging. Material and Methods: Fifteen patients with treated classical PKU were examined by {sup 1}H spectroscopy, relaxometry and diffusion imaging on a whole-body 1.5-T MR imager. Results: Known PKU lesions characterized by T2 enhancement in periventricular white matter were observed in all patients. The MR spectra from the lesioned areas showed a significant decrease in choline concentration. The mean ADC of water decreased and tortuosity increased in PKU lesions compared to control data. Conclusion: The results support the following hypothesis: The T2 increase in the PKU lesion reflects a raised concentration of free water molecules (about 15%) that have an increased trajectory between collisions compared to the same region in controls. The increase in water mobility might be explained by changes in extracellular space volume and myelin sheaths, which, presumably, have a different geometry with more hydrophobic sites in PKU patients. The changes result in increased tortuosity and may be confirmed by the loss of anisotropy in PKU lesions.

  6. Oropharynx lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as papilloma) Fungal infections (such as candida) Histoplasmosis Oral lichen planus Precancerous sore (leukoplakia) Viral infections (such as Herpes simplex) Risks Risks of the procedure may ... Throat lesion biopsy; Biopsy - mouth or throat; Mouth lesion biopsy; Oral cancer - biopsy ...

  7. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    should be prioritized, while in shallow or moderately deep lesions, restoration longevity becomes more important. For teeth with shallow or moderately deep cavitated lesions, carious tissue removal is performed according toselective removal to firm dentine.In deep cavitated lesions in primary......The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental...

  8. A lesion mimic phenotype in tomato obtained by isolating and silencing an Lls1 homologue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassieva, S; Hille, J

    Lesion mimic phenotypes serve as a tool to study the regulation of cell death in plants. In order to obtain a tomato lesion mimic phenotype, we used the conservation of the lethal leaf spot 1 (Lls1) genes between plant species. The tomato Lls1 homologue was cloned, sequenced and analyzed. It showed

  9. Removal of a glowing spot from an image tube using laser radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurski, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    A troublesome problem with the Kron electronograph has been the presence of a white glowing spot on the glass wall of the tube adjacent to the focus electrode. The procedure followed to eliminate the spot was to operate in the dark and apply voltage only to the focused electrode. Ruby laser radiation was unfocused, and its position was shifted on the electrode between laser shots until an effect was observed. This technique for removing the glowing spot should be applicable to other electronic image tubes.

  10. Thalamic lesions in multiple sclerosis by 7T MRI: Clinical implications and relationship to cortical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Daniel M; Oh, Jiwon; Roy, Snehashis; Wood, Emily T; Whetstone, Anna; Seigo, Michaela A; Jones, Craig K; Pham, Dzung; van Zijl, Peter; Reich, Daniel S; Calabresi, Peter A

    2015-08-01

    Pathology in both cortex and deep gray matter contribute to disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). We used the increased signal-to-noise ratio of 7-tesla (7T) MRI to visualize small lesions within the thalamus and to relate this to clinical information and cortical lesions. We obtained 7T MRI scans on 34 MS cases and 15 healthy volunteers. Thalamic lesion number and volume were related to demographic data, clinical disability measures, and lesions in cortical gray matter. Thalamic lesions were found in 24/34 of MS cases. Two lesion subtypes were noted: discrete, ovoid lesions, and more diffuse lesional areas lining the periventricular surface. The number of thalamic lesions was greater in progressive MS compared to relapsing-remitting (mean ±SD, 10.7 ±0.7 vs. 3.0 ±0.7, respectively, p < 0.001). Thalamic lesion burden (count and volume) correlated with EDSS score and measures of cortical lesion burden, but not with white matter lesion burden or white matter volume. Using 7T MRI allows identification of thalamic lesions in MS, which are associated with disability, progressive disease, and cortical lesions. Thalamic lesion analysis may be a simpler, more rapid estimate of overall gray matter lesion burden in MS. © The Author(s), 2015.

  11. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, L.W.J. van der.

    1985-01-01

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  12. THE SECOND BLIND SPOT: SMALL RETINAL VESSEL VASCULOPATHY AFTER VACCINATION AGAINST NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS AND YELLOW FEVER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysidis, Stavros N; Koulisis, Nicole; Patel, Vivek R; Kashani, Amir H; Rao, Narsing A; Humayun, Mark S; Rodger, Damien C

    2017-01-01

    To describe a case of small retinal vessel vasculopathy postvaccination. We report the case of a 41-year-old white man who presented with a "second blind spot," describing a nasal scotoma in the right eye that started 4 days after vaccinations against Neisseria meningitidis and the yellow fever virus, and after a 2-month period of high stress and decreased sleep. Clinical examination, Humphrey visual field testing, and multimodal imaging with fundus photographs, autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography and angiography were performed. Clinical examination revealed a well-circumscribed, triangular area of retinal graying of about 1-disk diameter in size, located at the border of the temporal macula. This corresponded to a deep scotoma similar in size to the physiologic blind spot on Humphrey visual field 24-2 testing. There was mild hypoautofluoresence of this lesion on autofluorescence, hypofluorescence on fluorescein angiography, and focal attenuation of a small artery just distal to the bifurcation of an artery supplying the involved area. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography through the lesion conveyed hyperreflectivity most prominent in the inner and outer plexiform layers, with extension of the hyperreflectivity into the ganglion cell and inner nuclear layers. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography demonstrated arteriolar and capillary dropout, more pronounced in the superficial retinal layer compared to the deeper retinal layer. At 1-month follow-up, his scotoma improved with monitoring, with reduction from -32 dB to -7 dB on Humphrey visual field testing. There was clinical resolution of the area of graying and decreased hyperreflectivity on spectral domain optical coherence tomography, with atrophy of the inner retina. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography showed progression of arteriolar and capillary dropout, more so in the superficial than in the deep capillary

  13. Numerical optimisation in spot detector design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Apperloo, W.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    1997-01-01

    Spots are image details resulting from objects, the projections of which are so small that the inner structure of these objects cannot be resolved from their image. Spot detectors are image operators aiming at the detection and localisation of spots in the image. Most spot detectors can be tuned

  14. Managing emerging threats to spotted owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Yi Wan; Joseph L. Ganey; Christina D. Vojta; Samuel A. Cushman

    2018-01-01

    The 3 spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) subspecies in North America (i.e., northern spotted owl [S. o. caurina], California spotted owl [S. o. occidentalis], Mexican spotted owl [S. o. lucida]) have all experienced population declines over the past century due to habitat loss and fragmentation from logging. Now, the emerging influences of climate change, high-severity...

  15. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.4 Spot audit. (a) In addition to regularly scheduled site audits, certified production sites will be subject to spot audits. (1) Random spot...

  16. Semi-automated Robust Quantification of Lesions (SRQL Toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori L Ito

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying lesions in a reliable manner is fundamental for studying the effects of neuroanatomical changes related to recovery in the post-stroke brain. However, the wide variability in lesion characteristics across individuals makes manual lesion segmentation a challenging and often subjective process. This often makes it difficult to combine stroke lesion data across multiple research sites, due to subjective differences in how lesions may be defined. Thus, we developed the Semi-automated Robust Quantification of Lesions (SRQL; https://github.com/npnl/SRQL; DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.557114 Toolbox that performs several analysis steps: 1 a white matter intensity correction that removes healthy white matter voxels from the lesion mask, thereby making lesions slightly more robust to subjective errors; 2 an automated report of descriptive statistics on lesions for simplified comparison between or across groups, and 3 an option to perform analyses in both native and standard space to facilitate analyses in either space. Here, we describe the methods implemented in the toolbox.

  17. Semi-automated Robust Quantification of Lesions (SRQL Toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Ito

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying lesions in a robust manner is fundamental for studying the effects of neuroanatomical changes in the post-stroke brain on recovery. However, the wide variability in lesion characteristics across individuals makes manual lesion segmentation a challenging and often subjective process. This makes it difficult to combine stroke lesion data across multiple research sites, due to subjective differences in how lesions may be defined. We developed the Semi-automated Robust Quantification of Lesions (SRQL; https://github.com/npnl/SRQL; DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.267213 Toolbox that performs several analysis steps: 1 a white matter intensity correction that removes healthy white matter voxels from the lesion mask, thereby making lesions slightly more robust to subjective errors; 2 an automated report of descriptive statistics on lesions for simplified comparison between or across groups, and 3 an option to perform analyses in both native and standard space to facilitate analyses in either space, or comparisons between spaces. Here, we describe the methods implemented in the toolbox and demonstrate the outputs of the SRQL toolbox.

  18. On the origin of delta spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.

    1983-01-01

    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with Hα filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

  19. Roth spots seen on ophthalmoscopy: diseases with which they may be associated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, P M; Larrison, W I

    1995-05-01

    Roth spots seen on fundoscopic examination (white-centered hemorrhages) were classically described as septic emboli in patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE). Many physicians have considered them pathognomonic for this entity. More recent evidence suggests, however, that they are nonspecific and may be found in other disease states. A review of the pathogenesis of these white-centered hemorrhages will be provided, along with some diseases other than SBE in which they may occur.

  20. Scanning electron microscopy of superficial white onychomycosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Boabaid, Roberta Oliveira; Timm, Vitor; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; de Castro, Luis Antonio Suita

    2015-01-01

    Superficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis. PMID:26560225

  1. Ghost cell lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  2. Poisson's spot and Gouy phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Paz, I. G.; Soldati, Rodolfo; Cabral, L. A.; de Oliveira, J. G. G.; Sampaio, Marcos

    2016-12-01

    Recently there have been experimental results on Poisson spot matter-wave interferometry followed by theoretical models describing the relative importance of the wave and particle behaviors for the phenomenon. We propose an analytical theoretical model for Poisson's spot with matter waves based on the Babinet principle, in which we use the results for free propagation and single-slit diffraction. We take into account effects of loss of coherence and finite detection area using the propagator for a quantum particle interacting with an environment. We observe that the matter-wave Gouy phase plays a role in the existence of the central peak and thus corroborates the predominantly wavelike character of the Poisson's spot. Our model shows remarkable agreement with the experimental data for deuterium (D2) molecules.

  3. Characterization and pathogenicity of Fusarium species associated with leaf spot of mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Nurul Husna; Mohd, Masratulhawa; Mohamed Nor, Nik Mohd Izham; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2018-01-01

    Leaf spot diseases are mainly caused by fungi including Fusarium. In the present study several species of Fusarium were isolated from the leaf spot lesion of mango (Mangifera indica L.) Based on morphological characteristics, TEF-1α sequences and phylogenetic analysis, five species were identified as F. proliferatum, F. semitectum, F. mangiferae, F. solani and F. chlamydosporum. Pathogenicity test indicated that representative isolates of F. proliferatum, F. semitectum and F. chlamydosporum were pathogenic on mango leaves causing leaf spot with low to moderate virulence. Nevertheless, abundance of spots on the leaf can disrupt photosynthesis which in turn reduced growth, and lead to susceptibility to infection by opportunistic pathogens due to weakening of the plant. Fusarium solani and F. mangiferae were non-pathogenic and it is possible that both species are saprophyte which associated with nutrient availability on the surface of the leaf through decaying leave tissues. The occurrence of Fusarium spp. on the leaf spot lesion and the effect from the disease needs to be considered when developing disease management method of mango cultivation as numerous spot on the leaves could effect the photosynthesis process and finally giving low yield and less quality of mango. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Transmission of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus by Thrips tabaci populations originating from leek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Nagata, T.; Katis, N.I.; Peters, D.

    1999-01-01

    The transmission of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) by Thrips tabaci collected from leek was studied using the petunia local-lesion leaf-disc assay. After an acquisition-access period of 72 h given to newborn larvae up to 8 h old, the efficiency of transmission by adults was determined in

  5. Bacterial brown leaf spot of citrus, a new disease caused by Burkholderia andropogonis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new bacterial disease of citrus was recently identified in Florida and named as bacterial brown leaf spot (BBLS) of citrus. BBLS-infected citrus displayed flat, circular and brownish lesions with water-soaked margins surrounded by a chlorotic halo on leaves. Based on Biolog carbon source metabolic...

  6. Laser based spot weld characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  7. Mutant of Japanese pear resistant to Black Spot Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, T.; Nishida, T.; Ikeda, F.

    1987-01-01

    Full text: Nijisseike is one of the leading cultivars of Japanese pear (Pyrus serotinea Rehd.), but susceptible to black spot disease. Farmers try to prevent this disease by wrapping the fruit with a paper bag and by repeated spraying of fungicides. The disease is caused by a Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Susceptibility is controlled by a single dominant gene. In 1962, grafted trees of this cultivar were planted at a distance between 53 and 93 m from the 60 Co source in the gamma-field (daily dose 15-4 rad). One branch on a tree planted at 53 m was detected as resistant in 1981. Under field conditions, black spots were observed on many fruits and leaves of the original trees by natural infection in early July, however, they were not observed on the mutant. To examine the resistance of the mutant, artificial inoculations were made using spores of the pathogen and the host specific toxin produced by germinating spores. When some drops of the spore suspension are placed on leaves, the formation of black spots depends upon the leaf age. In a resistant cv. as Chojuro, black spot symptoms are formed only when inoculated on young leaves. An intermediate reaction was observed in the mutant, whereas the original Nijisseiki showed severe symptoms. When inoculation was made on matured fruit skins, no black spot was formed on the mutant just like on the resistant cv. Chojuro, while many small black spots were formed and grew into large spots overlapping each other on the susceptible cv. Nijisseiki. In case of the crude toxin inoculation (4-0.04 ppm) of cv. Nijisseiki black spots were formed on the surface of the susceptible fruit skin, and necrotic lesions at the cut end of detached small pieces of leaves, although reaction on fruit skins was weaker compared with inoculation by spores. However, no symptoms were observed from the toxin application on the mutant and the resistant cv. Chojuro. That the resistance of the mutant is classified as

  8. Sugarbeet leaf spot disease (Cercospora beticola Sacc.)dagger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, John; Koch, Georg

    2004-05-01

    SUMMARY Leaf spot disease caused by Cercospora beticola Sacc. is the most destructive foliar pathogen of sugarbeet worldwide. In addition to reducing yield and quality of sugarbeet, the control of leaf spot disease by extensive fungicide application incurs added costs to producers and repeatedly has selected for fungicide-tolerant C. beticola strains. The genetics and biochemistry of virulence have been examined less for C. beticola as compared with the related fungi C. nicotianae, C. kikuchii and C. zeae-maydis, fungi to which the physiology of C. beticola is often compared. C. beticola populations generally are not characterized as having race structure, although a case of race-specific resistance in sugarbeet to C. beticola has been reported. Resistance currently implemented in the field is quantitatively inherited and exhibits low to medium heritability. Cercospora beticola Sacc.; Kingdom Fungi, Subdivision Deuteromycetes, Class Hyphomycetes, Order Hyphales, Genus Cercospora. Circular, brown to red delimited spots with ashen-grey centre, 0.5-6 mm diameter; dark brown to black stromata against grey background; pale brown unbranched sparingly septate conidiophores, hyaline acicular conidia, multiseptate, from 2.5 to 4 microm wide and 50-200 microm long. Propagative on Beta vulgaris and most species of Beta. Reported on members of the Chenopodiaceae and on Amaranthus. Disease symptoms: Infected leaves and petioles of B. vulgaris exhibit numerous circular leaf spots that coalesce in severe cases causing complete leaf collapse. Dark specks within a grey spot centre are characteristic for the disease. Older leaves exhibit a greater number of lesions with larger spot diameter. During the latter stage of severe epiphytotics, new leaf growth can be seen emerging from the plant surrounded by prostrate, collapsed leaves. Fungicides in the benzimidazole and triazole class as well as organotin derivatives and strobilurins have successfully been used to control Cercospora

  9. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  10. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  11. Statistical hot spot analysis of reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1974-05-01

    This report is an introduction into statistical hot spot analysis. After the definition of the term 'hot spot' a statistical analysis is outlined. The mathematical method is presented, especially the formula concerning the probability of no hot spots in a reactor core is evaluated. A discussion with the boundary conditions of a statistical hot spot analysis is given (technological limits, nominal situation, uncertainties). The application of the hot spot analysis to the linear power of pellets and the temperature rise in cooling channels is demonstrated with respect to the test zone of KNK II. Basic values, such as probability of no hot spots, hot spot potential, expected hot spot diagram and cumulative distribution function of hot spots, are discussed. It is shown, that the risk of hot channels can be dispersed equally over all subassemblies by an adequate choice of the nominal temperature distribution in the core

  12. Cutaneous lesions in new born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdeva Meenakshi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred unselected newborn babies delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II of SGBT Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar during April 2000 to October 2000 were examined for cutaneous lesions daily for the first five days after birth. Different cutaneous lesions were seen in 474(94. 8% newborns. The physiological skin changes observed in order of frequency were Epstein pearls in 305(61%, Mongolian spot in 301(60. 2%, superficial cutaneous desquamation in 200(40%, icterus in 128(25. 6%, milia in 119(23. 8%, sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 107 (21. 4%, occipital alopecia in 94(18. 8%, lanugo in 72(14. 4%, peripheral cyanosis in 47(9. 4%, breast hypertrophy in 29(5. 8% and miniature puberty in 28(5. 6% newborns. Of the transient non-infective skin diseases, erythema toxicum neonatorum was observed most commonly in 105(21 %, followed by miliaria rubra in 103(20. 6% and acne neonatorum in 27(5. 4% newborns. The naevi and other developmental defects in the descending order were salmon patch in 69(13. 8%, congenital melanocytic noevi in 10(2%, accessory tragi in 3(0.6%, spina bifida in 2(0.4%, hydrocephalus in 1(0.2% and poliosis in 1(0.2% newborns. Cradle cap was the only dermatitis observed in 50(10% newborns. One (0.2% case each of Harlequin ichthyosis and labial cyst was seen.

  13. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences...

  14. The influence of cross-breeding Zlotnicka Spotted native breed sows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To sum up, it is possible to say that the raw meat of Zlotnicka Spotted pigs and their cross-breeds with Duroc and Polish Large White breeds is characterised by good quality and because of its considerable intramuscular fat content, it has a high culinary and processing value, especially for ripening products. Key words: Pigs ...

  15. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  16. Short communication: Algal leaf spot associated with Cephaleuros virescens (Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae on Nephelium lappaceum in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANURAG SUNPAPAO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Sunpapao A, Pitaloka MK, Arikit S. 2015. Algal leaf spot associated with Cephaleuros virescens (Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae on Nephelium lappaceum in Thailand. Biodiversitas 17: 31-35. Algal leaf spot disease of Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan was observed in southern Thailand. The algae were isolated on Bold’s basal medium (BBM and identified based on appearance of the lesions, algal morphology and molecular properties. Characteristics of the filamentous thallus cells, sporangiophores, sporangia, gametes and zoospores were clarified. A portion of the 18S small subunit rRNA was amplified to validate the morphological identification by sequence similarity. To summarize the main results, the plant parasite causing algal leaf spot was identified as Cephaleuros virescens, and in sequencing-based phylogenetic analysis the Cephaleuros PSU-R5.1 isolate from rambutan grouped with the algae in genus Cephaleuros. This confirms C. virescens as a causal organism of algal leaf spot disease on rambutan in southern Thailand.

  17. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A; Dasch, Gregory A; Paddock, Christopher D; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E

    2007-11-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

  18. Global aphasia without hemiparesis: language profiles and lesion distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, R.; Lux, W.; Dromerick, A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Global aphasia without hemiparesis (GAWH) is an uncommon stroke syndrome involving receptive and expressive language impairment, without the hemiparesis typically manifested by patients with global aphasia after large left perisylvian lesions. A few cases of GAWH have been reported with conflicting conclusions regarding pathogenesis, lesion localisation, and recovery. The current study was conducted to attempt to clarify these issues.
METHODS—Ten cases of GAWH were prospectively studied with language profiles and lesion analysis; five patients had multiple lesions, four patients had a single lesion, and one had a subarachnoid haemorrhage. Eight patients met criteria for cardioembolic ischaemic stroke.
RESULTS—Cluster analysis based on acute language profiles disclosed three subtypes of patients with GAWH; these clusters persisted on follow up language assessment. Each cluster evolved into a different aphasia subtype: persistent GAWH, Wernicke's aphasia, or transcortical motor aphasia (TCM). Composite lesion analysis showed that persistent GAWH was related to lesioning of the left superior temporal gyrus. Patients with acute GAWH who evolved into TCM type aphasia had common lesioning of the left inferior frontal gyrus and adjacent subcortical white matter. Patients with acute GAWH who evolved into Wernicke's type aphasia were characterised by lesioning of the left precentral and postcentral gyri. Recovery of language was poor in all but one patient.
CONCLUSIONS—Although patients with acute GAWH are similar on neurological examination, they are heterogeneous with respect to early aphasia profile, language recovery, and lesion profile.

 PMID:10084536

  19. Venocentric lesions: an MRI marker of MS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Quinn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available From the earliest descriptions of MS, the venocentric characteristic of plaques was noted. Recently, numerous MRI studies have proposed this finding as a prospective biomarker for MS, which might aid in differentiating MS from other diseases with similar MRI findings. High field MRI studies have shown that penetrating veins can be detected in most MS lesions using T2* weighted or susceptibility weighted imaging. Future studies must address the feasibility of imaging such veins in a clinically practical context. The specificity of this biomarker has been studied only in a limited capacity. Results in microangiopathic lesions are conflicting, whereas asymptomatic white matter hyperintensities as well as lesions of NMO are less frequently venocentric compared to MS plaques. Prospective studies have shown that the presence of venocentric lesions at an early clinical presentation is highly predictive of future MS diagnosis. This is very promising, but work remains to be done to confirm or exclude lesions of common MS mimics, such as ADEM, as venocentric. A number of technical challenges must be addressed before the introduction of this technique as a complementary tool in current diagnostic procedures.

  20. Intraosseous osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, C.P.; Wenz, W.

    1981-10-01

    Any pathological damage occurring in a bone will produce either an osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesion which can be seen in the macroscopic specimen as well as in the roentgenogram. Various bone lesions may lead to local destructions of the bone. An osteoma or osteoplastic osteosarcoma produces an osteosclerotic lesion showing a dense mass in the roentgenogram; a chondroblastoma or an osteoclastoma, on the other hand, induces an osteolytic focal lesion. This paper presents examples of different osteolytic lesions of the humerus. An osteolytic lesion seen in the roentgenogram may be either produced by an underlying non-ossifying fibroma of the bone, by fibrous dysplasia, osteomyelitis or Ewing's sarcoma. Differential diagnostic considerations based on the radiological picture include eosinophilic bone granuloma, juvenile or aneurysmal bone cyst, multiple myeloma or bone metastases. Serious differential diagnostic problems may be involved in case of osteolytic lesions occurring in the humerus. Cases of this type involving complications have been reported and include the presence of an teleangiectatic osteosarcoma as well as that of a hemangiosarcoma of the bone.

  1. The spot market and the spot price: applicability and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of spot prices and their relationship to long-term contracting is addressed. The author is associated with Nuexco, which originally was called the Nuclear Exchange Corporation. They use the term Exchange Value which originated in the idea that Nuexco operated an exchange 'bank' - those with too much uranium could 'bank it', those with short-term needs could borrow from the 'bank'. If the borrower repaid slightly more or less the difference was settled using the 'exchange value'. This became used for longer-term transactions and now settling the monthly value is an important part of Nuexco's activities. The exact nature of the Exchange Value is defined. Now more and more buyers are insisting on spot market related pricing even where this is not meaningfully related to uranium production costs. (U.K.)

  2. Narrative Constructions of Whiteness among White Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foste, Zak

    2017-01-01

    This critical narrative inquiry was guided by two overarching research questions. First, this study examined how white undergraduates interpreted and gave meaning to their white racial identities. This line of inquiry sought to understand how participants made sense of their white racial selves, the self in relation to people of color, and the…

  3. Hunting the unknown: White-box database leakage detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costante, E.; Hartog, den J.I.; Petkovic, M.; Etalle, S.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Atluri, V.; Pernul, G.

    2014-01-01

    Data leakage causes significant losses and privacy breaches worldwide. In this paper we present a white-box data leakage detection system to spot anomalies in database transactions. We argue that our approach represents a major leap forward w.r.t. previous work because: i) it significantly decreases

  4. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  5. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Vázquez-Otero; Danila Khikhlukha; J. M. Solano-Altamirano; Raquel Dormido; Natividad Duro

    2016-01-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presente...

  6. A white-box anomaly-based framework for database leakage detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costante, E.; den Hartog, J.; Petkovic, M.; Etalle, S.; Pechenizkiy, M.

    2017-01-01

    Data leakage is at the heart most of the privacy breaches worldwide. In this paper we present a white-box approach to detect potential data leakage by spotting anomalies in database transactions. We refer to our solution as white-box because it builds self explanatory profiles that are easy to

  7. 7 CFR 1421.11 - Spot checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot checks. 1421.11 Section 1421.11 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 General § 1421.11 Spot checks. (a) CCC... CCC access to the farm and storage facility as necessary to conduct collateral inspections, or “spot...

  8. 21 CFR 886.1435 - Maxwell spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maxwell spot. 886.1435 Section 886.1435 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1435 Maxwell spot. (a) Identification. A Maxwell spot is an AC...

  9. The Research of Disease Spots Extraction Based on Evolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangshun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of maize disease spot performance in the image, this paper designs two-histogram segmentation method based on evolutionary algorithm, which combined with the analysis of image of maize diseases and insect pests, with full consideration of color and texture characteristic of the lesion of pests and diseases, the chroma and gray image, composed of two tuples to build a two-dimensional histogram, solves the problem of one-dimensional histograms that cannot be clearly divided into target and background bimodal distribution and improved the traditional two-dimensional histogram application in pest damage lesion extraction. The chromosome coding suitable for the characteristics of lesion image is designed based on second segmentation of the genetic algorithm Otsu. Determining initial population with analysis results of lesion image, parallel selection, optimal preservation strategy, and adaptive mutation operator are used to improve the search efficiency. Finally, by setting the fluctuation threshold, we continue to search for the best threshold in the range of fluctuations for implementation of global search and local search.

  10. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); The Children' s Hospital, Rick Wilson Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari [The Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Bourland, Wendy [Children' s Hospital at St. Francis, Warren Clinic, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  11. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy; Hayes, Kari; Bourland, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for 18 F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  12. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  13. Male breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Andrade, L.G. de; Carregal, E.; Marimatsu, R.I.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Roentgenographic examination of the male breast is an important aspect of the continued, intensive investigation of the radiologic morphology of the normal and diseased breast conducted in 17 cases examined at the Instituto Nacional do Cancer - RJ. It is purpose of this report to present the Roentgen appearance of various lesions of the male breast as they have been found in our practice and also to stress some of the difficulties in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. (author) [pt

  14. Spot på samtalen:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneris, Sophie; Jensen, Tanja Dall; Caswell, Dorte

    Spot på samtalen sætter fokus på det, der konkret foregår i samtaler mellem borgere og de beskæftigelsesfaglige medarbejdere i jobcentrene. Da de udsatte grupper i mange tilfælde er langt fra arbejdsmarkedet, er interessen rettet mod, hvilke forhold i kontakten med beskæftigelsessystemet, der...... har betydning hvilke indsatser ledige modtager, men også hvordan de modtager dem. Her rettes blikket mod den centrale del af den beskæftigelsespolitiske indsats som samtalerne udgør. I Spot på samtalen er blikket rettet mod de dynamikker, mønstre og mekanismer, der kommer i spil i samtalerne i...

  15. A Drosophila wing spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaki, Toshikazu; Yoshikawa, Isao; Niikawa, Norio; Hoshi, Masaharu.

    1986-01-01

    A Drosophila wing spot test system was used to investigate the effects of low doses of X-rays, gamma rays, and both 2.3 and 14.1 MeV neutrons on somatic chromosome mutation (SCM) induction. The incidence of SCM was significantly increased with any type of radiation, with evident linear dose-response relationship within the range of 3 to 20 cGy. It was estimated that relative biological effectiveness value for SCM induction of 2.3 MeV neutrons to X-rays and gamma rays is much higher than that of 14.1 MeV neutrons to those photons (2.4 vs 8.0). The Drosophila wing spot test system seems to become a promising in vivo experimental method for higher animals in terms of the lack of necessity for a marvelously large number of materials required in conventional test system. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  17. Effect of bioglass on artificially induced enamel lesion around orthodontic brackets: OCT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhsh, Turki; Al-batati, Mohammed; Mukhtar, Mona; Al-Najjar, Mohammed; Bakhsh, Saud; Bakhsh, Abdulsalam; Bakry, Ahmad; Mandurah, Mona; Abbassy, Mona

    2018-02-01

    Background and Objective: White spot lesions (WSLs) are commonly seen after completing orthodontic treatment. Different approaches have been suggested to avoid such a complication. Recently, 45S5 bioglass (BG) was introduced as remineralizing agent. Therefore, the objective of this in-vitro study was to assess the effect of BG in remineralizing WSLs using Optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: Fifteen human premolar teeth were sectioned and bonded to orthodontic brackets with Transbond XT primer followed by Transbond PLUS color change adhesive (3M Unitek, USA) on their smooth surfaces according to the manufacturer's instructions. Then, all specimens were varnished excluding the area of interest (AOI) around the bonded restoration, immersed in demineralizing solution and imaged by cross-polarization OCT (CONT group), and the maximum pixel value (MPV) of the AOI were calculated. Then, they were subjected to remineralizing solutions and BG application followed by OCT imaging (REM group). Results: Mann-Whitney test showed the MPV of the AOI in REM was greatly increased and was significantly different from CONT (penamel by MPV technique. The BG has a great potential to remineralize enamel defects, however further investigation is required.

  18. Measurement of laser spot quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milster, T. D.; Treptau, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    Several ways of measuring spot quality are compared. We examine in detail various figures of merit such as full width at half maximum (FWHM), full width at 1/(e exp 2) maximum, Strehl ratio, and encircled energy. Our application is optical data storage, but results can be applied to other areas like space communications and high energy lasers. We found that the optimum figure of merit in many cases is Strehl ratio.

  19. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  20. Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hespel, Camille; Ren, Kuan Fang; Gréhan, Gérard; Onofri, Fabrice

    2006-01-01

    International audience; The Phase Doppler anemometry has been developed to measure simultaneously the velocity and the size of droplets. The measurement of the refractive index is also necessary since it depends on the temperature and the composition of the particle and its measurement permits both to increase the quality of the diameter measurement and to obtain information on the temperature and/or the composition of the droplets. In this paper, we introduce a Glare Spot Phase Doppler Anemo...

  1. Benign fibroosseous lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Köseoğlu Seçgin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Benign fibroosseous lesions represent a group of lesions that share the same basic evolutive mechanism and are characterized by replacement of normal bone with a fibrous connective tissue that gradually undergoes mineralization. These lesions are presented by a variety of diseases including developmental, reactive-dysplastic processes and neoplasms. Depending on the nature and amount of calcified tissue, they can be observed as radiolucent, mixed or radiopaque. Their radiographic features could be well-defined or indistinguishable from the surrounding bone tissue. They can be asymptomatic as in osseous dysplasias and can be detected incidentally on radiographs, or they can lead to expansion in the affected bone as in ossifying fibroma. All fibroosseous lesions seen in the jaws and face are variations of the same histological pattern. Therefore, detailed clinical and radiographic evaluation in differential diagnosis is important. In this review, fibroosseous benign lesions are classified as osseous dysplasia, fibrous dysplasia and fibroosseous tumors; and radiographic features and differential diagnosis of these lesions are reviewed taking into account this classification.

  2. Eczematous Dermatitis Occurring on a Café-au-Lait Spot Long after Laser Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Motoyuki

    2013-05-01

    A 40-year-old woman presented with an itchy erythematosquamous change of a café-au-lait spot in her face. The onset of this change occurred just after her relocation. The café-au-lait spot had been irradiated by laser approximately 20 years ago. Clinically, there was a coin-sized erythema with a slight scale on the pigmented lesion in the left lateral orbital region. Histopathologically, the lesion demonstrated both spongiotic dermatitis and interface dermatitis together with lymphohistiocytic cell infiltration, in addition to moderate acanthosis and elongation of rete ridges with slight basal hyperpigmentation. From these clinical and histopathological findings, the lesion was diagnosed as eczematous dermatitis occurring on the café-au-lait spot after laser radiation. Another interesting histopathological finding was that some parts of a lobule of the sebaceous gland were occupied exclusively by degenerative atrophic sebocytes. From the viewpoint of pathogenesis, the eczematous dermatitis of this patient could have been an accompanying feature of a neurogenic inflammation occurring on the café-au-lait spot after laser radiation, and the atrophic change of a part of the sebaceous lobule might have been induced by a morphogenetic alteration of certain germinative cells of the sebaceous lobule due to laser radiation.

  3. Justifications shape ethical blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Avian trichomonosis in spotted owls (Strix occidentalis: Indication of opportunistic spillover from prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysta H. Rogers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, has variable pathogenicity among bird species ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe disease periodically manifesting in epidemic mortality. Traditionally, columbids are identified as highly susceptible to infection with occasional spillover into raptors that prey on infected birds. We identified avian trichomonosis in two dead California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis and three dead northern spotted owls (S. o. caurina in California during 2011–2015; infection was confirmed in four owls by PCR. Pathologic lesions associated with trichomonosis in the owls included caseonecrotic lesions of the upper palate accompanied by oropharyngitis, cellulitis, myositis, and/or sinusitis. Spotted owls are known to mainly feed on small mammals; therefore, the source of infection as well as the significance of the disease in spotted owls is unclear. These owl trichomonosis cases coincided temporally and spatially with three trichomonosis epidemics in band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis. The same parasite, T. gallinae subtype A2, was isolated from the spotted owls and band-tailed pigeons, suggesting the owls became infected when opportunistically feeding on pigeons during mortality events. Avian trichomonosis is an important factor in the decline of the Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon population with near-annual mortality events during the last 10 years and could have conservation implications for raptor species at risk, particularly those that are facing multiple threats.

  5. An online real time ultrasonic NDT system for the quality control of spot welding in the automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athi, N; Wylie, S R; Cullen, J D; Al-Jader, M; Al-Shamma'a, A I; Shaw, A

    2009-01-01

    Resistance spot welding is the main joining technique used for the fabrication of body-in-white structures in the automotive industry. The quality of the welds depends on the profile of the spot welding electrode cap. The increased use of zinc coated steel in the industry increases wear rate of the caps, making quality control more difficult. This paper presents a novel online real time ultrasonic NDE system for resistance spot welding which evaluates every weld as it is formed. SEM results are presented to show the alloying of the electrode caps.

  6. An online real time ultrasonic NDT system for the quality control of spot welding in the automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athi, N.; Wylie, S. R.; Cullen, J. D.; Al-Jader, M.; Al-Shamma'a, A. I.; Shaw, A.

    2009-07-01

    Resistance spot welding is the main joining technique used for the fabrication of body-in-white structures in the automotive industry. The quality of the welds depends on the profile of the spot welding electrode cap. The increased use of zinc coated steel in the industry increases wear rate of the caps, making quality control more difficult. This paper presents a novel online real time ultrasonic NDE system for resistance spot welding which evaluates every weld as it is formed. SEM results are presented to show the alloying of the electrode caps.

  7. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kolařík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA. Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the resistance spot welds. The results confirm the applicability of DeltaSpot welding for this combination of materials.

  8. Spot formation of radiation particles by electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Tetsuya

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical etching (ECE) spot formation from the top of chemical etching (CE) spot was confirmed by a series of experiments. One of polycarbonate (Iupilon) could not make the spot, because ECE spot had grown up before the microscope confirming the CE spot. Clear CEC spots by α-ray and neutron were found on Harzlas and Baryotrak, both improvements of CR-39. Under the same etching conditions, the growth of ECE spot on Harzlas was more rapid than Baryotrak, but both spots were almost the same. All CE spot by α-ray produced the CEC spots, but a part of CE circle spot by neutron formed them. (S.Y.)

  9. Proteomics analysis of egg white proteins from different egg varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiapei; Liang, Yue; Omana, Dileep A; Kav, Nat N V; Wu, Jianping

    2012-01-11

    The market of specialty eggs, such as omega-3-enriched eggs, organic eggs, and free-range eggs, is continuously growing. The nutritional composition of egg yolk can be manipulated by feed diet; however, it is not known if there is any difference in the composition of egg white proteins among different egg varieties. The purpose of the study was to compare the egg white proteins among six different egg varieties using proteomics analysis. Egg white proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 89 protein spots were subjected to LC-MS/MS. A total of 23 proteins, belonging to Gallus gallus , were identified from 72 detected protein spots. A quiescence-specific protein precursor in egg white was identified for the first time in this study. Significant differences in the abundant levels of 19 proteins (from 65 protein spots) were observed among six egg varieties. Four proteins, ovalbumin-related protein Y, cystatin, avidin, and albumin precursor, were not different among these six egg varieties. These findings suggest that the abundance, but not the composition, of egg white proteins varied among the egg varieties.

  10. Computational prediction of protein hot spot residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2012-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues.

  11. Computational Prediction of Hot Spot Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2013-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues. PMID:22316154

  12. Erick A. White | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 2011 B.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder Research Assistant, Colorado School of Mines, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2006-2011 Field Team Erick A. White Photo of Erick A. White Erick White Chemical Reaction Engineer Erick.White@nrel.gov

  13. Association of poly-purine/poly-pyrimidine sequences with meiotic recombination hot spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitt Joel PW

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meiotic recombination events have been found to concentrate in 1–2.5 kilo base regions, but these recombination hot spots do not share a consensus sequence and why they occur at specific sites is not fully understood. Some previous evidence suggests that poly-purine/poly-pyrimidine (poly-pu/py tracts (PPTs, a class of sequence with distinctive biochemical properties, could be involved in recombination, but no general association of PPTs with meiotic recombination hot spots has previously been reported. Results We used computational methods to investigate in detail the relationship between PPTs and hot spots. We show statistical associations of PPT frequency with hot spots of meiotic recombination initiating lesions, double-strand breaks, in the genome of the yeast S. cerevisiae and with experimentally well characterized human meiotic recombination hot spots. Supporting a possible role of poly-pu/py-rich sequences in hot spot recombination, we also found that all three single nucleotide polymorphisms previously shown to be associated with human hot spot activity changes occur within sequence contexts of 14 bp or longer that are 85% or more poly-pu/py and at least 70% G/C. These polymorphisms are all close to the hot spot mid points. Comparing the sequences of experimentally characterized human hot spots with the orthologous regions of the chimpanzee genome previously shown not to contain hot spots, we found that in all five cases in which comparisons for the hot spot central regions are possible with publicly available sequence data, there are differences near the human hot spot mid points within sequences 14 bp or longer consisting of more than 80% poly-pu/py and at least 50% G/C. Conclusion Our results, along with previous evidence for the unique biochemical properties and recombination-stimulating potential of poly-pu/py-rich sequences, suggest that the possible functional involvement of this type of sequence in meiotic

  14. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 lig