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Sample records for white problem gamblers

  1. Comparing Problem Gamblers with Moderate-Risk Gamblers in a Sample of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Kairouz, Sylvia; Nadeau, Louise; Robillard, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims In an effort to provide further empirical evidence of meaningful differences, this study explores, in a student population, the distinctions in gambling behavioral patterns and specific associated problems of two levels of gambling severity by comparing problem gamblers (PG) and moderate-risk gamblers (MR) as defined by the score on the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI; MR: 3-7; PG: 8 and more). Methods The study sample included 2,139 undergraduate students (male = 800, mean age = 22.6) who completed the PGSI and questionnaires on associated problems. Results Results show that problem gamblers engage massively and more diversely in gambling activities, more often and in a greater variety of locations, than moderate-risk gamblers. In addition, important differences have been observed between moderate-risk and problem gamblers in terms of expenditures and accumulated debt. In regards to the associated problems, compared to moderate-risk gamblers, problem gamblers had an increased reported psychological distress, daily smoking, and possible alcohol dependence. Discussion and Conclusions The severity of gambling and associated problems found in problem gamblers is significantly different from moderate-risk gamblers, when examined in a student population, to reiterate caution against the amalgamation of these groups in future research. PMID:26014673

  2. Health Behaviour and Body Mass Index Among Problem Gamblers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Algren, Maria; Ekholm, Ola; Davidsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010. Past year problem gambling was defined using the lie/bet questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between past year problem gambling and health behaviour and BMI. Problem gambling was associated with unhealthy...... challenge and elucidate the need for health promotion initiatives targeted at problem gamblers. Furthermore, more research is needed in order to understand the underlying social mechanism of the association between problem gamblers and unhealthy behaviour.......Problem gambling is a serious public health issue. The objective of this study was to investigate whether past year problem gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers with regard to health behaviour and body mass index (BMI) among Danes aged 16 years or older. Data were derived from the Danish...

  3. Self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control in problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorains, Felicity K; Stout, Julie C; Bradshaw, John L; Dowling, Nicki A; Enticott, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is considered a core feature of problem gambling; however, self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control may reflect disparate constructs. We examined self-reported impulsivity and inhibitory control in 39 treatment-seeking problem gamblers and 41 matched controls using a range of self-report questionnaires and laboratory inhibitory control tasks. We also investigated differences between treatment-seeking problem gamblers who prefer strategic (e.g., sports betting) and nonstrategic (e.g., electronic gaming machines) gambling activities. Treatment-seeking problem gamblers demonstrated elevated self-reported impulsivity, more go errors on the Stop Signal Task, and a lower gap score on the Random Number Generation task than matched controls. However, overall we did not find strong evidence that treatment-seeking problem gamblers are more impulsive on laboratory inhibitory control measures. Furthermore, strategic and nonstrategic problem gamblers did not differ from their respective controls on either self-reported impulsivity questionnaires or laboratory inhibitory control measures. Contrary to expectations, our results suggest that inhibitory dyscontrol may not be a key component for some treatment-seeking problem gamblers.

  4. Differences in cognitive distortions between problem and social gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukhador, Jackie; Maccallum, Fiona; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2003-06-01

    The cognitive model of gambling argues that irrational beliefs and erroneous perceptions including illusions of control, superstitious beliefs, expectancies of winning, attributional biases, selective memory, and entrapment play a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of impaired control over patterns of gambling behaviours. Assessment strategies using self-report, behavioural inferences, and verbalizations produced by 'thinking aloud' techniques, and the effectiveness of treatment interventions designed to correct cognitive distortions have provided substantive empirical evidence supporting this model. However, research has yet to measure such differences between the quality, intensity, or conviction of specific dysfunctional beliefs held by problem in contrast to social gamblers. At the theoretical level, the absence of such demonstrable differences would undermine the validity of the cognitive explanatory model. Based on a review of the available literature, a preliminary measure to assess differences in irrational gambling beliefs was constructed and administered to a convenience sample of 56 problem gamblers and 52 social gamblers. In support of the cognitive model, analysis indicated that, compared to social gamblers, problem gamblers endorsed more irrational beliefs across all domains except for the variable of 'denial'. Implications for research issues relevant to the identification of irrational beliefs that may be subjected to challenge within a cognitive therapy paradigm are mentioned.

  5. A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…

  6. Detection of Problem Gambler Subgroups Using Recursive Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Francis; Young, Martin; Doran, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The multivariate socio-demographic risk factors for problem gambling have been well documented. While this body of research is valuable in determining risk factors aggregated across various populations, the majority of studies tend not to specifically identify particular subgroups of problem gamblers based on the interaction between variables. The…

  7. The impact of gambling advertising: Problem gamblers report stronger impacts on involvement, knowledge, and awareness than recreational gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune A; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-06-01

    Although there is a general lack of empirical evidence that advertising influences gambling participation, the regulation of gambling advertising is hotly debated among academic researchers, treatment specialists, lobby groups, regulators, and policymakers. This study contributes to the ongoing debate by investigating perceived impacts of gambling advertising in a sample of gamblers drawn from the general population in Norway (n = 6,034). Three dimensions of advertising impacts were identified, representing perceived impacts on (a) gambling-related attitudes, interest, and behavior ("involvement"); (b) knowledge about gambling options and providers ("knowledge"); and (c) the degree to which people are aware of gambling advertising ("awareness"). Overall, impacts were strongest for the knowledge dimension, and, for all 3 dimensions, the impact increased with level of advertising exposure. Those identified as problem gamblers in the sample (n = 57) reported advertising impacts concerning involvement more than recreational gamblers, and this finding was not attributable to differences in advertising exposure. Additionally, younger gamblers reported stronger impacts on involvement and knowledge but were less likely to agree that they were aware of gambling advertising than older gamblers. Male gamblers were more likely than female gamblers to report stronger impacts on both involvement and knowledge. These findings are discussed with regard to existing research on gambling advertising as well as their implications for future research and policy-making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Gambling increases self-control strength in problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Anne E; Newby-Clark, Ian R; Brown, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    In two studies it is demonstrated that, in the short-term, slot machine gambling increases self-control strength in problem gamblers. In Study 1 (N = 180), participants were randomly assigned to either play slot machines or engage in a control task (word anagrams) for 15 min. Subsequent self-control strength was measured via persistence on an impossible tracing task. Replicating Bergen et al. (J Gambl Stud, doi: 10.1007/s10899-011-9274-9 , 2011), control condition participants categorized as problem gamblers persisted for less time than did lower gambling risk participants. However, in the slot machine condition, there were no significant differences in persistence amongst participants as a function of their gambling classification. Moreover, problem gambling participants in the slot machine condition persisted at the impossible tracing task longer than did problem gambling participants in the control condition. Study 2 (N = 209) systematically replicated Study 1. All participants initially completed two tasks known to deplete self-control strength and a different control condition (math problems) was used. Study 2 results were highly similar to those of Study 1. The results of the studies have implications for the helping professions. Specifically, helping professionals should be aware that problem gamblers might seek out gambling as a means of increasing self-control strength.

  9. Comparison of impulsivity in non-problem, at-risk and problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wan-Sen; Zhang, Ran-Ran; Lan, Yan; Li, Yong-Hui; Sui, Nan

    2016-12-15

    As a non-substance addiction, gambling disorder represents the model for studying the neurobiology of addiction without toxic consequences of chronic drug use. From a neuropsychological perspective, impulsivity is deemed as a potential construct responsible in the onset and development of drug addiction. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between impulsivity and gambling status in young adults with varying severity of gambling. A sample of 1120 college students, equally divided into non-problem, at-risk and problem gamblers, were administered multiple measures of impulsivity including the UPPSP Impulsive Behaviors Scale (UPPSP), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), and the Delay-discounting Test (DDT). Compared with non-problem gamblers, both at-risk gamblers and problem gamblers displayed elevated scores on Negative Urgency, Positive Urgency, Motor Impulsiveness, and Attentional Impulsiveness. Problem gamblers showed higher scores than at-risk gamblers on Positive Urgency. Logistic regression models revealed that only Negative Urgency positively predicted both at-risk gambling and problem gambling compared to non-problem gambling. These results suggest that dimensions of impulsivity may be differentially linked to gambling behavior in young adults, with Negative Urgency putatively identified as an important impulsivity-related marker for the development of gambling disorder, which may provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis.

  10. Gambling Increases Self-Control Strength in Problem Gamblers

    OpenAIRE

    Bergen, Anne E.; Newby-Clark, Ian R.; Brown, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In two studies it is demonstrated that, in the short-term, slot machine gambling increases self-control strength in problem gamblers. In Study 1 (N = 180), participants were randomly assigned to either play slot machines or engage in a control task (word anagrams) for 15 min. Subsequent self-control strength was measured via persistence on an impossible tracing task. Replicating Bergen et al. (J Gambl Stud, doi:10.1007/s10899-011-9274-9, 2011), control condition participants categorized as pr...

  11. Frequency of gambling problems among parents of pathological, versus nonpathological, casino gamblers using slot machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, Audrey; LeGauffre, Cindy; Romo, Lucia; Adès, Jean; Gorwood, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Familial and twin studies suggest the implication of a genetic factor in pathological gambling, but mainly assess probands through treatment settings or advertisements. The question raised here is: are parents of casino pathological gamblers using slot machines more affected with pathological gambling than nonpathological gamblers, all interviewed on site at the same casino? Three hundred and fifty-five casino gamblers on slot machines, which included 96 pathological gamblers, 116 problem gamblers, and 143 nonproblem gamblers, were recruited in situ at the largest casino in the Paris suburbs. We evaluated pathological gambling and two addictive disorders (alcohol dependence and tobacco consumption) in the gamblers and their 690 parents (through the proband). Familial aggregation of pathological gambling was confirmed, with a risk of 3.3 for being a pathological gambler when at least one of the parents has problematic gambling. No familial co-aggregation of pathological gambling with alcohol or tobacco dependence was observed. Pathological gambling is found in excess in the parents of pathological casino gamblers, in accordance with previous aggregation studies devoted to other types of gambling, and with studies recruiting gamblers in different settings.  Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  12. Reduced Risk-Taking After Prior Losses in Pathological Gamblers Under Treatment and Healthy Control Group but not in Problem Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Nicolao; Grecucci, Alessandro; Nicolè, Manuel; Savadori, Lucia

    2017-08-02

    A group of pathological gamblers and a group of problem gamblers (i.e., gamblers at risk of becoming pathological) were compared to healthy controls on their risk-taking propensity after prior losses. Each participant played both the Balloon Analogue Risk Taking task (BART) and a modified version of the same task, where individuals face five repeated predetermined early losses at the onset of the game. No significant difference in risk-taking was found between groups on the standard BART task, while significant differences emerged when comparing behaviors in the two tasks: both pathological gamblers and controls reduced their risk-taking tendency after prior losses in the modified BART compared to the standard BART, whereas problem gamblers showed no reduction in risk-taking after prior losses. We interpret these results as a sign of a reduced sensitivity to negative feedback in problem gamblers which might contribute to explain their loss-chasing tendency.

  13. A Case of Mistaken Identity? A Comparison of Professional and Amateur Problem Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Professional gamblers are more likely than amateur gamblers to meet criteria for problem gambling but minimal research has examined their gambling behavior and its consequences. This study compared gambling behavior, problem gambling symptoms, related harms, recognition, and help-seeking among problem semi/professional gamblers (PPGs/PSPGs) and problem amateur gamblers (PAGs). Surveys completed by 57 self-identified professional gamblers, 311 semi-professional gamblers and 4226 amateur gamblers were analysed. PPGs/PSPGs were significantly more likely than PAGs to be male, younger, never married, speak a language other than English at home, and have higher psychological distress, compared to PAGs. PPGs/PSPGs were more likely to gamble more frequently on many skills-based forms, but most also participated in several chance-based forms. PPGs'/PSPGs' most common problematic gambling form was electronic gaming machines and they were more likely to have problems with sports betting than PAGs. Most PPGs/PSPGs reported coming out behind on all gambling forms over the previous year. PPGs/PSPGs were more likely than PAGs to report chasing losses and numerous detrimental financial gambling consequences. This group's self-identification as PPGs/PSPGs is clearly inaccurate and perhaps a means to avoid stigma, elevate status and support problem denial. PPGs/PSPGs may represent an extreme example of gamblers with erroneous cognitions and beliefs who lack the required discipline and skill to be successful professional gamblers. The findings identify a group of problem gamblers who may benefit from interventions to dispel their mistaken self-identity, and emphasize the need for more rigorous confirmation of professional gambler status in future research.

  14. Selective attention to emotional pictures as a function of gambling motives in problem and nonproblem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Amanda; Jacques, Sophie; Stewart, Sherry H

    2013-12-01

    Problem gambling may reflect a maladaptive means of fulfilling specific affect-regulation motives, such as enhancing positive affect or coping with negative affect. Research with clinical populations indicates that disorders with prominent affective symptoms are characterized by attentional biases for symptom-congruent information. Thus, we assessed whether problem gamblers with enhancement motives for gambling would demonstrate attentional biases for positive emotional information, relative to other types of emotional information, and problem gamblers with coping motives for gambling would demonstrate attentional biases for negative emotional information, compared with other types of emotional information. In addition, we expected motive-congruent biases to be stronger in problem gamblers than nonproblem gamblers. To test these hypotheses, problem and nonproblem gamblers received an emotional orienting task in which neutral, negative, and positive pictorial cues appeared to one side of the computer screen, followed by target words in cued or uncued locations. In a look-away condition, participants had to shift attention away from pictures to respond to predominantly uncued targets, whereas in a look-toward condition, they had to orient to pictures to categorize predominantly cued targets. The results revealed motive-congruent orienting biases and disengagement lags for emotional pictures in problem gamblers. The link between motives and affective biases was less apparent in nonproblem gamblers. Results suggest that attentional measures may provide a useful complement to the subjective methodologies that are typically employed in studying problem gamblers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Implicit gambling attitudes in problem gamblers: positive but not negative implicit associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevers, Damien; Cleeremans, Axel; Hermant, Christine; Tibboel, Helen; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    Implicit attitudes (associations) are involved in the generation of substance use behaviors. However, little is known about the role of this automatic cognitive processing in deregulated behaviors without substance use, such as abnormal gambling. This study examined whether problem gamblers exhibit both positive and negative implicit attitudes toward gambling-related stimuli. Twenty-five problem gamblers and 25 control participants performed two unipolar (pleasant; unpleasant) Single-Target Implicit Association Tasks (unipolar ST-IAT), in which gambling pictures were associated with either pleasant (or unpleasant for the negative unipolar ST-IAT) or neutral words. Explicit attitudes toward gambling were also recorded. We found in problem gamblers: (i) both positive implicit and explicit attitudes toward gambling; (ii) no negative implicit gambling association; (iii) that only positive explicit attitudes positively correlated with the gambling severity score. (i) the use of only one type of reaction time task; (ii) the use of both words and pictures in a same IAT; (iii) problem gamblers have been compared to non-gamblers instead of being contrasted with healthy non-problem gamblers. Whereas our gamblers experienced deleterious effects related to gambling, implicit attitude toward gambling remained positive, thus hampering attempts to quit gambling. Possible clinical interventions targeting implicit cognition in problem gamblers were discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Strategic and non-strategic problem gamblers differ on decision-making under risk and ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorains, Felicity K; Dowling, Nicki A; Enticott, Peter G; Bradshaw, John L; Trueblood, Jennifer S; Stout, Julie C

    2014-07-01

    To analyse problem gamblers' decision-making under conditions of risk and ambiguity, investigate underlying psychological factors associated with their choice behaviour and examine whether decision-making differed in strategic (e.g., sports betting) and non-strategic (e.g., electronic gaming machine) problem gamblers. Cross-sectional study. Out-patient treatment centres and university testing facilities in Victoria, Australia. Thirty-nine problem gamblers and 41 age, gender and estimated IQ-matched controls. Decision-making tasks included the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and a loss aversion task. The Prospect Valence Learning (PVL) model was used to provide an explanation of cognitive, motivational and response style factors involved in IGT performance. Overall, problem gamblers performed more poorly than controls on both the IGT (P = 0.04) and the loss aversion task (P = 0.01), and their IGT decisions were associated with heightened attention to gains (P = 0.003) and less consistency (P = 0.002). Strategic problem gamblers did not differ from matched controls on either decision-making task, but non-strategic problem gamblers performed worse on both the IGT (P = 0.006) and the loss aversion task (P = 0.02). Furthermore, we found differences in the PVL model parameters underlying strategic and non-strategic problem gamblers' choices on the IGT. Problem gamblers demonstrated poor decision-making under conditions of risk and ambiguity. Strategic (e.g. sports betting, poker) and non-strategic (e.g. electronic gaming machines) problem gamblers differed in decision-making and the underlying psychological processes associated with their decisions. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. The impact of internet gambling on gambling problems: a comparison of moderate-risk and problem Internet and non-Internet gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Russell, Alex; Hing, Nerilee; Wood, Robert; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2013-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported higher rates of gambling problems among Internet compared with non-Internet gamblers. However, little research has examined those at risk of developing gambling problems or overall gambling involvement. This study aimed to examine differences between problem and moderate-risk gamblers among Internet and non-Internet gamblers to determine the mechanisms for how Internet gambling may contribute to gambling problems. Australian gamblers (N = 6,682) completed an online survey that included measures of gambling participation, problem gambling severity, and help seeking. Compared with non-Internet gamblers, Internet gamblers were younger, engaged in a greater number of gambling activities, and were more likely to bet on sports. These differences were significantly greater for problem than moderate-risk gamblers. Non-Internet gamblers were more likely to gamble on electronic gaming machines, and a significantly higher proportion of problem gamblers participated in this gambling activity. Non-Internet gamblers were more likely to report health and psychological impacts of problem gambling and having sought help for gambling problems. Internet gamblers who experience gambling-related harms appear to represent a somewhat different group from non-Internet problem and moderate-risk gamblers. This has implications for the development of treatment and prevention programs, which are often based on research that does not cater for differences between subgroups of gamblers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Decision-Making, Cognitive Distortions and Alcohol Use in Adolescent Problem and Non-problem Gamblers: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Maria; Griffiths, Mark D; Nigro, Giovanna; Cosenza, Marina

    2016-12-01

    In the psychological literature, many studies have investigated the neuropsychological and behavioral changes that occur developmentally during adolescence. These studies have consistently observed a deficit in the decision-making ability of children and adolescents. This deficit has been ascribed to incomplete brain development. The same deficit has also been observed in adult problem and pathological gamblers. However, to date, no study has examined decision-making in adolescents with and without gambling problems. Furthermore, no study has ever examined associations between problem gambling, decision-making, cognitive distortions and alcohol use in youth. To address these issues, 104 male adolescents participated in this study. They were equally divided in two groups, problem gamblers and non-problem gamblers, based on South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents scores. All participants performed the Iowa gambling task and completed the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale and the alcohol use disorders identification test. Adolescent problem gamblers displayed impaired decision-making, reported high cognitive distortions, and had more problematic alcohol use compared to non-problem gamblers. Strong correlations between problem gambling, alcohol use, and cognitive distortions were observed. Decision-making correlated with interpretative bias. This study demonstrated that adolescent problem gamblers appear to have the same psychological profile as adult problem gamblers and that gambling involvement can negatively impact on decision-making ability that, in adolescence, is still developing. The correlations between interpretative bias and decision-making suggested that the beliefs in the ability to influence gambling outcomes may facilitate decision-making impairment.

  19. Correlates of depressive symptom severity in problem and pathological gamblers in couple relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier-Arbour, Alisson; Trudel, Gilles; Boyer, Richard; Harvey, Pascale; Goldfarb, Maria Rocio

    2014-03-01

    Problem and pathological gamblers (PPG) often suffer from depressive symptoms. Gambling problems have negative consequences on multiple aspects of gamblers' lives, including family and marital relationships. The objectives of the current study were to (1) replicate the results of studies that have suggested a stronger and more significant relationship between gambling and depression in PPG than in non-problem gamblers (NPG) and (2) explore specific correlates of depressive symptom severity in PPG in couple relationships. Variables demonstrated to be significantly correlated with depressive symptoms in the general population were selected. It was hypothesized that gender, age, gambler's mean annual income, perceived poverty, employment status, clinical status (i.e., problem or pathological gambler versus non-problem gambler), trait anxiety, alcoholism, problem-solving skills, and dyadic adjustment would be significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Sixty-seven PPG were recruited, primarily from an addiction treatment center; 40 NPG were recruited, primarily through the media. Results revealed that PPG reported significantly greater depressive symptoms than did NPG. Further, elevated trait anxiety and poor dyadic adjustment were demonstrated to be significant and specific correlates of depressive symptom severity in PPG. These findings contribute to the literature on depressive symptomatology in PPG in relationships, and highlight the importance of the influence of the couple relationship on PPG.

  20. Motivators for seeking gambling-related treatment among Ontario problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suurvali, Helen; Hodgins, David C; Toneatto, Tony; Cunningham, John A

    2012-06-01

    A random digit dialing telephone survey was used to interview 8,467 adults in Ontario, Canada. The NODS-CLiP was used to identify a representative sample of 730 gamblers (54.3% male, mean age 45.3 years) with possible past year gambling problems in order to explore factors that might affect disordered gamblers' motivators for seeking gambling-related help. A final sample of 526 gamblers provided useable data on possible reasons for and barriers to seeking help, awareness of services, self-perception of gambling problems and experience with help-seeking. Financial and relationship issues were the most frequently volunteered motivators. However, over two-thirds of the respondents could not think of a reason for seeking help. Gamblers who had self-admitted or more severe problems, who knew how to get help, who were employed and had more education, and who identified possible barriers to seeking help were more likely to suggest motivators, especially financial ones. More research is recommended on gamblers' trajectory towards recognition of a gambling problem, the process of overcoming specific barriers to treatment, and the role of social advantage (e.g., education and employment), in order to devise educational campaigns that will encourage earlier help-seeking among disordered gamblers.

  1. The problem with self-forgiveness: forgiving the self deters readiness to change among gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Erinn C; Sztainert, Travis; Gillen, Nathalie R; Caouette, Julie; Wohl, Michael J A

    2012-09-01

    Self-forgiveness is generally understood to be a mechanism that restores and improves the self. In the current study, we examine the possible deleterious consequences of forgiving the self among gamblers-specifically in regard to gamblers' readiness to change their problematic behavior. At a large Canadian university, 110 young adult gamblers' level of gambling pathology was assessed, along with their readiness to change and self-forgiveness for their gambling. Participants were 33 females and 75 males (2 unspecified) with a mean age of 20.33. Results revealed that level of pathology (at risk vs. problem gamblers) significantly predicted increased readiness to change. Self-forgiveness mediated this relationship, such that level of gambling pathology increased readiness to change to the extent that participants were relatively unforgiving of their gambling. Implications for seeking professional assistance as well as treatment and recovery are discussed.

  2. Tracking online poker problem gamblers with player account-based gambling data only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquiens, Amandine; Tanguy, Marie-Laure; Benyamina, Amine; Lagadec, Marthylle; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Reynaud, Michel

    2016-12-01

    The aim was to develop and validate an instrument to track online problem poker gamblers with player account-based gambling data (PABGD). We emailed an invitation to all active poker gamblers on the online gambling service provider Winamax. The 14,261 participants completed the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). PGSI served as a gold standard to track problem gamblers (i.e., PGSI ≥ 5). We used a stepwise logistic regression to build a predictive model of problem gambling with PABGD, and validated it. Of the sample 18% was composed of online poker problem gamblers. The risk factors of problem gambling included in the predictive model were being male, compulsive, younger than 28 years, making a total deposit > 0 euros, having a mean loss per gambling session > 1.7 euros, losing a total of > 45 euros in the last 30 days, having a total stake > 298 euros, having > 60 gambling sessions in the last 30 days, and multi-tabling. The tracking instrument had a sensitivity of 80%, and a specificity of 50%. The quality of the instrument was good. This study illustrates the feasibility of a method to develop and validate instruments to track online problem gamblers with PABGD only. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A randomized controlled trial of a personalized feedback intervention for problem gamblers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Cunningham

    Full Text Available Personalized feedback is a promising self-help for problem gamblers. Such interventions have shown consistently positive results with other addictive behaviours, and our own pilot test of personalized normative feedback materials for gamblers yielded positive findings. The current randomized controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness, and the sustained efficacy, of the personalized feedback intervention materials for problem gamblers.Respondents recruited by a general population telephone screener of Ontario adults included gamblers with moderate and severe gambling problems. Those who agreed to participate were randomly assigned to receive: 1 the full personalized normative feedback intervention; 2 a partial feedback that contained all the feedback information provided to those in condition 1 but without the normative feedback content (i.e., no comparisons provided to general population gambling norms; or 3 a waiting list control condition. The primary hypothesis was that problem gamblers who received the personalized normative feedback intervention would reduce their gambling more than problem gamblers who did not receive any intervention (waiting list control condition by the six-month follow-up.The study found no evidence for the impact of normative personalized feedback. However, participants who received, the partial feedback (without norms reduced the number of days they gambled compared to participants who did not receive the intervention. We concluded that personalized feedback interventions were well received and the materials may be helpful at reducing gambling. Realistically, it can be expected that the personalized feedback intervention may have a limited, short term impact on the severity of participants' problem gambling because the intervention is just a brief screener. An Internet-based version of the personalized feedback intervention tool, however, may offer an easy to access and non-threatening portal that can be used to

  4. Electrophysiological correlates of near outcome and outcome sequence processing in problem gamblers and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Natalie; Hewig, Johannes

    2017-10-27

    The magnification of skill component in gambling as well as the gambler's and hot hand fallacies are gambling-related cognitive distortions. The magnification of skill component refers to the belief that one's ability can be used to win in gambling and that there is a reliable way to do so. The gambler's fallacy refers to the belief that a given outcome is unlikely to follow a preceding run of the same outcome (e.g. a coin coming up heads following a run of heads), while the hot hand fallacy refers to the belief that a streak of wins is going to continue. The biopsychological basis of these cognitive distortions can be analyzed by examining the processing of near outcomes and outcome sequences in gambling. Near outcomes refer to close wins and losses that would have almost resulted in the other outcome. The current study aims to investigate the electrophysiological basis of said cognitive distortions as well as its modulation by gambling problems. In the current study a group of problem gamblers and matched controls gambled on a wheel of fortune and a coin toss paradigm. The processing of near outcomes and outcome sequences was analyzed using event-related potentials (FRN, P300). Near outcomes evoked smaller P300 amplitudes in both groups. Furthermore, previous wins were associated with increased P300 amplitudes. Outcome closeness and previous outcome sequences did not modulate the FRN amplitude. The processing of near outcomes and outcome sequences was not modulated by gambling problems. General differences between problem gamblers and controls were found, with problem gamblers showing reduced peak-to-peak FRN amplitudes. This might point towards a generally more favorable evaluation of gambling outcomes in problem gamblers while the electrophysiological correlates of the analyzed cognitive distortions do not differ from those of healthy controls. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Adult ADHD Is Associated With Gambling Severity and Psychiatric Comorbidity Among Treatment-Seeking Problem Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Laura; Fischer, Gabriele

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is as follows: (a) exploring retrospective childhood and adult ADHD symptomatology in treatment-seeking gamblers, (b) providing detailed characteristics of the association between pathological gambling (PG) and ADHD, and (c) identifying risk factors for a history of ADHD. Eighty problem gamblers (20% female) were examined using a standardized interview (PG: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [4th ed.; DSM-IV] criteria, Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey; ADHD: Wender Utah Rating Scale- deutsche Kurzform, Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale; comorbidities: Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview). Forty-three percentage of patients screened positive for childhood ADHD, and in 11%, ADHD persisted in adulthood. Patients with adult ADHD had more severe gambling problems ( p = .009, d = 1.03) and a higher number of psychiatric comorbidities ( p gamblers.

  6. Gambling behaviors and psychopathology related to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in problem and non-problem adult gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatseas, Melina; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Guilleux, Alice; Groupe Jeu; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2016-05-30

    Previous studies showed that Pathological Gambling and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. The aim of this study was to examine whether ADHD is associated with specific severity patterns in terms of gambling behavior, psychopathology and personality traits. 599 problem and non-problem-gamblers were recruited in addiction clinics and gambling places in France. Subjects were assessed with the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Temperament and Character Inventory, the South Oaks Gambling Screen and questionnaires assessing gambling related cognitive distortions and gambling habits. 20.7% (n=124) of gamblers were screened positive for lifetime or current ADHD. Results from the multivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with a higher severity of gambling-related problems and with more psychiatric comorbidity. Among problem gamblers, subjects with history of ADHD were also at higher risk for unemployment, psychiatric comorbidity and specific dysfunctional personality traits. This study supports the link between gambling related problems and ADHD in a large sample of problem and non-problem gamblers, including problem-gamblers not seeking treatment. This points out the necessity to consider this disorder in the prevention and in the treatment of pathological gambling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Empirical Study of Personality Disorders Among Treatment-Seeking Problem Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M; Oldenhof, E; Allen, J S; Dowling, N A

    2016-12-01

    The primary aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of personality disorders in problem gamblers, to explore the relationship between personality disorders and problem gambling severity, and to explore the degree to which the psychological symptoms highlighted in the biosocial developmental model of borderline personality disorder (impulsivity, distress tolerance, substance use, PTSD symptoms, psychological distress and work/social adjustment) are associated with problem gambling. A secondary aim was to explore the strength of the relationships between these symptoms and problem gambling severity in problem gamblers with and without personality disorder pathology. Participants were 168 consecutively admitted problem gamblers seeking treatment from a specialist outpatient gambling service in Australia. The prevalence of personality disorders using the self-report version of the Iowa Personality Disorders Screen was 43.3 %. Cluster B personality disorders, but not Cluster A or C personality disorders, were associated with problem gambling severity. All psychological symptoms, except alcohol and drug use, were significantly higher among participants with personality disorder pathology compared to those without. Finally, psychological distress, and work and social adjustment were significantly associated with problem gambling severity for problem gamblers with personality disorder pathology, while impulsivity, psychological distress, and work and social adjustment were significantly associated with problem gambling severity for those without personality disorder pathology. High rates of comorbid personality disorders, particularly Cluster B disorders, necessitate routine screening in gambling treatment services. More complex psychological profiles may complicate treatment for problem gamblers with comorbid personality disorders. Future research should examine the applicability of the biosocial developmental model to problem gambling in community studies.

  8. Superstitious Beliefs and Problem Gambling Among Thai Lottery Gamblers: The Mediation Effects of Number Search and Gambling Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravichai, Sunisa; Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2015-12-01

    Thai lottery gamblers won prizes after betting on numbers they obtained from newspaper stories. We hypothesized that Thai lottery gamblers' superstitious beliefs were related to their problem gambling through the mediation of number search and gambling intensity. In a study among 380 Thai lottery gamblers, superstitious beliefs were operationally defined as the beliefs in events or objects that seemed to reveal numbers, number search as an attempt to identify numbers to bet, gambling intensity as the frequency and amounts of lottery gambling, and problem gambling as the symptoms of problems relating to lottery gambling. Results support the hypotheses. There is a statistically significant indirect relationship between Thai lottery gamblers' superstitious beliefs and their problem gambling through the mediation of number search and gambling intensity. Thai lottery gamblers need to be reminded that their superstitious beliefs and number search are precursors of their problem gambling.

  9. Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Predict Attentional Bias in Non-problem Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Leigh D; Bowling, Alison C

    2015-12-01

    Problem gambling has been identified as a public health concern in Australia, and a considerable proportion of regular gamblers may be at risk of developing gambling related problems. Attentional bias to salient cues has been observed in substance addictions, and to some extent, in problem gamblers. This bias appears to be indicative of an increase in sensitisation to salient cues as a result of continued reforcement of a related behaviour. To test for an attentional bias to gambling-related stimuli in non-problem gamblers, the relationships between gambling frequency, gambling attitudes and beliefs (GABS-23), and attentional bias were investigated. Participants (N = 38) viewed simultaneous pairs of gambling-related and neutral images and performed a dot probe task, during which their eye-movements were recorded. This enabled both direct and indirect measures of attentional bias to be obtained. Gambling frequency and GABS-23 scores predicted both direct and indirect measures of a bias in the maintenance of attention to gambling cues. No bias in attentional engagement was found. These results suggest that regular gamblers who have not yet developed any related problems show signs of sensitisation to gambling cues and may be at risk of progressing further towards problem gambling.

  10. Application of Gambler's Ruin Problem to Sediment Transport Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Christina; Lai, Kung-Chung

    2013-04-01

    This study develops a Gambler's ruin model of sediment particle interaction between bed material and water column inflows. Given several transitions between the bed material and the water column, this study calculates the probabilities starting from a given number of sediment particles to the maximum allowable number of sediment particles in the water column and the mean time that the particles remained in the water column. The model is also used to simulate the effective risk of the water treatment plant reaching limits in the water quality standard. The model is also used to quantify variability in the effective risk of exceeding the maximum carry capacity of the Shihmen reservoir basin. The modeling results, including the expected value and variance in sediment concentrations as well as the confidence interval of effective risk, are presented.

  11. Application of gambler's ruin model to sediment transport problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Christina W.; Hsu, Yaowen; Lai, Kung-Chung; Wu, Nai-Kuang

    2014-03-01

    This study applies the gambler's ruin model to simulate sediment transport. First, the model is mathematically formulated to determine the probability of reaching the maximum state of the sediment carrying capacity, and the mean time spent in transient states before reaching the maximum sediment carrying capacity. Experimental data are used to model the sediment movement process given the bedload and the suspended load particles in the water column. The impact of different parameters is discussed under varying flow conditions and varying sediment particle characteristics. The model shows that, as the maximum number of particles increases, the probability that the flow can carry the particles decreases. A smaller particle size is normally associated with a higher probability of reaching the maximum sediment carrying capacity under the same flow condition. It is also found that as the time a particle spends in the water column increases, the probability of the flow maintaining the same number of particles after several sediment particle transitions into different states increases. In the second case study, the effective risk of a given number of sediment particles in the water column reaching the maximum capacity of the water treatment plant in the Shihmen Reservoir Basin in 2008 is modeled. The Xia Yun hydrologic station is selected for the simulation because it is a fully comprehensive hydrologic station and is located near the Shihmen Reservoir. Moreover, a novel approach is used to incorporate uncertainty analysis in the gambler's ruin model: the Perturbance Moments Method (PMM). Results of expected value and one-standard-deviation interval in the number of sediment particles in the water column are acquired.

  12. Problem Gambling Features and Gendered Gambling Domains Amongst Regular Gamblers in a Swedish Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Jessika; Romild, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate, from a gender perspective, how different features of problem gambling present in men and women who gamble regularly in Sweden were distributed in four domains based on gambling type (chance or strategy) and setting (public or domestic). Problem gambling features were based on the nine items in the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). It was hypothesized that men and women gamble in different domains. Further, it was hypothesized that male gamblers overall experienced more problems with gambling than female gamblers, although in the same domains they would report the same level of problems. A further hypothesis predicted that regular female gamblers would experience more health and social problems and men would experience more financial difficulties. Interviews with a subsample of gamblers (n = 3191) from a Swedish nationally representative sample (n = 8179) was used to examine how features of problem gambling correspond with gender and the domains. Only the first hypothesis was fully supported. Men were more likely to participate in forms of gambling requiring strategy in a public setting, and women were more likely to participate in chance-based gambling in a domestic setting. Male and female gamblers had similar levels of problem gambling in the bi-variate analysis, but if controlling for age and gambling in multiple domains, women were more at risk than men. Additionally, men and women presented similar health and economic situations. The differences between male and female gamblers in Sweden have implications for research and prevention.

  13. Response perseveration and ventral prefrontal sensitivity to reward and punishment in male problem gamblers and smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Michiel B; Veltman, Dick J; Goudriaan, Anna E; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; van den Brink, Wim

    2009-03-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is associated with maladaptive perseverative behavior, but the underlying mechanism and neural circuitry is not completely clear. Here, the hypothesis was tested that PG is characterized by response perseveration and abnormalities in reward and/or punishment sensitivity in the ventral frontostriatal circuit. Executive functioning was assessed to verify if these effects are independent of the dorsal frontostriatal circuit. A group of smokers was also included to examine whether impairments in PG generalize to substance use disorders. Response perseveration and reward/punishment sensitivity were measured with a probabilistic reversal-learning task, in which subjects could win and lose money. Executive functioning was measured with a planning task, the Tower of London. Performance and fMRI data were acquired in 19 problem gamblers, 19 smokers, and 19 healthy controls. Problem gamblers showed severe response perseveration, associated with reduced activation of right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in response to both monetary gain and loss. Results did not fully generalize to smokers. Planning performance and related activation of the dorsal frontostriatal circuit were intact in both problem gamblers and smokers. PG is related to response perseveration and diminished reward and punishment sensitivity as indicated by hypoactivation of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex when money is gained and lost. Moreover, intact planning abilities and normal dorsal frontostriatal responsiveness indicate that this deficit is not due to impaired executive functioning. Response perseveration and ventral prefrontal hyporesponsiveness to monetary loss may be markers for maladaptive behavior seen in chemical and nonchemical addictions.

  14. Gambling Patterns and Problems of Gamblers on Licensed and Unlicensed Sites in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, Jean-Michel; Kairouz, Sylvia; Eroukmanoff, Vincent; Monson, Eva

    2016-03-01

    In 2010 France enacted a law to regulate supply and consumption of online gambling. Its primary aim was to protect citizens from gambling-related harm. This study aims to assess differences in gambling patterns and related harm between online gamblers who use licensed versus unlicensed sites. Participants (N = 3860) completed a self-administered online survey on gambling practices. Pairwise logistic regressions examined the association between the legal statuses of gambling sites people patronized and demographic variables and gambling types. Multivariate logistic regression models explored associations between gambling patterns and related problems according to the legal status of sites people have gambled on. Overall, 53.7 % of online gamblers report gambling exclusively on licensed sites. Those who bet on regulated activities on unlicensed sites, versus licensed sites, are more likely to be female, younger, less educated, inactive in the labor market and are more likely to perceive their financial situation to be difficult. Gambling on unlicensed sites is associated with more intense gambling patterns and more gambling-related problems compared to licensed sites. Findings demonstrate that gambling activities carried out on state licensed sites are associated with less overall harm to gamblers. Implications of these findings on future policy are discussed and prospective research directions are outlined.

  15. Does providing extended relapse prevention bibliotherapy to problem gamblers improve outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, David C; Currie, Shawn R; el-Guebaly, Nady; Diskin, Katherine M

    2007-03-01

    Relapse rates among pathological gamblers are high with as many as 75% of gamblers returning to gambling shortly after a serious attempt to quit. The present study focused on providing a low cost, easy to access relapse prevention program to such individuals. Based on information collected in our ongoing study of the process of relapse, a series of relapse prevention booklets were developed and evaluated. Individuals who had recently quit gambling (N = 169) were recruited (through media announcements) and randomly assigned to a single mailing condition in which they received one booklet summarizing all of the relapse prevention information or a repeated mailing condition in which they received the summary booklet plus 7 additional booklets mailed to them at regular intervals over the course of a year period. Gambling involvement over the course of the 12-month follow-up period, confirmed by family or friends, was compared between the two groups. Results indicated that participants receiving the repeated mailings were more likely to meet their goal, but they did not differ from participants receiving the single mailing in frequency of gambling or extent of gambling losses. The results of this project suggest that providing extended relapse prevention bibliotherapy to problem gamblers does not improve outcome. However, providing the overview booklet may be a low cost, easy to access alternative for individuals who have quit gambling.

  16. Predictors of Problem Gambling Severity in Treatment Seeking Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounslow, Vanessa; Smith, David; Battersby, Malcolm; Morefield, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Problem gambling has become a widespread problem following the rapid expansion of electronic gaming machines into hotels and clubs over the last 10 years. Recent literature indicates that certain factors can influence problem gambling severity, such as psychiatric co-morbidity and personality traits, gambling related cognitions, substance use and…

  17. Impulsivity and cognitive distortions in pathological gamblers attending the UK National Problem Gambling Clinic: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczuk, R; Bowden-Jones, H; Verdejo-Garcia, A; Clark, L

    2011-12-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a form of behavioural addiction that has been associated with elevated impulsivity and also cognitive distortions in the processing of chance, probability and skill. We sought to assess the relationship between the level of cognitive distortions and state and trait measures of impulsivity in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Thirty pathological gamblers attending the National Problem Gambling Clinic, the first National Health Service clinic for gambling problems in the UK, were compared with 30 healthy controls in a case-control design. Cognitive distortions were assessed using the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS). Trait impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P, which includes scales of urgency, the tendency to be impulsive in positive or negative mood states. Delay discounting rates were taken as a state measure of impulsive choice. Pathological gamblers had elevated impulsivity on several UPPS-P subscales but effect sizes were largest (Cohen's d>1.4) for positive and negative urgency. The pathological gamblers also displayed higher levels of gambling distortions, and elevated preference for immediate rewards, compared to controls. Within the pathological gamblers, there was a strong relationship between the preference for immediate rewards and the level of cognitive distortions (R2=0.41). Impulsive choice in the gamblers was correlated with the level of gambling distortions, and we hypothesize that an impulsive decision-making style may increase the acceptance of erroneous beliefs during gambling play.

  18. Exposure to and engagement with gambling marketing in social media: Reported impacts on moderate-risk and problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; King, Daniel L; Russell, Alex M T; Delfabbro, Paul; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Hing, Nerilee

    2016-03-01

    Digital advertising for gambling and specifically marketing via social media have increased in recent years, and the impact on vulnerable consumers, including moderate-risk and problem gamblers, is unknown. Social media promotions often fall outside of advertising restrictions and codes of conduct and may have an inequitable effect on susceptible gamblers. This study aimed to investigate recall of exposure to, and reported impact on gamblers of, gambling promotions and marketing content on social media, with a focus on vulnerable users currently experiencing gambling problems. Gamblers who use social media (N = 964) completed an online survey assessing their exposure to and engagement with gambling operators on social media, their problem gambling severity, and the impact of social media promotions on their gambling. Gamblers at moderate risk and problem gamblers were significantly more likely to report having been exposed to social media gambling promotions and indicated actively engaging with gambling operators via these platforms. They were more likely to self-report that they had increased gambling as a result of these promotions, and over one third reported that the promotions had increased their problems. This research suggests that gamblers at moderate risk or those experiencing gambling problems are more likely to be impacted by social media promotions, and these may play a role in exacerbating disordered gambling. Future research should verify these self-reported results with behavioral data. However, the potential influence of advertisements via these new platforms should be considered by clinicians and policymakers, given their potential role in the formation of this behavioral addiction. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Structural changes to electronic gaming machines as effective harm minimization strategies for non-problem and problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Louise; Walker, Michael; Coughlan, Maree-Jo; Enersen, Kirsten; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of three proposed modifications to the structural characteristics of electronic gaming machines as harm minimisation strategies for non-problem and probable problem gamblers. Structural changes included reducing the maximum bet size, reducing reel spin and removing large note acceptors. Behavioural patterns of play were observed in 779 participants attending clubs and hotels. Observations were conducted in the gaming venue during regular gaming sessions. Eight experimental machines were designed to represent every combination of the modifications. 210 participants played at least one modified and one unmodified machine. Following play, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) was administered. More problem than non-problem gamblers used high denomination bill acceptors and bet over one-dollar per wager. Machines modified to accept the one-dollar maximum bet were played for less time and were associated with smaller losses, fewer individual wagers and lower levels of alcohol consumption and smoking. It was concluded that the reduction of maximum bet levels was the only modification likely to be effective as a harm minimization strategy for problem gamblers.

  20. Why Adolescent Problem Gamblers Do Not Seek Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Robert; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Pelletier, Amelie

    2004-01-01

    Prevalence studies indicate that approximately 40% of adolescents participate in regular gambling with rates of problem gambling up to four times greater than that found in adult populations. However, it appears that few adolescents actually seek treatment for such problems. The purpose of this study was to explore potential reasons why…

  1. Neurocognitive dysfunction in problem gamblers with co-occurring antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Austin W; Leppink, Eric W; Grant, Jon E

    2017-07-01

    Problem gamblers with symptoms of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may represent a distinct problem gambling subtype, but the neurocognitive profile of individuals affected by both disorders is poorly characterized. Non-treatment-seeking young adults (18-29years) who gambled ≥5 times in the preceding year were recruited from the general community. Problem gamblers (defined as those meeting ≥1 DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder) with a lifetime history of ASPD (N=26) were identified using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and compared with controls (N=266) using questionnaire-based impulsivity scales and objective computerized neuropsychological tasks. Findings were uncorrected for multiple comparisons. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen's d. Problem gambling with ASPD was associated with significantly elevated gambling disorder symptoms, lower quality of life, greater psychiatric comorbidity, higher impulsivity questionnaire scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (d=0.4) and Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire (d=0.5), and impaired cognitive flexibility (d=0.4), executive planning (d=0.4), and an aspect of decision-making (d=0.6). Performance on measures of response inhibition, risk adjustment, and quality of decision making did not differ significantly between groups. These preliminary findings, though in need of replication, support the characterization of problem gambling with ASPD as a subtype of problem gambling associated with higher rates of impulsivity and executive function deficits. Taken together, these results may have treatment implications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Life events and problem gambling severity: A prospective study of adult gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Christelle; Kairouz, Sylvia; Nadeau, Louise; Monson, Eva

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have shown that gambling problems are cyclical but few have empirically investigated factors that are associated with change. The purpose of this article is to prospectively examine associations between life events and problem gambling severity in a cohort of gamblers. Occurrence of life events and gambling problem severity were assessed 3 times over a period of 2 years in a cohort of nonproblem and problem gamblers (N = 179) drawn from a representative sample derived from a population survey. Cross-lagged analyses revealed that cumulative number of life events were associated with an increase in severity of problem gambling 12 months later. Regression analyses showed that significant life events in several domains, for example, "change in sleeping habits," "accidental injury or illness" or "retirement," are likely to be associated over time to the increase or the continuation of risky gambling habits. This study's findings on the potential negative influence of cumulative number of life events, or of specific ones, are informative for secondary prevention and treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Problem Gambling in a Sample of Older Adult Casino Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maas, Mark; Mann, Robert E; McCready, John; Matheson, Flora I; Turner, Nigel E; Hamilton, Hayley A; Schrans, Tracy; Ialomiteanu, Anca

    2017-01-01

    As older adults continue to make up a greater proportion of the Canadian population, it becomes more important to understand the implications that their leisure activities have for their physical and mental health. Gambling, in particular, is a form of leisure that is becoming more widely available and has important implications for the mental health and financial well-being of older adults. This study examines a large sample (2103) of casino-going Ontarian adults over the age of 55 and identifies those features of their gambling participation that are associated with problem gambling. Logistic regression analysis is used to analyze the data. Focusing on types of gambling participated in and motivations for visiting the casino, this study finds that several forms of gambling and motivations to gamble are associated with greater risk of problem gambling. It also finds that some motivations are associated with lower risk of problem gambling. The findings of this study have implications related to gambling availability within an aging population.

  4. Effectiveness of a Self Help Cognitive Behavioural Treatment Program for Problem Gamblers: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, T P S; Raylu, N; Lai, W W

    2017-10-14

    The study aimed to strengthen the scarce literature on self-help treatments for Problem Gambling (PG) by comparing the effectiveness of a Self-Help Cognitive Behavioral Treatment (SHCBT) program (n = 23) with a 6-week Waitlist condition (n = 32) in problem gamblers. Participants were community volunteers with gambling problems and were randomly allocated to the Waitlist and treatment conditions. Results showed significant improvements at post-treatment in gambling behaviors including frequency of gambling, average amount gambled per day and PG symptoms as well as a number of gambling correlates including psychological states (e.g., depression, anxiety and stress), gambling cognitions, gambling urges, gambling related self-efficacy, satisfaction with life, and quality of life among those who completed the SHCBT program, when compared with the waitlist condition. The effect size (partial η 2) ranged from .25 to .57 for all assessed outcomes that showed significant improvement from pre- to post-treatment. It was concluded that a self-help CBT program can be beneficial for treating community problem gamblers.

  5. Differences between problem and nonproblem gamblers in subjective arousal and affective valence amongst electronic gaming machine players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen L; Rodda, Simone; Phillips, James G

    2004-12-01

    Arousal-based theories of gambling suggest that excitement gained from gambling reinforces further gambling behavior. However, recent theories of emotion conceptualize mood as comprising both arousal and valence dimensions. Thus, excitement comprises arousal with positive valence. We examined self-reported changes in arousal and affective valence in 27 problem and 40 nonproblem gamblers playing electronic gaming machines (EGMs). Problem gamblers reported greater arousal increases after gambling and increases in negative valence if they lost. This accords poorly with an excitement-based explanation of problem gambling.

  6. The relative contribution of metacognitions and attentional control to the severity of gambling in problem gamblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcantonio M. Spada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the relationship between metacognitions, attentional control, and the severity of gambling in problem gamblers. One hundred and twenty six problem gamblers completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21, the Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire 30, the Attentional Control Scale, and the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Results revealed that negative affect, four out of five metacognitions factors (positive beliefs about worry, negative beliefs about thoughts concerning danger and uncontrollability, cognitive confidence and beliefs about the need to control thoughts, and all attentional control factors (focusing, shifting and flexible control of thought were correlated, in the predicted directions, with the severity of gambling. The same metacognitions were also found to be correlated, in the predicted directions, with attention focusing, however only negative beliefs about thoughts concerning danger and uncontrollability and cognitive confidence were found to be correlated with attention shifting and flexible control of thought. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that beliefs about the need to control thoughts were the only predictor of the severity of gambling controlling for negative affect. Overall these findings support the hypotheses and are consistent with the metacognitive model of psychological dysfunction. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Trait Mindfulness, Problem-Gambling Severity, Altered State of Awareness and Urge to Gamble in Poker-Machine Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeith, Charles F A; Rock, Adam J; Clark, Gavin I

    2017-06-01

    In Australia, poker-machine gamblers represent a disproportionate number of problem gamblers. To cultivate a greater understanding of the psychological mechanisms involved in poker-machine gambling, a repeated measures cue-reactivity protocol was administered. A community sample of 38 poker-machine gamblers was assessed for problem-gambling severity and trait mindfulness. Participants were also assessed regarding altered state of awareness (ASA) and urge to gamble at baseline, following a neutral cue, and following a gambling cue. Results indicated that: (a) urge to gamble significantly increased from neutral cue to gambling cue, while controlling for baseline urge; (b) cue-reactive ASA did not significantly mediate the relationship between problem-gambling severity and cue-reactive urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue); (c) trait mindfulness was significantly negatively associated with both problem-gambling severity and cue-reactive urge (i.e., from neutral cue to gambling cue, while controlling for baseline urge); and (d) trait mindfulness did not significantly moderate the effect of problem-gambling severity on cue-reactive urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue). This is the first study to demonstrate a negative association between trait mindfulness and cue-reactive urge to gamble in a population of poker-machine gamblers. Thus, this association merits further evaluation both in relation to poker-machine gambling and other gambling modalities.

  8. Problem gamblers are hyposensitive to wins: an analysis of skin conductance responses during actual gambling on electronic gaming machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lole, Lisa; Gonsalvez, Craig J; Barry, Robert J; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2014-06-01

    Physiological arousal is purportedly a key determinant in the development and maintenance of gambling behaviors, with problem gambling conceptualized in terms of abnormal autonomic responses. Theoretical conceptualizations of problem gambling are discordant regarding the nature of deficit in this disorder; some accounts posit that problem gamblers are hypersensitive to reward, and others that they are hyposensitive to reward and/or punishment. Previous research examining phasic electrodermal responses in gamblers has been limited to laboratory settings, and reactions to real gaming situations need to be examined. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) to losses, wins, and losses disguised as wins (LDWs) were recorded from 15 problem gamblers (PGs) and 15 nonproblem gamblers (NPGs) while they wagered their own money during electronic gaming machine play. PGs demonstrated significantly reduced SCRs to reward. SCRs to losses and LDWs did not differ for either PGs or NPGs. This hyposensitivity to wins may reflect abnormalities in incentive processing, and may represent a potential biological marker for problem gambling. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Distorted Beliefs about Luck and Skill and Their Relation to Gambling Problems and Gambling Behavior in Dutch Gamblers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowie, M.E.; Stewart, S.H.; Salmon, J.; Collins, P.; Al-Hamdani, M.; Boffo, M.; Salemink, E.; de Jong, D.; Smits, R.; Wiers, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Gamblers' cognitive distortions are thought to be an important mechanism involved in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. The Gambling Cognitions Inventory (GCI) evaluates two categories of distortions: beliefs that one is lucky (i.e., "Luck/Chance") and beliefs that one has special

  10. Online interventions for problem gamblers with and without co-occurring mental health symptoms: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Cunningham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbidity between problem gambling and depression or anxiety is common. Further, the treatment needs of people with co-occurring gambling and mental health symptoms may be different from those of problem gamblers who do not have a co-occurring mental health concern. The current randomized controlled trial (RCT will evaluate whether there is a benefit to providing access to mental health Internet interventions (G + MH intervention in addition to an Internet intervention for problem gambling (G-only intervention in participants with gambling problems who do or do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms. Methods Potential participants will be screened using an online survey to identify participants meeting criteria for problem gambling. As part of the baseline screening process, measures of current depression and anxiety will be assessed. Eligible participants agreeing (N = 280 to take part in the study will be randomized to one of two versions of an online intervention for gamblers – an intervention that just targets gambling issues (G-only versus a website that contains interventions for depression and anxiety in addition to an intervention for gamblers (G + MH. It is predicted that problem gamblers who do not have co-occurring mental health symptoms will display no significant difference between intervention conditions at a six-month follow-up. However, for those with co-occurring mental health symptoms, it is predicted that participants receiving access to the G + MH website will display significantly reduced gambling outcomes at six-month follow-up as compared to those provided with G-only website. Discussion The trial will produce information on the best means of providing online help to gamblers with and without co-occurring mental health symptoms. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02800096 ; Registration date: June 14, 2016.

  11. The Development of an Internet-Based Treatment for Problem Gamblers and Concerned Significant Others: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anders; Magnusson, Kristoffer; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2017-07-11

    Problem gambling creates significant harm for the gambler and for concerned significant others (CSOs). While several studies have investigated the effects of individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for problem gambling, less is known about the effects of involving CSOs in treatment. Behavioral couples therapy (BCT) has shown promising results when working with substance use disorders by involving both the user and a CSO. This pilot study investigated BCT for problem gambling, as well as the feasibility of performing a larger scale randomized controlled trial. 36 participants, 18 gamblers and 18 CSOs, were randomized to either BCT or individual CBT for the gambler. Both interventions were Internet-delivered self-help interventions with therapist support. Both groups of gamblers improved on all outcome measures, but there were no differences between the groups. The CSOs in the BCT group lowered their scores on anxiety and depression more than the CSOs of those randomized to the individual CBT group did. The implications of the results and the feasibility of the trial are discussed.

  12. The effects of anticipated regret on risk preferences of social and problem gamblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Tochkov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Anticipated regret is an important determinant in risky decision making, however only a few studies have explored its role in problem gambling. This study tested for differences in the anticipation of regret among social and problem gamblers and examined how these differences affect risk preferences in a gambling task. The extent of problem gambling was assessed using the South Oaks Gambling Screen and participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the risky feedback condition, the feeling of regret was avoided by choosing the risky gamble, whereas in the safe feedback condition the safe gamble was the regret-minimizing option. Problem gambling was associated with the choice of the risky gamble in both conditions indicating less sensitivity to anticipated regret. It was also associated with risk seeking across feedback conditions when the stakes of winning and loosing were higher. These findings suggest that less regret or the poor anticipation of regret might contribute to excessive gambling and thus need to be addressed in cognitive treatments of problem gambling.

  13. Is Fear to Intervene with Problem Gamblers Related to Interveners' Gender and Status? A Study with VLT Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, Alexander; Zumwald, Coralie

    2017-03-01

    We assess how video lottery terminal (VLT) operators' self-perceive their ability to recognize a problem gambler, to what extent they are approached by problem gamblers seeking for assistance, how many detections and interventions they report, and the reasons they give for not intervening with clients who show signs of problem gambling. We also examine how these variables are related to the operators' gender and status in the establishment. 177 VLT operators anonymously completed a structured questionnaire at the beginning of a responsible gambling training class held in different French-speaking Swiss towns. The operators felt confident in their ability to detect problem gambling behaviors, were rarely approached by problem gamblers seeking assistance, and reported fewer interventions compared to the number of detections. This reluctance to intervene was mainly attributed to the fear of potential negative reactions from the client. Female staff were the most reluctant to intervene and the most fearful of potential negative reactions from the client. Responsible gambling training programs should include coping strategies for dealing with potential negative reactions from clients. Our findings suggest that staff gender and status are two individual characteristics that should be taken into account when planning responsible gambling trainings.

  14. Distorted Beliefs about Luck and Skill and Their Relation to Gambling Problems and Gambling Behavior in Dutch Gamblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Cowie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamblers’ cognitive distortions are thought to be an important mechanism involved in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. The Gambling Cognitions Inventory (GCI evaluates two categories of distortions: beliefs that one is lucky (i.e., “Luck/Chance” and beliefs that one has special gambling-related skills (i.e., “Skill/Attitude”. Prior psychometric evaluations of the GCI demonstrated the utility of both subscales as measures of distortions and their concurrent relations to gambling problems among Canadian gamblers. However, these associations have not yet been studied in gamblers from other cultures nor have relationships between the GCI and indices of gambling behavior been investigated. In addition, the predictive validity of the GCI scales have not been evaluated in studies to date. The present study investigated the validity of the GCI as a measure of cognitive distortions in a sample of 49 Dutch gamblers by examining its concurrent and prospective relationships to both gambling problems (as measured through a standardized nine-item questionnaire assessing gambling-related problems and behaviors (as measured through two variables: days spent gambling and time spent gambling in minutes at baseline and over 1-month and 6-month intervals. The GCI subscales were internally consistent at all timepoints, and moderately to strongly inter-correlated at all timepoints. Each subscale correlated with an independent dimension of gambling both concurrently and prospectively: Luck/Chance was related to greater gambling problems and Skill/Attitude was related to greater gambling behavior. Thus, the two GCI subscales, while inter-correlated, appear to be related to different gambling outcomes, at least among Dutch gamblers. Moreover, the first evidence of the predictive validity of the GCI scales was demonstrated over a 1-month and 6-month interval. It is recommended that both types of cognitive distortions be considered in research

  15. Reputation mechanism: From resolution for truthful online auctions to the model of optimal one-gambler problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study reputation mechanisms, and show how the notion of reputation can help us in building truthful online auction mechanisms. From the mechanism design prospective, we derive the conditions on and design a truthful online auction mechanism. Moreover, in the case when some agents may lay or cannot have the real knowledge about the other agents reputations, we derive the resolution of the auction, such that the mechanism is truthful. Consequently, we move forward to the optimal one-gambler/one-seller problem, and explain how that problem is refinement of the previously discussed online auction design in the presence of reputation mechanism. In the setting of the optimal one-gambler problem, we naturally rise and solve the specific question: What is an agent's optimal strategy, in order to maximize his revenue? We would like to stress that our analysis goes beyond the scope, which game theory usually discusses under the notion of reputation. We model one-player games, by introducing a new parameter (reputation), which helps us in predicting the agent's behavior, in real-world situations, such as, behavior of a gambler, real-estate dealer, etc.

  16. Does size matter? An examination of problem gamblers' skin conductance responses to large and small magnitude rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lole, Lisa; Gonsalvez, Craig J

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has shown that individuals with substance use disorder equally value small and large magnitude rewards. This has led some researchers to conceptualize the problematic behaviors associated with this disorder as being, at least in part, caused by a deficiency in processing reward stimuli. Considering the documented similarities between substance use disorder and disordered gambling, the current study sought to investigate whether problem gamblers also display such an aberrant pattern of incentive processing. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) to small and large magnitude wins were recorded from 16 problem gamblers (PGs) and 16 healthy controls (HCs) while they completed a computer-simulated electronic gaming machine task. The results show that, while large wins elicited greater SCRs compared to small wins for the HC group, no difference in SCR amplitude was found following large and small wins in the PG group. These findings suggest that problem gamblers may be less effective at evaluating the value of incentives, and are discussed in terms of relevant theoretical frameworks. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. A focus group study of predictors of relapse in electronic gaming machine problem gambling, part 2: factors that 'pull' the gambler away from relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, J; Pols, R; Battersby, M; Lawn, S; Pulvirenti, M; Smith, D

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to develop an empirically based description of relapse in Electronic Gaming Machine (EGM) problem gambling (PG) by describing the processes and factors that 'pull' the problem gambler away from relapse contrasted with the 'push' towards relapse. These conceptualisations describe two opposing, interacting emotional processes occurring within the problem gambler during any relapse episode. Each relapse episode comprises a complex set of psychological and social behaviours where many factors interact sequentially and simultaneously within the problem gambler to produce a series of mental and behaviour events that end (1) with relapse where 'push' overcomes 'pull' or (2) continued abstinence where 'pull' overcomes 'push'. Four focus groups comprising thirty participants who were EGM problem gamblers, gamblers' significant others, therapists and counsellors described their experiences and understanding of relapse. The groups were recorded, recordings were then transcribed and analysed using thematic textual analysis. It was established that vigilance, motivation to commit to change, positive social support, cognitive strategies such as remembering past gambling harms or distraction techniques to avoid thinking about gambling to enable gamblers to manage the urge to gamble and urge extinction were key factors that protected against relapse. Three complementary theories emerged from the analysis. Firstly, a process of reappraisal of personal gambling behaviour pulls the gambler away from relapse. This results in a commitment to change that develops over time and affects but is independent of each episode of relapse. Secondly, relapse may be halted by interacting factors that 'pull' the problem gambler away from the sequence of mental and behavioural events, which follow the triggering of the urge and cognitions to gamble. Thirdly, urge extinction and apparent 'cure' is possible for EGM gambling. This study provides a qualitative, empirical model for

  18. Minimal treatment approaches for concerned significant others of problem gamblers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, David C; Toneatto, Tony; Makarchuk, Karyn; Skinner, Wayne; Vincent, Susan

    2007-06-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the efficacy of minimal treatment interventions for concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers. One hundred and eighty-six participants (82% females, 56% spouses) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: the first minimal intervention group received a self-help workbook [based on behavioral principles, modified from the Community Reinforcement and Family Therapy (CRAFT) model] and the second minimal intervention group received the workbook plus telephone support. The control condition received a treatment resource information package. Overall, all participants reported significant improvement in personal and relationship functioning and gambling behavior and consequences at the 3- and 6-month follow-up. The data demonstrated differences in favor of the interventions in three areas: days gambling, satisfaction with the program, and number who had their needs met. There was no difference in the number who had entered treatment. It may be that CSOs require more guidance and follow-up support to achieve these goals using the CRAFT procedures and strategies.

  19. Using Data-Driven and Process Mining Techniques for Identifying and Characterizing Problem Gamblers in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriadi Suriadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article uses data-driven techniques combined with established theory in order to analyse gambling behavioural patterns of 91 thousand individuals on a real-world fixed-odds gambling dataset in New Zealand. This research uniquely integrates a mixture of process mining, data mining and confirmatory statistical techniques in order to categorise different sub-groups of gamblers, with the explicit motivation of identifying problem gambling behaviours and reporting on the challenges and lessons learned from our case study.We demonstrate how techniques from various disciplines can be combined in order to gain insight into the behavioural patterns exhibited by different types of gamblers, as well as provide assurances of the correctness of our approach and findings. A highlight of this case study is both the methodology which demonstrates how such a combination of techniques provides a rich set of effective tools to undertake an exploratory and open-ended data analysis project that is guided by the process cube concept, as well as the findings themselves which indicate that the contribution that problem gamblers make to the total volume, expenditure, and revenue is higher than previous studies have maintained.

  20. Gambling frequency, gambling problems and concerned significant others of problem gamblers in Finland: cross-sectional population studies in 2007 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Anne H; Alho, Hannu; Castrén, Sari

    2015-05-01

    This study compares past-year gambling frequency, gambling problems and concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers in Finland by age, from 2007 and 2011. We used random sample data collected in 2007 (n = 4722) and 2011 (n = 4484). The data were weighted, based on gender, age and region of residence. We measured the past-year gambling frequency using a categorical variable, while gambling severity was measured with the South Oaks Gambling Screen. We identified CSOs by a single question including seven response options. Chi-Squared and Fisher's exact tests were used. Overall, the past-year gambling frequency change was statistically significant between 2007 and 2011. Among 18-64-year-old Finnish people, the proportion of non-gamblers decreased. Yet, among 15-17-year-old respondents, non-gambling increased and gambling problems decreased. Among 18-24 year olds, the proportion of close ones with gambling problems also decreased. On the other hand, the proportion of family members with gambling problems increased among the 50-64 year olds. The increase in adult gambling participation was mainly explained by infrequent gambling. The proportion of gambling problems from the gamblers' and CSOs' perspective remained unchanged, yet significant changes were observed within age groups. The short-term changes in under-age gambling problems were desirable. Future studies should explore the adaptation and access hypotheses alongside gambling problems. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  1. What characterises the expectations of gamblers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Connie

    This paper investigates the expectations of gamblers who have a risk attitude towards gambling (problem gamblers) and gamblers without a risk attitude (non-problem gamblers). In a representative survey of the Danish population we have selected all the people who have ever gambled. We classify...... the gamblers to have a risk attitude towards gambling if they have a positive score according to the NODS screening instrument (see appendix 1). In the questionnaire, some questions are asked to all the gamblers and some questions are asked specifically to the gamblers who have a positive NODS score and thus......, a risk attitude towards gambling. Based on the information from the survey there are several ways to carry out some logical tests around the elicited expectations. An interesting question is how gamblers perceive their chances of winning and the likely gains they can obtain. We investigate whether...

  2. Gambling Type, Substance Abuse, Health and Psychosocial Correlates of Male and Female Problem Gamblers in a Nationally Representative French Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaire, C; Kovess-Masfety, V; Guignard, R; Richard, J B; du Roscoät, E; Beck, F

    2017-06-01

    Many studies carried out on treatment-seeking problem gamblers (PG) have reported high levels of comorbid substance use disorders, and mental and physical health problems. Nevertheless, general population studies are still sparse, most of them have been carried out in the United States or Canada, and gender differences have not always been considered. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the type of games, and psychological and physical correlates in male and female PG in a nationally representative French sample. The total sample studied involved 25,647 subjects aged 15-85 years, including 333 PG and 25,314 non-problem gamblers (NPG). Data were extracted from a large survey of a representative sample of the French general population. They were evaluated for sociodemographic variables, gambling behavior, type of gambling activity, substance use, psychological distress, body mass index, chronic disease, and lack of sleep. Overall, there were significant differences between PG and NPG in gender, age, education, employment and marital status, substance use disorders (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine and heroin), psychological distress, obesity, lack of sleep and type of gambling activity. Although male and female PG had different profiles, the gambling type, especially strategic games, appeared as an important variable in the relationship between gender and problem gambling. This research underlines the importance of considering gender differences and gambling type in the study of gambling disorders. Identifying specific factors in the relationship between gender, gambling type and gambling problems may help improve clinical interventions and health promotion strategies.

  3. The Prevalence of Comorbid Personality Disorders in Treatment-Seeking Problem Gamblers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki A; Cowlishaw, S; Jackson, A C; Merkouris, S S; Francis, K L; Christensen, D R

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review and meta-analyze the prevalence of comorbid personality disorders among treatment-seeking problem gamblers. Almost one half (47.9%) of problem gamblers displayed comorbid personality disorders. They were most likely to display Cluster B disorders (17.6%), with smaller proportions reporting Cluster C disorders (12.6%) and Cluster A disorders (6.1%). The most prevalent personality disorders were narcissistic (16.6%), antisocial (14.0%), avoidant (13.4%), obsessive-compulsive (13.4%), and borderline (13.1%) personality disorders. Sensitivity analyses suggested that these prevalence estimates were robust to the inclusion of clinical trials and self-selected samples. Although there was significant variability in reported rates, subgroup analyses revealed no significant differences in estimates of antisocial personality disorder according to problem gambling severity, measure of comorbidity employed, and study jurisdiction. The findings highlight the need for gambling treatment services to conduct routine screening and assessment of co-occurring personality disorders and to provide treatment approaches that adequately address these comorbid conditions.

  4. Gender by Preferred Gambling Activity in Treatment Seeking Problem Gamblers: A Comparison of Subgroup Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanbhai, Yasmin; Smith, David; Battersby, Malcolm

    2017-03-01

    Problem gambling is a growing public health concern and treatment incompletion levels remain high. The study aims to support and extend previous studies in relation to the heterogeneity of the gambling population based on gender and gambling type, and the implications of subgroup differences on treatment outcomes. Additionally, the concept of drop-out is addressed in terms of categorical treatment measures. The empirical findings are examined in the context of the theoretical framework of the pathways model. Participants were recruited from the Statewide Gambling Therapy Service and stratified into subgroups based on gender and gambling mode preference [Electronic Gambling Machines (EGM) or track race betters]. Baseline predictors collected and analysed using multinomial logistical regression included demographic information as well as gambling variables, while treatment outcomes consisted of three therapist rated measures. Significant differences between the subgroups were found for age, marital and employment status, gambling duration, alcohol use and the Kessler 10 measure of psychological distress. Specifically, male track race gamblers were younger, married, employed, had a longer duration of gambling, higher alcohol use and lower psychological distress relative to EGM users. No difference was found in any of the treatment outcomes, however, consistent with previous studies, all subgroups had high treatment incompletion levels. The findings demonstrate the importance of screening, assessing and treating problem gamblers as a heterogeneous group with different underlying demographics and psychopathologies. It is also hoped future studies will continue to address treatment incompletion with a re-conceptualisation of the term drop-out.

  5. Predictors of engaging in problem gambling treatment: data from the West Virginia Problem Gamblers Help Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Jeremiah; Burton, Steve; Rash, Carla J; Moran, Sheila; Biller, Warren; Krudelbach, Norman; Phoenix, Natalie; Morasco, Benjamin J

    2011-06-01

    Gambling help-lines are an essential access point, or frontline resource, for treatment seeking. This study investigated treatment engagement after calling a gambling help-line. From 2000-2007 over 2,900 unique callers were offered an in-person assessment appointment. Logistic regression analyses assessed predictors of (a) accepting the referral to the in-person assessment appointment and (b) attending the in-person assessment appointment. Over 76% of callers accepted the referral and 55% of all callers attended the in-person assessment appointment. This treatment engagement rate is higher than typically found for other help-lines. Demographic factors and clinical factors such as gender, severity of gambling problems, amount of gambling debt, and coercion by legal and social networks predicted engagement in treatment. Programmatic factors such as offering an appointment within 72 hr also aided treatment engagement. Results suggest gambling help-lines can be a convenient and confidential way for many individuals with gambling problems to access gambling-specific treatment. Alternative services such as telephone counseling may be beneficial for those who do not engage in treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Gender Differences in Treatment-Seeking British Pathological Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Lutri, Vittorio; Smith, Neil; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Gambling is a widespread recreational activity in the UK. A significant percentage of gamblers develop subclinical or clinically relevant problem gambling issues, but only a low percentage of them seek treatment. Although characteristics of pathological gamblers from treatment-seeking population have been examined in some research, only a few studies have explored the differences between females and males. This study aimed to examine the gender-related differences in demographics, gambling measures, and clinical variables in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. Methods A total of 1,178 treatment-seeking individuals with gambling disorder were assessed at the National Problem Gambling Clinic in London. Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical variables, and gambling behavior habits were obtained during the assessment evaluation. Of the total sample, 92.5% were males and 7.5% were females. Results Males were more likely to be younger, white, and employed than females. In addition, compared to women, men showed a lower PGSI score, an earlier age of onset of gambling behavior, a higher gambling involvement, and preferred specific forms gambling. Female gamblers were more anxious and depressed, while men were more likely to use alcohol and illicit drugs. Conclusions Our findings support the importance of gender differences in a treatment-seeking population of pathological gamblers both in sociodemographic characteristics, gambling behavior variables, and clinical variables. Males and females might benefit from group-specific treatment. PMID:27348561

  7. Anonymous steps: gender and Gamblers Anonymous

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The biggest source of help for problem gamblers remains gamblers anonymous (GA) in terms of accessibility and availability. GA has traditionally been very much a male preserve. This paper reports on a literature review of Gamblers Anonymous together with data from observations of a contemporary open GA meeting over a one year period. Whilst some studies from North America suggest a changing culture and gender balance within GA programmes observations from the North of England, supported b...

  8. Problem Gambling Among Urban and Rural Gamblers in Limpopo Province, South Africa: Associations with Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use and Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaal, Linda; Sinclair, Heidi; Stein, Dan J; Myers, Bronwyn

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the mental health correlates of problem gambling in low- and-middle-income countries such as South Africa and whether these correlates vary by urbanicity. To address this gap, we examined mental health factors associated with problem gambling among gamblers in Limpopo Province, South Africa disaggregated by rural, peri-urban and urban location. A survey of gambling behaviour and mental health was conducted among 900 gamblers. Overall, 28.3 % were at high risk and 38.1 % were at moderate risk for problem gambling. For the entire sample, hazardous/harmful alcohol use was associated with almost twofold increased chance of being at moderate risk (AOR 1.83; 95 % CI 1.08, 3.11) and almost sevenfold greater odds (AOR 6.93; 95 % CI 4.03-11.93) of being at high risk for problem gambling. Psychological distress was associated with being at high risk for problem gambling only (AOR 1.18; 95 % CI 1.14-1.22). After stratifying by urbanicity, hazardous/harmful alcohol use and psychological distress remained associated with high risk gambling across all locations. We found little knowledge of a free gambling helpline and other gambling services-particularly in less urbanised environments [χ(2) (2), 900 = 40.4; p gamblers and to ensure gambling services include screening and treatment for common mental disorders.

  9. Gambling-Related Problems as a Mediator Between Treatment and Mental Health with At-Risk College Student Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisner, Irene Markman; Bowen, Sarah; Lostutter, Ty W; Cronce, Jessica M; Granato, Hollie; Larimer, Mary E

    2015-09-01

    Disordered gambling has been linked to increased negative affect, and some promising treatments have been shown to be effective at reducing gambling behaviors and related problems (Larimer et al. in Addiction 107:1148-1158, 2012). The current study seeks to expand upon the findings of Larimer et al. (Addiction 107:1148-1158, 2012) by examining the relationship between gambling-related problems and mental health symptoms in college students. Specifically, the three-group design tested the effects of two brief interventions for gambling—an individual, in-person personalized feedback intervention (PFI) delivered using motivational interviewing and group-based cognitive behavioral therapy, versus assessment only on mood outcomes. The mediating effect of gambling-related problems on mood was also explored. Participants (N = 141; 65% men; 60% Caucasian, 28% Asian) were at-risk college student gamblers [South Oaks Gambling Screen (Lesieur and Blume in Am J Psychiatry 144:1184-1188, 1987) ≥3], assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Gambling problems were assessed using the Gambling Problems Index (Neighbors et al. in J Gamb Stud 18:339-360, 2002). Mental health symptoms were assessed using the depression, anxiety, and hostility subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis in Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI): administration, scoring, and procedures manual, National Computer Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, 1993). Results revealed that the PFI condition differentially reduced negative mood, and that reductions in gambling-related problems partially mediated this effect. Implications for intervention for comorbid mood and gambling disorders are discussed.

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pathological Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M.; Ammerman, Yola; Bohl, Jaime; Doersch, Anne; Gay, Heather; Kadden, Ronald; Molina, Cheryl; Steinberg, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated efficacy of psychotherapies for pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (N = 231) were randomly assigned to (a) referral to Gamblers Anonymous (GA), (b) GA referral plus a cognitive-behavioral (CB) workbook, or (c) GA referral plus 8 sessions of individual CB therapy. Gambling and related problems were assessed…

  11. Reward and punishment hyposensitivity in problem gamblers: A study of event-related potentials using a principal components analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lole, Lisa; Gonsalvez, Craig J; Barry, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    To investigate whether the latent neural correlates of incentive processing differ between problem gamblers (PGs) and healthy controls (HCs). Event-related potential (ERP) data were derived while 16 PGs and 20 HCs played a computer electronic gaming machine (EGM) task. Psychophysiological responses to outcomes commonly encountered during EGM gambling, including Large wins, Small wins, Near-wins, and Losses, were examined using a spatiotemporal principal components analysis (PCA). Subjects also completed questionnaires that assessed their levels of impulsivity, attraction to appetitive stimuli, and avoidance of aversive stimuli. Losses elicited a feedback-related negativity (FRN), whereas wins elicited a feedback-related positivity (FRP) at the same latency and topography. PGs exhibited both attenuated FRN amplitudes following Losses and FRP amplitudes following Wins. Greater P3b amplitudes were found following Wins compared to Losses. FRN amplitudes following Near-wins were significantly reduced compared to Losses for both PGs and HCs. Trends for reduced P3b amplitudes following all outcome types, and for similar P3b amplitudes following Large and Small wins, were found for the PG group. We provide evidence that PGs are hyposensitive to both positive and negative outcomes. The finding that PGs are hyposensitive to reward and punishment provides valuable insight into the nature of deficit in this disorder, and provides a foundation for future research and clinical interventions. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [To an integrative management of pathological gamblers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaire, C

    2011-12-01

    Recent researches on pathological gambling indicate that the various gambling activities are heterogeneous by nature. Indeed, some findings support the view that gambling cannot be seen as a homogeneous activity. Therefore, pathological gamblers do not represent a homogeneous population. However, treatment does not appear to take into account this heterogeneity and studies in the field have assessed the efficacy of the various types of treatment. Furthermore, recent empirical data emphasize the need for delineating distinct subtypes of pathological gambling presenting similar symptoms but which, at the same time, differ on certain variables. These subtypes will be essential in the management, treatment, and prognosis of pathological gambling. Blaszczynski and Nower (2002) identified three subtypes of gamblers. The first subtype, referred to as the "emotionally vulnerable problem gamblers", includes gamblers who mainly gamble to escape painful emotional experiences. The second includes "antisocial impulsivist problem gamblers" who are mainly driven by impulsivity and sensation seeking. The last one, referred to as the "behaviourally conditioned problem gamblers", includes gamblers who gamble because of behavioural contingencies offered by the game, rather than psychological difficulties. Each group is characterized by specific psychological variables, and each may require a different treatment approach. Hence, these subgroups should be used and taken into account in the choice of the treatment. The purpose of this article is to provide an integrative model of treatment of this disorder based on the typology of pathological gamblers. Many studies have tried to understand this pathological behaviour by exploring motivational, psychological, biological and ecological correlates of gambling to explain the aetiology. An approach integrating various orientations, at the same time cognitive-behavioural, motivational, psychoanalytical and bodily-centred is the most relevant

  13. Exploring the Impact of Gambling Advertising: An Interview Study of Problem Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binde, Per

    2009-01-01

    This study qualitatively explored the impact of gambling advertising on problem gambling by interviewing twenty-five people with current or past gambling problems. Interviews were relatively long and involved the participants' viewing numerous examples of gambling advertising. A quarter of the participants reported that gambling advertising had no…

  14. A voxel-based morphometry study comparing problem gamblers, alcohol abusers, and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holst, R.J.; de Ruiter, M.B.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are associated with smaller grey matter volumes in cortical and subcortical brain regions which are related to cognitive impairments often found in these disorders. Similar cognitive impairments have been found in patients suffering from problem gambling

  15. Cue-Reactive Altered State of Consciousness Mediates the Relationship Between Problem-Gambling Severity and Cue-Reactive Urge in Poker-Machine Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Christopher; Rock, Adam J; Clark, Gavin I

    2016-06-01

    In order to enhance our understanding of the nature of poker-machine problem-gambling, a community sample of 37 poker-machine gamblers (M age = 32 years, M PGSI = 5; PGSI = Problem Gambling Severity Index) were assessed for urge to gamble (responses on a visual analogue scale) and altered state of consciousness (assessed by the Altered State of Awareness dimension of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory) at baseline, after a neutral cue, and after a gambling cue. It was found that (a) problem-gambling severity (PGSI score) predicted increase in urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue, controlling for baseline; sr (2) = .19, p = .006) and increase in altered state of consciousness (from neutral cue to gambling cue, controlling for baseline; sr (2) = .57, p gambling cue) mediated the relationship between problem-gambling severity and increase in urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue; κ(2) = .40, 99 % CI [.08, .71]). These findings suggest that cue-reactive altered state of consciousness is an important component of cue-reactive urge in poker-machine problem-gamblers.

  16. Right inferior frontal cortex activity correlates with tolcapone responsivity in problem and pathological gamblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Kayser

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Failures of self-regulation in problem and pathological gambling (PPG are thought to emerge from failures of top-down control, reflected neurophysiologically in a reduced capacity of prefrontal cortex to influence activity within subcortical structures. In patients with addictions, these impairments have been argued to alter evaluation of reward within dopaminergic neuromodulatory systems. Previously we demonstrated that augmenting dopamine tone in frontal cortex via use of tolcapone, an inhibitor of the dopamine-degrading enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, reduced delay discounting, a measure of impulsivity, in healthy subjects. To evaluate this potentially translational approach to augmenting prefrontal inhibitory control, here we hypothesized that increasing cortical dopamine tone would reduce delay discounting in PPG subjects in proportion to its ability to augment top-down control. To causally test this hypothesis, we administered the COMT inhibitor tolcapone in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study of 17 PPG subjects who performed a delay discounting task while functional MRI images were obtained. In this subject population, we found that greater BOLD activity during the placebo condition within the right inferior frontal cortex (RIFC, a region thought to be important for inhibitory control, correlated with greater declines in impulsivity on tolcapone versus placebo. Intriguingly, connectivity between RIFC and the right striatum, and not the level of activity within RIFC itself, increased on tolcapone versus placebo. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that tolcapone-mediated increases in top-down control may reduce impulsivity in PPG subjects, a finding with potential translational relevance for gambling disorders, and for behavioral addictions in general.

  17. A nationwide study of health-related quality of life, stress, pain or discomfort and the use of medicine among problem gamblers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Davidsen, Michael; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken

    2017-01-01

    on a random sample of 25,000 adult Danes (response rate: 61%), and data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. The Lie/Bet Questionnaire was used as the screening instrument for problem gambling. Respondents were categorised as current, previous or non-problem gamblers. The questionnaire also......AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between problem gambling and health-related quality of life, stress, pain or discomfort and the use of analgesics and sleeping pills. METHODS: Data derives from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2010. The survey was based...... included topics such as health-related quality of life (Short Form-12), perceived stress, pain and discomforts within the past two weeks, as well as the use of medication within the past two weeks. RESULTS: Current problem gambling was strongly associated with negative outcomes such as poor mental health...

  18. Prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in treatment-seeking problem gamblers: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlishaw, Sean; Jackson, Alun C; Merkouris, Stephanie S; Francis, Kate L; Christensen, Darren R

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this paper was to systematically review and meta-analyse the prevalence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders (DSM-IV Axis I disorders) among treatment-seeking problem gamblers. Methods: A systematic search was conducted for peer-reviewed studies that provided prevalence estimates of Axis I psychiatric disorders in individuals seeking psychological or pharmacological treatment for problem gambling (including pathological gambling). Meta-analytic techniques were performed to estimate the weighted mean effect size and heterogeneity across studies. Results: Results from 36 studies identified high rates of co-morbid current (74.8%, 95% CI 36.5–93.9) and lifetime (75.5%, 95% CI 46.5–91.8) Axis I disorders. There were high rates of current mood disorders (23.1%, 95% CI 14.9–34.0), alcohol use disorders (21.2%, 95% CI 15.6–28.1), anxiety disorders (17.6%, 95% CI 10.8–27.3) and substance (non-alcohol) use disorders (7.0%, 95% CI 1.7–24.9). Specifically, the highest mean prevalence of current psychiatric disorders was for nicotine dependence (56.4%, 95% CI 35.7–75.2) and major depressive disorder (29.9%, 95% CI 20.5–41.3), with smaller estimates for alcohol abuse (18.2%, 95% CI 13.4–24.2), alcohol dependence (15.2%, 95% CI 10.2–22.0), social phobia (14.9%, 95% CI 2.0–59.8), generalised anxiety disorder (14.4%, 95% CI 3.9–40.8), panic disorder (13.7%, 95% CI 6.7–26.0), post-traumatic stress disorder (12.3%, 95% CI 3.4–35.7), cannabis use disorder (11.5%, 95% CI 4.8–25.0), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (9.3%, 95% CI 4.1–19.6), adjustment disorder (9.2%, 95% CI 4.8–17.2), bipolar disorder (8.8%, 95% CI 4.4–17.1) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (8.2%, 95% CI 3.4–18.6). There were no consistent patterns according to gambling problem severity, type of treatment facility and study jurisdiction. Although these estimates were robust to the inclusion of studies with non-representative sampling biases, they should

  19. Negative Mood States or Dysfunctional Cognitions: Their Independent and Interactional Effects in Influencing Severity of Gambling Among Chinese Problem Gamblers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Zhuang, Xiao Yu; Jackson, Alun; Dowling, Nicki; Lo, Herman Hay Ming

    2017-09-04

    Gambling-related cognitions and negative psychological states have been proposed as major factors in the initiation and maintenance of problem gambling (PG). While there are a substantial number of studies supporting the role of cognitive dysfunctions in the initiation and maintenance of PG, very few empirical studies have explored the specific role of negative psychological states in influencing PG behaviours. In addition, very few studies have examined the interaction effects of cognitive dysfunctions and negative psychological states in exerting influence on PG behaviours. Therefore, the present study aims to examine the main and interaction effects of gambling-related cognitions and psychological states on the gambling severity among a group of problem gamblers in Hong Kong. A cross-sectional research design was adopted. A purposive sample of 177 problem gamblers who sought treatment from a social service organization in Hong Kong completed a battery of standardised questionnaires. While gambling-related cognitions were found to exert significant effects on gambling severity, negative psychological states (i.e. stress) significantly moderated the relationship between gambling cognitions and gambling severity. In essence, those participants who reported a higher level of stress had more stable and serious gambling problems than those who reported a lower level of stress irrespective of the level of gambling-related cognitions. The findings of the moderating role of negative emotions in the relationship between cognitive distortions and severity of gambling provide insight towards developing an integrated intervention model which includes both cognitive-behavioural and emotion regulation strategies in helping people with PG.

  20. Breaking Bad: Comparing Gambling Harms Among Gamblers and Affected Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, En; Browne, Matthew; Rawat, Vijay; Langham, Erika; Rockloff, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    This article examines gambling harms from both gamblers and affected others' perspectives. Participants (3076 gamblers and 2129 affected others) completed a retrospective survey that elicited information on harms they experienced from gambling across their lifetime. Their responses were analyzed through testing measurement invariance, estimating item-response theoretic parameters, calculating percentages, confidence intervals, and correlations, as well as regressions. The results indicated large commonalities in the experience of harms reported by gamblers and affected others. Further, gamblers appeared to 'export' about half of the harms they experienced to those around them. The findings also provided detailed profiles of evolving harms as problem gambling severity varies.

  1. Differential Gambling Motivations and Recreational Activity Preferences Among Casino Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Bernhard, Bo Jason; Kim, Jungsun; Fong, Timothy; Lee, Tae Kyung

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated three different types of gamblers (recreational, problem, and pathological gamblers) to determine differences in gambling motivations and recreational activity preferences among casino gamblers. We collected data from 600 gamblers recruited in an actual gambling environment inside a major casino in South Korea. Findings indicate that motivational factors of escape, sightseeing, and winning were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. When looking at motivations to visit the casino, pathological gamblers were more likely to be motivated by winning, whereas recreational gamblers were more likely to be motivated by scenery and culture in the surrounding casino area. Meanwhile, the problem gamblers fell between these two groups, indicating higher preferences for non-gambling activities than the pathological gamblers. As this study builds upon a foundational previous study by Lee et al. (Psychiatry Investig 6(3):141-149, 2009), the results of this new study were compared with those of the previous study to see if new developments within a resort-style casino contribute to changes in motivations and recreational activity preferences.

  2. A Gamblers Clustering Based on Their Favorite Gambling Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Renard, Noëlle; Legauffre, Cindy; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Gorsane, Mohamed-Ali; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify profiles of gamblers to explain the choice of preferred gambling activity among both problem and non-problem gamblers. 628 non-problem and problem gamblers were assessed with a structured interview including "healthy" (sociodemographic characteristics, gambling habits and personality profile assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125) and "pathological" [diagnosis of pathological gambling, gambling-related cognitions (GRCs) and psychiatric comorbidity] variables. We performed a two-step cluster analysis based solely on "healthy" variables to identify gamblers' profiles which typically reflect the choice of preferred gambling activity. The obtained classes were then described using both "healthy" and "pathological" variables, by comparing each class to the rest of the sample. Clusters were generated. Class 1 (Electronic Gaming Machines gamblers) showed high cooperativeness, a lower level of GRC about strategy and more depressive disorders. Class 2 (games with deferred results gamblers) were high novelty seekers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more addictive disorders. Class 3 (roulette gamblers) were more often high rollers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more manic or hypomanic episodes and more obsessive-compulsive disorders. Class 4 (instant lottery gamblers) showed a lower tendency to suicide attempts. Class 5 (scratch cards gamblers) were high harm avoiders and showed a lower overall level of GRC and more panic attacks and eating disorders. The preference for one particular gambling activity may concern different profiles of gamblers. This study highlights the importance of considering the pair gambler-game rather than one or the other separately, and may provide support for future research on gambling and preventive actions directed toward a particular game.

  3. Characteristics and Help-Seeking Behaviors of Internet Gamblers Based on Most Problematic Mode of Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies of problem Internet gamblers have failed to distinguish whether their problem gambling relates to Internet or land-based gambling modes. Therefore, characteristics and help-seeking behaviors of people whose gambling problems relate specifically to Internet gambling are unknown, but could inform the optimal alignment of treatment and support services with the needs and preferences of problem gamblers. Objective This study aimed to compare (1) characteristics of problem Internet gamblers and problem land-based gamblers and (2) uptake of different types and modes of help between problem Internet gamblers and problem land-based gamblers. Hypothesis 1 was that problem Internet gamblers are less likely to seek help. Hypothesis 2 was that problem Internet gamblers are more likely to use online modes of help. Methods A sample of 620 respondents meeting criteria for problem gambling was drawn from an online survey of 4594 Australian gamblers. Respondents were recruited through advertisements on gambling and gambling help websites, Facebook, and Google. Measures consisted of gambling participation; proportion of gambling on the Internet; most problematic mode of gambling; help seeking from 11 different sources of formal help, informal help, and self-help for gambling problems; psychological distress (Kessler 6); problem gambling severity (Problem Gambling Severity Index, PGSI); and demographics. Results Problem Internet gamblers were significantly more likely than problem land-based gamblers to be male (χ2 1=28.3, Pgambling helplines, online groups, self-exclusion from land-based venues, family or friends, and self-help strategies. Both problem Internet and problem land-based gamblers had similarly low use of online help. However, problem land-based gamblers (37.6%, 126/335) were significantly more likely to have sought land-based formal help compared to problem Internet gamblers (23.5%, 67/285; χ2 1=14.3, Pgambling help by problem Internet

  4. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Integrated Cognitive-Behavioural Intervention (CBI) Model for Male Problem Gamblers in Hong Kong: A Matched-Pair Comparison Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiao Yu; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Ng, Ting Kin; Jackson, Alun C; Dowling, Nicki A; Lo, Herman Hay-Ming

    2018-01-22

    Very few clinical cognitive-behavioural intervention (CBI) studies were conducted with the Chinese gamblers. There is a lack of attention paid to intervening in negative emotions that may also adversely affect PGs in current CBI treatment modality. This study is the first attempt to systematically and rigorously evaluate both the short-term and longer-term effects of a culturally-attuned CBI group treatment with an emotion regulation component for a group of Chinese PGs in Hong Kong. A quasi-experimental matched-pairs design was adopted and 84 participants were allocated to the CBI (N = 42) and social activity groups (N = 42). There are 3 assessment points in the study: baseline at recruitment, post-intervention at the end of CBI and social activity groups, and at 6-month follow-up. When compared to the social activity group and after controlling for general group effects, there were significantly greater decreases in the severity of gambling, gambling-related cognitions (i.e. interpretive bias), negative psychological states (i.e. stress) and money spent on gambling in the past month in the CBI group between pre- and post-intervention and between pre-intervention and 6-month follow-up. Results also indicated that both reduction in gambling-related cognitions and negative psychological states could mediate the treatment effect of the CBI on the reduction of problematic gambling behaviours. The culturally attuned integrated CBI group treatment with an emotional regulation component appeared to be effective in treating Chinese problem gamblers in Hong Kong and the effects could be sustained at 6-month follow-up.

  5. Anonymous women? Gamblers Anonymous and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jim

    2016-01-01

    One of the rapidly changing elements in gambling environments is the increasing participation of women in many forms of gambling, and the growing proportions of problem gamblers who are female. It is known that women who develop gambling problems differ from men in a range of ways:for example they are more likely to have co-morbidities such as anxiety and depression, and to gamble as an 'escape' from such co-occuring problems. Gamblers Anonymous (GA) has a number of meetings across New Zeala...

  6. Harmful alcohol use and frequent use of marijuana among lifetime problem gamblers and the prevalence of cross-addictive behaviour among Greenland Inuit: evidence from the cross-sectional Inuit health in transition Greenland survey 2006–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Viskum Lytken Larsen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Public health research has pointed to alcohol and substance abuse as the most significant public health challenges in Greenland with the negative impact on families and communities that entail, but few studies have investigated the role of problem gambling as addictive behaviour among Inuit. The objectives of the present study were to investigate (a the association between lifetime problem gambling and harmful alcohol use as well as frequent use of marijuana and (b the prevalence of cross-addictive behaviour among Greenland Inuit. Design. A representative cross-sectional study among Greenland Inuit (n=2,189. Data was collected among adults (18+ in 8 towns and 13 villages in Greenland from 2006–2010. Lifetime problem gambling, harmful alcohol use and frequent use of marijuana were measured through a self-administered questionnaire. Results. The odds ratio for harmful alcohol use and frequent use of marijuana was significantly higher among lifetime problem gamblers compared to non-problem gamblers/non-gamblers. One or more addictive behaviours were present among more than half of the men (53% and one third of the women (37%, and the co-occurrence of lifetime problem gambling with either harmful alcohol use, frequent use of marijuana or both was found among 12.2% of men and 3.7% of women. The prevalence of one or more addictive behaviours was 44% in households with children. Conclusions. For lifetime problem gamblers, the gambling problems were more often than not combined with harmful alcohol use, frequent use of marijuana or both – especially among men. The high prevalence of addictive behaviours in households with children indicates that many families are presently affected negatively by alcohol, gambling and marijuana. This suggests that pathological gambling should be included systematically in future public health strategies, treatment programs and interventions in Greenland.

  7. Harmful alcohol use and frequent use of marijuana among lifetime problem gamblers and the prevalence of cross-addictive behaviour among Greenland Inuit: evidence from the cross-sectional Inuit Health in Transition Greenland survey 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Curtis, Tine; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Public health research has pointed to alcohol and substance abuse as the most significant public health challenges in Greenland with the negative impact on families and communities that entail, but few studies have investigated the role of problem gambling as addictive behaviour among Inuit. The objectives of the present study were to investigate (a) the association between lifetime problem gambling and harmful alcohol use as well as frequent use of marijuana and (b) the prevalence of cross-addictive behaviour among Greenland Inuit. A representative cross-sectional study among Greenland Inuit (n=2,189). Data was collected among adults (18+) in 8 towns and 13 villages in Greenland from 2006-2010. Lifetime problem gambling, harmful alcohol use and frequent use of marijuana were measured through a self-administered questionnaire. The odds ratio for harmful alcohol use and frequent use of marijuana was significantly higher among lifetime problem gamblers compared to non-problem gamblers/non-gamblers. One or more addictive behaviours were present among more than half of the men (53%) and one third of the women (37%), and the co-occurrence of lifetime problem gambling with either harmful alcohol use, frequent use of marijuana or both was found among 12.2% of men and 3.7% of women. The prevalence of one or more addictive behaviours was 44% in households with children. For lifetime problem gamblers, the gambling problems were more often than not combined with harmful alcohol use, frequent use of marijuana or both--especially among men. The high prevalence of addictive behaviours in households with children indicates that many families are presently affected negatively by alcohol, gambling and marijuana. This suggests that pathological gambling should be included systematically in future public health strategies, treatment programs and interventions in Greenland.

  8. Diminished aversive classical conditioning in pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Myrseth, Helga; Molde, Helge; Lorvik, Ingjerd Meen; Bu, Eli Torild Hellandsjø; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-09-01

    Impaired ability to form associations between negative events in gambling and aversive somatic reactions may be a predisposing factor for pathological gambling. The current study investigated whether a group of pathological gamblers and a control group differed in aversive classical conditioning. A differential aversive classical conditioning paradigm, which consisted of three phases. In the habituation phase, one 850-Hz tone stimulus and one 1500-Hz tone stimulus were presented three times each in random order. In the acquisition phase, the two tones were presented 10 times each in random order, and one was always followed by a 100-dB burst of white noise. In the extinction phase the two tones were presented three times each without the white noise. University laboratory testing facilities and out-patient treatment facilities. Twenty pathological gamblers and 20 control participants. Duration of seven cardiac interbeat-intervals (IBIs) following tone offset, gambling severity, tobacco and alcohol use, anxiety and depression. No group differences were found in the habituation and acquisition phases. However, a significant group × stimuli × trials × IBIs interaction effect was found in the extinction phase (P classical conditioning, but that the control group did. Pathological gamblers have a diminished capacity to form associations between aversive events and stimuli that predict aversive events. Aversion learning is likely to be an ineffective treatment for pathological gamblers. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Clustering Finnish Gambler Profiles Based on the Money and Time Consumed in Gambling Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Maria; Toikka, Arho

    2016-06-01

    Gambling involves consumption of gamblers' money and time. Gamblers are a heterogeneous group, and in addition to grouping gamblers based on personality factors, it is also important to find different gambler profiles with respect to their gambling behavior. Using the nationally representative survey 'Finnish Gambling 2011' (N = 4484), this article studies the subtypes of Finnish gamblers based on the frequency of gambling and the amounts of money and time used in different gambling forms. Cluster analysis reveals six profiles of gamblers, from infrequent gamblers to omnivorous gamblers. In the further analysis of the clusters, it was found that the highest problem gambling prevalence was in the groups of sport betting + electronic gaming machine gamblers and omnivorous gamblers, which were also both dominated by men. Certain gambling consumption patterns and risk factors for problem gambling are related to both socio-demographic backgrounds of the gamblers as well as the structural and situational characteristics of the games. The results have implications for the prevention of problem gambling, as some consumption patterns may be connected with the probability of developing gambling problems.

  10. Experiences and Perceptions of Problem Gamblers on Cognitive and Exposure Therapies When Taking Part in a Randomised Controlled Trial: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Pols, Rene; Lavis, Tiffany; Battersby, Malcolm; Harvey, Peter

    2016-12-01

    In South Australia (SA) problem gambling is mainly a result of the widespread availability of electronic gaming machines. A key treatment provider in SA offers free cognitive and behavioural therapy (CBT) to help-seeking problem gamblers. The CBT program focuses on the treatment of clients' urge to gamble using exposure therapy (ET) and cognitive therapy (CT) to restructure erroneous gambling beliefs. The aim of this study was to explore treatment specific and non-specific effects for CT alone and ET alone using qualitative interviews. Interviewees were a sub-sample of participants from a randomised trial that investigated the relative efficacy of CT versus ET. Findings revealed that all interviewees gained benefit from their respective therapies and their comments did not appear to favour one therapy over another. Both treatment specific and treatment non-specific effects were well supported as playing a therapeutic role to recovery. Participants' comments in both therapy groups suggested that symptom reduction was experienced on a gambling related urge-cognition continuum. In addition to symptom improvement from therapy-specific mechanisms, ET participants described a general acquisition of "rational thought" from their program of therapy and CT participants had "taken-over" their gambling urges. The findings also highlighted areas for further improvement including therapy drop-out.

  11. Gambling Motives in a Representative Swedish Sample of Risk Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Kristina; Jonsson, Jakob; Wennberg, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Motives for gambling have been shown to be associated with gambling involvement, and hence important in the understanding of the etiology of problem gambling. The aim of this study was to describe differences in gambling motives in different subgroups of lifetime risk gamblers, categorized by: age, gender, alcohol- and drug habits and type of game preferred, when considering the level of risk gambling. A random Swedish sample (n = 19,530) was screened for risk gambling, using the Lie/Bet questionnaire. The study sample (n = 257) consisted of the respondents screening positive on Lie/Bet and completing a postal questionnaire about gambling and motives for gambling (measured with the NODS-PERC and the RGQ respectively). When considering the level of risk gambling, motives for gambling were not associated with gender, whereas younger persons gambled for the challenge more often than did older participants. Card/Casino and Sport gamblers played to a greater extent for social and challenge reasons then did Lotto/Bingo-gamblers. EGM-gamblers played more for coping reasons than did Lotto/Bingo gamblers. However, this association turned non-significant when considering the level of risk gambling. Moderate risk gamblers played for the challenge and coping reasons to a greater extent than low risk gamblers motives for gambling differ across subgroups of preferred game and between gamblers with low and moderate risk. The level of risk gambling is intertwined with motives for gambling and should be considered when examining gambling reasons.

  12. Pathological gamblers: inpatients' versus outpatients' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Robert; Sylvain, Caroline; Sévigny, Serge; Poirier, Lynda; Brisson, Laurent; Dias, Carlos; Dufour, Claudie; Pilote, Pierrette

    2006-12-01

    Several researchers and clinicians have questioned the advantages and disadvantages of inpatient and outpatient treatment for people suffering from pathological gambling. This study compares the characteristics of pathological gamblers seeking inpatient and outpatient treatment. A total of 233 pathological gamblers (inpatients = 134, outpatients = 99) participated in the study. Results show that inpatients have more severe gambling problems than those receiving outpatient services. Similar results were obtained on most other related variables such as anxiety, depression, alcohol consumption, and comorbidity. These results are discussed in terms of the costs and benefits of these two treatment modalities.

  13. Gambler Risk Perception: A Mental Model and Grounded Theory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Michael; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Rhodes, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have investigated how gamblers perceive risk or the role of risk perception in disordered gambling. The purpose of the current study therefore was to obtain data on lay gamblers' beliefs on these variables and their effects on decision-making, behaviour, and disordered gambling aetiology. Fifteen regular lay gamblers (non-problem/low risk, moderate risk and problem gamblers) completed a semi-structured interview following mental models and grounded theory methodologies. Gambler interview data was compared to an expert 'map' of risk-perception, to identify comparative gaps or differences associated with harmful or safe gambling. Systematic overlapping processes of data gathering and analysis were used to iteratively extend, saturate, test for exception, and verify concepts and themes emerging from the data. The preliminary findings suggested that gambler accounts supported the presence of expert conceptual constructs, and to some degree the role of risk perception in protecting against or increasing vulnerability to harm and disordered gambling. Gambler accounts of causality, meaning, motivation, and strategy were highly idiosyncratic, and often contained content inconsistent with measures of disordered gambling. Disordered gambling appears heavily influenced by relative underestimation of risk and overvaluation of gambling, based on explicit and implicit analysis, and deliberate, innate, contextual, and learned processing evaluations and biases.

  14. The Effect of a Brief Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Intervention on the Near-Miss Effect in Problem Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastally, Becky L.; Dixon, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, 3 participants with a history of problem gambling were exposed to computerized slot machine play consisting of outcomes that depicted wins, losses, and near misses (2 out of 3 identical slot machine symbols). Participants were asked to rate each type of outcome in terms of its closeness to a win on a scale of 1 to 10 before…

  15. The retrospective gambler's fallacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Oppenheimer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The gambler's fallacy (Tune, 1964 refers to the belief that a streak is more likely to end than chance would dictate. In three studies, participants exhibited a extit{retrospective gambler's fallacy} (RGF in which an event that seems rare appears to come from a longer sequence than an event that seems more common. Study 1 demonstrates this bias for streaks, while Study 2 does so with single rare events and shows that the appearance of rarity is more important than actual rarity. Study 3 extends these findings from abstract gambling domains into real world domains to demonstrate the generalizability of the effects. The RGF follows from the law of small numbers (Tversky and Kahneman, 1971 and has many applications, from perceptions of the social world to philosophical debates about the existence of multiple universes.

  16. What's in a Name? Assessing the Accuracy of Self-identifying as a Professional or Semi-Professional Gambler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex; Gainsbury, Sally M

    2015-12-01

    Growing interest in pursuing a professional gambling career has been accompanied by a rise in individuals self-identifying as professional gamblers. Whether this trend reflects an actual increase in individuals sustaining livelihoods from gambling or inaccurate appropriation of a now glamorized identity is unclear. Adopting a self-image of professional gambler in the absence of ability to earn a sustainable income from the activity may increase risk of problem gambling and deter help-seeking. However, extent of problem gambling in this cohort is uncertain. This study aimed to: (1) determine any differences that might validate the self-reported identity of professional and semi-professional gamblers by investigating characteristics and behaviors that distinguish them from amateur gamblers; and (2) identify characteristics and behaviors that distinguish between self-identified semi-professional/professional gamblers with and without gambling problems. In an online survey of 4,594 Australian gamblers, 1.2% identified as professional gamblers, 6.8% as semi-professional gamblers, and 92.0% as amateur gamblers. Self-identified professional and semi-professional gamblers were distinguished from amateur gamblers by preference for skill-based gambling, higher reported likelihood of winning, and greater use of online gambling and multiple online operators. Two-fifths of professional and three-fifths of semi-professional gamblers scored as moderate risk or problem gamblers, but negative consequences were more likely personal, interpersonal and work/study related, rather than financial. Although results support the general accuracy of self-reported semi/professional gambling status, measures are needed to help semi/professional gamblers distinguish whether their gambling is a problem or profession.

  17. The gambler's fallacy and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suetens, S.; Tyran, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    The “gambler's fallacy” is the false belief that a random event is less likely to occur if the event has occurred recently. Such beliefs are false if the onset of events is in fact independent of previous events. We study gender differences in the gambler's fallacy using data from the Danish state

  18. Characteristics and help-seeking behaviors of Internet gamblers based on most problematic mode of gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex Myles Thomas; Gainsbury, Sally Melissa; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2015-01-07

    Previous studies of problem Internet gamblers have failed to distinguish whether their problem gambling relates to Internet or land-based gambling modes. Therefore, characteristics and help-seeking behaviors of people whose gambling problems relate specifically to Internet gambling are unknown, but could inform the optimal alignment of treatment and support services with the needs and preferences of problem gamblers. This study aimed to compare (1) characteristics of problem Internet gamblers and problem land-based gamblers and (2) uptake of different types and modes of help between problem Internet gamblers and problem land-based gamblers. Hypothesis 1 was that problem Internet gamblers are less likely to seek help. Hypothesis 2 was that problem Internet gamblers are more likely to use online modes of help. A sample of 620 respondents meeting criteria for problem gambling was drawn from an online survey of 4594 Australian gamblers. Respondents were recruited through advertisements on gambling and gambling help websites, Facebook, and Google. Measures consisted of gambling participation; proportion of gambling on the Internet; most problematic mode of gambling; help seeking from 11 different sources of formal help, informal help, and self-help for gambling problems; psychological distress (Kessler 6); problem gambling severity (Problem Gambling Severity Index, PGSI); and demographics. Problem Internet gamblers were significantly more likely than problem land-based gamblers to be male (χ(2) 1=28.3, P<.001, φ=0.21), younger (t616.33=4.62, P<.001, d=0.37), have lower psychological distress (χ(2) 1=5.4, P=.02, φ=0.09), and experience problems with sports and race wagering (χ(2) 4=228.5, P<.001, φ=0.61). Uptake of help was significantly lower among problem Internet compared to problem land-based gamblers (χ(2) 1=6.9, P<.001, φ=0.11), including from face-to-face services, gambling helplines, online groups, self-exclusion from land-based venues, family or friends

  19. Internet Gamblers Differ on Social Variables: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Achab, Sophia; Monney, Gregoire; Thorens, Gabriel; Dufour, Magali; Zullino, Daniele; Rothen, Stephane

    2017-09-01

    Online gambling has gained popularity in the last decade, leading to an important shift in how consumers engage in gambling and in the factors related to problem gambling and prevention. Indebtedness and loneliness have previously been associated with problem gambling. The current study aimed to characterize online gamblers in relation to indebtedness, loneliness, and several in-game social behaviors. The data set was obtained from 584 Internet gamblers recruited online through gambling websites and forums. Of these gamblers, 372 participants completed all study assessments and were included in the analyses. Questionnaires included those on sociodemographics and social variables (indebtedness, loneliness, in-game social behaviors), as well as the Gambling Motives Questionnaire, Gambling Related Cognitions Scale, Internet Addiction Test, Problem Gambling Severity Index, Short Depression-Happiness Scale, and UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale. Social variables were explored with a latent class model. The clusters obtained were compared for psychological measures and three clusters were found: lonely indebted gamblers (cluster 1: 6.5%), not lonely not indebted gamblers (cluster 2: 75.4%), and not lonely indebted gamblers (cluster 3: 18%). Participants in clusters 1 and 3 (particularly in cluster 1) were at higher risk of problem gambling than were those in cluster 2. The three groups differed on most assessed variables, including the Problem Gambling Severity Index, the Short Depression-Happiness Scale, and the UPPS-P subscales (except the sensation seeking subscore). Results highlight significant between-group differences, suggesting that Internet gamblers are not a homogeneous group. Specific intervention strategies could be implemented for groups at risk.

  20. Investigating facets of personality in adult pathological gamblers with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davtian, Margarit; Reid, Rory C; Fong, Timothy W

    2012-04-01

    The present study explored facets of personality in a sample of pathological gamblers with ADHD (n = 52) and without ADHD (n = 43). Participants were assessed for psychopathology and gambling disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Facets of personality were assessed using the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised. Group differences emerged across several facets of personality when analyzed using multivariate statistics. Although both groups experienced difficulties in several areas compared with norming data (e.g., greater depression, higher impulsivity, lower self-esteem and lower self-discipline), these facets of personality were more pronounced in pathological gamblers with ADHD. Most notable among these differences are tendencies for gamblers with ADHD to experience greater levels of emotional instability, interpersonal sensitivity and stress proneness. Pathological gamblers with ADHD also appear to experience lower self-esteem, greater difficulty being assertive and lower levels of self-discipline. Surprisingly, both groups were comparable on facets of impulsivity. These findings suggest that pathological gamblers diagnosed with adult ADHD may experience additional challenges compared with pathological gamblers without ADHD.

  1. Factors at play in faster progression for female pathological gamblers: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Hermano; Martins, Silvia S; Lobo, Daniela S S; Silveira, Camila M; Gentil, Valentim; Hodgins, David C

    2003-04-01

    Previous studies reported a faster progression for alcohol dependence and pathological gambling among females as compared with males. This phenomenon was called the "telescoping effect." By comparing female gamblers with male gamblers regarding gambling preferences and comorbidity, the authors explored potential risk factors for telescoping. A consecutive sample of Brazilian treatment-seeking pathological gamblers (DSM-IV criteria) was recruited. Genders were contrasted regarding comorbidity and gambling behavior, controlling for demographics, gambling severity, and previous access to mental health services. Seventy female gamblers and 70 male gamblers were interviewed. A greater proportion of women than men reported electronic bingo and video lottery terminals as their main type of gambling. Gambling was divided in 3 progressive stages: "social gambling," "intense gambling," and "problem gambling." Faster progression for female gamblers was confirmed; female gender and preference for electronic bingo and/or video lottery terminals were risk factors for telescoping throughout all stages. Female gamblers presented a higher comorbidity with depression, whereas male gamblers had higher rates of alcohol dependence. Nevertheless, comorbidity profiles were not related to gambling progression. Two factors could be at play for treatment-seeking female gamblers in Brazil: (1) a potential gender vulnerability and (2) a cultural environment yielding them access to a narrower range of gambling games that includes mainly the most addictive ones.

  2. Internet Self-Exclusion: Characteristics of Self-Excluded Gamblers and Preliminary Evidence for Its Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Tobias; Meyer, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary scientific evidence indicates that online gamblers are more likely to be problem gamblers and thus point to the need for effective protection measures. This study focuses on an online self-exclusion program and seeks to comprehensively examine the benefits of this measure. It was intended to collect detailed information on the…

  3. Recruiting Gamblers from the General Population for Research Purposes: Outcomes from Two Contrasting Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeremy D.; Pulford, Justin; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max

    2010-01-01

    Multiple means exist by which gamblers including problem gamblers may be recruited from the general population for research survey purposes. However, there appears to be limited discussion in the published literature about the relative merits of one or other approach. This paper addresses this gap, in part, by reporting the experiences of…

  4. Gambling onset and progression in a sample of at-risk gamblers from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Elizabeth; Tavares, Hermano; Sanches, Marcos; Pinsky, Ilana; Caetano, Raul; Zaleski, Marcos; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2014-05-30

    The goal of this study was to investigate gambling-related behavior, onset and progression in a sample of at-risk gamblers from the community. A national household survey was conducted in Brazil, covering individuals 14 years old or older. Subjects were screened for at-risk gambling, those testing positive answered a questionnaire about gambling progression, preferred games and DSM-IV pathological gambling criteria. Out of 3007 respondents, 118 were considered at-risk gamblers according to the Lie/Bet Questionnaire. According to the DSM-IV, 32.7% and 24.9% of those were considered problem and pathological gamblers, respectively. Early at-risk gamblers (onset prior to 20 years of age), were more likely to be male, to prefer non-commercially structured games, and to chase losses while gambling. Young pathological gamblers (under 35 years of age) progressed faster from regular to problem gambling (roughly 2 years) than mature pathological gamblers (12 years). Such findings had not been described before because previous reports focused mostly on clinical samples that lack young, male, early-onset gamblers. Gambling programs have not satisfactorily covered this segment of gamblers. Outreach strategies and early interventions should be provided to prevent these individuals from rapidly evolving into pathological gambling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Are psychology university student gamblers representative of non-university students and general gamblers? A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2014-03-01

    Students recruited from psychology undergraduate university populations are commonly used in psychology research, including gambling studies. However, the extent to which the use of this subpopulation produces findings that can be extrapolated to other groups is questionable. The present study was designed to compare results from university-recruited psychology student gamblers to those obtained from a sample of gamblers recruited from the general population that also included students. An online survey measuring gambling behavior and Internet gambling, attitudes and knowledge about gambling and problem gambling severity was posted on websites accessed by gamblers. Participants were recruited from two sources, a psychology undergraduate university population (n = 461) and online websites (n = 4,801). Results showed university-recruited students differed significantly from both adults and students recruited from the general population in respect to demographic variables and gambling behavior. Psychology undergraduate students were younger, more likely to be female, and had lower incomes. When relevant demographic variables were controlled, psychology undergraduate students were found to gamble less frequently, at different times, and to be at lower-risk for gambling-related problems, but had more irrational beliefs and more negative attitudes towards gambling than gamblers recruited from the general population. Results suggest that caution should be used in extrapolating findings from research using university-recruited psychology student gamblers to wide community populations due to differences related to gambling thoughts, attitudes and behaviors.

  6. The black-and-white coloring problem on circle graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kloks, Ton; Wang, Yue-Li

    2012-01-01

    Given a graph G and integers b and w. The black-and-white coloring problem asks if there exist disjoint sets of vertices B and W with |B|=b and |W|=w such that no two vertices x in B and y in W are adjacent. In this paper we show that the problem is polynomial when restricted to permutation graphs and, more generally, to circle graphs.

  7. Impulsivity, gambling cognitions, and the gambler's fallacy in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmurek, Harvey H C; Switzer, Jessica; D'Alvise, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    The present study explored the associations among impulsivity, gambling cognitions, and behavioral adherence to the gambler's fallacy in university students (N = 142). Both impulsivity and gambling cognitions were significant predictors of non-problem and problem gambler categories as defined the Problem Gambling Severity Index. A logistic regression analysis showed that the independent contribution of cognition was statistically significant but that the contribution of impulsivity was not. A behavioral measure of gambling was obtained by asking participants to play an online game of roulette for a maximum of 15 min. Only outside bets were permitted whereby participants were to bet on the color of the winning number. Adherence to the gambler's fallacy was indexed by the likelihood of betting on an alternation in the color of the winning number as the number of consecutive outcomes of the other color increased. Gambling cognitions and gender, but not impulsivity, were associated with adherence to the gambler's fallacy. Tracing the sources of specific influences on gambling behavior may benefit from a framework that distinguishes between "hot" (emotional) and "cold" (non-emotional) mechanisms that promote problem gambling.

  8. Differences in cognitive distortions between pathological and non-pathological gamblers with preferences for chance or skill games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrseth, Helga; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Eidem, Magnus

    2010-12-01

    Cognitive distortions have been thought to play an important role in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. The present study investigated whether severity of gambling problems and gamblers' preference for chance or skill games were related to two sub-factors of cognitive distortions as measured by the Gamblers Belief Questionnaire: Luck/Perseverance, which reflects an individual's perception that chance is favorable to him/her, and Illusion of Control, which reflects an individual's perception that his/her behavior influences chance occurrences. Participants (N = 166) were recruited from a race track (n = 79), off-course betting facilities (n = 50) and from an online treatment program for problem gamblers (n = 49). Gambling severity was measured by the South Oaks Gambling Screen, and 73 were classified as pathological gamblers whereas 93 were classified as non-pathological gamblers. The present study supports previous proposals that cognitive distortions are core processes related to gambling behavior as pathological gamblers reported more cognitive distortions than did non-pathological gamblers. A preference for skill games was also associated with greater Illusion of Control compared to a preference for chance games. For gamblers preferring skill games there were no differences in Luck/Perseverance or Illusion of Control between pathological and non-pathological gamblers.

  9. Cognitive Characteristics of Strategic and Non-strategic Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouneyrac, Aurélie; Lemercier, Céline; Le Floch, Valérie; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Moreau, Axelle; Jacques, Christian; Giroux, Isabelle

    2017-07-29

    Participation in strategic and non-strategic games is mostly explained in the literature by gender: men gamble on strategic games, while women gamble on non-strategic games. However, little is known about the underlying cognitive factors that could also distinguish strategic and non-strategic gamblers. We suggest that cognitive style and need for cognition also explain participation in gambling subtypes. From a dual-process perspective, cognitive style is the tendency to reject or accept the fast, automatic answer that comes immediately in response to a problem. Individuals that preferentially reject the automatic response use an analytic style, which suggest processing information in a slow way, with deep treatment. The intuitive style supposes a reliance on fast, automatic answers. The need for cognition provides a motivation to engage in effortful activities. One hundred and forty-nine gamblers (53 strategic and 96 non-strategic) answered the Cognitive Reflection Test, Need For Cognition Scale, and socio-demographic questions. A logistic regression was conducted to evaluate the influence of gender, cognitive style and need for cognition on participation in strategic and non-strategic games. Our results show that a model with both gender and cognitive variables is more accurate than a model with gender alone. Analytic (vs. intuitive) style, high (vs. low) need for cognition and being male (vs. female) are characteristics of strategic gamblers (vs. non-strategic gamblers). This study highlights the importance of considering the cognitive characteristics of strategic and non-strategic gamblers in order to develop preventive campaigns and treatments that fit the best profiles for gamblers.

  10. The gambler's fallacy in retrospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Matthews

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Oppenheimer and Monin (2009 recently found that subjectively rare events are taken to indicate a longer preceding sequence of unobserved trials than subjectively common events, an effect which they refer to as the retrospective gambler's fallacy. The current paper extends this idea to the situation where participants judge the likelihood of streak continuation. Participants were told about a streak produced by a random process (coin flips or human performance (basketball shots, and either predicted the next outcome or inferred the immediately preceding outcome. For the coin scenarios, participants tended to expect streak termination -- the gambler's fallacy --- and this effect was the same for predictions and retrospective inferences. In the basketball scenarios, no overall bias was found in either prospective or retrospective judgments. The results support Oppenheimer and Monin's suggestion that reconstruction of the past entails the same heuristics as prediction of the future; they also support the idea that the nature of the data-generating process is a key determinant of whether people fall into the gambler's fallacy. It is suggested that the term retrospective gambler's fallacy be used to describe situations where a streak is taken to indicate that the preceding unobserved outcome was of the opposite type, and that the phenomenon discovered by Oppenheimer and Monin be referred to as retrospective representativeness, or a retrospective belief in the law of small numbers.

  11. The Prevalance and Heterogeneity of At-risk and Pathodological Gamblers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Borregaard, Karen

    The article studies the prevalence of at-risk, problem and pathological gamblers among adult Danes. Based on a nationwide survey applying the NODS-screening tool, the percentage of the different categories of gamblers with some problems within the last year were 1.85, 0.23 and 0.134, respectively......’s gambling behaviour were often positively replied to among problem and pathological gamblers. Finally, it is more likely to be a problem gambler among young people, men, singles, and people with low and medium incomes than among their counterparts.......The article studies the prevalence of at-risk, problem and pathological gamblers among adult Danes. Based on a nationwide survey applying the NODS-screening tool, the percentage of the different categories of gamblers with some problems within the last year were 1.85, 0.23 and 0.134, respectively....... The questions most frequently yielding positive replies were about returning to win after having lost money, and having periods spending much time on making plans for future gambling. Also the question about gambling for more and more money to keep the same excitement and lying to family members about one...

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF REGULAR GAMBLERS IN ITALY: THE ROLE OF CONTROL AND EMOTION REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Pace

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the main purpose of this study is to investigate the emotional and temperamental characteristics associated with gambling in Italy and to compare different groups of people on the basis of their risk of gambling: low-risk gamblers, problem gamblers, and pathological gamblers. Particularly, we examined the possible discriminant functions of perception of control, locus of control (whether internal or chance-based; that is, devoted to fate, and emotion-regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Method: a total of 251 adult regular gamblers (142 males and 109 females recruited from different betting and bingo halls completed self-report questionnaires on gambling behaviors, lack of control as temperamental dimension, locus of control and emotional regulation strategies. Results: pathological gamblers, in comparison to low-risk gamblers, had lower levels of internal locus of control and cognitive reappraisal and higher levels of chance locus of control. Results from a discriminant function analysis have underlined the presence of two distinct functions: the former, named “unmanageable and stressful fate,” describes an egosyntonic position to gambling; the latter, named “I’d like to resist,” describes the egodystonic position to gambling. Conclusions: findings suggest considering regular gamblers as a heterogeneous group with respect to their attitudes towards their addiction. This can have important implications for their treatment.

  13. A comparison of university student and community gamblers: Motivations, impulsivity, and gambling cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmurek, Harvey H C; Switzer, Jessica; D'Alvise, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    The present study tested whether the associations among motivational, cognitive, and personality correlates of problem gambling severity differed across university student gamblers (n = 123) and gamblers in the general adult community (n = 113). The participants completed a survey that included standardized measures of gambling motivation, gambling related cognitions, and impulsivity. The survey also asked participants to report the forms of gambling in which they engaged to test whether gambling involvement (number of different forms of gambling) was related to problem gambling severity. After completing the survey, participants played roulette online to examine whether betting patterns adhered to the gambler's fallacy. Gambling involvement was significantly related to problem gambling severity for the community sample but not for the student sample. A logistic regression analysis that tested the involvement, motivation, impulsivity and cognitive correlates showed that money motivation and gambling related cognitions were the only significant independent predictors of gambling severity. Adherence to the gambler's fallacy was stronger for students than for the community sample, and was associated with gambling related cognitions. The motivational, impulsivity and cognitive, and correlates of problem gambling function similarly in university student gamblers and in gamblers from the general adult community. Interventions for both groups should focus on the financial and cognitive supports of problem gambling.

  14. Luck, come here! Automatic approach tendencies toward gambling cues in moderate- to high-risk gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffo, Marilisa; Smits, Ruby; Salmon, Joshua P; Cowie, Megan E; de Jong, David T H A; Salemink, Elske; Collins, Pam; Stewart, Sherry H; Wiers, Reinout W

    2018-02-01

    Similar to substance addictions, reward-related cognitive motivational processes, such as selective attention and positive memory biases, have been found in disordered gambling. Despite findings that individuals with substance use problems are biased to approach substance-related cues automatically, no study has yet focused on automatic approach tendencies for motivationally salient gambling cues in problem gamblers. We tested if moderate- to high-risk gamblers show a gambling approach bias and whether this bias was related prospectively to gambling behaviour and problems. Cross-sectional assessment study evaluating the concurrent and longitudinal correlates of gambling approach bias in moderate- to high-risk gamblers compared with non-problem gamblers. Online study throughout the Netherlands. Twenty-six non-treatment-seeking moderate- to high-risk gamblers and 26 non-problem gamblers community-recruited via the internet. Two online assessment sessions 6 months apart, including self-report measures of gambling problems and behaviour (frequency, duration and expenditure) and the gambling approach avoidance task, with stimuli tailored to individual gambling habits. Relative to non-problem gamblers, moderate- to high-risk gamblers revealed a stronger approach bias towards gambling-related stimuli than neutral stimuli (P = 0.03). Gambling approach bias was correlated positively with past-month gambling expenditure at baseline (P = 0.03) and with monthly frequency of gambling at follow-up (P = 0.02). In multiple hierarchical regressions, baseline gambling approach bias predicted monthly frequency positively (P = 0.03) and total duration of gambling episodes (P = 0.01) 6 months later, but not gambling problems or expenditure. In the Netherlands, relative to non-problem gamblers, moderate- to high-risk gamblers appear to have a stronger tendency to approach rather than to avoid gambling-related pictures compared with neutral ones. This gambling approach bias is

  15. Arousal and affective differences between student gamblers and non-gamblers during a card game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Leone, Antonio; Campeau, Jennifer L; Harrington, Shawn J

    2012-12-01

    The current study examined the differences in arousal (physiologically and subjectively) between gamblers and non-gamblers. Thirty students from a mid-sized university took part in the study for a chance to win money in a gambling task. Nearly half of the participants identified themselves as non-gamblers and slightly more than half of the participants considered themselves gamblers. Findings indicated that gamblers experienced a significantly higher increase in physiological arousal (heart rate) compared to non-gamblers during the gambling experience. The results suggests the possibility that physiological arousal may play a role in the appeal of gambling to certain types of people. Furthermore, when gamblers suffered a loss at the end of the game, they reported feeling worse as compared to the non-gamblers and relative to their state before playing. Moreover, this affective change explained 28.6% of the variance in gambling behavior according to self-reports. Findings suggest that gamblers in our study may have been more personally invested in the gambling tasks, such that losing was more disappointing to the habitual gamblers than the non-gamblers.

  16. Family violence in a sample of treatment-seeking gamblers: the effect of having dependent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellringer, Maria; Pearson, Janet; du Preez, Katie Palmer; Wilson, Denise; Koziol-McLain, Jane; Garrett, Nick; Abbott, Max

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of problem gambler gender on the relationship between the gambler having dependent children (younger than 18 years) living at home and the gambler perpetrating or being a victim of family violence. The sample comprised 164 help-seeking gamblers (43% female; 37% with dependent child/ren) recruited from three national gambling treatment services in New Zealand. Family violence was measured using a modified version of the HITS scale covering physical, psychological, verbal, emotional and sexual violence. Forty-nine percent of participants reported being a victim of violence and 43% had perpetrated violence. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was conducted, adjusting in sequence for significant socio-demographic, psychosocial and gambling factors. The relationship between having dependent children and being a victim of family violence was gender-related. Female gamblers living with dependent children reported more family violence perpetration and victimisation than male gamblers living with dependent children. Female gamblers with dependent children living at home had greater odds of being a victim of family violence than male gamblers without dependent children living at home. This relationship remained when adjusted for contextual factors of being a victim (ethnicity, income support status, and feelings of inadequacy) in this sample. A similar gender effect of having dependent children living at home on violence perpetration disappeared when known psychosocial contextual factors of violence perpetration (aggression, difficulties in emotion regulation, drug issue in the family, and interpersonal support) were taken into account. These findings suggest the value of coordinated approaches between gambling treatment services and programmes supporting vulnerable families in order to identify vulnerable families and put support mechanisms in place.

  17. Family violence in a sample of treatment-seeking gamblers: the effect of having dependent children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bellringer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effect of problem gambler gender on the relationship between the gambler having dependent children (younger than 18 years living at home and the gambler perpetrating or being a victim of family violence. The sample comprised 164 help-seeking gamblers (43% female; 37% with dependent child/ren recruited from three national gambling treatment services in New Zealand. Family violence was measured using a modified version of the HITS scale covering physical, psychological, verbal, emotional and sexual violence. Forty-nine percent of participants reported being a victim of violence and 43% had perpetrated violence. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was conducted, adjusting in sequence for significant socio-demographic, psychosocial and gambling factors. The relationship between having dependent children and being a victim of family violence was gender-related. Female gamblers living with dependent children reported more family violence perpetration and victimisation than male gamblers living with dependent children. Female gamblers with dependent children living at home had greater odds of being a victim of family violence than male gamblers without dependent children living at home. This relationship remained when adjusted for contextual factors of being a victim (ethnicity, income support status, and feelings of inadequacy in this sample. A similar gender effect of having dependent children living at home on violence perpetration disappeared when known psychosocial contextual factors of violence perpetration (aggression, difficulties in emotion regulation, drug issue in the family, and interpersonal support were taken into account. These findings suggest the value of coordinated approaches between gambling treatment services and programmes supporting vulnerable families in order to identify vulnerable families and put support mechanisms in place.

  18. Disordered gambling among higher-frequency gamblers: who is at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, D C; Schopflocher, D P; Martin, C R; el-Guebaly, N; Casey, D M; Currie, S R; Smith, G J; Williams, R J

    2012-11-01

    When gambling opportunities are made available to the public in a given jurisdiction, some individuals participate occasionally and others more frequently. Among frequent gamblers, some individuals develop problematic involvement and some do not. This study addresses the association among demographic and social risk factors, frequency of gambling and gambling disorders. Data from an adult community sample (n=1372) were used to identify risk factors for higher-frequency gambling and disordered gambling involvement. Individuals with higher intelligence, older individuals and more religious individuals were less frequent gamblers. Males, single individuals and those exposed to gambling environments (friends and family who gamble) and those who started to gamble at a younger age were more frequent gamblers. Excitement-seeking personality traits were also higher among more frequent gamblers. A different set of risk factors was associated with the likelihood of gambling disorder among these higher-frequency gamblers. These variables included mental health indicators, childhood maltreatment and parental gambling involvement. Among higher-frequency gamblers, individuals who smoke cigarettes, those with a diagnosis of alcohol or drug dependence or obsessive-compulsive disorder, those with higher anxiety or depression and those with higher impulsivity and antisocial personality traits were more likely to report gambling-related problems. These individuals were also more likely to report gambling on electronic gambling machines (e.g. slot machines). These data suggest a model in which higher-frequency gambling, particularly with electronic gambling machines, when combined with any type of emotional vulnerability increased the likelihood of gambling disorder.

  19. Latent Class Analysis of Gambling Activities in a Sample of Young Swiss Men: Association with Gambling Problems, Substance Use Outcomes, Personality Traits and Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Simon, Olivier; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed to identify different patterns of gambling activities (PGAs) and to investigate how PGAs differed in gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. A representative sample of 4989 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing seven distinct gambling activities, gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. PGAs were identified using latent class analysis (LCA). Differences between PGAs in gambling and substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies were tested. LCA identified six different PGAs. With regard to gambling and substance use outcomes, the three most problematic PGAs were extensive gamblers, followed by private gamblers, and electronic lottery and casino gamblers, respectively. By contrast, the three least detrimental PGAs were rare or non-gamblers, lottery only gamblers and casino gamblers. With regard to personality traits, compared with rare or non-gamblers, private and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sensation seeking. Electronic lottery and casino gamblers, private gamblers and extensive gamblers had higher levels of aggression-hostility. Extensive and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sociability, whereas casino gamblers reported lower levels of anxiety-neuroticism. Extensive gamblers used more maladaptive and less adaptive coping strategies than other groups. Results suggest that gambling is not a homogeneous activity since different types of gamblers exist according to the PGA they are engaged in. Extensive gamblers, electronic and casino gamblers and private gamblers may have the most problematic PGAs. Personality traits and coping skills may predispose individuals to PGAs associated with more or less negative outcomes.

  20. Harmful alcohol use and frequent use of marijuana among lifetime problem gamblers and the prevalence of cross-addictive behaviour among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Curtis, Tine; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Public health research has pointed to alcohol and substance abuse as the most significant public health challenges in Greenland with the negative impact on families and communities that entail, but few studies have investigated the role of problem gambling as addictive behaviour among Inuit. The ....... The objectives of the present study were to investigate (a) the association between lifetime problem gambling and harmful alcohol use as well as frequent use of marijuana and (b) the prevalence of cross-addictive behaviour among Greenland Inuit....

  1. Problem gambling among ethnic minorities: results from an epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle R. Caler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A few studies have examined gambling behavior and problem gambling among minorities and reported higher rates of both participation and gambling problems among particular minority groups in comparison to Whites who gamble. The present study utilized a representative, epidemiological sample of adults in New Jersey to explore gambling behavior, gambling problem severity, substance use, problem behavior, and mental health issues among minorities. Univariate analyses were conducted, comparing Whites (n = 1341 to respondents who identified as Hispanic (n = 394, Black (n = 261, or Asian/other (n = 177. Overall, the highest proportion of Hispanics were high-risk problem gamblers. Hispanic participants were also significantly more likely than other groups to use and abuse substances and to report mental health problems in the past month, behavioral addictions, and/or suicidal ideation in the past year. Primary predictors of White high risk problem gamblers were being young and male with friends or family who gambled, fair to poor health status, substance use, gambling once a week or more both online and in land-based venues, and engaging in a number of gambling activities. In contrast, gender was not a predictor of minority high risk problem gamblers, who were characterized primarily by having friends or family who gambled, gambling online only, having a behavioral addiction and playing instant scratch-offs and gaming machines. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  2. Problem gambling among ethnic minorities: results from an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caler, Kyle R; Vargas Garcia, Jose Ricardo; Nower, Lia

    2017-01-01

    A few studies have examined gambling behavior and problem gambling among minorities and reported higher rates of both participation and gambling problems among particular minority groups in comparison to Whites who gamble. The present study utilized a representative, epidemiological sample of adults in New Jersey to explore gambling behavior, gambling problem severity, substance use, problem behavior, and mental health issues among minorities. Univariate analyses were conducted, comparing Whites (n = 1341) to respondents who identified as Hispanic (n = 394), Black (n = 261), or Asian/other (n = 177). Overall, the highest proportion of Hispanics were high-risk problem gamblers. Hispanic participants were also significantly more likely than other groups to use and abuse substances and to report mental health problems in the past month, behavioral addictions, and/or suicidal ideation in the past year. Primary predictors of White high risk problem gamblers were being young and male with friends or family who gambled, fair to poor health status, substance use, gambling once a week or more both online and in land-based venues, and engaging in a number of gambling activities. In contrast, gender was not a predictor of minority high risk problem gamblers, who were characterized primarily by having friends or family who gambled, gambling online only, having a behavioral addiction and playing instant scratch-offs and gaming machines. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  3. The relation between personal relative deprivation and the urge to gamble among gamblers is moderated by problem gambling severity: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Mitchell J; Shead, N Will; Olson, James M

    2015-06-01

    One psychosocial factor that has been identified to motivate gambling is personal relative deprivation (PRD), which refers to resentment stemming from the belief that one is deprived of a desired and deserved outcome compared to some referent. Although several lines of evidence point to a positive association between PRD and the urge to gamble, the factors that might moderate this relation have yet to be investigated. Through a quantitative research synthesis, we sought to test (a) the overall relation between PRD and gambling urges among people reporting recent gambling experience, and (b) whether this relation is moderated by problem gambling severity. Meta-analysis revealed that, overall, higher self-reported PRD was associated with stronger urges to gamble (r=.26). A meta-regression revealed that, across studies, the strength of this relation depended on problem gambling severity, such that the relation between PRD and gambling urges was stronger among samples higher in average problem gambling severity. This pattern was corroborated by an analysis of the aggregated individual participant data (N=857), such that PRD predicted gambling urges only among participants higher in problem gambling severity. The potential practical implications and limitations of these results are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gambling transitions among adult gamblers: A multi-state model using a Markovian approach applied to the JEU cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Mélanie; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to study transitions between two states of gambling in adulthood (problem gambling and non-problem gambling) and to identify factors that might influence these transitions. Data for this 2-year long longitudinal study were collected in a French Outpatient Addiction Treatment Center, in gambling establishments and through the press. Both problem gamblers and non-problem gamblers were evaluated using a structured interview and self-report questionnaires. The statistical analysis was carried out using a Markovian approach. The analyzed cohort consisted of 304 gamblers with 519 observed transitions. Participants with no past-year gambling problems (based on the DSM-IV) had a probability of about 90% of also having no past-year gambling problems at the following assessment, whereas the observed percentage of problem gamblers transitioning to non-problem gambling was of 48%. We reported (i) vulnerability factors of transitioning to problem gambling (such as an anxiety disorder or an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) during the childhood), (ii) protective factors for non-problem gamblers, (iii) recovery factors (such as ongoing treatment and younger age) and (iv) persistence factors of a gambling problem (such as a persistent ADHD). The status of problem gambler is unstable over time, whereas we found stability among non-problem gamblers. Our findings suggest the existence of vulnerability and protective factors in gambling. These results lead to think about preventive actions and adaptive care, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or researching gambling problems in people with an anxiety disorder or ADHD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors Affecting the Link between Physical Discipline and Child Externalizing Problems in Black and White Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna S.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Newton, Rae R.; Black, Maureen M.; Everson, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    We examined contextual factors that may affect the impact of physical discipline on later child behavior problems among high-risk Black and White families. We examined race, parental warmth, and early child problems as potential moderators of the discipline-behavior problem link. The sample included 442 White and Black children and their…

  6. Recognizing the Two Faces of Gambling: The Lived Experiences of Korean Women Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungjae; Kim, Wooksoo; Dickerson, Suzanne S

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the lived experiences of women problem gamblers, focusing on the meaning of gambling to them, how and why these women continue to gamble or stop gambling, and their needs and concerns. In order to effectively help women problem gamblers, practical in-depth knowledge is necessary to develop intervention programs for prevention, treatment, and recovery among women problem gamblers. The hermeneutic phenomenology approach was used to guide in-depth interviews and team interpretation of data. Sixteen women gamblers who chose to live in the casino area were recruited through snowball sampling with help from a counseling center. Participants were individually interviewed from February to April 2013 and asked to tell their stories of gambling. Transcribed interviews provided data for interpretive analysis. In the study analysis one constitutive pattern was identified: moving beyond addiction by recognizing the two faces of gambling in their life. Four related themes emerged in the analysis-gambling as alluring; gambling as 'ugly'; living in contradictions; and moving beyond. Loneliness and isolation play a critical role in gambling experiences of women gamblers in Korea. In other words, they are motivated to gamble in order to escape from loneliness, to stop gambling for fear of being lonely as they get older, and to stay in the casnio area so as not to be alone. The need for acceptance is one fo the important factors that should be considered in developing intervention program for women.

  7. Beat the Cheater: Computing Game-Theoretic Strategies for When to Kick a Gambler out of a Casino

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Troels Bjerre; Dalis, Melissa; Korzhyk, Dmytro

    2014-01-01

    Gambles in casinos are usually set up so that the casino makes a profit in expectation -- as long as gamblers play honestly. However, some gamblers are able to cheat, reducing the casino’s profit. How should the casino address this? A common strategy is to selectively kick gamblers out, possibly...... model the problem as a Bayesian game in which the casino is a Stackelberg leader that can commit to a (possibly randomized) policy for when to kick gamblers out, and we provide efficient algorithms for computing the optimal policy. Besides being potentially useful to casinos, we imagine that similar...... techniques could be useful for addressing related problems -- for example, illegal trades in financial markets....

  8. Internet based personalized feedback interventions for gamblers in Singapore: First results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Melvyn W B; Yi, Yang; Cheok, Christopher C S

    2016-01-01

    Problem or pathological gambling has been a worldwide concern in the recent years, especially so with the advances in the technology, facilitating easier access to various means of gambling. Along with the advances in web-based and smartphone technologies, these technologies have been recently applied as adjunctive clinical tools to help gamblers. Taking into careful consideration the existing evidence base for Internet based interventions for pathological gambling, it seemed that the current published literature has demonstrated largely the efficacy of a personalized feedback intervention for pathological gambling; and further studies are still under-going to try and demonstrate the clinical feasibility of online web-based cognitive behavioral interventions for pathological gamblers. Given this, the aims of the current study are to (a) replicate an online personalized feedback intervention and determine its receptiveness in an Asian cohort of gamblers; and (b) to identify the demographics and characteristics of Asian gamblers who would utilize an online intervention. The workgroup at the National Addiction Management Service, Singapore conceptualized the online personalized feedback intervention for gamblers. The English version was launched on the 31st of March 2014 and the Chinese version was launched on the 30th of September 2014. A cumulative total of 708 participants took part with rhe mean age of the participants being 32.70 (SD = 11.638), with 89.1% males and 10.9% females. The mean problem gambling severity score (PGSI) was 10.80 (SD = 8.13), with the vast majority participating in Casino gambling on board a cruise (36.0%). Of significance, approximately 59.2% of the participants who sought help with our online e-intervention did have a diagnosis of problem gambling. This is one of the first few studies to demonstrate and replicate the potential use of an Internet based intervention for non-problem and problem gamblers. The current study has demonstrated

  9. Outcome of treatment seeking rural gamblers attending a nurse-led cognitive-behaviour therapy service: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Tolchard

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: This study suggests that rural problem gamblers experience different levels of co-morbid anxiety and depression from their urban counterparts, but once in treatment appear to respond quicker. ACBT approach was found to be effective in treating rural gamblers and outcomes were maintained. Ensuring better availability and access to such treatment in rural areas is important. Nurses are in a position as the majority health professional in rural areas to provide such help.

  10. On Gambler's ruin problem in some models

    OpenAIRE

    Sevim, Çiğdem

    2005-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. 2-player probability games is an important subject of probability theory. In this thesis, we considered four different two-player probability games. We calculated the expected value of stopping times of the games. Since the rules of the games are complicated and it is not possible to calculate all possible shuffles, we calculated the results using the Monte Carlo method on a computer. We showed that the expected value of duration of ...

  11. Near miss, gambler's fallacy and entrapment: their influence on lottery gamblers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai; Phengphol, Varich

    2008-09-01

    Near miss, gambler's fallacy and entrapment are hypothesized to influence gambling behavior but their individual impact on gambling behavior and their relationships have not been investigated. This study examines the direct and mediated effects of near miss, gambler's fallacy and entrapment on lottery gambling among Thai lottery gamblers. Two groups of 200 lottery gamblers participated in the study. One group used superstitious methods to search for lottery numbers to bet, whereas the other group simply bought their tickets from lottery stalls. The superstitious group shows higher levels of near miss, gambler's fallacy, entrapment and lottery gambling. Three models of relationships among near miss, gambler's fallacy, entrapment and lottery gambling were constructed using LISREL program. The model that shows a direct effect of near miss, and one that shows a mediated effect of near miss fit the data equally. The results confirm a gambler's fallacy and entrapment as starting points in the theory of cognitive psychology of lottery gambling and the generalization of near miss in gambling motivation.

  12. Drinking Problems of Native American and White Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Morris A.

    1979-01-01

    Found that American Indian youths tend to experience more serious consequences of drinking than do White youths from the same area with regard to feeling high, getting drunk, passing out, suffering loss of memory, being stopped by police, having automobile accidents, and getting into trouble with parents. (Author/BEF)

  13. Risk-Taking, Delay Discounting, and Time Perspective in Adolescent Gamblers: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosenza, Marina; Griffiths, Mark D; Nigro, Giovanna; Ciccarelli, Maria

    2017-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that adult pathological gamblers (compared to controls) show risk-proneness, foreshortened time horizon, and preference for immediate rewards. No study has ever examined the interplay of these factors in adolescent gambling. A total of 104 adolescents took part in the research. Two equal-number groups of adolescent non-problem and problem gamblers, defined using the South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents, were administered the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), the Consideration of Future Consequences (CFC-14) scale, and the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ). Adolescent problem gamblers were found to be more risk-prone, more oriented to the present, and to discount delay rewards more steeply than adolescent non-problem gamblers. Results of logistic regression analysis revealed that BART, MCQ, and CFC scores predicted gambling severity. These novel finding provides the first evidence of an association among problematic gambling, high risk-taking proneness, steep delay discounting, and foreshortened time horizon among adolescents. It may be that excessive gambling induces shortsighted behaviors that, in turn, facilitate gambling involvement.

  14. Using cross-game behavioral markers for early identification of high-risk internet gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Julia; LaPlante, Debi A; Nelson, Sarah E; Shaffer, Howard J

    2013-09-01

    Using actual gambling behavior provides the opportunity to develop behavioral markers that operators can use to predict the development of gambling-related problems among their subscribers. Participants were 4,056 Internet gamblers who subscribed to the Internet betting service provider bwin.party. Half of this sample included multiple platform gamblers who were identified by bwin.party's Responsible Gambling (RG) program; the other half were controls randomly selected from those who had the same first deposit date. Using the daily aggregated Internet betting transactions for gamblers' first 31 calendar days of online betting activities at bwin.party, we employed a 2-step analytic strategy: (a) applying an exploratory chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) decision tree method to identify characteristics that distinguished a subgroup of high-risk Internet gamblers from the rest of the sample, and (b) conducting a confirmatory analysis of those characteristics among an independent validation sample. This analysis identified two high-risk groups (i.e., groups in which 90% of the members were identified by bwin.party's RG program): Group 1 engaged in three or more gambling activities and evidenced high wager variability on casino-type games; Group 2 engaged in two different gambling activities and evidenced high variability for live action wagers. This analysis advances an ongoing research program to identify potentially problematic Internet gamblers during the earliest stages of their Internet gambling. Gambling providers and public policymakers can use these results to inform early intervention programs that target high-risk Internet gamblers. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. How do gamblers start gambling: identifying behavioural markers for high-risk internet gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Julia; Shaffer, Howard J

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this study is to identify betting patterns displayed during the first month of actual Internet gambling on a betting site that can serve as behavioural markers to predict the development of gambling-related problems. Using longitudinal data, k-means clustering analysis identified a small subgroup of high-risk gamblers. Seventy-three percent of the members of this subgroup eventually closed their account due to gambling-related problems. The characteristics of this high-risk subgroup were as follows: (i) frequent and (ii) intensive betting combined with (iii) high variability across wager amount and (iv) an increasing wager size during the first month of betting. This analysis provides important information that can help to identify potentially problematic gamblers during the early stages of gambling-related problems. Public health workers can use these results to develop early interventions that target high-risk Internet gamblers for prevention efforts. However, one study limitation is that the results distinguish only a small proportion of the total sample; therefore, additional research will be necessary to identify markers that can classify larger segments of high-risk gamblers.

  16. Gambling accessibility: a scale to measure gambler preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan M; Thomas, Anna C; Kyrios, Michael; Bates, Glen; Meredyth, Denise

    2011-03-01

    Geographic closeness of gambling venues is not the only aspect of accessibility likely to affect gambling frequency. Perceived accessibility of gambling venues may include other features such as convenience (e.g., opening hours) or "atmosphere". The aim of the current study was to develop a multidimensional measure of gamblers' perceptions of accessibility, and present evidence for its reliability and validity. We surveyed 303 gamblers with 43 items developed to measure different dimensions of accessibility. Factor analysis of the items produced a two factor solution. The first, Social Accessibility related to the level at which gambling venues were enjoyed because they were social places, provided varying entertainment options and had a pleasant atmosphere. The second factor, Accessible Retreat related to the degree to which venues were enjoyed because they were geographically and temporally available and provided a familiar and anonymous retreat with few interruptions or distractions. Both factors, developed as reliable subscales of the new Gambling Access Scale, demonstrated construct validity through their correlations with other gambling-related measures. Social Accessibility was moderately related to gambling frequency and amount spent, but not to problem gambling, while, as hypothesised, Accessible Retreat was associated with stronger urges to gamble and gambling problems.

  17. The impact of alexithymia on pathological gamblers' decision making: a preliminary study of gamblers recruited in "sportsbook" casinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïte, Ania; Barrault, Servane; Cassotti, Mathieu; Borst, Grégoire; Bonnaire, Céline; Houdé, Olivier; Varescon, Isabelle; Moutier, Sylvain

    2014-06-01

    We investigated whether alexithymia is at the root of the decision-making deficit classically reported in pathological gamblers. Alexithymia has been shown to be a recurrent personality trait of pathological gamblers and to impair the decision-making abilities of nonpathological gamblers, but no previous studies have investigated whether alexithymia significantly affects pathological gamblers' decision making. Although investigations of pathological gamblers typically have studied those seeking treatment, most pathological gamblers do not seek treatment. Thus, to study people representative of the general population of pathological gamblers, we conducted our study in "sportsbook" casinos with a small sample of gamblers who were not seeking treatment. We recruited gamblers in sportsbooks and classified them based on their scores on the South Oaks Gambling Screen and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale: 3 groups of pathological gamblers (6 alexithymic, 8 possibly alexithymic, and 6 nonalexithymic) and 8 healthy controls. All of the participants completed an adaptation of the Iowa Gambling Task. The alexithymic group chose less advantageously on the task than the other groups. The severity of the deficit in decision-making abilities was related to the severity of alexithymia, even when we controlled for the effects of anxiety and depression. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that alexithymia might be a critical personality trait underlying pathological gamblers' decision-making deficits.

  18. Willingness to seek help for psychosocial problems among Latino and white American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Melo, Janine A Tiago; Farber, Barry A

    2005-08-01

    This study compared 50 Latino and 50 White American students' perceptions of the severity of 25 psychological problems, their willingness to seek help for these problems, and their preferences for caregivers. Each group received a modified version of the Personal Problems Inventory. Latino students rated depression, financial concerns, and discrimination as more severe problems; their preference for mental health workers consistently significantly exceeded those of White students, although both groups preferred seeking help from family and community resources. Findings suggest the possibility of a greater role for therapists serving Latino students than currently exists.

  19. Pathological gamblers are more vulnerable to the illusion of control in a standard associative learning task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eOrgaz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An illusion of control is said to occur when a person believes that he or she controls an outcome that is uncontrollable. Pathological gambling has often been related to an illusion of control, but the assessment of the illusion has generally used introspective methods in domain-specific (i.e., gambling situations. The illusion of control of pathological gamblers, however, could be a more general problem, affecting other aspects of their daily life. Thus, we tested them using a standard associative learning task which is known to produce illusions of control in most people under certain conditions. The results showed that the illusion was significantly stronger in pathological gamblers than in a control undiagnosed sample. This suggests (a that the experimental tasks used in basic associative learning research could be used to detect illusions of control in gamblers in a more indirect way, as compared to introspective and domain-specific questionnaires; and (b, that in addition to gambling-specific problems, pathological gamblers may have a higher-than-normal illusion of control in their daily life.

  20. Tempo in electronic gaming machines affects behavior among at-risk gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzoni, Rune A; Laberg, Jon Christian; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Molde, Helge; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-09-01

    Background and aims Electronic gaming machines (EGM) may be a particularly addictive form of gambling, and gambling speed is believed to contribute to the addictive potential of such machines. The aim of the current study was to generate more knowledge concerning speed as a structural characteristic in gambling, by comparing the effects of three different bet-to-outcome intervals (BOI) on gamblers bet-sizes, game evaluations and illusion of control during gambling on a computer simulated slot machine. Furthermore, we investigated whether problem gambling moderates effects of BOI on gambling behavior and cognitions. Methods 62 participants played a computerized slot machine with either fast (400 ms), medium (1700 ms) or slow (3000 ms) BOI. SOGS-R was used to measure pre-existing gambling problems. Mean bet size, game evaluations and illusion of control comprised the dependent variables. Results Gambling speed had no overall effect on either mean bet size, game evaluations or illusion of control, but in the 400 ms condition, at-risk gamblers (SOGS-R score > 0) employed higher bet sizes compared to no-risk (SOGS-R score = 0) gamblers. Conclusions The findings corroborate and elaborate on previous studies and indicate that restrictions on gambling speed may serve as a harm reducing effort for at-risk gamblers.

  1. Impaired non-verbal emotion processing in Pathological Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, Charles; Saeremans, Mélanie; Delwarte, Jennifer; Noël, Xavier; Campanella, Salvatore; Verbanck, Paul; Ermer, Elsa; Brevers, Damien

    2016-02-28

    Impaired perception of emotion in others has been described and confirmed in addictions with substances, but no such data exists regarding addictions without substances. As it has been hypothesized that toxic effect of substances on the brain was responsible for the impairments described, studying addictions without substances could be of interest to confirm this hypothesis. Twenty-two male pathological gamblers were compared to 22 male healthy controls matched for age and education level on non-verbal emotion perception tasks including faces, voices, and musical excerpts. Depression and anxiety levels were controlled for. Pathological gamblers significantly underestimated the intensity of peacefulness in music, and overall they were less accurate when reading emotion in voices and faces. They also overestimated emotional intensity in neutral voices and faces. Although anxiety levels did account for accuracy problems when detecting fear in voices and for overestimating emotions in neutral faces, anxiety levels did not explain the range of deficits observed. This is the first study showing non-verbal perception deficits in a purely behavioural addiction. These findings show that deficits in decoding non-verbal signals are associated with addictive behaviours per se, and are not due solely to toxic effects of substances on the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The South African poor white problem in the early 20th century: Lessons for poverty today

    OpenAIRE

    Johan Fourie

    2006-01-01

    The causes of the poor white problem, first noted at a Dutch Reformed Church Synod in 1886, were unclear; many blamed the inadequate education system, urbanisation, cheap wages or cultural factors, while others argued that external events such as the rinderpest disease or the Anglo-Boer war added to the numbers of poor whites. Today, poverty is still at the heart of many policy debates in South Africa. A bad educational legacy, urbanisation, labour legislation, culture and tradition, and exte...

  3. The Structure of Pathological Gambling among Korean Gamblers: A Cluster and Factor Analysis of Clinical and Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Kyung; LaBrie, Richard A.; Grant, Jon E.; Kim, Suck Won; Shaffer, Howard J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the underlying structure of the demographic and clinical characteristics of level 3 (i.e., pathological) Korean casino gamblers. The participants reported their gambling behavior and clinical characteristics known to be associated with gambling problems (e.g., alcohol use problems, eating disorders, depression, anxiety, and…

  4. Asian American and White College Students' Heavy Episodic Drinking Behaviors and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek K; Grivel, Margaux M; Cheng, Alice W; Zamboanga, Byron L

    2016-08-23

    Heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol-related problems appears to be a growing problem among young adult Asian Americans. One promising factor that helps explain within-group differences among Asian American includes nativity. Nativity refers to whether an individual was born in (i.e., second generation or higher) or outside (i.e., first generation) of the United States. Despite this theoretically promising variable, there has been a paucity of literature examining comparing drinking patterns between first and second generation Asians Americans and White college men. The current study examined the relationship between HED and alcohol-related problems among first- and second-generation Asian American, and White college male students. Interaction between race and the variables in HED and alcohol-related problems models were also investigated. A total of 630 men were recruited of which 489 were Asian American men (407 second generation and 82 first generation) and 148 White students attending a public university in southern California (USA) were recruited. Results revealed no differences in HED rates between second-generation Asian American and White male college students; however, White students reported higher rates of HED compared to first-generation Asian Americans. No differences in alcohol-related problems were found between all three groups. There were no significant interactions between racial groups, drinking to cope, Greek/fraternity status, and descriptive norms on the alcohol outcomes. Conclusion/importance: Second-generation Asian American young adult men reported similar HED and rates of alcohol-related problems as White men. The present findings suggest that alcohol-related problems among Asian American men are a larger public health concern than previously believed.

  5. Chasing losses in online poker and casino games: characteristics and game play of Internet gamblers at risk of disordered gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Suhonen, Niko; Saastamoinen, Jani

    2014-07-30

    Disordered Internet gambling is a psychological disorder that represents an important public health issue due to the increase in highly available and conveniently accessible Internet gambling sites. Chasing losses is one of the few observable markers of at-risk and problem gambling that may be used to detect early signs of disordered Internet gambling. This study examined loss chasing behaviour in a sample of Internet casino and poker players and the socio-demographic variables, irrational beliefs, and gambling behaviours associated with chasing losses. An online survey was completed by 10,838 Internet gamblers (58% male) from 96 countries. The results showed that Internet casino players had a greater tendency to report chasing losses than poker players and gamblers who reported chasing losses were more likely to hold irrational beliefs about gambling and spend more time and money gambling than those who reported that they were unaffected by previous losses. Gamblers who played for excitement and to win money were more likely to report chasing losses. This study is one of the largest ever studies of Internet gamblers and the results are highly significant as they provide insight into the characteristics and behaviours of gamblers using this mode of access. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gambling Motives: Do They Explain Cognitive Distortions in Male Poker Gamblers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Sasha; Barrault, Servane; Brunault, Paul; Varescon, Isabelle

    2017-06-17

    Gambling behavior is partly the result of varied motivations leading individuals to participate in gambling activities. Specific motivational profiles are found in gamblers, and gambling motives are closely linked to the development of cognitive distortions. This cross-sectional study aimed to predict cognitive distortions from gambling motives in poker players. The population was recruited in online gambling forums. Participants reported gambling at least once a week. Data included sociodemographic characteristics, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Financial and the Gambling-Related Cognition Scale. This study was conducted on 259 male poker gamblers (aged 18-69 years, 14.3% probable pathological gamblers). Univariate analyses showed that cognitive distortions were independently predicted by overall gambling motives (34.8%) and problem gambling (22.4%) (p cognitive distortions (p cognitive distortions are a good discriminating factor of gambling problems, showing a close inter-relationship between gambling motives, cognitive distortions and the severity of gambling. These data are consistent with the following theoretical process model: gambling motives lead individuals to practice and repeat the gambling experience, which may lead them to develop cognitive distortions, which in turn favor problem gambling. This study opens up new research perspectives to understand better the mechanisms underlying gambling practice and has clinical implications in terms of prevention and treatment. For example, a coupled motivational and cognitive intervention focused on gambling motives/cognitive distortions could be beneficial for individuals with gambling problems.

  7. New Insights into the Problem of the Surface Gravity Distribution of Cool DA White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Bergeron, P.; Kalirai, J. S.; Gianninas, A.

    2010-04-01

    We review at length the longstanding problem in the spectroscopic analysis of cool hydrogen-line (DA) white dwarfs (T effTremblay & Bergeron and find that the gravity distribution of cool objects remains suspiciously high. Finally, we find that photometric masses are, on average, in agreement with expected values, and that the high-log g problem is so far unique to the spectroscopic approach.

  8. Losses and External Outcomes Interact to Produce the Gambler's Fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossbridge, Julia A; Roney, Christopher J R; Suzuki, Satoru

    2017-01-01

    When making serial predictions in a binary decision task, there is a clear tendency to assume that after a series of the same external outcome (e.g., heads in a coin flip), the next outcome will be the opposing one (e.g., tails), even when the outcomes are independent of one another. This so-called "gambler's fallacy" has been replicated robustly. However, what drives gambler's fallacy behavior is unclear. Here we demonstrate that a run of the same external outcome by itself does not lead to gambler's fallacy behavior. However, when a run of external outcomes is accompanied by a concurrent run of failed guesses, gambler's fallacy behavior is predominant. These results do not depend on how participants' attention is directed. Thus, it appears that gambler's fallacy behavior is driven by a combination of an external series of events and a concurrent series of failure experiences.

  9. Sensation seeking in a community sample of French gamblers: Comparison between strategic and non-strategic gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaire, Céline; Bungener, Catherine; Varescon, Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between sensation seeking and gambling disorder (GD) in a community sample of gamblers (when controlling for the effect of substance use, gender and age) and see whether sensation seeking scores depend on the gambling activity when comparing strategic and non-strategic gamblers. A total of 380 gamblers was recruited. First, pathological gamblers (PGs) (n =143) were compared to non-pathological gamblers (NPGs) (n =237). Second, strategic gamblers (n =93) were compared to non-strategic gamblers (n =110). Sociodemographic data, gambling behavior (SOGS, DSM-IV), tobacco and alcohol use (CAGE), and sensation seeking (SSS) were evaluated. PGs have higher boredom susceptibility scores than NPGs and this factor is associated with GD. Nevertheless, the relationship between sensation seeking and GD depends on the gambling activity. In fact, sensation seeking is associated with GD in strategic gamblers only. PGs playing strategic games display different profiles from non-strategic PGs. Thus, factors associated with GD differ when the gambling activity is taken into account. These findings are consistent with the idea of it being essential to identify clinically distinct subgroups of PGs in the treatment of GD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Voluntary limit setting and player choice in most intense online gamblers: an empirical study of gambling behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Michael; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-12-01

    Social responsibility in gambling has become a major issue for the gaming industry. The possibility for online gamblers to set voluntary time and money limits are a social responsibility practice that is now widespread among online gaming operators. The main issue concerns whether the voluntary setting of such limits has any positive impact on subsequent gambling behaviour and whether such measures are of help to problem gamblers. In this paper, this issue is examined through data collected from a representative random sample of 100,000 players who gambled on the win2day gambling website. When opening an account at the win2day site, there is a mandatory requirement for all players to set time and cash-in limits (that cannot exceed 800 per week). During a 3-month period, all voluntary time and/or money limit setting behaviour by a subsample of online gamblers (n = 5,000) within this mandatory framework was tracked and recorded for subsequent data analysis. From the 5,000 gamblers, the 10 % most intense players (as measured by theoretical loss) were further investigated. Voluntary spending limits had the highest significant effect on subsequent monetary spending among casino and lottery gamblers. Monetary spending among poker players significantly decreased after setting a voluntary time limit. The highest significant decrease in playing duration was among poker players after setting a voluntary playing duration limit. The results of the study demonstrated that voluntary limit setting had a specific and significant effect on the studied gamblers. Therefore, voluntary limits appear to show an appropriate effect in the desired target group (i.e., the most gaming intense players).

  11. Desperate Housewives: An Analysis of the Characterisations of Female Gamblers Portrayed in Gambling Movies in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Keis; Chan, Chi Chuen

    2009-01-01

    This article examines portrayals of female gamblers in recent Hong Kong movies. The authors report that the depiction of female gamblers is very different from that of male gamblers in the movies made in the same period. Whereas the male gamblers are pitching a lonely and desperate battle against an evil opponent, the female gamblers portrayed in…

  12. Problem Gambling Family Impacts: Development of the Problem Gambling Family Impact Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Suomi, A; Jackson, A C; Lavis, T

    2016-09-01

    Although family members of problem gamblers frequently present to treatment services, problem gambling family impacts are under-researched. The most commonly endorsed items on a new measure of gambling-related family impacts [Problem Gambling Family Impact Measure (PG-FIM: Problem Gambler version)] by 212 treatment-seeking problem gamblers included trust (62.5 %), anger (61.8 %), depression or sadness (58.7 %), anxiety (57.7 %), distress due to gambling-related absences (56.1 %), reduced quality time (52.4 %), and communication breakdowns (52.4 %). The PG-FIM (Problem Gambler version) was comprised of three factors: (1) financial impacts, (2) increased responsibility impacts, and (3) psychosocial impacts with good psychometric properties. Younger, more impulsive, non-electronic gaming machine (EGM) gamblers who had more severe gambling problems reported more financial impacts; non-EGM gamblers with poorer general health reported more increased responsibility impacts; and more impulsive non-EGM gamblers with more psychological distress and higher gambling severity reported more psychosocial impacts. The findings have implications for the development of interventions for the family members of problem gamblers.

  13. Psychometric evaluation of the Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire with treatment-seeking disordered gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, Walter R; Ginley, Meredith K; Whelan, James P; Meyers, Andrew W

    2015-04-01

    Growing evidence for the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for disordered gambling supports the need for a comprehensive set of gambling-related assessment measures that have been validated with treatment-seeking samples. The Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire (GBQ) is a self-report measure that was designed to identify gambling-related cognitive distortions (Steenbergh, Meyers, May, & Whelan, 2002). In this study, the GBQ demonstrated good internal consistency and adequate construct validity in a treatment-seeking sample of disordered gamblers. Additionally, scores on the measure significantly decreased across a brief cognitive-behavioral treatment, providing validity support for use of the GBQ with a clinical population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Problematic internet use in gamblers: impact on clinical and cognitive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric; Grant, Jon E

    2017-12-01

    Gambling is a commonplace phenomenon, existing along a continuum from occasional gambling to functionally impairing gambling disorder. The internet may act as a conduit for some gambling behaviors. The impact of problematic internet use on clinical and cognitive features relevant to gambling has received little research attention. A total of 206 adults aged 18-30 years who gamble at least five times per year were recruited from the general community and undertook detailed clinical and cognitive assessments. Problematic internet use was defined using a total score of 5 or more on Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Linear regression was employed to evaluate the relative contribution of addictive-related, impulsive-related, and compulsive-related measures in predicting YDQ total scores in gamblers. Gamblers with problematic internet use (18% of the sample) reported lower quality of life, lower self-esteem, elevated rates of intermittent explosive disorder, gambling disorder symptoms, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, antisocial personality disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as relative deficits in decision making and spatial working memory. In linear regression, the extent of problematic internet use was most significantly associated with increased gambling disorder symptoms and increased ADHD symptoms. Problematic internet use in gamblers is associated with worse quality of life, more problem/pathological gambling symptoms, more psychiatric morbidities, and select cognitive impairment. Refinement of the definition of problematic internet use and exploration of its clinical and cognitive associations are likely to be highly relevant to the treatment of problematic gambling.

  15. Subtyping based on readiness and confidence: the identification of help-seeking profiles for gamblers accessing web-based counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, S N; Lubman, D I; Iyer, R; Gao, C X; Dowling, N A

    2015-03-01

    Problem gamblers are not a homogeneous group and recent data suggest that subtyping can improve treatment outcomes. This study administered three readiness rulers and aimed to identify subtypes of gamblers accessing a national web-based counselling service based on these rulers. Participants were 1204 gamblers (99.4% problem gamblers) who accessed a single session of web-based counselling in Australia. Measures included three readiness rulers (importance, readiness and confidence to resist an urge to gamble), demographics and the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). Gamblers reported high importance of change [mean = 9.2, standard deviation (SD) = 1.51] and readiness to change (mean = 8.86, SD = 1.84), but lower confidence to resist an urge to gamble (mean = 3.93, SD = 2.44) compared with importance and readiness. The statistical fit indices of a latent class analysis identified a four-class model. Subtype 1 was characterized by a very high readiness to change and very low confidence to resist an urge to gamble (n = 662, 55.0%) and subtype 2 reported high readiness and low confidence (n = 358, 29.7%). Subtype 3 reported moderate ratings on all three rulers (n = 139, 11.6%) and subtype 4 reported high importance of change but low readiness and confidence (n = 45, 3.7%). A multinomial logistic regression indicated that subtypes differed by gender (P counselling comprise four distinct subgroups based on self-reported levels of readiness to change, confidence to resist the urge to gamble and importance of change. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Study protocol: the JEU cohort study--transversal multiaxial evaluation and 5-year follow-up of a cohort of French gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Vénisse, Jean-Luc; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Gorsane, Mohamed-Ali; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2014-08-20

    There is abundant literature on how to distinguish problem gambling (PG) from social gambling, but there are very few studies of the long-term evolution of gambling practice. As a consequence, the correlates of key state changes in the gambling trajectory are still unknown. The objective of the JEU cohort study is to identify the determinants of key state changes in the gambling practice, such as the emergence of a gambling problem, natural recovery from a gambling problem, resolution of a gambling problem with intermediate care intervention, relapses or care recourse. The present study was designed to overcome the limitations of previous cohort study on PG. Indeed, this longitudinal case-control cohort is the first which plans to recruit enough participants from different initial gambling severity levels to observe these rare changes. In particular, we plan to recruit three groups of gamblers: non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers without treatment and problem gamblers seeking treatment.Recruitment takes place in various gambling places, through the press and in care centers. Cohort participants are gamblers of both sexes who reported gambling on at least one occasion in the previous year and who were aged between 18 and 65. They were assessed through a structured clinical interview and self-assessment questionnaires at baseline and then once a year for five years. Data collection comprises sociodemographic characteristics, gambling habits (including gambling trajectory), the PG section of the DSM-IV, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey - 23, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Wender-Utah Rating Scale-Child, the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale, somatic comorbidities (especially current treatment and Parkinson disease) and the Temperament and Character Inventory - 125. The JEU cohort study is the first study which proposes to identify the predictive factors of key state changes in gambling practice. This is

  17. Validation of a Spanish translation of the Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, Walter R; Meyers, Andrew W; Whelan, James P

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Spanish-speaking population has rapidly increased in recent decades and there is a need for psychometrically supported assessment measures for researchers and clinicians who work with this population. A Spanish version of a self-report measure of gamblers' cognitive distortions [Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire (GBQ); Steenbergh, Meyers, Whelan, & May, 2002] was translated and psychometrically evaluated in a sample of 219 Spanish-speaking Hispanics residing in the southeast United States. The GBQ-S showed high internal consistency (α = .95). Factor analytic data supported a factor structure similar to the initial psychometric evaluation of the English version. Probable pathological gamblers reported significantly more cognitive distortions on the GBQ-S than nongamblers and nonpathological gamblers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Virtual addictions: An examination of problematic social casino game use among at-risk gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; King, Daniel L; Russell, Alex M T; Delfabbro, Paul; Hing, Nerilee

    2017-01-01

    The overlap of gaming and gambling activities within online digital technologies is of growing relevance to the study of technological addictions. Social casino games are immensely popular 'free to play' games that offer realistic emulation of financial gambling activities. Their structural similarities might suggest that engagement in social casino games may be particularly risky for people with existing gambling problems. Currently it is not known whether social casino games are used problematically by individuals who also experience problematic gambling, the extent of this overlap, the characteristics of those who experience problems with both activities, and the symptoms of problematic social casino game use they experience. An online survey was administered to Internet users (N=1554) to assess social casino game use and associated problems. This study examined a subsample of 176 adults who played social casino games and reported self-identified gambling problems. The results indicated that a greater frequency and diversity of social casino game playing and more frequent and larger expenditure on social casino games was significantly positively associated with symptom severity of problematic social casino game use. Gamblers who were younger, less educated, spoke a non-English language, and with higher psychological distress, were more likely to report greater problems. Playing social casino games to escape or relieve a negative mood was the most commonly reported symptom. These findings suggest that some problem gamblers may also be at risk of problematic engagement in online gambling activities that lack financial incentives. Gamblers' concurrent engagement in social casino games therefore warrants further consideration in gambling research studies and clinical practice settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alexithymia and gambling: a risk factor for all gamblers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaire, Céline; Bungener, Catherine; Varescon, Isabelle

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate alexithymia (in relation with depression) in three groups of French gamblers (n = 186) recruited in their gambling location: at the racetracks (n = 80 males; mean age 28.1 years), in the slot machine rooms (n = 65; 29 males, 36 females; mean age 34.6 years), and in the traditional gaming rooms (n = 41 males; mean age 36 years). Gambling behavior was measured by the South Oaks Gambling Screen and DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling, Alexithymia by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and depression with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13). For racetracks and slot machine gambling, pathological gamblers differed from non-pathological gamblers, regarding their alexithymia scores. These results remained stable after controlling for depression scores among the racetracks gamblers only. The relationship between alexithymia and depression depends on the type of pathological gambler. These findings are consistent with the idea of identifying clinically distinct subgroups of gamblers.

  20. Relationships Between Smoking and Sleep Problems in Black and White Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellatorre, Anna; Choi, Kelvin; Lewin, Daniel; Haynie, Denise; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between sleeping and smoking during adolescence remains unclear and is likely complex. We aim to evaluate the longitudinal reciprocal associations between sleep problems, sleep duration, and smoking among non-Hispanic white (NHW) and non-Hispanic black (NHB) youth. Prospective cohort study. NEXT Generation Health Study. A national sample (N = 1394) of NHB and NHW 10th graders were surveyed annually between 2009 (Wave 1) and 2012 (Wave 3). N/A. Past 30-day smoking, chronic difficulty falling asleep, recent difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep, and weekday and weekend sleep duration were measured at each wave. Using structural equation models, we observed significant autocorrelations over time for sleep problems and sleep duration. We found significant reciprocal, prospective relationships between smoking and sleep problems. The strengths of the relationships differed by race, with a stronger association between sleep problems and subsequent smoking for NHB than NHW youth. Conversely, a stronger association between smoking and subsequent sleep problems for NHW than NHB youth was observed. These association were independent of demographics, snoring or sleep apnea, body mass index, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and soda consumption. Reciprocal and prospective relationships exist for youth smoking and sleep problems and duration in both NHW and NHB youth. Further research is needed to unravel the complex relationship between the direct effects of nicotine, lifestyle choices that may link smoking and sleep problems, and racial differences.

  1. The interaction between gambling activities and modes of access: a comparison of Internet-only, land-based only, and mixed-mode gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex; Hing, Nerilee

    2015-02-01

    Research suggests that Internet-based gambling includes risk factors that may increase gambling problems. The current study aimed to investigate subgroups of gamblers to identify the potential harms associated with various forms and modes of gambling. An online survey was completed by 4,594 respondents identified as Internet-only (IG), land-based only (LBGs), or mixed-mode (MMG) gamblers based on self-reported gambling behaviour in the last 12months. Results showed significant socio-demographic differences between groups, with the LBGs being the oldest and MMGs the youngest. MMGs engaged in the greatest variety of gambling forms, had the highest average problem gambling severity scores, and were more likely to attribute problems to sports betting than the other groups. IGs were involved in the lowest number of divergent gambling activities, most likely to gamble frequently on sports and races, and attribute problems to these forms. Compared to the other groups, LBs had a higher proportion of problem gamblers than IGs and were most likely to play electronic gaming machines weekly, with this form of gambling contributing to problems at a substantially greater rate. This study confirms the importance of considering gambling involvement across subgroups of Internet or land-based gamblers. There is a need to consider the interaction between forms and modes of gambling to advance our understanding of the potential risk of mode of gambling to contribute to problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of a Self-Help Treatment for At-Risk and Pathological Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreault, Catherine; Giroux, Isabelle; Jacques, Christian; Goulet, Annie; Simoneau, Hélène; Ladouceur, Robert

    2017-09-13

    Available evidence suggests that self-help treatments may reduce problem gambling severity but inconsistencies of results across clinical trials leave the extent of their benefits unclear. Moreover, no self-help treatment has yet been validated within a French Canadian setting. The current study therefore assesses the efficacy of a French language self-help treatment including three motivational telephone interviews spread over an 11-week period and a cognitive-behavioral self-help workbook. At-risk and pathological gamblers were randomly assigned to the treatment group (n = 31) or the waiting list (n = 31). Relative to the waiting list, the treatment group showed a statistically significant reduction in the number of DSM-5 gambling disorder criteria met, gambling habits, and gambling consequences at Week 11. Perceived self-efficacy and life satisfaction also significantly improved after 11 weeks for the treatment group, but not for the waiting list group. At Week 11, 13% of participants had dropped out of the study. All significant changes reported for the treatment group were maintained throughout 1, 6 and 12-month follow-ups. Results support the efficacy of the self-help treatment to reduce problem gambling severity, gambling behaviour and to improve overall functioning among a sample of French Canadian problem gamblers over short, medium and long term. Findings from this study lend support to the appropriateness of self-help treatments for problem gamblers and help clarify inconsistencies found in the literature. The low dropout rate is discussed with respect to the advantages of the self-help format. Clinical and methodological implications of the results are put forth.

  3. The Blurred Future of Adolescent Gamblers: Impulsivity, Time Horizon, and Emotional Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Giovanna; Cosenza, Marina; Ciccarelli, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the interplay of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity, delay discounting, time perspective, and emotional negative states on gambling severity in Italian adolescents. A second aim of the study was to analyze the developmental trajectories of gambling involvement, functional and dysfunctional impulsivity, delay discounting, consideration of future consequences, and negative affectivity in a cross-sectional perspective. One thousand and ten Italian adolescents aging between 12 and 19 years were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA), the Functional and Dysfunctional Impulsivity Scale (FDIS), the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ), the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFC-14), and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21). Data analyses were conducted using correlational analysis, Chi-square test, analysis of variance, and hierarchical regression analysis. Results indicated that, relative to non-gamblers and non-problem gamblers, at-risk and problem gamblers showed higher levels of impulsivity, steeper delay discounting, shorter time horizon, and reported experiencing significantly higher levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. Results of hierarchical regression analysis, with SOGS-RA scores as the dependent variable, and gender, age, FDIS, MCQ, CFC-14, and DASS-21 scores as independent variables, indicated that, along with gender and age, low scores of future orientation and high scores of dysfunctional impulsivity, depression, anxiety, present orientation, and delay discounting significantly predicted gambling severity. These findings provide further evidence that the higher the gambling involvement, the greater the tendency to devalue delayed rewards and to focus on the immediate consequences of one's behavior. Interestingly, for the first time these results reveal an association between gambling severity and both dysfunctional impulsivity and

  4. Comorbidity of impulse control disorders in pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J E; Kim, S W

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the rate of impulse control disorders among pathological gamblers and examine the relationship of comorbidity to gambling severity. Ninety-six adult pathological gamblers [mean age: 46.7 +/- 11.0 years; female: 44 (45.8%)] completed the following: Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Modified for Pathological Gambling, and Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale. Twenty-two subjects (22.9%) reported a comorbid impulse control disorder, most commonly compulsive sexual behaviour and compulsive buying. Subjects with comorbidity reported significantly greater intensity of urges (t = -2.021; df = 94; P = 0.046) and thoughts (t = -2.147; df = 42.3; P = 0.038) related to gambling, and greater interference (t = -3.913; df = 48.1; P Impulse control disorders appear common among pathological gamblers and are associated with more severe gambling symptoms.

  5. Cognitive distortions among older adult gamblers in an Asian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Chong, Siow Ann; Browning, Colette; Thomas, Shane

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to describe the construct of cognitive distortions based on the narratives of older adult gamblers (aged 60 years and above) in Singapore. Singapore residents (citizens or permanent residents) aged 60 years and above, who were current or past regular gamblers were included in the study. Participants were recruited using a combination of venue based approach, referrals from service providers as well as by snowball sampling. In all, 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with older adult gamblers. The six-step thematic network analysis methodology was adopted for data analysis. The mean age of the participants was 66.2 years. The majority were male (n = 18), of Chinese ethnicity (n = 16), with a mean age of gambling initiation at 24.5 years. Among older adult gamblers, cognitive distortions emerged as a significant global theme comprising three organizing themes-illusion of control, probability control and interpretive control. The organizing themes comprised nine basic themes: perception of gambling as a skill, near miss, concept of luck, superstitious beliefs, entrapment, gambler's fallacy, chasing wins, chasing losses, and beliefs that wins are more than losses. Cognitive distortions were endorsed by all gamblers in the current study and were shown to play a role in both maintaining and escalating the gambling behaviour. While the surface characteristics of the distortions had a culture-specific appearance, the deeper characteristics of the distortions may in fact be more universal than previously thought. Future research must include longitudinal studies to understand causal relationships between cognitive distortions and gambling as well as the role of culture-specific distortions both in the maintenance and treatment of the disorder.

  6. Cognitive distortions among older adult gamblers in an Asian context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythily Subramaniam

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe the construct of cognitive distortions based on the narratives of older adult gamblers (aged 60 years and above in Singapore.Singapore residents (citizens or permanent residents aged 60 years and above, who were current or past regular gamblers were included in the study. Participants were recruited using a combination of venue based approach, referrals from service providers as well as by snowball sampling. In all, 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with older adult gamblers. The six-step thematic network analysis methodology was adopted for data analysis.The mean age of the participants was 66.2 years. The majority were male (n = 18, of Chinese ethnicity (n = 16, with a mean age of gambling initiation at 24.5 years. Among older adult gamblers, cognitive distortions emerged as a significant global theme comprising three organizing themes-illusion of control, probability control and interpretive control. The organizing themes comprised nine basic themes: perception of gambling as a skill, near miss, concept of luck, superstitious beliefs, entrapment, gambler's fallacy, chasing wins, chasing losses, and beliefs that wins are more than losses.Cognitive distortions were endorsed by all gamblers in the current study and were shown to play a role in both maintaining and escalating the gambling behaviour. While the surface characteristics of the distortions had a culture-specific appearance, the deeper characteristics of the distortions may in fact be more universal than previously thought. Future research must include longitudinal studies to understand causal relationships between cognitive distortions and gambling as well as the role of culture-specific distortions both in the maintenance and treatment of the disorder.

  7. Decision making, cognitive distortions and emotional distress: A comparison between pathological gamblers and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Maria; Griffiths, Mark D; Nigro, Giovanna; Cosenza, Marina

    2017-03-01

    The etiology of problem gambling is multifaceted and complex. Among others factors, poor decision making, cognitive distortions (i.e., irrational beliefs about gambling), and emotional factors (e.g., negative mood states) appear to be among the most important factors in the development and maintenance of problem gambling. Although empirical evidence has suggested that cognitive distortions facilitate gambling and negative emotions are associated with gambling, the interplay between cognitive distortions, emotional states, and decision making in gambling remains unexplored. Pathological gamblers (N = 54) and healthy controls (N = 54) completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS), and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). Compared to healthy controls, pathological gamblers showed poorer decision making and reported higher scores on measures assessing cognitive distortions and emotional distress. All measures were positively associated with gambling severity. A significant negative correlation between decision making and cognitive distortions was also observed. No associations were found between poor decision making and emotional distress. Logistic regression analysis indicated that cognitive distortions, emotional distress, and poor decision making were significant predictors of problem gambling. The use of self-report measures and the absence of female participants limit the generalizability of the reported findings. The present study is the first to demonstrate the mutual influence between irrational beliefs and poor decision making, as well as the role of cognitive bias, emotional distress, and poor decision making in gambling disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Health Outcomes in Individuals with Problem and Pathological Gambling: An Analysis of the 2014 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Survey System (BRFSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Patten, Ryan; Weinstock, Jeremiah; McGrath, Andrew B

    2017-09-01

    Problem and pathological gambling refers to subclinical and clinical levels of maladaptive gambling, respectively, and is associated with specific sociodemographic characteristics as well as a number of poor health outcomes. We examined such demographic, physical health, mental health, and health-related behaviors in a sample of 7045 low-risk gamblers and 244 problem/pathological gamblers. Participants completed the 2014 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System telephone survey. Using the National Opinion Research Center's Diagnostic Screen for Gambling Disorders-CLiP, participants were categorized as either "problem/pathological gamblers" or "low-risk gamblers." Problem/pathological gamblers were younger, more likely to be male, of ethnic minority status, unmarried, and of lower education than low-risk gamblers. No physical health variables differentiated the groups but problem/pathological gamblers reported experiencing significantly more adverse childhood experiences and engaging in significantly more tobacco and alcohol use compared to low-risk gamblers. Moreover, gender moderated relationships between gambling group and several of the alcohol use variables such that male problem/pathological gamblers exhibited greater alcohol use behavior than male low-risk gamblers but no such relationship was present in females. Overall, this study expands the current knowledgebase on disordered gambling and highlights the need to assess disordered gambling in public health samples. Clinical implications are discussed.

  9. Psychometric properties of the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS) in young Italian gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Maria Anna; Ancona, Francesco; Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina

    2015-06-01

    The involvement in gambling activities is increasing among adolescents, together with the risk of developing gambling problems. Given the important role of erroneous beliefs on adolescent problematic gambling behavior, the aim of this study was to investigate the adequacy of the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS; Raylu & Oei, 2004) to assess gambling-related distortions among youth in Italy. The scale was administered to 1656 Italian high school students (65% males, mean age=16.15 years, SD=1.44), and analyses were carried out with respondents who have gambled during the previous year (N=1224). The adequacy of the five-factor model was confirmed (both among male and female adolescent gamblers), as well as the reliability of the total scale and subscales. Evidence for the validity of the GRCS among adolescents was provided confirming the relationship between gambling-related cognitions and problem gambling found in previous studies. Research on the validity of the scale was also extended by investigating the relationship between cognitive distortions about gambling and the frequency of engaging in different gambling activities. Our results confirm that the GRCS is an effective multidimensional instrument which accurately measures young gamblers' cognitive distortions relating to gambling. As such, it can be used as a useful tool in the assessment and treatment of juvenile gambling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The importance of family factors to protect against substance use related problems among Mexican heritage and White youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopak, Albert M; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Haas, Steven A; Gillmore, Mary Rogers

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the ability of family cohesion, parental control, and parent-child attachment to prevent adolescents with a history of drug or alcohol use from experiencing subsequent problems related to their use. Data came from Wave I and Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and included Mexican heritage and White adolescents who reported alcohol use (n = 4894, 25% prevalence) or any other drug use (n = 2875, 14% prevalence) in their lifetime. Logistic regression results indicate greater parent-child attachment predicted lower risk of experiencing drug use problems (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.77-0.98) while stronger family cohesion predicted lower odds of experiencing drug- (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.70-0.97) or alcohol-related (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.65-0.84) problems. Parental control was also negatively associated with odds of problems related to drug use (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86-0.99) or alcohol use (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90-0.99). Results also indicated family cohesion was the only protective factor for Mexican heritage youth while family cohesion and parent-child attachment were protective among White youth. Parental control protected White female adolescents from drug use problems more than males. Mexican heritage male adolescents experienced more protection from drug problems compared to females. Findings highlight the need for prevention interventions to emphasize parent-child attachment for White youth and family cohesion for both Mexican-heritage and White youth to decrease adolescent substance users' drug- and alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Importance of Family Factors to Protect Against Substance Use Related Problems among Mexican Heritage and White Youth*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopak, Albert M.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Haas, Steven A.; Gillmore, Mary Rogers

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study examined the ability of family cohesion, parental control, and parent-child attachment to prevent adolescents with a history of drug or alcohol use from experiencing subsequent problems related to their use. METHODS Data came from Wave I and Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and included Mexican heritage and White adolescents who reported alcohol use (n = 4,894, 25% prevalence) or any other drug use (n = 2,875, 14% prevalence) in their lifetime. RESULTS Logistic regression results indicate greater parent-child attachment predicted lower risk of experiencing drug use problems (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.77 – 0.98) while stronger family cohesion predicted lower odds of experiencing drug- (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.70 – 0.97) or alcohol-related (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.65 – 0.84) problems. Parental control was also negatively associated with odds of problems related to drug use (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86 – 0.99) or alcohol use (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90 – 0.99). Results also indicated family cohesion was the only protective factor for Mexican heritage youth while family cohesion and parent-child attachment were protective among White youth. Parental control protected White female adolescents from drug use problems more than males. Mexican heritage male adolescents experienced more protection from drug problems compared to females. CONCLUSION Findings highlight the need for prevention interventions to emphasize parent-child attachment for White youth and family cohesion for both Mexican-heritage and White youth to decrease adolescent substance users’ drug- and alcohol-related problems. PMID:22222253

  12. Demonstrating the Gambler's Fallacy in an Introductory Statistics Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riniolo, Todd C.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a classroom demonstration called the Gambler's Fallacy where students in an introductory psychology statistics class participate in simulated gambling using weekly results from professional football game outcomes over a 10 week period. Explains that the demonstration illustrates that random processes do not self-correct and statistical…

  13. Internet Gambling Behavior in a Sample of Online Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Jessica; Derevensky, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined Internet gambling behavior in a sample of online gamblers. Participants (N = 563; 382 male; ages 18-over 65) were recruited from a banner placed in an online newsletter. Questionnaires were completed online and assessed demographic information, game-play patterns (e.g., frequency, duration, wagering), preferred type of…

  14. Problem gambling subtypes based on psychological distress, alcohol abuse and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomi, Aino; Dowling, Nicki A; Jackson, Alun C

    2014-12-01

    The notion of comorbidities within problem gambling populations has important clinical implications, particularly for appropriate treatment matching. The comorbidities most commonly cited in problem gambling literature include depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse and impulsivity. Previous research shows evidence of patterns in multiple co-occurring comorbidities and that there may be different subtypes of gamblers based on these patterns. To further the current understanding of gambling subtypes, the aim of our study was to identify subtypes of gamblers currently in treatment. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis yielded four mutually exclusive groups of 202 gamblers: (1) gamblers with comorbid psychological problems (35%); (2) 'pure' gamblers without other comorbidities (27%); (3) gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse (25%); and (4) 'multimorbid' gamblers (13%). The four groups differed on demographic information, drug use and gambling behaviours including gambling activity and problem gambling severity. Gamblers with comorbid psychological problems were more likely to be older women on low income, more likely to report a family history of psychological problems and were more often electronic gaming machine players. As expected, 'pure' gamblers had lower problem gambling severity and were more likely to report current abstinence. Gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse were more likely to be young men who used stimulant drugs, endorsed a higher quality of life and worked full-time. 'Multimorbid' gamblers were elevated on all comorbidities, had general problems related to their health and wellbeing and reported high rates of hostility and aggression. These groups combine elements of existing conceptual models of gambling subtypes and may require different treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential problems of detecting and treating psychosis in the White House. Potential psychosis in the White House.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambill, J

    1980-01-01

    Numerous books and articles have described the emotional difficulties suffered by President Nixon and how they influenced functioning in the White House and other branches of government during his presidency. I am not able to ascertain whether Nixon was temporarily psychotic; but the reported emotional turmoil suggests he may have been at high risk for committing suicide or developing a psychosis. This article analyzes the reactions of numerous people to the questionably irrational behaviour of Richard Nixon. Examples of psychiatric risks in other Presidents, presidential candidates, and public figures are also discussed. The potential difficulties in detecting and treating severe psychiatric illness in Presidents and other public figures should not prevent us from taking action now to minimize future risks. It is recommended that future Presidents appoint a psychiatrist, at least on a part-time basis, as one of their personal physicians in order to increase Presidential access to psychiatric evaluation and treatment.

  16. Cognitive distortions among older adult gamblers in an Asian context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Chong, Siow Ann; Browning, Colette; Thomas, Shane

    2017-01-01

    Aims The study aims to describe the construct of cognitive distortions based on the narratives of older adult gamblers (aged 60 years and above) in Singapore. Methods Singapore residents (citizens or permanent residents) aged 60 years and above, who were current or past regular gamblers were included in the study. Participants were recruited using a combination of venue based approach, referrals from service providers as well as by snowball sampling. In all, 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with older adult gamblers. The six-step thematic network analysis methodology was adopted for data analysis. Results The mean age of the participants was 66.2 years. The majority were male (n = 18), of Chinese ethnicity (n = 16), with a mean age of gambling initiation at 24.5 years. Among older adult gamblers, cognitive distortions emerged as a significant global theme comprising three organizing themes–illusion of control, probability control and interpretive control. The organizing themes comprised nine basic themes: perception of gambling as a skill, near miss, concept of luck, superstitious beliefs, entrapment, gambler’s fallacy, chasing wins, chasing losses, and beliefs that wins are more than losses. Conclusions Cognitive distortions were endorsed by all gamblers in the current study and were shown to play a role in both maintaining and escalating the gambling behaviour. While the surface characteristics of the distortions had a culture-specific appearance, the deeper characteristics of the distortions may in fact be more universal than previously thought. Future research must include longitudinal studies to understand causal relationships between cognitive distortions and gambling as well as the role of culture-specific distortions both in the maintenance and treatment of the disorder. PMID:28542389

  17. Do Parents, Teachers, and Psychoeducational Evaluators Agree in Their Perceptions of the Problems of Black and White Emotionally Disturbed Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Alan S.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The most disturbing result was the extent of disagreement in parents' and teachers' perceptions of the problem behaviors of Black emotionally disturbed children. There was agreement in perceptions of White emotionally disturbed children, facilitating communication. High levels of parental involvement are recommended. (Author)

  18. Assisting Problem Gamblers in the Gaming Venue: A Counsellor Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Nuske, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Governments now recognise gambling as a social and public health issue that invites a collaborative approach to responsible gambling and help-seeking involving the gambling industry, gambling help agencies and the wider community. In this paper, we report on findings from interviews with 23 counsellors working in Queensland Gambling Help agencies…

  19. After the ban of slot machines in Norway: a new group of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Eli Torild Hellandsjø; Skutle, Arvid

    2013-03-01

    Changes in demographical and clinical features of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, and their gambling preferences before and after the ban of slot machines in Norway from 1 July 2007. Is there an emergence of a new group of gamblers seeking treatment after the ban? The participants were 99 patients, 16 women and 83 men, with the mean age of 35 years. All were referred to the Bergen Clinics Foundation, Norway, for treatment of gambling addiction in the period October 2006 to October 2009. A comprehensive assessment package was applied, focusing on demographical characteristics, the severity of pathological gambling, mental health and substance use disorder. After the ban the mean age was significantly lower, and significantly more were highly educated, in regular employment, and married. Internet gambling and a sport betting game called Odds were the most common options, and gambling problems had become more severe with greater depth due to gambling, bad conscious, heavy alcohol consumption, and more suicidal thoughts and attempts. After the ban of slot machines, the characteristics of treatment-seeking gamblers have been changed, and with great implications for treatment strategies.

  20. A Personality-Based Latent Class Analysis of Emerging Adult Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Rinker, Dipali V; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-12-01

    Increases in access to gambling venues have been accompanied by increased gambling behavior among young adults. The present research examined associations among Five Factor Model personality traits, motives for gambling, and gambling behavior and problems using latent class analysis. College students (N = 220) completed online measures of personality and gambling behavior as part of a larger intervention trial. Agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with indicators of gambling behavior. Low agreeableness and high neuroticism were associated with gambling-specific motives, particularly for less frequently endorsed motives. Personality-based latent class analyses of emerging adult gamblers revealed support for three distinct groups reflecting a resilient personality group, a normative personality group, and a vulnerable personality group, which were further differentiated by gambling behaviors and gambling-specific motives. Associations between personality traits and gambling-specific motives highlight potential heterogeneity among college students who gamble. Together, findings suggest that the correlational and latent class-based analyses, as well as the personality and motivation analyses, present complementary information with respect to the attributes of college student gamblers. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  1. Theta-band oscillatory activity differs between gamblers and nongamblers comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in a probabilistic reward-learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzari, Mehdi; Oberg, Scott; Tata, Matthew

    2016-10-01

    Problemgambling is thought to be comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We tested whether gamblers and ADHD patients exhibit similar reward-related brain activity in response to feedback in a gambling task. A series of brain electrical responses can be observed in the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the stimulus-locked event-related potentials (ERP), when participants in a gambling task are given feedback regardless of winning or losing the previous bet. Here, we used a simplified computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to assess differences in reinforcement-driven choice adaptation between unmedicated ADHD patients with or without problem gambling traits and contrasted with a sex- and age-matched control group. EEG was recorded from the participants while they were engaged in the task which contained two choice options with different net payouts and win/loss probabilities. Learning trend which shows the ability to acquire and use knowledge of the reward outcomes to obtain a positive financial outcome was not observed in ADHD gamblers versus nongamblers. Induced theta-band (4-8Hz) power over frontal cortex was significantly higher in gamblers versus nongamblers in all different high-risk/low-risk win/lose conditions. Whereas induced low alpha (9-11Hz) power at frontal electrodes could only differentiate high-risk lose between gamblers and nongamblers but not the other three conditions between the two groups. The results indicate that ADHD nongamblers do not share with problem gamblers underlying deficits in reward learning. These pilot data highlight the need for studies of ADHD in gambling to elucidate how motivational states are represented during feedback processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A separation theorem for the stochastic sampled-data LQG problem. [control of continuous linear plant disturbed by white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, N.; Caglayan, A. K.

    1976-01-01

    This paper considers the control of a continuous linear plant disturbed by white plant noise when the control is constrained to be a piecewise constant function of time; i.e. a stochastic sampled-data system. The cost function is the integral of quadratic error terms in the state and control, thus penalizing errors at every instant of time while the plant noise disturbs the system continuously. The problem is solved by reducing the constrained continuous problem to an unconstrained discrete one. It is shown that the separation principle for estimation and control still holds for this problem when the plant disturbance and measurement noise are Gaussian.

  3. Episodic chasing in pathological gamblers using the Iowa gambling task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, J.; Rojskjaer, S.; Nygaard, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    "Chasing ones losses" is a key symptom among pathological gamblers (PGs). This study focuses on quantitative differences in episodic chasing (i.e., sequences of disadvantageous decisions within a single gambling session) between PGs and non-pathological gamblers (NPGs). We compared 61 PGs and 39...... NPGs on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS). The PGs showed significantly more chasing and had significantly poorer decision-making strategies than NPGs, particularly among males (F = 4.52, p ... advantageous and disadvantageous (i.e., chasing) players, but there was no interaction with group or gender. The results suggest that quantifiable within-session gambling behavior holds important implications for detecting underlying vulnerabilities to gambling pathology....

  4. An examination of factors driving chinese gamblers' fallacy bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Lawrence Hoc Nang; Law, Rob; Lam, Desmond

    2014-09-01

    Gambling is a leisure activity, which is enjoyed by many people around the world. Among these people, Chinese are known for their high propensity to gamble and are highly sought after by many casinos. In this exploratory study, the effect of two types of fallacy bias-positive recency and negative recency-on the betting behavior of Chinese gamblers is investigated. Although the influence of fallacy bias on a betting decision is well documented, little is known about the interaction of the factors that dictate fallacy bias. Drawing from an analysis of 2,645 betting decisions, the results show that Chinese gamblers primarily endorse positive recency, especially when the latest outcome is more frequent. This is contrary to most findings on Western subjects in which negative recency is more common. Current findings have meaningful implications to casino gaming entertainment businesses and public policymakers.

  5. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, J; Peterson, E; Doudet, D J

    2010-01-01

    suggest a dopaminergic basis of monetary losses in pathological gambling, which might explain loss-chasing behavior. The findings may have implications for the understanding of dopamine dysfunctions and impaired decision-making in pathological gambling and substance-related addictions.......Linnet J, Peterson E, Doudet DJ, Gjedde A, Møller A. Dopamine release in ventral striatum of pathological gamblers losing money. Objective: To investigate dopaminergic neurotransmission in relation to monetary reward and punishment in pathological gambling. Pathological gamblers (PG) often continue...... gambling despite losses, known as 'chasing one's losses'. We therefore hypothesized that losing money would be associated with increased dopamine release in the ventral striatum of PG compared with healthy controls (HC). Method: We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [(11)C]raclopride to measure...

  6. Gambling Problems Among Community Cocaine Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Magali; Nguyen, Noël; Bertrand, Karine; Perreault, Michel; Jutras-Aswad, Didier; Morvannou, Adèle; Bruneau, Julie; Berbiche, Djamal; Roy, Élise

    2016-09-01

    Cocaine use is highly prevalent and a major public health problem. While some studies have reported frequent comorbidity problems among cocaine users, few studies have included evaluation of gambling problems. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of gambling problems and compare those who were at-risk gamblers with non-problem gamblers in terms of mental health problems, substance use problems, and some risk factors (i.e. family antecedents, erroneous perceptions and coping strategies) among individuals who smoke or inject cocaine. A total of 424 smoked or injected cocaine users recruited through community-based programs in Montreal (Quebec) completed the questionnaire, including the Canadian Pathological Gambling Index, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, the CAGE, and the Severity Dependence Scale. Of the sample, 18.4 % were considered at-risk gamblers, of whom 7.8 % had problems gambling and 10.6 % were moderate-risk gamblers. The at-risk group was more likely to have experienced a recent phobic disorder and alcohol problems than the non-problem group. A multivariate analysis showed that, compared to those who were non-problem gamblers, the at-risk ones were more likely to have lost a large sum of money when they first started gambling, believed that their luck would turn, and gambled in reaction to painful life events. These results indicate the need to include routines for screening to identify gambling problem among cocaine users.

  7. [Frequency and risk factors for pathological gambling in a sample of gamblers in Casablanca, Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrada, S; Rachidi, L; El Gnaoui, S; Agoub, M; Moussaoui, D; Battas, O

    2009-12-01

    Pathological gambling is a major psychiatric disorder and a public health problem that has gained a lot of attention in the last few years. The problems caused by gambling are increasingly serious. The prevalence of pathological or compulsive gambling varies from 0.8 to 2% in Europe, Canada and the USA. A study has been conducted in different gambling spots in Casablanca to measure the frequency of pathological gambling in Morocco and to determine the risk factors and the socio-cultural factors associated with it. The collection of data was conducted in the most frequented gambling spots. The first part of the questionnaire permitted the gathering of the sociodemographic characteristics and drug addictions as well as the psychiatric and legal histories. The detection and diagnosis of pathological gambling was conducted using through the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOCS) questionnaire, which has been translated to Arabic to suit the needs of the study. PARTICIPANTS IN THE STUDY: Two hundred men were retained out of the 243 interviewed, which represent a participation rate of 82%. The frequency of pathological gambling among a population of gamblers is 53%. The mean age of the sample was 42.3 more or less 10.70 years. Thirty-six percent of those interviewed had a monthly income of less than 2000 dirhams (200 euros). Horse and greyhound racing were the most popular forms of gambling among those interviewed, with rates of 91 and 60% respectively. Individuals with an educational level of no more than primary school, a monthly income of less than 5000 dirhams (500 euros), a personal psychiatric history, and a drug addiction, are most risky to be pathological gamblers. The topic pathological gambling has been studied very little in Arab and Islamic countries, and it is necessary to conduct larger epidemiological studies on the general population to inquire about its prevalence, risk factors as well as its psychiatric characteristics.

  8. Moral Outrage and Musical Corruption: White Educators' Responses to the "Jazz Problem"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    More than a musical genre, jazz in the 1920s was viewed by critics and supporters alike as a type of lifestyle, one that frequently led to drinking, dancing, and "petting." Much to the horror of older generations, white young people were particularly drawn to jazz and its "hot rhythms." Secondary school teachers and…

  9. Dead western white pine: characteristics, product recovery, and problems associated with utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Snellgrove; James M. Cahill

    1980-01-01

    When a western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) tree dies, it undergoes a series of physical changes. The effects of these changes on product recovery are evaluated. Tabular information and prediction equations provide the tools necessary for using this resource.

  10. National Helpline for Problem Gambling: A Profile of Its Users’ Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bastiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gambling has seen a significant increase in Italy in the last 10 years and has rapidly become a public health issue, and for these reasons the first National Helpline for Problem Gambling (GR-Helpline has been established. The aims of this study are to describe the GR-Helpline users’ characteristics and to compare the prevalence rates of the users with those of moderate-risk/problematic gamblers obtained from the national survey (IPSAD 2010-2011. Statistical analysis was performed on data obtained from the counselling sessions (phone/e-mail/chat carried out on 5,805 users (57.5% gamblers; 42.5% families/friends. This confirms that the problems related to gambling concern not only the gamblers but also their families and friends. Significant differences were found between gamblers and families/friends involving gender (74% of gamblers were male; 76.9% of families/friends were female, as well as age-classes and geographical area. Female gamblers had a higher mean age (47.3 versus 40.2 years and preferred nonstrategy-based games. Prevalence rates of GR-Helpline users and of moderate risk/problematic gamblers were correlated (Rho = 0.58; p=0.0113. The results highlight the fact that remote access to counselling can be an effective means of promoting treatment for problem gamblers who do not otherwise appeal directly for services.

  11. A Typology of UK Slot Machine Gamblers: A Longitudinal Observational and Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Slot machine gambling is a popular leisure activity worldwide yet there has been very little research into different types of slot machine gamblers. Earlier typologies of slot machine gamblers have only concentrated on adolescents in arcade environments. This study presents a new typology of slot machine players based on over 1000 h of participant…

  12. Psychometric properties of a brief on-line screening instrument to detect at-risk gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaldo-de-Quirós, Mónica; Labrador, Francisco J; Estupiñá, Francisco; Fernández-Arias, Ignacio; García-Fernández, Gloria; Labrador-Méndez, Marta

    2017-11-01

    Gambling facilitates the development of psychopathological problems in some gamblers. Rapid and easy detection of the presence of these problems, or the risk of their development, will allow early action at the beginning of the problem, including preventive action. For this purpose, we developed the “Sistema de Cribado de Riesgo de Problemas de Juegos” (SCRI-PJ [Risk of Gambling Problems Screening System]), an on-line instrument for the detection of people who have, or may develop, gambling problems. The goal of this work is to present and validate the SCRI-PJ. 85 people with gambling problems undergoing treatment and 119 people from the general population were assessed with the SCRI-PJ and the DSM-RT Diagnostic Criteria for Pathological Gambling questionnaire. the SCRI-PJ showed high internal consistency (α= .96), sensitivity (94.2%) specificity (91.4%), with a negative predictive value of 98.6%. the SCRI-PJ is a brief and effective screening instrument to detect people with gambling problems or who are at risk of developing them.

  13. Carry on winning: the gamblers' fallacy creates hot hand effects in online gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juemin; Harvey, Nigel

    2014-05-01

    People suffering from the hot-hand fallacy unreasonably expect winning streaks to continue whereas those suffering from the gamblers' fallacy unreasonably expect losing streaks to reverse. We took 565,915 sports bets made by 776 online gamblers in 2010 and analyzed all winning and losing streaks up to a maximum length of six. People who won were more likely to win again (apparently because they chose safer odds than before) whereas those who lost were more likely to lose again (apparently because they chose riskier odds than before). However, selection of safer odds after winning and riskier ones after losing indicates that online sports gamblers expected their luck to reverse: they suffered from the gamblers' fallacy. By believing in the gamblers' fallacy, they created their own hot hands. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting the Use of Campus Counseling Services for Asian/Pacific Islander, Latino/Hispanic, and White Students: Problem Severity, Gender, and Generational Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kieran T.; Ramos-Sanchez, Lucila; McIver, Stephanie D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify predictors of counseling center use among Asian/Pacific Islander, Latino/Hispanic, and White college students. Findings indicated that female and 2nd-generation students report the most severe difficulties. Problem severity and gender predicted counseling center use for White and Asian/Pacific…

  15. Gambler's ruin? Some aspects of coin tossing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Porter; Atkinson, David

    2010-01-01

    What is the average number of coin tosses needed before a particular sequence of heads and tails first turns up? This problem is solved in our paper, starting with doubles; a tail, followed by a head, turns up on average after only four tosses, while six tosses are needed for two successive heads.

  16. Professional help-seeking for gambling problems: awareness, barriers and motivators for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally; Hing, Nerilee; Suhonen, Niko

    2014-06-01

    Despite the negative consequences associated with gambling, few problem gamblers seek professional help. This study aimed to examine awareness of professional sources of help and help-seeking behaviour amongst regular and problem gamblers. Australian gamblers (N = 730) were recruited from the general population, multicultural gambling venues, and gambling helplines and treatment services. Surveys measured awareness of professional help services, help-seeking behaviour and motivators and barriers to seeking help. Gamblers demonstrated low awareness of professional help services. Problem gamblers born in Australia or who were divorced were more likely to seek help. Problem gamblers who were reluctant to seek help due to a desire solve the problem on their own and feeling ashamed for themselves or their family pride were more likely to have overcome these barriers to seek help. However, significant barriers related to denial of problem severity and concerns about the ability to access low cost services that cater for multicultural populations predicted a lower likelihood of having sought help. Public education should aim to de-mystify the treatment process and educate gamblers about symptoms of problem gambling to reduce shame, stigma, and denial and encourage help-seeking. Ongoing education and promotion of help services is required to increase awareness of the resources available, including targeted promotions to increase awareness of relevant services among specific populations.

  17. Association of Problem Gambling with Type of Gambling Among Italian General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalese, Marco; Bastiani, Luca; Salvadori, Stefano; Gori, Mercedes; Lewis, Isabella; Jarre, Paolo; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2016-09-01

    The origin of gambling disorders is uncertain; however, research has shown a tendency to focus on specific types of games as a potential important risk factor. The principal aim of this study is to examine the relationships between types of gambling practices and gambling disorder. The data were extracted from IPSAD-Italia(®) 2010-2011 (Italian Population Survey on Alcohol and other Drugs), a survey among the Italian general population which collects socio-cultural information, information about the use of drugs, legal substances and gambling habits. In order to identify the "problem gambler" we used the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Three groups are considered in this analysis: no-risk gamblers, low-risk gamblers, moderate-risk/problem gamblers. Type of gambling practice was considered among two types of gambler: one-game players and multi-games players. 1.9 % of multi-game players were considered problem gamblers, only 0.6 % of one-game players were problem gamblers (p gambling severity was associated with multi-game players (OR = 2.23, p gambling severity among both one-game players and multi-game players, with scores of OR equal to 4.3 and 4.5 respectively. These findings suggest a popular perception of risk associated with this type of gambling for the development of gambling problems.

  18. Gambler's fallacy, hot hand belief, and the time of patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Wang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The gambler's fallacy and the hot hand belief have been classified as two exemplars of human misperceptions of random sequential events. This article examines the times of pattern occurrences where a fair or biased coin is tossed repeatedly. We demonstrate that, due to different pattern composition, two different statistics (mean time and waiting time can arise from the same independent Bernoulli trials. When the coin is fair, the mean time is equal for all patterns of the same length but the waiting time is the longest for streak patterns. When the coin is biased, both mean time and waiting time change more rapidly with the probability of heads for a streak pattern than for a non-streak pattern. These facts might provide a new insight for understanding why people view streak patterns as rare and remarkable. The statistics of waiting time may not justify the prediction by the gambler's fallacy, but paying attention to streaks in the hot hand belief appears to be meaningful in detecting the changes in the underlying process.

  19. The Activation of Reward Versus Relief Gambling Outcome Expectancies in Regular Gamblers: Relations to Gambling Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sunghwan; Stewart, Melissa; Collins, Pamela; Stewart, Sherry H

    2015-12-01

    Gambling outcome expectancies refer to the anticipated outcomes that gamblers expect will occur from gambling (i.e., learned memory associations between gambling cues, behavior, and outcomes). Unlike previous approaches to gambling outcome expectancies that have predominantly focused on the valence of outcome expectancies (positive vs. negative), the present study investigated two specific types of positive gambling outcome expectancies: reward and relief gambling outcome expectancies. Specifically, the primary purpose of the current research was to examine whether gambling prime exposure activates different types of positive gambling outcome expectancies in enhancement- versus coping-motivated gamblers. Fifty adult, community-recruited regular gamblers performed a reaction time (RT) task and completed a self-report expectancy scale, both designed to assess reward and relief gambling outcome expectancies. They also completed the Gambling Motives Questionnaire (Stewart and Zack in Addiction 103:1110-1117 2008) to assess their levels of coping and enhancement motives for gambling. As hypothesized, reward gambling outcome expectancies were more strongly activated by gambling prime exposure than relief outcome expectancies on the RT task for gamblers with high enhancement motives. On the self-report expectancy measure, high enhancement-motivated gamblers endorsed stronger reward gambling outcome expectancies than low enhancement-motivated gamblers, and high coping-motivated gamblers endorsed stronger relief gambling outcome expectancies than low coping-motivated gamblers. Results suggest that automatic activation of reward gambling outcome expectancies is particularly strong for high enhancement-motivated gamblers. Possible reasons for the failure to observe an association between coping gambling motives and automatic relief gambling outcome expectancies are discussed.

  20. The prevalence and determinants of problem gambling in Australia: assessing the impact of interactive gambling and new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Russell, Alex; Hing, Nerilee; Wood, Robert; Lubman, Dan I; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2014-09-01

    New technology is changing the nature of gambling with interactive modes of gambling becoming putatively associated with higher rates of problem gambling. This paper presents the first nationally representative data on the prevalence and correlates of problem gambling among Australian adults since 1999 and focuses on the impact of interactive gambling. A telephone survey of 15,006 adults was conducted. Of these, 2,010 gamblers (all interactive gamblers and a randomly selected subsample of those reporting land-based gambling in the past 12 months) also completed more detailed measures of problem gambling, substance use, psychological distress, and help-seeking. Problem gambling rates among interactive gamblers were 3 times higher than for noninteractive gamblers. However, problem and moderate risk gamblers were most likely to attribute problems to electronic gaming machines and land-based gambling, suggesting that although interactive forms of gambling are associated with substantial problems, interactive gamblers experience significant harms from land-based gambling. The findings demonstrate that problem gambling remains a significant public health issue that is changing in response to new technologies, and it is important to develop strategies that minimize harms among interactive gamblers.

  1. Problem and pathological gambling are associated with poorer mental and physical health in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lauren; Molina, Cheryl A; Ladd, George T; Pietrzak, Robert H; Petry, Nancy M

    2005-08-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and correlates of problem and pathological gambling in older adults. Adults (n = 343) aged 60 years and older attending senior centers, bingo sites and other community activities completed a screening form containing the South Oaks Gambling Screen and the Short Form-12 Health Survey, to evaluate physical and mental health. Overall, 6.4% of the respondents were classified as problem gamblers and an additional 3.8% as pathological gamblers. Problem and pathological gamblers evidenced significantly greater physical and mental health problems than non-problem gamblers. These data suggest that about 10 percent of active older adults experience gambling problems, which are associated with poor physical and mental health. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Spanish version of the Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire in a sample of Argentinean gamblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Pilatti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive distortions are related to gambling frequency and gambling severity. Having a culturally sensitive measure to assess cognitive distortions will facilitate the early detection of people who might be at risk of developing problematic gambling behaviors. The Gamblers' Beliefs Questionnaire was translated into Spanish (GBQ-S but no previous study explored the structure of the GBQ-S in a non-US sample with different levels of gambling involvement. Aim: The present study examined the factor structure of the GBQ-S in a community sample of gamblers from Argentina. It also analyzed the association between cognitive distortions and type of gambling activity and frequency of gambling behaviors and the predictive utility of the GBQ-S on gambling severity. Participants: 508 youth and adults completed the GBQ-S. Results: The CFA showed an overall acceptable fit to the data confirming the proposed two-factor model. Scores of the two GBQ sub-scales were positively and significantly correlated with scores on gambling severity. Cognitive distortions have a significant effect on gambling severity after controlling for frequency of engagement in gambling activities. Luck and perseverance, but not illusion of control, was positively related to gambling severity. Discussion: scores measured by the GBQ-S exhibit adequate psychometric properties for the accurate assessment of cognitive distortions across adults and youth from the general community of Argentina.

  3. Are coyotes really a problem for white-tailed deer management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Fuller, Angela K.; Hurst, Jeremy E.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have documented that coyotes (Canis latrans) are the greatest source of natural mortality for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates ( <3 months old). With the range expansion of coyotes eastward in North America, many stakeholders are concerned that coyote predation may be affecting deer populations adversely. We hypothesized that declines in neonate survival, perhaps caused by increasing coyote predation, could be offset by adjusting or eliminating antlerless harvest allocations. We used a stochastic, age-based population simulation model to evaluate combinations of low neonate survival rates, severe winters, and low adult deer survival rates to determine the effectiveness of reduced antlerless harvest at stabilizing deer populations. We found that even in regions with high winter mortality, reduced antlerless harvest rates could stabilize deer populations with recruitment and survival rates reported in the literature. When neonate survival rates were low (25%) and yearling and adult female survival rates were reduced by 10%, elimination of antlerless harvests failed to stabilize populations. Our results suggest increased deer mortality from coyotes can be addressed through reduced hunting harvest o f adult female deer in most circumstances throughout eastern North America. However, specific knowledge of adult female survival rates is important for making management decisions in areas where both neonate and adult survival may be affected by predation and other mortality factors.

  4. Differences in the Gambling Behavior of Online and Non-online Student Gamblers in a Controlled Laboratory Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Kevin S; Weatherly, Jeffrey N

    2017-03-01

    Although research suggests that approximately 1 in 4 college students report having gambled online, few laboratory-based studies have been conducted enlisting online student gamblers. Moreover, it is unclear the extent to which differences in gambling behavior exist between online and non-online student gamblers. The current study examined if online gamblers would play more hands, commit more errors, and wager more credits than non-online student gamblers in a controlled, laboratory environment. Online (n = 19) and non-online (n = 26) student gamblers played video poker in three separate sessions and the number of hands played, errors committed, and credits wagered were recorded. Results showed that online student gamblers played more hands and committed more errors playing video poker than non-online student gamblers. The results from the current study extend previous research by suggesting that online gamblers engage in potentially more deleterious gambling behavior (e.g., playing more hands and committing more errors) than non-online gamblers. Additional research is needed to examine differences in the gambling behavior of online and non-online gamblers in a controlled, laboratory environment.

  5. The influence of acutely administered nicotine on cue-induced craving for gambling in at-risk video lottery terminal gamblers who smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Daniel S; Dorbeck, Anders; Barrett, Sean P

    2013-04-01

    Evidence indicates that tobacco use and gambling often co-occur. Despite this association, little is known about how tobacco use affects the propensity to gamble. Nicotine, the putative addictive component of tobacco, has been reported to potentiate the hedonic value of other nonsmoking stimuli. Environmental cues have been identified as an important contributor to relapse in addictive behavior; however, the extent to which nicotine can affect the strength of gambling cues remains unknown. This study examined whether nicotine influences subjective ratings for gambling following gambling cues. In a mixed within/between-subjects design, 30 (20 men) video lottery terminal (VLT) gamblers ('moderate-risk' or 'problem' gamblers) who smoke daily were assigned to nicotine (4 mg deliverable) or placebo lozenge conditions. Subjective and behavioral responses were assessed at baseline, following lozenge, following neutral cues, and following presentation of gambling cues. Nicotine lozenge was found to significantly reduce tobacco-related cravings (P<0.05) but did not affect gambling-related cravings, the choice to play a VLT, or other subjective responses. These results suggest that a low dose of acutely administered nicotine does not increase cue-induced craving for gambling in at-risk VLT gamblers who smoke.

  6. Abnormal modulation of reward versus punishment learning by a dopamine D2-receptor antagonist in pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Lieneke Katharina; Sescousse, Guillaume; Hashemi, Mahur Melina; Timmer, Monique Harmina Maria; ter Huurne, Niels Peter; Geurts, Dirk Everdina Maria; Cools, Roshan

    2015-09-01

    Pathological gambling has been associated with dopamine transmission abnormalities, in particular dopamine D2-receptor deficiency, and reversal learning deficits. Moreover, pervasive theoretical accounts suggest a key role for dopamine in reversal learning. However, there is no empirical evidence for a direct link between dopamine, reversal learning and pathological gambling. The aim of the present study is to triangulate dopamine, reversal learning, and pathological gambling. Here, we assess the hypothesis that pathological gambling is accompanied by dopamine-related problems with learning from reward and punishment by investigating effects of the dopamine D2-receptor antagonist sulpiride (400 mg) on reward- and punishment-based reversal learning in 18 pathological gamblers and 22 healthy controls, using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, counter-balanced design. In line with previous studies, blockade of D2 receptors with sulpiride impaired reward versus punishment reversal learning in controls. By contrast, sulpiride did not have any outcome-specific effects in gamblers. These data demonstrate that pathological gambling is associated with a dopamine-related anomaly in reversal learning from reward and punishment.

  7. Personal Gambling Expectancies among Asian American and White American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alan Ka Ki; Zane, Nolan; Wong, Gloria; Song, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Many college students are involved in gambling behavior as a recreational activity. Their involvement could potentially develop into problem gambling, an issue of increasing concern to student health. At the same time, evidence suggests that Asian Americans are overrepresented amongst problem gamblers in this age period. Research on factors related to initiation and development of problem gambling in college students is necessary to inform the development of effective and culturally-sensitive prevention efforts against gambling. The relationships between personal gambling expectancies at two levels of specificity (two general and six specific types of expectancies) and college student gambling at two levels of behavior (initiation and problems) were examined in a sample of 813 Asian American and White American college students. The study aimed to address (a) whether expectancies explained ethnic differences in gambling, (b) ethnic similarities and differences in the pattern of relationships between expectancies and gambling, and (c) whether expectancies that emerged in both ethnic groups have a greater risk or protective effect for one group than another. Results showed that Asian American students reported more problem gambling than White American students, but expectancies did not account for this group difference. Risk and protective factors for initiation were relatively similar between groups, but different patterns of risk emerged for each group for problem gambling. Implications for college primary prevention and harm reduction programs are discussed. PMID:23832755

  8. Mental health management of pathological gamblers by counseling and relaxation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M G; Upadhyay, Awadhesh; Sharma, Vandana

    2013-10-01

    The present study examines the mental health management of pathological gamblers by counseling and relaxation practices. Fifty-five treated and 55 non-treated pathological gamblers were evaluated at S. I. Mental and Physical Health Society, Varanasi, India. The two groups were matched by age, ranging 20 to 53 years with a mean age of 36.2 years and mean length of uncontrollable gambling of 7.3 years. The Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire and the Death Anxiety Scale were administered to ascertain mental health and death anxiety on seven selected dimensions, including: anxiety, obsession, phobia, somatization, depression, hysteria, and death anxiety. Mean scores obtained on different variables were analyzed using a t-test of significance. Results indicated that the characteristic associated with treated pathological gamblers was phobia whereas the characteristics associated with non-treated pathological gamblers were anxiety, obsession, somatization, depression, and death anxiety.

  9. Perceived social support in pathological gamblers and treatment effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Montesinos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling affects 0.4-1.5 percent of the global population. Therapy has proved effective, even though low therapeutic compliance and frequent withdrawals weakens good treatment results. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between social support, therapeutic adherence, and gambling cessation. Four aspects of social support were measured: cohabitation, patient's companion, commitment, and intervention with patient's companion, in a sample of 68 pathological gamblers. Results show a non-significant trend for social support and treatment compliance to be associated to treatment success. Seventy-six percent of high social support patients kept the treatment up to the end vis-à-vis42.1% of low social support patients. Therapeutic success shows a significant relationship to a stable couple relationship. Individuals who had stable couple relationship were twice likely to finish treatment successfully. Results suggest that social support should be considered as a critical variable in pathological gambling treatment.

  10. Greater involvement and diversity of Internet gambling as a risk factor for problem gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alex; Blaszczynski, Alex; Hing, Nerilee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Concerns that Internet gambling has elevated the prevalence of problem gambling have not been substantiated; however, evidence suggests a subgroup of Internet gamblers do experience higher rates of gambling harms. Greater overall involvement in gambling appears to be predictive of harms. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between Internet gamblers with a single or multiple online gambling accounts, including their gambling behaviours, factors influencing their online gambling and risk of experiencing gambling problems. Methods: Internet gamblers (3178) responding to an online survey that assessed their gambling behaviour, and use of single or multiple online gambling accounts. Results: Results revealed that multiple account holders were more involved gamblers, gambling on more activities and more frequently, and had higher rates of gambling problems than single account holders. Multiple account holders selected gambling sites based on price, betting options, payout rates and game experience, whereas single account holders prioritized legality and consumer protection features. Conclusion: Results suggest two different types of Internet gamblers: one motivated to move between sites to optimize preferred experiences with a tendency to gamble in a more volatile manner; and a smaller, but more stable group less influenced by promotions and experiences, and seeking a reputable and safe gambling experience. As the majority of Internet gamblers use multiple accounts, more universal responsible gambling strategies are needed to assist gamblers to track and control their expenditure to reduce risks of harm. PMID:25745873

  11. When do gamblers help themselves? Self-discontinuity increases self-directed change over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun S; Wohl, Michael J A; Salmon, Melissa; Santesso, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Most disordered gamblers fail to take the necessary action to change their behavior. When action is taken, it is typically done under self-direction. Yet, little is known about what motivates gamblers to engage in self-directed change as researchers have focused almost exclusively on barriers to treatment seeking. Herein, we tested whether self-discontinuity (i.e., the notion that the self has undergone fundamental changes as a result of one's gambling) predicts self-directed change among gamblers experiencing sub-clinical levels of disordered gambling. Further, we tested whether this relationship would hold when controlling for feelings of shame and guilt about one's gambling as well as self-stigma as a disordered gambler (i.e., known barriers to change). To this end, 195 gamblers from the community completed a questionnaire battery that contained the variables of interest. Six months later, participants were re-contacted to assess whether they engaged in self-directed change. As hypothesized, the likelihood that self-directed change was attempted increased to the extent participants reported feeling self-discontinuous - an effect that remained significant when controlling for shame, guilt, and self-stigma. Results suggest that heightening the awareness that the gambling has fundamentally changed the self increases the likelihood of gamblers taking action to change their disordered gambling behaviors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Episodic Tags Enhance Striatal Valuation Signals during Temporal Discounting in pathological Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiehler, Antonius; Petzschner, Frederike Hermi; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Peters, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Similar to many addiction disorders, pathological gambling is associated with an increased preference for immediate rewards (steep temporal discounting). In healthy participants, episodic future thinking has been shown to reduce impulsivity during intertemporal choice. Here, we examine for the first time a modulation of temporal discounting via episodic future thinking in a group of pathological gamblers. We investigated a sample of 24 pathological gamblers and 24 matched healthy controls with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants made intertemporal choices in two experimental conditions. In the control condition, delayed monetary rewards were offered with the respective amount and delay. In the episodic condition, rewards were additionally associated with participant-specific personal future events. We replicated previous findings of increased temporal discounting in pathological gambling. On a trend level, episodic future thinking attenuated discounting across all participants. We found that pathological gamblers could successfully recruit a prospection related network during decision-making in the presence of episodic information. The episodic condition modulated the functional connection between ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and ventral striatum, a mechanism that might support the increase in striatal value coding observed in the episodic condition in gamblers. However, in controls, but not in gamblers, valuation signal changes in the hippocampus were associated with less impulsive behavior. We provide first evidence that by episodic cues during intertemporal decision-making striatal valuation signals can be enhanced in pathological gamblers. Further research is needed to explore interventions that reliably reduce impulsive choice behavior in pathological gambling.

  13. Sociodemographic predictors of latent class membership of problematic and disordered gamblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J.E. James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a series of analyses examining the predictors of gambling subtypes identified from a latent class analysis of problem gambling assessment data, pooled from four health and gambling surveys conducted in Britain between 2007 and 2012. Previous analyses have indicated that gambling assessments have a consistent three class structure showing quantitative and potentially qualitative differences. Bringing this data together is useful for studying more severe problem gamblers, where the small number of respondents has been a chronic limitation of gambling prevalence research. Predictors were drawn from sociodemographic indicators and engagement with other legal addictive behaviours, namely smoking and alcohol consumption. The pooled data was entered into a multinomial logistic regression model in which class membership was regressed along a series of demographic variables and survey year, based on previous analyses of gambling prevalence data. The results identified multiple demographic differences (age, general health, SES, being single, membership of ethnic minority groups between the non-problem and two classes endorsing some problem gambling indicators. Although these two groups tended to share a sociodemographic profile, the odds of being male, British Asian and a smoker increased between the three groups in line with problem gambling severity. Being widowed was also found to be associated with the most severe gambling class. A number of associations were also observed with other addictive behaviours. However these should be taken as indicative as these were limited subsamples of a single dataset. These findings identify specific groups in which gambling problems are more prevalent, and highlight the importance of the interaction between acute and determinant aspects of impulsivity, suggesting that a more complex account of impulsivity should be considered than is currently present in the gambling literature.

  14. Beat the Cheater: Computing Game-Theoretic Strategies for When to Kick a Gambler out of a Casino

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Troels Bjerre; Dalis, Melissa; Korzhyk, Dmytro

    2014-01-01

    Gambles in casinos are usually set up so that the casino makes a profit in expectation -- as long as gamblers play honestly. However, some gamblers are able to cheat, reducing the casino’s profit. How should the casino address this? A common strategy is to selectively kick gamblers out, possibly...... even without being sure that they were cheating. In this paper, we address the following question: Based solely on a gambler’s track record,when is it optimal for the casino to kick the gambler out? Because cheaters will adapt to the casino’s policy, this is a game-theoretic question. Specifically, we...

  15. Comparing undergraduate and community-recruited adult non-gamblers' motives for not gambling: Do they differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, Christina L; Kim, Hyoun S; Hodgins, David C; McGrath, Daniel S

    2018-01-01

    The field of gambling studies has extensively focused on isolating risk factors for developing a gambling disorder. Conversely, little attention has been paid to identifying protective factors against gambling disorder among people who choose to not gamble at all. Moreover, the limited number of studies that have focused on non-gamblers have neglected to differentiate current from lifetime non-gamblers. The purpose of the present study was to examine motives for not gambling among a diverse sample of adult lifetime non-gamblers recruited from the community and to compare these motives to an undergraduate student sample of non-gamblers from a previous study. Participants consisted of 219 lifetime non-gamblers (45.2% male) from the United States recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk. The previously recruited sample consisted of Canadian undergraduate students (n=196). Eight distinct categories of motivations for not gambling were identified in the sample of adult community non-gamblers, which corresponded closely with previous findings from the student sample. However, comparisons between the two samples revealed that adult lifetime non-gamblers were more likely to provide financial motives as reasons for not gambling. Whereas, the student sample was more likely to mention disinterest and the influence of others as reasons to avoid gambling. Results suggest that the choice not to gamble among lifetime non-gamblers may reflect a more conscious, values-based decision when compared to undergraduate non-gamblers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Problem Gambling Among Ontario Students: Associations with Substance Abuse, Mental Health Problems, Suicide Attempts, and Delinquent Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Steven; Turner, Nigel E; Ballon, Bruce; Paglia-Boak, Angela; Murray, Robert; Adlaf, Edward M; Ilie, Gabriela; den Dunnen, Wendy; Mann, Robert E

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes gambling problems among Ontario students in 2009 and examines the relationship between gambling problems and substance use problems, mental health problem indicators, and delinquent behaviors. Data were derived from the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey of Ontario students in grades 7-12. Gambling problems were measured as 2 or more of 6 indicators of problem gambling. In total 2.8% of the students surveyed endorsed two or more of the problem gambling items. The odds of problem gamblers reporting mental distress was 4.2 times higher than the rest of the sample and the odds of problem gamblers reporting a suicide attempt were 17.8 times greater than the rest of the sample. In addition compared to the rest of the students, delinquent behaviors were also more common among problem gamblers, including theft (OR = 14.5), selling marijuana (OR = 19.6), gang fights (OR = 11.3) and carrying a handgun (OR = 11.2). In a multivariate analysis, substance-use problems, mental health problems, and the participation in a variety of delinquent behaviors remained significantly associated with youth problem gambling behavior. Students who report problem gambling behaviors show increased substance abuse, mental health, and delinquency/criminal problems that are similar to those seen among adult problem gamblers. The association between these problems suggests that these problems could be addressed in a unified manner.

  17. Problem Gambling Associated with Violent and Criminal Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjarne; Plauborg, Rikke; Ekholm, Ola

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the number of criminal charges among problem gamblers (N = 384) and non-problem gamblers including non-gamblers (N = 18,241) and examines whether problem gambling is more strongly associated with income-generating crimes like theft, fraud and forgery than other types of crimes...... problem gambling and charges for different categories of crime. We found that problem gamblers had significantly higher odds of being charged than non-problem gamblers (adjusted odds ratio 1.5; 95 % confidence interval 1.1-1.9). The odds ratio for economic crime charges was 2.6 (1.5-4.5), for violence...... charges 2.2 (1.1-4.5), and for drug charges 3.7 (1.7-8.0). For road traffic charges the odds ratio was 1.3 (1.0-1.8). Hence, there was a strong association between problem gambling and being charged except for road traffic charges; however the association was not stronger for economic charges than...

  18. [The characteristics of and social support for pathological gamblers among "pachinko" or "slot" users in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagami, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, there are one to two million people suspected of being pathological gamblers according to the definition in DSM-IV-TR. Almost all of them use "pachinko" or "slot," which are gambling stores, throughout Japan, that number 12,000 in total. However, the characteristics and ratio of pathological "pachinko" and "slot" gamblers have not been investigated. The author aimed to determine the characteristics, ratio, and social support available for these users. The author administered an internet survey for users of "pachinko" or "slot." Two hundred and fifty users visited "pachinko" or "slot" stores more than twice a week, and 250 users visited once a week or once a month. The Japanese version of the South Oaks Gambling Screen was administered, and gamblers were asked about their awareness of pathological gambling and the condition of their social support. The author observed that 70.2% of "pachinko" or "slot" users were suspected pathological gamblers and 28.6% of "pachinko" or "slot" users were severe gamblers. A total of 39.3% of them were aware of their pathological gambling, and 6.5% of users who had awareness of pathological gambling had social support. However, most of their social support consisted of family and friends, and almost none of them attended psychiatric clinics, community health centers, or self-help groups like gamblers anonymous. Almost all "pachinko" or "slot" users were suspected of being pathological or severe gamblers. However, they did not approach psychiatric facilities or self-help groups. The author strongly recommends the need for educational programs in junior or high school to prevent future pathological gambling, and create awareness of the dangers of pathological gambling through TV commercials and "pachinko" or "slot" stores. Pathological gambling is a disease that afflicts many people; hence, psychiatric and social welfare professionals should continue to stress the dangers of and offer prevention programs for "pachinko" or

  19. Cue-Reactive Rationality, Visual Imagery and Volitional Control Predict Cue-Reactive Urge to Gamble in Poker-Machine Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gavin I; Rock, Adam J; McKeith, Charles F A; Coventry, William L

    2016-11-01

    Poker-machine gamblers have been demonstrated to report increases in the urge to gamble following exposure to salient gambling cues. However, the processes which contribute to this urge to gamble remain to be understood. The present study aimed to investigate whether changes in the conscious experience of visual imagery, rationality and volitional control (over one's thoughts, images and attention) predicted changes in the urge to gamble following exposure to a gambling cue. Thirty-one regular poker-machine gamblers who reported at least low levels of problem gambling on the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), were recruited to complete an online cue-reactivity experiment. Participants completed the PGSI, the visual imagery, rationality and volitional control subscales of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (PCI), and a visual analogue scale (VAS) assessing urge to gamble. Participants completed the PCI subscales and VAS at baseline, following a neutral video cue and following a gambling video cue. Urge to gamble was found to significantly increase from neutral cue to gambling cue (while controlling for baseline urge) and this increase was predicted by PGSI score. After accounting for the effects of problem-gambling severity, cue-reactive visual imagery, rationality and volitional control significantly improved the prediction of cue-reactive urge to gamble. The small sample size and limited participant characteristic data restricts the generalizability of the findings. Nevertheless, this is the first study to demonstrate that changes in the subjective experience of visual imagery, volitional control and rationality predict changes in the urge to gamble from neutral to gambling cue. The results suggest that visual imagery, rationality and volitional control may play an important role in the experience of the urge to gamble in poker-machine gamblers.

  20. Do High School Students in India Gamble? A Study of Problem Gambling and Its Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaisoorya, T S; Beena, K V; Beena, M; Ellangovan, K; Thennarassu, K; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Benegal, Vivek; George, Sanju

    2017-06-01

    Studies from the West suggest that significant numbers of high school students gamble, despite it being illegal in this age group. To date, there have been no studies on the prevalence of gambling among senior high school and higher secondary school students in India. This study reports point prevalence of gambling and its psychosocial correlates among high school students in the State of Kerala, India. 5043 high school students in the age group 15-19 years, from 73 schools, were selected by cluster random sampling from the district of Ernakulam, Kerala, South India. They completed questionnaires that assessed gambling, substance use, psychological distress, suicidality, and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Of a total of 4989 completed questionnaires, 1400 (27.9 %) high school students reported to have ever gambled and 353 (7.1 %) were problem gamblers. Of those who had ever gambled, 25.2 % were problem gamblers. Sports betting (betting on cricket and football) was the most popular form of gambling followed by the lottery. Problem gamblers when compared with non-problem gamblers and non-gamblers were significantly more likely to be male, have academic failures, have higher rates of lifetime alcohol and tobacco use, psychological distress, suicidality, history of sexual abuse and higher ADHD symptom scores. Gambling among adolescents in India deserves greater attention, as one in four students who ever gambled was a problem gambler and because of its association with a range of psychosocial variables.

  1. DSM-5 criteria for gambling disorder: Underlying structure and applicability to specific groups of gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleczka, Pawel; Braun, Barbara; Piontek, Daniela; Bühringer, Gerhard; Kraus, Ludwig

    2015-12-01

    DSM-5 provides nine diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder. All criteria have a pre-assumed equal diagnostic impact and are applied to all individuals and groups in an equal manner. The aims of the study are to analyse the structure underlying the diagnosis and to assess whether DSM-5 is equally applicable to different groups of gamblers. Data from the 2009 German Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse and from a study on slot machine gamblers were used. Item Response Theory analysis was applied to estimate discrimination and severity parameters of the criteria. With the use of Differential Item Functioning analysis, potential criterion biases were analysed. We analysed data from 107 participants from the general population sample and 376 participants from the slot machine gamblers' sample who answered a 19-item diagnostic questionnaire based on the DSM criteria for gambling disorder. A single underlying factor, the severity of gambling disorder, was identified in both samples. In the general population sample the criteria of preoccupation and chasing were least severe and showed low discriminatory power. Bailout, withdrawal and jeopardized matters criteria had highest severity and discriminatory power. The comparison of the two samples revealed two criterion biases in the preoccupation and tolerance criteria. The structure underlying the criteria is unidimensional but the disorder is manifested differently depending on disorder severity. The assumed equal impact of each criterion lacks support in the findings. The DSM-5 criteria measure a partially different construct in slot machine gamblers than in gamblers in the general population.

  2. Impaired Decision Making is Associated with Poor Inhibition Control in Nonpathological Lottery Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xiaolong; Zheng, Lili; Li, Xianchun

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies by questionnaires have demonstrated that lottery gamblers who have not meet the criteria of pathological gambler show greater gambling acceptability. However, few empirical evidence of whether such nonpathological lottery gamblers (NPLGs) display the same impairments of decision making with pathological gamblers has been found so far. In present study, NPLGs and matched controls (MCs) were asked to perform the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and inter-temporal choice task (ICT). We found that compared to MCs, NPLGs displayed much lower IGT scores, net gains and proportions of advantageous decks in the IGT task and much higher percentages of trials during which smaller-but-sooner rewards were chosen in the ICT. These findings indicate that NPLGs display much more risky and impulsive decision makings, just like pathological gamblers in the previous studies. Next, the Go/NoGo task was employed to explore the role of response inhibition in the impairment of decision making in NPLGs. We found that NPLGs did show much higher commission errors compared to MCs. Moreover, IGT scores, net gain and proportions of advantageous decks were significantly negatively correlated with commission errors, which indicates that poor response inhibition might be involved in the impairments of decision making in NPLGs. To our knowledge, we provided the first empirical evidence of impairment of decision making and its cognitive mechanisms in NPLGs.

  3. Examining the gambling behaviors of Chinese online lottery gamblers: are they rational?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jia

    2015-06-01

    In this research, we explore a unique Chinese peer to peer (P2P) online lottery gambling data (n = 388,123) and examine the rationality of Chinese online lottery gamblers. We show that Chinese online lottery gamblers are irrational in the sense that they are significantly affected by the lottery winning history of others even though this winning history is shown to be merely an exogenous random shock. Specifically, in this Chinese P2P online lottery gambling game, some of the lottery gamblers (named the proposers) propose lottery packages first, and then, other lottery gamblers (named the followers) will follow by choosing among the different packages and deciding on how much to purchase. The past lottery winning return rate of each proposer is provided as public information and calculated as the ratio between her past winning money and wager. It is shown that this past return rate is merely a random shock because winning in the past cannot predict anything about the performance in the future. However, we find that Chinese online P2P lottery gamblers are significantly more likely to join a lottery package if it is proposed by proposers with higher return rates.

  4. 'You just change the channel if you don't like what you're going to hear': gamblers' attitudes towards, and interactions with, social marketing campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Samantha L; Lewis, Sophie; Westberg, Kate

    2015-02-01

    To investigate how gamblers interact with, and respond to, downstream social marketing campaigns that focus on the risks and harms of problem gambling and/or encourage help seeking. Qualitative study of 100 gamblers with a range of gambling behaviours (from non-problem to problem gambling). We used a Social Constructivist approach. Our constant comparative method of data interpretation focused on how participants' experiences and interactions with gambling influenced their opinions towards, and interactions with social marketing campaigns. Three key themes emerged from the narratives. (i) Participants felt that campaigns were heavily skewed towards encouraging individuals to take personal responsibility for their gambling behaviours or were targeted towards those with severe gambling problems. (ii) Participants described the difficulty for campaigns to achieve 'cut through' because of the overwhelming volume of positive messages about the benefits of gambling that were given by the gambling industry. (iii) Some participants described that dominant discourses about personal responsibility prevented them from seeking help and reinforced perceptions of stigma. Social marketing campaigns have an important role to play in the prevention of gambling risk behaviours and the promotion of help seeking. Social marketers should explore how to more effectively target campaigns to different audience segments, understand the role of environmental factors in undermining the uptake of social marketing strategies and anticipate the potential unforeseen consequences of social marketing strategies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Attitudes, Behaviors, and Effectiveness of Black and White Leaders of Simulated Problem Solving Groups of Varying Size and Racial Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Walter A.; Allen, William R.

    A field experiment was used to investigate the effects, if any, of changing group size and racial composition on the attitudes, behaviors, and effectiveness of black and white leaders. Subjects were 288 naval recruits, half black and half white, performing two tasks which were watched by a pair of racially mixed observers through a one-way mirror.…

  6. Problem gambling and substance use in patients attending community mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Victoria; Dowling, Nicki A; Lee, Stuart; Rodda, Simone; Garfield, Joshua Benjamin Bernard; Volberg, Rachel; Kulkarni, Jayashri; Lubman, Dan Ian

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Relatively little is known about co-occurring gambling problems and their overlap with other addictive behaviors among individuals attending mental health services. We aimed to determine rates of gambling and substance use problems in patients accessing mental health services in Victoria, Australia. Methods A total of 837 adult patients were surveyed about their gambling and administered standardized screening tools for problem gambling and harmful tobacco, alcohol, and drug use. Prevalence of gambling problems was estimated and regression models used to determine predictors of problem gambling. Results The gambling participation rate was 41.6% [95% CI = 38.2-44.9]. The Problem Gambling Severity Index identified 19.7% [CI = 17.0-22.4] as "non-problem gamblers," 7.2% [CI = 5.4-8.9] as "low-risk" gamblers, 8.4% [CI = 6.5-10.2] as "moderate-risk" gamblers, and 6.3% [CI = 4.7-8.0] as "problem gamblers." One-fifth (21.9%) of the sample and 52.6% of all gamblers were identified as either low-risk, moderate-risk, or problem gamblers (PGs). Patients classified as problem and moderate-risk gamblers had significantly elevated rates of nicotine and illicit drug dependence (p gambling. Discussion and conclusions Patients were less likely to gamble, but eight times as likely to be classified as PG, relative to Victoria's adult general population. Elevated rates of harmful substance use among moderate-risk and PG suggest overlapping vulnerability to addictive behaviors. These findings suggest mental health services should embed routine screening into clinical practice, and train clinicians in the management of problem gambling.

  7. A focus group study of predictors of relapse in electronic gaming machine problem gambling, part 1: factors that 'push' towards relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, J; Pols, R; Battersby, M; Lawn, S; Pulvirenti, M; Smith, D

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to develop an empirically based description of relapse in Electronic Gaming Machine problem gambling. In this paper the authors describe part one of a two part, linked relapse process: the 'push' towards relapse. In this two-part process, factors interact sequentially and simultaneously within the problem gambler to produce a series of mental and behavioural events that ends with relapse when the 'push' overcomes 'pull' (part one); or as described in part two, continued abstinence when 'pull' overcomes 'push'. In the second paper, the authors describe how interacting factors 'pull' the problem gambler away from relapse. This study used four focus groups comprising thirty participants who were gamblers, gamblers' significant others, therapists and counsellors. The groups were recorded, recordings were then transcribed and analysed using thematic, textual analysis. With the large number of variables considered to be related to relapse in problem gamblers, five key factors emerged that 'push' the gambler towards relapse. These were urge, erroneous cognitions about the outcomes of gambling, negative affect, dysfunctional relationships and environmental gambling triggers. Two theories emerged: (1) each relapse episode comprised a sequence of mental and behavioural events, which evolves over time and was modified by factors that 'push' this sequence towards relapse and (2) a number of gamblers develop an altered state of consciousness during relapse described as the 'zone' which prolongs the relapse.

  8. Inverse association between dopaminergic neurotransmission and Iowa Gambling Task performance in pathological gamblers and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Møller, Arne; Peterson, Ericka

    2010-01-01

    The dopamine system is believed to affect gambling behavior in pathological gambling. Particularly, dopamine release in the ventral striatum appears to affect decision-making in the disorder. This study investigated dopamine release in the ventral striatum in relation to gambling performance...... on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in 16 Pathological Gamblers (PG) and 14 Healthy Controls (HC). We used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) to measure the binding potential of [(11)C] raclopride to dopamine D2/3 receptors during a baseline and gambling condition. We hypothesized that decreased raclopride...... binding potentials in the ventral striatum during gambling (indicating dopamine release) would be associated with higher IGT performance in Healthy Controls, but lower IGT performance in Pathological Gamblers. The results showed that Pathological Gamblers with dopamine release in the ventral striatum had...

  9. Separate and Combined Effects of Anxiety, Depression and Problem Drinking on Subjective Health among Black, Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2014-03-01

    The current study examined race and ethnic differences in the separate and combined (additive) effects of anxiety, depression and problem drinking on the baseline and trajectory of subjective health among adult men in the United States. This longitudinal study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study. We included 4,655 men, composed of 2,407 Blacks, 1,354 Hispanic Whites and 894 non-Hispanic Whites. The dependent variable was subjective health, measured four times (i.e., baseline, year 1, year 3 and year 5). Latent growth curve modeling was used for data analysis. When controlling for socio-economics, we tested separate effects of anxiety and depression. Then we tested combined effects of anxiety, depression and problem drinking. Among all race and ethnic groups, anxiety and problem drinking were associated with baseline and trajectory of subjective health. Combined (additive) effects of anxiety and depression, however, varied based on race and ethnicity. Among Blacks, depression and anxiety were associated with a worse trajectory of subjective health. Among non-Hispanic Whites, anxiety was associated with a better baseline and worse trajectory of subjective health, while depression was associated with worse baseline subjective health. Among Hispanic Whites, anxiety was associated with a worse trajectory of subjective health, while depression was not associated with subjective health. Although separate effects of anxiety and problem drinking were similar among race and ethnic groups, race and ethnicity seemed to modify the combined effects of different mental health problems. These results warrant further exploration of these complex links.

  10. Problem Gambling in New Mexico: 1996 and 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Randall; Blankenship, Jason; May, Philip; Woodall, Gill

    2009-01-01

    Included in both the 1996 and 1998 Survey of Gambling Behavior in New Mexico was a scale of individual problem gambling. To assess problems related to gambling behavior, questions were developed using the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. The purpose of this paper is to describe problem gamblers in New Mexico. Descriptive data indicate…

  11. Who "believes" in the Gambler's Fallacy and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, George D; Warren, Paul A; Hahn, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Humans possess a remarkable ability to discriminate structure from randomness in the environment. However, this ability appears to be systematically biased. This is nowhere more evident than in the Gambler's Fallacy (GF)-the mistaken belief that observing an increasingly long sequence of "heads" from an unbiased coin makes the occurrence of "tails" on the next trial ever more likely. Although the GF appears to provide evidence of "cognitive bias," a recent theoretical account (Hahn & Warren, 2009) has suggested the GF might be understandable if constraints on actual experience of random sources (such as attention and short term memory) are taken into account. Here we test this experiential account by exposing participants to 200 outcomes from a genuinely random (p = .5) Bernoulli process. All participants saw the same overall sequence; however, we manipulated experience across groups such that the sequence was divided into chunks of length 100, 10, or 5. Both before and after the exposure, participants (a) generated random sequences and (b) judged the randomness of presented sequences. In contrast to other accounts in the literature, the experiential account suggests that this manipulation will lead to systematic differences in postexposure behavior. Our data were strongly in line with this prediction and provide support for a general account of randomness perception in which biases are actually apt reflections of environmental statistics under experiential constraints. This suggests that deeper insight into human cognition may be gained if, instead of dismissing apparent biases as failings, we assume humans are rational under constraints. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Mood, motives, and money: An examination of factors that differentiate online and non-online young adult gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Abby L.; Vilhena-Churchill, Natalie; Stewart, Sherry H.; Hoaken, Peter N. S.; Flett, Gordon L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims To date, there is a lack of research on psychological factors associated with young adult online gambling. The current study examined differences between young adult online and non-online gamblers, using information gathered at baseline and over 30 days during which participants reported on their moods, gambling behaviors, and reasons for initiating and discontinuing gambling. Methods Participants were 108 young adult regular gamblers (i.e., gambling four or more times in the past month) who participated in a 30-day daily diary study. Results Male gender, baseline coping motives for gambling and negative affect averaged across the 30 days emerged as significant correlates of online gambling, over and above other background variables. Online gamblers also scored higher on a baseline measure of pathological gambling. Over the 30 days of self-monitoring, online gamblers spent more time gambling, and won more money gambling, whereas non-online gamblers consumed more alcohol while gambling. Online gambling was more often initiated to make money, because of boredom and to demonstrate skills, whereas non-online gambling was more often initiated for social reasons and for excitement. Online gambling was more often discontinued because of boredom, fatigue or distress, whereas non-online gambling was discontinued because friends stopped gambling or mood was improved. Discussion and conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence that coping strategies may be particularly important to reduce risks for online gamblers, whereas strategies for non-online gamblers should focus on the social aspects of gambling. PMID:28092184

  13. When Problem Gambling Is the Primary Reason for Seeking Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, John; Mazmanian, Dwight; Penney, Alexander; Black, Nancy; Nguyen, An

    2011-01-01

    An existing database was used to compare problem gamblers (N = 138) who presented for treatment of their gambling problem to two other groups: alcohol and/or drug addiction clients who also had a gambling problem (N = 280) or who did not have a gambling problem (N = 2178). Clients with gambling as their primary problem were more likely to be…

  14. A Preliminary Outcome Study of an Outpatient Treatment Program for Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Sheldon; And Others

    The Gamblers Treatment Clinic (GTC) opened in 1982 as a New York State Office of Mental Health Demonstration Program. The basic premise of the GTC is that excessive gambling is a disorder of impulse control. Treatment, conducted in the community in a time-limited fashion, attempts to uncover the underlying dynamics that precipitate disorders of…

  15. Time devours things: how impulsivity and time affect temporal decisions in pathological gamblers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Grecucci

    Full Text Available Impulsivity is associated with several psychiatric disorders in which the loss of control of a specific behavior determines the syndrome itself. One particularly interesting population characterized by reported high impulsivity and problematic decision-making are those diagnosed with pathological gambling. However the association between impulsivity and decision making in pathological gambling has been only partially confirmed until now. We tested 23 normal controls and 23 diagnosed pathological gamblers in an intertemporal choice task, as well as other personality trait measurements. Results showed that gamblers scored higher on impulsivity questionnaires, and selected a higher percentage of impatient choices (higher percentage of smaller, sooner rewards, when compared to normal controls. Moreover, gamblers were faster in terms of reaction times at selecting the smaller, sooner options and discounted rewards more rapidly over time. Importantly, regression analyses clarified that self-reported measures of impulsivity played a significant role in biasing decisions towards small but more rapidly available rewards. In the present study we found evidence for impulsivity in personality traits and decisions in pathological gamblers relative to controls. We conclude by speculating on the need to incorporate impulsivity and decision biases in the conceptualization of pathological gambling for a better understanding and treatment of this pathology.

  16. Sex differences in salivary cortisol in response to acute stressors among healthy participants, in recreational or pathological gamblers, and in those with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Jason J; Franco, Christine; Sodano, Ruthlyn; Freidenberg, Brian; Gordis, Elana; Anderson, Drew A; Forsyth, John P; Wulfert, Edelgard; Frye, Cheryl A

    2010-01-01

    Sex differences in incidence and severity of some stress-related, neuropsychiatric disorders are often reported to favor men, suggesting that women may be more vulnerable to aberrant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress. In this review, we discuss several investigations that we, and others, have conducted assessing salivary cortisol as a measure of HPA function. We have examined basal cortisol among healthy men and women and also following acute exposure to stressors. Among healthy participants, men had higher basal cortisol levels than did women. In response to acute stressors, such as carbon dioxide or noise, respectively, cortisol levels were comparable between men and women or higher among women. We have also examined cortisol levels among those with problem eating, gambling, or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women with restrained eating habits have higher basal cortisol levels than do women without restrained eating habits. Pathological gamblers have more aberrant stress response to gambling stimuli than do recreational gamblers, and these effects are more prominent among men than women. Men who have motor vehicle accident related PTSD, demonstrate more aberrant cortisol function, than do their female counterparts. Although these sex differences in cortisol seem to vary with type of stress exposure and/or pathophysiological status of the individual, other hormones may influence cortisol response. To address this, cortisol levels among boys and girls with different stress-related experiences, will be the subject of future investigation. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study…

  18. The Temporal Sequencing of Problem Gambling and Comorbid Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Louise; Haw, John; Hing, Nerilee

    2012-01-01

    Two qualitative studies were undertaken to identify the prevalent comorbid mental disorders in treatment seeking problem gamblers and to also identify the temporal sequencing of the disorders. A forum with problem gambling counsellors and interviews with 24 mental health experts were undertaken. There was general agreement that the most commonly…

  19. Validation of the problem gambling severity index using confirmatory factor analysis and rasch modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Natalie V; Currie, Shawn R; Hodgins, David C; Casey, David

    2013-09-01

    The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), a screening tool used to measure the severity of gambling problems in general population research, was subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch modelling to (a) confirm the one-factor structure; (b) assess how well the items measure the continuum of problem gambling severity; (c) identify sources of differential item functioning among relevant subpopulations of gamblers. Analyses were conducted on a nationally representative sample of over 25,000 gamblers compiled by merging data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI) integrated datasets. Results provided support for a one-factor model that was invariant across gender, age, income level, and gambler type. Rasch modelling revealed a well-fitting, unidimensional model with no miss-fitting items. The average severity assessed by the PGSI is consistent with moderately severe problem gambling. The PGSI is therefore weak in assessing low to moderate problem severity, a notable limitation of most brief gambling screens. Evidence of clinically significant differential item functioning was found with only one item, borrowing money to gamble, which behaved differently in gamblers who play electronic gaming machines or casino games compared to gamblers who avoid these games. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Impulsiveness, locus of control, motivation and problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Dave

    2004-01-01

    A questionnaire consisting of demographic items, questions about gambling behavior, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), a depression inventory, the Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire, Levenson's Internality, Powerful Others and Chance Scales of locus of control and the Gambling Motivation Scale, was completed by a non-random sample of 147 New Zealand university students who gambled for money, median age 24 years. Approximately 17 of the sample was classified as problem gamblers, the rest as non-problem gamblers. Multivariate analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences between problem and non-problem gamblers on gambling frequency, number of activities, parents' gambling, depression, impulsiveness and motivation, but not on locus of control. Amotivation (apathy) and motivation towards stimulation correlated with powerful others and chance locus of control, and motivation to impress others with powerful others locus of control. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that: (1) beyond gambling frequency, number of activities and parents' gambling, motivation explained a substantial proportion of variance in SOGS scores, with impulsiveness accounting for a lesser amount, and (2) predictors of problem gambling included impulsiveness, amotivation and the motivations for accomplishment and tension release. It was concluded that gambling motivation is a more useful construct than locus of control in explaining problem gambling. Suggestions were made for future research, and aspects of gambling motivation were discussed in terms of a treatment program with groups of problem gamblers.

  1. Comorbidity, family history and personality traits in pathological gamblers compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, K; Lemenager, T; Zois, E; Hoffmann, S; Nakovics, H; Beutel, M; Vogelgesang, M; Wölfling, K; Kiefer, F; Fauth-Bühler, M

    2017-05-01

    While DSM-5 classified pathological gambling as an addictive disorder, there is debate as to whether ICD-11 should follow suit. The debate hinges on scientific evidence such as neurobiological findings, family history of psychiatric disorders, psychiatric comorbidity, and personality variables. In the "Baden-Württemberg Study of Pathological Gambling", we compared a group of 515 male pathological gamblers receiving treatment with 269 matched healthy controls. We studied differences in sociodemographic characteristics, gambling-related variables, psychiatric comorbidity (lifetime), family history of psychiatric conditions, as well as personality traits such as impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), sensation seeking (Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale) and the NEO-FFI big five. Personality traits were validated in an age- and ethnicity-matched subsample of "pure" gamblers without any psychiatric comorbidity (including nicotine dependence). Data were analyzed using two-sample t-tests, Chi(2) analyses, Fisher's exact test and Pearson correlation analysis, as appropriate. Bonferroni correction was applied to correct for multiple comparisons. Only 1% of the gamblers had been diagnosed with an impulse control disorder other than gambling (ICD-10). Notably, 88% of the gamblers in our sample had a comorbid diagnosis of substance dependence. The highest axis I comorbidity rate was for nicotine dependence (80%), followed by alcohol dependence (28%). Early age of first gambling experience was correlated with gambling severity. Compared to first-degree relatives of controls, first-degree relatives of pathological gamblers were more likely to suffer from alcohol dependence (27.0% vs. 7.4%), pathological gambling (8.3% vs. 0.7%) and suicide attempts (2.7% vs. 0.4%). Significant group differences were observed for the NEO-FFI factors neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Gamblers were also more impulsive than controls, but did not differ from controls in terms

  2. On being attracted to the possibility of a win: reward sensitivity (via gambling motives) undermines treatment seeking among pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztainert, Travis; Wohl, Michael J A; McManus, Justin F; Stead, John D H

    2014-12-01

    Unfortunately, only a small percent of pathological gamblers seek the professional help they need. In the current study, we test the idea that individual differences in reward sensitivity should predict whether a pathological gambler has sought treatment-the odds of treatment seeking should decrease as reward sensitivity increases. This hypothesis rests on the proposition that reward sensitive pathological gamblers should find treatment seeking aversive because doing so would remove a route to reward. We also tested those motivations to gamble that are positively reinforcing (social affliction and self-enhancement) as a possible mechanism by which reward sensitivity undermines treatment seeking-we did not anticipate negatively reinforcing motivations (e.g., coping) to be a mechanistic variable. Ninety-two pathological gamblers completed a large-scale survey that contained the variables of interest. As predicted, pathological gamblers were less likely to have sought treatment as reward sensitivity increased. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by social affiliation motivations to gamble, but not self-enhancement or coping motives. Reward sensitive gamblers did not wish to seek treatment to the extent that they were motivated to gamble for the social interactions it provides-seeking treatment would cut this avenue of affiliation with others. In light of these results, we suggest health care professionals take reward sensitivity into account when trying to promote treatment seeking, to say nothing of the social affiliation motives that underlie the reward sensitivity-treatment seeking link.

  3. Further evaluation of the construct, convergent and criterion validity of the Gambling Urge Scale with university-student gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafioun, Lisham; Rosenberg, Harold; Cross, Nicole A; Brian, Thomas J

    2013-09-01

    Research has documented the prevalence of problem gambling among university students, and craving is one factor that may provoke and maintain episodes of gambling. We designed this study to assess elements of construct, convergent and criterion validity of the Gambling Urge Scale (GUS) when administered to regularly gambling university students. Students (n = 250) recruited from three universities during the spring semester, 2012, were randomly assigned to one of four conditions to test the impact of cue exposure to one of two types of stimuli (gambling versus non-gambling activity), and two types of presentation format (photographic versus imagery scripts), on current craving to gamble. Self-reported craving increased significantly following exposure to gambling cues, but not following exposure to engaging non-gambling cues, regardless of the format by which cues were presented. Among those exposed to gambling cues, GUS craving scores were significantly correlated with all three subscales of another measure of craving to gamble, gambling-related problems, passionate attachment to gambling, distorted gambling beliefs and gambling refusal self-efficacy. These findings provide further support for the construct, convergent and criterion validity of the GUS as a measure of subjective craving in university student gamblers.

  4. Gender differences among recreational gamblers: association with the frequency of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rani A; Maciejewski, Paul K; Pantalon, Michael V; Potenza, Marc N

    2006-06-01

    This study examines the interactive effects of alcohol use and gender on health and gambling attitudes and behaviors in recreational gamblers. The Gambling Impact and Behavior Study (D. Gerstein et al., 1999) surveyed by telephone 2,417 adults targeted to be representative of the U.S. adult population. The authors compared male and female recreational gamblers (n = 1,471) who were stratified by frequency of alcohol use on measures of health and gambling. Significant Gender x Alcohol Use group interactions were observed such that moderate-to-high frequency alcohol consumption correlated with heavier gambling in men than in women, whereas such an association did not exist among abstinent or low frequency drinkers. There were few gender differences in the correlations between alcohol consumption and health. Future research should consider gender-related influences when examining alcohol use and gambling behaviors.

  5. The Categorical Stability of Gambling Motives Among Community-Recruited Gamblers: A Longitudinal Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Daniel S; Konkolÿ Thege, Barna

    2017-03-30

    Over the past decade, several motivational models have been proposed to explain the role of motives in gambling disorder. In the model captured by the four-factor Gambling Motives Questionnaire Financial (GMQ-F), gamblers are described as being primarily motivated to gamble for 'coping', 'enhancement', 'social', and 'financial' reasons. Although this model has received significant empirical support; to date, research assessing the role of motives in gambling disorder has been primarily cross-sectional in nature. Thus, the extent to which gambling motives remain stable over time has yet to be explored. In the current study, the stability versus fluidity of self-assessed gambling motives was investigated using the Quinte Longitudinal Study, a longitudinal dataset of gambling behaviour collected over 5 years. Gambling motives of 2795 gamblers were examined over all five annual assessments. The total proportion of gamblers who stayed in the same primary motive category across each of the 5 consecutive assessments was 22%, indicating substantial fluidity in category membership. Substantial movement between categories was seen for each GMQ-F group, as well as an additional group of non-classified motives. Logistic regression analyses suggest that greater resistance to gambling fallacies significantly predicted stability between the baseline assessment and a follow-up 1 year later, but gambling severity did not. Potential limitations in the study design and opportunities for future research are discussed.

  6. Excessive trading, a gambling disorder in its own right? A case study on a French disordered gamblers cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Sauvaget, Anne; Boutin, Claude; Bulteau, Samuel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Caillon, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Trading and gambling appear to share some similarities. Indeed, traders can get professionally involved in high-risk types of trading as if it were gambling. This research explores whether excessive trading can be conceptualized as a subset of gambling disorders. To better acknowledge the existence of an addictive-like trading behavior and to discuss its phenomenological similarities with gambling disorders. The data of 8 excessive traders out of a cohort of 221 outpatients seeking treatment in our Problem Gambling unit were analyzed. Our case series revealed important similarities with gambling disorders in terms of diagnosis, trajectory and comorbidities. Like many disordered gamblers, excessive traders of this study experienced a number of small early wins, chased their losses, and ended up losing control over the money they invested. All of them invested in very risky stocks associated with short-term trading leading to potential large gains, but also with very significant losses. The structure itself of the two activities (gambling and trading) is very close. Our results tended to support the idea of an addictive-like trading behavior as a subset of gambling disorders. Investing is not a form of gambling, but some people gamble with investments. Several observations and recommendations can be made: (i) conduct researches; (ii) build and validate specific assessment tools; (iii) develop strategies for prevention and treatment; and (iv) conduct more rigorous studies to clarify what we named an addictive-like trading behavior. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. How Culture Influences Teacher Self-Reflective Problem Solving Behavior and Self-Efficacy: Experiences of White Female Teachers Working through Relationship with Black Students in a Mid-Western American City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, Bonnie Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Teachers make a difference. White female middle-class teachers represent 84 percent of Americas' teachers. How does culture influence the self-reflective problem-solving behaviors of urban teachers? Urban schools fail youth by opening the doors for a mass exodus. The problem solving behavior of urban teachers may contribute to the student exodus…

  8. Internet gambling in problem gambling college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M; Gonzalez-Ibanez, Angels

    2015-06-01

    Internet gambling is popular in college students and associated with problem gambling behaviors. This study evaluated Internet gambling in 117 students participating in study evaluating brief interventions to reduce gambling; the brief interventions consisted of minimal advice, motivational enhancement therapy, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (1-4 sessions). Compared to their counterparts who did not gamble via the Internet (n = 60), those who reported recent Internet gambling (n = 57) wagered in greater frequencies and amounts and reported missing school more often and more problems with family and anxiety due to gambling. Recent Internet gamblers demonstrated similar reductions in gambling over time and in response to the brief interventions as non-Internet gamblers. These data suggest that Internet gambling is common in problem gambling college students, and students who wager over the Internet can benefit from brief interventions.

  9. Development of an Indigenous Inventory GMAB (Gambling Motives, Attitudes and Behaviors) for Chinese gamblers: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Vivienne Y K; Wu, Anise M S; Cheung, Shu Fai; Tong, Kwok Kit

    2011-03-01

    Scale development in the extant gambling literature has been dominated by pathological gamblers, but the non- or sub-clinical gamblers have been overlooked. Moreover, most scales are predominantly based on Western samples; only a few of the scales have Chinese versions validated with Chinese samples. A rarely explored niche still exists for the development of an indigenous scale for Chinese gamblers. The current exploratory study made the first step towards such a direction by identifying factors through the construction of an indigenous Gambling Motives, Attitudes and Behavior (GMAB) scale for Chinese gamblers. Preliminary items were generated primarily from focus group discussions. The items were administered through a telephone survey in which 791 randomly sampled gamblers participated. Exploratory factor analyses revealed (a) five dimensions of gambling motives, namely, self-worth, monetary gains, sensation seeking, boredom alleviation, and learning; (b) four dimensions of gambling attitudes, namely, luck and fate, attitudes toward negative consequences in gambling, techniques, and superstition; and (c) six dimensions of behavior, namely, impaired control in gambling, gambling involvement, arousal reaction, superstitious behavior, controlled gambling and casino exploration. Implications of the interplay among these factors and future research directions were discussed.

  10. Problem gambling: a suitable case for social work?

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Problem gambling attracts little attention from health and social care agencies in the UK. Prevalence surveys suggest that 0.6% of the population are problem gamblers and it is suggested that for each of these individuals, 10–17 other people, including children and other family members, are affected. Problem gambling is linked to many individual and social problems including: depression, suicide, significant debt, bankruptcy, family conflict, domestic violence, neglect and m...

  11. Risk Factors for Gambling Problems on Online Electronic Gaming Machines, Race Betting and Sports Betting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M; Browne, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Growth of Internet gambling has fuelled concerns about its contribution to gambling problems. However, most online gamblers also gamble on land-based forms, which may be the source of problems for some. Studies therefore need to identify the problematic mode of gambling (online or offline) to identify those with an online gambling problem. Identifying most problematic form of online gambling (e.g., EGMs, race betting, sports betting) would also enable a more accurate examination of gambling problems attributable to a specific online gambling form. This study pursued this approach, aiming to: (1) determine demographic, behavioral and psychological risk factors for gambling problems on online EGMs, online sports betting and online race betting; (2) compare the characteristics of problematic online gamblers on each of these online forms. An online survey of 4,594 Australian gamblers measured gambling behavior, most problematic mode and form of gambling, gambling attitudes, psychological distress, substance use, help-seeking, demographics and problem gambling status. Problem/moderate risk gamblers nominating an online mode of gambling as their most problematic, and identifying EGMs (n = 98), race betting (n = 291) or sports betting (n = 181) as their most problematic gambling form, were compared to non-problem/low risk gamblers who had gambled online on these forms in the previous 12 months (n = 64, 1145 and 1213 respectively), using bivariate analyses and then logistic regressions. Problem/moderate risk gamblers on each of these online forms were then compared. Risk factors for online EGM gambling were: more frequent play on online EGMs, substance use when gambling, and higher psychological distress. Risk factors for online sports betting were being male, younger, lower income, born outside of Australia, speaking a language other than English, more frequent sports betting, higher psychological distress, and more negative attitudes toward gambling. Risk factors for

  12. Risk Factors for Gambling Problems on Online Electronic Gaming Machines, Race Betting and Sports Betting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M.; Browne, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Growth of Internet gambling has fuelled concerns about its contribution to gambling problems. However, most online gamblers also gamble on land-based forms, which may be the source of problems for some. Studies therefore need to identify the problematic mode of gambling (online or offline) to identify those with an online gambling problem. Identifying most problematic form of online gambling (e.g., EGMs, race betting, sports betting) would also enable a more accurate examination of gambling problems attributable to a specific online gambling form. This study pursued this approach, aiming to: (1) determine demographic, behavioral and psychological risk factors for gambling problems on online EGMs, online sports betting and online race betting; (2) compare the characteristics of problematic online gamblers on each of these online forms. An online survey of 4,594 Australian gamblers measured gambling behavior, most problematic mode and form of gambling, gambling attitudes, psychological distress, substance use, help-seeking, demographics and problem gambling status. Problem/moderate risk gamblers nominating an online mode of gambling as their most problematic, and identifying EGMs (n = 98), race betting (n = 291) or sports betting (n = 181) as their most problematic gambling form, were compared to non-problem/low risk gamblers who had gambled online on these forms in the previous 12 months (n = 64, 1145 and 1213 respectively), using bivariate analyses and then logistic regressions. Problem/moderate risk gamblers on each of these online forms were then compared. Risk factors for online EGM gambling were: more frequent play on online EGMs, substance use when gambling, and higher psychological distress. Risk factors for online sports betting were being male, younger, lower income, born outside of Australia, speaking a language other than English, more frequent sports betting, higher psychological distress, and more negative attitudes toward gambling. Risk factors for

  13. Risk Factors for Gambling Problems on Online Electronic Gaming Machines, Race Betting and Sports Betting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerilee Hing

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth of Internet gambling has fuelled concerns about its contribution to gambling problems. However, most online gamblers also gamble on land-based forms, which may be the source of problems for some. Studies therefore need to identify the problematic mode of gambling (online or offline to identify those with an online gambling problem. Identifying most problematic form of online gambling (e.g., EGMs, race betting, sports betting would also enable a more accurate examination of gambling problems attributable to a specific online gambling form. This study pursued this approach, aiming to: (1 determine demographic, behavioral and psychological risk factors for gambling problems on online EGMs, online sports betting and online race betting; (2 compare the characteristics of problematic online gamblers on each of these online forms. An online survey of 4,594 Australian gamblers measured gambling behavior, most problematic mode and form of gambling, gambling attitudes, psychological distress, substance use, help-seeking, demographics and problem gambling status. Problem/moderate risk gamblers nominating an online mode of gambling as their most problematic, and identifying EGMs (n = 98, race betting (n = 291 or sports betting (n = 181 as their most problematic gambling form, were compared to non-problem/low risk gamblers who had gambled online on these forms in the previous 12 months (n = 64, 1145 and 1213 respectively, using bivariate analyses and then logistic regressions. Problem/moderate risk gamblers on each of these online forms were then compared. Risk factors for online EGM gambling were: more frequent play on online EGMs, substance use when gambling, and higher psychological distress. Risk factors for online sports betting were being male, younger, lower income, born outside of Australia, speaking a language other than English, more frequent sports betting, higher psychological distress, and more negative attitudes toward gambling. Risk

  14. Gambler's ruin problem on Erdős-Rényi graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Néda, Zoltán; Davidova, Larissa; Újvári, Szeréna; Istrate, Gabriel

    2017-02-01

    A multiagent ruin-game is studied on Erdős-Rényi type graphs. Initially the players have the same wealth. At each time step a monopolist game is played on all active links (links that connect nodes with nonzero wealth). In such a game each player puts a unit wealth in the pot and the pot is won with equal probability by one of the players. The game ends when there are no connected players such that both of them have non-zero wealth. In order to characterize the final state for dense graphs a compact formula is given for the expected number of the remaining players with non-zero wealth and the wealth distribution among these players. Theoretical predictions are given for the expected duration of the ruin game. The dynamics of the number of active players is also investigated. Validity of the theoretical predictions is investigated by Monte Carlo experiments.

  15. The Relationship Between Distance from Gambling Venues and Gambling Participation and Problem Gambling Among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welte, John W; Barnes, Grace M; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O; Hoffman, Joseph H; Wieczorek, William F

    2016-12-01

    In this article we examine the relationship between extent of gambling for U.S. adults and the distance from their residence to the nearest casino or track. We employ data from a telephone survey of U.S. adults conducted in 2011-2013. The chances that the respondents gambled in the past year, were frequent gamblers, or were problem gamblers were greater if they lived close to a casino. The chances that the respondents gambled in the past year or were frequent gamblers were greater if they lived close to a horse or dog track. The effects of closeness to a casino on the likelihood of past-year gambling, frequent gambling, and problem gambling, as well as the effect of closeness to a track on past-year gambling, extended to about 30 miles from the respondent's home. In addition, the concentration of casinos within 30 miles of the respondent's home was positively related to the respondents' chance of being a frequent or problem gambler. If a respondent had no casinos within 30 miles, he or she had a 2.7 % chance of being a problem gambler; if one casino, a 3.9 % chance; if six or more, a 6.2 % chance. The authors estimate that at least part of this effect is causal.

  16. Getting a grip on problem gambling: what can neuroscience tell us?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, A.E.; Yücel, M.; Holst, R.J. van

    2014-01-01

    In problem gamblers, diminished cognitive control and increased impulsivity is present compared to healthy controls. Moreover, impulsivity has been found to be a vulnerability marker for the development of pathological gambling (PG) and problem gambling (PrG) and to be a predictor of relapse. In

  17. Problem gambling and the five-factor model of personality: a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Molde, Helge; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge of the personality characteristics of individuals who develop gambling problems is important for designing targeted prevention efforts. Previous studies of the relationship between the five-factor model of personality and gambling problems were based on small samples not representative of the general population. We estimated differences in neuroticism, extroversion, intellect, agreeableness and conscientiousness between non-problem gamblers and individuals with low, moderate and severe gambling problems. Cross-sectional survey. Norway. A total of 10 081 (51.5% female) individuals aged 16-74 years (mean age 46.5 years). The Problem Gambling Severity Index, The Mini-International Personality Item Pool and demographic variables. Differences between groups of gamblers were analysed by ordinary least-squares regression models separately for each personality trait adjusting for gender, age, cohabitation, level of education and work status. Gamblers with low, moderate and severe levels of gambling problems differed significantly from non-problem gamblers in neuroticism (b = 0.16, 0.34 and 0.66, respectively, all P disability pension. A higher level of problem gambling severity appears to be associated with higher scores on neuroticism, and with lower scores on conscientiousness and agreeableness in the Mini-International Personality Item Pool. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Impulsivity and Stress Response in Pathological Gamblers During the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniaci, G; Goudriaan, A E; Cannizzaro, C; van Holst, R J

    2017-03-18

    Gambling has been associated with increased sympathetic nervous system output and stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However it is unclear how these systems are affected in pathological gambling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) on cortisol and on cardiac interbeat intervals in relation to impulsivity, in a sample of male pathological gamblers compared to healthy controls. In addition, we investigated the correlation between the TSST, duration of the disorder and impulsivity. A total of 35 pathological gamblers and 30 healthy controls, ranging from 19 to 58 years old and all male, participated in this study. Stress response was measured during and after the TSST by salivary cortisol and cardiac interbeat intervals; impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Exposure to the TSST produced a significant increase in salivary cortisol and interbeat intervals in both groups, without differences between groups. We found a negative correlation between baseline cortisol and duration of pathological gambling indicating that the longer the duration of the disorder the lower the baseline cortisol levels. Additionally, we found a main effect of impulsivity across groups on interbeat interval during the TSST, indicating an association between impulsivity and the intensity of the neurovegetative stress response during the TSST. Involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in pathological gambling was confirmed together with evidence of a correlation between length of the disorder and diminished baseline cortisol levels. Impulsivity emerged as a personality trait expressed by pathological gamblers; however the neurovegetative response to the TSST, although associated with impulsivity, appeared to be independent of the presence of pathological gambling.

  19. Type of gambling as an independent risk factor for suicidal events in pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian; Bischof, Gallus; John, Ulrich; Wurst, Friedrich Martin; Thon, Natasha; Lucht, Michael; Grabe, Hans-Joergen; Rumpf, Hans-Juergen

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with pathological gambling have an increased risk for suicidal events. Additionally, the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders is high among pathological gamblers. This study analyzes whether the type of gambling is associated with suicidal events in pathological gamblers independently from comorbidity. Participants were recruited in 4 different ways: via random telephone sample from the general population, via individual invitation for study participation in gambling locations, through various media and the distribution of a leaflet in various settings, and via inpatient treatment facilities for pathological gambling. The final sample included 442 participants with a lifetime diagnosis of pathological gambling. A standardized clinical interview was conducted. High financial losses were associated with suicidal events (odds ratio [OR] = 1.94, 95% 95% confidence interval [CI], [1.11, 3.37]), as were mood disorders (OR = 7.70, 95% CI, [4.44, 13.37]) and female gender (OR = 2.52, 95% CI, [1.20, 5.28]). Gambling on electronic gambling machines in gambling halls or bars was associated with increased odds of suicidal events (OR = 2.94, 95% CI, [1.38, 6.24]). Other types of gambling, such as casino games or betting on sports, or the number of DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling were not associated independently with suicidal events. Our findings suggest that gambling on electronic gambling machines in gambling halls or bars is associated with suicidal events in pathological gamblers independently of comorbidity. This result shows that the type of gambling needs to be considered as a relevant factor in gambling research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Jogadores de roleta e amores / The gambler: roulettes and love affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória Carneiro do Amaral

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Este estudo discute duas diferentes avaliações da novela Um jogador: uma, que o surpreende no contexto da obra dostoievskiniana, em que é considerado um trabalho menor; outra, no “mosaico de citações” da literatura francesa que nele se encontra. ABSTRACT: This paper discusses two different evaluations of the novel The Gambler: in the Dostoevskian novel context, in which it is considered a minor work and in the mosaic of French Literature quotations that can be found in it.

  1. What's Luck Got to Do with It? The History, Mathematics, and Psychology of the Gambler's Illusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mazur, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Why do so many gamblers risk it all when they know the odds of winning are against them? Why do they believe dice are "hot" in a winning streak? Why do we expect heads on a coin toss after several flips have turned up tails? What's Luck Got to Do with It? takes a lively and eye-opening look at the mathematics, history, and psychology of gambling to reveal the most widely held misconceptions about luck. It exposes the hazards of feeling lucky, and uses the mathematics of predictable outcomes to show when our chances of winning are actually good. Mathematician Joseph Mazur traces the history of

  2. White Toenails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page. Please enable Javascript in your browser. White Toenails White toenails can develop for several reasons. Trauma, such ... trauma does not cause broken blood vessels, a white spot may appear under the nail. The spot ...

  3. The Relationship Between Problem Gambling and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluk, O R; Youssef, G J; Dowling, N A

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies indicate that treatment-seeking problem gamblers display elevated rates of ADHD and that adolescents who screen positive for ADHD are more likely to engage in gambling, develop gambling problems, and experience a greater severity in gambling problems. This study aimed to (a) compare the prevalence of ADHD in treatment-seeking problem gamblers to the general population; (b) investigate the relationships between ADHD and problem gambling severity, cluster B personality disorders, motor impulsivity, alcohol use, substance use, gender, and age; and (c) investigate the degree to which these factors moderate the relationship between ADHD and problem gambling severity. Participants included 214 adults (154 males, 58 females, 2 unspecified) who sought treatment for their gambling problems at a specialist gambling agency in Melbourne, Australia. Almost one-quarter (24.9 %) of treatment-seeking problem gamblers screened positively for ADHD, which was significantly higher than the 14 % prevalence in a community sample. ADHD was significantly positively correlated with problem gambling severity, motor impulsivity, and cluster B personality disorders, but was not associated with alcohol and substance use, gender or age. None of the factors significantly moderated the relationship between ADHD and problem gambling severity. These findings suggest that a considerable proportion of treatment-seeking problem gamblers report ADHD and that their clinical profile is complicated by the presence of high impulsivity and cluster B personality disorders. They highlight the need for specialist gambling agencies to develop screening, assessment, and management protocols for co-occurring ADHD to enhance the effectiveness of treatment.

  4. Predictability in Pathological Gambling? Applying the Duplication of Purchase Law to the Understanding of Cross-Purchases Between Regular and Pathological Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Desmond; Mizerski, Richard

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the gambling participations and game purchase duplication of light regular, heavy regular and pathological gamblers by applying the Duplication of Purchase Law. Current study uses data collected by the Australian Productivity Commission for eight different types of games. Key behavioral statistics on light regular, heavy regular, and pathological gamblers were computed and compared. The key finding is that pathological gambling, just like regular gambling, follows the Duplication of Purchase Law, which states that the dominant factor of purchase duplication between two brands is their market shares. This means that gambling between any two games at pathological level, like any regular consumer purchases, exhibits "law-like" regularity based on the pathological gamblers' participation rate of each game. Additionally, pathological gamblers tend to gamble more frequently across all games except lotteries and instant as well as make greater cross-purchases compared to heavy regular gamblers. A better understanding of the behavioral traits between regular (particularly heavy regular) and pathological gamblers can be useful to public policy makers and social marketers in order to more accurately identify such gamblers and better manage the negative impacts of gambling.

  5. Risk Factors for Gambling Problems: An Analysis by Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex; Tolchard, Barry; Nower, Lia

    2016-06-01

    Differences in problem gambling rates between males and females suggest that associated risk factors vary by gender. Previous combined analyses of male and female gambling may have obscured these distinctions. This study aimed to develop separate risk factor models for gambling problems for males and for females, and identify gender-based similarities and differences. It analysed data from the largest prevalence study in Victoria Australia (N = 15,000). Analyses determined factors differentiating non-problem from at-risk gamblers separately for women and men, then compared genders using interaction terms. Separate multivariate analyses determined significant results when controlling for all others. Variables included demographics, gambling behaviour, gambling motivations, money management, and mental and physical health. Significant predictors of at-risk status amongst female gamblers included: 18-24 years old, not speaking English at home, living in a group household, unemployed or not in the workforce, gambling on private betting, electronic gaming machines (EGMs), scratch tickets or bingo, and gambling for reasons other than social reasons, to win money or for general entertainment. For males, risk factors included: 18-24 years old, not speaking English at home, low education, living in a group household, unemployed or not in the workforce, gambling on EGMs, table games, races, sports or lotteries, and gambling for reasons other than social reasons, to win money or for general entertainment. High risk groups requiring appropriate interventions comprise young adults, especially males; middle-aged female EGM gamblers; non-English speaking populations; frequent EGM, table games, race and sports gamblers; and gamblers motivated by escape.

  6. The Association among Childhood Trauma, Pathological Dissociation and Gambling Severity in Casino Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatori, Claudio; Innamorati, Marco; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Imbimbo, Francesca; Pompili, Maurizio; Contardi, Anna; Farina, Benedetto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the role of pathological dissociation in mediating the association between childhood trauma (CT) and gambling severity. One hundred seventy-one (134 men and 37 women) gamblers recruited in gambling environments (i.e., two Italian casinos) have been enrolled in the study. Psychopathological assessments included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Dissociative Experiences Scale-Taxon (DES-T), the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), the CAGE and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A mediational model, analyzing the direct and indirect effects of CTQ on SOGS through the mediating role of DES-T, showed that the relation between CTQ and SOGS was fully mediated by DES-T scores (b = 0.07; se = 0.15; p gambling severity through the presence of pathological dissociative symptoms and dissociative pathogenetic processes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Gambling severity is associated with both childhood trauma and pathological dissociation in casino gamblers. A mediational model shows that the effect of childhood trauma on gambling severity is entirely mediated by pathological dissociation. From a clinical point of view, our results highlight the importance of assessing, and possibly treating, dissociative symptoms in individuals with gambling disorder. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Human dorsal striatal activity during choice discriminates reinforcement learning behavior from the gambler's fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Ryan K; O'Doherty, John P

    2011-04-27

    Reinforcement learning theory has generated substantial interest in neurobiology, particularly because of the resemblance between phasic dopamine and reward prediction errors. Actor-critic theories have been adapted to account for the functions of the striatum, with parts of the dorsal striatum equated to the actor. Here, we specifically test whether the human dorsal striatum--as predicted by an actor-critic instantiation--is used on a trial-to-trial basis at the time of choice to choose in accordance with reinforcement learning theory, as opposed to a competing strategy: the gambler's fallacy. Using a partial-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning protocol focused on the striatum and other ventral brain areas, we found that the dorsal striatum is more active when choosing consistent with reinforcement learning compared with the competing strategy. Moreover, an overlapping area of dorsal striatum along with the ventral striatum was found to be correlated with reward prediction errors at the time of outcome, as predicted by the actor-critic framework. These findings suggest that the same region of dorsal striatum involved in learning stimulus-response associations may contribute to the control of behavior during choice, thereby using those learned associations. Intriguingly, neither reinforcement learning nor the gambler's fallacy conformed to the optimal choice strategy on the specific decision-making task we used. Thus, the dorsal striatum may contribute to the control of behavior according to reinforcement learning even when the prescriptions of such an algorithm are suboptimal in terms of maximizing future rewards.

  8. The use of messages in altering risky gambling behavior in experienced gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Bianca F; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2012-03-01

    The present study was an experimental analogue that examined the relationship between gambling-related irrational beliefs and risky gambling behavior. Eighty high-frequency gamblers were randomly assigned to four conditions and played a chance-based computer game in a laboratory setting. Depending on the condition, during the game a pop-up screen repeatedly displayed either accurate or inaccurate messages concerning the game, neutral messages, or no messages. Consistent with a cognitive-behavioral model of gambling, accurate messages that correctly described the random contingencies governing the game decreased risky gambling behavior. Contrary to predictions, inaccurate messages designed to mimic gamblers' irrational beliefs about their abilities to influence chance events did not lead to more risky gambling behavior than exposure to neutral or no messages. Participants in the latter three conditions did not differ significantly from one another and all showed riskier gambling behavior than participants in the accurate message condition. The results suggest that harm minimization strategies that help individuals maintain a rational perspective while gambling may protect them from unreasonable risk-taking. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Validation of the Chinese version of the Gamblers' Belief Questionnaire (GBQ-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stella S K; Tsang, Sandra K M

    2012-12-01

    A growing body of evidence is documenting the significant role of cognitive factors in influencing gambling behaviors. Although measures of cognitive biases have been developed, further validation of these scales is needed among non-Western samples. The 21-item Gamblers' Belief Questionnaire was originally developed and validated by Steenbergh et al. (in Psychol. Addict. Behav., 16: 143-149, 2002). The scale then has been widely used in the gambling research of the West. The present study was designed to examine and validate the Chinese version of Gamblers' Belief Questionnaire (GBQ-C) using 258 Chinese participants. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated the 2-factor model provided a good fit to the data as evidenced by various model fit indices (CFI = .91, RMSEA = .08 and SRMR = .05). Additional evidence for the validity of the GBQ-C was provided by significant correlations with other relevant measures (range .40-.75). In sum, the present study provides support for the GBQ-C as a valuable tool for assessing gambling cognitions among Chinese samples.

  10. Gamblers' habits: empirical evidence on the behavior of regulars, newcomers and dropouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Ingo

    2013-06-01

    Electronic gambling offers the opportunity to analyze huge and unbiased data sets of automatically recorded actual gambling behavior. This study refers to data on 2,127,887 poker playing identities from the Online Poker Database of the University of Hamburg (OPD-UHH) to analyze three subgroups of gamblers: regulars, newcomers, and dropouts. Their gambling habits over 6 months are analyzed in total, as well as over time. Regulars show a much higher involvement than non-regulars and increase their playing volume slightly over the observation period. Newcomers have a lower involvement than non-newcomers and most of them decrease their playing volume over time. Still, there is a small group of newcomers which increases their playing volume sharply and is, hence, very interesting for the industry as well as for the early prevention of pathological gambling. Dropouts have a higher gambling involvement than newcomers but play less than players who have not stopped stop gambling. Most dropouts also show a decreasing playing volume before dropping out. An analysis of the correlations between different variables of gambling habits shows that most of them reinforce each other, for example: gamblers with a higher total playing time tend to play at more tables simultaneously. Only playing frequency is a moderating variable of gambling involvement.

  11. The use of personalized behavioral feedback for online gamblers: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mario Auer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, online gambling has become a more common leisure time activity. However, for a small minority, the activity can become problematic. Consequently, the gambling industry has started to acknowledge their role in player protection and harm minimization and some gambling companies have introduced responsible gambling tools as a way of helping players stay in control. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of mentor (a responsible gambling tool that provides personalized feedback to players among 1,015 online gamblers at a European online gambling site, and compared their behavior with matched controls (n=15,216 on the basis of age, gender, playing duration, and theoretical loss (i.e., the amount of money wagered multiplied by the payout percentage of a specific game played. The results showed that online gamblers receiving personalized feedback spent significantly less time and money gambling compared to controls that did not receive personalized feedback. The results suggest that responsible gambling tools providing personalized feedback may help the clientele of gambling companies gamble more responsibly, and may be of help those who gamble excessively to stay within their personal time and money spending limits.

  12. [Sociodemographic Traits and Comorbidities in Pathological Gamblers With a Suicide Attempt in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdura-Vizcaíno, Ernesto José; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Vian-Lains, Antonio; Ibañez, Ángela; Baca-García, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is the first cause of non-natural death in Spain. Among addictive disorders, pathological gambling is one the most significant independent risk factors for suicidal behavior. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the sociodemographic traits, comorbidity and attempt characteristics, between suicide attempters who fulfill diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling and those who do not. A total of 345 patients admitted to the emergency department of a University Hospital in Madrid between 1999 and 2004 were interviewed for this study. To describe and compare the demographic characteristics, comorbidity and those related to attempted suicide, using logistic regression models adjusted for sex and age were used. Suicide attempters who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling were predominantly male, with a low education level, and had more offspring. Furthermore, these patients had more comorbidities, such as: global substance dependence, nicotine, cocaine and opioid dependence. The present study suggests that pathological gamblers represent a distinct subgroup among suicide attempters, with particular characteristics, similar to those found in pathological gamblers in the general population. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Gambling and problem gambling among recently sentenced male prisoners in four New Zealand prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Max W; McKenna, Brian G; Giles, Lynne C

    2005-01-01

    Recently sentenced inmates in four New Zealand male prisons (N = 357) were interviewed to assess their gambling involvement, problem gambling and criminal offending. Frequent participation in and high expenditure on continuous forms of gambling prior to imprisonment were reported. Nineteen percent said they had been in prison for a gambling-related offence and most of this offending was property-related and non-violent. On the basis of their SOGS-R scores, 21% were lifetime probable pathological gamblers and 16% were probable pathological gamblers during the six months prior to imprisonment. Of the "current" problem gamblers, 51% reported gambling-related offending and 35% had been imprisoned for a crime of this type. Gambling-related offending increased with problem gambling severity. However, only five percent of problem gamblers said their early offending was gambling-related. The large majority reported other types of offending at this time. Few men had sought or received help for gambling problems prior to imprisonment or during their present incarceration. This highlights the potential for assessment and treatment programs in prison to reduce recidivism and adverse effects of problem gambling and gambling-related offending.

  14. The relationship between alcohol consumption, gambling behaviour and problem gambling during a single visit to a gambling venue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Francis; Young, Martin; Doran, Bruce

    2012-09-01

    Despite the well-documented comorbidity between disordered alcohol use and problem gambling, little is known about the co-occurrence of drinking and gambling in gambling venues. This paper appears to be the first to investigate the association between drinking and gambling behaviour among a large sample of gamblers during a specific, non-laboratory gambling episode. We conducted a mail survey of all available households in the Northern Territory of Australia, including questions on drinking and gambling behaviour on the last visit to a gambling venue. We estimate the effect of moderate (1-4 standard drinks) and risky (>4 standard drinks) alcohol consumption on gambling participation and gambling duration for both problem and non-problem gamblers using regression analysis of 7044 survey responses. The probability of participating in electronic gaming machine (EGM) gambling decreased with alcohol consumption for non-problem gamblers, while the probability of participating in TAB (Totalisator Agency Board, off-course totalisator) gambling increased with risky alcohol consumption for all gamblers. Alcohol consumption was not associated with EGM gambling participation for problem gamblers. Moderate alcohol consumption was negatively associated with EGM gambling duration, with a stronger effect observed for problem gamblers. Moderate alcohol consumption is inversely correlated with both the duration of play and probability of participation for EGM gambling. Current laboratory studies do not predict the drinking-gambling behaviour of the general population in non-laboratory settings. Future research on alcohol and gambling co-occurrence must explicitly consider the drinking and gambling environment in order to produce policy-relevant findings. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. The intergenerational transmission of problem gambling: The mediating role of parental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Shandley, K; Oldenhof, E; Youssef, G J; Thomas, S A; Frydenberg, E; Jackson, A C

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated the intergenerational transmission of problem gambling and the potential mediating role of parental psychopathology (problem drinking, drug use problems, and mental health issues). The study comprised 3953 participants (1938 males, 2015 females) recruited from a large-scale Australian community telephone survey of adults retrospectively reporting on parental problem gambling and psychopathology during their childhood. Overall, 4.0% [95%CI 3.0, 5.0] (n=157) of participants reported paternal problem gambling and 1.7% [95%CI 1.0, 2.0] (n=68) reported maternal problem gambling. Compared to their peers, participants reporting paternal problem gambling were 5.1 times more likely to be moderate risk gamblers and 10.7 times more likely to be problem gamblers. Participants reporting maternal problem gambling were 1.7 times more likely to be moderate risk gamblers and 10.6 times more likely to be problem gamblers. The results revealed that the relationships between paternal-and-participant and maternal-and-participant problem gambling were significant, but that only the relationship between paternal-and-participant problem gambling remained statistically significant after controlling for maternal problem gambling and sociodemographic factors. Paternal problem drinking and maternal drug use problems partially mediated the relationship between paternal-and-participant problem gambling, and fully mediated the relationship between maternal-and-participant problem gambling. In contrast, parental mental health issues failed to significantly mediate the transmission of gambling problems by either parent. When parental problem gambling was the mediator, there was full mediation of the effect between parental psychopathology and offspring problem gambling for fathers but not mothers. Overall, the study highlights the vulnerability of children from problem gambling households and suggests that it would be of value to target prevention and intervention

  16. All for the Winner: An Analysis of the Characterization of Male Gamblers in Hong Kong Movies with Gambling Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chi Chuen; Ohtsuka, Keis

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the characterization of male gamblers in popular Hong Kong movies in the past 50 years. A total of nine Hong Kong films with gambling themes were selected for analysis. The criteria for selection of the films were as follows: the movies in which the protagonists are portrayed by well known Hong Kong actors that…

  17. Impulsivity as a Moderator and Mediator between Life Stress and Pathological Gambling among Chinese Treatment-Seeking Gamblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-kum; Wu, Anise M. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of impulsivity and its interplay with gambling correlates in influencing the severity of pathological gambling in Chinese societies. It also investigated the extent to which impulsivity would moderate and/or mediate the relationship between life stress and pathological gambling in 94 Chinese treatment-seeking gamblers.…

  18. Characteristics of Internet Gamblers among a Sample of Students at a Large, Public University in Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shead, N. Will; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Fong, Timothy W.; Gupta, Rina

    2012-01-01

    There is a current lack of descriptive information on college students who gamble on the Internet. With the increasing popularity of Internet gambling, this study aimed to better understand the profile of Internet gamblers among a sample of college students. Of 909 students at the University of California-Los Angeles who completed an online…

  19. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Report 1. Baseline Studies. Volume II. The Fish, Mammals, and Waterfowl of Lake Conway, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    reduced. b. White amur recycle nutrients bound in aquatic macrophytes , possibly increasing the nutrient level in the water so that problems of... eutrophication , plankton blooms, and filamentous algae are aggravated. c. Sport fish population production may decline due to sim- ple displacement, direct...level fluctuations, seasonal succession of aquatic macrophytes , water quality, physical alterations, and other factors. Of course in some instances

  20. White Ring; White ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H.; Yuzawa, H. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    White Ring is a citizen`s gymnasium used for figure skating and short track speed skating games of 18th Winter Olympic Games in 1998. White Ring is composed of a main-arena and a sub-arena. For the main-arena with an area 41mtimes66m, an ice link can be made by disengaging the potable floor and by flowing brine in the bridged polystyrene pipes embedded in the concrete floor. Due to the fortunate groundwater in this site, well water is used for the outside air treatment energy in 63% during heating and in 35% during cooling. Ammonia is used as a cooling medium for refrigerating facility. For the heating of audience area in the large space, heat load from the outside is reduced by enhancing the heat insulation performance of the roof of arena. The audience seats are locally heated using heaters. For the White Ring, high quality environment is realized for games through various functions of the large-scale roof of the large space. Success of the big event was expected. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Assessment of Problem Gambling in a Chinese Context: The Chinese G-MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a severe lack of instruments to assess problem gambling in Chinese people. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Maroondah Assessment Profile for Problem Gambling (Chinese G-MAP, based on the responses of eight problem gamblers and 125 pathological gamblers seeking help from a problem gambling treatment center. Reliability analyses showed that the G-MAP and its related domains and scales were generally internally consistent. There are also several lines of evidence suggesting that the Chinese G-MAP and the various domains are valid: (a the various G-MAP domain and scale measures were significantly correlated among themselves, (b the G-MAP measures were significantly correlated with pathological gambling behavior assessed by the 4th Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, and (c the G-MAP total scale and domain measures were able to discriminate problem gamblers and pathological gamblers. The present study suggests that the Chinese G-MAP possesses acceptable psychometric properties that can be used in research and practice settings.

  2. A Literature Review-Problem Definition Studies on Selected Toxic Chemicals. Volume 1. Occupational Health and Safety Aspects of Diesel Fuel and White Smoke Generated from It

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    chemical analysis as well as toxico - logical investigations of white smoke inhalation, and skin contact, feeding and metabolism of diesel fuel with...research include chemical analysis as well as toxico -logical investigations of white smoke inhalation, and skin contact, feeding and metabolism of

  3. A Preliminary Investigation into Motivational Factors Associated with Older Adults' Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Dave; Clarkson, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the relative importance of older problem gamblers' motives for gambling. A questionnaire consisting of demographic items, questions about gambling behavior, the past year Revised South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS-R), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Gambling Motivation Scale (GMS), was completed by a…

  4. Correlates of at-risk/problem internet gambling in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N.; Wareham, Justin D.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Desai, Rani A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The internet represents a new and widely available forum for gambling. However, relatively few studies have examined internet gambling in adolescents. This study sought to investigate the correlates of at-risk or problem gambling amongst adolescents acknowledging or denying gambling on the internet. Method Survey data from 2,006 Connecticut high-school-student gamblers were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression analyses. Results At-risk/problem gambling was found more frequently in adolescent internet gamblers than in non-internet gamblers. As compared to at-risk/problem gambling in the non-internet gambling group, at-risk/problem gambling in the internet gambling group was more strongly associated with poor academic performance and substance use (particularly current heavy alcohol use; odds ratio=2.99; p=0.03) and less strongly associated with gambling with friends (odds ratio=0.32; p=0.0003). At-risk/problem gambling in both the internet and non-internet gambling groups, respectively, was associated at pgambling, particularly as adolescent at-risk/problem internet gambling appears specifically associated with non-peer involvement, heavy alcohol use and poor academic functioning. PMID:21241952

  5. Drinking context and drinking problems among black, white, and Hispanic men and women in the 1984, 1995, and 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaronga, Dan; Greenfield, Thomas K; McDaniel, Patricia A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the preferred drinking contexts of different gender and ethnic groups (white, black, and Hispanic men and women), by examining where these groups do most of their drinking and to what extent drinking contexts preferences are associated with certain drinking-related consequences. The study used data from the 1984, 1995, and 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Surveys. Among current drinkers, cluster analyses of volume drunk in six contexts (restaurants, bars, others' parties, or when spending a quiet evening at home, having friends drop over at home, and hanging out in public places) were used to classify individuals by their drinking context preferences in each gender by ethnicity subgroup. We identified three highly similar drinking context-preference clusters within each of the six subgroups: (1) bar-plus group (did most drinking in bars, plus much in other venues), (2) home group (did most drinking at home, and a fair amount elsewhere), and (3) light group (drank almost nothing quietly at home and also less in other settings than the other two clusters). For a number of ethnic-by-gender groups, context preference group assignment predicted drinking-related problems, over and above general drinking patterns. For example, for all groups, the bar-plus preference group relative to the light group showed higher risk of arguments, fighting, and drunk driving, after taking into account the volume consumed, frequency of heavy drinking, age, and year of survey. Examining individuals' preferred drinking contexts may provide important information to augment overall drinking patterns in risk and prevention studies.

  6. Gambling, violent behaviour and attitudes towards violence among adolescent gamblers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Räsänen Tiina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - The purpose of this population-based study was to explore the relationship between gambling and violent behaviour and attitudes towards violence among 14- and 16-year-old adolescents. DESIGN - A national survey was conducted in Finland in 2011. The main measures in our study were gambling frequency and number of reported gambling-related harms. Their associations with violent behaviours and attitudes towards violence were studied using multinomial logistic regression and negative binomial regression. RESULTS - 47.1% of adolescents had gambled during the past six months and 13.2% of them had experienced gambling-related harms. Both gambling frequency and the number of gambling-related harms were linked to violent behaviour as well as to positive attitudes towards violence. Adolescents who engaged in gambling on a daily basis and/ or experienced gambling harms had the highest risk. CONCLUSIONS - Health promotion efforts among gamblers should take into account their increased risk for violent behaviour.

  7. Self-Generated Motives for Not Gambling Among Young Adult Non-gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, Christina L; McGrath, Daniel S

    2016-11-09

    Motivational models have been shown to usefully describe reasons for engaging in addictive behaviors including gambling disorder. Although most scales designed to measure motives have been derived statistically, self-generated open-ended responses have also shown utility for identifying unique motives for gambling. While the motivational structure for gambling disorder has been extensively explored, there has been a paucity of research examining motives for choosing not to gamble. This is not the case for other addictive behaviors such as alcohol use where motives for abstaining from drinking have been well defined. The primary goal of this study was to qualitatively explore and identify motives for not gambling in a sample of young adult non-gamblers using open-ended responses. A sample (N = 196) of undergraduate current non-gamblers, defined as no gambling activity over the previous 12 months, completed a series of questionnaires on demographics, gambling behavior, and alcohol consumption. Furthermore, they were asked to provide their top three reasons for not gambling in rank order. The results revealed eight specific motives for why participants chose not to gamble: 'financial reasons and risk aversion'; 'disinterest and other priorities'; 'personal and religious convictions'; 'addiction concerns'; 'influence of others' values'; 'awareness of the odds'; 'lack of access, opportunity, or skill'; and 'emotional distress'. Personal and religious convictions reasons were also related to lifetime non-drinking, suggesting that these motives are associated with decreased addictive behaviors in general. Ultimately, these results may help to inform the design of prevention strategies for gambling disorder.

  8. Modafinil increases reward salience in a slot machine game in low and high impulsivity pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Kelly; Desmond, Renée C; Poulos, Constantine X; Zack, Martin

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the effects of modafinil (200 mg) on slot machine betting profiles from a previous sample of low and high impulsivity (LI/HI) pathological gamblers (10/Group; Zack and Poulos, 2009). Hierarchical regression assessed the prospective relationship between Payoff and Bet Size on consecutive trials, along with moderating effects of Group, Cumulative Winnings (low/high) and Phase of game (early/late) under drug and placebo. Y intercepts for the simple regressions of Bet Size on Payoff indexed overall motivation to bet. Under placebo, both groups gauged their bets less closely to the preceding Payoff as trials continued when Winnings were low but not high. Under modafinil, both groups gauged their bets more closely to the preceding Payoff when Winnings were low but gauged their bets less closely to the previous Payoff when Winnings were high. The tendency to gauge bets closely to the previous Payoff coincided with a bias toward low overall Bet Size, and modafinil accentuated this relationship, in LI but not HI subjects. Results suggest that modafinil increases the salience of environmental rewards, leading to more tightly calibrated responses to individual rewards when resources are low, but progressively loosens reward-response calibration when resources are high. Increased relative impact of phasic vs. tonic dopamine signals may account for patterns seen at low vs. high Winnings, respectively, under the drug. Clinically, modafinil may deter pathological gamblers from chasing losses but also encourage them to continue betting rather than quit while they are ahead. Whether low-dose modafinil confers more uniform benefits deserves investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Updates of the prevalence of problem gambling in Romanian teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, Viorel; Todirita, Izabela Ramona

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to find out what is the prevalence of pathological in Romanian teenagers. We questioned one thousand thirty-two teenagers in Cluj-Napoca and Harghita counties. Participants completed a questionnaire with 40 items including gamblers anonymous twenty questions. The sample included teenagers aged 11-19 years; 65.57% were male and 34.43% were female. The subjects were divided into three groups: non-gambling/recreational gambling or occasional gambling (0-1 positive answers -Level 1)-753 subjects (72.96%) [316 females and 437 males]; problem gambling (2-6 points-Level 2)-243 subjects (23.54%) [43 females and 200 males]; pathological gambling (above 7 points-Level 3)-36 subjects (3.48%) [3 females and 33 males]. The mean age of pathological gamblers was 16.48 years. Gender differences were as expected, males engaging in pathological gambling (91.66% from pathological gamblers) more than females did (8.33% from pathological gamblers). Data revealed that the most encountered games practiced weekly were sport bets and slot machines in the case of 36.11% of the pathological gamblers; lotto, internet casino and pool bets each with 25%, followed by roulette and black-jack with 22.22%.From those who reported practicing gambling at a pathological level 66.66% engaged in alcohol consumption, 13.88% illicit drug use and 19.44% licit drugs. Just 16.66% smoke cigarettes. Data revealed higher rates of prevalence in Romanian teenagers than in other Central and Eastern European countries. A prevalence study at a national level should be designed.

  10. Cultural influences on stigmatization of problem gambling: East Asian and Caucasian canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Jasmin; Horch, Jenny D; Hodgins, David C

    2011-12-01

    Cultural influences on problem gambling stigma were examined using a between subject vignette study design. Students of East Asian (n = 64) and Caucasian (n = 50) ancestry recruited from a Canadian University rated a vignette describing either an East Asian problem gambler or a Caucasian problem gambler on a measure of attitudinal social distance. In accordance with the hypothesis, a factorial ANOVA revealed that East Asian Canadians stigmatize problem gambling more than Caucasian Canadians. Moreover, East Asian participants stigmatized the East Asian individual described in the vignette more than they did the Caucasian individual. Individuals with gambling problems were generally not perceived as being dangerous. However, participants who perceived problem gambling as a dangerous condition wanted more social distance than those who did not perceive individuals with a gambling problem as dangerous.

  11. White lies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erat, S.; Gneezy, U.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we distinguish between two types of white lies: those that help others at the expense of the person telling the lie, which we term altruistic white lies, and those that help both others and the liar, which we term Pareto white lies. We find that a large fraction of participants are

  12. Assessing the Relationship between Disordered Gamblers with Psychosis and Increased Gambling Severity: The Mediating Role of Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun S; Cassetta, Briana D; Hodgins, David C; Tomfohr-Madsen, Lianne M; McGrath, Daniel S; Tavares, Hermano

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that disordered gambling and psychosis co-occur at higher rates than expected in the general population. Gamblers with psychosis also report greater psychological distress and increased gambling severity. However, the mechanism by which psychosis leads to greater gambling symptomology remains unknown. The objective of the present research was to test whether impulsivity mediated the relationship between comorbid psychosis and gambling severity. The sample consisted of 394 disordered gamblers voluntarily seeking treatment at a large university hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. A semistructured clinical interview (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview) was used to diagnosis the presence of psychosis by registered psychiatrists. Severity of gambling symptoms was assessed using the Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 provided a measure of impulsivity. Of the sample, 7.2% met diagnostic criteria for psychosis. Individuals with a dual diagnosis of psychosis did not report greater gambling severity. Conversely, dual diagnoses of psychosis were associated with greater levels of impulsivity. Higher levels of impulsivity were also associated with greater gambling severity. Importantly, support for our hypothesised mediation model was found such that impulsivity mediated the association between disordered gambling and psychosis and gambling severity. Impulsivity appears to be a transdiagnostic process that may be targeted in treatment among disordered gamblers with a dual diagnosis of psychosis to reduce problematic gambling behaviours.

  13. The Application of an Etiological Model of Personality Disorders to Problem Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meredith; Allen, J Sabura; Dowling, Nicki A

    2015-12-01

    Problem gambling is a significant mental health problem that creates a multitude of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and social difficulties. Recent empirical evidence suggests that personality disorders, and in particular borderline personality disorder (BPD), are commonly co-morbid with problem gambling. Despite this finding there has been very little research examining overlapping factors between these two disorders. The aim of this review is to summarise the literature exploring the relationship between problem gambling and personality disorders. The co-morbidity of personality disorders, particularly BPD, is reviewed and the characteristics of problem gamblers with co-morbid personality disorders are explored. An etiological model from the more advanced BPD literature-the biosocial developmental model of BPD-is used to review the similarities between problem gambling and BPD across four domains: early parent-child interactions, emotion regulation, co-morbid psychopathology and negative outcomes. It was concluded that personality disorders, in particular BPD are commonly co-morbid among problem gamblers and the presence of a personality disorder complicates the clinical picture. Furthermore BPD and problem gambling share similarities across the biosocial developmental model of BPD. Therefore clinicians working with problem gamblers should incorporate routine screening for personality disorders and pay careful attention to the therapeutic alliance, client motivations and therapeutic boundaries. Furthermore adjustments to therapy structure, goals and outcomes may be required. Directions for future research include further research into the applicability of the biosocial developmental model of BPD to problem gambling.

  14. Increased ventral-striatal activity during monetary decision making is a marker of problem poker gambling severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevers, Damien; Noël, Xavier; He, Qinghua; Melrose, James A; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of different neural systems on monetary decision making in frequent poker gamblers, who vary in their degree of problem gambling. Fifteen frequent poker players, ranging from non-problem to high-problem gambling, and 15 non-gambler controls were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). During IGT deck selection, between-group fMRI analyses showed that frequent poker gamblers exhibited higher ventral-striatal but lower dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal activations as compared with controls. Moreover, using functional connectivity analyses, we observed higher ventral-striatal connectivity in poker players, and in regions involved in attentional/motor control (posterior cingulate), visual (occipital gyrus) and auditory (temporal gyrus) processing. In poker gamblers, scores of problem gambling severity were positively associated with ventral-striatal activations and with the connectivity between the ventral-striatum seed and the occipital fusiform gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus. Present results are consistent with findings from recent brain imaging studies showing that gambling disorder is associated with heightened motivational-reward processes during monetary decision making, which may hamper one's ability to moderate his level of monetary risk taking. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Postindustrial Capitalism and the Problems with Bourdieu's Social and Cultural Capital in Understanding the Black/White Achievement Gap in the United States and United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocombe, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    This hermeneutical essay demonstrates why and how Pierre Bourdieu's social reproduction theory is neither an adequate explanation for understanding praxis nor the Black/White academic achievement gap in contemporary postindustrial economies like that of the United States and the United Kingdom. The underlining hypothesis of the work is that the…

  16. A Multilevel Examination of Racial Disparities in High School Discipline: Black and White Adolescents' Perceived Equity, School Belonging, and Adjustment Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottiani, Jessika H.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Mendelson, Tamar

    2017-01-01

    National data have shown for decades that Black students experience more frequent and severe disciplinary actions that remove them from school (e.g., suspension), compared with their White peers. Despite extensive research documenting the sequelae associated with suspension (e.g., school drop-out and delinquency), there has been relatively scant…

  17. [Association of skin problems with coat colour and white markings in three-year-old horses of the Franches-Montagnes breed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, M; Gerber, V; Doherr, M G; Klopfenstein, S; Burger, D

    2015-07-01

    In the last 30 years the amount of white markings in the population of Franches-Montagnes horses (FM) has more than doubled which has led to some controversy, particularly in respect to the health of the horses. The objective of this study was to investigate if the coat colour and white markings have an impact on selected skin diseases and hoof horn abnormalities. To this purpose 974 three-year-old FM were subjected to a clinical examination during the field and station tests organized by the FM breeding association. In 16.9% of the horses, one or several equine sarcoids were detected, 15.2% of the horses showed clinical signs of pastern dermatitis, 1.1% of insect bite hypersensitivity and 18.0% of dermatitis of other aetiology. Abnormalities of the hoof horn were found in 20.1% of the horses. The prevalence of pastern dermatitis was 2.6 times higher in legs with white markings than in legs with pigmented skin (p <0.0001). The probability ofsuffering from sunburn and hoof horn of lesser quality was increased in animals with an elevated white marking index (WAI; p = 0.022 and p = 0.038), on the other hand, horses with sarcoids had a significantly lower WAI than sound horses (p = 0.038). Our study shows that FM horses with more pronounced white markings have an increased risk to suffer from pastern dermatitis, sunburns and hoof horn abnormalities. The coat colour was not associated with skin diseases.

  18. A Cross Sectional Study of Problem and Pathological Gambling in Patients with Schizophrenia/Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rani A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Community data suggest frequent co-occurrence between schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder and problem gambling. However, gambling behaviors in large samples of patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder have not been systematically examined to date. Methods A sample of outpatient subjects (n=337) diagnosed with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder or schizoaffective disorder and treated in either a VA hospital or a local state mental health center was interviewed in order to examine the prevalence estimates and clinical correlates of problem and pathological gambling. Multinomial logistic regression models investigated clinically relevant measures in recreational or problem/pathological gamblers, as compared to non-gamblers. Results Sixty-five participants (19%) met criteria for past-year problem/pathological gambling, with 10% meeting criteria for pathological gambling. Significant correlates of problem and pathological gambling from multivariable models included greater alcohol use severity (p=0.007), higher depression scores (p=0.04), and more outpatient mental health care utilization (p=0.03). Participants with problem/pathological gambling were more likely than recreational gamblers to gamble for excitement, gamble more frequently and heavily, and report either sports or card gambling as favorite. Conclusions A substantial proportion of individuals in treatment for psychotic disorders report past-year gambling problems. Patients with co-occurring alcohol use problems and depression may be at particularly high risk. These findings suggest the need for improved prevention and treatment efforts related to problem/pathological gambling in individuals with psychotic disorders. PMID:19538900

  19. Problem gambling in adolescents: an examination of the pathways model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rina; Nower, Lia; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Blaszczynski, Alex; Faregh, Neda; Temcheff, Caroline

    2013-09-01

    This research tests the applicability of the Integrated Pathways Model for gambling to adolescent problem gamblers, utilizing a cross-sectional design and self-report questionnaires. Although the overall sample consisted of 1,133 adolescents (Quebec: n = 994, 87.7 %; Ontario: n = 139, 12.3 %: Male = 558, 49.5 %; Female = 569, 50.5 %), only problem gamblers were retained in testing the model (N = 109). Personality and clinical features were assessed using the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory, attention deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) using the Conners-Wells' Adolescent Self-Report Scale, and the DSM-IV-MR-J and Gambling Activities Questionnaire to determine gambling severity and reasons for gambling. Latent class analysis concluded 5 classes, yet still provided preliminary support for three distinct subgroups similar to those proposed by the Pathways Model, adding a depression only subtype, and a subtype of problem gamblers experiencing both internalizing and externalizing disorders. ADHD symptoms were found to be common to 4 of the 5 classes.

  20. Gambling and gambling-related problems in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleur, Marc

    2015-12-01

    To provide an overview of the gambling landscape and gambling-related problems in France, including the history, legislation, gambling policy and epidemiological data on excessive gambling. A literature review, using Medline, PsycInfo and Toxibase/OFDT databases, based on the systematic monitoring of scientific literature since 2008 (including French and international papers). Since 1776 and the creation of the royal lottery, state monopoly has been the main pillar of gambling policy in France. Increases in gambling venues and opportunities, growing evidence of gambling-related problems, pressures from the European Commission and the growth of on-line gambling have led to major changes in this policy: while land-based gambling remains mainly in the form of a state monopoly, on-line gambling was partially liberalized in 2010, and regulation authorities were established. The first epidemiological survey was conducted in 2010. Rates of problematic gambling in France are within the average of other European countries. Treatment has begun to be made available within addiction centres. A majority of on-line gamblers in France use legal websites, which was one of the initial goals of liberalization. Recent studies confirm that the prevalence of problem gambling in France is far higher among on-line gamblers than among land-based gamblers; however, this difference cannot be attributed only to greater addictiveness of on-line gambling. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Separate and combined effects of anxiety, depression and problem drinking on subjective health among black, hispanic and non-hispanic white men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Although separate effects of anxiety and problem drinking were similar among race and ethnic groups, race and ethnicity seemed to modify the combined effects of different mental health problems. These results warrant further exploration of these complex links.

  2. The Problem of a Low Nest Occupancy of the White-Bellied Sea Eagle – a Special Case for This Species Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Khaleghizadeh

    2016-04-01

    (12 %, with medium potentiality (20 %, reserved (4 %, and active nest (1 %. Successful breeding was observed only in one nest that raised the problem of nest occupancy and this problem is discussed in this article.

  3. Neural correlates of proactive and reactive motor response inhibition of gambling stimuli in frequent gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevers, D; He, Q; Keller, B; Noël, X; Bechara, A

    2017-08-07

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether motivational-salient cues could exert a differential impact on proactive (the restrain of actions in preparation for stopping) and reactive (outright stopping) inhibition. Fourteen high-frequency poker players, and 14 matched non-gambler controls, performed a modified version of the stop-signal paradigm, which required participants to inhibit categorization of poker or neutral pictures. The probability that a stop-signal occurs (0%, 17%, 25%, 33%) was manipulated across blocks of trials, as indicated by the color of the computer screen. Behavioral analyses revealed that poker players were faster than controls in categorizing pictures across all levels of proactive motor response inhibition (go trials). Brain imaging analyses highlighted higher dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation in poker players, as compared to controls, during reactive inhibition. These findings suggest that, due to their faster rates of stimulus discrimination, poker players might have recruited more cognitive resources than controls when required to stop their response (reactive inhibition). Nevertheless, no main effect of stimulus type was found, on either proactive or reactive inhibition. Additional studies are, therefore, needed in order to confirm that investigating the dynamics between reactive and proactive inhibition offers a discriminative analysis of inhibitory control toward motivational-salient cues.

  4. Differential cardiovascular and hypothalamic pituitary response to amphetamine in male pathological gamblers versus healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Martin; Boileau, Isabelle; Payer, Doris; Chugani, Bindiya; Lobo, Daniela S; Houle, Sylvain; Wilson, Alan A; Warsh, Jerry J; Kish, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular and hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) disturbances have been observed in individuals who are pathological gamblers (PGs). These may partly derive from chronic exposure to gambling. Response to amphetamine (AMPH) may reveal such disturbances while controlling for differential conditioned responses to gambling in PGs vs healthy controls (HCs). This study assessed heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and plasma cortisol following oral AMPH (0.4 mg/kg) in male PGs (n=12) and HCs (n=11) who underwent a positron emission tomography (PET) scan. The Stop Signal Task enabled assessment of the link between physiological and behavioral dysregulation. Trait moderating effects were explored. The responses of PGs to AMPH differed from those of HCs on every index. PGs displayed persistent elevation in DBP and concomitant reduction in HR (i.e. baroreflex) compared to HCs beyond 90 min post-dose. PGs displayed deficits in cortisol compared to HCs that were partially reversed by AMPH. Impairment on the Stop Signal Task correlated positively with HR in controls, but negatively with HR in PGs, suggesting that strong initial and compensatory cardiac responses to a stimulant may each predict disinhibition. Extraversion predicted greater disinhibition in PGs. Noradrenergic disturbances may contribute to sensitized responses to stimulant challenge and disinhibition in PGs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Um jogador patológico por Dostoiévski A pathological gambler by Dostoyevsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Machado Vilhena Dias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O livro "O jogador" de Fiódor Dostoiévski narra um caso de jogo patológico bastante representativo. O percurso do personagem principal, Aleksei Ivanovitch, evidencia a dramática evolução do transtorno com três fases bem definidas: ganho, perdas e desespero. Partindo do conceito freudiano de narcisismo articulado aos conceitos da psicologia do self de Heinz Kohut, das teorias de Donald Winnicott e Wilfred Bion, serão discutidas as contribuições da psicanálise para a compreensão do jogo patológico.Dostoyevsky's book, "The gambler," describes a representative case of pathological gambling. The history of the main character, Aleksei Ivanovitch, shows the typical evolution of the disorder in three well defined phases: profits, losses and despair. Based on Freud's concept of narcissism and the concepts of the self psychology by Heinz Kohut, Donald Winnicott and Wilfred Bion, the contributions of psychoanalysis to the understanding of pathological gambling are discussed.

  6. Chorioallantoic membrane assays have been based on diffusion control--problems arising with a diversity of mass transfers in egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chiu-Lan; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Lin, Li-Yun; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Peng, Robert Y

    2009-01-01

    The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays have been intensively used to determine angiogenesis and anti-angiogenesis of medicines. In view of bioactivity, this technique should be performed with kinetic control regime in chicken embryos. Whether the dosages ever used had satisfied this requirement, we explored by mathematical analysis. A diffusion-in-egg model was established to describe several medicinal diffusions in egg white that involved the instantaneous transient kinetic behavior, the diffusion of medicines in capping volume (the volume from the air sac to the interface of egg yolk). By reviewing the diffusion of various compounds including the cited and the experimentals in this work, we conclude that all the CAM assays ever cited were performed under diffusion control regime rather than kinetic control, which may bring forth deviations caused by a diversity of constitutes in egg white through various medicine-protein interactions.

  7. A Meta-analytical Synthesis and Examination of Pathological and Problem Gambling Rates and Associated Moderators Among College Students, 1987-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Donald E

    2017-10-20

    The problem of gambling addiction is especially noteworthy among college students, many of whom have the resources, proximity, free time, and desire to become involved in the myriad options of gambling now available. Although limited attention has been paid specifically to college student gambling in the body of literature, there have been three published meta-analyses estimating the prevalence of probable pathological gambling among college students. The research presented is the largest and most comprehensive, presenting an up-to-date proportion of those students worldwide exhibiting gambling pathology as assessed by the South Oaks Gambling Screen, and is the first to include estimates of sub-clinical problem gambling. A thorough literature review and coding procedure resulted in 124 independent data estimates retrieved from 72 studies conducted between 1987 and the present, surveying 41,989 university students worldwide. The estimated proportion of probable pathological gamblers among students was computed at 6.13%, while the rate of problem gambling was computed at 10.23%. Statistical significance was found in the influence of the percentage of non-white students on pathological gambling rates. The implications of this and other moderator analyses such as age and year of studies, as well as recommendations for future practice in dealing with college students and gambling disorder on campus are outlined and described in detail. Suggestions and rationales for future avenues of research in the area are also described.

  8. Gender Differences in the Presentation of Observable Risk Indicators of Problem Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfabbro, Paul; Thomas, Anna; Armstrong, Andrew

    2017-05-11

    In many countries where gambling is legalised, there has been a strong public policy focus on the need for strategies to reduce gambling related harm. These have often included policies requiring staff in gambling venues to identify and/or assist people who might be experiencing gambling-related harm. To facilitate this process, researchers have developed visible behavioural indicators that might be used to profile potentially problematic gambling. Few of these studies have, however, examined whether such indicators or 'warning signs' might differ between men and women. In this study, we describe the results of an analysis of data drawn from 1185 fortnightly gamblers that included 338 problem gamblers as classified by the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Indicators of problem gambling were similar between males and females with a few key exceptions. Indicators reflecting emotional distress were more commonly reported by females with gambling problems, whereas problem gambling males were more likely to display aggressive behaviour towards gambling devices and others in the venue. Amongst males, signs of emotional distress as well as attempts to conceal their presence in venues from others most strongly differentiated between problem and non-problem gamblers. Amongst females, signs of anger, a decline in grooming and those attempts to access credit were the most distinguishing indicators. These findings have implications for the refinement of identification policies and practices.

  9. Problem gambling among international and domestic university students in Australia: who is at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan M; Thomas, Anna C; Kalé, Sudhir; Spence, Mark; Zlatevska, Natalina; Staiger, Petra K; Graffam, Joseph; Kyrios, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Young people are a high risk group for gambling problems and university (college) students fall into that category. Given the high accessibility of gambling in Australia and its association with entertainment, students from overseas countries, particularly those where gambling is restricted or illegal, may be particularly vulnerable. This study examines problem gambling and its correlates among international and domestic university students using a sample of 836 domestic students (286 males; 546 females); and 764 international students (369 males; 396 females) at three Australian universities. Our findings indicate that although most students gamble infrequently, around 5 % of students are problem gamblers, a proportion higher than that in the general adult population. Popular gambling choices include games known to be associated with risk (cards, horse races, sports betting, casino games, and gaming machines) as well as lotto/scratch tickets. Males are more likely to be problem gamblers than females, and almost 10 % of male international students could be classified as problem gamblers. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that male gender, international student status, financial stress, negative affect and frequency of gambling on sports, horses/dogs, table games, casino gaming machines, internet casino games and bingo all significantly predicted problem gambling. Results from this study could inform gambling-education programs in universities as they indicate which groups are more vulnerable and specify which games pose more risk of problem gambling.

  10. [The characteristics of pathological gambling patients: a study of 105 pathological gamblers treated at a psychiatric institution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kensuke

    2008-01-01

    Although pathological gambling has serious personal and societal consequences, little empirical research has been conducted on this subject in Japan. The purpose of this study was to more fully elucidate the characteristics of pathological gamblers in Japan. A retrospective examination of the medical records of 105 pathological gamblers (mean age: 38.9 years; male: 79%) treated at a psychiatric institution was performed. Several factors were analyzed: sociodemographics; gambling behavior and associated complications; family history; and childhood maltreatment. The mean educational duration was 12.8 years, 18% of the patients were divorced, and 23% were unemployed. Their high education and divorce rates were significantly greater than normal. Furthermore, 30% of the patients suffered from depression, 18% were alcoholics, 48% had a family history of mental illness (addiction, 32%; mood disorder, 12%), 38% grew up in dysfunctional families, and 54% started gambling when they were in their teens. Female patients started gambling significantly later than male patients, but there were no significant differences in the onset of their illness in relation to their duration of gambling between males and females. Over 20% of the patients had lost control over their gambling habits within 2 years of their starting to gamble. In addition, 91% of the patients played pachinko, a Japanese machine which is similar to a slot machine. Additionally, 95% of the patients had debts, and 34% had gone bankrupt. The total amount of debt owed was significantly correlated with the duration of this disorder. This study describes several characteristics of pathological gamblers in Japan. In particular, the author determined that many patients started gambling at a young age, and the duration of pathological gambling was significantly correlated with the amount of debt owed. These findings show the importance of the prevention and early detection of pathological gambling.

  11. Opioidergic and Dopaminergic Manipulation of Gambling Tendencies: a Preliminary Study in Male Recreational Gamblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline ePorchet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gambling is characterised by cognitive distortions in the processing of chance and skill that are exacerbated in pathological gambling. Opioid and dopamine dysregulation is implicated in pathological gambling, but it is unclear whether these neurotransmitters modulate gambling distortions. The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol on gambling behaviour. Male recreational gamblers (n=62 were assigned to receive single oral doses of naltrexone 50mg, haloperidol 2mg or placebo, in a parallel-groups design. At 2.5 hours post-dosing, participants completed a slot machine task to elicit monetary wins, ‘near-misses’, and a manipulation of personal choice, and a roulette game to elicit two biases in sequential processing, the gambler’s fallacy and the hot hand belief. Psychophysiological responses (electrodermal activity and heart rate were taken during the slot machine task, and plasma prolactin increase was assessed. The tasks successfully induced the gambling effects of interest. Some of these effects differed across treatment groups, although the direction of effect was not in line with our predictions. Differences were driven by the naltrexone group, which displayed a greater physiological response to wins, and marginally higher confidence ratings on winning streaks. Prolactin levels increased in the naltrexone group, but did not differ between haloperidol and placebo, implying that naltrexone but not haloperidol may have been functionally active at these doses. Our results support opioid modulation of cognition during gambling-like tasks, but did not support the more specific hypothesis that naltrexone may act to ameliorate cognitive distortions.

  12. Sociodemographic Correlates and Morbidity in Lottery Gamblers: Results from a Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Tang, Benjamin; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Picco, Louisa; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the socio-demographic correlates, the association of mental and physical illness, and the prevalence of pathological gambling among three groups (1) those with lottery gambling only (2) those with lottery and other types of gambling and (3) those with other types of gambling only-such as playing cards, sports betting, horse racing, casino gambling etc. Data was used from a nationwide cross-sectional epidemiological nationally representative survey of the resident (Singapore Citizens and Permanent Residents) population in Singapore of 6616 Singaporean adults aged 18 years and older. All respondents were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen to screen for pathological gambling. The diagnoses of mental disorders were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and relevant socio-demographic data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Lottery gambling was by far the most popular form of gambling in Singapore, with 83.5 % of those who had ever gambled indicating that they had participated in lottery gambling. Those who participated in lottery gambling alone were more likely to belong to the older age group (as compared to the 18-35 years age group), be of Indian ethnicity, have a secondary or vocational education, and earn a lower income as compared to the other two groups. Our findings that those with pure lottery gambling were significantly less likely to be pathological gamblers and had significantly lower odds of psychiatric and physical morbidity as compared to the other two groups are unique and need further research.

  13. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  14. Exposure therapy for problem gambling in rural communities: a program model and early outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Ben; Smith, David; Oakes, Jane

    2011-06-01

    Rural South Australia contains a higher share of electronic gaming machines and gambling expenditure per capita than metropolitan areas, raising concerns about the risk of problem gambling in these communities. This paper describes the implementation and outcomes of an outreach behavioural psychotherapy (exposure therapy) program for problem gambling in rural South Australia. A retrospective cohort study design was used for 551 adult treatment-seeking problem gamblers who presented to the Statewide Gambling Therapy Service in South Australia. Fifty-one gamblers were from rural areas and participated in the outreach program. Outcomes were compared between gamblers who participated in either the metropolitan-based or rural outreach program. Outcome measures used: South Oaks Gambling Screen, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, Work and Social Adjustment Scale, and hours gambled the previous month. Sixty-one per cent of clients (n = 551) completed treatment. There was no significant association between service location and number of treatment completers. Significant improvements were recorded across all outcome measures for both groups with small to large effect sizes, and there were no significant differences in outcomes at post-treatment between the groups while controlling for baseline scores. Both metropolitan and rural clients reported significant clinical improvement. Given the risk of problem gambling in rural communities, these early outcomes are encouraging. These findings will inform future treatment planning and service delivery for rural clients, and guide further research into the effectiveness of exposure therapy for problem gambling. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  15. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...... critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U...

  16. Gambling Participation and Problem Gambling Severity in a Stratified Random Survey: Findings from the Second Social and Economic Impact Study of Gambling in Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Darren R; Dowling, Nicki A; Jackson, Alun C; Thomas, Shane A

    2015-12-01

    Demographic characteristics associated with gambling participation and problem gambling severity were investigated in a stratified random survey in Tasmania, Australia. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted in March 2011 resulting in a representative sample of 4,303 Tasmanian residents aged 18 years or older. Overall, 64.8% of Tasmanian adults reported participating in some form of gambling in the previous 12 months. The most common forms of gambling were lotteries (46.5%), keno (24.3%), instant scratch tickets (24.3%), and electronic gaming machines (20.5%). Gambling severity rates were estimated at non-gambling (34.8%), non-problem gambling (57.4%), low risk gambling (5.3%), moderate risk (1.8%), and problem gambling (.7%). Compared to Tasmanian gamblers as a whole significantly higher annual participation rates were reported by couples with no children, those in full time paid employment, and people who did not complete secondary school. Compared to Tasmanian gamblers as a whole significantly higher gambling frequencies were reported by males, people aged 65 or older, and people who were on pensions or were unable to work. Compared to Tasmanian gamblers as a whole significantly higher gambling expenditure was reported by males. The highest average expenditure was for horse and greyhound racing ($AUD 1,556), double the next highest gambling activity electronic gaming machines ($AUD 767). Compared to Tasmanian gamblers as a whole problem gamblers were significantly younger, in paid employment, reported lower incomes, and were born in Australia. Although gambling participation rates appear to be falling, problem gambling severity rates remain stable. These changes appear to reflect a maturing gambling market and the need for population specific harm minimisation strategies.

  17. Representation of Gamblers in the Singaporean Press since C-A-S-I-N-O Legalization: A Corpus-driven Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Leung

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Capitalizing on the lack of gambling-related research among discourse analysts and the recent liberalization of C-A-S-I-N-O operations in Singapore, the present article reports on the discursive representation of gamblers in Singapore newspaper texts by merging corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis. 889 articles from the popular daily paper The Straits Times (Singapore were retrieved via LexisNexis in accordance with a series of criteria. The extracted texts, which were dated from 17 April 2005 to 28 April 2013, constitute the 615 827-word corpus of the current study. WordSmith Tools 6.0 was used to perform collocation analysis, which was enriched by critical examination of the concordance lines. The findings indicate that apart from gender stereotyping, social alienation is manifested in various ways while gamblers are being portrayed. For instance, the pronoun collocate ‘we’ of the node ‘gambler*’ tends to signify the non-gamblers’ voice which is geared towards the institutional stance. The verb collocate ‘say’ is frequently used in contexts where the gamblers are being commented upon or criticized. The analytic outcomes of the research have once again confirmed the ‘hegemonizing’ character of newspaper texts.

  18. A Longitudinal Empirical Investigation of the Pathways Model of Problem Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allami, Youssef; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Carbonneau, René; Lacourse, Éric; Tremblay, Richard E

    2017-12-01

    The pathways model of problem gambling suggests the existence of three developmental pathways to problem gambling, each differentiated by a set of predisposing biopsychosocial characteristics: behaviorally conditioned (BC), emotionally vulnerable (EV), and biologically vulnerable (BV) gamblers. This study examined the empirical validity of the Pathways Model among adolescents followed up to early adulthood. A prospective-longitudinal design was used, thus overcoming limitations of past studies that used concurrent or retrospective designs. Two samples were used: (1) a population sample of French-speaking adolescents (N = 1033) living in low socio-economic status (SES) neighborhoods from the Greater Region of Montreal (Quebec, Canada), and (2) a population sample of adolescents (N = 3017), representative of French-speaking students in Quebec. Only participants with at-risk or problem gambling by mid-adolescence or early adulthood were included in the main analysis (n = 180). Latent Profile Analyses were conducted to identify the optimal number of profiles, in accordance with participants' scores on a set of variables prescribed by the Pathways Model and measured during early adolescence: depression, anxiety, impulsivity, hyperactivity, antisocial/aggressive behavior, and drug problems. A four-profile model fit the data best. Three profiles differed from each other in ways consistent with the Pathways Model (i.e., BC, EV, and BV gamblers). A fourth profile emerged, resembling a combination of EV and BV gamblers. Four profiles of at-risk and problem gamblers were identified. Three of these profiles closely resemble those suggested by the Pathways Model.

  19. Impact of Internet gambling on problem gambling among adolescents in Italy: Findings from a large-scale nationally representative survey

    OpenAIRE

    Canale, N.; Griffiths, MD; Vieno, A.; Siciliano, V; Molinaro, S

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The primary aim of the present study was to understand the impact of online gambling on gambling problems in a large-scale nationally representative sample of Italian youth, and to identify and then further examine a subgroup of online gamblers who reported higher rates of gambling problems. Design: Data from the ESPAD®Italia2013 (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs) Study were used for analyses of adolescent Internet gambling. Setting: Self-administered questionna...

  20. Problem Gambling among Adolescent Girls in Croatia—The Role of Different Psychosocial Predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Huic; Dora Dodig Hundric; Valentina Kranzelic; Neven Ricijas

    2017-01-01

    Although, compared to boys, adolescent girls gamble less often and less problematically, prevalence studies still show significant numbers of at risk/problem gamblers among girls. However, girl gambling has been on the sidelines of adolescent gambling research. The available studies usually focus only on a narrow set of correlates often ignoring that adolescent gambling is a complex phenomenon determined by various factors. Also, they often measure gambling related consequences with instrumen...

  1. The Relationship Between Impulsivity And Problem Gambling In Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Secades-Villa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gambling has become one of the most frequently reported addictive behaviors among young people. Understanding risk factors associated with the onset or maintenance of gambling problems in adolescence has implications for its prevention and treatment. The main aim of the present study was to examine the potential relationships between impulsivity and problem gambling in adolescence. Participants were 874 high school students (average age: 15 years old who were surveyed to provide data on gambling and impulsivity. Self-reported gambling behavior was assessed using the South Oaks Gambling Screen – Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA and impulsivity was measured using the Impulsive Sensation Seeking Questionnaire (ZKPQ, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11-A, and a delay discounting task. The data were analyzed using both a prospective-longitudinal and a cross-sectional design. In the longitudinal analyses, results showed that the impulsivity subscale of the ZKPQ increased the risk of problem gambling (p =.003. In the cross-sectional analyses, all the impulsivity measures were higher in at-risk/problem gamblers than in non-problem gamblers (p = .04; .03 and .01 respectively. These findings further support the relationship between impulsivity and gambling in adolescence. Moreover, our findings suggest a bidirectional relationship between impulsivity and problem gambling in adolescence. These results have consequences for the development of prevention and treatment programs for adolescents with gambling problems.

  2. Problem gambling inside and out: the assessment of community and institutional problem gambling in the Canadian correctional system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nigel E; Preston, Denise L; McAvoy, Steven; Gillam, Laura

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports on the results of a multi-site survey of gambling behaviour and gambling problems amongst offenders in correctional institutions in Ontario, Canada, conducted between 2008 and 2011. A total of 422 (completion rate 61.5 %) incarcerated offenders (381 male and 41 female) took part in the study including 301 federal offenders and 121 provincial offenders. Based on the Problem Gambling Severity Index of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI/PGSI) the prevalence rate of severe problem gambling was 8.9 prior to incarceration and 4.4 % during incarceration. These numbers are substantially higher than rates found among the general public. Thirty-four percent of the sample reported gambling in prison. Half of those who suffered from gambling problems before incarceration continued to have gambling problems during incarceration. People with problems related to slot machines prior to incarceration reported fewer gambling problems during incarceration compared to other problem gamblers.

  3. Aberrant neural signatures of decision-making: Pathological gamblers display cortico-striatal hypersensitivity to extreme gambles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelskov, Sofie V; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Ramsøy, Thomas Z; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2016-03-01

    Pathological gambling is an addictive disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to gamble despite severe consequences. One of the hallmarks of pathological gambling is maladaptive and highly risky decision-making, which has been linked to dysregulation of reward-related brain regions such as the ventral striatum. However, previous studies have produced contradictory results regarding the implication of this network, revealing either hypo- or hypersensitivity to monetary gains and losses. One possible explanation is that the gambling brain might be misrepresenting the benefits and costs when weighting the potential outcomes, and not the gains and losses per se. To address this issue, we investigated whether pathological gambling is associated with abnormal brain activity during decisions that weight the utility of possible gains against possible losses. Pathological gamblers and healthy human subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they accepted or rejected mixed gain/loss gambles with fifty-fifty chances of winning or losing. Contrary to healthy individuals, gamblers showed a U-shaped response profile reflecting hypersensitivity to the most appetitive and most aversive bets in an executive cortico-striatal network including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus. This network is concerned with the evaluation of action-outcome contingencies, monitoring recent actions and anticipating their consequences. The dysregulation of this specific network, especially for extreme bets with large potentials consequences, offers a novel understanding of the neural basis of pathological gambling in terms of deficient associations between gambling actions and their financial impact. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Problem Gambling among Adolescent Girls in Croatia-The Role of Different Psychosocial Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huic, Aleksandra; Dodig Hundric, Dora; Kranzelic, Valentina; Ricijas, Neven

    2017-01-01

    Although, compared to boys, adolescent girls gamble less often and less problematically, prevalence studies still show significant numbers of at risk/problem gamblers among girls. However, girl gambling has been on the sidelines of adolescent gambling research. The available studies usually focus only on a narrow set of correlates often ignoring that adolescent gambling is a complex phenomenon determined by various factors. Also, they often measure gambling related consequences with instruments that are not specifically developed for use on adolescents. In order to contribute to a better understanding of adolescent gambling this study focuses on problem gambling among girls. We consider different social, cognitive, motivational and behavioral factors as predictors of girl problem gambling. A total of 1,372 high-school girls from 7 Croatian cities participated in the study. They provided data on their gambling activities, peer gambling, cognitive distortions related to gambling, motivation for gambling, and levels of general risky behavior. As the only instrument developed specifically for use on adolescents, the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory was used to examine adverse gambling consequences. Results show 7.4% of girls can be considered regular gamblers, and out of those who gambled at least once in their lifetime (n = 862), 11.2% already experience mild adverse consequences because of their gambling (at risk gamblers), with 3.2% experiencing serious consequences (problem gamblers). In general, girls seem to prefer lotto and scratch cards, but sports betting seems to be the preferred game of choice among regular girl gamblers. A hierarchical regression model confirmed the importance of much the same factors identified as risky for the development of problem gambling among adolescent boys-cognitive distortions, motives to earn money, to be better at gambling and to relax, the experiences of winning large and the drive to continue gambling, together with

  5. Problem Gambling among Adolescent Girls in Croatia—The Role of Different Psychosocial Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huic, Aleksandra; Dodig Hundric, Dora; Kranzelic, Valentina; Ricijas, Neven

    2017-01-01

    Although, compared to boys, adolescent girls gamble less often and less problematically, prevalence studies still show significant numbers of at risk/problem gamblers among girls. However, girl gambling has been on the sidelines of adolescent gambling research. The available studies usually focus only on a narrow set of correlates often ignoring that adolescent gambling is a complex phenomenon determined by various factors. Also, they often measure gambling related consequences with instruments that are not specifically developed for use on adolescents. In order to contribute to a better understanding of adolescent gambling this study focuses on problem gambling among girls. We consider different social, cognitive, motivational and behavioral factors as predictors of girl problem gambling. A total of 1,372 high-school girls from 7 Croatian cities participated in the study. They provided data on their gambling activities, peer gambling, cognitive distortions related to gambling, motivation for gambling, and levels of general risky behavior. As the only instrument developed specifically for use on adolescents, the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory was used to examine adverse gambling consequences. Results show 7.4% of girls can be considered regular gamblers, and out of those who gambled at least once in their lifetime (n = 862), 11.2% already experience mild adverse consequences because of their gambling (at risk gamblers), with 3.2% experiencing serious consequences (problem gamblers). In general, girls seem to prefer lotto and scratch cards, but sports betting seems to be the preferred game of choice among regular girl gamblers. A hierarchical regression model confirmed the importance of much the same factors identified as risky for the development of problem gambling among adolescent boys—cognitive distortions, motives to earn money, to be better at gambling and to relax, the experiences of winning large and the drive to continue gambling, together with

  6. Problem Gambling among Adolescent Girls in Croatia—The Role of Different Psychosocial Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Huic

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although, compared to boys, adolescent girls gamble less often and less problematically, prevalence studies still show significant numbers of at risk/problem gamblers among girls. However, girl gambling has been on the sidelines of adolescent gambling research. The available studies usually focus only on a narrow set of correlates often ignoring that adolescent gambling is a complex phenomenon determined by various factors. Also, they often measure gambling related consequences with instruments that are not specifically developed for use on adolescents. In order to contribute to a better understanding of adolescent gambling this study focuses on problem gambling among girls. We consider different social, cognitive, motivational and behavioral factors as predictors of girl problem gambling. A total of 1,372 high-school girls from 7 Croatian cities participated in the study. They provided data on their gambling activities, peer gambling, cognitive distortions related to gambling, motivation for gambling, and levels of general risky behavior. As the only instrument developed specifically for use on adolescents, the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory was used to examine adverse gambling consequences. Results show 7.4% of girls can be considered regular gamblers, and out of those who gambled at least once in their lifetime (n = 862, 11.2% already experience mild adverse consequences because of their gambling (at risk gamblers, with 3.2% experiencing serious consequences (problem gamblers. In general, girls seem to prefer lotto and scratch cards, but sports betting seems to be the preferred game of choice among regular girl gamblers. A hierarchical regression model confirmed the importance of much the same factors identified as risky for the development of problem gambling among adolescent boys—cognitive distortions, motives to earn money, to be better at gambling and to relax, the experiences of winning large and the drive to continue gambling

  7. The intersection of obesity and the longitudinal course of problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppink, Eric W; Fridberg, Daniel J; Redden, Sarah A; Grant, Jon E

    2016-12-30

    The purpose of this analysis was to assess the potential association between body mass index (BMI) and change in gambling symptom severity in a sample of non-treatment-seeking problem gamblers over a one year period. One-hundred sixty problem gamblers age 18-29 were recruited from the surrounding community and completed assessments of gambling behavior and related variables at baseline and one-year visits. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the association between BMI and symptom change, while accounting for nicotine use, gender, age, and baseline gambling severity. The sample included 102 normal weight, 35 overweight, and 23 obese gamblers. Groups differed in sex, age, gambling risk level, and current nicotine use. There was a significant obesity x baseline gambling risk level interaction for the model predicting changes in GD-YBOCS scores over the 1-year follow-up. Obese participants with gambling disorder showed significantly smaller improvements in symptoms over one year than normal weight participants. Results suggest that obesity predicts smaller improvements in gambling symptoms over time in those meeting criteria for gambling disorder. Future research should clarify the possible influence of impulsivity on this association, and assess the clinical utility of weight management programs in treatments for gambling disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A cross-sectional study of problem gambling and its correlates among college students in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sanju; Ts, Jaisoorya; Nair, Sivasankaran; Rani, Anjana; Menon, Priya; Madhavan, Revamma; Rajan, Jeevan Chakkandan; Radhakrishnan, Komath Sankaran; Jose, Vineeta; Benegal, Vivek; Thennarasu, K; Petry, Nancy M

    2016-05-01

    In the Western world, a significant portion of college students have gambled. College gamblers have one of the highest rates of problem gambling. To date, there have been no studies on gambling participation or the rates of problem gambling in India. This study evaluated the prevalence of gambling participation and problem gambling in college students in India. It also evaluated demographic and psychosocial correlates of gambling in that population. We surveyed 5784 college students from 58 colleges in the district of Ernakulam, Kerala, India, using cluster random sampling. Students completed questionnaires that addressed gambling, substance use, psychological distress, suicidality and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 5580 completed questionnaires were returned, and while only 1090 (19.5%) college students reported having ever gambled, 415 (7.4%) reported problem gambling. Lotteries were the most popular form of gambling. Problem gamblers in comparison with non-gamblers were significantly more likely to be male, have a part-time job, greater academic failures, higher substance use, higher psychological distress scores, higher suicidality and higher ADHD symptom scores. In comparison with non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers were significantly more likely to have greater academic failures, higher psychological distress scores, higher suicidality and higher ADHD symptom scores. This study, the first to look at the prevalence of gambling in India, found relatively low rates of gambling participation in college students but high rates of problem gambling among those who did gamble. Correlates of gambling were generally similar to those noted in other countries. Since 38% of college students who had gambled had a gambling problem, there is a need for immediate public health measures to raise awareness about gambling, and to prevent and treat problem gambling in this population. S.G. was (until October 2014) a member of the UK Responsible

  9. Me, Myself, and Money II: Relative Deprivation Predicts Disordered Gambling Severity via Delay Discounting, Especially Among Gamblers Who Have a Financially Focused Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabri, Nassim; Will Shead, N; Wohl, Michael J A

    2017-12-01

    In the current research, we examined whether the known link between relative deprivation and disordered gambling (via delay discounting; i.e., preferences for immediate smaller rewards relative to delayed larger rewards) is moderated by the extent to which gamblers have a financially focused self-concept. Specifically, we hypothesized that delay discounting would be a strong predictor of disordered gambling among those who base their self-worth on their financial success. To test this moderated-mediation model, a community sample of gamblers (N = 239) completed measures that assessed relative deprivation, delay discounting, financially focused self-concept, and disordered gambling severity. As predicted, people who felt more relative deprivation reported more severe symptoms of disordered gambling and this association was mediated by delay discounting. Importantly, this mediated relationship was moderated by the extent to which participants' self-concept was focused on financial success. Among participants whose self-concept was high in financial focus, greater delay discounting (stemming from relative deprivation) was a strong predictor of disordered gambling. Among people whose self-concept was low in financial focus, delay discounting (stemming from relative deprivation) was a weak predictor of disordered gambling. Thus, the magnitude of the indirect effect of relative deprivation on disordered gambling severity was larger among people with a more financially focused self-concept-an effect mediated by delay discounting. These findings suggest that targeting gamblers' financial focus in prevention and treatment interventions may be instrumental in curtailing the development and maintenance of disordered gambling.

  10. A test of social cognitive theory reciprocal and sequential effects: hope, superstitious belief and environmental factors among lottery gamblers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai; Chanchalermporn, Nathanat

    2007-06-01

    This study tested social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) hypotheses of reciprocal and sequential effects among person, environment variables and behavior. The study examined the impact of hope, superstitious belief and environmental factors on the frequency, amounts of lottery gambling and chasing of particular numbers among Thai lottery gamblers. One hundred and fifty gamblers who visited two temples in Bangkok to search for number clues before buying tickets and 150 gamblers who simply bought lottery tickets from the stalls were recruited for the study. Models were constructed to test the effect of hope, superstitious belief and environmental factors on gambling behavior, and the reciprocal effect of gambling behavior on hope, superstitious belief and environmental factors. Results confirmed the theoretical reciprocal effects. A sequential effect model showing the effects of environmental factors on superstitious belief, hope and gambling behavior was also constructed and hope was found to be the result of superstitious belief. To reduce lottery gambling, the players need to be warned of their distorted hope and the small chance of winning lottery.

  11. Patterns of Gambling Activities and Gambling Problems Among Italian High School Students: Results from a Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luigi, Nicola; Gibertoni, Dino; Randon, Emanuela; Scorcu, Antonello E

    2017-04-22

    This study aims to provide an estimate of the prevalence of gambling among Italian adolescents and a description of their patterns of gambling activities (PGAs) using a latent class analysis on 13 different types of games. A nationwide sample of 10,959 Italian high school students was recruited in 2013. We assessed problem gambling using the South Oaks Gambling Screen: Revisited for Adolescent (SOGS-RA) scale. Approximately half (50.6%) of students reported gambling at least once in the previous year; 5.0% of them were problem gamblers and 9.1% were at-risk gamblers according to their SOGS-RA scores. Eight PGAs were identified, among which heavy players (1.7% of students) could be classified as problem gamblers and broad skill players (2.0%) and lotteries & sports players (2.4%) as "at-risk" players. These high-risk classes were consistently associated with risky behaviours in terms of substance use, school performance, money spent on gambling and family environment; the other five classes identified low-risk players associated with safe behaviours. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to identify PGAs among Italian adolescents. Problem gamblers are not a homogeneous group in terms of patterns of gambling activities and are associated with different risk factors, among which environmental factors, such as parents' gambling attitude and behaviour, deserve special attention. The acknowledgment of such patterns and risk factors could be useful in developing sensible public policies addressing prevention strategies and regulatory instruments.

  12. Gambling Problems in the General Danish Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Jessen, Lasse J.; Lau, Morten

    We compare several popular survey instruments for measuring gambling behavior and gambling propensity to assess if they differ in their classification of individuals in the general adult Danish population. We also examine correlations with standard survey instruments for alcohol use, anxiety......, depression and impulsivity. A feature of our design is that nobody was excluded on the basis of their response to a “trigger,” “gateway” or “diagnostic item” question about previous gambling history. Our sample consists of 8,405 adult Danes. We administered the Focal Adult Gambling Screen to all subjects...... and estimate prevalence of gambling problems using sample weights and controlling for sample selection. We find that 95.4% of the population has no detectable risk, 2.9% has an early risk, 0.8% has an intermediate risk, 0.7% has an advanced risk, and 0.2% can be classified as problem gamblers...

  13. Throwing Icebergs at White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    Where do the metals come from that pollute the atmospheres of many white dwarfs? Close-in asteroids may not be the only culprits! A new study shows that distant planet-size and icy objects could share some of the blame.Pollution ProblemsArtists impression of rocky debris lying close around a white dwarf star. [NASA/ESA/STScI/G. Bacon]When a low- to intermediate-mass star reaches the end of its life, its outer layers are blown off, leaving behind its compact core. The strong gravity of this white dwarf causes elements heavier than hydrogen and helium to rapidly sink to its center in a process known as sedimentation, leaving an atmosphere that should be free of metallic elements.Therefore its perhaps surprising that roughly 2550% of all white dwarfs are observed to have atmospheric pollution by heavy elements. The short timescales for sedimentation suggest that these elements were added to the white dwarf recently but how did they get there?Bringing Ice InwardIn the generally accepted theory, pre-existing rocky bodies or an orbiting asteroid belt survive the stars evolution, later accreting onto the final white dwarf. But this scenario doesnt explain a few observations that suggest white dwarfs might be accreting larger planetary-size bodies and bodies with ices and volatile materials.Dynamical evolution of a Neptune-like planet (a) and a Kuiper belt analog object (b) in wide binary star systems. Both have large eccentricity excitations during the white dwarf phase. [Stephan et al. 2017]How might you get large or icy objects which would begin on very wide orbits close enough to a white dwarf to become disrupted and accrete? Led by Alexander Stephan, a team of scientists at UCLA now suggest that the key is for the white dwarf to be in a binary system.Influence of a CompanionIn the authors model, the white-dwarf progenitor is orbited by both a distant stellar companion (a common occurrence) and a number of large potential polluters, which could have masses between that

  14. Epidemiology of problem gambling in Prince Edward Island: a Canadian microcosm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, J P; Nicki, R M

    2001-06-01

    To gather information that describes the extent of gambling and problem gambling in Prince Edward Island (PEI), to rigorously analyze the relation between gambling activities and problem gambling, to document cognitive and emotional correlates of problem gambling, and to identify an at-risk gambling group. We selected a random, stratified sample (n = 809) to represent the adult population of PEI. We administered both the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) and an early version of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI) to participants who had gambled. The current rate of problem gambling was 3.1%. Problem gamblers were likely to be under age 30 years, to be single, and to report cognitive, emotional, and substance abuse correlates. Multiple-regression analysis identified a unique and substantial relation between problem gambling and video lottery terminal (VLT) use. We identified a group of at-risk gamblers (scoring 1 or 2 on the SOGS), comprising 14% of the sample. Gambling and problem gambling patterns in PEI resemble those in most other provinces. The relation found between problem gambling, VLT use, and cognitive, emotional, and substance use correlates should apply to the greater population as well.

  15. Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yansong eLi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs, we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs.

  16. Secondary spectrum usage in TV white space

    OpenAIRE

    Ruttik, Kalle

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the use of TV frequencies is exclusively license based with the area not covered by licensed TV transmitters being known as TV white space. In TV white space, the spectrum can be reused by a secondary user. This thesis studies how the TV white space can be used by a cellular system. The study addresses the problems of how the access to the spectrum is arranged, how the spectrum usage is constrained and how much capacity a secondary system will have. The access to TV white spac...

  17. The intergenerational transmission of at-risk/problem gambling: The moderating role of parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki A; Shandley, Kerrie A; Oldenhof, Erin; Affleck, Julia M; Youssef, George J; Frydenberg, Erica; Thomas, Shane A; Jackson, Alun C

    2017-10-01

    Although parenting practices are articulated as underlying mechanisms or protective factors in several theoretical models, their role in the intergenerational transmission of gambling problems has received limited research attention. This study therefore examined the degree to which parenting practices (positive parenting, parental involvement, and inconsistent discipline) moderated the intergenerational transmission of paternal and maternal problem gambling. Students aged 12-18 years (N = 612) recruited from 17 Australian secondary schools completed a survey measuring parental problem gambling, problem gambling severity, and parenting practices. Participants endorsing paternal problem gambling (23.3%) were 4.3 times more likely to be classified as at-risk/problem gamblers than their peers (5.4%). Participants endorsing maternal problem gambling (6.9%) were no more likely than their peers (4.0%) to be classified as at-risk/problem gamblers. Paternal problem gambling was a significant predictor of offspring at-risk/problem gambling after controlling for maternal problem gambling and participant demographic characteristics. The relationship between maternal problem gambling and offspring at-risk/problem gambling was buffered by parental involvement. Paternal problem gambling may be important in the development of adolescent at-risk/problem gambling behaviours and higher levels of parental involvement buffers the influence of maternal problem gambling in the development of offspring gambling problems. Further research is therefore required to identify factors that attenuate the seemingly greater risk of transmission associated with paternal gambling problems. Parental involvement is a potential candidate for prevention and intervention efforts designed to reduce the intergenerational transmission of gambling problems. (Am J Addict 2017;26:707-712). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  18. Psychotherapy of gambling — how to effectively treat gamblers? The effectivenes of applied therapeutic methods

    OpenAIRE

    Jelonkiewicz, Irena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to indicate efficacy of various psychological therapies for pathological and problem gambling. The literature on psychotherapy of gambling (1983–2012) was reviewed and particular attention carried out to meta-analysis studies during the period in question. The definition and the place of pathological gambling in the international classifications of diseases DSM-IV and ICD-10, and the prevalence of this disorder was briefly explained. This article provides information ...

  19. Gambling and problem gambling in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudriaan, Anna E

    2014-07-01

    To provide an overview of gambling in the Netherlands, focusing on historical background, policy, legislation, prevalence of problem gambling, availability of treatment options and research base. Literature review. Contradictions between gambling policy and practice have been present in the past 15-20 years, and have led to an increasingly stricter gambling regulation to retain the government policy to restrict gambling within a national monopoly. Conversely, political efforts have been made to legalize internet gambling, but have not yet been approved. Compared to other European countries, slot machine gambling and casino gambling are relatively popular, whereas betting is relatively unpopular. Last-year problem gambling prevalence (South Oaks Gambling Screen score > 5) is estimated at 0.22-0.15% (2005, 2011). Treatment for problem gambling is covered by health insurance under the same conditions as substance dependence, but only a small proportion of Dutch problem gamblers seeks help at addiction treatment centres. Gambling policy in the Netherlands has become stricter during recent last years in order to maintain the Dutch gambling monopoly. Problem gambling in the Netherlands is relatively stable. Dutch research on problem gambling has a lack of longitudinal studies. Most of the epidemiological gambling studies are reported in non-peer-reviewed research reports, which diminishes control by independent peers on the methodology and interpretation of results. Recent efforts to enhance consistency in research methods between gambling studies over time could enhance knowledge on changes in (problem) gambling in the Netherlands. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Psychological Vulnerability and Problem Gambling: The Mediational Role of Cognitive Distortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, David; Sévigny, Serge; Giroux, Isabelle; Jacques, Christian

    2018-01-03

    Despite numerous studies demonstrating the influence of cognitive distortions on gambling problem severity, empirical data regarding the role of psychological vulnerability on the latter is limited. Hence, this study assesses the mediating effect of cognitive distortions between psychological vulnerability (personality and mood), and gambling problem severity. It also verifies whether the relationships between these variables differs according to the preferred gambling activity. The sample is composed of 272 male gamblers [191 poker players; 81 video lottery terminal (VLT) players] aged between 18 and 82 years (M = 35.2). Bootstrap analysis results revealed that cognitive distortions mediate the effect of narcissism on gambling problem severity for both groups. The level of depression for VLT players significantly predicted gambling problem severity, both directly and indirectly via the mediating effect of cognitive distortions. Mediation analyses also indicated that narcissism had an indirect impact on problem gambling through cognitive distortions for both groups. These findings suggest that certain vulnerabilities related to personality and mood may influence cognitive distortion intensity and gambling problem severity. In addition, psychological vulnerabilities could differ based on preferred gambling activity. These results may be useful for prevention policies, identifying high risk gamblers and planning psychological interventions.

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Problem Gambling in a Representative Sample of Norwegian 17-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune A; Blaszczynski, Alex; Molde, Helge; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-09-01

    We report data collected in a representative sample of 17-year-old Norwegians to investigate prevalence rates of non-problem, risk, and problem gambling, as measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). In addition, we explored the importance of demographic, personality, motivational, social, and health variables explaining variance in adolescent gambling. Prevalence rates of risk and problem gambling were low but similar to those found in previous studies outside of Norway using the PGSI in adolescent samples. With regard to the relative importance of the various covariates, we found that motivational variables (future gambling intentions, attitudes toward gambling, and gambling-related knowledge) distinguished best between those who did not gamble, non-problem gamblers, and risk and problem gamblers. Furthermore, social variables were important covariates of adolescent gambling; significant associations were found for family and friends' approval of gambling, parental monitoring, father's level of education, and having relatives or friends with a history of a gambling disorder. We discuss possible reasons for differences between the covariates with regard to their importance for explaining adolescent gambling and address implications for future research.

  2. Alexithymia predicts loss chasing for people at risk for problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibby, Peter A; Ross, Katherine E

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between alexithymia and loss-chasing behavior in people at risk and not at risk for problem gambling. Methods An opportunity sample of 58 (50 males and 8 females) participants completed the Problem Gambling Severity Index and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). They then completed the Cambridge Gambling Task from which a measure of loss-chasing behavior was derived. Results Alexithymia and problem gambling risk were significantly positively correlated. Subgroups of non-alexithymic and at or near caseness for alexithymia by low risk and at risk for problem gambling were identified. The results show a clear difference for loss-chasing behavior for the two alexithymia conditions, but there was no evidence that low and at-risk problem gamblers were more likely to loss chase. The emotion-processing components of the TAS-20 were shown to correlate with loss chasing. Discussion and conclusion These findings suggest that loss-chasing behavior may be particularly prevalent in a subgroup of problem gamblers those who are high in alexithymia.

  3. Validity Study of the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS among distinct groups of Brazilian gamblers Estudo de validade da escala South Oaks Gambling Screen junto a grupos distintos de jogadores brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula MT Oliveira

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to assess the internal consistency and to perform a factor analysis of the Brazilian version of the SOGS - South Oaks Gambling Screen - scale, as well as its ability to discriminate between different profiles of gamblers. METHOD: Two hundred and seventeen subjects were enrolled in the study: 46 gamblers under treatment at the Gamblers Treatment Unit of PROAD - Program for Orientation and Attention of Dependent Persons- of the Federal University of São Paulo; 96 social gamblers and 75 subjects screened as pathological gamblers recruited at the local Jockey Club, video poker and bingo clubs. RESULTS: Differences in the score means of all three groups were statistically significant and were able to discriminate between social gamblers, pathological gamblers interviewed in a gambling site and the clinical sample. The internal consistency of the 20-item scale measured by Cronbach's alpha was 0.9304. Factor analysis resulted in a three-dimensional solution accounting for 58,6% of the total variance: a first factor composed mainly by questions related to the consequences of gambling; a second factor encompassing questions related to the gambling behavior of pathological gamblers; and a third and less expressive factor involving only two questions, probably a hybrid one of difficult interpretation. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the SOGS was a useful screen to discriminate Brazilian pathological gamblers from social gamblers as well as to differentiate clinical pathological from non-clinical pathological gamblers, and to identify different levels of severity.OBJETIVOS: O objetivo desse estudo é avaliar a consistência interna e a dimensionalidade da versão da South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS adaptada para uso em população brasileira e sua capacidade de discriminar diferentes tipos de jogadores. MÉTODO: O estudo envolveu 217 jogadores ¾ contatados no Jockey Clube de São Paulo, em casas de

  4. White Rabbit Status and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M; Beck, D; Hoffmann, J; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S; Terpstra, W W; Zweig, M

    2014-01-01

    The White Rabbit (WR) project started off to provide a sequencing and synchronisation solution for the needs of CERN and GSI. Since then, many other users have adopted it to solve problems in the domain of distributed hard realtime systems. The paper discusses the current performance of WR hardware, along with present and foreseen applications. It also describes current efforts to standardise WR under IEEE 1588 and recent developments on reliability of timely data distribution, finishing with an outline of future plans.

  5. Illusory control, gambling, and video gaming: an investigation of regular gamblers and video game players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Ejova, Anastasia; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2012-09-01

    There is a paucity of empirical research examining the possible association between gambling and video game play. In two studies, we examined the association between video game playing, erroneous gambling cognitions, and risky gambling behaviour. One hundred and fifteen participants, including 65 electronic gambling machine (EGM) players and 50 regular video game players, were administered a questionnaire that examined video game play, gambling involvement, problem gambling, and beliefs about gambling. We then assessed each groups' performance on a computerised gambling task that involved real money. A post-game survey examined perceptions of the skill and chance involved in the gambling task. The results showed that video game playing itself was not significantly associated with gambling involvement or problem gambling status. However, among those persons who both gambled and played video games, video game playing was uniquely and significantly positively associated with the perception of direct control over chance-based gambling events. Further research is needed to better understand the nature of this association, as it may assist in understanding the impact of emerging digital gambling technologies.

  6. Children of parent(s) who have a gambling problem: a review of the literature and commentary on research approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, P; Oster, C; Carrig, H

    2001-07-01

    Problem gambling is becoming an increasingly widespread and damaging social and health problem. As opportunities for gambling become more accessible, especially through lotteries and electronic gaming machines, it is likely that more people will develop serious gambling problems. Given the worldwide increasing spending on gambling activities and the increasing number of problem gamblers, it is unfortunate but likely that the children who grow up in problem gambling families will become an important area of concern for child health and social workers. Considerable research has been undertaken into problem gambling and the adult problem gambler, but within the gambling and child health literature there is almost no recognition of the experiences of children who live in problem-gambling families. Drawing on the findings of the landmark Productivity Commission Report, this review explores the marked increase in gambling and its social effects, especially from the Australian perspective. The damaging social effects of problem gambling on families and children are reviewed and the comparative invisibility of children and young people in such research is discussed. The pervasive influence of developmentalism is critiqued and highlighted in relation to the exclusion of children's perspectives from our research understandings. The review concludes by proposing that adoption of some of the emerging 'new paradigm' approaches to childhood and children's experiences could markedly enhance our understandings of the lives and experiences of this significant group of children and young people.

  7. Self-reported gambling problems and digital traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James G; Sargeant, James; Ogeil, Rowan P; Chow, Yang-Wai; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2014-12-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), lists concealment as one of the symptoms of a gambling disorder. However, some transactions are more likely to leave permanent records of gambling transactions (credit, consumer loyalty schemes) than others (cash, Internet cash, Internet cafes, prepaid phones). An online survey of 815 participants recruited through newspaper and online sites elicited consumer preferences for a variety of transactions and communication media. Hierarchical multiple regression accounted for age, gender, housing status, and involvement in gambling before considering relationships between consumer preferences and scores on the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Even after statistically allowing for the contributions of other variables, a greater risk of developing a gambling problem was associated with a preference for cash transactions, prepaid mobile phones, and Internet cafes. Problem gamblers may seek to reduce their digital trace.

  8. Vanishing White Matter Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In Memory Of Obituaries Contact Us Donate Vanishing White Matter Disease What is Vanishing White Matter Disease? ... of the genetic basis of VWM was a great step forward. First of all, it allows genetic ...

  9. Distorted Expectancy Coding in Problem Gambling: Is the Addictive in the Anticipation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holst, R.J.; Veltman, D.J.; Buchel, C.; van den Brink, W.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pathologic gamblers are known to have abnormal neural responses associated with experiencing monetary wins and losses. However, neural responsiveness during reward and loss expectations in pathologic gamblers has not yet been investigated. Methods: We used a functional magnetic resonance

  10. Pokies and poverty: problem gambling risk factor geography in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Benedict W; Rigby, Janette E; Huriwai, Terry

    2006-03-01

    Up to 2% of adults in New Zealand can be considered problem gamblers, where the activity has an impact on the well-being of those who gamble, and often their close associates. The most common activity involves non-casino gaming machines (NCGMs). This paper explores the geography of gambling 'opportunity' at small-area scales, and finds excess provision in those areas classified as highly deprived. Geographically weighted regression has been used to investigate the possibility that the degree of inequity in NCGM provision varies across New Zealand. As machines are licensed, this provides an opportunity for policy implementation towards risk reduction.

  11. Differential Effects of Formal and Informal Gambling on Symptoms of Problem Gambling During Voluntary Self-Exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Amanda V; Cohen, Irwin M; Davies, Garth

    2018-01-18

    Voluntary self-exclusion (VSE) programs enable problem gamblers to engage in a break from casino-based gambling. The current study analyzed the effects of a VSE program in British Columbia, Canada on problem gambling symptoms and the comparative reductions in problem gambling symptoms when participants abstained from gambling, continued to participate in non-casino based gambling, or attempted to violate their exclusion contract. 269 participants completed two telephone interviews over a 6-month period. Participants were administered the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). Substantial reductions in PGSI scores were observed after 6 months. Program violators had significantly smaller PGSI Difference Scores by Time 2 compared to those who continued to gamble outside of the casino and those who completely abstained from all gambling. There were no significant differences between those who gambled informally and those who abstained. A multiple regression identified that while access to counselling and length of enrollment also contributed to the reduction in PGSI scores, violation attempts were most strongly associated with smaller reductions in symptoms of problem gambling. These results imply that some gamblers can successfully engage in non-casino based forms of gambling and still experience reductions in symptoms of problem gambling. Future analyses will explore characteristics associated with group membership that may help to identify which participants can successfully engage in non-casino based gambling without re-triggering symptoms of problem gambling.

  12. And that is Where the Fun Ends - General Practitioners' Conceptualisation of the Line Between Recreational and Problem Gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Egerer Michael

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - Problem gambling is normally identified by fixed criteria of harm adapted from those of substance abuse and by focusing on the individual gambler. However, rigid definitions neglect institutional variations of gambling practices within different legislative configurations. This study proposes analysing the line between recreational and problem gambling by focusing on gambling behaviour and looking at the corruption of the defining factors of play (Cail-lois, 1958 in three different institutional contexts. DESIGN - A stimulated focus-group method (Reception Analytical Group Interview was applied to seven groups of Finnish and French general practitioners each and three groups of German ones to study the variations of conceptualising the defining factors of play as introduced by Caillois. RESULTS - Corruption of play was distinguished by participants from all three countries as the dividing line between recreational and problem gambling, but cultural variations were found: the French and German GPs emphasised the loss of the exceptionality of gambling, whereas the Finnish GPs highlighted the invasion of the home by online gambling. Furthermore, the Finnish and German participants were more concerned about the use of gambling as an emotional regulator, while French GPs echoed the French medical model in discussing the adrenaline rush of problem gamblers. CONCLUSIONS - Caillois' defining factors of play can be used to distinguish recreational from problem gambling and to offer a more encompassing definition of problem gambling. The perception of the line between recreational and problem gambling also seems to depend on the institutional and cultural context.

  13. Stages of change, clinical presentation, retention, and treatment outcomes in treatment-seeking outpatient problem gambling clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberay, Adam David; Grimsley, Paul; Faragher, J Michael; Barbash, Melissa; Berger, Ben

    2014-06-01

    Specific stages of change have been associated with clinical variables before and during the course of addiction treatment. However, few studies have specifically focused on these relationships for problem and pathological gamblers. The present study examined the relationships between pretreatment stages of change and clinical treatment variables in a sample of 71 treatment-seeking problem and pathological gamblers. The participants were administered the following instruments: the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA), the NORC DSM-IV Screen for Gambling Problems (NODS), and the Outcome Questionnaire 45 (OQ-45). The researchers hypothesized that there would be a relationship among pretreatment stages of change and (a) severity of gambling problems at onset of treatment, (b) severity of psychosocial problems at onset of treatment, (c) retention in treatment, and (d) level of psychosocial improvement through therapy. The results indicate that (a) precontemplation was negatively related to reported gambling problems at outset of treatment, and contemplation and maintenance were positively related to reported gambling problems at the outset of treatment; (b) action was positively associated with level of psychosocial functioning at outset of treatment; (c) action was negatively associated with retention in treatment; and (d) maintenance was negatively associated with level of improvement in psychosocial functioning through therapy. Implications for treatment of this population include the ability to adjust treatment plans and interventions with increased awareness of potential barriers and obstacles unique to pretreatment stages of change.

  14. Interactions among attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and problem gambling in a probabilistic reward-learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzari, Mehdi; Oberg, Scott; Gruber, Aaron; Tata, Matthew

    2015-09-15

    Problem gambling is thought to be highly comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We propose that the neurobiological pathologies underlying problem gambling overlap with those in ADHD. In this study, we used a simplified computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to assess differences in reinforcement-driven choice adaptation among participants with pathological gambling and/or ADHD. The task contained two choice options with different net payouts over the session; a good bet that resulted in a win of +50 points on 60% of trials (and -50 points on 40%), and a bad bet that resulted in +100 points on 40% of the trials (and -100 points on 60%). We quantified participants' preference for the good bet over the session and their sensitivity to reinforcement. Both the control subjects and medicated ADHD nongamblers significantly increased the proportion of good bets over the 400-trial session. Subjects with problem gambling performed worse than controls and ADHD nongamblers, but better than our limited sample of unmedicated ADHD gamblers. Control subjects, medicated ADHD nongamblers, and unmedicated ADHD nongamblers tended to tolerate losses following good bets, whereas unmedicated ADHD gamblers tended to tolerate losses following bad bets. These data reveal that ADHD, particularly when treated with medication, is not associated with poor choices on the IGT, but may exacerbate pathological choices in problem gamblers. It seems that stabilization of dopamine signaling that occurs when ADHD is treated is itself also a treatment for certain forms of problem gambling. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Prevalence of Problem Gambling in Denmark in 2005 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Eiberg, Stig; Davidsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Gambling is a worldwide phenomenon. For most persons this causes only small or no problems, but for some, pathological gambling can be the result of entering the gambling environment. The objectives were to estimate the past year and lifetime prevalence of problem gambling in the adult Danish...... was based on region-stratified random sample of 10,916 Danish citizens (response rate: 52.1 %) and the survey in 2010 was based on a random sample of 23,405 Danish citizens (response rate: 62.7 %). Problem gambling was defined using the lie/bet questionnaire. The past year prevalence of problem gamblers...... or cohabiting. The present study indicates that a high level of education and being employed have a protective effect against problem gambling. More research is needed in order to understand what attracts and maintains the interest of men in gambling environments as well as why women are not occupied...

  16. Sailing to White Boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This is a composite red-green-blue image of the rock called White Boat. It is the first rock target that Spirit drove to after finishing a series of investigations on the rock Adirondack. White Boat stood out to scientists due to its light color and more tabular shape compared to the dark, rounded rocks that surround it.

  17. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  18. White Teachers Talking Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Avner; Garrett, James

    2013-01-01

    In light of the increasing racial diversity in American schools and the consistently homogenous teacher workforce in the United States, understanding the ways white teachers consider and attend to racial issues is of crucial importance to the educational landscape. This paper, based on a qualitative study, explores five white American teachers'…

  19. Symposium on School Desegregation and White Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfield, Gary, Ed.

    Five papers intended to serve as an introduction to a complex and rapidly growing body of research are included in this volume. These papers represent the work of scholars who have studied the problem of white flight long before the current controversy over urban desegregation plans made it a national issue. Starting from very different…

  20. Astrometric Binaries: White Dwarfs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliversen, Nancy A.

    We propose to observe a selection of astrometric or spectroscopicastrometric binaries nearer than about 20 pc with unseen low mass companions. Systems of this type are important for determining the luminosity function of low mass stars (white dwarfs and very late main sequence M stars), and their contribution to the total mass of the galaxy. Systems of this type are also important because the low mass, invisible companions are potential candidates in the search for planets. Our target list is selected primarily from the list of 31 astrometric binaries near the sun by Lippincott (1978, Space Sci. Rev., 22, 153), with additional candidates from recent observations by Kamper. The elimination of stars with previous IUE observations, red companions resolved by infrared speckle interferometry, or primaries later than M1 (because if white dwarf companions are present they should have been detected in the visible region) reduces the list to 5 targets which need further information. IUE SWP low dispersion observations of these targets will show clearly whether the remaining unseen companions are white dwarfs, thus eliminating very cool main sequence stars or planets. This is also important in providing complete statistical information about the nearest stars. The discovery of a white dwarf in such a nearby system would provide important additional information about the masses of white dwarfs. Recent results by Greenstein (1986, A. J., 92, 859) from binary systems containing white dwarfs imply that 80% of such systems are as yet undetected. The preference of binaries for companions of approximately equal mass makes the Lippincott-Kamper list of A through K primaries with unseen companions a good one to use to search for white dwarfs. The mass and light dominance of the current primary over the white dwarf in the visible makes ultraviolet observations essential to obtain an accurate census of white dwarf binaries.

  1. Cognitive psychopathology of problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toneatto, T

    1999-09-01

    Drawing on the available research literature on the cognitive distortions present during gambling, a typology of gambling-relevant cognitive distortions is presented. These include the magnification of gambling skills, minimization of other gambler's skills, superstitious beliefs (including talismanic, behavioral, and cognitive superstitions), interpretive biases (including internal attributions, external attributions, gambler's fallacy, chasing, anthropomorphism, reframed losses, hindsight bias), temporal telescoping, selective memory, predictive skill, illusion of control over luck (including luck as an uncontrollable variable, luck as a controllable variable, luck as a trait variable, luck as a contagion), and illusory correlation. In addition, gambling-relevant beliefs about the self are also discussed, including entitlement, omnipotence, cognitive reasoning, and magical thinking.

  2. Ear Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women Hair Loss Hand/Wrist/Arm Problems Headaches Hearing Problems Hip Problems Knee Problems Leg Problems Lower Back ... have ear pain or redness but is having problems hearing?YesNo Back to Questions Step 3 Possible Causes ...

  3. The genetic basis of white tigers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Dong, Gui-Xin; Hu, Xue-Song; Miao, Lin; Zhang, Xue-Li; Zhang, De-Lu; Yang, Han-Dong; Zhang, Tian-You; Zou, Zheng-Ting; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhuang, Yan; Bhak, Jong; Cho, Yun Sung; Dai, Wen-Tao; Jiang, Tai-Jiao; Xie, Can; Li, Ruiqiang; Luo, Shu-Jin

    2013-06-03

    The white tiger, an elusive Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) variant with white fur and dark stripes, has fascinated humans for centuries ever since its discovery in the jungles of India. Many white tigers in captivity are inbred in order to maintain this autosomal recessive trait and consequently suffer some health problems, leading to the controversial speculation that the white tiger mutation is perhaps a genetic defect. However, the genetic basis of this phenotype remains unknown. Here, we conducted genome-wide association mapping with restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) in a pedigree of 16 captive tigers segregating at the putative white locus, followed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of the three parents. Validation in 130 unrelated tigers identified the causative mutation to be an amino acid change (A477V) in the transporter protein SLC45A2. Three-dimensional homology modeling suggests that the substitution may partially block the transporter channel cavity and thus affect melanogenesis. We demonstrate the feasibility of combining RAD-seq and WGS to rapidly map exotic variants in nonmodel organisms. Our results identify the basis of the longstanding white tiger mystery as the same gene underlying color variation in human, horse, and chicken and highlight its significance as part of the species' natural polymorphism that is viable in the wild. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. White Blood Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Blood Additional Content Medical News Overview of White Blood Cell Disorders By Mary Territo, MD, Emeritus ... service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Manual in the ...

  5. Distribution System White Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA worked with stakeholders and developed a series of white papers on distribution system issues ranked of potentially significant public health concern (see list below) to serve as background material for EPA, expert and stakeholder discussions.

  6. White Lake AOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    White Lake is in Muskegon County along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. It was named an Area of Concern on the Great Lakes under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1987 and delisted in 2014.

  7. An implementation problem for boson fields and quantum Girsanov transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Un Cig, E-mail: uncigji@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Mathematics, Research Institute of Mathematical Finance, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Obata, Nobuaki, E-mail: obata@math.is.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Information Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    We study an implementation problem for quadratic functions of annihilation and creation operators on a boson field in terms of quantum white noise calculus. The implementation problem is shown to be equivalent to a linear differential equation for white noise operators containing quantum white noise derivatives. The solution is explicitly obtained and turns out to form a class of white noise operators including generalized Fourier–Gauss and Fourier–Mehler transforms, Bogoliubov transform, and a quantum extension of the Girsanov transform.

  8. Reinventing Significance: Reflections on Recent Whiteness Studies in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Pilossof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Review Article: Josephine Lucy Fisher (2010, Pioneers, Settlers, Aliens, Exiles: The Decolonisation of White Identity in Zimbabwe, Canberra: Australian National University Press, ISBN 978-1-921-66614-8 (pbk., xiii + 276 pp. David McDermott Hughes (2010, Whiteness in Zimbabwe: Race, Landscape, and the Problem of Belonging, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-230-62143-5 (pbk., 204 pp. Kate Victoria Law (2012, Writing White Women: Whiteness, Gender, Politics and Power in Rhodesia, c.1950s–1980s, Ph.D. thesis, University of Sheffield, 249 pp.

  9. Gambling and problem gambling among young adolescents in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, David; McHale, Ian G

    2012-12-01

    International evidence suggests that problem gambling tends to be 2-4 times higher among adolescents as among adults and this proves to be true of Great Britain according to the latest adolescent prevalence survey. 8,958 British children (11-15) were surveyed in 201 schools during late 2008 and 2009. The questionnaire included a standard screen, DSM-IV-MR-J, to test for problem gambling. Our regression models explore influences of demographic, home and school characteristics on probabilities (both unconditional and conditional on being a gambler) of a child testing positive for problem gambling. More than 20% of children participated in gambling and, of these, nearly 8% tested positive. Age-group prevalence of problem gambling was 1.9%, compared with 0.6-0.9% in the most recent official adult surveys. Boys were much more likely than girls to gamble and to exhibit symptoms of problem gambling if they did. Generally, home characteristics, particularly parental attitude and example, dominated school characteristics in accounting for risks. Unanticipated findings included significantly elevated probabilities of problem gambling among Asian children and among children who live in a home without siblings. Child income was also a potent predictor of gambling and problem gambling.

  10. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Selected Life History Information of Animal Species on Lake Conway, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    of the problem aquatic plant hydrilla. Information developed in this report will1i(Continued) DD FOR W~S13 Enon r mOF N Vs is NossLeftUfn’n ASECURITY...and commercial d. Unknown management potential e. Not sensitive f. Omnivorous , including terres- trial and aquatic insects, macrocrustaceans, fish...threat- ened or endangered lists c. Not recreational or commercial d. Unknown management potential e. Not sensitive f. Largely vegetarian in diet h. i

  11. White Rose Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, W. [Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The status of Husky's White Rose Project in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland was presented with particular focus on the province of Newfoundland, resource development applications and project challenges. Husky Energy merged with Renaissance Energy in August 2000. It is publicly traded on the Toronto Stock Exchange. Its Q1 2000 production was 270 mboe/d with a clear strategy to deliver an additional 200 mboe/d by 2005. The 5 major projects which represent 80 per cent of Husky's growth are the White Rose, Tucker Lake, Wenchang, Terra Nova and Lloyd Project. This presentation included a map showing the land holdings related to Husky's White Rose Project. The development plans include the drilling of 15-20 wells in the basin which holds an estimated 230 mm/bbls of oil reserves. The presentation also described the Canada-Newfoundland benefits that White Rose will bring in terms of direct person-hours and spin off employment. No gas export infrastructure is currently in place. It is believed that between 7 and 10 tcf of discovered gas reserves is required and there is not enough White Rose gas on which to base an economic gas development. The White Rose challenge will be to deliver a technically and commercially viable project that meets the needs of the owners, governments, unions and supply community. The successful completion of the White Rose Project will demonstrate that the Grand Banks can be developed effectively and efficiently and will contribute to Newfoundland's offshore petroleum industry. tabs., figs.

  12. Social and behavioral problems among five gambling severity groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Jacquelene F; Yoon, Gihyun; Campos, Michael D; Fong, Timothy W

    2015-12-15

    Gambling has been associated with various social and behavioral problems, but previous analyses have been limited by sample bias regarding gambling symptom severity range and the role of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). This study utilized a nationally representative data set and examined various characteristics of behavioral problems and ASPD among five gambling severity groups. Participants were 42,038 individuals who took part in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and provided information on social and behavioral problems, ASPD, and gambling. Using DSM-IV criteria, we derived five gambling groups from the total sample: non-gambling, low-risk, at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling. Associations between all problematic behaviors and nearly every gambling severity level were significant prior to adjustment for sociodemographic variables and ASPD. Following the adjustment, all significant associations persisted, with the exception of sexual coercion. In the adjusted model, the financially oriented behaviors had the strongest associations with gambling. All gambling severity levels were associated with an increased risk for a number of problematic behaviors and social problems in comparison to non-gamblers.Further examination of gambling problems in financial and criminal justice settings is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fiber tracking of brain white matter based on graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Brain white matter tractography is reconstructed via diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images. Due to the complex structure of brain white matter fiber bundles, fiber crossing and fiber branching are abundant in human brain. And regular methods with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can't accurately handle this problem. the biggest problems of the brain tractography. Therefore, this paper presented a novel brain white matter tractography method based on graph theory, so the fiber tracking between two voxels is transformed into locating the shortest path in a graph. Besides, the presented method uses Q-ball imaging (QBI) as the source data instead of DTI, because QBI can provide accurate information about multiple fiber crossing and branching in one voxel using orientation distribution function (ODF). Experiments showed that the presented method can accurately handle the problem of brain white matter fiber crossing and branching, and reconstruct brain tractograhpy both in phantom data and real brain data.

  14. The effect of online gambling on gambling problems and resulting economic health costs in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effertz, Tobias; Bischof, Anja; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich

    2018-01-23

    Problematic and pathological gambling have emerged as substantial problems in many countries. One potential accelerating factor for this phenomenon during recent years is the Internet, which offers different kinds of games and online applications for gambling that are faster, more attractive due to a variety of design and marketing options, less costly and potentially more addictive than terrestrial gambling opportunities. However, the contributing role of the Internet for problematic gambling has not been analyzed sufficiently so far and remains inconclusive. The current study is based on a representative sample with 15,023 individuals from Germany. With a new concept of assessing online gambling with its relative fraction of total gambling activities and a control-function approach to account for possible endogeneity of online gambling, we estimate the impact of online gambling on gambling behavior while additionally controlling for a rich set of important covariates, like education, employment situation and family status. The results show that, on average, replacing 10% of offline gambling with online gambling increases the likelihood of being a problematic gambler by 8.8-12.6%. This increase is equivalent to 139,322 problematic gamblers and 27.24 million € per year of additional expenditures in the German health sector. Our findings underpin the necessity to keep online gambling restricted to prevent further developments of problematic and pathological gambling in Germany.

  15. The role of self-reported impulsivity and reward sensitivity versus neurocognitive measures of disinhibition and decision-making in the prediction of relapse in pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudriaan, A E; Oosterlaan, J; De Beurs, E; Van Den Brink, W

    2008-01-01

    Disinhibition and decision-making skills play an important role in theories on the cause and outcome of addictive behaviors such as substance use disorders and pathological gambling. In recent studies, both disinhibition and disadvantageous decision-making strategies, as measured by neurocognitive tests, have been found to influence the course of substance use disorders. Research on factors affecting relapse in pathological gambling is scarce. This study investigated the effect of both self-reported impulsivity and reward sensitivity, and neurocognitively assessed disinhibition and decision-making under conflicting contingencies, on relapse in a group of 46 pathological gamblers. Logistic regression analysis indicated that longer duration of the disorder and neurocognitive indicators of disinhibition (Stop Signal Reaction Time) and decision-making (Card Playing Task) were significant predictors of relapse (explaining 53% of the variance in relapse), whereas self-reported impulsivity and reward sensitivity did not significantly predict relapse. Overall classification accuracy was 76%, with a positive classification accuracy of 76% and a negative classification accuracy of 75%. Duration of the disorder and neurocognitive measures of disinhibition and decision-making are powerful predictors of relapse in pathological gambling. The results suggest that endophenotypical neurocognitive characteristics are more promising in the prediction of relapse in pathological gambling than phenotypical personality characteristics. Neurocognitive predictors may be useful to guide treatment planning of follow-up contacts and booster sessions.

  16. The role of responsible gambling strategy and gambling passion in the online gamblers' decision-making process: revising the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaeseok; Chen, Chih-Chien; Song, Hak-Jun; Lee, Choong-Ki

    2014-06-01

    This study revised the theory of planned behavior (TPB) by incorporating the new concepts of gambling passion and responsible gambling strategy (RGS) to predict gamblers' intention to gamble in online sports betting. The data were collected at the end of March in 2012 through an online gambling website. The findings indicated that the inclusion of two types of gambling passion and two types of RGS explains online gambling intention well. Specifically, out of the original antecedent predictors of TPB, attitude toward online gambling was positively related to harmonious passion. Subjective norm had a positive relationship with both harmonious and obsessive passion. The results also showed that perceived behavioral control does not have a significant effect on the two gambling passions but has a direct and significant influence on behavioral intention. Additionally, the compulsory RGS had a negative effect on obsessive passion, whereas supplementary RGS had concurrent positive impacts on harmonious and obsessive passion. Lastly, the two gambling passions were notable predictors of behavioral intention toward online sports betting.

  17. Investigating risk factors for Internet gaming disorder: a comparison of patients with addictive gaming, pathological gamblers and healthy controls regarding the big five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K W; Beutel, M E; Egloff, B; Wölfling, K

    2014-01-01

    Engaging in online games has become increasingly important as a part of leisure activity in adolescents and adults. While the majority of people use these games in a healthy way, epidemiological studies show that some develop excessive use and symptoms that are related to those of substance-related addictions. Despite increasing research concerning the epidemiology of internet gaming disorder (IGD), predisposing factors have been examined to a lesser extent. Knowing about specific risk factors would help clarify the nosological features of IGD and enhance prevention and intervention. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between personality traits and IGD. A total of 115 patients meeting the criteria for IGD were compared to 167 control subjects displaying either regular or intense use of online games. Additionally, 115 patients meeting diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling were included. IGD was associated with higher neuroticism, decreased conscientiousness and low extraversion. The comparisons to pathological gamblers indicate that low conscientiousness and low extraversion in particular are characteristic of IGD. An integration of personality variables into an etiopathological model describing presumable mechanisms fostering and maintaining addictive online gaming is proposed. This model could be helpful for the theoretical understanding of addictive gaming, public health campaigns and psychoeducation within therapeutic settings. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Cocaine-dependent individuals and gamblers present different associative learning anomalies in feedback-driven decision-making: A behavioral and ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eTorres

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have demonstrated that addicts behave less flexibly than healthy controls in the probabilistic reversal-learning task (PRLT, in which participants must gradually learn to choose between a probably-rewarded option and an improbably-rewarded one, on the basis of corrective feedback, and in which preferences must adjust to abrupt reward contingency changes (reversals.In the present study, pathological gamblers (PG and cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI showed different learning curves in the PRLT. PG also showed a reduced electroencephalographic response to feedback (Feedback-Related Negativity, FRN when compared to controls. CDI’s FRN was not significantly different either from PG or HC’s. Additionally, according to sLORETA analysis, cortical activity in regions of interest (previously selected by virtue of their involvement in FRN generation in controls strongly differed between CDI and PG.However, the nature of such anomalies varied within-groups across individuals. Cocaine use severity had a strong deleterious impact on the learning asymptote, whereas gambling intensity significantly increased reversal cost. These two effects have remained confounded in most previous studies, which can be hiding important associative learning differences between different populations of addicts.

  19. Gambling related family coping and the impact of problem gambling on families in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Mei Lo Chan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite substantial evidence that problem gambling is associated with a wide range of family difficulties, limited effort has been devoted to studying the negative impacts on family members as a result of problem gambling and how they cope and function under the impacts of problem gambling in Chinese communities. Among the very few Chinese-specific gambling-related family impact studies, none have examined how gambling-related family coping responses are related to gambling-related family impacts. Based on a sample of treatment-seeking Chinese family members of problem gamblers, this study aimed to explore: (1 the demographic characteristics and health and psychological well-being of the family members; (2 the gambling-related family member impacts (active disturbance, worrying behavior; (3 the family coping strategies (engaged, tolerant-inactive and withdrawal coping; (4 the relationship between gambling-related family member impacts, psychological distress and family coping strategies. It was hypothesized that positive significant relationships would be found between family member impacts, psychological distress and family coping strategies. From March 2011 to February 2012, a total of 103 family members of problem gamblers who sought help from Tung Wah Group of Hospitals Even Centre in Hong Kong were interviewed. Results showed that a majority of family members were partners or ex-partners of the gambler with low or no income. A large proportion of participants reported moderate to high psychological distress (72.6 %, poor to fair general health (60.2 %, and poor to neither good nor bad quality of life (61.1 %. Family member impacts were positively significantly correlated to all family coping strategies and psychological distress. Tolerant-inactive coping had the strongest relationships with family member impacts and psychological distress. Strong relationships between family member impacts and psychological distress were also

  20. Problems in problem analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almegaard, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The majority of literature on engineering design methods is focused on the processes of fulfilling the design goals as efficiently as possible. This paper will focus on - and discuss - the processes of determining the design goals: the specifications. The purpose is to draw attention to the inher...... to the inherent problems, dilemmas and possibilities in these processes bearing in mind that that the most important decisions in a design project are taken in the beginning of the project....

  1. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may also ... injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ear. ...

  2. White collar crime

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    The White Collar Crime has particular characteristics that range from the profile of its author to the difficulties of the criminal process where it is investigated. El delito de Cuello Blanco cuenta con características particulares desde el perfil de su autor, hasta las dificultades del proceso penal en que se investiga.

  3. white's friction factor formulae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Environmental Engineering, Elizade University, Ilara Monkin, Ondo State. NIGERIA. ACCURATE SOLUTIONS OF COLEBROOK- WHITE'S FRICTION FACTOR FORMULAE. S. Lukman1 and I. A. Oke2,*. 1 CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF HAFR AL-BATIN, HAFR AL-BATIN, SAUDI ARABIA. 2 CIVIL ...

  4. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants asso...

  5. White Sea - Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

  6. White-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Johns; John C. Kilgo

    2005-01-01

    from a public relations standpoint, the white-tailed deer (Odocileus virginiamus) is probably the most important wildlife species occurring on the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS deer herd has been the subject of more scientific investigations than any comparable deer population in the world, resulting in more than 125 published papers. Each year...

  7. probably mostly white

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Willem Scholtz

    internet – the (probably mostly white) public's interest in the so-called Border War is ostensibly at an all-time high. By far most of the publications are written by ex- ... understanding of this very important episode in the history of Southern Africa. It was, therefore, with some anticipation that one waited for this book, which.

  8. White dots do matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soeken, Mathias; Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    2013-01-01

    Toffoli circuits. We also show how to use these rules to derive more complex formulas. The major difference compared to existing approaches is the use of negative controls (white dots), which significantly increases the algebraic strength. We show how existing optimisation approaches can be adapted...

  9. Characterization of white OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenbin; Lu, Lili

    2007-11-01

    White OLEDs (WOLEDs) have attracted much attention for several applications, such as backlights in LCD, full-color OLED display using on-chip color filters, and low cost illumination sources. OLEDs have typically very broad emissions, which makes them uniquely suitable for light source applications. In this paper, some fundamentals of the CIE colorimetry system including the color-rendering index are described. Given the spectral power distribution of WOLED, the parameters of a light source (chromaticity coordinate, CCT, CRI, and the luminous efficacy) can be calculated. A MATLAB program for this purpose is developed in this paper. WOLEDs utilizing two primary-color emitters are fabricated. NPB doped with 2% Rubrene is used as the red-emitting layer and anthracene derivative as the blue-emitting layer. With a structure of ITO/2TNATA(20nm)/NPB(20 nm)/ NPB:rubrene(2%)(10nm)/ anthracene (30 nm)/Alq 3(20nm)LiF(1nm)/Al(100nm), a white light with CIE coordinates of (0.34, 0.37) is generated. The color properties are presented in this paper. The results show that the white color can be created from numerous combinations of different spectra. Based upon this, the characterization of the WOLED is simulated and the design of WOLED for illumination is discussed. In contrary to light source applications where illumination quality white is the most important, all colors are equally important for display applications. The white spectrum of the two-emitter WOLED is transmitted through the typical red, blue and green color filters. The performance of this color display is simulated and the WOLED design for display application is discussed.

  10. Testing an Incentive-Sensitisation Approach to Understanding Problem Slot-Machine Gambling Using an Online Slot-Machine Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Belinda; Cummins, Robert

    2017-10-16

    This study aims to test the application of the incentive-sensitisation theory to slot-machine gambling behaviour. The theory posits that for problem gamblers (PGs), gambling strengthens the response of motivational pathways in the mid-brain to gambling cues, eliciting strong wanting, independent of liking. Non-problem gamblers (NPGs) experience weaker changes to motivational pathways so liking and wanting remain associated. Hence, it is predicted that wanting to gamble will be greater than liking for PGs but there will be no difference for NPGs; wanting will be greater for PGs than for NPGs; and, wanting but not liking will predict whether PGs continue gambling, whereas both will predict this for NPGs. During gambling on an online simulated slot-machine, 39 PGs and 87 NPGs rated 'liking' and 'wanting'. Participants played at least 3 blocks of 10-20 spins, and then had the option of playing up to 4 additional blocks; to continue playing they had to complete an effortful task, so that 'number of blocks played' acted as an additional indirect measure of wanting. Results supported hypotheses except on the indirect measure of wanting (the number of blocks played).

  11. The intergenerational transmission of problem gambling: The mediating role of offspring gambling expectancies and motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Oldenhof, E; Shandley, K; Youssef, G J; Vasiliadis, S; Thomas, S A; Frydenberg, E; Jackson, A C

    2018-02-01

    The risk for developing a gambling problem is greater among offspring who have a problem gambling parent, yet little research has directly examined the mechanisms by which this transmission of problem gambling occurs. For this reason, the present study sought to examine the degree to which children's expectancies and motives relating to gambling explain, at least in part, the intergenerational transmission of problem gambling. Participants (N=524; 56.5% male) were recruited from educational institutions, and retrospectively reported on parental problem gambling. Problem gambling was measured using the Problem Gambling Severity Index and a range of positive and negative expectancies and gambling motives were explored as potential mediators of the relationship between parent-and-participant problem gambling. The relationship between parent-and-participant problem gambling was significant, and remained so after controlling for sociodemographic factors and administration method. Significant mediators of this relationship included self-enhancement expectancies (feeling in control), money expectancies (financial gain), over-involvement (preoccupation with gambling) and emotional impact expectancies (guilt, shame, and loss), as well as enhancement motives (gambling to increase positive feelings) and coping motives (gambling to reduce or avoid negative emotions). All mediators remained significant when entered into the same model. The findings highlight that gambling expectancies and motives present unique pathways to the development of problem gambling in the offspring of problem gambling parents, and suggest that gambling cognitions may be potential candidates for targeted interventions for the offspring of problem gamblers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Plato: White and Non-white Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amo Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Plato’s dialogues, the Symposium, and Phaedrus, provide a reasonableexplanation of love. G. Vlastos and M. Nussbaum do not share such anopinion. The former contends that Plato’s view of love is about lovingonly a person’s beauty, but not the entire person; thus, it falls short of anappropriate explanation of love. The latter holds that a theory of love should be complete, and that Plato’s one is incomplete on the grounds that it does not account for personal love. These criticisms will be re-evaluated in light of the duality of love (the white and non-white horses—in Phaedrus as well as participants’ views in the Symposium; a re-assessment will weaken the mentioned objections. This paper contends that from the Symposium and Phaedrus, one can have a fruitful understanding of being in love, being out of love, falling inlove, loving for its own sake and being erotically in love. In order to account for these related issues of love it is important to consider Plato’s works in terms of his “official” and “unofficial” views. The former is construed as the doctrine of the lover or loving for its own sake: this is associates with Diotima’s views which are repeated by Socrates. With reference to the latter, it is possible to explain what personal love or being in love, being out of love, falling in love, and being erotically in love involve. Erotic love will be interpreted as an extension of our philosophical conception of love, related to views of love that are mentioned in the Symposium other than Socrates’ report of Diotima’s conceptions. This paper is divided into two parts: the first one will show views of love in the Symposium. That is, being in love, being out of love, falling in love and loving for its own sake will be discussed. In addition, the forementioned criticisms will be re-evaluated. In the second section, we will show that Aristophanes’ speech expresses erotic love, and then Kant’s objections will be

  13. The Jung-White Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Kirsten; Nielsen, Sine Birkedal

    2012-01-01

    This report is based on the correspondence The Jung-White Letters, between psychotherapist C. G. Jung and theologian Victor White. Their correspondence deals mainly with the relationship between religion and science. The report analyses Jung and White's conflict on the subject of evil as understood in the Christian doctrine privatio boni, investigating the underlying epistemological reasoning behind their disagreement. Theologian White is influenced by the Catholic Dominican order, whose phil...

  14. White Dwarf Mergers on Adaptive Meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Maximilian Peter

    The mergers of binary white dwarf systems are potential progenitors of astrophysical explosions such as Type Ia supernovae. These white dwarfs can merge either by orbital decay through the emission of gravitational waves or by direct collisions as a result of orbital perturbations. The coalescence of the stars may ignite nuclear fusion, resulting in the destruction of both stars through a thermonuclear runaway and ensuing detonation. The goal of this dissertation is to simulate binary white dwarf systems using the techniques of computational fluid dynamics and therefore to understand what numerical techniques are necessary to obtain accurate dynamical evolution of the system, as well as to learn what conditions are necessary to enable a realistic detonation. For this purpose I have used software that solves the relevant fluid equations, the Poisson equation for self-gravity, and the systems governing nuclear reactions between atomic species. These equations are modeled on a computational domain that uses the technique of adaptive mesh refinement to have the highest spatial resolution in the areas of the domain that are most sensitive to the need for accurate numerical evolution. I have identified that the most important obstacles to accurate evolution are the numerical violation of conservation of energy and angular momentum in the system, and the development of numerically seeded thermonuclear detonations that do not bear resemblance to physically correct detonations. I then developed methods for ameliorating these problems, and determined what metrics can be used for judging whether a given white dwarf merger simulation is trustworthy. This involved the development of a number of algorithmic improvements to the simulation software, which I describe. Finally, I performed high-resolution simulations of typical cases of white dwarf mergers and head-on collisions to demonstrate the impacts of these choices. The results of these simulations and the corresponding

  15. Perceived Whiteness under Different Lighting Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oota, Akiko; Kanaya, Sueko; Ayama, Miyoshi; Mukai, Kenji

    Many white and nearly white objects are in our living and working areas, such as documents written on white paper, white curtains, white clothes, white walls, and white furniture. The perceived whiteness of these objects is important to the impression of the lighting in these areas. To investigate the perceived whiteness in living areas, a series of experiments were conducted using four different fluorescent lamps in three different environments. It was found that the areas of perceived whiteness in the living area environments were larger than the areas of perceived whiteness under achromatic conditions. Based on these results, a perceived whiteness index is proposed for these experimental conditions.

  16. White noise on bialgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Schürmann, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Stochastic processes with independent increments on a group are generalized to the concept of "white noise" on a Hopf algebra or bialgebra. The main purpose of the book is the characterization of these processes as solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations in the sense of R.L. Hudsonand K.R. Parthasarathy. The notes are a contribution to quantum probability but they are also related to classical probability, quantum groups, and operator algebras. The Az ma martingales appear as examples of white noise on a Hopf algebra which is a deformation of the Heisenberg group. The book will be of interest to probabilists and quantum probabilists. Specialists in algebraic structures who are curious about the role of their concepts in probablility theory as well as quantum theory may find the book interesting. The reader should havesome knowledge of functional analysis, operator algebras, and probability theory.

  17. WHITE CELLS AS LIGHT GATHERERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of White cells (J. V. White . ’Long optical paths at large aperture’, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32:285 (1942)) as light gatherers is analyzed in this...unobservable. It is evident, therefore, that White cells and the sources used with them must be properly designed and applied to be effective. (Author)

  18. White dwarf planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsor Amy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The recognition that planets may survive the late stages of stellar evolution, and the prospects for finding them around White Dwarfs, are growing. We discuss two aspects governing planetary survival through stellar evolution to the White Dwarf stage. First we discuss the case of a single planet, and its survival under the effects of stellar mass loss, radius expansion, and tidal orbital decay as the star evolves along the Asymptotic Giant Branch. We show that, for stars initially of 1 − 5 M⊙, any planets within about 1 − 5 AU will be engulfed, this distance depending on the stellar and planet masses and the planet's eccentricity. Planets engulfed by the star's envelope are unlikely to survive. Hence, planets surviving the Asymptotic Giant Branch phase will probably be found beyond ∼ 2 AU for a 1  M⊙ progenitor and ∼ 10 AU for a 5 M⊙ progenitor. We then discuss the evolution of two-planet systems around evolving stars. As stars lose mass, planet–planet interactions become stronger, and many systems stable on the Main Sequence become destabilised following evolution of the primary. The outcome of such instabilities is typically the ejection of one planet, with the survivor being left on an eccentric orbit. These eccentric planets could in turn be responsible for feeding planetesimals into the neighbourhood of White Dwarfs, causing observed pollution and circumstellar discs.

  19. White Rose project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, W. [Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The status of Husky's White Rose Project off the Grand Banks of Newfoundland was presented with particular focus on project achievements from October 2000 to March 2002, execution strategy and the challenge of delivering the project safely, in an environmentally sensitive manner, both on schedule and within budget. The project is the third oil development offshore Newfoundland and Labrador where recoverable reserves are estimated at 884 MMbbls for Hibernia, 40 MMbbls for Terra Nova, and 200 to 250 MMbbls for the White Rose project. Cost competitive methods can be used to develop White Rose, which will then stimulate more exploration activity and expand the base of experienced individuals. This presentation included computer generated images of the field layout depicting 3 glory holes or drill centres. The well count is currently at 21 wells of which 10 are at the stage of first oil. Production capacity is 100 bbls per day. Graphs depicting drilling performance were also included, along with the FPSO execution strategy, turret schematics, and the project schedule. tabs., figs.

  20. Ankle Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children Neck Pain Neck Swelling Shortness of Breath Shortness of Breath in Infants and Children Shoulder Problems Skin Rashes & Other Skin Problems Throat Problems Tooth Problems Urination Problems Back to Symptoms Step 2 Answering Questions Did you begin to ...

  1. Urination Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children Neck Pain Neck Swelling Shortness of Breath Shortness of Breath in Infants and Children Shoulder Problems Skin Rashes & Other Skin Problems Throat Problems Tooth Problems Urination Problems Back to Symptoms Step 2 Answering Questions Do you have pain ...

  2. Knee Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children Neck Pain Neck Swelling Shortness of Breath Shortness of Breath in Infants and Children Shoulder Problems Skin Rashes & Other Skin Problems Throat Problems Tooth Problems Urination Problems Back to Symptoms Step 2 Answering Questions Did your knee pain ...

  3. Speech Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plan Hot Topics Flu Facts Arrhythmias Abuse Speech Problems KidsHealth > For Teens > Speech Problems Print A A ... form speech sounds into words. What Causes Speech Problems? Normal speech might seem effortless, but it's actually ...

  4. Psychological vulnerability and problem gambling: an application of Durand Jacobs' general theory of addictions to electronic gaming machine playing in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Jessica; Delfabbro, Paul; Denson, Linley A

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an empirical investigation of the validity of Jacobs' (in J Gambl Behav 2:15-31, 1986) general theory of addictions in relation to gambling problems associated with electronic gaming machines (EGM). Regular EGM gamblers (n = 190) completed a series of standardised measures relating to psychological and physiological vulnerability, substance use, dissociative experiences, early childhood trauma and abuse and problem gambling (the Problem Gambling Severity Index). Statistical analysis using structural equation modelling revealed clear relationships between childhood trauma and life stressors and psychological vulnerability, dissociative-like experiences and problem gambling. These findings confirm and extend a previous model validated by Gupta and Derevensky (in J Gambl Stud 14: 17-49, 1998) using an adolescent population. The significance of these findings are discussed for existing pathway models of problem gambling, for Jacobs' theory, and for clinicians engaged in assessment and intervention.

  5. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  6. 'Snow White' in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This color image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the trench dubbed 'Snow White,' after further digging on the 25th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (June 19, 2008). The lander's solar panel is casting a shadow over a portion of the trench. The trench is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (12 inches) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. White dwarf dynamical interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Aznar Siguan, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Premi Extraordinari de Doctorat, promoció 2014-2015. Àmbit de Ciències Merging white dwarfs is a promising channel to trigger Type Ia supernovae, known as the double degenerate scenario. Supernovae are stellar explosions that radiate as much energy as any ordinary star is expected to emit over its entire life span, outshining briefly the whole hosting galaxy. They enrich the interstellar medium with higher mass elements and trigger the formation of new stars by the produced expanding shock...

  8. Prevalence of Problem Gambling Among Adolescents: A Comparison Across Modes of Access, Gambling Activities, and Levels of Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Roz, Alba; Fernández-Hermida, José R; Weidberg, Sara; Martínez-Loredo, Victor; Secades-Villa, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    The high availability and accessibility of online gambling have recently caused public concern regarding the potential increase of gambling-related problems among young people. Nonetheless, few studies among adults and none among adolescents have explored specific characteristics of gamblers as a function of gambling venues to date. This study sought to analyze the prevalence of gambling among a sample of adolescents in the last year, as well as sociodemographic and gambling-related characteristics as possible predictors of at-risk and problem gambling. The sample comprised 1313 adolescents aged 14-18 years. Participants were asked to respond to several questions regarding their gambling behavior. Chi square and ANOVA tests were performed in order to explore differences between groups, and a set of multinomial regressions established significant severity predictors. The prevalence of at-risk and problem gambling was 4 and 1.2 %, respectively. Regression analyses showed that having a relative with gambling problems predicted at-risk gambling. Both living with only one parent or not living with parents at all, and the prevalence of Electronic Gambling Machines in the last year were associated with problem gambling. Mixed-mode gambling was a predictor of both at-risk and problem gambling. Our findings extend previous research on gambling among adolescents by exploring gambling behavior according to different modes of access. Although the prevalence of exclusive online gambling among the total sample was low, these results support the need to consider specific subgroups of gamblers and their concrete related features when conducting both indicated prevention and treatment protocols for adolescents.

  9. White LED visible light communication technology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao

    2017-03-01

    Visible light communication is a new type of wireless optical communication technology. White LED to the success of development, the LED lighting technology is facing a new revolution. Because the LED has high sensitivity, modulation, the advantages of good performance, large transmission power, can make it in light transmission light signal at the same time. Use white LED light-emitting characteristics, on the modulation signals to the visible light transmission, can constitute a LED visible light communication system. We built a small visible optical communication system. The system composition and structure has certain value in the field of practical application, and we also research the key technology of transmitters and receivers, the key problem has been resolved. By studying on the optical and LED the characteristics of a high speed modulation driving circuit and a high sensitive receiving circuit was designed. And information transmission through the single chip microcomputer test, a preliminary verification has realized the data transmission function.

  10. An analysis of problem gambling among the Finnish working-age population: a population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrén, Sari; Basnet, Syaron; Pankakoski, Maiju; Ronkainen, Jenni-Emilia; Helakorpi, Satu; Uutela, Antti; Alho, Hannu; Lahti, Tuuli

    2013-05-29

    Gambling problems currently affect approximately 100,000 Finns. In order to prevent and reduce gambling-related harms it is crucial for the Finnish public health authorities to gain a stronger understanding of the association between gambling problems and related socio-demographic factors, other commonly co-occurring dependencies (e.g. alcohol and nicotine) and the type of games gambled. In this article the prevalence of problem gambling in Finland and the socio-demographic profiles of problem gamblers are studied. An annual postal survey entitled Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population AVTK was sent to a random sample of Finnish adults (N=5000) aged between 15 and 64. The sample was derived from the Finnish Population Register. The survey was mailed to the participants in April 2010. Gender differences in socio-demographic variables and Problem Gambling Severity Index PGSI were assessed. A multinomial regression model was created in order to explore the association between socio-demographic factors and the severity of gambling. A total of 2826 individuals (1243 males and 1583 females) replied to the survey. Of the respondents, 1.1% (2.1% of males, 0.3% of females) were identified as problem gamblers. Those who were of younger age, gender, had less than twelve years of education, consumed alcohol at risk level and smoked had higher odds of having low or moderate levels of gambling problems. Whereas, unemployment and smoking predicted significantly for problem gambling. Females gambled Lotto and slot machines less frequently than males and had more low level gambling problems. Males gambled more with a higher frequency and had a more severe level of gambling problems. Females were more attracted to scratch card gambling and daily Keno lotteries compared to males. In comparison, males gambled more on internet poker sites than females. Overall, a high frequency of gambling in Lotto, daily lotteries, slot machines, horse race betting and internet

  11. An analysis of problem gambling among the Finnish working-age population: a population survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Gambling problems currently affect approximately 100 000 Finns. In order to prevent and reduce gambling-related harms it is crucial for the Finnish public health authorities to gain a stronger understanding of the association between gambling problems and related socio-demographic factors, other commonly co-occurring dependencies (e.g. alcohol and nicotine) and the type of games gambled. In this article the prevalence of problem gambling in Finland and the socio-demographic profiles of problem gamblers are studied. Method An annual postal survey entitled Health Behaviour and Health among the Finnish Adult Population AVTK was sent to a random sample of Finnish adults (N=5000) aged between 15 and 64. The sample was derived from the Finnish Population Register. The survey was mailed to the participants in April 2010. Gender differences in socio-demographic variables and Problem Gambling Severity Index PGSI were assessed. A multinomial regression model was created in order to explore the association between socio-demographic factors and the severity of gambling. Results A total of 2826 individuals (1243 males and 1583 females) replied to the survey. Of the respondents, 1.1% (2.1% of males, 0.3% of females) were identified as problem gamblers. Those who were of younger age, gender, had less than twelve years of education, consumed alcohol at risk level and smoked had higher odds of having low or moderate levels of gambling problems. Whereas, unemployment and smoking predicted significantly for problem gambling. Females gambled Lotto and slot machines less frequently than males and had more low level gambling problems. Males gambled more with a higher frequency and had a more severe level of gambling problems. Females were more attracted to scratch card gambling and daily Keno lotteries compared to males. In comparison, males gambled more on internet poker sites than females. Overall, a high frequency of gambling in Lotto, daily lotteries, slot machines, horse

  12. The White House saga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daković Nevena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Frank Capra expressed his gratitude to the immigrant dream come true by creating a brilliant cinematic myth about the American political system, presenting it as an 'inherently good' when in the hands of honest and good people. His 'morality fairytales', 'fantasies of good will' imbued with belief in restoration of old-new principles, offer complex reflections on an idealised Americanism of the 1930s which have become the foundation of representations of the American political system. The Capraesque narrative - 'a blend of optimism, humor, patriotism, and, to those who really understand his work, (and darkness, despair, and the need to fight for things you care about...' (Bassinger 1982: 48 - as a combination of all-American values, ordinary people and historical figures, a democracy myth - has been extended by an endless network of intertextual echoes in film and TV production. Following the developmental lines - through political melodrama, melodramatic politics and political soap opera - one will be led from Capra to the series The West Wing (1996 - 2006, House of Cards (2013 - 2015 and Madame Secretary (2014 - ; from the comprehensive Washington Postcard (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, 1939 to the focal points at the White House; from Capra's comedy to the saga of the fight against terrorism led by the president and both ordinary and trained American citizens (White House Down, 2013, Roland Emmerich.

  13. Explaining the Mind: Problems, Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2001-01-01

    The mind/body problem is the feeling/function problem: How and why do feeling systems feel? The problem is not just "hard" but insoluble (unless one is ready to resort to telekinetic dualism). Fortunately, the "easy" problems of cognitive science (such as the how and why of categorization and language) are not insoluble. Five books (by Damasio, Edelman/Tononi...

  14. The Relationship of Tobacco Use With Gambling Problem Severity and Gambling Treatment Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Stinchfield, Randy; Golberstein, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to examine the impact of tobacco use on gambling treatment. Pathological gambling (PG) is a psychiatric condition associated with significant financial, emotional, and psychosocial consequences. Elevated rates of nicotine dependence have been associated with increased gambling...... severity and more frequent psychiatric problems. A total of 385 treatment-seeking pathological gamblers enrolled in one of 11 gambling treatment providers in Minnesota were assessed. Linear regression modeling was used to examine demographic and clinical variables at treatment entry and the relationship...... between those variables and the number of days gambled at a 6-month posttreatment. Logistic regression was utilized to assess predictors of treatment completion. Daily tobacco use was reported in 244 (63.4%) subjects. Tobacco users presented with significantly more severe gambling and mental health...

  15. ILC Higgs White Paper

    CERN Document Server

    Asner, D.M.; Calancha, C.; Fujii, K.; Graf, N.; Haber, H.E.; Ishikawa, A.; Kanemura, S.; Kawada, S.; Kurata, M.; Miyamoto, A.; Neal, H.; Ono, H.; Potter, C.; Strube, J.; Suehara, T.; Tanabe, T.; Tian, J.; Tsumura, J.; Watanuki, S.; Weiglein, G.; Yagyu, K.; Yokoya, H.

    2013-01-01

    The ILC Higgs White Paper is a review of Higgs Boson theory and experiment at the International Linear Collider (ILC). Theory topics include the Standard Model Higgs, the two-Higgs doublet model, alternative approaches to electroweak symmetry breaking, and precision goals for Higgs boson experiments. Experimental topics include the measurement of the Higgs cross section times branching ratio for various Higgs decay modes at ILC center of mass energies of 250, 500, and 1000 GeV, and the extraction of Higgs couplings and the total Higgs width from these measurements. Luminosity scenarios based on the ILC TDR machine design are used throughout. The gamma-gamma collider option at the ILC is also discussed.

  16. Risk Factors for Problem Gambling in California: Demographics, Comorbidities and Gambling Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volberg, Rachel A; McNamara, Lauren M; Carris, Kari L

    2017-07-06

    While population surveys have been carried out in numerous jurisdictions internationally, little has been done to assess the relative strength of different risk factors that may contribute to the development of problem gambling. This is an important preparatory step for future research on the etiology of problem gambling. Using data from the 2006 California Problem Gambling Prevalence Survey, a telephone survey of adult California residents that used the NODS to assess respondents for gambling problems, binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify demographic characteristics, health-related behaviors, and gambling participation variables that statistically predicted the odds of being a problem or pathological gambler. In a separate approach, linear regression analysis was used to assess the impact of changes in these variables on the severity of the disorder. In both of the final models, the greatest statistical predictor of problem gambling status was past year Internet gambling. Furthermore, the unique finding of a significant interaction between physical or mental disability, Internet gambling, and problem gambling highlights the importance of exploring the interactions between different forms of gambling, the experience of mental and physical health issues, and the development of problem gambling using a longitudinal lens.

  17. White Religious Educators Resisting White Fragility: Lessons from Mystics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Decades of work in dismantling racism have not yielded the kind of results for which religious educators have hoped. One primary reason has been what scholars term "white fragility," a symptom of the structural racism which confers systemic privilege upon White people. Lessons learned from Christian mystics point to powerful ways to…

  18. 50 CFR 660.373 - Pacific whiting (whiting) fishery management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... whiting caught shoreward of 100-fm (183-m) in the Eureka, CA area.The “per trip” limit for other.../Groundfish-Fishery-Management/Whiting-Management/index.cfm), phone, fax, letter, press release, and/or USCG... fm (183 m) depth contour. Latitude and longitude coordinates defining the boundary line approximating...

  19. The Achievement Gap between White and Non-White Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-LeBouef, Ana; Slate, John R.

    2012-01-01

    This Collection contains three seminal modules by Authors Ana Rojas-LeBouef and John R. Slate, professors and researchers from Sam Houston State University in Texas. They are nationally recognized scholars in the area of the academic inequity between White and Non-White students. This paper is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1--The…

  20. Multiple Pathways to Whiteness: White Teachers' Unsteady Racial Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Erin T.

    2017-01-01

    Teacher education programs in the US, recognizing the mismatch that exists in preschool provision between mostly white teachers and a very diverse intake of young children, have begun to explore ways of raising racial awareness among pre-service teachers, with the aim of improving non-white children's classroom experiences and outcomes. This paper…

  1. Silvicultural guide for northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuelle Boulfroy; Eric Forget; Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Catherine Larouche; Guy Lessard; Jean-Martin Lussier; Fred Pinto; Jean-Claude Ruel; Aaron. Weiskittel

    2012-01-01

    Northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar; Thuja occidentalis L.) is an important tree species in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, occurring both in pure stands and as a minor species in mixed stands of hardwoods or other softwoods. Yet practitioners have little and often contradictory information about cedar ecology and...

  2. Childbirth Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mother, baby, or both. Possible complications include Preterm (premature) labor, when labor starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy Problems with the umbilical cord Problems with the position of the baby, such as breech, in which ...

  3. Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Foot Problems Basic Facts & Information Foot pain and foot disorders ... keep you active and independent. What are Foot Problems? Decades of standing changes your feet. Much of ...

  4. Breathing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough air. Sometimes you can have mild breathing problems because of a stuffy nose or intense exercise. ... Lung conditions such as asthma, emphysema, or pneumonia Problems with your trachea or bronchi, which are part ...

  5. Walking Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your legs or feet Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease Diseases such as arthritis or multiple sclerosis Vision or balance problems Treatment of walking problems depends on the cause. Physical therapy, surgery, or mobility aids may help.

  6. Black Managers in White Corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, John P.

    The study examines the major determinants of the career patterns of black managers in white businesses and the effects of corporations on their black managers' identities and relationships to the black community. Analyzed were occupational mobility theories; white and black managers' career patterns, goals, and related factors; company employment…

  7. White noise and sleep induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J A; Moran, D J; Lee, A; Talbert, D

    1990-01-01

    We studied two groups of 20 neonates, between 2 and 7 days old, in a randomised trial. Sixteen (80%) fell asleep within five minutes in response to white noise compared with only five (25%) who fell asleep spontaneously in the control group. White noise may help mothers settle difficult babies.

  8. Axion cooling of white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Isern, J.; Catalan, S.; Garcia--Berro, E.; Salaris, M.; Torres, S.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This process can be tested in two ways, through the luminosity function of these stars and through the secular variation of the period of pulsation of those stars that are variable. Here we show how the mass of the axion can be constrained using the white dwarf luminosity function.

  9. Astrophysics of white dwarf binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    White dwarf binaries are the most common compact binaries in the Universe and are especially important for low-frequency gravitational wave detectors such as LISA. There are a number of open questions about binary evolution and the Galactic population of white dwarf binaries that can be solved using

  10. Acting White: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kitae

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis of acting White has been heatedly debated and influential over the last 20 years or so in explaining the Black-White test score gap. Recently, economists have joined the debate and started providing new theoretical and empirical analyses of the phenomenon. This paper critically reviews the arguments that have been advanced to…

  11. Factors associated with disordered gambling in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Castr?n, Sari; Basnet, Syaron; Salonen, Anne H.; Pankakoski, Maiju; Ronkainen, Jenni-Emilia; Alho, Hannu; Lahti, Tuuli

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the socio-demographic characteristics of non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers and pathological gamblers, to investigate the association between gambling related factors and perceived health and well-being among the three subgroups of gamblers, and to analyse simultaneously socio-demographic characteristics, gambling related factors and perceived health and well-being and the severity of disordered gambling (problem gamblers and pathologica...

  12. Prevalence and correlates of gambling problems among a nationally representative sample of Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritzer, Daniel Tornaim; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Benzano, Daniela Bumaguin; Laranjeira, Ronaldo Ramos; Pinsky, Ilana; Zaleski, Marcos; Caetano, Raul; Tavares, Hermano

    2011-12-01

    The objectives of the study are: (a) to provide the first prevalence estimates of pathological gambling among Brazilian adolescents using an age-specific instrument in a nationally representative sample; (b) to investigate the extent to which adolescents participate in gambling activities in a developing country; and (c) to correlate different levels of gambling behavior with demographic variables. Multistage cluster sampling selected 3,007 individuals over 14 years of age from Brazilian household population. A total of 661 participants were between 14 and 17 years old. The Lie/Bet Questionnaire and the DSM-IV-MR-J were used for assessing problem and pathological gambling. 2.8% scored positive on the screening questionnaire, while 1.6% were classified as problem and pathological gamblers. Factors associated with problem and pathological gambling were male sex, not currently studying and considering religion as not important. Less than 4 months elapsed between the age of regular gambling involvement and the first gambling problem. Prevalence rates were quite similar from recent studies which used nationally representative samples. The association of problem and pathological gambling with male sex, school drop-out and low religiosity supports the Problem Behavior Theory. The fast progression to problem gambling adds evidence that adolescents may be more vulnerable to the effects of gambling.

  13. Marital Status and Problem Gambling Among Australian Older Adults: The Mediating Role of Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botterill, Emma; Gill, Peter Richard; McLaren, Suzanne; Gomez, Rapson

    2016-09-01

    Problem gambling rates in older adults have risen dramatically in recent years and require further investigation. Limited available research has suggested that social needs may motivate gambling and hence problem gambling in older adults. Un-partnered older adults may be at greater risk of problem gambling than those with a partner. The current study explored whether loneliness mediated the marital status-problem gambling relationship, and whether gender moderated the mediation model. It was hypothesised that the relationship between being un-partnered and higher levels of loneliness would be stronger for older men than older women. A community sample of Australian men (n = 92) and women (n = 91) gamblers aged from 60 to 90 years (M = 69.75, SD = 7.28) completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Problem Gambling Severity Index. The results supported the moderated mediation model, with loneliness mediating the relationship between marital status and problem gambling for older men but not for older women. It appears that felt loneliness is an important predictor of problem gambling in older adults, and that meeting the social and emotional needs of un-partnered men is important.

  14. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  15. White House Conference on Families: Summary of State Reports. Addendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White House Conference on Families, Washington, DC.

    Prepared as an address to the White House Conference on Families, this addendum includes state by state summaries of recommendations for solving some of the key problems facing American families today. Included are recommendations from the following states: Massachusetts, Mississippi, New Jersey, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, and…

  16. Weak managers and the plight of white-collar workers

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschhorn, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Far too many employees are unhappy at work. Today, one of the major problems - resulting from weak, callous, dispassionate, greedy managers and leaders - is the great number of workers, including white-collar ones, who are grossly underemployed, underpaid, and maltreated by management.

  17. White spots in the pupil (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occasion, the pupil of the eye may appear white. This is never a normal condition and requires ... an ophthalmologist. The causes of a cloudy or white cornea are different than those of a white ...

  18. Counselor Intake Judgments About White and Black Clients in a University Counseling Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, John B.; Richards, Thomas F.

    1987-01-01

    Compared counselor intake judgment about White and Black clients at a university counseling center. Counselors reported significantly higher ratings on judged potential for change in Black as compared to White clients. Type and severity of presenting problem, client anxiety level, ease of expression, motivation, realism of goals, and physical…

  19. The Canary in the Mine: The Achievement Gap Between Black and White Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singham, Mano

    1998-01-01

    Favored explanations for the achievement gap between black and white students reflect experts' positions on the ideological spectrum, while overlooking fundamental problems with the educational delivery system. The situation of black students is not hopeless, thanks to new research that abandons whites' academic performance as the norm and…

  20. Popular Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the "What's the problem represented to be" (WPR) approach. Forty-nine…

  1. Hearing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Hearing ProblemsLoss in the ability to hear or discriminate ... This flow chart will help direct you if hearing loss is a problem for you or a ...

  2. Sharing problem gamblers’ experiences: a text analysis of gambling stories via online forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caputo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored some common thematic domains which characterised problem gambling experiences of adult Italian participants with the aim of understanding motivations and expectations of problem gamblers and thus promoting better psychological interventions. Emotional Text Analysis was performed on 24 problem gambling stories collected via online forum in order to detect the main themes (cluster analysis and latent factors (correspondence analysis emerging in gamblers’ narratives. Five themes emerged which respectively refer to guilt (16.15%, obsession (27.60%, disease (30.77%, risk taking (15.89% and emotion regulation (4.17%. In addition, four synthetic dimensions were detected which consent to account the variability of problem gambling experience based on: struggle against compulsion (F1, ambivalent acceptance of gambling (F2, interpersonal detachment (F3 and illusion of control (F4. From the emotional experience shaping the problem gamblers’ narratives, this research study allows the identification of some factors which can contribute to quality research on problem gambling and which can provide some useful suggestion for treatment.

  3. Daily Fantasy Sports Players: Gambling, Addiction, and Mental Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nower, Lia; Caler, Kyle R; Pickering, Dylan; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2018-01-19

    Studies point to a relationship between fantasy sports/daily fantasy sports (DFS) play and gambling behavior. However, little is known about the nature of those relationships, particularly regarding the development of gambling problems. This study investigates the nature, frequency, and preferences of gambling behavior as well as problem gambling severity and comorbid conditions among DFS players. Data were collected from an epidemiologic survey of 3634 New Jersey residents on gambling and leisure activities. Participants were contacted by phone (land-line and cell) and online to obtain a representative, cross-sectional sample of non-institutionalized adults, aged 18 years or older. Excluding non-gamblers, the remaining 2146 participants, included in these analyses, indicated they had either played DFS (n = 299) or had gambled but not played DFS (1847) in the past year. Univariate comparisons and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the most significant characteristics and predictors of DFS players. Overall, a higher number of gambling activities, high frequency gambling, male gender, and reports of suicidal thoughts in the past year were most predictive of DFS players. Being Hispanic (vs. Caucasian) and/or single (vs. married or living with a partner) also doubled the odds of DFS play. Findings suggest that DFS players are characterized by high gambling frequency and problem severity and comorbid problems, notably suicidal ideation. Future research should examine the motivations and possible etiological sub-types of DFS players and the nature and course of DFS play, particularly in relation to gambling behavior and the development of gambling and other problems.

  4. The White Adolescent's Drug Odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Douglas S.; Marel, Rozanne

    1980-01-01

    Presents a "typical" case history of a White middle-class teenager who becomes involved with marihuana and subsequently begins to abuse other drugs. Sociological findings from other research are interspersed in the anecdotal account. (GC)

  5. White mold of Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a Native American food plant closely related to the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Tubers of Jerusalem artichoke are increasingly available in retail grocery outlets. White mold (Sclerotinia stem rot), caused by the fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotioru...

  6. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marx JA, et al., eds. Anemia, polycythemia, and white blood cells disorders. In: Rosen's Emergency Medicine. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. ...

  7. White matter of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Clinical Applications. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 9. Ransom BR, Goldberg MP, Arai K, Baltan S. White matter pathophysiology. In: Grotta JC, Albers GW, Broderick ...

  8. Are hills like white elephants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 'Are Hills Like White Elephants?' is, of course, inspired by Hemingway; the tribute reflects on the abiding relevance of serious art in a changed world and extends the boundaries of his message to other human situations.

  9. The odour of white bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, E.J.

    1973-01-01

    Volatile constituents of white bread were investigated. Different methods were used for isolating and concentrating components to avoid artefacts as far as possible. Especially good was enlarged vapour analysis. Ninety-four components were identified, including hydrocarbons, alcohols,

  10. The Gambler's Fallacy and Gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suetens, S.; Tyran, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    The “gambler’s fallacy” is the false belief that a random event is less likely to occur if the event has occurred recently. Such beliefs are false if the onset of events is in fact independent of previous events. We study gender differences in the gambler’s fallacy using data from the Danish state

  11. Effect of White Noise on Sleep in Patients Admitted to a Coronary Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farokhnezhad Afshar, Pouya; Bahramnezhad, Fatemeh; Asgari, Parvaneh; Shiri, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disorders are a common problem in patients in the critical care unit. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of white noise on the quality of sleep in patients admitted to the CCU...

  12. A Sprinkle of Pepper: The State of Black Influence in White Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Frank W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of Blacks in white institutions of higher education is no more than a sprinkling of pepper. The article discusses some problems facing the Black students, Black faculty and Black administrators at these schools. (Author/HMV)

  13. Throwing Icebergs at White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, Alexander P.; Naoz, Smadar; Zuckerman, B.

    2017-01-01

    White dwarfs have atmospheres that are expected to consist nearly entirely of hydrogen and helium, since heavier elements will sink out of sight on short timescales. However, observations have revealed atmospheric pollution by heavier elements in about a quarter to a half of all white dwarfs. While most of the pollution can be accounted for with asteroidal or dwarf planetary material, recent observations indicate that larger planetary bodies, as well as icy and volatile material from Kuiper b...

  14. The white olives of Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Verde, Tom

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the history of olives and olive oil in the Mediterranean throughout history. He puts on special emphasis on the white olive of Malta, which was highly prized by the Knights of St. John and the aristocracy. This native variety of the white olive had with time all but disappeared. It is now making a comeback thanks to the efforts of a local man, Sam Cremona.

  15. At-risk and problem gambling among adolescents: a convenience sample of first-year junior high school students in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrén, Sari; Grainger, Marjut; Lahti, Tuuli; Alho, Hannu; Salonen, Anne H

    2015-03-08

    Adolescent gambling and substance use are viewed as a public health concern internationally. The early onset age of gambling is a known risk factor for developing gambling problems later in life. The aims of this study are: to evaluate the internal consistency reliability, factorial validity and classification accuracy of the Finnish version of DSM-IV-Multiple Response-Juvenile (DSM-IV-MR-J) criteria measuring at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG); to examine gender differences in gambling participation, ARPG and substance use among first-year junior high school students; and to investigate the association of gambling and gaming (video game playing) participation, substance use and social variables with ARPG. This study examined 988 adolescents (mean age 13.4 years) at 11 public schools in Finland between October-December 2013. The response rate was 91.6%. Chi-squared test and binary logistic regression analysis were used. 'Illegal acts' was the most endorsed and sensitive, but the least specific criteria identifying ARPG. During the past year, 51.6% of the respondents had gambled, 7.9% were identified as at-risk/problem gamblers (DSM-IV-MR-J score ≥ 2), 8.0% had smoked and 8.9% had been drinking for intoxication, and the first three were significantly more common among boys than girls. The odds ratio of being a male past-year at-risk/problem gambler was 2.27, 5.78 for gambling often or sometimes, 2.42 for video game playing weekly or more often and 6.23 for having peer gamblers. Overall, the Finnish version of the DSM-IV-MR-J had acceptable internal consistency reliability and factorial validity. None of the DSM-IV-MR-J criteria were accurate enough to screen ARPG per se. ARPG past-year prevalence was relatively high with males gambling more than females. ARPG was as common as drinking alcohol for intoxication and smoking. Peer gambling was strongly associated with ARPG. Efficient strategies to minimise the risks of gambling problems, tools for prevention and

  16. Problem Gambling and Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Nicki; Suomi, Aino; Jackson, Alun; Lavis, Tiffany; Patford, Janet; Cockman, Suzanne; Thomas, Shane; Bellringer, Maria; Koziol-Mclain, Jane; Battersby, Malcolm; Harvey, Peter; Abbott, Max

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a systematic review of the empirical evidence related to the association between problem gambling and intimate partner violence (IPV). We identified 14 available studies in the systematic search (8 for victimisation only, 4 for perpetration only and 2 for both victimisation and perpetration). Although there were some equivocal findings, we found that most of the available research suggests that there is a significant relationship between problem gambling and being a victim of IPV. There was more consistent evidence that there is a significant relationship between problem gambling and perpetration of IPV. Meta-analyses revealed that over one third of problem gamblers report being victims of physical IPV (38.1%) or perpetrators of physical IPV (36.5%) and that the prevalence of problem gambling in IPV perpetrators is 11.3%. Although the exact nature of the relationships between problem gambling and IPV is yet to be determined, the findings suggest that less than full employment and clinical anger problems are implicated in the relationship between problem gambling and IPV victimization and that younger age, less than full employment, clinical anger problems, impulsivity, and alcohol and substance use are implicated in the relationship between problem gambling and IPV perpetration. The findings highlight the need for treatment services to undertake routine screening and assessment of problem gambling, IPV, alcohol and substance use problems, and mental health issues and provide interventions designed to manage this cluster of comorbid conditions. Further research is also required to investigate the relationship between problem gambling and violence that extends into the family beyond intimate partners. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Singing and dancing white dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukadam, Anjum S; Szkody, Paula [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Gaensicke, Boris T [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Nitta, Atsuko, E-mail: anjum@astro.washington.ed [Gemini Observatory, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Accreting white dwarfs have recently been shown to exhibit non-radial pulsations similar to their non-interacting counterparts. This allows us to probe the interior of the accreting white dwarf using seismology, and may be the only way to determine masses for non-eclipsing cataclysmic variables. Improving our understanding of accreting white dwarfs will have implications for models of supernovae Type Ia. Pulsating white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables are also useful in establishing the effects of accretion on pulsations. A search for nonradial pulsations among suitable candidates has led to the discovery of twelve such systems known to date. With the goal of establishing an instability strip (or strips) for these pulsating accretors, we acquired HST ultra-violet time-series spectroscopy of six pulsating white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables in 2007 and 2008. This approach enables us to measure the effective temperature of the white dwarf using the co-added spectrum, and to simultaneously characterize the pulsations. We also intended to constrain the pulsation mode identification by comparing the ultra-violet amplitudes to those from near-simultaneous ground-based photometry. Our preliminary results indicate a broad instability strip in the temperature range of 10500-15400 K.

  18. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Nutrition Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & ... build-up of waste products, and other serious consequences in later years. Doses of medications must also ...

  19. Popular problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the ‘What's the problem represented...... to be’ (WPR) approach. Forty-nine empirical studies on Danish youth career guidance were included in the study. An analysis of the issues in focus resulted in nine problem categories. One of these, ‘targeting’, is analysed using the WPR approach. Finally, the article concludes that the WPR approach...... provides a constructive basis for a critical analysis and discussion of the collective empirical knowledge production on career guidance, stimulating awareness of problems and potential solutions among the career guidance community....

  20. School Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsbourne, Marcel

    1973-01-01

    Intended for pediatricians, the article considers aspects of diagnosis and treatment of learning problems including definitions and documentation, the examination, developmental lag, intelligence and psychometry, reversals, serial ordering, cognitive processes in reading, and hyperactivity. (DB)

  1. Let's Talk about Race, Baby: How a White Professor Teaches White Students about White Privilege and Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Peter

    2008-01-01

    There are a variety of methods by which the themes of White privilege and racism can be presented to White students. By using the concept of racial identity a continuum of racism can be considered. Furthermore, addressing White privilege and racism in the context of a multicultural psychology course allows White students to have a greater…

  2. Entanglement probabilities of polymers: a white noise functional approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bernido, C C

    2003-01-01

    The entanglement probabilities for a highly flexible polymer to wind n times around a straight polymer are evaluated using white noise analysis. To introduce the white noise functional approach, the one-dimensional random walk problem is taken as an example. The polymer entanglement scenario, viewed as a random walk on a plane, is then treated and the entanglement probabilities are obtained for a magnetic flux confined along the straight polymer, and a case where an entangled polymer is subjected to the potential V = f-dot(s)theta. In the absence of the magnetic flux and the potential V, the entanglement probabilities reduce to a result obtained by Wiegel.

  3. Knapsack problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Hans; Pisinger, David

    2004-01-01

    Thirteen years have passed since the seminal book on knapsack problems by Martello and Toth appeared. On this occasion a former colleague exclaimed back in 1990: "How can you write 250 pages on the knapsack problem?" Indeed, the definition of the knapsack problem is easily understood even by a non-expert who will not suspect the presence of challenging research topics in this area at the first glance. However, in the last decade a large number of research publications contributed new results for the knapsack problem in all areas of interest such as exact algorithms, heuristics and approximation schemes. Moreover, the extension of the knapsack problem to higher dimensions both in the number of constraints and in the num­ ber of knapsacks, as well as the modification of the problem structure concerning the available item set and the objective function, leads to a number of interesting variations of practical relevance which were the subject of intensive research during the last few years. Hence, two years ago ...

  4. Boundary Value Problems Arising in Kalman Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashirov Agamirza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic Kalman filtering equations for independent and correlated white noises are ordinary differential equations (deterministic or stochastic with the respective initial conditions. Changing the noise processes by taking them to be more realistic wide band noises or delayed white noises creates challenging partial differential equations with initial and boundary conditions. In this paper, we are aimed to give a survey of this connection between Kalman filtering and boundary value problems, bringing them into the attention of mathematicians as well as engineers dealing with Kalman filtering and boundary value problems.

  5. Boundary Value Problems Arising in Kalman Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Ertürk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic Kalman filtering equations for independent and correlated white noises are ordinary differential equations (deterministic or stochastic with the respective initial conditions. Changing the noise processes by taking them to be more realistic wide band noises or delayed white noises creates challenging partial differential equations with initial and boundary conditions. In this paper, we are aimed to give a survey of this connection between Kalman filtering and boundary value problems, bringing them into the attention of mathematicians as well as engineers dealing with Kalman filtering and boundary value problems.

  6. Gambling in Finland: problem gambling in the context of a national monopoly in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammi, Tuukka; Castrén, Sari; Lintonen, Tomi

    2015-05-01

    To describe and analyse the Finnish gambling market, regulatory system and the state of gambling research as well as the treatment system in operation for problem gamblers. A review of the literature and official documents relating to gambling in Finland, focusing primarily on the 1990s and 2000s. Only in recent years have gambling problems become a major issue for public debate in Finland. One reason for the increase in activity to address gambling problems is that, after Finland became a member of the European Union in 1995, the Finnish state gambling monopoly and its compatibility with European Union (EU) regulations have been questioned repeatedly. Since 2000, the Finnish government has put significant new resources into the research as well as the prevention and treatment of gambling problems. The resources grew from almost nothing to several million Euros in less than 10 years. This could be seen as an attempt to protect the national gambling monopoly system by showing that the Finnish monopoly system meets EU requirements. Since joining the European Union in 1995, the Finnish government has been able to maintain its gambling monopoly by providing substantial resources to signal a commitment to minimizing problem gambling. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Bootstrapping white matter segmentation, Eve++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassard, Andrew; Hinton, Kendra E.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary.

  8. [Auditory threshold for white noise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrat, R; Thillier, J L; Durivault, J

    1975-01-01

    The liminal auditory threshold for white noise and for coloured noise was determined from a statistical survey of a group of 21 young people with normal hearing. The normal auditory threshold for white noise with a spectrum covering the whole of the auditory field is between -- 0.57 dB +/- 8.78. The normal auditory threshold for bands of filtered white noise (coloured noise with a central frequency corresponding to the pure frequencies usually employed in tonal audiometry) describes a typical curve which, instead of being homothetic to the usual tonal curves, sinks to low frequencies and then rises. The peak of this curve is replaced by a broad plateau ranging from 750 to 6000 Hz and contained in the concavity of the liminal tonal curves. The ear is therefore less sensitive but, at limited acoustic pressure, white noise first impinges with the same discrimination upon the whole of the conversational zone of the auditory field. Discovery of the audiometric threshold for white noise constitutes a synthetic method of measuring acuteness of hearing which considerably reduces the amount of manipulation required.

  9. Calculus problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baronti, Marco; van der Putten, Robertus; Venturi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    This book, intended as a practical working guide for students in Engineering, Mathematics, Physics, or any other field where rigorous calculus is needed, includes 450 exercises. Each chapter starts with a summary of the main definitions and results, which is followed by a selection of solved exercises accompanied by brief, illustrative comments. A selection of problems with indicated solutions rounds out each chapter. A final chapter explores problems that are not designed with a single issue in mind but instead call for the combination of a variety of techniques, rounding out the book’s coverage. Though the book’s primary focus is on functions of one real variable, basic ordinary differential equations (separation of variables, linear first order and constant coefficients ODEs) are also discussed. The material is taken from actual written tests that have been delivered at the Engineering School of the University of Genoa. Literally thousands of students have worked on these problems, ensuring their real-...

  10. You Showed Your Whiteness: You Don't Get a "Good" White People's Medal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Cleveland; Juarez, Brenda G.

    2009-01-01

    The White liberal is a person who finds themselves defined as White, as an oppressor, in short, and retreats in horror from that designation. The desire to be and to be known as a good White person stems from the recognition that Whiteness is problematic, recognition that many White liberals try to escape by being demonstrably different from…

  11. The Fate of Exploding White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae play an important role as standardizable candles for cosmology, providing one of the most important probes into the nature of dark energy. Yet, the nature of the stellar progenitors which give rise to Type Ia supernovae remains elusive. For decades, the leading model explaining Type Ia supernovae properties consisted of a white dwarf accreting to near the Chandrasekhar mass, in the single-degenerate channel. More recently, a variety of lines of evidence point instead towards merging binary white dwarfs, in the double-degenerate channel, as the progenitors of most Type Ia supernovae. In this talk, I will focus upon recent advances at the interface between observation and theory which will help crack the Type Ia progenitor problem. In particular, I will present new insights obtained from recent multidimensional numerical simulations of both the double-degenerate and single-degenerate channels which I have undertaken with my students and collaborators. I will discuss how new models and observations will help elucidate the long-standing mystery of Type supernovae.

  12. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common source of vertigo) headache (including migraines) anxiety or panic ringing in the ears allergies or infections getting up quickly from sitting or lying down a growth on the auditory nerve that works with the ear (such as an acoustic neuroma) problems with nerves in your legs and ...

  13. Prostate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems can cause you to go to the bathroom frequently feel as if you need to rush to the bathroom, only to find you can’t urinate or ... and disseminates research findings through its clearinghouses and education programs to increase knowledge and understanding about health ...

  14. WHITE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Kenneth; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. If mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in veins and breccia pipes or, more significanlty, the possibility for large low-grade disseminated porphyry-type molybdenum deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources in the area.

  15. Whiteness and difference in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David G

    2006-04-01

    This paper uses a semiotic, performative theory of language and post-colonial theory to argue that nursing's representations of 'multiculturalism' need to be grounded in a theory of whiteness, an historicized understanding of how ethnic/cultural differences come to be represented in the ways they are and informed by Foucault's notions of power/knowledge. Using nursing education and 'cultural compentency' as examples, the paper draws on a range of literatures to suggest more critical and politically productive ways of approaching difference from within nursing's largely white interpretive framework.

  16. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  17. Entangled light from white noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenio, M B; Huelga, S F

    2002-05-13

    An atom that couples to two distinct leaky optical cavities is driven by an external optical white noise field. We describe how entanglement between the light fields sustained by two optical cavities arises in such a situation. The entanglement is maximized for intermediate values of the cavity damping rates and the intensity of the white noise field, vanishing both for small and for large values of these parameters and thus exhibiting a stochastic-resonancelike behavior. This example illustrates the possibility of generating entanglement by exclusively incoherent means and sheds new light on the constructive role noise may play in certain tasks of interest for quantum information processing.

  18. Models-Based Practice: Great White Hope or White Elephant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many critical curriculum theorists in physical education have advocated a model- or models-based approach to teaching in the subject. This paper explores the literature base around models-based practice (MBP) and asks if this multi-models approach to curriculum planning has the potential to be the great white hope of pedagogical change…

  19. Blanco White and Walter Scott Blanco white y Walter Scott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando DURÁN LÓPEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first edition of Ivanhoe; a romance. By the author of Waverley was published in Edinburgh in 1820. From the beginning of year 1823, José María Blanco White translated several excerpts from Ivanhoe in the numbers 1-3 of the magazine Variedades, owned by the publisher Rudolph Ackermann. in these articles and other later writings, the translator praised Scott as a model for a new way of painting history in a narrative. This paper studies his ideas on Scott’s historical novel, as well as his translation technique, compared with that of José Joaquín de Mora. En 1820 se publicó en Edimburgo la primera edición de Ivanhoe; a romance. By the author of Waverley. Desde comienzos de 1823, en los tres primeros números de su revista Variedades, promovida por el editor Rudolph Ackermann, José María Blanco White tradujo varios fragmentos de Ivanhoe entre grandes elogios. Asimismo, Blanco White tomó a Scott como modelo de referencia de una nueva manera de pintar la historia por medio de la novela en otros varios escritos críticos de años posteriores. El artículo estudia las ideas de Blanco White acerca de la novela histórica de Scott y su técnica como traductor, comparada con la de José Joaquín Mora.

  20. Working through Whiteness: White, Male College Students Challenging Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study relies on Freire's conception of liberatory praxis to examine White male college students' becoming aware of racism and translating awareness into action. The participants developed racial cognizance via cross-racial contact and course content. They also tended to be open to interrogating racism and racial privilege due to…

  1. How the causes, consequences and solutions for problem gambling are reported in Australian newspapers: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Helen E; Thomas, Samantha L; Robinson, Priscilla; Daube, Mike

    2014-12-01

    To inform public health approaches to problem gambling by examining how the news media covers problem gambling, with a particular focus on the causes, consequences and solutions to problem gambling, and the 'actors' and sources who influence media coverage. A qualitative content analysis guided by framing theory analysed coverage of problem gambling in Australian newspapers in the period 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012. Solutions to problem gambling were more frequently discussed than causes and consequences. A focus on the responsibility of individuals was preferred to reporting that focused on broader social, ecological, and industry determinants of problem gambling. Reporting was highly politicised, with politicians frequently quoted and political issues frequently discussed. In contrast, the community sector, health professionals and problem gamblers were rarely quoted. This analysis has revealed the need for a more proactive, coordinated approach to the media by both public health researchers and health groups. The establishment of a gambling-specific coalition to push for evidence-based reform is recommended. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Dynamical symmetries of Markov processes with multiplicative white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Camille; Barci, Daniel G.; Cugliandolo, Leticia F.; González Arenas, Zochil; Lozano, Gustavo S.

    2016-05-01

    We analyse various properties of stochastic Markov processes with multiplicative white noise. We take a single-variable problem as a simple example, and we later extend the analysis to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for the stochastic dynamics of a magnetic moment. In particular, we focus on the non-equilibrium transfer of angular momentum to the magnetization from a spin-polarised current of electrons, a technique which is widely used in the context of spintronics to manipulate magnetic moments. We unveil two hidden dynamical symmetries of the generating functionals of these Markovian multiplicative white-noise processes. One symmetry only holds in equilibrium and we use it to prove generic relations such as the fluctuation-dissipation theorems. Out of equilibrium, we take profit of the symmetry-breaking terms to prove fluctuation theorems. The other symmetry yields strong dynamical relations between correlation and response functions which can notably simplify the numerical analysis of these problems. Our construction allows us to clarify some misconceptions on multiplicative white-noise stochastic processes that can be found in the literature. In particular, we show that a first-order differential equation with multiplicative white noise can be transformed into an additive-noise equation, but that the latter keeps a non-trivial memory of the discretisation prescription used to define the former.

  3. Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Hu

    2015-01-01

    the nonsmooth convex optimization problem. First, by using Moreau-Yosida regularization, we convert the original objective function to a continuously differentiable function; then we use approximate function and gradient values of the Moreau-Yosida regularization to substitute the corresponding exact values in the algorithm. The global convergence is proved under suitable assumptions. Numerical experiments are presented to show the effectiveness of this algorithm.

  4. [The "lethal white foal" syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blendinger, C; Müller, G; Bostedt, H

    1994-06-01

    The lethal white foal syndrome (congenital intestinal aganglionosis) was diagnosed by history, clinical signs and pathological findings in a female foal, born in March 1992, that was an offspring of two overo-spotted paint horses. The syndrome is a congenital innervation defect of the gastrointestinal tract. A literature review of this condition, relatively unknown in Germany, is given.

  5. White LED motorcycle headlamp design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Shing

    2015-09-01

    The motorcycle headlamp is composed of a white LED module, an elliptical reflector, a parabolic reflector and a toric lens. We use non-sequential ray to improve the optical efficiency of the compound reflectors. Using the toric lens can meet ECE_113 regulation and obtain a good uniformity.

  6. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor about precautions to avoid catching contagious diseases. Always wash your hands regularly and thoroughly. You might also be advised to wear a face mask and avoid anyone with a cold or other illness. References Kumar V, et al. Diseases of white blood cells, lymph nodes, spleen, and ...

  7. Healthy Lifestyle Solutions : White Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Joel; Klein, Michel; Beun, Robbert Jan; Boh, Bastiaan; Kamphorst, Bart; Manzoor Rajper, Adnan; Middelweerd, Anouk; Mollee, Julienka; Nauts, Sanne; Roefs, Anne; te Velde, Saskia

    2015-01-01

    The present white paper presents five principles that can guide the design and implementation of effective and appropriate approaches to e-coaching and discusses both their scientific underpinnings and their (potential) applications. The paper crystallises insights that have emerged in recent and

  8. Expanded niche for white sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustany, Andre M; Davis, Scott F; Pyle, Peter; Anderson, Scot D; Le Boeuf, Burney J; Block, Barbara A

    2002-01-03

    Until the advent of electronic tagging technology, the inherent difficulty of studying swift and powerful marine animals made ecological information about sharks of the family Lamnidae difficult to obtain. Here we report the tracking of movements of white sharks by using pop-up satellite archival tags, which reveal that their migratory movements, depth and ambient thermal ranges are wider than was previously thought.

  9. V-2 at White Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-01-01

    A V-2 rocket is hoisted into a static test facility at White Sands, New Mexico. The German engineers and scientists who developed the V-2 came to the United States at the end of World War II and continued rocket testing under the direction of the U. S. Army, launching more than sixty V-2s.

  10. The Whiteness of Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This article examines two major debates in contemporary Australian discourses on the nation: climate change and whiteness studies. It is primarily concerned with establishing a framework for connecting the two discourses, and in that process it raises pivotal questions about how narratives about...

  11. Wood quality of white willow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leclercq

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Based upon an exhaustive work made by Sacré (1974 and a review of the literature sine 1960, the author gathered together the anatomical, physical and mechanical characteristics, the machining behaviour (industrial sawing, planing, surfacing, shaping, mortising and nailing and wood end-uses of white willow.

  12. Dynamical symmetries of Markov processes with multiplicative white noise

    OpenAIRE

    Aron, Camille; Barci, Daniel G.; Cugliandolo, Leticia F.; Arenas, Zochil Gonzalez; Lozano, Gustavo S.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse various properties of stochastic Markov processes with multiplicative white noise. We take a single-variable problem as a simple example, and we later extend the analysis to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for the stochastic dynamics of a magnetic moment. In particular, we focus on the non-equilibrium transfer of angular momentum to the magnetization from a spin-polarised current of electrons, a technique which is widely used in the context of spintronics to manipulate magneti...

  13. Environmental problems

    OpenAIRE

    Neschuk, Nancy Carolina

    1998-01-01

    Los problemas ambientales constituyen una preocupación creciente en las sociedades humanas. La Ecología, considerada como una ciencia teórica diseñada sólo para grupos académicos restringidos, adquiere ahora un valor práctico y sin duda será el mayor problema comercial que habrá que resolver en el siglo XXI. Environmental problems constitute an increasing concern in human societies. Ecology, regarded as a theoretical science designed for only restricted academic groups,...

  14. Psychosexual problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnadine, P

    1985-05-01

    Individual anxieties about sexuality remain surprisingly repetitive despite changing public attitudes toward sexuality. This discussion includes case histories which demonstrate the indirect presentation, using nonverbal and physical cues, adopted by some patients who experience difficulty in verbalizing their sexual problems. When seeking contraceptive consultation, the patient must have no conscious or unconscious anxiety about her desire for sexual pleasure without pregnancy and is entitled to assume, when seeking such advice, that the doctor who offers it has no such prejudices either. When the presenting symptom relates to otherwise illogical contraceptive difficulty, or otherwise invites examination of the genitals, one may suspect that the problem may be sexual and too difficult to express in other than the physical language the patient expects the physician to want. For a couple whose sexual life is comfortably confident and provides pleasure, any contraceptive method will serve its purpose of removing the fear of pregnancy. Such a couple may be advised on logical grounds. For the rest, an open-ended comment such as "I wonder what the real worry is" usually leads to the true anxiety. Yet, at this point, the doctor's anxiety often replaces the patient's since the management of psychosomatic disorders is not part of normal medical training. The temptation to send for the partner and advise a program of relearning, or to make referral to a sex therapy clinic which will do likewise, is strong for any busy doctor who has no psychosexual training. Skill in dealing with such common dilemmas in the context of the brief period allotted to each patient cannot be obtained from a short article, but it is worthwhile for a physician, confronted with a patient whose symptoms do not make sense, to ask what the symptom itself may indicate in terms of the unspoken problem at hand. Most family doctors who understand the training of the Institute of Psychosexual Medicine find

  15. A Study of Cross-Cultural Communication between Blacks and Whites in the U.S. Army. CAL Research Report: 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Orlando; Ferguson, Dianna

    1975-01-01

    This investigation concerned specific verbal and nonverbal sources of communication problems between blacks and whites in the U.S. Army. Special reference was made to the problems which lead to misinterpretations and social offensiveness. (SW)

  16. Gendered racial exclusion among White internet daters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Cynthia; Robnett, Belinda; Komaie, Golnaz

    2009-03-01

    Acceptance by the dominant group reveals the current standing of racial groups in the U.S. hierarchy, as well as the possibility for assimilation. However, few researchers have addressed the gendered nature of racial preferences by whites. We examine whites' exclusion of blacks, Latinos, Asians, Middle Easterners, East Indians and Native Americans as possible dates, using a sample of profiles collected from an internet dating website. We find that white men are more willing than white women to date non-whites in general, yet, with the exception of their top two preferences for dates, whites and Latinos, the racial hierarchies of males and females differ. Among daters with stated racial preferences, white men are more likely to exclude blacks as possible dates, while white women are more likely to exclude Asians. We argue that exclusion relates to racialized images of masculinity and femininity, and shapes dating and marriage outcomes, and thus minority groups' possibilities for full social incorporation.

  17. White Sturgeon Bibliography, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fickeisen, Duane H. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA)

    1986-03-01

    This bibliography presents citations to the majority of published materials on white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). The purpose was to assist in planning and implementing research on white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (ACR)

  18. White blood cell count - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The White Blood Cell (WBC) Count measures two components: the total number of WBC's (leukocytes), and the differential count. ... and basophils) and non-granulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes). White blood cells are a major component of the ...

  19. White Lake AOC Habitat Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Muskegon Conservation District and the White Lake Public Advisory Council in 2012 completed the White Lake AOC Shoreline Habitat Restoration Project to address the loss of shoreline and nearshore habitat.

  20. Floods on White Rock Creek above White Rock Lake at Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Clarence R.

    1963-01-01

    The White Rock Creek watershed within the city limits of Dallas , Texas, presents problems not unique in the rapid residential and industrial development encountered by many cities throughout the United States. The advantages of full development of the existing area within a city before expanding city boundaries, are related to both economics and civic pride. The expansion of city boundaries usually results in higher per capital costs for the operation of city governments. Certainly no responsible city official would oppose reasonable development of watersheds and flood plains and thus sacrifice an increase in tax revenue. Within the words "reasonable development" lies the problem faced by these officials. They are aware that the natural function of a stream channel, and its associated flood plain is to carry away excess water in time of flood. They are also aware that failure to recognize this has often led to haphazard development on flood plains with a consequent increase in flood damages. In the absence of factual data defining the risk involved in occupying flood plains, stringent corrective and preventative measures must be taken to regulate man's activities on flood plains to a point beyond normal precaution. Flood-flow characteristics in the reach of White Rock Creek that lies between the northern city boundary of Dallas and Northwest Highway (Loop 12) at the upper end of White Rock Lake, are presented in this report. Hydrologic data shown include history and magnitude of floods, flood profiles, outlines of areas inundated by three floods, and estimates of mean velocities of flow at selected points. Approximate areas inundated by floods of April 1942 and July 1962 along White Rock Creek and by the flood of October 1962 along Cottonwood Creek, Floyd Branch, and Jackson Branch, are delineated on maps. Greater floods have undoubtedly occurred in the past but no attempt is made to show their probable overflow limits because basic data on such floods could not