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Sample records for white peach scale

  1. Release and establishment of Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelididae) against white peach scale in papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    White peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera:Diaspididae) is a serious economic pest of papaya, Carica papaya L. The parasitic wasp Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was brought from Samoa into a quarantine containment facility in Hawaii for evaluation and potential release...

  2. Effect of papaya trunk angle on infestation by white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings growing in one planting hole often results in angular or non-vertical growth of the trees. Data on trunk angularity, or leaning, (deviation from the vertical line of reference) and white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Dias...

  3. Molecular markers discriminate closely related species Encarsia diaspidicola and Encarsia berlesei (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): biocontrol candidate agents for white peach scale in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León, Jesse H; Neumann, Gabor; Follett, Peter A; Hollingsworth, Robert G

    2010-06-01

    We genetically characterized Encarsia diapsidicola Silvestri and Encarsia berlesei Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) by two molecular methods: phylogenetic analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) and intersimple sequence repeat-polymerase chain reaction (ISSR-PCR) DNA fingerprinting. These two closely related endoparasitoids are candidate biological control agents for the white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozetti (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), in Hawaii. We developed species-specific COI molecular markers that discriminated the two species, and we tested the utility of the E. diaspidicola-specific COI marker to detect parasitism of white peach scale. The COI sequence data uncovered 46-bp differences between the two Encarsia spp. The level of COI genetic divergence between the two species was 9.7%, and the two clustered into their own clade on a parismonious phylogram. ISSR-PCR readily discriminated the two Encarsia spp. because each was observed with fixed species-specific banding patterns. The COI molecular markers were specific for each species because cross-reactivity was not observed with nontarget species. The E. diaspidicola-specific COI markers were successful at detecting parasitism of white peach scale by E. diaspidicola by 24 h. Both molecular marker types successfully discriminated the two Encarsia spp., whereas the COI markers will be useful as tools to assess levels of parasitism in the field and to study competitive interactions between parasitoids.

  4. Commercial scale irradiation for insect disinfestation preserves peach quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Heather; McCulloch, Mary; Caporaso, Fred; Winborne, Ian; Oubichon, Michon; Rakovski, Cyril; Prakash, Anuradha

    2012-06-01

    Irradiation is approved as a generic quarantine treatment by the US Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Due to the effectiveness of irradiation in controlling insects on commodities, there is a growing need to understand the effects of low dose irradiation on fruit quality. The goal of this study was to determine the sensitivity of peaches (Prunus persica) to irradiation, and secondly, to determine the effect of commercial scale treatment on shelf-life, overall quality and consumer liking. Six varieties of peaches were irradiated in small batches at 0.29, 0.49, 0.69 and 0.90 kGy to observe the sensitivity of peaches at different dose levels. Changes in quality were evaluated by 8 trained panelists using descriptive analysis. Sensory characteristics (color, smoothness, aroma, touch firmness, mouth firmness, graininess, overall flavor and off-flavor) were evaluated at 2-4 day intervals and untreated samples served as control. To simulate commercial treatment, peaches were irradiated in pallet quantities at a target dose level of 0.4 kGy. The average absorbed dose was 0.66 kGy with an average dose uniformity ratio of 1.57. Commercially treated peaches were evaluated by 40-80 untrained consumers for acceptability routinely throughout the shelf life. Titratable acidity, Brix, texture and weight loss were also monitored for both commercial and small scale irradiated peaches. There was no dose effect on TA, Brix and weight loss due to irradiation. Peaches irradiated at 0.69 and 0.90 kGy were darker in flesh color, more juicy and less firm as determined by the trained panel and analytical pressure tests. Commercial scale irradiation did not adversely affect shelf life but was seen to enhance ripening. This, however, was perceived as a positive change by consumers. Overall, consumers rated the acceptability of irradiated peaches higher than untreated peaches. Statistical analysis was performed using linear mixed models to find determinates

  5. Protective Effect of White-fleshed Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) on Chronic Nicotine-induced Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Chung, Won-Yoon; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Ki-Rim

    2017-03-01

    Nicotine is a major toxic component of tobacco smoke and has been recognized as a risk factor to induce oxidative tissue damage, which is a precursor to cardiovascular diseases, lung-related diseases, and cancers. Peaches (Prunus persica) have been used for the treatment of degenerative disorders, such as hypermenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and infertility in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of white-fleshed peach on the excretion of nicotine metabolites and 1-hydroxypyrene in smokers and chronic nicotine-induced tissue damages in mice. The concentrations of cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene were measured in urine of smokers before or after intake of white-fleshed peaches. In addition, ICR mice were injected with nicotine (5 mg/kg body weight) and then orally administered with white-fleshed peach extracts (WFPE) (250 or 500 mg/kg body weight) for 36 days. The oxidative stress parameters and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in liver and kidney tissues. Also, histological changes and nitrotyrosine expression were assessed. Intake of white-fleshed peaches increased the urinary concentration of nicotine metabolites and 1-hydroxypyrene in 91.67% and 83.33% of smokers, respectively. WFPE decreased the malondialdehyde levels and recovered the activities of antioxidant enzymes in nicotine-injected mice. In addition, WFPE inhibited nitrotyrosine expression and inflammatory responses in the liver, kidney, and lung tissues of nicotine-treated mice. White-fleshed peaches may increase the metabolism of toxic components in tobacco smoke in smokers and protect normal tissues against nicotine toxicity in mice. Therefore, supplementation of white-fleshed peaches might be beneficial to smokers.

  6. Clinical note: Validation of the Swedish version of the Parents’ Evaluation of Aural/Oral Performance of Children (PEACH) Rating Scale for normal hearing infants and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännström, K. Jonas; Ludvigsson, Josefine; Morris, David Jackson

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aims of the present pilot study were to translate the PEACH Rating Scale into Swedish, examine the preliminary psychometric properties of this translation, and explore the association between age and the reported outcome. Study design: Responses on the PEACH Rating Scale were colle...

  7. Effect of Fruit Size on Skin Color and Juice Constituents in White Peaches Produced in Okayama

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Goro; Jia, Huijuan; Mizuguchi, Kyoko; Hirano, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Skin color and juice constituents in large(L), medium(M), nad small(S) fruits of four peach cultivars, Hashiba-hakuho(early maturing), were analyzed to elucidate the effect of fruit size on the quality. The fruits containing higher soluble solids than 12°Brix were samled at a commercial packing-house located in southen Okayama. They were stored at 25℃ until fully ripened. The skin color on the cheeks (yellowish) was dark in S fruits of Hashiba-hakuto and Hakurei, respectively, compared to the...

  8. White Mango Scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis , Distribution and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mango is attacked by many insect pests which reduce the quality and productivity of the crop. Among the insect pests attacking mango plant, white mango scale is the most devastating insect pest. White mango scale, was reported since 2010 from Guto Gida district of East Wollega zone. The distribution and severity of white ...

  9. The Peach v2.0 release: high-resolution linkage mapping and deep resequencing improve chromosome-scale assembly and contiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Ignazio; Jenkins, Jerry; Dondini, Luca; Micali, Sabrina; Pagliarani, Giulia; Vendramin, Elisa; Paris, Roberta; Aramini, Valeria; Gazza, Laura; Rossini, Laura; Bassi, Daniele; Troggio, Michela; Shu, Shengqiang; Grimwood, Jane; Tartarini, Stefano; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2017-03-11

    The availability of the peach genome sequence has fostered relevant research in peach and related Prunus species enabling the identification of genes underlying important horticultural traits as well as the development of advanced tools for genetic and genomic analyses. The first release of the peach genome (Peach v1.0) represented a high-quality WGS (Whole Genome Shotgun) chromosome-scale assembly with high contiguity (contig L50 214.2 kb), large portions of mapped sequences (96%) and high base accuracy (99.96%). The aim of this work was to improve the quality of the first assembly by increasing the portion of mapped and oriented sequences, correcting misassemblies and improving the contiguity and base accuracy using high-throughput linkage mapping and deep resequencing approaches. Four linkage maps with 3,576 molecular markers were used to improve the portion of mapped and oriented sequences (from 96.0% and 85.6% of Peach v1.0 to 99.2% and 98.2% of v2.0, respectively) and enabled a more detailed identification of discernible misassemblies (10.4 Mb in total). The deep resequencing approach fixed 859 homozygous SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) and 1347 homozygous indels. Moreover, the assembled NGS contigs enabled the closing of 212 gaps with an improvement in the contig L50 of 19.2%. The improved high quality peach genome assembly (Peach v2.0) represents a valuable tool for the analysis of the genetic diversity, domestication, and as a vehicle for genetic improvement of peach and related Prunus species. Moreover, the important phylogenetic position of peach and the absence of recent whole genome duplication (WGD) events make peach a pivotal species for comparative genomics studies aiming at elucidating plant speciation and diversification processes.

  10. Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes Relevant to Variegation in Peach Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Faxin; Li, Shuxian; Yin, Tongming

    2014-01-01

    Background Variegation in flower color is commonly observed in many plant species and also occurs on ornamental peaches (Prunus persica f. versicolor [Sieb.] Voss). Variegated plants are highly valuable in the floricultural market. To gain a global perspective on genes differentially expressed in variegated peach flowers, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of white and red petals separately collected from a variegated peach tree. Results A total of 1,556,597 high-quality reads were obtained, with an average read length of 445 bp. The ESTs were assembled into 16,530 contigs and 42,050 singletons. The resulting unigenes covered about 60% of total predicted genes in the peach genome. These unigenes were further subjected to functional annotation and biochemical pathway analysis. Digital expression analysis identified a total of 514 genes differentially expressed between red and white flower petals. Since peach flower coloration is determined by the expression and regulation of structural genes relevant to flavonoid biosynthesis, a detailed examination detected four key structural genes, including C4H, CHS, CHI and F3H, expressed at a significantly higher level in red than in white petal. Except for the structural genes, we also detected 11 differentially expressed regulatory genes relating to flavonoid biosynthesis. Using the differentially expressed structural genes as the test objects, we validated the digital expression results by using quantitative real-time PCR, and the differential expression of C4H, CHS and F3H were confirmed. Conclusion In this study, we generated a large EST collection from flower petals of a variegated peach. By digital expression analysis, we identified an informative list of candidate genes associated with variegation in peach flowers, which offered a unique opportunity to uncover the genetic mechanisms underlying flower color variegation. PMID:24603808

  11. Metagenomics characterization of wood decay fungi colonized in peach limb heartwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakage of healthy-looking scaffold limbs is commonly seen in peach orchards in central Georgia, in the United States, and may have impact on the health and longevity of peach trees. White fungal mycelia were observed on the broken surface of some newly snapped, but otherwise healthy-looking peach ...

  12. Fitness trade-off in peach-potato aphids (Myzus persicae) between insecticide resistance and vulnerability to parasitoid attack at several spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, S P; Denholm, I; Poppy, G M; Thompson, R; Powell, W

    2011-12-01

    Insecticide-resistant clones of the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), have previously been shown to have a reduced response to aphid alarm pheromone compared to susceptible ones. The resulting vulnerability of susceptible and resistant aphids to attack by the primary endoparasitoid, Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh), was investigated across three spatial scales. These scales ranged from aphids confined on individual leaves exposed to single female parasitoids, to aphids on groups of whole plants exposed to several parasitoids. In all experiments, significantly fewer aphids from insecticide-susceptible clones became parasitised compared to insecticide-resistant aphids. Investigations of aphid movement showed at the largest spatial scale that more susceptible aphids than resistant aphids moved from their inoculation leaves to other leaves on the same plant after exposure to parasitoids. The findings imply that parasitoids, and possibly other natural enemies, can influence the evolution and dynamics of insecticide resistance through pleiotropic effects of resistance genes on important behavioural traits.

  13. Butterfly wing colours : scale beads make white pierid wings brighter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG; Stowe, S; Siebke, K; Zeil, J; Arikawa, K

    2004-01-01

    The wing-scale morphologies of the pierid butterflies Pieris rapae (small white) and Delias nigrina (common jezabel), and the heliconine Heliconius melpomene are compared and related to the wing-reflectance spectra. Light scattering at the wing scales determines the wing reflectance, but when the

  14. Further Validation of the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites Scale among Employed Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Spanierman, Lisa B.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the validity and test the generalizability of the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites Scale (PCRW) beyond the original college student sample, a geographically dispersed sample of employed White adults (N = 284) in eight states completed the measure to assess for White empathic reactions toward racism, White guilt, and White fear of…

  15. Eugenol bloom thinner on peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaches must be thinned to obtain annual crops of marketable size fruit. Traditionally, peach thinning has been accomplished by hand in the absence of reliable chemical thinners. Peach thinning is a labor intensive, expensive cultural practice. Previous studies in our lab have demonstrated that e...

  16. Gene regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in two blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) cultivars during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yun; Ma, Rui-juan; Shen, Zhi-jun; Yan, Juan; Yu, Ming-liang

    2014-09-01

    The blood-flesh peach has become popular in China due to its attractive anthocyanin-induced pigmentation and antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation by examining the expression of nine genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway found in the peach mesocarp. Expression was measured at six developmental stages in fruit of two blood-flesh and one white-flesh peach cultivars, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results show that the expression of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene was closely related to anthocyanin accumulation in both of the blood-flesh peaches. In the white-flesh peach, we found that the transcription level of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) during fruit development was much lower than that in the blood-flesh peach, even though all other genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were highly expressed, suggesting that the PAL gene may be limiting in anthocyanin production in the white-flesh peach. Moreover, the transcription levels of the CHS and UDP-glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) genes were markedly up-regulated at three days after bag removal (DABR) in the blood-flesh peach, suggesting that CHS and UFGT are the key genes in the process of anthocyanin biosynthesis for both of the blood-flesh peaches. The present study will be of great help in improving understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in anthocyanin accumulation in blood-flesh peaches.

  17. New strategies for thinning peaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    An evaluation of two mechanical thinners was conducted in four commercial peach orchard blocks in 2007. A mechanical blossom thinner designed by a German grower for thinning apple trees that employed nylon cords (strings) to remove blossoms was tested on peach trees trained to either a perpendicula...

  18. Different scaling of white matter volume, cortical connectivity, and gyrification across rodent and primate brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Antunes, Lissa; Mota, Bruno; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the cortical gray matter in evolution has been accompanied by an even faster expansion of the subcortical white matter volume and by folding of the gray matter surface, events traditionally considered to occur homogeneously across mammalian species. Here we investigate how white matter expansion and cortical folding scale across species of rodents and primates as the gray matter gains neurons. We find very different scaling rules of white matter expansion across the two orders, favoring volume conservation and smaller propagation times in primates. For a similar number of cortical neurons, primates have a smaller connectivity fraction and less white matter volume than rodents; moreover, as the cortex gains neurons, there is a much faster increase in white matter volume and in its ratio to gray matter volume in rodents than in primates. Order-specific scaling of the white matter can be attributed to different scaling of average fiber caliber and neuronal connectivity in rodents and primates. Finally, cortical folding increases as different functions of the number of cortical neurons in rodents and primates, scaling faster in the latter than in the former. While the neuronal rules that govern gray and white matter scaling are different across rodents and primates, we find that they can be explained by the same unifying model, with order-specific exponents. The different scaling of the white matter has implications for the scaling of propagation time and computational capacity in evolution, and calls for a reappraisal of developmental models of cortical expansion in evolution. PMID:23576961

  19. Non-enzymatic browning due to storage is reduced by using clarified lemon juice as acidifier in industrial-scale production of canned peach halves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, Domingo; Vegara, Salud; Martí, Nuria; Valero, Manuel; Laencina, José

    2017-06-01

    Non-enzymatic browning (NEB) in canned peach halves in syrup during storage was investigated. Absorbance at 420 nm (A420), colorimetric parameters (CIELab, TCD and La/b), fructose, glucose and sucrose, total sugar, organic acids, ascorbic acid (AA), dehydroascorbic acid, and 2,3-diketogulonic acid were used to estimate the extent of NEB during 1 year of storage at 30 °C and the relationships between each of these parameters and A420 were established. The investigation was carried out to explore the possibility of replacing the E330 commonly used as acidifier by turbid or clarified lemon juice (TLJ or CLJ) to obtain a product having good nutrition with better retention of quality. The a, La/b, glucose and fructose were positively correlated with A420 and all proved to be good indicators of browning development. Overall results showed that replacement of acidifier E330 with CLJ for controlling pH in canned peach halves in syrup had some advantages.

  20. Drying studies on peach and strawberry slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbu Clemensis Johnson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying experiments were carried out on peach and strawberry slices using a laboratory scale tray dryer with chamber dimension 30 cm × 30 cm × 20 cm at temperatures of 50, 60, and 70°C for air flow velocities of 0.18, 0.22, and 0.26 m/s. The experimental data were found to fit well with the Page thin-layer drying model. Transport of water during drying was described by Fick’s second law of diffusion and the diffusion coefficients were 3.99, 5.37, and 7 × 10−10 m2 s−1 for peach and 5.39, 7.41, and 8.59 × 10−10 m2 s−1 for strawberry. Activation energy was determined to be 25.92 kJ/mol for peach and 21.49 kJ/mol for strawberry using Arrhenius-type equation.

  1. Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites Scale (PCRW): Construction and Initial Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanierman, Lisa B.; Heppner, Mary J.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation reports on the development and initial validation of the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites Scale (PCRW), which operationalizes the idea that racism has a host of psychosocial costs for White individuals. Data from 727 participants were collected in 3 interrelated studies that subjected the items to the rigors of both…

  2. The high-quality draft genome of peach (Prunus persica) identifies unique patterns of genetic diversity, domestication and genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Ignazio; Abbott, Albert G; Scalabrin, Simone; Jung, Sook; Shu, Shengqiang; Marroni, Fabio; Zhebentyayeva, Tatyana; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Grimwood, Jane; Cattonaro, Federica; Zuccolo, Andrea; Rossini, Laura; Jenkins, Jerry; Vendramin, Elisa; Meisel, Lee A; Decroocq, Veronique; Sosinski, Bryon; Prochnik, Simon; Mitros, Therese; Policriti, Alberto; Cipriani, Guido; Dondini, Luca; Ficklin, Stephen; Goodstein, David M; Xuan, Pengfei; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Aramini, Valeria; Copetti, Dario; Gonzalez, Susana; Horner, David S; Falchi, Rachele; Lucas, Susan; Mica, Erica; Maldonado, Jonathan; Lazzari, Barbara; Bielenberg, Douglas; Pirona, Raul; Miculan, Mara; Barakat, Abdelali; Testolin, Raffaele; Stella, Alessandra; Tartarini, Stefano; Tonutti, Pietro; Arús, Pere; Orellana, Ariel; Wells, Christina; Main, Dorrie; Vizzotto, Giannina; Silva, Herman; Salamini, Francesco; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2013-05-01

    Rosaceae is the most important fruit-producing clade, and its key commercially relevant genera (Fragaria, Rosa, Rubus and Prunus) show broadly diverse growth habits, fruit types and compact diploid genomes. Peach, a diploid Prunus species, is one of the best genetically characterized deciduous trees. Here we describe the high-quality genome sequence of peach obtained from a completely homozygous genotype. We obtained a complete chromosome-scale assembly using Sanger whole-genome shotgun methods. We predicted 27,852 protein-coding genes, as well as noncoding RNAs. We investigated the path of peach domestication through whole-genome resequencing of 14 Prunus accessions. The analyses suggest major genetic bottlenecks that have substantially shaped peach genome diversity. Furthermore, comparative analyses showed that peach has not undergone recent whole-genome duplication, and even though the ancestral triplicated blocks in peach are fragmentary compared to those in grape, all seven paleosets of paralogs from the putative paleoancestor are detectable.

  3. Peach (Prunus persica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbadini, Silvia; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Girolomini, Luca; Molesini, Barbara; Navacchi, Oriano

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the application of genetic transformation techniques in peach has been limited by the difficulties in developing efficient regeneration and transformation protocols. Here we describe an efficient regeneration protocol for the commercial micropropagation of GF677 rootstock (Prunus persica × Prunus amygdalus). The method is based on the production, via organogenesis, of meristematic bulk tissues characterized by a high competence for shoot regeneration. This protocol has also been used to obtain GF677 plants genetically engineered with an empty hairpin cassette (hereafter indicated as hp-pBin19), through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. After 7-8 months of selection on media containing kanamycin, we obtained two genetically modified GF677 lines. PCR and Southern blot analyses were performed to confirm the genetic status.

  4. Measurement equivalence of the Empowerment Scale for White and Black persons with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Scott B; Huang, Jialin; Zhao, Lei; Sergent, Jessica D; Neuhengen, Jonas

    2014-12-01

    The current study examined the measurement equivalence on a measure of personal empowerment for Black and White consumers of mental health services. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess measurement equivalence of the 28-item Empowerment Scale (Rogers, Chamberlin, Ellison, & Crean, 1997), using data from 1,035 White and 301 Black persons with severe mental illness. Metric invariance of the Empowerment Scale was supported, in that the factor structure and loadings were equivalent across groups. Scalar invariance was violated on 3 items; however, the impact of these items on scale scores was quite small. Finally, subscales of empowerment tended to be more highly intercorrelated for Black than for White respondents. RESULTS generally support the use of Empowerment Scale for ethnic group comparisons. However, subtle differences in the psychometric properties of this measure suggest that Black and White individuals may conceptualize the construct of empowerment in different ways. Specifically, Black respondents had a lower threshold for endorsing some items on the self-esteem and powerlessness dimensions. Further, White respondents viewed the 3 dimensions of empowerment (self-esteem, powerlessness, and activism) as more distinct, whereas these 3 traits were more strongly interrelated for Blacks. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. An allometric scaling law between gray matter and white matter of cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jihuan [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai, 1882 Yan' an Xilu Road, Shanghai 200051 (China)] e-mail: jhhe@dhu.edu.cn

    2006-02-01

    An allometric scaling relationship between cortical white and gray volumes is derived from a general model that describes brain's remarkable efficiency and prodigious communications between brain areas. The model assumes that (1) a cell's metabolic rate depends upon cell's surface; (2) the overall basal metabolic rates of brain areas depend upon their fractal structures; (3) differential brain areas have same basal metabolic rate at slow wave sleep. The obtained allometric exponent scaling white matter to gray matter is 1.2, which is very much close to Zhang and Sejnowski's observation data.

  6. Novel peach flower types in a segregating population from ‘Helen Borchers’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several new peach (Prunus persica) flower types were discovered in an F2 segregating population from an open-pollinated, non-showy-flowered F1 seedling of ‘Helen Borchers’, a double-flowered ornamental cultivar. The novel flower types were white and red single-flowered, non-showy blooms, as well as ...

  7. Color Degradation of Textiles with Natural Dyes and of Blue Scale Standards Exposed to White LED Lamps:Evaluation of White LED Lamps for Effectiveness as Museum Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Mie; Moriyama, Takayoshi; Toda, Masahiro; Kohmoto, Kohtaro; Saito, Masako

    White light-emitting diodes (LED) are well suited for museum lighting because they emit neither UV nor IR radiation, which damage artifacts. The color degradation of natural dyes and blue scale standards (JIS L 0841) by white LED lamps are examined, and the performance of white LED lamps for museum lighting is evaluated. Blue scale standard grades 1-6 and silk fabrics dyed with 22 types of natural dyes classified as mid to highly responsive in a CIE technical report (CIE157:2004) were exposed to five types of white LED lamps using different luminescence methods and color temperatures. Color changes were measured at each 15000 lx·hr (500 lx at fabric surface × 300 hr) interval ten times. The accumulated exposure totaled 150000 lx·hr. The data on conventional white LED lamps and previously reported white fluorescent (W) and museum fluorescent (NU) lamps was evaluated. All the white LED lamps showed lower fading rates compared with a W lamp on a blue scale grade 1. The fading rate of natural dyes in total was the same between an NU lamp (3000 K) and a white LED lamp (2869 K). However, yellow natural dyes showed higher fading rates with the white LED lamp. This tendency is due to the high power characteristic of the LED lamp around 400-500 nm, which possibly contributes to the photo-fading action on the dyes. The most faded yellow dyes were Ukon (Curcuma longa L.) and Kihada (Phellodendron amurense Rupr.), and these are frequently used in historic artifacts such as kimono, wood-block prints, and scrolls. From a conservation point of view, we need to continue research on white LED lamps for use in museum lighting.

  8. Low incidence of Peach latent mosaic viroid in peach mother blocks in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Jevremović

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd is the causal agent of peach latent mosaic disease that is common on peaches and nectarines worldwide. Most of the isolates do not cause any symptoms on the foliage and the disease may be latent for years. A survey to investigate the presence of PLMVd in selected peach mother blocks in 9 Serbian districts was carried out in 2011 through 2013. A total of 315 trees/samples originating from 43 mother blocks, representing 35 peach and nectarine varieties and 2 rootstocks, were tested by Reverse Transcription - Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR. PLMVd was detected in 13 samples (4.13% belonging to 7 varieties and one vineyard peach rootstock. Infected samples were found in 7 mother blocks from 3 districts. Our results indicated a low incidence of PLMVd in the analyzed peach mother blocks.

  9. Measuring Fine-Scale White-Tailed Deer Movements and Environmental Influences Using GPS Collars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Webb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have documented fine-scale movements of ungulate species, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, despite the advent of global positioning system (GPS technology incorporated into tracking devices. We collected fine-scale temporal location estimates (i.e., 15 min/relocation attempt from 17 female and 15 male white-tailed deer over 7 years and 3 seasons in Oklahoma, USA. Our objectives were to document fine-scale movements of females and males and determine effects of reproductive phase, moon phase, and short-term weather patterns on movements. Female and male movements were primarily crepuscular. Male total daily movements were 20% greater during rut (7,363m±364 than postrut (6,156m±260. Female daily movements were greatest during postparturition (3,357m±91, followed by parturition (2,902m±107, and preparturition (2,682m±121. We found moon phase had no effect on daily, nocturnal, and diurnal deer movements and fine-scale temporal weather conditions had an inconsistent influence on deer movement patterns within season. Our data suggest that hourly and daily variation in weather events have minimal impact on movements of white-tailed deer in southern latitudes. Instead, routine crepuscular movements, presumed to maximize thermoregulation and minimize predation risk, appear to be the most important factors influencing movements.

  10. Physicochemical, antioxidant, and sensorial properties of peach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High potentiality of medicinal benefits of peach have increased its demand, however, supply of fresh fruit to meet the demand is challenging as it grows in specific climatic regions and in particular season. Preparation of varieties of processed peach products could be a good option to supply in lean season. Objective of the ...

  11. Accumulation of carotenoids and expression of carotenogenic genes in peach fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shifeng; Liang, Minhua; Shi, Liyu; Shao, Jiarong; Song, Chunbo; Bian, Kun; Chen, Wei; Yang, Zhenfeng

    2017-01-01

    To understand better the regulatory mechanism of the carotenoid accumulation, the expression profile of relevant carotenoid genes and metabolites were compared between two peach cultivars with different colors during fruit development. Meanwhile, the change pattern of carotenoid content and expression of carotenoid metabolic genes in peaches after harvest in response to blue light were also investigated. As compared to the yellow fleshed-cultivar 'Jinli', lower carotenoid levels were observed in skin and pulp in white peach cultivar 'Hujing', which might be explained by differentially expression of PpCCD4 gene. With respect to 'Jinli', the carotenoid accumulation during fruit development in fruit skin was partially linked with the transcriptional regulation of PpFPPS, PpGGPS, PpLCYB and PpCHYB. However, in the pulp, the accumulation might be also associated with the increased transcriptions of PpPDS, along with the above four genes. Blue light treatment induced carotenoid accumulation in 'Jinli' peaches during storage. In addition, the treated-fruit displayed higher expression of all the eight genes analysed with a lesser extent on PpCCD4, which suggested that the much more increased carotenoid synthesis rate could result in the higher carotenoid content in blue light-treated fruit. The results presented herein contribute to further elucidating the regulatory mechanism of carotenoid accumulation in peach fruit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Decolorization of textile industry wastewater in solid state fermentation with Peach-Palm (Bactris gasipaes) residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicatto, J A; Rainert, K T; Gonçalves, M J; Helm, C V; Altmajer-Vaz, D; Tavares, L B B

    2018-02-15

    In this work we have assessed the decolorization of textile effluents throughout their treatment in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system. SSF assays were conducted with peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes) residue using the white rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum EF 31. The influence of the dye concentration and of the amounts of peach-palm residue and liquid phase on both the discoloration efficiency and enzyme production was studied. According to our results, independently of experimental conditions employed, laccase was the main ligninolytic enzyme produced by G. lucidum. The highest laccase activity was obtained at very low effluent concentrations, suggesting the existence of an inhibitory effect of higher concentrations on fungal metabolism. The highest percentage of color removal was reached when 10 grams of peach palm residue was moistened with 60 mL of the final effluent. In control tests carried out with the synthetic dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) decolorization efficiencies about 20% higher than that achieved with the industrial effluent were achieved. The adsorption of RBBR on peach-palm residue was also investigated. Equilibrium tests showed that the adsorption of this dye followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Hence, our experimental results indicate that peach-palm residue is suitable substrate for both laccase production and color removal in industrial effluents.

  13. Quality Evaluation of Processed Products of some Peach Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Lămureanu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The peach tree is among one of the most valuable species cultivated both in Romania and abroad, being very much appreciated for the quality of its fruit, both fresh and processed.  The peach tree provides fresh fruit a large period (June-November. This allows for a rhythmical and prolonged supply with fresh fruit of the factories that process fruits. This paper has as purpose the establishing of the viability for processing into stewed fruit, comfiture, jam and nectar of nine varieties of peach: Catherine, Mimi, Southland, Narajnai ramai, Royal vee, Filip, Redhaven, Raluca and Collins. The peaches, provided from experimental plots of Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta, were processed in micro production laboratory of Research Institute for Processing of the Horticultural Products, Bucharest. The sensorial analysis of the product was carried out according to the STAS 12656-88, which establishes the analysis methods with unitary scales of points (method A, methods used in the evaluation of the organoleptic characteristics of alimentary products. These methods are applied in order to appreciate a set of organoleptic properties: aspect, colour, taste, texture or consistence. Among the nine varieties of fruits peach was highlighting the variety Narajnai ramai, which recieved maximum score (20.00 points for comfiture and jam and a total average score of 19.88 for stewed fruits and 19.77 for nectar. This variety, together with the varieties Mimi and Catherine  obtained the score “very good” for all four types of canned analyzed: comfiture, jam, compote and nectar. The worse results were obtained by the variety Collins, which is less suitable for processing. After organoleptic testing, it received the score “good” for products comfiture and jam and the score “satisfactory” for products nectar and stewed fruits. The results presented in this  research work showed that the organoleptic characteristics of fresh fruits influences

  14. Comparative population genomics reveals the domestication history of the peach, Prunus persica, and human influences on perennial fruit crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ke; Zheng, Zhijun; Wang, Lirong; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Gengrui; Fang, Weichao; Cheng, Shifeng; Zeng, Peng; Chen, Changwen; Wang, Xinwei; Xie, Min; Zhong, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhao, Pei; Bian, Chao; Zhu, Yinling; Zhang, Jiahui; Ma, Guosheng; Chen, Chengxuan; Li, Yanjun; Hao, Fengge; Li, Yong; Huang, Guodong; Li, Yuxiang; Li, Haiyan; Guo, Jian; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun

    2014-07-31

    Recently, many studies utilizing next generation sequencing have investigated plant evolution and domestication in annual crops. Peach, Prunus persica, is a typical perennial fruit crop that has ornamental and edible varieties. Unlike other fruit crops, cultivated peach includes a large number of phenotypes but few polymorphisms. In this study, we explore the genetic basis of domestication in peach and the influence of humans on its evolution. We perform large-scale resequencing of 10 wild and 74 cultivated peach varieties, including 9 ornamental, 23 breeding, and 42 landrace lines. We identify 4.6 million SNPs, a large number of which could explain the phenotypic variation in cultivated peach. Population analysis shows a single domestication event, the speciation of P. persica from wild peach. Ornamental and edible peach both belong to P. persica, along with another geographically separated subgroup, Prunus ferganensis. Our analyses enhance our knowledge of the domestication history of perennial fruit crops, and the dataset we generated could be useful for future research on comparative population genomics.

  15. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT TO ELABORATE COMMON WHITE WINE IN MISIONES, WITH ECONOMIC EVALUATION AT INDUSTRIAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miño Valdés, Juan Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to develop a sustainable technology on an industrial scale to produce common white wine with non viniferous grapes cultivated in Misiones. This technological project was initiated at a laboratory scale, continued in the pilot plant and industrial-scale project. It was considered as a productive unit to 12 rural families with 27 hectares of vines each. The 8 stages followed with inductive and deductive methodology were: The development of dry white wine at laboratory scale. The evaluation of process variables in the vivification. The mathematical modeling of the alcoholic fermentation in oenological conditions. The valuation of the aptitude of wines for human consumption. The establishment of a technological procedure for wine in the pilot plant. The evaluation of the pilot plant in technological procedure established. The calculation and selection of industrial equipment. The estimate of the costs and profitability of industrial technological process. It reached a technology for a production capacity of 5,834 L day-1, with dynamic economic indicators whose values were: net present value of 6,602,666 U$D, an internal rate of return of 60 % for a period of recovery of investment to net present value of 3 years.

  16. STAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR OBTAINIGN AN ECONOMIC WHITE WINE TO AN INDUSTRIAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Esteban Miño Valdés

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to develop a sustainable technology to produce economical white wine, industrial scale, not viniferous grapes grown in Misiones. This technological project started at laboratory scale, it continued in a pilot plant and planned to an industrial scale. It was considered as productive unit 12 rural families with 27 hectares of vines each. The 8 stages followed with inductive and deductive methodology were: the development of dry white wine at laboratory scale, the evaluation of the variables of the process in the vilification, the Mathematical modeling of alcoholic fermentation in winemaking conditions, the assessment of the fitness of wines for human consumption, the establishment of a technological process for winemaking in a pilot plant, the evaluation in pilot plant of the technological process established, the calculation and selection of industrial equipment and finally, the costs estimation and profitability of the industrial technological process. A technology for a production capacity of 5,834 L day-1, with dynamic economic indicators was reached whose values were 6,602,666 net present value of U$D, an internal rate of return of 60 % for a period of payback a value net of three years to date.

  17. Three distinct mutational mechanisms acting on a single gene underpin the origin of yellow flesh in peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Rachele; Vendramin, Elisa; Zanon, Laura; Scalabrin, Simone; Cipriani, Guido; Verde, Ignazio; Vizzotto, Giannina; Morgante, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Peach flesh color (white or yellow) is among the most popular commercial criteria for peach classification, and has implications for consumer acceptance and fruit nutritional quality. Despite the increasing interest in improving cultivars of both flesh types, little is known about the genetic basis for the carotenoid content diversity in peach. Here we describe the association between genotypes at a locus encoding the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4 (PpCCD4), localized in pseudomolecule 1 of the Prunus persica reference genome sequence, and the flesh color for 37 peach varieties, including two somatic revertants, and three ancestral relatives of peach, providing definitive evidence that this locus is responsible for flesh color phenotype. We show that yellow peach alleles have arisen from various ancestral haplotypes by at least three independent mutational events involving nucleotide substitutions, small insertions and transposable element insertions, and that these mutations, despite being located within the transcribed portion of the gene, also result in marked differences in transcript levels, presumably as a consequence of differential transcript stability involving nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. The PpCCD4 gene provides a unique example of a gene for which humans, in their quest to diversify phenotypic appearance and qualitative characteristics of a fruit, have been able to select and exploit multiple mutations resulting from a variety of mechanisms. PMID:23855972

  18. Controle da cochonilha-parda Parthenolecanium persicae (Fabricius, 1776 (Hemiptera: Coccidae na cultura da videira Control of the european peach scale Parthenolecanium persicae (Fabricius, 1776 (Hemiptera: Coccidae in vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Schneid Afonso

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A cochonilha-parda Parthenolecanium persicae é considerada uma das principais pragas da videira na região sul do Brasil. Com o objetivo de avaliar inseticidas fosforados e neonicotinóides foram conduzidos dois experimentos avaliando-se os produtos fitossanitários: dimetoato (Tiomet 400 CE, 100mL/100L de água, fenitrotion (Sumithion 500 CE, 150mL/100 L de água, metidation (Supracid 400 CE, 100mL/100L de água, paratiom metil (Folidol 600 CE, 100mL/100L de água e triclorfon (Dipterex 500 SNAqC, 300mL/100L de água em 2001 e, imidacloprid (Provado 200 SC, 30, 40 e 50mL/100L de água, tiacloprid (Calypso 480 SC, 20, 30 e 40mL/100L, tiametoxam (Actara 250 WG, 20, 30 e 40g/100L de água e paratiom metil (Folidol 600 CE, 100mL/100L em 2002. Os produtos foram aplicados via foliar num volume de 800L.ha-1. Os fosforados fenitrotion, metidation, paratiom metil e os neonicotinóides imidacloprid e tiametoxam foram eficientes no controle de ninfas do terceiro ínstar de P. persicae. Os inseticidas dimetoato e tiacloprid não atingiram 50% de controle da cochonilha-parda na cultura da videira.The european peach scale Parthenolecanium persicae is one of the most important grape pest in southern Brasil. The insecticides dimetoato (Tiomet 400 CE, 100mL/100L, fenitrotion (Sumithion 500 CE, 150mL/100L, metidation (Supracid 400 CE, 100mL/100L, paratiom metil (Folidol 600 CE, 100mL/100L and triclorfon (Dipterex 500 SNAqC, 300mL/100L were evaluated in a field experiment in 2001 and imidacloprid (Provado 200 SC, 30, 40 and 50mL/100L, tiacloprid (Calypso 480 SC, 20, 30 and 40mL/100L, tiametoxam (Actara 250 WG, 20, 30 and 40 g/100L and paratiom metil (Folidol 600 CE, 100mL/100L in 2002. Insecticides were sprayed using 800L of water.ha-1 seeking third instar nymphs. Phosporous insecticides fenitrotion, metidation, paratiom metil and triclorfon and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and tiametoxam were efficient for P. persicae control. Dimetoato and tiacloprid were

  19. Comparative morphology of the scales of roundscale spearfish Tetrapturus georgii and white marlin Kajikia albida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loose, E L; Hilton, E J; Graves, J E

    2017-04-01

    The comparative morphology of the scales of roundscale spearfish Tetrapturus georgii and white marlin Kajikia albida was investigated. In addition, variation in scale morphology across different body regions within each species was analysed. Although considerable morphological variation was observed among scales from different body regions in both species, scales of K. albida generally have pointed anterior ends, fewer posterior points and are more heavily imbricated than those of T. georgii, which are frequently rounded anteriorly, often have many posterior points and are separated farther within the skin. In all sampled body regions and individuals, scales of T. georgii are significantly broader and have a lower length-to-width aspect ratio than those of K. albida. Superficial to the scales are denticular plates, which are ossified formations occurring on the surface layer of the epidermis; these were observed and described for T. georgii, K. albida and blue marlin Makaira nigricans. Detailed scale descriptions allow for a more accurate characterization of the variation within and differences between these two species and could potentially be a valuable tool for investigating istiophorid systematics. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. NETS FOR PEACH PROTECTED CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Schettini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the radiometric properties of coloured nets used to protect a peach cultivation. The modifications of the solar spectral distribution, mainly in the R and FR wavelength band, influence plant photomorphogenesis by means of the phytochrome and cryptochrome. The phytochrome response is characterized in terms of radiation rate in the red wavelengths (R, 600-700 nm to that in the farred radiation (FR, 700-800 nm, i.e. the R/FR ratio. The effects of the blue radiation (B, 400-500 nm is investigated by the ratio between the blue radiation and the far-red radiation, i.e. the B/FR ratio. A BLUE net, a RED net, a YELLOW net, a PEARL net, a GREY net and a NEUTRAL net were tested in Bari (Italy, latitude 41° 05’ N. Peach trees were located in pots inside the greenhouses and in open field. The growth of the trees cultivated in open field was lower in comparison to the growth of the trees grown under the nets. The RED, PEARL, YELLOW and GREY nets increased the growth of the trees more than the other nets. The nets positively influenced the fruit characteristics, such as fruit weight and flesh firmness.

  1. Molecular-scale simulation of electroluminescence in a multilayer white organic light-emitting diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mesta, Murat; Carvelli, Marco; de Vries, Rein J

    2013-01-01

    In multilayer white organic light-emitting diodes the electronic processes in the various layers--injection and motion of charges as well as generation, diffusion and radiative decay of excitons--should be concerted such that efficient, stable and colour-balanced electroluminescence can occur. Here...... we show that it is feasible to carry out Monte Carlo simulations including all of these molecular-scale processes for a hybrid multilayer organic light-emitting diode combining red and green phosphorescent layers with a blue fluorescent layer. The simulated current density and emission profile...

  2. Variability of vineyard peach tree characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zec Gordan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vineyard peach seedlings are the most important rootstock for peach in Serbia and abroad. High variability is a characteristic of the vineyard peach planting material that is used as rootstock in nursery production. Through work of many years, vineyard peach genotypes with qualitative traits were selected and collected. Seedlings that are progeny of the nine selected genotypes and resulted from self and open pollination were examined. The vineyard peach seedlings resulted from uncontrolled pollination and with different geographical origin served as reference. A goal of research was to get vineyard peach genotypes that would give more uniform generative progeny with qualitative traits. This paper presents the results of two-year research of morphological traits of more than 500 vineyard seedlings. Based on the results, positive genotypes were selected for further inbreeding. Further, the seedlings of the selection 6 have the lowest coefficients of variation for trunk thickness, tree height and number of branches, which points to the self-pollination as a good method for getting more uniform progeny. .

  3. Multi-scale Hydrologic Modeling of the White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourret, S. M.; Newton, B. T.

    2014-12-01

    The shallow groundwater flow system of White Sands dune field, located within the arid to semi-arid Tularosa Basin of Southern New Mexico, likely stabilizes the base of the largest gypsum dune field in the world. The dune is saturated throughout nearly its entire accumulation thickness, resulting in a shallow water table (surface water use, and the threat of climate change, the WHSA is interested in understanding how these changes on a regional scale may impact the shallow dune field aquifer. Mathematical modeling techniques on varying spatial and temporal scales are used to characterize the relative importance of the sources of water (local vs. regional) to the dune aquifer, and to quantify the timescales on which changes may affect the water table in the dune field. A 2-dimensional, dune-scale heat and fluid flow model uses the seasonal temperature fluctuations to estimate the vertical and horizontal flow of water from the regional system to the dune field aquifer. We have also constructed a 2-dimensional, hydrologic model to characterize the regional groundwater flow regime near to the dune aquifer system, as well as across the Tularosa Basin to a depth of 6 km. Additionally, a 3-dimensional, hydrologic model of the Tularosa Basin and the White Sands dune field quantifies hydrologic characteristics, sources and sinks of groundwater in the basin and at the dune field. Computed and observed salinity, groundwater residence times, and water level data are the primary means of model calibration. Preliminary results from the three models indicate the regional groundwater system does contribute flow to the dune aquifer, and that increased pumping may increase drawdown of the regional groundwater system near the dune field. These results indicate the dune is sensitive to regional hydrologic changes.

  4. Peaches Preceded Humans: Fossil Evidence from SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tao; Wilf, Peter; Huang, Yongjiang; Zhang, Shitao; Zhou, Zhekun

    2015-11-01

    Peach (Prunus persica, Rosaceae) is an extremely popular tree fruit worldwide, with an annual production near 20 million tons. Peach is widely thought to have origins in China, but its evolutionary history is largely unknown. The oldest evidence for the peach has been Chinese archaeological records dating to 8000-7000 BP. Here, we report eight fossil peach endocarps from late Pliocene strata of Kunming City, Yunnan, southwestern China. The fossils are identical to modern peach endocarps, including size comparable to smaller modern varieties, a single seed, a deep dorsal groove, and presence of deep pits and furrows. These fossils show that China has been a critical region for peach evolution since long before human presence, much less agriculture. Peaches evolved their modern morphology under natural selection, presumably involving large, frugivorous mammals such as primates. Much later, peach size and variety increased through domestication and breeding.

  5. Progress in developing Armillaria resistant rootstocks for use with peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    GuardianTM (BY520-9) peach seedling rootstock was released in 1993 to provide a rootstock with superior resistance to peach tree short life (PTSL) which at the time was the number one cause of premature death of peach (Prunus persica L. [Batsch]) trees in the southeastern US. Since that time Guardi...

  6. Influência do plástico branco, poda verde e amino quelant®-K na qualidade de pêssegos 'Santa Áurea' Influence of white plastic, vegetative pruning and amino quelant-K on quality of peaches 'Santa Àurea'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Trevisan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade das frutas é determinada por fatores relacionados ao clima, solo, cultivar, as práticas culturais adotadas, época e forma de colheita e processos de manipulação da fruta na pós-colheita. Uma das formas de melhorar esta qualidade é a utilização de práticas de manejo na pré-colheita. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito do plástico branco, da poda verde e do nutriente aminoquelant®-K, associado ou não ao tratamento com plástico branco e poda verde, na qualidade de pêssegos 'Santa Áurea'. Os atributos de qualidade avaliados foram: percentagem visual de vermelho, intensidade de vermelho na epiderme, determinada pelo sistema CIEL*a*b*, massa, diâmetro, firmeza de polpa, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT e relação SST/ATT. As práticas utilizadas causaram o aumento do percentual de vermelho na epiderme das frutas; o aminoquelant®-K isolado proporcionou maior acidez das frutas; a melhor relação SST/ATT foi obtida com o uso do plástico branco sob a copa e pela combinação do plástico com o nutriente aminoquelant®-K.Fruit quality is influenced by climate, soil, cultivar, orchard management, time of harvesting and fruit handling at harvest and post harvest. One way of improving the fruit quality is through cultural practices. Thus, this work had the objective of evaluating the effect of the white plastic, vegetative pruning and aminoquelant®-K, alone or the combination of the last with plastic or summer pruning, on the quality of peaches cv. Santa Aurea. The quality attributes evaluated quality were: visual percentage of red on the fruit surface, intensity of red in the epidermis, determined by the CIEL*a*b * system, fruit mean weight, diameter and firmness, total soluble solids (TSS content on the flesh, total titratable acidity (TTA and the relation TSS/TTA. All the tested treatments increased the percentage of red on the fruit epidermis; the use of aminoquelant

  7. Progress in the management of peach fungal gummosis (Botryosphaeria dothidea) in the Southeastern U.S. peach industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach fungal gummosis, incited by Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug.:Fr.) Ces. & De Not., has been shown to be capable of reducing growth and yield by up to 40% on susceptible peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars. Initial field screens demonstrated that several important peach cultivars utilize...

  8. Data on the density of xanthophores in a whole scale of goldfish acclimated to white or black background color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanta Mizusawa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Expression of genes for melanotropic peptides and their receptors for morphological color change in goldfish Carassius auratus” (Mizusawa et al., In press [1]. This article describes data on the density of xanthophores in the scales of goldfish acclimated to white or black background color. To determine the effects of acclimation history during long-term background color adaptation, fish were transferred from a white tank to a white or black tank and vice versa halfway through the acclimation process. To observe xanthophores, the iridophore layer was scraped from the scale and the pteridine/carotenoid pigments were aggregated. The number of xanthophores was calculated after image processing.

  9. Evaluation of fruit quality, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant activity of flat peach cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vaio, Claudio; Marallo, Nadia; Graziani, Giulia; Ritieni, Alberto; Di Matteo, Antonio

    2015-08-15

    Fruit quality traits (fresh weight, dry weight, soluble solids content, titratable acidity and firmness) as well as the content of bioactive compounds (phenolic compounds) and total antioxidant activity were evaluated in four commercial cultivars of peach (Greta, Ufo 4, Rome Star and Ufo 6) and four of nectarine (Neve, Planet 1, Maria Carla and Mesembrina) differing in fruit shape (standard or flat) and flesh colour (white or yellow), important cultivars of the Italian and foreign market. The higher fruit organoleptic quality and nutritional profile of flat peach and nectarine cultivars make them candidates for exploiting new market opportunities and the chance to improve profits of farmers. The results showed that assayed quality parameters differed greatly among cultivars. In particular, flesh color and fruit shape accounted for most of the variation in traits underlying organoleptic and nutritional quality. Overall data suggested that the flat white-fleshed nectarine Planet 1, the yellow-fleshed nectarine Mesembrina and the yellow-fleshed peach Ufo 6, because of their profiles in terms of soluble solids content, titratable acidity and bioactive compounds, have the greatest potential to meet current consumer requirements. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Exploration of the Brain's White Matter Structure through Visual Abstraction and Multi-Scale Local Fiber Tract Contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, Maarten; Begue, Eric; Bekker, Hendrik; Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.; Isenberg, Tobias

    We present a visualization technique for brain fiber tracts from DTI data that provides insight into the structure of white matter through visual abstraction. We achieve this abstraction by analyzing the local similarity of tract segment directions at different scales using a stepwise increase of

  11. Pheromones control oriental fruit moth and peach twig borer in cling peaches

    OpenAIRE

    Pickel, Carolyn; Hasey, Janine; Bentley, Walt; Olson, William H.; Grant, Joe

    2002-01-01

    Slow-release pheromone tech-nology can successfully control oriental fruit moth and peach twig borer while eliminating in-season insecticide sprays in cling peaches. In conjunction with a demon-stration program, we compared mating disruption for these two pests with standard grower pest-control methods in the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys, and monitored for pest damage, yield and grower costs. While the mating-disruption program was effective in controlling the targeted pests, costs were...

  12. Development and Evaluation of a 9K SNP Array for Peach by Internationally Coordinated SNP Detection and Validation in Breeding Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalabrin, Simone; Gilmore, Barbara; Lawley, Cynthia T.; Gasic, Ksenija; Micheletti, Diego; Rosyara, Umesh R.; Cattonaro, Federica; Vendramin, Elisa; Main, Dorrie; Aramini, Valeria; Blas, Andrea L.; Mockler, Todd C.; Bryant, Douglas W.; Wilhelm, Larry; Troggio, Michela; Sosinski, Bryon; Aranzana, Maria José; Arús, Pere; Iezzoni, Amy; Morgante, Michele; Peace, Cameron

    2012-01-01

    Although a large number of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers covering the entire genome are needed to enable molecular breeding efforts such as genome wide association studies, fine mapping, genomic selection and marker-assisted selection in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and related Prunus species, only a limited number of genetic markers, including simple sequence repeats (SSRs), have been available to date. To address this need, an international consortium (The International Peach SNP Consortium; IPSC) has pursued a coordinated effort to perform genome-scale SNP discovery in peach using next generation sequencing platforms to develop and characterize a high-throughput Illumina Infinium® SNP genotyping array platform. We performed whole genome re-sequencing of 56 peach breeding accessions using the Illumina and Roche/454 sequencing technologies. Polymorphism detection algorithms identified a total of 1,022,354 SNPs. Validation with the Illumina GoldenGate® assay was performed on a subset of the predicted SNPs, verifying ∼75% of genic (exonic and intronic) SNPs, whereas only about a third of intergenic SNPs were verified. Conservative filtering was applied to arrive at a set of 8,144 SNPs that were included on the IPSC peach SNP array v1, distributed over all eight peach chromosomes with an average spacing of 26.7 kb between SNPs. Use of this platform to screen a total of 709 accessions of peach in two separate evaluation panels identified a total of 6,869 (84.3%) polymorphic SNPs. The almost 7,000 SNPs verified as polymorphic through extensive empirical evaluation represent an excellent source of markers for future studies in genetic relatedness, genetic mapping, and dissecting the genetic architecture of complex agricultural traits. The IPSC peach SNP array v1 is commercially available and we expect that it will be used worldwide for genetic studies in peach and related stone fruit and nut species. PMID:22536421

  13. Evaporation mapping at two scales using optical imagery in the White Volta Basin, Upper East Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaoré, Halidou; Hendrickx, Jan M. H.; Hong, Sung-ho; Friesen, Jan; van de Giesen, Nick C.; Rodgers, Charles; Szarzynski, Joerg; Vlek, Paul L. G.

    Maps of regional distributions of evaporation provide critical information on the interactions between land surface and the atmosphere since they allow (i) to follow where, when, and how much water has moved into the atmosphere by evaporation; (ii) to monitor crop performance and the effects of droughts for famine prediction; (iii) to better evaluate the performance of irrigation systems; and (iv) to improve weather predictions. Since evaporation is subject to rapid changes in time and space, it is nearly impossible to determine its spatial and temporal distributions over large areas from ground measurements alone. Therefore, estimation from remote sensing images is very attractive as it enables extensive area coverage and a high repetition rate. In this study, the surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL) is used to map evaporation in the White Volta Basin of Ghana, West Africa, at the start and at the end of the dry season using Landsat and MODIS images. The study objective is to use an independently developed land use/land cover (LULC) map for the evaluation and qualitative validation of SEBAL for evaporation mapping at spatial scales of 30 m (Landsat) and 1000 m (MODIS). The results of this study demonstrate that SEBAL is an accurate algorithm for mapping evaporation over tropical areas where few or no ground measurements are available using common satellite products such as Landsat and MODIS.

  14. Difference in photosynthetic performance among three peach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-02-21

    Feb 21, 2011 ... FWhr-1] in leaves of peach plants grown under non-shading, full sunlight exposure (CK) and 80% of full sunlight exposure (T1). Cultivar. Treatment .... Planta. 81: 353-359. Arnon DI (1949). Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiol. 24: 1-5. Cai JP, Li SJ, ...

  15. 21 CFR 145.170 - Canned peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned peaches. 145.170 Section 145.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... ingredients: (i) Natural and artificial flavors. (ii) Spice. (iii) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic acids. (iv...

  16. Consumer peach preferences and purchasing behavior: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Kathleen M; Primrose, Rachel; Crassweller, Robert; Hayes, John E; Marini, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Stokes) are grown in several regions throughout the USA, are eaten fresh, and used as ingredients in value-added processed products. An Internet survey was conducted to investigate Mid-Atlantic consumers' fresh and processed peach purchasing behaviors, and whether packaging certain numbers of peaches together, providing information about nutritional content, and other factors would increase purchases. Additionally, laboratory-based sensory testing was used to better understand peel color, texture, sweetness, sourness, and flavor preferences for cultivars commonly grown in the Mid-Atlantic region. Irrespective of fresh peach consumption frequency, certain value-added products were of interest. For some products, interest in purchasing was higher than reported purchasing behavior. Preference for certain fresh peach characteristics, such as peel color, differed between less frequent fresh peach consumers and those who consumed fresh peaches more often. Of the four peach cultivars included in the sensory test, most were liked; however, there were some cultivar differences pertaining to color, texture, sweetness, tartness, and flavor liking. Potential marketing strategies can be developed based on frequency of fresh peach consumption and household demographics. Data can be used to select peaches that best appeal to consumers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Minority perceptions of Whites' motives for responding without prejudice: the perceived internal and external motivation to avoid prejudice scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Brenda; Sawyer, Pamela J; Kunstman, Jonathan W

    2013-03-01

    Whites' nonprejudiced behavior toward racial/ethnic minorities can be attributionally ambiguous for perceivers, who may wonder whether the behavior was motivated by a genuine internal commitment to egalitarianism or was externally motivated by desires to avoid appearing prejudiced to others. This article reports the development of a scale that measures perceptions of Whites' internal and external motives for avoiding prejudice (Perceived Internal Motivation Scale/Perceived External Motivation Scale [PIMS/PEMS]) and tests of its internal, test-retest, discriminant, convergent, and predictive validity among ethnic minority perceivers. Minorities perceived Whites as having internal and external motives for nonprejudiced behavior that were theoretically consistent with but distinct from established measures of minority-group members' concerns in interracial interactions. Tests of the predictive validity of PIMS/PEMS showed that when a White evaluator praised the mediocre essay of a minority target, minorities who were high PEMS and low PIMS were most likely to regard the feedback as inauthentic and derogate the quality of the essay.

  18. Aluminum toxicity symptoms in peach seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J.H.; Horton, B.D.; Kirkpatrick, H.C.

    1976-03-01

    Elberta (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) peach seedlings were grown in nutrient solutions for 27 days with aluminum concentrations of 0, 222, 666 and 2000 ..mu..m concentration induced Al toxicity symptoms in leaves and severely restricted root growth. The early stage of Al toxicity was characterized by marginal chlorosis that later developed into necrotic areas that extended along the veins toward the midrib. Advanced stages of toxicity were characterized by collapse of the midrib, terminal dieback and defoliation of the seedlings which are typical symptoms of calcium deficiency in peaches. At high Al concentrations roots died back and new roots developed as irregularly shaped cylinders with constrictions and enlargements at the root apex.

  19. Fine-scale genetic structure and social organization in female white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. Comer; John C. Kilgo; Gino J. D' Angelo; Travis C. Glenn; Karl V. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial...

  20. Further Validation of the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites Scale on a Sample of University Students in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifford, Amy; Ng, Kok-Mun; Wang, Chuang

    2009-01-01

    We examined the factor structure of the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites Scale (PCRW; Spanierman & Heppner, 2004) on 766 White American university students from the southeastern United States. Results from confirmatory factor analyses supported the 3-factor model proposed by Spanierman and Heppner (2004). The construct validity of the…

  1. Individual sugar and acid composition within southeastern peach germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    eaches grown in the southeast are valued for their acidic, sweet flavor. A complex mixture of various sugars and acids at different ratios play a key role in determining these unique peach flavor attributes. To understand the flavor profile of fresh market peaches, individual sugar and acid compone...

  2. Grass competition may benefit high density peach orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research demonstrated that grass competition dwarfed and reduced the yield of individual peach trees [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] grown in narrow vegetation free areas (VFA). In this report, the area-based yield of two peach cultivars, 'Redskin' and 'Jersey Dawn' on 'Lovell', was estimated...

  3. Amygdalin Contents in Peaches at Different Fruit Development Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk-Hee; Oh, Angela; Shin, Seo-Hee; Kim, Ha-Na; Kang, Woo-Won; Chung, Shin-Kyo

    2017-09-01

    Amygdalin contents of the seeds, endocarps, and mesocarps from three peach cultivars (i.e., Stone Peach, Hikawa Hakuho, and Bakhyang) were measured at three stages of fruit development (stone-hardening, fruit enlargement, and ripening). The peach samples were dried and defatted with a Soxhlet apparatus, reflux extracted with methanol, and analyzed using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. During all fruit development stages, the amygdalin contents in the seeds were higher than those in the endocarps and mesocarps. The amygdalin contents of the Stone Peach were comparatively higher than the Hikawa Hakuho and Bakhyang (Pamygdalin contents during ripening were very low or not detected. Overall, the amygdalin contents of the three peach cultivar samples (seed, endocarp, and mesocarp) increased until the fruit enlargement stage and either remained constant or decreased during ripening.

  4. Dormancy in Peach (Prunus persica L.) Flower Buds 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Virginia; Lorenzo, Eugenia; Reinoso, Herminda; Tordable, Maria C.; Abdala, Guillermina; Pharis, Richard P.; Bottini, Ruben

    1990-01-01

    Flower buds of peach (Prunus persica L.) trees, cv Novedad de Cordoba (Argentina), were collected near the end of the dormant period and immediately before anthesis. After removal of scale leaves, morphological observations of representative buds, made on transverse and longitudinal microtome sections, showed that all verticils making up the flower are present in an undifferentiated form during the dormant period (June). Flower buds collected at the end of dormant period (August) showed additional growth and differentiation, at which time formation of two ovules was beginning in the unicarpelar gynoecium. Dehiscence of anthers had not yet occurred 10 days before full bloom, and the ovules were still developing. Free endogenous gibberellin (GA)-like substances were quantified by bioassay (Tan-ginbozu dwarf rice microdrop) after SiO2 partition column chromatography, reversed phase C18-high performance liquid chromatography, and finally Nucleosil [N(CH3)2]high performance liquid chromatography. Bioactive fractions were then subjected to capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM). Gibberellins A1, A3, and A8 were tentatively identified in peach flower buds using GC-SIM and Kovat's retention indices, and relative amounts approximated by GC-SIM (2:8:6 for GA1, GA3, and GA8, respectively). The highest concentration (330 nanograms per gram dry weight) of free GA1/GA3 was found in dormant buds (June) and diminished thereafter. The concentration free of GA1/GA3 did not increase immediately prior to bud break. However, high GA1/GA3 concentrations occurred during stages where rate of growth and cellular differentiation of (mainly fertile) verticils can be influenced. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667435

  5. Fine-scale genetic structure and social organization in female white-tailed deer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comer, Christopher E.; Kilgo, John C.; D' Angelo, Gino J.; Glenn, Travis C.; Miller, Karl V.

    2005-07-01

    Abstract: Social behavior of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have important management implications. The formation of matrilineal social groups among female deer has been documented and management strategies have been proposed based on this well-developed social structure. Using radiocollared (n = 17) and hunter or vehicle-killed (n = 21) does, we examined spatial and genetic structure in white-tailed deer on a 7,000-ha portion of the Savannah River Site in the upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. We used 14 microsatellite DNA loci to calculate pairwise relatedness among individual deer and to assign doe pairs to putative relationship categories. Linear distance and genetic relatedness were weakly correlated (r = –0.08, P = 0.058). Relationship categories differed in mean spatial distance, but only 60% of first-degree-related doe pairs (full sibling or mother–offspring pairs) and 38% of second-degree-related doe pairs (half sibling, grandmother–granddaughter pairs) were members of the same social group based on spatial association. Heavy hunting pressure in this population has created a young age structure among does, where the average age is <2.5 years, and <4% of does are >4.5 years old. This—combined with potentially elevated dispersal among young does—could limit the formation of persistent, cohesive social groups. Our results question the universal applicability of recently proposed models of spatial and genetic structuring in white-tailed deer, particularly in areas with differing harvest histories.

  6. Mutation scanning of peach floral genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilde H Dayton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutation scanning technology has been used to develop crop species with improved traits. Modifications that improve screening throughput and sensitivity would facilitate the targeted mutation breeding of crops. Technical innovations for high-resolution melting (HRM analysis are enabling the clinic-based screening for human disease gene polymorphism. We examined the application of two HRM modifications, COLD-PCR and QMC-PCR, to the mutation scanning of genes in peach, Prunus persica. The targeted genes were the putative floral regulators PpAGAMOUS and PpTERMINAL FLOWER I. Results HRM analysis of PpAG and PpTFL1 coding regions in 36 peach cultivars found one polymorphic site in each gene. PpTFL1 and PpAG SNPs were used to examine approaches to increase HRM throughput. Cultivars with SNPs could be reliably detected in pools of twelve genotypes. COLD-PCR was found to increase the sensitivity of HRM analysis of pooled samples, but worked best with small amplicons. Examination of QMC-PCR demonstrated that primary PCR products for further analysis could be produced from variable levels of genomic DNA. Conclusions Natural SNPs in exons of target peach genes were discovered by HRM analysis of cultivars from a southeastern US breeding program. For detecting natural or induced SNPs in larger populations, HRM efficiency can be improved by increasing sample pooling and template production through approaches such as COLD-PCR and QMC-PCR. Technical advances developed to improve clinical diagnostics can play a role in the targeted mutation breeding of crops.

  7. Weaker resource diffusion effect at coarser spatial scales observed for egg distribution of cabbage white butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenbank, Marc; Hartley, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    Mobile organisms frequently forage for patchy resources; e.g. herbivorous insects searching for host plants. The resource diffusion hypothesis predicts that insect herbivores, such as Pieris rapae butterflies, are disproportionally attracted to more isolated, or 'diffused', host plants. Surprisingly little is known about how this response to variation in resource density manifests itself at different spatial scales. We measured the outcome of oviposition by P. rapae butterflies foraging among groups of host plants, with plant density experimentally varied to achieve comparability between three nested scales: fine (1 × 1 m), medium (6 × 6 m), and coarse (36 × 36 m). Hierarchical linear models were used to measure density-dependent responses in the number of eggs laid per plant, with plant density measured at nested spatial scales. At a fine scale, isolated plants received significantly more eggs, while at medium and coarse scales the differences were less pronounced, and tended towards a neutral distribution of eggs across plants. Larger plants also tended to receive more eggs. Since multiple processes, acting at multiple scales, are likely to be the rule rather than the exception in ecology, methods for detecting and characterising multi-scale responses are important to ensure a robust transfer of ecological models from one situation to another.

  8. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  9. A White Beam Far-field Neutron Interferometer for Multi-scale Resolution of Porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, D. S.; Miao, H.; Anovitz, L. M.; Jacobson, D. L.; LaManna, J.; Wen, H.

    2016-12-01

    The pore structure of geological formations spans many decades of length scales, from the Angstrom to the kilometer. There are few probes which can assess characterize these structures simultaneously. We will present a demonstration of a new neutron phase imaging method that can provide quantitative, multi-scale images, addressing length scales from the nanometer to the centimeter. The phase imaging method is based on a far field interferometer that produces phase gradient and small-angle scattering images using a polychromatic neutron beam. The interferometer is based on the Moiré pattern of two phase modulating gratings which was previously realized in hard x-ray and visible light experiments. An important aspect of the method is the ability to tune the auto-correlation length of the interferometer by changing the separation of the two gratings, and thereby provides a measure of the real-space pair-correlation function, G(z), of the sample. As has been shown for other scattering methods, measures of G(z) can incorporate multiple scattering permitting the study of thick samples. As well, the method has the potential to enable tomographic reconstruction so that a fully 3D distribution of the microstructure can be measured. Multi-scale data from several core specimens will be presented showing the quantitative ability of the method.

  10. Action Video Game Experience Related to Altered Large-Scale White Matter Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diankun Gong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With action video games (AVGs becoming increasingly popular worldwide, the cognitive benefits of AVG experience have attracted continuous research attention over the past two decades. Research has repeatedly shown that AVG experience can causally enhance cognitive ability and is related to neural plasticity in gray matter and functional networks in the brain. However, the relation between AVG experience and the plasticity of white matter (WM network still remains unclear. WM network modulates the distribution of action potentials, coordinating the communication between brain regions and acting as the framework of neural networks. And various types of cognitive deficits are usually accompanied by impairments of WM networks. Thus, understanding this relation is essential in assessing the influence of AVG experience on neural plasticity and using AVG experience as an interventional tool for impairments of WM networks. Using graph theory, this study analyzed WM networks in AVG experts and amateurs. Results showed that AVG experience is related to altered WM networks in prefrontal networks, limbic system, and sensorimotor networks, which are related to cognitive control and sensorimotor functions. These results shed new light on the influence of AVG experience on the plasticity of WM networks and suggested the clinical applicability of AVG experience.

  11. Nano-scale composition of commercial white powders for development of latent fingerprints on adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B J; Reynolds, A J; Richardson, M; Sears, V G

    2010-09-01

    Titanium dioxide based powders are regularly used in the development of latent fingerprints on dark surfaces. For analysis of prints on adhesive tapes, the titanium dioxide can be suspended in a surfactant and used in the form of a powder suspension. Commercially available products, whilst having nominally similar composition, show varying levels of effectiveness of print development, with some powders adhering to the background as well as the print. X-ray fluorescence (XRF), analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and laser particle sizing of the fingerprint powders show TiO(2) particles with a surrounding coating, tens of nanometres thick, consisting of Al and Si rich material, with traces of sodium and sulphur. Such aluminosilicates are commonly used as anti-caking agents and to aid adhesion or functionality of some fingerprint powders; however, the morphology, thickness, coverage and composition of the aluminosilicates are the primary differences between the white powder formulations and could be related to variation in the efficacy of print development. Copyright © 2009 Forensic Science Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Action Video Game Experience Related to Altered Large-Scale White Matter Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Diankun; Ma, Weiyi; Gong, Jinnan; He, Hui; Dong, Li; Zhang, Dan; Li, Jianfu; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    With action video games (AVGs) becoming increasingly popular worldwide, the cognitive benefits of AVG experience have attracted continuous research attention over the past two decades. Research has repeatedly shown that AVG experience can causally enhance cognitive ability and is related to neural plasticity in gray matter and functional networks in the brain. However, the relation between AVG experience and the plasticity of white matter (WM) network still remains unclear. WM network modulates the distribution of action potentials, coordinating the communication between brain regions and acting as the framework of neural networks. And various types of cognitive deficits are usually accompanied by impairments of WM networks. Thus, understanding this relation is essential in assessing the influence of AVG experience on neural plasticity and using AVG experience as an interventional tool for impairments of WM networks. Using graph theory, this study analyzed WM networks in AVG experts and amateurs. Results showed that AVG experience is related to altered WM networks in prefrontal networks, limbic system, and sensorimotor networks, which are related to cognitive control and sensorimotor functions. These results shed new light on the influence of AVG experience on the plasticity of WM networks and suggested the clinical applicability of AVG experience.

  13. Preservation of minimally processed 'aurora-1' peaches using additives

    OpenAIRE

    Ramilo Nogueira Martins; Ben-Hur Mattiuz; Leandra Oliveira Santos; Cristiane Maria Ascari Morgado; Claudia Fabrino Machado Mattiuz

    2011-01-01

    'Aurora-1' peaches establishes an interesting alternative as a minimally processed product, due to its characteristics like flavor, color, smell, and also because of its handling resistance. However, it has a short shelf life after a fresh-cut due to enzymatic browning and stone cavity collapse. The main purpose of this research was to test the additive with antioxidant effect to prevent browning in minimally processed 'Aurora-1' peaches. The minimal processing consists of washing, sanitizing...

  14. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae movement and distribution within a peach orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett R. Blaauw

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.. Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow’s milk. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA to assess whether collected H. halys were “marked” with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys.

  15. Feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal replacing maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85% DM. Thirty Santa Inês sheep with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. Feeding time in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDFap increased by 34 min and 99.6 min, respectively, with each level of substitution of maize for the peach palm meal. Rumination and chewing times, in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDF, also increased in response to the substitution of maize for peach palm meal. When expressed in min day–1, rumination and chewing activities decreased by 12.4 and 14.6 min, respectively, as the amount of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The time spent idle increased linearly (P < 0.05, by 14.6 min day–1, with the replacement levels, compared with the control diet. Peach palm meal in the composition of sheep diets reduces the intakes of dry matter and fiber and decreases the feed and rumination efficiencies. Replacing maize by peach palm meal increases the feeding time and rumination and chewing activities of feedlot lambs.

  16. Biocontrol of postharvest Rhizopus decay of peaches with Pichia caribbica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baitian; Zhang, Hongyin; Chen, Keping; Xu, Qin; Yao, Yao; Gao, Hui

    2013-08-01

    A new yeast antagonist, Pichia caribbica, isolated in our laboratory from the soil collected from unsprayed orchards, was evaluated for its biocontrol capability against Rhizopus stolonifer on peaches and the possible mechanisms involved. The decay incidence and lesion diameter of Rhizopus decay of peaches treated by P. caribbica were significantly reduced compared with the control fruits, and the higher the concentration of P. caribbica, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol. Rapid colonization of the yeast in peach wounds stored at 25 °C was observed. In peaches, the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) were significantly induced by P. caribbica treatment compared to those of the control fruits. All these results indicated that P. caribbica has a great potential for the development of commercial formulations to control postharvest Rhizopus decay of peaches. Its modes of action were based on competition for space and nutrients with pathogens, inducement of activities of defense-related enzymes such as POD, CAT, and PAL of peaches.

  17. Population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wari, David; Yamashita, Jun; Kataoka, Yoko; Kohara, Yoko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Toyoshima, Shingo; Sonoda, Shoji

    2014-07-01

    A population survey of phytoseiid mites and spider mites was conducted on peach leaves and wild plants in Japanese peach orchards having different pesticide practices. The phytoseiid mite species composition on peach leaves and wild plants, as estimated using quantitative sequencing, changed during the survey period. Moreover, it varied among study sites. The phytoseiid mite species compositions were similar between peach leaves and some wild plants, such as Veronica persica, Paederia foetida, Persicaria longiseta, and Oxalis corniculata with larger quantities of phytoseiid mites, especially after mid-summer. A PCR-based method to detect the ribosomal ITS sequences of Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus mori from phytoseiid mites was developed. Results showed that Euseius sojaensis (specialized pollen feeder/generalist predator) uses both spider mites as prey in the field.

  18. ADVANCES IN PEACH, NECTARINE AND PLUM PROPAGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEWTON ALEX MAYER

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nursery trees of stone fruits (Prunus spp. are traditionally produced by union of two distinct genotypes - the rootstock and the scion - which, by grafting, form a composite plant that will be maintained throughout of all plant life. In Brazil, the rootstocks are predominantly seed propagated and therefore usually results in heterogeneous trees for vigor and edaphic adaptation. However, with advances in rootstock breeding programs that released cultivars and certification in several countries (notably in Europe, the system will come gradually evolving for vegetative propagation (cuttings and tissue culture and use of seeds of selected rootstocks with specific characteristics and potted nursery trees production. For scion cultivar propagation, the budding system (with its many variations has predominantly been adopted in major producing countries. This review had as objective to comment main propagation methods adopted for rootstocks and scion in peach, nectarine and plum, and recent technical progress obtained as well as the needs of improvement for nursery tree production.

  19. Photonic polycrystal in the greenish-white scales of the African longhorn beetle Prosopocera lactator (Cerambycidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomer, Jean-François; Simonis, Priscilla; Bay, Annick; Cloetens, Peter; Suhonen, Heikki; Rassart, Marie; Vandenbem, Cédric; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional photonic-crystal grains were found in the scales of the longhorn beetle Prosopocera lactator (Cerambycidae). The local geometric structure can be described as a face-centered-cubic array of spheres, connected by short rods, reminiscent of the “ball-and-stick” models used by solid-state chemists to visualize atomic structures. Based on scanning electron microscopy, x-ray nanotomography, optical measurements, photonic band-structure calculations, and computer simulations of the reflectance, the desaturated greenish coloration is shown to arise from the observed photonic polycrystalline structure. X-ray nanotomography is revealed as a very promising tool for photonic-crystal morphology studies.

  20. White Ring; White ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H.; Yuzawa, H. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    White Ring is a citizen`s gymnasium used for figure skating and short track speed skating games of 18th Winter Olympic Games in 1998. White Ring is composed of a main-arena and a sub-arena. For the main-arena with an area 41mtimes66m, an ice link can be made by disengaging the potable floor and by flowing brine in the bridged polystyrene pipes embedded in the concrete floor. Due to the fortunate groundwater in this site, well water is used for the outside air treatment energy in 63% during heating and in 35% during cooling. Ammonia is used as a cooling medium for refrigerating facility. For the heating of audience area in the large space, heat load from the outside is reduced by enhancing the heat insulation performance of the roof of arena. The audience seats are locally heated using heaters. For the White Ring, high quality environment is realized for games through various functions of the large-scale roof of the large space. Success of the big event was expected. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Peace, a MYB-like transcription factor, regulates petal pigmentation in flowering peach 'Genpei' bearing variegated and fully pigmented flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Chiyomi; Katayama, Hironori; Makino, Izumi; Inagaki, Azusa; Arakawa, Osamu; Martin, Cathie

    2014-03-01

    Flowering peach Prunus persica cv. Genpei bears pink and variegated flowers on a single tree. The structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were expressed strongly in pink petals but only very weakly or not at all in variegated petals. A cDNA clone encoding a MYB-like gene, isolated from pink petals was strongly expressed only in pink petals. Introduction of this gene, via biolistics gave magenta spots in the white areas of variegated petals, therefore this gene was named as Peace (peach anthocyanin colour enhancement). Differences in Peace expression determine the pattern of flower colouration in flowering peach. The R2R3 DNA-binding domain of Peace is similar to those of other plant MYBs regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Key amino acids for tertiary structure and the motif for interaction with bHLH proteins were conserved in Peace. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Peace is closely related to AtMYB123 (TT2), which regulates proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, and to anthocyanin regulators in monocots rather than to regulators in dicots. This is the first report that a TT2-like R2R3 MYB has been shown to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  2. Peach genetic resources: diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most important model fruits in the Rosaceae family. Native to the west of China, where peach has been domesticated for more than 4,000 years, its cultivation spread from China to Persia, Mediterranean countries and to America. Chinese peach has had a major impact on international peach breeding programs due to its high genetic diversity. In this research, we used 48 highly polymorphic SSRs, distributed over the peach genome, to investigate the difference in genetic diversity, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) among Chinese cultivars, and North American and European cultivars, and the evolution of current peach cultivars. Results In total, 588 alleles were obtained with 48 SSRs on 653 peach accessions, giving an average of 12.25 alleles per locus. In general, the average value of observed heterozygosity (0.47) was lower than the expected heterozygosity (0.60). The separate analysis of groups of accessions according to their origin or reproductive strategies showed greater variability in Oriental cultivars, mainly due to the high level of heterozygosity in Chinese landraces. Genetic distance analysis clustered the cultivars into two main groups: one included four wild related Prunus, and the other included most of the Oriental and Occidental landraces and breeding cultivars. STRUCTURE analysis assigned 469 accessions to three subpopulations: Oriental (234), Occidental (174), and Landraces (61). Nested STRUCTURE analysis divided the Oriental subpopulation into two different subpopulations: ‘Yu Lu’ and ‘Hakuho’. The Occidental breeding subpopulation was also subdivided into nectarine and peach subpopulations. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis in each of these subpopulations showed that the percentage of linked (r2 > 0.1) intra-chromosome comparisons ranged between 14% and 47%. LD decayed faster in Oriental (1,196 Kbp) than in Occidental (2,687 Kbp) samples. In the ‘Yu Lu’ subpopulation there

  3. Process variables in the osmotic dehydration of sliced peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Pimentel Marconi Germer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluated the influence of temperature and concentration of the sucrose syrup on the pre-osmotic dehydration of peaches. Physical (colour and texture and chemical variables (soluble solid content; total sugar, reducing and non-reducing sugar contents; and titratable acidity were investigated, as well as the osmotic dehydration parameters (loss of weight and water; solids incorporation. An experimental central composite design was employed varying the temperature (from 30 to 50 ºC and concentration (from 45 to 65 ºBrix and maintaining the syrup to fruit ratio (4:1, process time (4 hours, and format (slices. The degree of acceptance was used in the sensory analysis evaluating the following characteristics: appearance, taste, texture, colour, and overall quality using a hedonic scale. The results were modelled using the Statistica program (v. 6.0 and the Response Surface Methodology. The mathematical models of the following dimensionless variations yielded significant (p < 0.05 and predictive results: soluble solids content, total and non-reducing sugar contents, titratable acidity, colour parameter L*, and water loss. The models of the attributes colour and appearance yielded significant (p < 0.10 but not predictive results. Temperature was the prevalent effect in the models. The process conditions in the range from 50 to 54.1 ºC and from 45 to 65 ºBrix led to greater water losses and better sensory performances.

  4. Using large-scale data analysis to assess life history and behavioural traits: the case of the reintroduced White stork Ciconia ciconia population in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doligez, B.; Thomson, D.L.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    The White stork Ciconia ciconia has been the object of several successful reintroduction programmes in the last decades. As a consequence, populations have been monitored over large spatial scales. Despite these intense efforts, very few reliable estimates of life history traits are available for

  5. Peaches tree genetic divergence for brown rot reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Wagner Júnior

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the genetic divergence in peach genotypes for brown rot reaction. It was evaluated 26 and 29 peach genotypes in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 production cycle, respectively. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratório de Fitossanidade, da UTFPR - Campus Dois Vizinhos. The experimental design was entirely randomized, considering each peach genotype a treatment, and it was use three replication of nine fruits. The treatment control use three replication of three peach. The fruit epidermis were inoculated individually with 0.15 mL of M. fructicola conidial suspension (1.0 x 10(5 spores mL-1. In the control treatment was sprayed with 0.15 mL of distilled water. The fruits were examined 72 and 120 hours after inoculation, and the incidence and severity disease were evaluated. These results allowed realized study for genetic divergence, used as dissimilarity measure the Generalized Mahalanobis distance. Cluster analysis using Tocher´s optimization method and distances in the plan were applied. There was smallest genetic divergence among peach trees evaluated for brown rot, what can difficult to obtain resistance in the genotypes.

  6. Origin and Dispersal of Domesticated Peach Palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Clement

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth is a Neotropical palm domesticated by Native Americans. Its domestication resulted in a set of landraces (var. gasipaes, some with very starchy fruit used for fermentation, others with an equilibrium of starch and oil used as snacks. Which of the three wild types (var. chichagui was involved and where the domestication process began are unclear, with three hypotheses under discussion: an origin in southwestern Amazonia; or in northwestern South America; or multiple origins. We reevaluate one of the wild types, defining it as the incipient domesticate, and then evaluate these hypotheses using the Brazilian peach palm Core Collection and selected herbaria samples to: (1 model the potential distributions of wild and domesticated populations; (2 identify the probable origin of domestication with a phylogeographic analysis of chloroplast DNA sequences; and (3 determine the dispersal routes after domestication using spatial analysis of genetic diversity based on 17 nuclear microsatellite loci. The two very small-fruited wild types have distinct distributions in the northern Andes region and across southern Amazonia, both under moderately humid climates, while the incipient domesticate, partly sympatric with the southern wild type, is also found along the Equatorial Andes, in a more humid climatic envelope, more similar to that of the domesticated landraces. Two distribution models for Last Glacial Maximum conditions (CCSM4, MIROC also suggest distinct distributions for the two wild populations. The chloroplast DNA phylogeographic network confirms the area of sympatry of the incipient domesticate and the southern wild type in southwestern Amazonia as the origin of domestication. The spatial patterns of genetic diversity confirm the proposal of two dispersals, one along the Ucayali River, into western Amazonia, northwestern South America and finally Central America; the other along the Madeira River into central and

  7. Archaeological evidence for peach (Prunus persica) cultivation and domestication in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yunfei; Crawford, Gary W; Chen, Xugao

    2014-01-01

    The cultivated/domesticated peach (Prunus persica var. persica; Rosaceae, subgenus Amygdalus; synonym: Amygdalus persica) originated in China, but its wild ancestor, as well as where, when, and under what circumstances the peach was domesticated, is poorly known. Five populations of archaeological peach stones recovered from Zhejiang Province, China, document peach use and evolution beginning ca. 8000 BP. The majority of the archaeological sites from which the earliest peach stones have been recovered are from the Yangzi River valley, indicating that this is where early selection for favorable peach varieties likely took place. Furthermore, peach stone morphology through time is consistent with the hypothesis that an unknown wild P. persica was the ancestor of the cultivated peach. The oldest archaeological peach stones are from the Kuahuqiao (8000-7000 BP) and Tianluoshan (7000-6500 BP) sites and both stone samples segregate into two size groups, suggesting early selection of preferred types. The first peach stones in China most similar to modern cultivated forms are from the Liangzhu culture (ca. 5300 to 4300 BP), where the peach stones are significantly larger and more compressed than earlier stones. Similar peach stones are reported from Japan much earlier (6700-6400 BP). This large, compressed-stone peach was introduced to Japan and indicates a yet unidentified source population in China that was similar to the Liangzhu culture peach. This study proposes that the lower Yangzi River valley is a region, if not the region, of early peach selection and domestication and that the process began at least 7500 years ago.

  8. Reduced α-stable dynamics for multiple time scale systems forced with correlated additive and multiplicative Gaussian white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William F.; Kuske, Rachel A.; Monahan, Adam H.

    2017-11-01

    Stochastic averaging problems with Gaussian forcing have been the subject of numerous studies, but far less attention has been paid to problems with infinite-variance stochastic forcing, such as an α-stable noise process. It has been shown that simple linear systems driven by correlated additive and multiplicative (CAM) Gaussian noise, which emerge in the context of reduced atmosphere and ocean dynamics, have infinite variance in certain parameter regimes. In this study, we consider the stochastic averaging of systems where a linear CAM noise process in the infinite variance parameter regime drives a comparatively slow process. We use (semi)-analytical approximations combined with numerical illustrations to compare the averaged process to one that is forced by a white α-stable process, demonstrating consistent properties in the case of large time-scale separation. We identify the conditions required for the fast linear CAM process to have such an influence in driving a slower process and then derive an (effectively) equivalent fast, infinite-variance process for which an existing stochastic averaging approximation is readily applied. The results are illustrated using numerical simulations of a set of example systems.

  9. Chip-scale white flip-chip light-emitting diode containing indium phosphide/zinc selenide quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bingfeng; Yan, Linchao; Lao, Yuqin; Ma, Yanfei; Chen, Zimin; Ma, Xuejin; Zhuo, Yi; Pei, Yanli; Wang, Gang

    2017-08-01

    A method for preparing a quantum dot (QD)-white light-emitting diode (WLED) is reported. Holes were etched in the SiO2 layer deposited on the sapphire substrate of the flip-chip LED by inductively coupled plasma, and these holes were then filled with QDs. An ultraviolet-curable resin was then spin-coated on top of the QD-containing SiO2 layer, and the resin was cured to act as a protecting layer. The reflective sidewall structure minimized sidelight leakage. The fabrication of the QD-WLED is simple in preparation and compatible with traditional LED processes, which was the minimum size of the WLED chip-scale integrated package. InP/ZnS core-shell QDs were used as the converter in the WLED. A blue light-emitting diode with a flip-chip structure was used as the excitation source. The QD-WLED exhibited color temperatures from 5900 to 6400 K and Commission Internationale De L'Elcairage color coordinates from (0.315, 0.325) to (0.325, 0.317), under drive currents from 100 to 400 mA. The QD-WLED exhibited stable optoelectronic properties.

  10. Transcriptome Analysis of Sexually Dimorphic Chinese White Wax Scale Insects Reveals Key Differences in Developmental Programs and Transcription Factor Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pu; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Wei-Wei; Feng, Ying; Sun, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese white wax scale insect, Ericerus pela, represents one of the most dramatic examples of sexual dimorphism in any insect species. In this study, we showed that although E. pela males display complete metamorphosis similar to holometabolous insects, the species forms the sister group to Acyrthosiphon pisum and cluster with hemimetabolous insects. The gene expression profile and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses revealed that the two sexes engaged in distinct developmental programs. In particular, female development appeared to prioritize the expression of genes related to cellular, metabolic, and developmental processes and to anatomical structure formation in nymphs. By contrast, male nymphal development is characterized by the significant down-regulation of genes involved in chitin, the respiratory system, and neurons. The wing and appendage morphogenesis, anatomical and tissue structure morphogenesis programs activated after male nymphal development. Transcription factors (that convey juvenile hormone or ecdysone signals, and Hox genes) and DNA methyltransferase were also differentially expressed between females and males. These results may indicate the roles that these differentially expressed genes play in regulating sexual dimorphism through orchestrating complex genetic programs. This differential expression was particularly prominent for processes linked to female development and wing development in males. PMID:25634031

  11. Large-Scale Multifunctional Electrochromic-Energy Storage Device Based on Tungsten Trioxide Monohydrate Nanosheets and Prussian White.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhijie; Li, Xiaomin; Chen, Yongbo; He, Xiaoli; Xu, Xiaoke; Gao, Xiangdong

    2017-09-06

    A high-performance electrochromic-energy storage device (EESD) is developed, which successfully realizes the multifunctional combination of electrochromism and energy storage by constructing tungsten trioxide monohydrate (WO3·H2O) nanosheets and Prussian white (PW) film as asymmetric electrodes. The EESD presents excellent electrochromic properties of broad optical modulation (61.7%), ultrafast response speed (1.84/1.95 s), and great coloration efficiency (139.4 cm(2) C(-1)). In particular, remarkable cyclic stability (sustaining 82.5% of its initial optical modulation after 2500 cycles as an electrochromic device, almost fully maintaining its capacitance after 1000 cycles as an energy storage device) is achieved. The EESD is also able to visually detect the energy storage level via reversible and fast color changes. Moreover, the EESD can be combined with commercial solar cells to constitute an intelligent operating system in the architectures, which would realize the adjustment of indoor sunlight and the improvement of physical comfort totally by the rational utilization of solar energy without additional electricity. Besides, a scaled-up EESD (10 × 11 cm(2)) is further fabricated as a prototype. Such promising EESD shows huge potential in practically serving as electrochromic smart windows and energy storage devices.

  12. Textural and rheological properties of Pacific whiting surimi as affected by nano-scaled fish bone and heating rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tao; Park, Jae W

    2015-08-01

    Textural and rheological properties of Pacific whiting (PW) surimi were investigated at various heating rates with the use of nano-scaled fish bone (NFB) and calcium chloride. Addition of NFB and slow heating improved gel strength significantly. Activity of endogenous transglutaminase (ETGase) from PW surimi was markedly induced by both NFB calcium and calcium chloride, showing an optimal temperature at 30°C. Initial storage modulus increased as NFB calcium concentration increased and the same trend was maintained throughout the temperature sweep. Rheograms with temperature sweep at slow heating rate (1°C/min) exhibited two peaks at ∼ 35°C and ∼ 70°C. However, no peak was observed during temperature sweep from 20 to 90°C at fast heating rate (20°C/min). Protein patterns of surimi gels were affected by both heating rate and NFB calcium concentration. Under slow heating, myosin heavy chain intensity decreased with NFB calcium concentration, indicating formation of ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine cross-links by ETGase and NFB calcium ion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Chromosome-Scale Assembly of the Bactrocera cucurbitae Genome Provides Insight to the Genetic Basis of white pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheina B. Sim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic sexing strains (GSS used in sterile insect technique (SIT programs are textbook examples of how classical Mendelian genetics can be directly implemented in the management of agricultural insect pests. Although the foundation of traditionally developed GSS are single locus, autosomal recessive traits, their genetic basis are largely unknown. With the advent of modern genomic techniques, the genetic basis of sexing traits in GSS can now be further investigated. This study is the first of its kind to integrate traditional genetic techniques with emerging genomics to characterize a GSS using the tephritid fruit fly pest Bactrocera cucurbitae as a model. These techniques include whole-genome sequencing, the development of a mapping population and linkage map, and quantitative trait analysis. The experiment designed to map the genetic sexing trait in B. cucurbitae, white pupae (wp, also enabled the generation of a chromosome-scale genome assembly by integrating the linkage map with the assembly. Quantitative trait loci analysis revealed SNP loci near position 42 MB on chromosome 3 to be tightly linked to wp. Gene annotation and synteny analysis show a near perfect relationship between chromosomes in B. cucurbitae and Muller elements A–E in Drosophila melanogaster. This chromosome-scale genome assembly is complete, has high contiguity, was generated using a minimal input DNA, and will be used to further characterize the genetic mechanisms underlying wp. Knowledge of the genetic basis of genetic sexing traits can be used to improve SIT in this species and expand it to other economically important Diptera.

  14. Aluminum-induced calcium deficiency in peach seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J.H.; Horton, B.D.

    1977-07-01

    Total nutrient content, uptake rates, and distribution were determined for seedlings of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) grown in nutrient solutions containing 0, 222, 666, and 2000 ..mu..M Al. Generally, total nutrient content decreased in the peach seedling organs as Al concentration increased. The responses obtained with increased Al concentration were linear with some nutrients and curvilinear with others and varied with the plant organ. As Al concentration increased, the uptake rates for P, Ca, Mg, Zn, and Mn decreased by those for K and Fe increased. Aluminum did not alter the translocation of most nutrients; however, a greater percentage of the absorbed Ca accumulated in the leaves than in the roots or stems. Thus, aluminum toxicity in peaches may be related to a reduction in Ca uptake rate and not to inhibition in translocation of Ca.

  15. Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae in Peaches: is it a problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Andreazza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Healthy peach fruit is not considered a preferred host for Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura; however, it becomes a more preferable host when damaged. Thus, damaged peach fruit is of importance not only in terms of economic losses, but also because it serves as a reservoir for this fly species. This work aimed to evaluate the suitability of peaches mechanically damaged or harboring the brown rot disease as hosts for D. suzukii compared to hosts for which they have a low (undamaged peach and high (undamaged strawberry preference. Damaged peaches were as susceptible as undamaged strawberries. Fungus infection alone did not increase the susceptibility of peaches compared to undamaged peaches. This information should be considered when an Integrated Pest Management program is defined in a scenario of different species of fruit production.

  16. Ionically Bound Peroxidase from Peach Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Valdir Augusto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble, ionically bound peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO were extracted from the pulp of peach fruit during ripening at 20°C. Ionically bound form was purified 6.1-fold by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The purified enzyme showed only one peak of activity on Sephadex G-100 and PAGE revealed that the enzyme was purified by the procedures adopted. The purified enzyme showed a molecular weight of 29000 Da, maximum activity at pH 5.0 and at 40ºC. The calculated apparent activation energy (Ea for the reaction was10.04 kcal/mol. The enzyme was heat-labile in the temperature range of 60 to 75ºC with a fast inactivation at 75ºC. Measurement of residual activity showed a stabilizing effect of sucrose at various temperature/sugar concentrations (0, 10, 20 %, w/w, with an activation energy (Ea for inactivation increasing with sucrose concentration from 0 to 20% (w/w. The Km and Vmax values were 9.35 and 15.38 mM for 0-dianisidine and H2O2, respectively. The bound enzyme was inhibited competitively by ferulic, caffeic and protocatechuic acids with different values of Ki,. L-cysteine, p-coumaric and indolacetic acid and Fe++ also inhibited the enzyme but at a lower grade. N-ethylmaleimide and p-CMB were not effective to inhibit the enzyme demonstrating the non-essentiality of SH groups.

  17. Mechanical peach thinners reduce labor inputs and increase fruit size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horticultural and economic evaluations of mechanical peach thinner prototypes were conducted in 2007 in four commercial orchard blocks trained to either a perpendicular V or quad V system. A string thinner designed by a German grower for thinning apple trees in organic orchards was tested at 20 or ...

  18. 75 FR 3694 - Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications... procedures for comments, see 47 CFR 1.4125 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission proposes to...

  19. 75 FR 76293 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, AZ AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0 As stated in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission amends 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation...

  20. Apple and peach consumption habits across European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konopacka, D.; Jesionkowska, K.; Kruczynska, D.; Schoorl, F.W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain information concerning apple and peach consumption frequency within different European countries in relation to age and gender. The survey was a part of a complex experiment with the aim of evaluating consumers’ preferences towards new varieties, and the data is

  1. 78 FR 25861 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications....S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal...--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation for Part 73 continues to read as follows: Authority...

  2. Fighting Sharka in Peach: Current Limitations and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cirilli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sharka, caused by Plum Pox Virus (PPV, is by far the most important infectious disease of peach [P. persica (L. Batsch] and other Prunus species. The progressive spread of the virus in many important growing areas throughout Europe poses serious issues to the economic sustainability of stone fruit crops, peach in particular. The adoption of internationally agreed-upon rules for diagnostic tests, strain-specific monitoring schemes and spatial-temporal modeling of virus spread, are all essential for a more effective sharka containment. The EU regulations on nursery activity should be modified based on the zone delimitation of PPV presence, limiting open-field production of propagation materials only to virus-free areas. Increasing the efficiency of preventive measures should be augmented by the short-term development of resistant cultivars. Putative sources of resistance/tolerance have been recently identified in peach germplasm, although the majority of novel resistant sources to PPV-M have been found in almond. However, the complexity of introgression from related-species imposes the search for alternative strategies. The use of genetic engineering, particularly RNAi-based approaches, appears as one of the most promising perspectives to introduce a durable resistance to PPV in peach germplasm, notwithstanding the well-known difficulties of in vitro plant regeneration in this species. In this regard, rootstock transformation to induce RNAi-mediated systemic resistance to PPV would avoid the transformation of numerous commercial cultivars, and may alleviate consumer resistance to the use of GM plants.

  3. Fighting Sharka in Peach: Current Limitations and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Marco; Geuna, Filippo; Babini, Anna R.; Bozhkova, Valentina; Catalano, Luigi; Cavagna, Beniamino; Dallot, Sylvie; Decroocq, Véronique; Dondini, Luca; Foschi, Stefano; Ilardi, Vincenza; Liverani, Alessandro; Mezzetti, Bruno; Minafra, Angelantonio; Pancaldi, Marco; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Pascal, Thierry; Savino, Vito N.; Scorza, Ralph; Verde, Ignazio; Bassi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Sharka, caused by Plum Pox Virus (PPV), is by far the most important infectious disease of peach [P. persica (L.) Batsch] and other Prunus species. The progressive spread of the virus in many important growing areas throughout Europe poses serious issues to the economic sustainability of stone fruit crops, peach in particular. The adoption of internationally agreed-upon rules for diagnostic tests, strain-specific monitoring schemes and spatial–temporal modeling of virus spread, are all essential for a more effective sharka containment. The EU regulations on nursery activity should be modified based on the zone delimitation of PPV presence, limiting open-field production of propagation materials only to virus-free areas. Increasing the efficiency of preventive measures should be augmented by the short-term development of resistant cultivars. Putative sources of resistance/tolerance have been recently identified in peach germplasm, although the majority of novel resistant sources to PPV-M have been found in almond. However, the complexity of introgression from related-species imposes the search for alternative strategies. The use of genetic engineering, particularly RNA interference (RNAi)-based approaches, appears as one of the most promising perspectives to introduce a durable resistance to PPV in peach germplasm, notwithstanding the well-known difficulties of in vitro plant regeneration in this species. In this regard, rootstock transformation to induce RNAi-mediated systemic resistance would avoid the transformation of numerous commercial cultivars, and may alleviate consumer resistance to the use of GM plants. PMID:27625664

  4. Blossom thinning in apple and peach with an essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments were conducted with apple (Malus xdomestica) and peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] from 2003-2008 to evaluate the flower thinning efficacy of eugenol and a eugenol-based essential oil. Flower thinning effects by hand defoliation and alternative chemical agents were compared...

  5. MP-29, a clonal interspecific hybrid rootstock for peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    MP-29 rootstock has been jointly released for grower trial by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (Byron, GA) and Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. MP-29 is suggested for trial as a rootstock for peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) varieties on Armillaria root rot ...

  6. Increasing chilling reduces heat requirement for floral budbreak in peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Response to chilling temperatures is a critical factor in the suitability of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars to moderate climates such as in the southeastern United States. Time of bloom depends on the innate chilling requirement of the cultivar as well as the timing and quantity of co...

  7. INFRARED CANOPY TEMPERATURE OF PEACH TREES UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    An early-season peach, “Crimson Lady” (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch), is generally harvested in late May to early June in central California. To reduce water use, regulated deficit irrigation may be applied to these trees for the remaining and also most water demanding season (mid June to November). ...

  8. A strategy for male sterility facilitated recurrent selection in peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial peach is a highly homozygous self-compatible species with limited diversity. The incorporation of exotic germplasm and breeding of new varieties is hindered by the labor required to generate large segregating populations. Hand pollinations are characterized by a high failure rate with onl...

  9. Use of sodium metasilicate for management of peach brown rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandra Pivotto Pavanello

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Peach brown rot, caused by the Monilinia fructicola fungus, is the main disease affecting peach crops, and it is mainly controlled via frequent fungicide applications. This study aimed at searching for alternatives to the intensive use of chemicals, evaluating silicon doses to control pre and postharvest peach brown rot and their influence on maturation parameters and fruit quality. Treatments consisted of control (water and sodium metasilicate doses (2 g L-1, 4 g L-1, 6 g L-1, 8 g L-1 and 10 g L-1 of water. The following assessments were made: spore germination and in vitro mycelial growth, brown rot incidence, soluble solids, titratable acidity, flesh firmness, total polyphenol content and fruit ethylene production and respiration rate. The 2 g L-1 dose reduced spore germination by 95 %. Doses of 6 g L-1 and 8 g L-1 satisfactorily reduced the disease incidence in the field, with 77 % and 89.2 % control, respectively. Sodium metasilicate resulted in the maintenance of great fruit firmness, reduced respiration and ethylene production and increased total polyphenol synthesis, but it did not influence the titratable acidity or soluble solids. Applying 6 g L-1 may potentially control pre and postharvest peach brown rot, besides increasing the total polyphenol synthesis and maintaining a higher flesh firmness.

  10. Maternal obesity enhances white adipose tissue differentiation and alters genome-scale DNA methylation in male rat offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The risk of obesity in adulthood is strongly influenced by maternal body composition. Here we examined the hypothesis that maternal obesity influences white adipose tissue (WAT) transcriptome and increases propensity for adipogenesis in the offspring, prior to the development of obesity, using an es...

  11. Peace, a MYB-like transcription factor, regulates petal pigmentation in flowering peach ‘Genpei’ bearing variegated and fully pigmented flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Chiyomi; Inagaki, Azusa

    2014-01-01

    Flowering peach Prunus persica cv. Genpei bears pink and variegated flowers on a single tree. The structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were expressed strongly in pink petals but only very weakly or not at all in variegated petals. A cDNA clone encoding a MYB-like gene, isolated from pink petals was strongly expressed only in pink petals. Introduction of this gene, via biolistics gave magenta spots in the white areas of variegated petals, therefore this gene was named as Peace (peach anthocyanin colour enhancement). Differences in Peace expression determine the pattern of flower colouration in flowering peach. The R2R3 DNA-binding domain of Peace is similar to those of other plant MYBs regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Key amino acids for tertiary structure and the motif for interaction with bHLH proteins were conserved in Peace. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Peace is closely related to AtMYB123 (TT2), which regulates proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, and to anthocyanin regulators in monocots rather than to regulators in dicots. This is the first report that a TT2-like R2R3 MYB has been shown to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis. PMID:24453228

  12. Manejo de pragas e doenças na produção integrada e convencional de pêssegos Handling of pests and diseases in integrated and conventional production of peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casiane Salete Tibola

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A Produção Integrada de Pêssego (PIP está sendo desenvolvida na região de Pelotas-RS, desde o ano de 1999, com o objetivo de avaliar, agronomicamente, o sistema de Produção Integrada (PI comparado com o sistema de Produção Convencional (PC, em pomar de pessegueiro cv. Diamante. Foram analisados os dados de cinco safras (1999-2003, onde as avaliações compreenderam danos causados por pragas: grafolita, mosca-das-frutas, gorgulho e cochonilha; ocorrência de doenças: podridão-parda, bacteriose, sarna e outras doenças; e número de aplicações de agrotóxicos. Os danos por grafolita foram de 1,11% e de 1,69%, para os sistemas PI e PC, respectivamente. Os danos decorrentes do ataque pelo gorgulho do milho foram de 2,12% na PI e 0,86% na PC. No sistema PI, o percentual de frutas com podridão-parda foi de 26,27% e na PC foi de 30,55%, sendo a maior causa das perdas nos pomares. A ocorrência de sarna foi muito elevada na área com PC, no ano de 2003, atingindo 33,82% dos frutos analisados. O número de tratamentos fitossanitários foi maior na PC, em 1999 e 2000 e, posteriormente, houve similaridade nos tratamentos efetuados nos dois sistemas PI e PC. A avaliação conjunta dos resultados demonstra uma superação do sistema PI, quando comparado com o sistema PC, nos parâmetros analisados, indicando que é possível conduzir os pomares de pessegueiro de acordo com as Normas de Produção Integrada de Pêssego.The Integrated Production of Peach (IPP is being developed in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, since the year 1999, with the objective to evaluate agronomically the Integrated Production (IP system compared with Conventional Production (CP, in peach orchard 'Diamante'. The data of five harvests periods (1999-2003 and the evaluations were: damages for pests: oriental fruit moth, fruit flies, maize weevil and white peach scale; diseases: rotting, bacteria, scab and others; number of chemicals applications. The damages for oriental fruit

  13. Susceptibility levels and grouping of peach cultivars in relation to peach rust under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselda Alves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess susceptibility and classify peach cultivars in relation to rust (Tranzschelia discolor under field conditions. The study was conducted in an orchard during the 2007/08 and 2008/09 growing seasons and included the cultivars: Aurora 1, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier and Vanguarda. Several disease-related variables were evaluated, over a 10 day interval from September to February, based on estimates of disease incidence, severity and defoliation. The logistic model adequate fit to rust severity progress data (R2 > 0.90 in the two years. Principal component analysis (PCA using all data, irrespective of the year, identified area under the disease progress curve, initial inoculum and disease progress rate as the best variables to differentiate reactions to rust. When PCA analysis was conducted separately for each year, different disease-related variables were selected as a principal component, and cultivars were classified in three groups of susceptibility. There was inconsistency in the grouping of some cultivars, which was likely due to varying environmental conditions between the years. However, ‘Coral’ was consistently grouped in the low susceptibility group and ‘Chimarrita’ and ‘Granada’ in the high susceptibility group.

  14. Detection of Tumorigenic Rhizobia in Asymptomatic Peach Plants by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Raio

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available At present the only method for the detection of Rhizobium radiobacter and R. rhizogenes (ex Agrobacterium tumefaciens in plants is by isolating the bacteria on selective medium and testing them in vivo for pathogenicity. This procedure is time-consuming and not appropriate for detecting low concentrations of these agrobacteria. In this study a protocol was developed for detecting tumorigenic agrobacteria in the stem and root tissues of artificially inoculated peach plants. DNA was extracted from the plant tissues by a rapid procedure and then a 246 bp sequence of the vir region of the pTi was amplified by PCR. The target sequence was found in all stem and root samples of asymptomatic peach plants, and was evidenced in all the samples analyzed showing the effectiveness and reliability of the method.

  15. Using large-scale data analysis to assess life history and behavioural traits: the case of the reintroduced White stork Ciconia ciconia population in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doligez, B.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The White stork Ciconia ciconia has been the object of several successful reintroduction programmes in the last decades. As a consequence, populations have been monitored over large spatial scales. Despite these intense efforts, very few reliable estimates of life history traits are available for this species. Such general knowledge however constitutes a prerequisite for investigating the consequences of conservation measures. Using the large–scale and long–term ringing and resighting data set of White storks in the Netherlands, we investigated the variation of survival and resighting rates with age, time and previous individual resighting history, and in a second step supplementary feeding, using capture–recapture models. Providing food did not seem to affect survival directly, but may have an indirect effect via the alteration of migratory behaviour. Large–scale population monitoring is important in obtaining precise and reliable estimates of life history traits and assessing the consequences of conservation measures on these traits, which will prove useful for managers to take adequate measures in future conservation strategies.

  16. Acceptability of Aloysia citriodora-supplemented peach jams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámbaro, Adriana; Miraballes, Marcelo; Purtscher, Irene; Deandréis, Inés; Martínez, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    An unsupplemented peach jam and four peach jam samples prepared by supplementing the former with increasing amounts of Aloysia citriodora aqueous extract were subjected to sensory testing. A trained panel of eight assessors initially identified (reaching consensus) the relevant sensory attributes and then rated the jam samples on an individual basis. The jam samples were later evaluated for overall liking and willingness to purchase by a group of 95 interested consumers, who also provided their individual appraisal of the sensory features of the various samples by responding to an open-ended question. Overall, consumers appeared not to accept the sensory modifications introduced in traditional peach jam by the addition of A. citriodora extract, even though they were expressly acquainted with its health benefits. The degree of acceptance of the extract supplement decreased significantly with increasing amounts of extract in the jam. The groups identified to have the least and the greatest tolerance to the sensory modifications introduced in the supplemented jams differed in gender distribution, with male consumers having a greater tolerance than females. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Interactions among cooling, fungicide and postharvest ripening temperature on peaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Trujillo, J. Pablo; Cano, Antonio; Artes, Francisco [Postharvest and refrigeration Lab., Dept. of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS-CSIC, Murcia (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Peach fruit (Prunus persica L. cv. 'Miraflores') harvested at the firm-ripe stage, treated or not with 2 g l{sup -1} iprodione, were cooled or not at 1{sup o}C and ripened at 15 or 20{sup o}C and 95% RH for 10 days. During ripening, weight loss, fungal development and changes in quality parameters (firmness, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and ground and flesh color), and carbon dioxide and ethylene production were monitored. Cooling alone or combined with iprodione avoided Rhizopus nigricans decay during ripening at either ripening temperatures. A skin damage not previously reported on fungicide treated peach was observed at 20{sup o}C. Cooled fruit ripened at 15{sup o}C showed an anomalous respiration rate and ethylene production after the climacteric peak, a loss of firmness and a drop in titratable acidity after 7 days of storage, and reduced endo-polygalacturonase activity in presence of continuous pectinmethylesterase activity during the first week. Cooling before ripening at 20{sup o}C led to the best flavor without excessive total losses. These results helped in the optimization of warming cycles during cold storage used to avoid chilling injuries development on peaches. (Author)

  18. Validity of semi-quantitative scale for brain MRI in unilateral cerebral palsy due to periventricular white matter lesions: Relationship with hand sensorimotor function and structural connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Simona; Guzzetta, Andrea; Pannek, Kerstin; Ware, Robert S; Rossi, Giuseppe; Klingels, Katrijn; Feys, Hilde; Coulthard, Alan; Cioni, Giovanni; Rose, Stephen; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2015-01-01

    To provide first evidence of construct validity of a semi-quantitative scale for brain structural MRI (sqMRI scale) in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP) secondary to periventricular white matter (PWM) lesions, by examining the relationship with hand sensorimotor function and whole brain structural connectivity. Cross-sectional study of 50 children with UCP due to PWM lesions using 3 T (MRI), diffusion MRI and assessment of hand sensorimotor function. We explored the relationship of lobar, hemispheric and global scores on the sqMRI scale, with fractional anisotropy (FA), as a measure of brain white matter microstructure, and with hand sensorimotor measures (Assisting Hand Assessment, AHA; Jebsen-Taylor Test for Hand Function, JTTHF; Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function, MUUL; stereognosis; 2-point discrimination). Lobar and hemispheric scores on the sqMRI scale contralateral to the clinical side of hemiplegia correlated with sensorimotor paretic hand function measures and FA of a number of brain structural connections, including connections of brain areas involved in motor control (postcentral, precentral and paracentral gyri in the parietal lobe). More severe lesions correlated with lower sensorimotor performance, with the posterior limb of internal capsule score being the strongest contributor to impaired hand function. The sqMRI scale demonstrates first evidence of construct validity against impaired motor and sensory function measures and brain structural connectivity in a cohort of children with UCP due to PWM lesions. More severe lesions correlated with poorer paretic hand sensorimotor function and impaired structural connectivity in the hemisphere contralateral to the clinical side of hemiplegia. The quantitative structural MRI scoring may be a useful clinical tool for studying brain structure-function relationships but requires further validation in other populations of CP.

  19. Validity of semi-quantitative scale for brain MRI in unilateral cerebral palsy due to periventricular white matter lesions: Relationship with hand sensorimotor function and structural connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Simona; Guzzetta, Andrea; Pannek, Kerstin; Ware, Robert S.; Rossi, Giuseppe; Klingels, Katrijn; Feys, Hilde; Coulthard, Alan; Cioni, Giovanni; Rose, Stephen; Boyd, Roslyn N.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To provide first evidence of construct validity of a semi-quantitative scale for brain structural MRI (sqMRI scale) in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP) secondary to periventricular white matter (PWM) lesions, by examining the relationship with hand sensorimotor function and whole brain structural connectivity. Methods Cross-sectional study of 50 children with UCP due to PWM lesions using 3 T (MRI), diffusion MRI and assessment of hand sensorimotor function. We explored the relationship of lobar, hemispheric and global scores on the sqMRI scale, with fractional anisotropy (FA), as a measure of brain white matter microstructure, and with hand sensorimotor measures (Assisting Hand Assessment, AHA; Jebsen–Taylor Test for Hand Function, JTTHF; Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function, MUUL; stereognosis; 2-point discrimination). Results Lobar and hemispheric scores on the sqMRI scale contralateral to the clinical side of hemiplegia correlated with sensorimotor paretic hand function measures and FA of a number of brain structural connections, including connections of brain areas involved in motor control (postcentral, precentral and paracentral gyri in the parietal lobe). More severe lesions correlated with lower sensorimotor performance, with the posterior limb of internal capsule score being the strongest contributor to impaired hand function. Conclusion The sqMRI scale demonstrates first evidence of construct validity against impaired motor and sensory function measures and brain structural connectivity in a cohort of children with UCP due to PWM lesions. More severe lesions correlated with poorer paretic hand sensorimotor function and impaired structural connectivity in the hemisphere contralateral to the clinical side of hemiplegia. The quantitative structural MRI scoring may be a useful clinical tool for studying brain structure–function relationships but requires further validation in other populations of CP. PMID:26106533

  20. 7 CFR 917.459 - California Peach Grade and Size Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... determined when applying the U.S. Standards for Grades of Peaches; and that such peaches are well mature and... Autumn Red J Autumn Rose H Bev's Red I Blum's Beauty G Bright Princess L Brittney Lane J Burpeachfive... when packed in molded forms (tray packs) in a No. 22D standard lug box or a No. 32 standard box are of...

  1. Diversity of low chill peaches from Asia, Brasil, Europe and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred fifty-five peach (Prunus persica) cultivars, from Asia, Brazil, Europe, and the USA, were examined using eleven SSRs to study the genetic relationships among low chill as compared to high chill peach germplasm. Data was analyzed by NTSYSpc to form a similarity matrix using Nei and Li’s ...

  2. Molecular characterization of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is an important medicinal fruit with immense health benefits and antioxidant activity. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as DNA fingerprinting tools for the identification and characterization of peach germplasm in the United States. Eleven microsatel...

  3. Performance of Prunus rootstocks in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with either ‘Redtop’, ‘Redhaven’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach were planted at 11 locations in North America in 2001 in a randomized block design with a tree spacing of 5 by 6 m and 8 replicates. These rootstocks included three peach seedling rootst...

  4. 77 FR 3400 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Peach Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... the recommended cultural practices for fresh peach acreage in the county as determined by agricultural... with activities that occur during harvesting, packing, transportation, and marketing, as determined by... peaches on the acreage report; (iv) Follow the recommended cultural practices generally in use for fresh...

  5. Investigation of the aroma of commercial peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) types by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and sensory analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso Ferreira Pinhancos de Bianchi, Tiago; Weesepoel, Yannick; Koot, Alex; Iglesias, Ignasi; Eduardo, Iban; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Guerrero, Luis; Hortós, Maria; Ruth, van Saskia

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the aroma and sensory profiles of various types of peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch.). Forty-three commercial cultivars comprising peaches, flat peaches, nectarines, and canning peaches (pavías) were grown over two consecutive harvest years. Fruits were

  6. Removal of Salmonella Enteritidis from commercial unpasteurized liquid egg white using pilot scale cross flow tangential microfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Tomasula, Peggy M; Luchansky, John B; Porto-Fett, Anna; Call, Jeffrey E

    2010-09-01

    Effectiveness of a cross flow microfiltration (MF) process for removal of a cocktail of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis species from commercial unpasteurized liquid egg white (LEW) from a local egg breaking plant, while maintaining its functional properties was evaluated. To facilitate MF, LEW was wedge screened, homogenized and then diluted (1:2 w/w) with distilled water containing 0.5% sodium chloride. Diluted unpasteurized LEW was inoculated with five strains of S. Enteritidis (ATCC 4931, ATCC BAA-708, ATCC 49215, ATCC 49218, and ATCC BAA-1045) to a level of approximately 10(7)CFU/mL of LEW and microfiltered using a ceramic membrane. Process parameters influencing egg white functional properties and pathogen removal efficiency were evaluated. Average permeates flux increased by almost 126% when pH of LEW was adjusted from pH 8 to pH 7 at 25 degrees C. Microbial removal efficiency was at least, on average, 6.8Log(10)CFU/mL (limit of detection < or =0.5Log(10)CFU/mL). Functional property analysis indicated that the MF process did not alter the foaming power of LEW. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Travelling light: white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) rely on body lipid stores to power ocean-basin scale migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Raye, Gen; Jorgensen, Salvador J; Krumhansl, Kira; Ezcurra, Juan M; Block, Barbara A

    2013-09-07

    Many species undertake long-distance annual migrations between foraging and reproductive areas. Such migrants depend on the efficient packaging, storage and utilization of energy to succeed. A diverse assemblage of organisms accomplishes this through the use of lipid reserves; yet, it remains unclear whether the migrations of elasmobranchs, which include the largest gill breathers on Earth, depend on such a mechanism. We examine depth records from pop-up satellite archival tags to discern changes in buoyancy as a proxy for energy storage in Eastern Pacific white sharks, and assess whether lipid depletion fuels long-distance (approx. 4000 km) migrations. We develop new algorithms to assess body condition, buoyancy and drift rate during drift dives and validate the techniques using a captive white shark. In the wild, we document a consistent increase in drift rate over the course of all migrations, indicating a decrease in buoyancy caused by the depletion of lipid reserves. These results comprise, to our knowledge, the first assessment of energy storage and budgeting in migrating sharks. The methods provide a basis for further insights into using electronic tags to reveal the energetic strategies of a wide range of elasmobranchs.

  8. Phytosanitary irradiation of peach fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) in apple fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Guoping; Li, Baishu; Gao, Meixu; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin; Liu, Tao; Ren, Lili

    2014-10-01

    Peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, is a serious pest of many pome and stone fruits and presents a quarantine problem in some export markets. It is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China, Japan, Korea, North Korea and the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia. In this investigation, gamma radiation dose-response tests were conducted with late eggs (5-d-old) and various larval stages, followed by large-scale confirmatory tests on the most tolerant stage in fruit, the fifth instar. The dose-response tests, with the target radiation dose of 20 (late eggs), 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, and 160 Gy (late fifth instars in vitro) respectively applied to all stages, showed that the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage. The fifth instar (most advanced instar in fruits) was determined to be the most tolerant stage requiring an estimated minimum absorbed dose of 208.6 Gy (95% CI: 195.0, 226.5 Gy) to prevent adult emergence at 99.9968% efficacy (95% confidence level). In the confirmatory tests, irradiation was applied to 30,850 late fifth instars in apple fruits with a target dose of 200 Gy (171.6-227.8 Gy measured), but only 4 deformed adults emerged that died 2 d afterwards without laying eggs. A dose of 228 Gy may be recommended as a phytosanitary irradiation treatment under ambient atmosphere for the control of peach fruit moth on all commodities with an efficacy of 99.9902% at 95% confidence level.

  9. Controle de pragas do pessegueiro através do ensacamento dos frutos Control peach crop pests by fruits bagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rodrigues Coelho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no trabalho, buscar opções ao ensacamento de pêssegos, visando o controle eficiente das principais pragas do pessegueiro. Para isso, instalou-se um experimento em um pomar comercial de pêssego do cultivar Aurora 2, conduzido em sistema de vaso e espaçamento de 6 x 4 m. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: T1 - Sacolas de TNT branco (45 g/m² fechado, T2 - Sacolas de TNT branco (45 g/m² aberto, T3 - Sacolas de TNT branco (20 g/m² fechado; T4 - Sacolas de TNT branco (20 g/m² aberto; T5 - Sacolas de polipropileno microperfurado transparente (furos de 1mm fechado; T6 - Sacolas de polipropileno microperfurado transparente (furos de 1mm aberto; T7 - Sacolas de polipropileno microperfurado transparente (furos de 2mm fechado; T8 - Sacolas de polipropileno microperfurado transparente (furos de 2mm aberto; T9 - Sacolas de polietileno microperfurado leitoso (furos de 1mm fechado; T10 - Sacolas de polietileno microperfurado leitoso (furos de 1mm aberto; T11 - Sacolas de polietileno microperfurado leitoso (furos de 2mm fechado; T12 - Sacolas de polietileno microperfurado leitoso (furos de 2mm aberto; T13 - Sacolas de papel impermeável fechado; T14 - Sacolas de papel impermeável aberto; T15 - Testemunha (sem ensacamento. De acordo com os resultados concluiu-se que todas as embalagens foram eficientes no controle de moscas-das-frutas e pássaros, porém não para mariposa oriental. As sacolas com abertura no fundo podem ser utilizadas como opção ao ensacamento de pêssegos.Aiming to look for new options of peach bagging in the control of peach insect pests, an experiment was carried out in a treeyear-old peach crop. The cultivar Aurora 2 was accomplished in vase system with 6 m among rows and 4 m among plants. The treatments were: T1 - white and closed TNT (tissue non-tissue bag (45g/m², T2 - white and opened TNT bag (45g/m², T3 - white and closed TNT bag (20g/m², T4 - white and opened TNT bag (20g/m², T5 - transparent polypropelene

  10. White Toenails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page. Please enable Javascript in your browser. White Toenails White toenails can develop for several reasons. Trauma, such ... trauma does not cause broken blood vessels, a white spot may appear under the nail. The spot ...

  11. Lysozyme fractionation from egg white at pilot scale by means of tangential flow membrane adsorbers: Investigation of the flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Janina; Voigt, Katharina; Zochowski, Bianca; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2016-03-18

    The application of membrane adsorbers instead of classical packed bed columns for protein fractionation is still a growing field. In the case of egg white protein fractionation, the application of classical chromatography is additionally limited due to its high viscosity that impairs filtration. By using tangential flow membrane adsorbers as stationary phase this limiting factor can be left out, as they can be loaded with particle containing substrates. The flow conditions existing in tangential flow membrane adsorbers are not fully understood yet. Thus, the aim of the present study was to gain a deeper understanding of the transport mechanisms in tangential flow membrane adsorbers. It was found that loading in recirculation mode instead of single pass mode increased the binding capacity (0.39 vs. 0.52 mg cm(-2)). Further, it was shown that either higher flow rates (0.39 mg cm(-2) vs. 0.57 mg cm(-2) at 1 CV min(-1) or 20 CV min(-1), respectively) or higher amounts of the target protein in the feed (0.24 mg cm(-2) vs. 0.85 mg cm(-2) for 2.5 or 39.0 g lysozyme, respectively) led to more protein binding. These results show that, in contrast to radial flow or flat sheet membrane adsorbers, the transport in tangential flow membrane adsorbers is not purely based on convection, but on a mix of convection and diffusion. Additionally, investigations concerning the influence of fouling formation were performed that can lead to transport limitations. It was found that this impact is neglectable. It can be concluded that the usage of tangential flow membrane adsorbers is very recommendable for egg white protein fractionations, although the transport is partly diffusion-limited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Perfil sensorial de iogurte light, sabor pêssego Sensory profile of peach flavored light yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia R. R. Santana

    2006-09-01

    consensually defined sensory descriptors, their respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. Ten individuals were selected as judges and trained. They used the following as criteria: discriminant power, reproducibility and individual consensus. Twelve descriptors were devised showing similarities and differences among the light yogurt samples. Each descriptor was evaluated using a nine-centimeter non-structured scale with the intensity terms anchored at its ends. The data were analysed by ANOVA, the Tukey test and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The results showed a great difference in the sensory profile of light yogurts, where sample C showed more variation. The PCA showed sample A to be more distinguished by the sweetness, flavor of peach and firmness of fruit pieces. Sample B was characterized by the brightness, peach color and creamy aspect. Sample C had a higher intensity of sourness and astringency, a more farinaceous texture and more artificial aroma of peach. According to the acceptability test, all the products were accepted positively for all evaluated attributes. Sample C which contains soy protein in its formulation showed that this ingredient was not noticed by the judges and did not interfere in it being accepted.

  13. Role of leaves and fruits in determining the specific cultivar characters of peach fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolov, P.; Petrov, A. (Institute for Fruit Growing, Plovdiv (Bulgaria))

    1982-01-01

    At the Institute of Fruit Growing, Plovdiv, triple buds were grafted on the crowns of 6 year-old peach trees in the following cultivar combinations: 1. Springtime (early8 ripening in the second half of June, white fleshed) on Rio oso gem (late, ripening in the first half of September, yellow fleshed); 2. Fillette (early, ripening in the second half of June, yellow fleshed) on Rio oso gem; 3. Rio oso gem on Springtime; 4. Rio oso gem on Fillette. At the begining of the following growing period the development of the grafted generative organs was fully dependent on assimilates produced by the leaves of the other cultivar. The interrelations between the leaves and the fruits in the various combinations were followed by biometrical and radio-isotopic (/sup 14/C) methods. Results substantiated the conclusion that the genetic information on the development of the specific cultivar characters such as flavour, arome, skin colour, fruit flesh texture and colour, fruit size and date of ripening was borne by the fruits themselves. The synthetic processes of the leaves during photosynthesis are not directly related with the synthetic processes producing the fruits' organic matter. The basic constructing substances were produced in the leaves and were transported to the fruits, where they were subjected to metabolic transformations in accordance with the biological characteristics of the cultivar and the phase of fruit development.

  14. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Peaches and Pumpkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemimi, Ammar; Watson, Dennis G; Choudhary, Ruplal; Dasari, Mallika R; Lightfoot, David A

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was used to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds from pumpkins and peaches. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effects of three independent variables each with three treatments. They included extraction temperatures (30, 40 and 50°C), ultrasonic power levels (30, 50 and 70%) and extraction times (10, 20 and 30 min). The optimal conditions for extractions of total phenolics from pumpkins were inferred to be a temperature of 41.45°C, a power of 44.60% and a time of 25.67 min. However, an extraction temperature of 40.99°C, power of 56.01% and time of 25.71 min was optimal for recovery of free radical scavenging activity (measured by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reduction). The optimal conditions for peach extracts were an extraction temperature of 41.53°C, power of 43.99% and time of 27.86 min for total phenolics. However, an extraction temperature of 41.60°C, power of 44.88% and time of 27.49 min was optimal for free radical scavenging activity (judged by from DPPH reduction). Further, the UAE processes were significantly better than solvent extractions without ultrasound. By electron microscopy it was concluded that ultrasonic processing caused damage in cells for all treated samples (pumpkin, peach). However, the FTIR spectra did not show any significant changes in chemical structures caused by either ultrasonic processing or solvent extraction.

  15. Formulation of a peach ice cream as potential symbiotic food

    OpenAIRE

    VILLALVA, Fernando Josué; CRAVERO BRUNERI, Andrea Paula; Vinderola, Gabriel; Enzo GONÇALVEZ DE OLIVEIRA; Paz, Noelia Fernanda; Ramón,Adriana Noemí

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Today’s population increasingly demands and consumes healthy products. For this reason, the food industry has been developing and marketing food with added bioactive components. The aim of this work was to formulate a peach ice cream reduced in calories with an added probiotic (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12) and prebiotics (inulin), and to evaluate its sensory quality and acceptability as potential symbiotic food. The moisture content was 76.47%; 7.14% protein; 0.15% fat; 6.37%; carbo...

  16. Removal performance and water quality analysis of paper machine white water in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuai; Wang, Can; Fang, Shuai; Jia, Minghao; Li, Xiaoguang

    2017-06-01

    Paper machine white water is generally characterized as a high concentration of suspended solids and organic matters. A combined physicochemical-biological and filtration process was used in the study for removing pollutants in the wastewater. The removal efficiency of the pollutant in physicochemical and biological process was evaluated, respectively. Furthermore, advanced technology was used to analyse the water quality before and after the process treatment. Experimental results showed that the removal efficiency of suspend solids (SS) of the system was above 99%, while the physicochemical treatment in the forepart of the system had achieved about 97%. The removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colour had the similar trend after physicochemical treatment and were corresponding to the proportion of suspended and the near-colloidal organic matter in the wastewater. After biological treatment, the removal efficiency of COD and colour achieved were about 97% and 90%, respectively. Furthermore, molecular weight (MW) distribution analysis showed that after treatment low MW molecules (treatment. The analyses of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed that the composition of organic matter in the wastewater was not complicated. Methylsiloxanes were the typical organic components in the raw wastewater and most of them were removed after treatment.

  17. Impaired scaling of preparatory postural responses to repeated balance perturbations in Parkinsonian patients with comorbid white matter disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioncoloni, David; Martelli, Lodovica; Rosignoli, Deborah; Mazzocchio, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Postural instability may result from altered sequencing of automatic motor programs for anticipatory postural corrections and/or impaired motor learning in Parkinson Disease (PD) patients. Comorbid white matter disease is a major determinant of axial motor impairment, leading to poorer stability than nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation per se. To assess differences in anticipatory control of postural stability function between subjects affected by PD with comorbid leukoaraiosis (LPD), idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) and elderly healthy subjects (EHS) as control group. Eight patients with IPD, eight patients with LPD and eight age/weight matched elderly healthy subjects (EHS) were tested in standing position by measuring the Center of Pressure (CoP) along the anteroposterior axis (CoP-Y) while subjects were expecting three repeated backward surface translation. LPD patients positioned the CoP-Y significantly backward while waiting for the second and third platform translations, with respect to their COP-Y position in preparation for the first translation. The IPD and EHS showed no significant differences in the COP-Y position among the repeated perturbation trials. LPD patients show inability to rescale an effective preparatory postural pattern to known, repeated postural perturbations suggesting impaired sensory-motor strategies in anticipating perturbations. Anticipatory postural patterns remain effective in IPD patients.

  18. Social constraint and an absence of sex-biased dispersal drive fine-scale genetic structure in white-winged choughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, N R; Peakall, R; Heinsohn, R

    2008-10-01

    This study used eight polymorphic microsatellite loci to examine the relative effects of social organization and dispersal on fine-scale genetic structure in an obligately cooperative breeding bird, the white-winged chough (Corcorax melanorhamphos). Using both individual-level and population-level analyses, it was found that the majority of chough groups consisted of close relatives and there was significant differentiation among groups (F(ST) = 0.124). However, spatial autocorrelation analysis revealed strong spatial genetic structure among groups up to 2 km apart, indicating above average relatedness among neighbours. Multiple analyses showed a unique lack of sex-biased dispersal. As such, choughs may offer a model species for the study of the evolution of sex-biased dispersal in cooperatively breeding birds. These findings suggest that genetic structure in white-winged choughs reflects the interplay between social barriers to dispersal resulting in large family groups that can remain stable over long periods of times, and short dispersal distances which lead to above average relatedness among neighbouring groups.

  19. A bottom-up model to describe consumers’ preferences towards late season peaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, E.; Albisu, L.M.

    2015-07-01

    Peaches are consumed in Mediterranean countries since ancient times. Nowadays there are few areas in Europe that produce peaches with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), and the Calanda area is one of them. The aim of this work is to describe consumers’ preferences towards late season PDO Calanda peaches in the city of Zaragoza, Spain, by a bottom-up model. The bottom-up model proves greater amount of information than top-down models. In this approach it is estimated one utility function per consumer. Thus, it is not necessary to make assumptions about preference distributions and correlations across respondents. It was observed that preference distributions were neither normal nor independently distributed. If those preferences were estimated by top-down models, conclusions would be biased. This paper also explores a new way to describe preferences through individual utility functions. Results show that the largest behavioural group gathered origin sensitive consumers. Their utility increased if the peaches were produced in the Calanda area and, especially, when peaches had the PDO Calanda brand. In sequence, the second most valuable attribute for consumers was the price. Peach size and packaging were not so important on purchase choice decision. Nevertheless, it is advisable to avoid trading smallest size peaches (weighting around 160 g/fruit). Traders also have to be careful by using active packaging. It was found that a group of consumers disliked this kind of product, probably, because they perceived it as less natural. (Author)

  20. A bottom-up model to describe consumers’ preferences towards late season peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etiénne Groot

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peaches are consumed in Mediterranean countries since ancient times. Nowadays there are few areas in Europe that produce peaches with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO, and the Calanda area is one of them. The aim of this work is to describe consumers’ preferences towards late season PDO Calanda peaches in the city of Zaragoza, Spain, by a bottom-up model. The bottom-up model proves greater amount of information than top-down models. In this approach it is estimated one utility function per consumer. Thus, it is not necessary to make assumptions about preference distributions and correlations across respondents. It was observed that preference distributions were neither normal nor independently distributed. If those preferences were estimated by top-down models, conclusions would be biased. This paper also explores a new way to describe preferences through individual utility functions. Results show that the largest behavioural group gathered origin sensitive consumers. Their utility increased if the peaches were produced in the Calanda area and, especially, when peaches had the PDO Calanda brand. In sequence, the second most valuable attribute for consumers was the price. Peach size and packaging were not so important on purchase choice decision. Nevertheless, it is advisable to avoid trading smallest size peaches (weighting around 160 g/fruit. Traders also have to be careful by using active packaging. It was found that a group of consumers disliked this kind of product, probably, because they perceived it as less natural.

  1. Unique expression, processing regulation, and regulatory network of peach (Prunus persica) miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Xia, Rui; Zhao, Bingyu; An, Yong-qiang; Dardick, Chris D; Callahan, Ann M; Liu, Zongrang

    2012-08-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as important gene regulators in plants. MiRNAs and their targets have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis and rice. However, relatively little is known about the characterization of miRNAs and their target genes in peach (Prunus persica), which is a complex crop with unique developmental programs. We performed small RNA deep sequencing and identified 47 peach-specific and 47 known miRNAs or families with distinct expression patterns. Together, the identified miRNAs targeted 80 genes, many of which have not been reported previously. Like the model plant systems, peach has two of the three conserved trans-acting siRNA biogenesis pathways with similar mechanistic features and target specificity. Unique to peach, three of the miRNAs collectively target 49 MYBs, 19 of which are known to regulate phenylpropanoid metabolism, a key pathway associated with stone hardening and fruit color development, highlighting a critical role of miRNAs in the regulation of peach fruit development and ripening. We also found that the majority of the miRNAs were differentially regulated in different tissues, in part due to differential processing of miRNA precursors. Up to 16% of the peach-specific miRNAs were differentially processed from their precursors in a tissue specific fashion, which has been rarely observed in plant cells. The miRNA precursor processing activity appeared not to be coupled with its transcriptional activity but rather acted independently in peach. Collectively, the data characterizes the unique expression pattern and processing regulation of peach miRNAs and demonstrates the presence of a complex, multi-level miRNA regulatory network capable of targeting a wide variety of biological functions, including phenylpropanoid pathways which play a multifaceted spatial-temporal role in peach fruit development.

  2. Unique expression, processing regulation, and regulatory network of peach (Prunus persica miRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Hong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs have recently emerged as important gene regulators in plants. MiRNAs and their targets have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis and rice. However, relatively little is known about the characterization of miRNAs and their target genes in peach (Prunus persica, which is a complex crop with unique developmental programs. Results We performed small RNA deep sequencing and identified 47 peach-specific and 47 known miRNAs or families with distinct expression patterns. Together, the identified miRNAs targeted 80 genes, many of which have not been reported previously. Like the model plant systems, peach has two of the three conserved trans-acting siRNA biogenesis pathways with similar mechanistic features and target specificity. Unique to peach, three of the miRNAs collectively target 49 MYBs, 19 of which are known to regulate phenylpropanoid metabolism, a key pathway associated with stone hardening and fruit color development, highlighting a critical role of miRNAs in the regulation of peach fruit development and ripening. We also found that the majority of the miRNAs were differentially regulated in different tissues, in part due to differential processing of miRNA precursors. Up to 16% of the peach-specific miRNAs were differentially processed from their precursors in a tissue specific fashion, which has been rarely observed in plant cells. The miRNA precursor processing activity appeared not to be coupled with its transcriptional activity but rather acted independently in peach. Conclusions Collectively, the data characterizes the unique expression pattern and processing regulation of peach miRNAs and demonstrates the presence of a complex, multi-level miRNA regulatory network capable of targeting a wide variety of biological functions, including phenylpropanoid pathways which play a multifaceted spatial-temporal role in peach fruit development.

  3. Preservation of minimally processed 'aurora-1' peaches using additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramilo Nogueira Martins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 'Aurora-1' peaches establishes an interesting alternative as a minimally processed product, due to its characteristics like flavor, color, smell, and also because of its handling resistance. However, it has a short shelf life after a fresh-cut due to enzymatic browning and stone cavity collapse. The main purpose of this research was to test the additive with antioxidant effect to prevent browning in minimally processed 'Aurora-1' peaches. The minimal processing consists of washing, sanitizing, peelings and fruit stone extraction. After that, longitudinal cuts were made to obtain eight segments per fruit. The slices were immersed into the following treatment solutions: control (immersion in 2% ascorbic acid; 2% ascorbic acid + 2% calcium chloride; 1% sodium isoascorbate; 1% citric acid; 1% L-cysteine hydrochloride. The products were placed into rigid polystyrene trays branded MEIWA M-54, covered with 14 µm PVC film (OmnifilmTM and kept in cold storage at 3ºC ± 2ºC and 65% RH for twelve days, and evaluated each three days. Appraised variables were appearance, soluble solids, titratable acidity, soluble carbohydrates and reducing sugars, total and soluble pectin, ascorbic acid, and peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity. L-cysteine gave to the minimally processed products a shelf life of twelve days, limmited by off-flavor. The treatment with ascorbic acid was efficient to maintainthe ascorbic acid content, with a shelf-life of nine days, limited by enzymatic browning.

  4. Formulation of a peach ice cream as potential symbiotic food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Josué VILLALVA

    Full Text Available Abstract Today’s population increasingly demands and consumes healthy products. For this reason, the food industry has been developing and marketing food with added bioactive components. The aim of this work was to formulate a peach ice cream reduced in calories with an added probiotic (Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and prebiotics (inulin, and to evaluate its sensory quality and acceptability as potential symbiotic food. The moisture content was 76.47%; 7.14% protein; 0.15% fat; 6.37%; carbohydrates; 9.87% inulin; 1.22% ash; 0.201% calcium, 0.155% phosphorus and 0.168% sodium. On the first and 21th day of storage counts of B. lactis Bb – 12 was 4 x 108 CFU/mL and 1.5 x 107 CFU/mL, respectively. It was possible to formulate a peach ice cream reduced in calories, fat, and sugar and with potential symbiotic effect, by addition of B. lactis Bb – 12. A product with suitable organoleptic characteristics, creamy texture, peachy colour, taste and flavour, and no ice crystals was obtained. This ice cream would be a suitable food matrix to incorporate prebiotic and probiotic ingredients as a potential symbiotic food.

  5. STABILITY OF YIELD AND FRUIT QUALITY IN PROMISING PEACH CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera RAKONJAC

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Yield and fruit quality (fruit weight, reducing sugar content, sucrose content and total acids content were studied in 20 introduced peach cultivars. To evaluate the stability of those characteristics in the agro-ecological conditions of Belgrade surroundings, bi and S2di were applied. ‘Adriana’ had the highest yield and content of reducing sugars, ‘Aurelia’ the highest fruit weight, ‘Pegaso’ the highest sucrose content, and ‘Croce del Sud’ the highest total acids content. Values of bi coeffi cient indicated that ‘Sirio’ had the highest stability of yield ‘Iris Rosso’ the highest stability of fruit weight and content of reducing sugars, ‘Aurelia’ the highest stability of sucrose content, and ‘Emilia’ the highest stability of total acids content. Values of S2di, despite being relatively high, did not show any statistical signifi cance, which indicates a more signifi cant deviation from regression and unsatisfactory stability of the studied genotypes. The results of the present work confi rm that bi, being a stability parameter, is more important than S2di in heterozygous genotypes, the genotype of a majority of fruit cultivars, therefore of peach itself.

  6. Eradicant and curative treatments of hexanal against peach brown rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Silveira Baggio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brown rot, caused by Monilinia spp. , is one of the most important peach (Prunuspersica (L. Batsch diseases and the main cause of postharvest losses. Currently, alternative methods for postharvest disease control, such as the use of volatiles, are under investigation. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of hexanal on the in vitro development of Monilinia fructicola and M. laxa and on monocyclic components of brown rot on peaches. To evaluate the effect on pathogen development in vitro, a single dose of 215 µL of liquid hexanal was placed on glass jars in closed plastic containers (4.3 L at the moment of fungi transfer, 24 or 48 h after transferring to Petri dishes. After hexanal application, the Petri dishes were kept inside the containers that were closed for 24 h at 20 ºC. Mycelial growth was measured seven days after hexanal removal. For in vivo assays, inoculated fruits were kept in closed plastic containers, and hexanal was applied at the moment of fruit inoculation or 24 hours thereafter. The monocyclic components infection frequency, expressed as brown rot incidence, lesion diameter and lesion sporulation, were assessed daily for seven days. Overall, hexanal was more effective in inhibiting mycelial growth when applied at the moment of pathogen transfer. Hexanal did not prevent pathogen infection, but reduced lesion diameter and completely inhibited spore production on the fruit for both treatments. Hexanal provides a promising alternative for chemical control and can be used in postharvest handling systems.

  7. Polysaccharide extracted from Chinese white wax scale ameliorates 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common inflammatory skin disease with high rates of morbidity and is associated with erythema, pruritus, scaling of affected areas of skin. It is extremely important to introduce a therapeutic agent which has significant anti-inflammatory effect with less side-effect for treatment of AD. This study evaluated the effect of a natural compound from herbal extracts, the crude polysaccharide extracted from the white wax scale (CWPS, on AD-like mice. Repeated applications of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB were performed on ear and dorsal skin of BALB/c mice to induce AD-like symptoms and skin lesions. Oral administration of CWPS decreased serum IgE level and limited the infiltration of mast cells and eosinophils to the dermal tissues in the DNCB-induced AD mice. In addition, CWPS reduced Th1 and Th17 responses, leading to an attenuated cutaneous inflammatory response. Furthermore, in vitro study also demonstrated that CWPS limited T cell activation and cytokines (i.e. IFN-γ and IL-17 production induced by DNCB. We conclude that CWPS attenuates DNCB-induced AD-like skin lesion through modulating T cell-elicited immune responses and CD4+ T cell polarization, and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for AD.

  8. Hyperspectral imaging detection of decayed honey peaches based on their chlorophyll content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Wang, Yihang; Xiao, Hui; Gu, Xinzhe; Pan, Leiqing; Tu, Kang

    2017-11-15

    Honey peach is a very common but highly perishable market fruit. When pathogens infect fruit, chlorophyll as one of the important components related to fruit quality, decreased significantly. Here, the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging to determine the chlorophyll content thus distinguishing diseased peaches was investigated. Three optimal wavelengths (617nm, 675nm, and 818nm) were selected according to chlorophyll content via successive projections algorithm. Partial least square regression models were established to determine chlorophyll content. Three band ratios were obtained using these optimal wavelengths, which improved spatial details, but also integrates the information of chemical composition from spectral characteristics. The band ratio values were suitable to classify the diseased peaches with 98.75% accuracy and clearly show the spatial distribution of diseased parts. This study provides a new perspective for the selection of optimal wavelengths of hyperspectral imaging via chlorophyll content, thus enabling the detection of fungal diseases in peaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 76 FR 21615 - Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Suspension of Handling Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ..., or Kurt J. Kimmel, Regional Manager, California Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 916 and 917 Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Suspension of Handling Requirements AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with...

  10. 75 FR 77563 - Nectarines, Pears, and Peaches Grown in California; Continuance Referenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    .... Kimmel, Regional Manager, California Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order Administration Branch, Fruit... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 916 and 917 Nectarines, Pears, and Peaches Grown in California; Continuance Referenda AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Referenda order. SUMMARY: This...

  11. Adaptability and stability of fruit set and production of peach trees in a subtropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idemir Citadin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian peach breeding programs have been established to improve peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] production, yield consistency, quality, and disease resistance. Every year several genotypes are selected and their traits must be assessed. This study aimed to evaluate adaptability and stability of fruit set and production of peach genotypes in a subtropical climate, using the GGE biplot methodology. The experimental design was completely randomized with three replicates (trees in a factorial arrangement of 29 × 3 for genotype and growing season, respectively. The genotypes 'Conserva 1129', 'Rubimel', 'Kampai', 'Tropic Beauty', and 'Cascata 967' had the greatest adaptability and stability for fruit set. The genotypes 'Conserva 681', 'Santa Áurea', 'Atenas', 'Kampai', 'Cascata 962', 'Tropic Beauty' and 'Cascata 967' had the greatest production adaptability and stability. The GGE-biplot methodology classified the peach tree genotypes with regard to adaptability and stability of fruit set and production.

  12. 76 FR 31295 - Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Notice of Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Notice of Withdrawal AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is withdrawing the notice soliciting comments on its request for approval...

  13. Identification of woolliness response genes in peach fruit after post-harvest treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Agüero, Mauricio; Pavez, Leonardo; Ibáñez, Freddy; Pacheco, Igor; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Meisel, Lee A; Orellana, Ariel; Retamales, Julio; Silva, Herman; González, Mauricio; Cambiazo, Verónica

    2008-01-01

    Woolliness is a physiological disorder of peaches and nectarines that becomes apparent when fruit are ripened after prolonged periods of cold storage. This disorder is of commercial importance since shipping of peaches to distant markets and storage before selling require low temperature. However, knowledge about the molecular basis of peach woolliness is still incomplete. To address this issue, a nylon macroarray containing 847 non-redundant expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a ripe peach fruit cDNA library was developed and used. Gene expression changes of peach fruit (Prunus persica cv. O'Henry) ripened for 7 d at 21 degrees C (juicy fruit) were compared with those of fruit stored for 15 d at 4 degrees C and then ripened for 7 d at 21 degrees C (woolly fruit). A total of 106 genes were found to be differentially expressed between juicy and woolly fruit. Data analysis indicated that the activity of most of these genes (>90%) was repressed in the woolly fruit. In cold-stored peaches (cv. O'Henry), the expression level of selected genes (cobra, endopolygalacturonase, cinnamoyl-CoA-reductase, and rab11) was lower than in the juicy fruit, and it remained low in woolly peaches after ripening, a pattern that was conserved in woolly fruit from two other commercial cultivars (cv. Flamekist and cv. Elegant Lady). In addition, the results of this study indicate that molecular changes during fruit woolliness involve changes in the expression of genes associated with cell wall metabolism and endomembrane trafficking. Overall, the results reported here provide an initial characterization of the transcriptome activity of peach fruit under different post-harvest treatments.

  14. White lies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erat, S.; Gneezy, U.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we distinguish between two types of white lies: those that help others at the expense of the person telling the lie, which we term altruistic white lies, and those that help both others and the liar, which we term Pareto white lies. We find that a large fraction of participants are

  15. Effects of orchard host plants (apple and peach) on development of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2007-04-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants (apple, Malus domestica Borkh., and peach, Prunus persica L.) on the development of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Oriental fruit moth larvae developed faster on peach than on apple, both on fruit as well as on growing terminal shoots. On fruit, these differences were shown to cause significant changes in both the rate (approximately 20-60 degree-days earlier emergence on peach than on apple) and patterns of adult emergence among several cultivars of peaches and apples. Slopes of female emergence plots varied by host in 2003, with emergence occurring over a longer period on peach cultivars than on apple cultivars (with one exception). Slopes of male emergence curves did not differ by cultivar in 2003. These host-driven effects could impact the efficacy of traditional pest management approaches and probably complicate efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in mixed cultivar orchards. Such developmental effects may help to explain previously observed differences in patterns of pheromone trap captures in peach versus apple orchards. Host-associated effects should be incorporated into future models to develop more realistic predictive tools and thus improve integrated pest management efforts.

  16. Use of natural and modified cyclodextrins as inhibiting agents of peach juice enzymatic browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Nicolas, José M; Pérez-López, Antonio J; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel; García-Carmona, Francisco

    2007-06-27

    Although cyclodextrins (CDs) have been successfully used as antibrowning agents in different fruit juices, no research has studied the effect of these compounds on enzymatic browning in peach juice. In this paper, the color of fresh peach juice was evaluated in the presence of two types of natural (alpha-CD and beta-CD) and a modified (maltosyl-beta-CD) CD, and the effectiveness of these compounds as browning inhibitors was determined using the color space CIELAB system. Moreover, to clarify the mechanism by which CDs inhibit peach juice enzymatic browning, the process was kinetically modeled in the absence and presence of CDs using a colorimetric method; the apparent complexation constants between the mixtures of diphenols present in peach juice and some types of CD were calculated. The results show that the highest affinity constant was presented by alpha-CD (Kc = 18.31 mM-1) followed by maltosyl-beta-CD (Kc = 11.17 mM-1), whereas beta-CD was incapable of inhibiting peach juice enzymatic browning. Cyclodextrin; browning; peach; juice; color; polyphenol oxidase.

  17. Whole-Genome Analysis of Diversity and SNP-Major Gene Association in Peach Germplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Micheletti

    Full Text Available Peach was domesticated in China more than four millennia ago and from there it spread world-wide. Since the middle of the last century, peach breeding programs have been very dynamic generating hundreds of new commercial varieties, however, in most cases such varieties derive from a limited collection of parental lines (founders. This is one reason for the observed low levels of variability of the commercial gene pool, implying that knowledge of the extent and distribution of genetic variability in peach is critical to allow the choice of adequate parents to confer enhanced productivity, adaptation and quality to improved varieties. With this aim we genotyped 1,580 peach accessions (including a few closely related Prunus species maintained and phenotyped in five germplasm collections (four European and one Chinese with the International Peach SNP Consortium 9K SNP peach array. The study of population structure revealed the subdivision of the panel in three main populations, one mainly made up of Occidental varieties from breeding programs (POP1OCB, one of Occidental landraces (POP2OCT and the third of Oriental accessions (POP3OR. Analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD identified differential patterns of genome-wide LD blocks in each of the populations. Phenotypic data for seven monogenic traits were integrated in a genome-wide association study (GWAS. The significantly associated SNPs were always in the regions predicted by linkage analysis, forming haplotypes of markers. These diagnostic haplotypes could be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS in modern breeding programs.

  18. New insights into the properties of pubescent surfaces: the peach fruit (prunus persica batsch) as a model

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Victoria; Khayet, Mohamed; Montero Prado, Pablo; Heredia Guerrero, Alejandrio; Liakopulos, Georgios; Karabourniotis, George; del Río, Víctor; Domínguez, Eva; Tacchini, Ignacio; Nerín, Csritian¡a; Heredia, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The surface of peach (Prunus persica ‘Calrico’) is covered by a dense indumentum, which may serve various protective purposes. With the aim of relating structure to function, the chemical composition, morphology, and hydrophobicity of the peach skin was assessed as a model for a pubescent plant surface. Distinct physicochemical features were observed for trichomes versus isolated cuticles. Peach cuticles were composed of 53% cutan, 27% waxes, 23% cutin, and 1% hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives...

  19. Energy use quantification in the canning of Clingstone peaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroad, P A; Singh, R P; Chhinnan, M S; Jacob, N L; Rose, W W

    1979-01-01

    Thermal and electrical energy usages in a California Clingstone peach cannery were monitored to establish energy consumption levels and to identify energy intensive unit operations. Representative processing lines were instrumented with orifice plates for steam flow measurements and with electric watt transducers for electrical power monitoring to yield actual consumption values. Steam use in the lye peelers and retorts accounted for 98% of all energy consumed, indicating that further examination of these operations for modification or equipment redesign should be a first priority for energy conservation. Pumping of liquids and dry conveying of fruit and waste material accounted for 61% of all electrical energy use. Electrical energy use amounted to only 2% of the total energy used, however, on an equivalent fossil fuel use basis.

  20. Flow behavior and physicochemical characterization of peach pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Muñoz Puntes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rheological and physicochemical analyses were conducted on nine varieties of peach pulps from Mendoza (Argentina at a range of soluble solids concentration (12.5 to 28°Brix and temperatures (30 to 50°C.The rheology of the pulps followed the power law model for all conditions, behaving as pseudoplastic fluids. Rheological: consistency coefficient and flow behavior index, using a rotational type viscometer and physicochemical parameters (methods proposed by AOAC: soluble solids, pH, water content, insoluble solids, acidity and pectin content (refractometric method were determined in this study. Cluster analysis established two groups (1: Halford, Andross, Astengo, Bowen, Sim’s Cling; 2: Fortuna, Loadel and Palora; Sullivan Cling variety could not be assigned to any group with significant differences.

  1. Distribution and transport of tritium in the Peach Bottom HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichner, R.P.; Dyer, F.F.

    1979-08-01

    This report completes the first phase of a two-phase effort to describe and understand tritium production and movement in an operating high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) system. The principal objective of phase 1 is to report the findings on tritium concentrations in core components acquired during the Peach Bottom Surveillance Program, which dealt with fission product migration in general, and a follow-on task devoted specifically to tritium. Administrative procedures are being developed for the second phase of the work to be performed in the Federal Republic of Germany under the auspices of the international umbrella agreement on gas-cooled reactor (GCR) development. In this effort, computer model predictions of tritium transport in the reactor system will be compared with observed concentration levels.

  2. Genome-wide identification and analysis of FK506-binding protein gene family in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanping; Han, Jan; Liu, Dan; Wen, Xicheng; Li, Yu; Tao, Ran; Peng, Yongbin; Fang, Jinggui; Wang, Chen

    2014-02-25

    The FKBP protein family has prolyl isomerase activity and is related in function to cyclophilins. FKBPs are known to be involved in many biological processes including hormone signaling, plant growth, and stress responses through a chaperone or an isomerization of proline residues during protein folding. The availability of complete peach genome sequences allowed the identification of 21 FKBP genes by HMMER and BLAST analyses. Scaffold locations of these FKBP genes in the peach genome were determined and the protein domain and motif organization of peach FKBPs were analyzed. The phylogenetic relationships between peach FKBPs were also assessed. The expression profiles of peach FKBP gene results revealed that most peach FKBPs were expressed in all tissues, while a few peach FKBPs were specifically expressed in some of the tissues. This data could contribute to better understanding of the complex regulation of the peach FKBP gene family, and also provide valuable information for further research in peach functional genomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Successive and large-scale synthesis of InP/ZnS quantum dots in a hybrid reactor and their application to white LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungnam; Jeong, Sohee; Woo, Ju Yeon; Han, Chang-Soo

    2012-02-17

    We report successive and large-scale synthesis of InP/ZnS core/shell nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) using a customized hybrid flow reactor, which is based on serial combination of a batch-type mixer and a flow-type furnace. InP cores and InP/ZnS core/shell QDs were successively synthesized in the hybrid reactor in a simple one-step process. In this reactor, the flow rate of the solutions was typically 1 ml min(-1), 100 times larger than that of conventional microfluidic reactors. In order to synthesize high-quality InP/ZnS QDs, we controlled both the flow rate and the crystal growth temperature. Finally, we obtained high-quality InP/ZnS QDs in colors from bluish green to red, and we demonstrated that these core/shell QDs could be incorporated into white-light-emitting diode (LED) devices to improve color rendering performance.

  4. Development of peach palm fibrous flour from the waste generated by the heart of palm agribusiness - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v36i1.17165

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helm, Cristiane Vieira; Raupp, Dorivaldo Da Silva; Santos, Álvaro Figueredo dos

    2013-01-01

    ... – from waste or by-products generated by food industries. This research aimed to develop a new dehydrated food product - peach palm fibrous flour - from the waste generated during the processing of the heart-of-peach palm...

  5. Inactivation of Penicillum expansum in sour cherry juice, peach and apricot nectars by pulsed electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir; Tok, Fatih M; Soylu, E Mine; Soylu, Soner

    2008-08-01

    Inhibitory effects of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on Penicillum expansum inoculated into sour cherry juice, apricot and peach nectars were determined based on germination tube elongation, spore germination rate, and light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations in this study. After inoculation of juice/nectar samples with P. expansum spores at the level of 10(5)-10(6)cfu/mL, the samples were processed by bench scale PEF pulse generator as a function of differing electric field strengths (0, 13, 17, 20, 23, 27, 30 and 34kV/cm) and processing times (0, 62, 94, 123, 163, 198 and 218mus). Results revealed that with an increase in electric field strength and processing time, germination tube elongation and spore germination rate were completely inhibited. Light and SEM observations revealed considerable morphological alterations in fungal conidia such as cytoplasmic coagulation, vacuolations, shrinkage and protoplast leakage. PEF processing of juice/nectars was demonstrated to be effective in inactivating P. expansum. To our knowledge, this is the first study confirming the inhibitory effects of PEF on germination tube elongation and spore germination rate of P. expansum in fruit juice/nectars.

  6. Increased levels of IAA are required for system 2 ethylene synthesis causing fruit softening in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuki, Miho; Nakajima, Naoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Shimada, Takehiko; Nakano, Michiharu; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Hayama, Hiroko; Yoshioka, Hirohito; Nakamura, Yuri

    2013-02-01

    The fruit of melting-flesh peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars produce high levels of ethylene caused by high expression of PpACS1 (an isogene of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase), resulting in rapid fruit softening at the late-ripening stage. In contrast, the fruit of stony hard peach cultivars do not soften and produce little ethylene due to low expression of PpACS1. To elucidate the mechanism for suppressing PpACS1 expression in stony hard peaches, a microarray analysis was performed. Several genes that displayed similar expression patterns as PpACS1 were identified and shown to be indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-inducible genes (Aux/IAA, SAUR). That is, expression of IAA-inducible genes increased at the late-ripening stage in melting flesh peaches; however, these transcripts were low in mature fruit of stony hard peaches. The IAA concentration increased suddenly just before harvest time in melting flesh peaches exactly coinciding with system 2 ethylene production. In contrast, the IAA concentration did not increase in stony hard peaches. Application of 1-naphthalene acetic acid, a synthetic auxin, to stony hard peaches induced a high level of PpACS1 expression, a large amount of ethylene production and softening. Application of an anti-auxin, α-(phenylethyl-2-one)-IAA, to melting flesh peaches reduced levels of PpACS1 expression and ethylene production. These observations indicate that suppression of PpACS1 expression at the late-ripening stage of stony hard peach may result from a low level of IAA and that a high concentration of IAA is required to generate a large amount of system 2 ethylene in peaches.

  7. [Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the WRKY gene family in peach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan-bing; Ji, Zhi-rui; Chi, Fu-mei; Qiao, Zhuang; Xu, Cheng-nan; Zhang, Jun-xiang; Zhou, Zong-shan; Dong, Qing-long

    2016-03-01

    The WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators and play diverse regulatory roles in biotic and abiotic stresses, plant growth and development processes. In this study, the WRKY DNA-binding domain (Pfam Database number: PF03106) downloaded from Pfam protein families database was exploited to identify WRKY genes from the peach (Prunus persica 'Lovell') genome using HMMER 3.0. The obtained amino acid sequences were analyzed with DNAMAN 5.0, WebLogo 3, MEGA 5.1, MapInspect and MEME bioinformatics softwares. Totally 61 peach WRKY genes were found in the peach genome. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed that peach WRKY genes were classified into three Groups: Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ. The WRKY N-terminal and C-terminal domains of Group Ⅰ (group I-N and group I-C) were monophyletic. The Group Ⅱ was sub-divided into five distinct clades (groupⅡ-a, Ⅱ-b, Ⅱ-c, Ⅱ-d and Ⅱ-e). Our domain analysis indicated that the WRKY regions contained a highly conserved heptapeptide stretch WRKYGQK at its N-terminus followed by a zinc-finger motif. The chromosome mapping analysis showed that peach WRKY genes were distributed with different densities over 8 chromosomes. The intron-exon structure analysis revealed that structures of the WRKY gene were highly conserved in the peach. The conserved motif analysis showed that the conserved motifs 1, 2 and 3, which specify the WRKY domain, were observed in all peach WRKY proteins, motif 5 as the unknown domain was observed in group Ⅱ-d, two WRKY domains were assigned to GroupⅠ. SqRT-PCR and qRT-PCR results indicated that 16 PpWRKY genes were expressed in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits at various expression levels. Our analysis thus identified the PpWRKY gene families, and future functional studies are needed to reveal its specific roles.

  8. Whole genome sequencing of peach (Prunus persica L.) for SNP identification and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Riaz; Parfitt, Dan E; Fass, Joseph; Ogundiwin, Ebenezer; Dhingra, Amit; Gradziel, Thomas M; Lin, Dawei; Joshi, Nikhil A; Martinez-Garcia, Pedro J; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2011-11-22

    The application of next generation sequencing technologies and bioinformatic scripts to identify high frequency SNPs distributed throughout the peach genome is described. Three peach genomes were sequenced using Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa technologies to obtain long contigs for alignment to the draft 'Lovell' peach sequence as well as sufficient depth of coverage for 'in silico' SNP discovery. The sequences were aligned to the 'Lovell' peach genome released April 01, 2010 by the International Peach Genome Initiative (IPGI). 'Dr. Davis', 'F8, 1-42' and 'Georgia Belle' were sequenced to add SNPs segregating in two breeding populations, Pop DF ('Dr. Davis' × 'F8, 1-42') and Pop DG ('Dr. Davis' × 'Georgia Belle'). Roche 454 sequencing produced 980,000 total reads with 236 Mb sequence for 'Dr. Davis' and 735,000 total reads with 172 Mb sequence for 'F8, 1-42'. 84 bp × 84 bp paired end Illumina/Solexa sequences yielded 25.5, 21.4, 25.5 million sequences for 'Dr. Davis', 'F8, 1-42' and 'Georgia Belle', respectively. BWA/SAMtools were used for alignment of raw reads and SNP detection, with custom PERL scripts for SNP filtering. Velvet's Columbus module was used for sequence assembly. Comparison of aligned and overlapping sequences from both Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa resulted in the selection of 6654 high quality SNPs for 'Dr. Davis' vs. 'F8, 1-42' and 'Georgia Belle', distributed on eight major peach genome scaffolds as defined from the 'Lovell' assembly. The eight scaffolds contained about 215-225 Mb of peach genomic sequences with one SNP/~ 40,000 bases. All sequences from Roche 454 and Illumina/Solexa have been submitted to NCBI for public use in the Short Read Archive database. SNPs have been deposited in the NCBI SNP database.

  9. Cultivar identification, pedigree verification, and diversity analysis among Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) Cultivars based on Simple Sequence Repeat markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic relationships and pedigree inferences among peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) accessions and breeding lines used in genetic improvement were evaluated using 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 80 alleles were detected among the 37 peach accessions with an average of 5.53...

  10. Peach is an occasional host for Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh, 1867) (Diptera: Tephritidae) larvae in Western Washington State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (Rosaceae), has been reported to be a host of the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), an important quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in the western U.S.A. However, all reports of peach as a hos...

  11. Effect of methyl jasmonate on energy metabolism in peach fruit during chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Peng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Jing; Chen, Jingjing; Wang, Xiaoli; Zheng, Yonghua

    2013-06-01

    Energy status is associated with ripening, senescence and physiological disorder of various types of fruit after harvest, including peaches. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was effective in enhancing chilling tolerance in cold-stored peach fruit. The effect of MeJA on energy metabolism in peach fruit was investigated. MeJA treatment increased the contents of adenosine triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate, but decreased the content of adenosine monophosphate, which resulted in a higher level of energy charge in peach fruit. Enzyme activities including H+-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca2+-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase were also higher in MeJA-treated fruit than those in control fruit. Meanwhile, MeJA treatment markedly inhibited the increase of ion leakage and the accumulation of malondialdehyde, super-oxidant radical and hydrogen peroxide. These results indicated that MeJA could enhance chilling tolerance of peach fruit by inducing enzyme activities related to energy metabolism and maintaining high levels of ATP and energy charge. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Development and implementation of a reduced risk peach arthropod management program in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasso, Atanas; Shearer, Peter W; Hamilton, George; Polk, Dean

    2002-08-01

    We implemented a 2-yr program to reduce organophosphorus and carbamate insecticide use and mitigate their associated risks as they relate to peach production in New Jersey and elsewhere. The main thrust integrated mating disruption with ground cover management practices to reduce oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae), abundance and damage. This Reduced Risk Peach Arthropod Management Program was compared with adjacent conventionally managed peach orchards. In 1999, we found 2.3 times fewer L. lineolaris and stink bugs (Euschistus servus (Say), E. tristigmus (Say), Acrostemum hilare (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and 2.0 times less heteropteran damaged peaches in reduced-risk orchards when compared with conventionally managed orchards. In 2000, we observed 4.9 times fewer heteropteran insects in reduced-risk orchards but damage levels were not significantly different between the two programs. In both years, G. molesta mating disruption gave at least 4 mo of noninsecticidal control of this major pest. The reduced-risk program provided a level of pest control that was equal to or better than conventional peach pest management programs while using fewer organophosporus and carbamate insecticides.

  13. Comparative Physiological and Proteomic Analysis Reveal Distinct Regulation of Peach Skin Quality Traits by Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, Evangelos; Tanou, Georgia; Samiotaki, Martina; Michailidis, Michail; Diamantidis, Grigorios; Minas, Ioannis S.; Molassiotis, Athanassios

    2016-01-01

    The role of environment in fruit physiology has been established; however, knowledge regarding the effect of altitude in fruit quality traits is still lacking. Here, skin tissue quality characters were analyzed in peach fruit (cv. June Gold), harvested in 16 orchards located in low (71.5 m mean), or high (495 m mean) altitutes sites. Data indicated that soluble solids concentration and fruit firmness at commercial harvest stage were unaffected by alitute. Peach grown at high-altitude environment displayed higher levels of pigmentation and specific antioxidant-related activity in their skin at the commercial harvest stage. Skin extracts from distinct developmental stages and growing altitudes exhibited different antioxidant ability against DNA strand-scission. The effects of altitude on skin tissue were further studied using a proteomic approach. Protein expression analysis of the mature fruits depicted altered expression of 42 proteins that are mainly involved in the metabolic pathways of defense, primary metabolism, destination/storage and energy. The majority of these proteins were up-regulated at the low-altitude region. High-altitude environment increased the accumulation of several proteins, including chaperone ClpC, chaperone ClpB, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1, TCP domain class transcription factor, and lipoxygenase. We also discuss the altitude-affected protein variations, taking into account their potential role in peach ripening process. This study provides the first characterization of the peach skin proteome and helps to improve our understanding of peach's response to altitude. PMID:27891143

  14. Peach leaf curl disease shifts sugar metabolism in severely infected leaves from source to sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatello, Stefano; Proietti, Simona; Buonaurio, Roberto; Famiani, Franco; Raggi, Vittorio; Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto

    2017-03-01

    Peach leaf curl is a disease that affects the leaves of peach trees, and in severe cases all of the leaf can be similarly affected. This study investigated some effects of this disease on the metabolism of peach leaves in which all parts of the leaf were infected. These diseased leaves contained very little chlorophyll and performed little or no photosynthesis. Compared to uninfected leaves, diseased leaves possessed higher contents of fructose and especially glucose, but lowered contents of sucrose, sorbitol and especially starch. The activities of soluble acid invertase, neutral invertase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and sucrose synthase were all higher in diseased leaves, whereas, those of aldose-6-phosphate reductase and sucrose phosphate synthase were lower. The activities of hexokinase and fructokinase were little changed. In addition, immunblots showed that the contents of Rubisco and ADP-glucose phosphorylase were reduced in diseased leaves, whereas, the content of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase was increased. The results show that certain aspects of the metabolism of diseased leaves are similar to immature sink leaves. That is photosynthetic function is reduced, the leaf imports rather than exports sugars, and the contents of non-structural carbohydrates and enzymes involved in their metabolism are similar to sink leaves. Further, the effects of peach leaf curl on the metabolism of peach leaves are comparable to the effects of some other diseases on the metabolism of photosynthetic organs of other plant species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of exogenous polyamine and ultrasound treatment to improve peach storability

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    Erdinc Bal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch is a perishable product and its storage period may be extended by using different postharvest methods. For this purpose, peaches harvested at the commercial ripening stage were treated with individual and combined effects of putrescine (1 mM and ultrasonic treatment (32 kHz for 10 min; postharvest storage quality of peach fruit was evaluated during storage at 0-1 °C for 28 d. Quality characteristics such as weight loss, fruit firmness, respiration rate, total sugar, total soluble solid content, titratable acidity, chilling injury, and decay rate were determined at the beginning and during the storage period at 1-wk intervals. The result showed that individual and combined effects of putrescine and ultrasonic treatment, when compared to control fruits, could increase peach fruit postharvest life by inducing resistance to different diseases and chilling injury with no noticeable effect on fruit quality attributes such as weight loss, total soluble solids, and total sugar. At the same time, a combined putrescine and ultrasound treatment was found to be more effective than other treatments in decreasing respiration rate and maintaining firmness and acidity. Peach storability could be extended with a combined putrescine and ultrasound treatment because it delays the ripening processes.

  16. Identification and validation of potential conserved microRNAs and their targets in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhihong; Luo, Xiaoyan; Shi, Ting; Cai, Bin; Zhang, Zhen; Cheng, Zongming; Zhuang, Weibing

    2012-09-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of small, endogenous, non-coding RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression at the transcriptional or the post-transcriptional level. Although a large number of miRNAs have been identified in many plant species, especially from model plants and crops, they remain largely unknown in peach. In this study, 110 potential miRNAs belonging to 37 families were identified using computational methods. A total of 43 potential targets were found for 21 families based on near-perfect or perfect complementarity between the plant miRNA and the target sequences. A majority of the targets were transcription factors which play important roles in peach development. qRT-PCR analysis of RNA samples prepared from different peach tissues for 25 miRNA families revealed that miRNAs were differentially expressed in different tissues. Furthermore, two target genes were experimentally verified by detection of the miRNA-mediated mRNA cleavage sites in peach using RNA ligase-mediated 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE). Finally, we studied the expression pattern of the two target genes in three different tissues of peach to further understand the mechanism of the interaction between miRNAs and their target genes.

  17. Peach (Prunus persica) extract inhibits angiotensin II-induced signal transduction in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Ryohei; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Misa; Inada, Ken-ichi; Tokuda, Akihiko; Yamashita, Miki; Hidaka, Ryu; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi

    2013-08-15

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a vasoactive hormone that has been implicated in cardiovascular diseases. Here, the effect of peach, Prunus persica L. Batsch, pulp extract on Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and signal transduction events in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was investigated. Pretreatment of peach ethyl acetate extract inhibited Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation in VSMCs. Furthermore, Ang II-induced ROS generation, essential for signal transduction events, was diminished by the peach ethyl acetate extract. The peach ethyl acetate extract also attenuated the Ang II-induced phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, both of which are associated with atherosclerosis and hypertension. These results suggest that peach ethyl acetate extract may have clinical potential for preventing cardiovascular diseases by interfering with Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation, the generation of ROS, and then blocking signal transduction events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Carbon Monoxide Fumigation Improved the Quality, Nutrients, and Antioxidant Activities of Postharvest Peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoying Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peaches (Prunus persica cv. Yanhong were fumigated with carbon monoxide (CO at 0, 0.5, 5, 10, and 20 μmol/L for 2 hours. The result showed that low concentration CO (0.5–10 μmol/L might delay the decrease of firmness and titrable acid content, restrain the increase of decay incidence, and postpone the variation of soluble solids content, but treating peaches with high concentration CO (20 μmol/L demonstrated adverse effects. Further research exhibited that exogenous CO could induce the phenylalnine ammonialyase activity, maintain nutrient contents such as Vitamin C, total flavonoid, and polyphenol, and enhance antioxidant activity according to reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Treating peaches with appropriate concentration CO was beneficial to the quality, nutrients, and antioxidant activity of postharvest peaches during storage time. Therefore, CO fumigation might probably become a novel method to preserve postharvest peach and other fruits in the future.

  19. Grain-size effects on the closure temperature of white mica in a crustal-scale extensional shear zone - Implications of in-situ 40Ar/39Ar laser-ablation of white mica for dating shearing and cooling (Tauern Window, Eastern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Andreas; Handy, Mark R.; Schmid, Stefan M.; Favaro, Silvia; Sudo, Masafumi; Schuster, Ralf; Hammerschmidt, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    In-situ 40Ar/39Ar laser ablation dating of white-mica grains was performed on samples from the footwall of a crustal-scale extensional fault (Katschberg Normal Fault; KNF) that accommodated eastward orogen-parallel displacement of Alpine orogenic crust in the eastern part of the Tauern Window. This dating yields predominantly cooling ages ranging from 31 to 13 Myr, with most ages clustering between 21 and 17 Myr. Folded white micas that predate the main Katschberg foliation yield, within error, the same ages as white-mica grains that overgrow this foliation. However, the absolute ages of both generations are older at the base (20 Myr) where their grain size is larger (300-500 μm), than at the top and adjacent to the hangingwall (17 Myr) of this shear zone where grain size is smaller (new data show that rapid cooling within the KNF of the eastern Tauern Window started sometime before 21 Myr according to the 40Ar/39Ar white-mica cooling ages and between 25-21 Myr according to the new Rb/Sr white-mica ages, i.e., shortly after the attainment of the thermal peak in the Tauern Window at 25 Myr ago. These new data, combined with literature data, support earlier cooling in the eastern part of then Tauern Window than in the western part by some 3-5 Myr.

  20. Peach leaf responses to soil and cement dust pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletsika, Persefoni A; Nanos, George D; Stavroulakis, George G

    2015-10-01

    Dust pollution can negatively affect plant productivity in hot, dry and with high irradiance areas during summer. Soil or cement dust were applied on peach trees growing in a Mediterranean area with the above climatic characteristics. Soil and cement dust accumulation onto the leaves decreased the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) available to the leaves without causing any shade effect. Soil and mainly cement dust deposition onto the leaves decreased stomatal conductance, photosynthetic and transpiration rates, and water use efficiency due possibly to stomatal blockage and other leaf cellular effects. In early autumn, rain events removed soil dust and leaf functions partly recovered, while cement dust created a crust partially remaining onto the leaves and causing more permanent stress. Leaf characteristics were differentially affected by the two dusts studied due to their different hydraulic properties. Leaf total chlorophyll decreased and total phenol content increased with dust accumulation late in the summer compared to control leaves due to intense oxidative stress. The two dusts did not cause serious metal imbalances to the leaves, except of lower leaf K content.

  1. Peach and Cherry Agroindustrial Wastes: New and Economic Sources for the Production of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Merve; Urek, Raziye

    2017-06-01

    Pleurotus eryngii was incubated on both peach and cherry agroindustrial wastes by solid state fermentation for 30 days without/with pretreatment conditions. The lignocellulosic substrates were pretreated with dilute acid and alkaline solutions, hot water before incubation. The maximum carboxymethyl cellulase and xylanase activities peaked on 3rd and 5th days under control conditions of both wastes, respectively. The highest laccase and manganese peroxidase activities reached to their maximum on 17th day as 2193.06 ± 50.4 UL-1 and 732.73 ± 19.8 UL-1, respectively. The highest aryl alcohol oxidase activity was obtained as 239.25 ± 7.3 UL-1 in control condition of peach cultures. The used pretreatment methods had generally negative effects on lignocellulolytic enzyme production. The highest lignocellulolytic activities were detected using peach wastes. To results, these wastes could.

  2. The morphological variation of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae from peach and tobacco in Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučetić Anđa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate morphometric analysis was used to compare nine characteristics of 47 populations of Myzus persicae (Sulzer originating from two host-plants, peach and tobacco, from 13 localities in 2004 and 34 localities in 2005, in Serbia and Montenegro. Multivariant discriminant analysis showed there to be a distinct discrimination between the populations from the peach and tobacco host-plants. The most important discrimination characteristics are the ultimate rostral segment length and processes terminalis length, which are greater in the aphids from tobacco than in those from peach. This is the first indication that in this part of Europe there are two subspecies: M. persicae (Sulzer and M. persicae nicotianae Blackman. .

  3. A decision support system for delivering optimal quality peach and tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, C. N.; Pease, J. N.; Shewfelt, R. L.

    1990-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that color and firmness are the two quality attributes most important to consumers in making purchasing decisions of fresh peaches and tomatoes. However, at present, retail produce managers do not have the proper information for handling fresh produce so it has the most appealing color and firmness when it reaches the consumer. This information should help them predict the consumer color and firmness perception and preference for produce from various storage conditions. Since 1987, for 'Redglobe' peach and 'Sunny' tomato, we have been generating information about their physical quality attributes (firmness and color) and their corresponding consumer sensory scores. This article reports on our current progress toward the goal of integrating such information into a model-based decision support system for retail level managers in handling fresh peaches and tomatoes.

  4. Comparison of Peach Cultivars for Provision of Extrafloral Nectar Resources to Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Clarissa R; Brown, Mark W; Wäckers, Felix L

    2016-04-22

    Incorporating nonprey sugar resources into apple orchards is a potential means of enhancing biological control services, but little is known about the impacts of extrafloral nectars on aphidophagous coccinellids. We explored peach Prunus persica (L.) Batsch extrafloral nectar as a supplemental resource for Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), a key aphid predator in the mid-Atlantic United States. Extrafloral nectar quantity, temporal production, and carbohydrate profile were assessed for four peach cultivars in orchard and greenhouse culture. Seasonal densities of H. axyridis visiting extrafloral nectaries were estimated, and the propensity of beetles to feed upon extrafloral nectar was compared by cultivar in the laboratory. We also compared survival of newly eclosed adult pairs that were starved or fed aphids with or without extrafloral nectar. Peach extrafloral nectar contained six carbohydrates, with sucrose dominant for all cultivars, but extrafloral nectar production varied significantly by cultivar and collection date, with 'Lovell' yielding higher average seasonal volume than the other cultivars. Harmonia axyridis continuously foraged on peach trees lacking prey, and beetle abundance was positively correlated with the number of leaves actively producing extrafloral nectar. In laboratory assays, newly emerged adult beetles preferentially selected and consumed extrafloral nectar of Lovell peach shoots. Furthermore, when prey were initially unavailable to adult H. axyridis, the beetles were sustained by extrafloral nectar and experienced longer survival compared with beetles without the supplemental resource. Collectively, these results suggest that peach extrafloral nectar is a beneficial resource that could potentially sustain H. axyridis in orchards when prey are scarce. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Extrafloral nectaries alter arthropod community structure and mediate peach (Prunus persica) plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Clarissa R; Bottrell, Dale G; Brown, Mark W

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the role of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) in mediating plant defense for newly established peach (Prunus persica) trees. We used peaches of a single cultivar ("Lovell") that varied with respect to EFN leaf phenotype (with or without EFNs) to determine if the EFNs affected the structure of the arthropod community colonizing newly planted seedlings. We also tested if the plants producing EFNs benefited from reduced herbivory or enhanced productivity. In the first year following planting, the young peach trees with EFNs were dominated by ants, and arthropod community diversity was lower than for trees without EFNs. The young trees with EFNs harbored fewer herbivores and experienced a twofold reduction in folivory compared to trees without EFNs. Productivity was also enhanced for the trees with EFNs, which attained significantly higher rates of trunk growth, greater terminal carbon composition, and a threefold increase in buds produced in subsequent years. In the second year of the field study, ants remained numerically dominant on trees with EFNs, but arthropod community diversity was higher than for trees without EFNs. An additional study revealed that folivory rates in May increased dramatically for trees with EFNs if ants were excluded from their canopies, indicating that ants have a protective function when the perennial trees produce new leaves. However, in later months, regardless of ants' presence, the trees with EFNs suffered less folivory than trees lacking EFNs. The diversity and richness of the predator trophic group increased when ants were excluded from trees with EFNs, but overall community diversity (i.e., herbivores and predators combined) was not affected by the ants' presence. Our research indicates that the EFNs play an important role in attracting predators that protect the trees from herbivores, and the EFN host-plant characteristic should be retained in future peach cultivar selections. Furthermore, peach production programs aimed

  6. Effects of different products of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) from a variety developed in southern Brazil on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in vitro and ex vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Somensi, Nauana; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Girardi, Carolina Saibro; Klafke, Karina; Rabelo, Thallita Kelly; Morrone, Maurilio Da Silva; Vizzotto, Márcia; Raseira, Maria do Carmo Bassols; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidant, anti-glycation and anti-inflammatory activities of fresh and conserved peach fruits (Prunus persica L. Batsch) were compared. Fresh peach pulps, peels, preserve peach pulps and the preserve syrup were prepared at equal concentrations. Rat liver, kidney and brain cortex tissue slices were pre-incubated with peach samples, subjected to oxidative stress with FeSO4 and hydrogen peroxide. Fresh peach pulps and peel conferred higher protection against cytotoxicity and oxidative stress than preserve peach pulps in most tissues. Release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β was also significantly decreased by Fresh peach pulps and peel, followed by preserve peach pulps. Total phenolic determination and HPLC analysis of carotenoids showed that the content of secondary metabolites in Fresh peach pulps and peel is significantly higher than in preserve peach pulps, while the syrup had only small or trace amounts of these compounds. Fresh peach pulps and Peel demonstrated high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects preventing against induced damage. PMID:25320458

  7. Transcriptome analysis of seed dormancy after rinsing and chilling in ornamental peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjana, Worarad; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Ishii, Kazuo; Kozaki, Toshinori; Iigo, Masayuki; Yamane, Kenji

    2016-08-08

    Ornamental peaches cv. 'Yaguchi' (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) can be propagated via seeds. The establishment of efficient seed treatments for early germination and seedling growth is required to shorten nursery and breeding periods. It is important, therefore, to identify potential candidate genes responsible for the effects of rinsing and chilling on seed germination. We hypothesized that longer rinsing combined with chilling of seeds can alter the genes expression in related to dormancy and then raise the germination rate in the peach. To date, most molecular studies in peaches have involved structural genomics, and few transcriptome studies of seed germination have been conducted. In this study, we investigated the function of key seed dormancy-related genes using next-generation sequencing to profile the transcriptomes involved in seed dormancy in peaches. De novo assembly and analysis of the transcriptome identified differentially expressed and unique genes present in this fruit. De novo RNA-sequencing of peach was performed using the Illumina Miseq 2000 system. Paired-end sequence from mRNAs generated high quality sequence reads (9,049,964, 10,026,362 and 10,101,918 reads) from 'Yaguchi' peach seeds before rinsed (BR) and after rinsed for 2 or 7 days with a chilling period of 4 weeks (termed 2D4W and 7D4W), respectively. The germination rate of 7D4W was significantly higher than that of 2D4W. In total, we obtained 51,366 unique sequences. Differential expression analysis identified 7752, 8469 and 506 differentially expressed genes from BR vs 2D4W, BR vs 7D4W and 2D4W vs 7D4W libraries respectively, filtered based on p-value and an adjusted false discovery rate of less than 0.05. This study identified genes associated with the rinsing and chilling process that included those associated with phytohormones, the stress response and transcription factors. 7D4W treatment downregulated genes involved in ABA synthesis, catabolism and signaling pathways, which

  8. Impact of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata on different peach cultivars: the possible role of peach volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabilio, Maria Rosaria; Fiorini, Dennis; Marcantoni, Enrico; Materazzi, Stefano; Delfini, Maurizio; De Salvador, Flavio Roberto; Musmeci, Sergio

    2013-09-01

    The relationship between susceptibility of different peach cultivars (cvs) to the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, and the volatile composition of ripe fruit of each cv has been investigated, since understanding the fruit-insect interaction mechanism is crucial for developing control strategies for such a pest. Volatile compounds were analyzed by SPME-GC-MS in three cvs highly susceptible to medfly attack (Fair Time, Flaminia, Sicilia Piatta), and in two less susceptible cvs (Percoca Romagnola 7 and Doctor Davis). Among the volatile compounds detected, 88 could be identified. The main differences found in the volatile composition of the cvs, concerned the relative abundance of esters. The least susceptible cvs, above all Percoca Romagnola 7, contained the higher amounts of hexenyl, hexyl, 3-methylbutyl, butyl and 2-methylpropyl esters; among these, some C6 derivatives detected, such as (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, are known to act as priming agents, enhancing plant defence response to insects. Instead, a lower relative content of methyl esters, such as methyl hexanoate and methyl octanoate, known to act as medfly pheromone and attractant respectively, was found in the least susceptible cvs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica) Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Mak, Philip; Wen, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry) were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%), with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%). Western blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China.

  10. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the Type-B Authentic Response Regulator Gene Family in Peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jingjue; Zhu, Xudong; Haider, Muhammad S; Wang, Xicheng; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    The type-B authentic response regulator (ARR-B) family members serve as DNA-binding transcriptional regulators, whose activities are probably regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, resulting in the rapid induction of type-A ARR genes. Type-B ARRs are believed to be involved in many biological processes, including cytokinin signaling, plant growth, and stress responses through a chaperone or by isomerization of proline residues during protein folding. The public availability of complete peach genome sequences allows the identification of 23 ARR-B genes by HMMER and blast analysis. Scaffold locations of these genes in the peach genome were determined, and the protein domain and motif organization of peach type-B ARRs were analyzed. The phylogenetic relationships between peach type-B ARRs were also assessed. The expression profiles of peach ARR-B genes revealed that most of the type-B ARRs showed high expression levels in tissues undergoing rapid cell division and may engage more cytokinins, like half-opened flowers, fruits at expansion stages, and young leaves. These findings not only contribute to a better understanding of the complex regulation of the peach ARR-B gene family, but also provide valuable information for future research in peach functional genomics. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Aplicação de revestimentos comestíveis em pêssego (Prunus persica Use of edible coating in peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle de Assis Jacometti

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência de revestimentos comestíveis sobre a vida-de-prateleira, perda de massa, atividade metabólica e contaminação microbiológicas em pêssegos in natura. Foram utilizados pêssegos brancos cv. Perola de Mairinque (IAC 769-8 revestidos com soluções de 1% de goma gelana (p/v e 1% goma gelana + 1% sorbitol (p/v, embalados em caixas de papelão e armazenados a 10ºC / 80-85% UR por 16 dias. Frutos sem revestimento serviram de controle. Os revestimentos à base de goma gelana e gelana+sorbitol não alteraram a atividade fisiológica dos pêssegos, medida através da taxa de respiração, teor de sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável ao longo da armazenagem. Não houve diferença entre as taxas de perda de massa, que ficaram em torno de 1,4g/100g.dia. Os revestimentos não alteraram a aceitação dos pêssegos em termos de sabor e em termos de aparência, o controle obteve notas superiores aos revestidos devida a opacidade que o revestimento conferiu aos frutos. Na contagem total de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos e bolores e leveduras não houve diferença entre os tratamentos ao longo da armazenagem, mas em termos de microrganismos psicrotróficos os frutos revestidos apresentaram uma menor contagem em relação ao controle. Revestimentos à base de goma gelana e gelana+sorbitol não aumentaram a vida-de-prateleira de pêssegos armazenados sob refrigeração devido à composição do revestimento, que não reduziu a perda de massa nem a atividade fisiológica dos frutos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of edible coatings on shelf-life, weight loss, metabolic activity and microbial contamination of peaches in natura. White peaches cv. Perola de Mairinque (IAC 769-8 were coated with 1% gelan gum (p/v and 1% gelan gum + 1% sorbitol (p/v solutions, packed in paperboard box and stored at 10ºC/80-85% RH during 16 days. No coated fruits served as control. Gelan and gelan

  12. Release of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination low-level radioactive waste collected from the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Kraft, N.C.; Mandler, J.W. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-03-01

    As part of a study being performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), small-scale waste-form specimens were collected during a low oxidation-state transition-metal ion (LOMI)-nitric permanganate (NP)-LOMI solidification performed in October 1989 at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3. The purpose of this program was to evaluate the performance of cement-solidified decontamination waste to meet the low-level waste stability requirements defined in the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1. The samples were acquired and tested because little data have been obtained on the physical stability of actual cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms and on the leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents from those waste forms. The Peach Bottom waste-form specimens were subjected to compressive strength, immersion, and leach testing in accordance with the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1. Results of this study indicate that the specimens withstood the compression tests (>500 psi) before and after immersion testing and leaching, and that the leachability indexes for all radionuclides, including {sup 14}C, {sup 99}{Tc}, and {sup 129}I, are well above the leachability index requirement of 6.0, required by the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1.

  13. Mechanical thinning of peach and apple trees reduces labor inputs and increases fruit size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand thinning is a necessary but costly management practice in peach production. Organic tree fruit production also requires hand thinning to adjust crop load. Mechanical devices to aid in thinning have been developed, but none have proven highly efficient and capable of completely replacing hand t...

  14. Transcriptomic and field evaluation of apple trees overexpressing a peach CBF gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of CBF genes in cold response and acclimation has been well documented in both herbaceous and woody plants. Our initial research demonstrated that overexpression of a peach CBF gene (PpCBF1) in ‘M.26’ apple increases freezing tolerance of non-acclimated plants and unexpectedly also results...

  15. Evaluation of Adaptability, and Vegetative and Generative Traits of Some Peach Cultivars under Meshkinshahr Environmental Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] is one of the important stone fruits cultivated in subtropical and temperate zones. In temperate zones, peach faces many problems such as late spring cold, incompatibility, low quality, quantity and low yield. In order to select the best peach cultivars in Meshkinshahr, 25 cultivars of peach were planted in Simple Lattice design (SLD with two replications and 25 experimental blocks with four trees in each block and 3×4 m spacing. In 3 years’ research (from 2008- 2010 vegetative traits such as trunk diameter, annual growth, tree height and canopy extension and repoductive traits (beginning and ending of flowering, flowering period, harvest date, fruit growth period, yield, TSS, acidity, flesh and skin color were evaluated. After combined analysis of variance, most cultivars showed proper morphological and pomological compatibility in the studied zone. SunCrest, Dixired, Robin, SpringCrest, Earligold, Amesdn, Alberta, Earlired, Red top, Baby gold 7 and Paeez e Meshkin cultivars showed the best compatibility of vegetative traits. J. H. Hale, Red skin, Loring, Red top, Dixired, Baby gold 7, SunCrest and Meril sundans had the highest yield. SpringCrest, Earliglo, Dixired and Earlired were recommended as early cultivars, Alberta, Loring, Redtop, Baby gold 7 and SunCrest as midseason cultivars, and J. H. Hale, Red skin, Meril sundans and Paeez e Meshkin as late season cultivars. Therefore, the latter cultivars are recommended for planting new orchards.

  16. Carbohydrate metabolism of vegetative and reproductive sinks in the late-maturing peach cultivar 'Encore'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardo Lo Bianco; Mark Rieger; Shi-Jean S. Sung

    1999-01-01

    Activities of NAD+-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), sorbitol oxidase (SOX), sucrose synthase (SS), acid invertase (AI), and neutral invertase (NI) in ?Encore? peach (Prunus persica L.) fruits and developing shoot tips were assayed during the growing season to determine whether carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes could...

  17. Gum spots in black cherry caused by natural attacks of peach bark beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles O. Rexrode

    1981-01-01

    Peach bark beetles, Phloeotribus liminaris (Harris), made abortive attacks on healthy black cherry, Prunus serotina Ehrh., trees. The beetle attacks caused five types of gum spots in the wood and a gummy exudate on the bark. The most extensive and common types of gum spot were single and multiple rows of interray gum spots that...

  18. 75 FR 38696 - Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Changes in Handling Requirements for Fresh Nectarines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... CONTACT: Jerry L. Simmons, Marketing Specialist, or Kurt J. Kimmel, Regional Manager, California Marketing... 38696-38698] [FR Doc No: 2010-16342] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR... California; Changes in Handling Requirements for Fresh Nectarines and Peaches AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  19. A Non-Targeted Approach Unravels the Volatile Network in Peach Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gerardo; Besada, Cristina; Badenes, María Luisa; Monforte, Antonio José; Granell, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Volatile compounds represent an important part of the plant metabolome and are of particular agronomic and biological interest due to their contribution to fruit aroma and flavor and therefore to fruit quality. By using a non-targeted approach based on HS-SPME-GC-MS, the volatile-compound complement of peach fruit was described. A total of 110 volatile compounds (including alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, esters, lactones, carboxylic acids, phenolics and terpenoids) were identified and quantified in peach fruit samples from different genetic backgrounds, locations, maturity stages and physiological responses. By using a combination of hierarchical cluster analysis and metabolomic correlation network analysis we found that previously known peach fruit volatiles are clustered according to their chemical nature or known biosynthetic pathways. Moreover, novel volatiles that had not yet been described in peach were identified and assigned to co-regulated groups. In addition, our analyses showed that most of the co-regulated groups showed good intergroup correlations that are therefore consistent with the existence of a higher level of regulation orchestrating volatile production under different conditions and/or developmental stages. In addition, this volatile network of interactions provides the ground information for future biochemical studies as well as a useful route map for breeding or biotechnological purposes. PMID:22761719

  20. Correlations between root-associated microorganisms and peach replant disease symptoms in a California soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiue-in; Ruegger, Paul M; McKenry, Michael V; Becker, J Ole; Borneman, James

    2012-01-01

    Replant disease often occurs when certain crops are "replanted" in a soil that had previously supported the same or similar plant species. This disease typically leads to reductions in plant growth, crop yields, and production duration, and its etiology remains ill-defined. The objective of this study was to identify microorganisms associated with peach replant disease symptoms at a field location in California, USA. Soil samples were subjected to treatments to create various levels of replant disease symptoms. Clonal peach seedlings were grown in the treated soils in greenhouse trials. After 6 weeks, plant growth parameters were measured, and both culture and culture-independent analyses were performed to identify root-associated bacteria, fungi and stramenopiles. A total of 295,785 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU) were identified by an Illumina-based, high throughput sequence analysis of rRNA genes. Among the 60 most abundant OTUs, 27 showed significant (PChromatiales, Rhodocyclales, and Sphingomonadales. The most abundant fungi were Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma virens, Fusarium oxysporum, Ceratocystis fimbriata and Fusarium solani. The most abundant stramenopiles were Pythium vexans, Pythium violae and an unidentified Aplanochytrium species. Validation experiments using sequence-selective quantitative PCR analyses identified negative and positive associations between P. vexans and Trichoderma spp. and peach shoot weights, respectively. This study identified numerous microorganisms associated with peach replant symptoms, some of which have been previously identified while others represent new candidates. Subsequent Koch's postulates investigations will assess their possible roles in this replant disease.

  1. Maturity assessment at harvest and prediction of softening in an early and late season melting peach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lurie, S.; Friedman, H.; Weksler, A.; Dagar, A.; Eccher Zerbini, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    For peaches and nectarines, establishing fruit maturity at harvest is a crucial issue, since fruit shelf-life potential and quality are closely related to fruit maturity. A portable instrument that measures IAD (the index of absorbance difference between 670 and 720 nm) was used for monitoring the

  2. Comparative physiological and proteomic analysis reveal distinct regulation of peach skin quality traits by altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Karagiannis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of environment in fruit physiology has been established; however, knowledge regarding the effect of altitude in fruit quality traits is still lacking. Here, skin tissue quality characters were analysed in peach fruit (cv. June Gold, harvested in 16 orchards located in low (71.5 m mean or high (495. m mean altitutes sites. Data indicated that soluble solids concentration and fruit firmness at commercial harvest stage were unaffected by alitute. Peach grown at high-altitude environment displayed higher levels of pigmentation and specific antioxidant-related activity in their skin at the commercial harvest stage. Skin extracts from distinct developmental stages and growing altitudes exhibited different antioxidant ability against DNA strand-scission. The effects of altitude on skin tissue were further studied using a proteomic approach. Protein expression analysis of the mature fruits depicted altered expression of 42 proteins that are mainly involved in the metabolic pathways of defense, primary metabolism, destination/storage and energy. The majority of these proteins were up-regulated at the low-altitude region. High-altitude environment increased the accumulation of several proteins, including chaperone ClpC, chaperone ClpB, pyruvate dehydrogenase E1, TCP domain class transcription factor and lipoxygenase. We also discuss the altitude-affected protein variations, taking into account their potential role in peach ripening process. This study provides the first characterization of the peach skin proteome and helps to improve our understanding of peach’s response to altitude.

  3. Host Plant Resistance to Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzar), by Some Wild Types of Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzar), is an important pest of many vegetable crops. It damages crops by feeding and vectoring viruses. Potential sources of plant resistance against M. persicae were examined for watermelon. A multiple choice experiment was conducted with leaves of six wi...

  4. Prunus rootstocks influence stem water potential, C/N ratio and shoot ash content in peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many peach rootstocks have been released in recent years with limited information about their physiological effects on scion vigor and productivity. In this study, two trials were established with ‘Redhaven’ on 9 (planted 2006) and 18 (planted 2009) rootstock cultivars at the Musser Fruit Research ...

  5. Quality evaluation of yellow peach chips prepared by explosion puffing drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jian; Zhou, Lin-Yan; Bi, Jin-Feng; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Xin-Ye

    2015-12-01

    Nineteen evaluation indicators in 15 yellow peach chips prepared by explosion puffing drying were analyzed, including color, rehydration ratio, texture, and so on. The analysis methods of principle component analysis (PCA), analytic hierarchy process (AHP), K-means cluster (KC) and Discriminate analysis (DA) were used to analyze the comprehensive quality of the yellow peach chips. The dispersed coefficient of variation of the 19 evaluation indicators varied from 3.58 to 852.89 %, suggesting significant differences among yellow peach cultivars. The characteristic evaluation indicators, namely, reducing sugar content, out-put ratio, water content, a value and L value were analyzed by PCA, and their weights 0.0429, 0.1140, 0.4816, 1.1807 and 0.1807 were obtained by AHP. The levels in 15 cultivars effectively were classified by discrimination functions which obtained by KC and DA. The results suggested that three levels of comprehensive quality for yellow peach chips were divided, and the highest synthesis scores was observed in "senggelin" (11.1037), while the lowest synthesis value was found in "goldbaby" (-3.7600).

  6. Detection of seed dormancy QTL in three F2 families of peach (Prunus persica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormancy is a condition that delays or inhibits growth in seed, vegetative buds, and floral buds. In peach, seed germination occurs when seed accumulate sufficient stratification and growing degree hours to break dormancy and begin growing. Correlations have been reported between mean seed stratifi...

  7. Abundance and consumption rate of glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) on peaches and plums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homalodisca vitripennis, also known as the glassy-winged sharpshooter, is a primary vector of phony peach and plum leaf scald diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. Two of the following scions, (Prunus persica L. Batch cvs. Flordaking and June Gold and Prunus salicina L. cvs. Methley an...

  8. Phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of different peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Wenna; Yin, Xueren; Su, Mingshen; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-03-12

    China is an important centre of diversity for Prunus persica. In the present study, 17 Chinese peach cultivars were evaluated for phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Neochlorogenic acid (NCHA), chlorogenic acid (CHA), procyanidin B1 (B1), catechin (CAT), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q3GAL), quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3GLU), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Q3R), and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (K3R) were identified and quantified. CHA and CAT were the predominant components in both the peel and pulp of this fruit. In general, peel extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than the pulp counterparts, consistent with the observed higher phenolic content. The melting peach cultivar "Xinyu" showed the highest antioxidant potency composite (APC) index. The principal component analysis (PCA) of peel phenolics showed a clear distinction between the melting peach and nectarine. Overall, peach cultivars rich in hydroxycinnamates and flavan-3-ols showed relatively higher antioxidant activities and might be excellent sources of phytochemicals and natural antioxidants.

  9. Analysis of visual symptomatology in peach and plum inoculated with U.S. PPV isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plum pox potyvirus (PPV) is an economically devastating potyvirus that affects Prunus species. Discovered in the United States, in 1999, the Pennsylvania PPV isolates were primarily found in peaches (Prunus persica). When several of these original Pennsylvania isolates were inoculated onto plums (...

  10. CBF gene expression in peach leaf and bark tissues is gated by a circadian clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    CBF transcription factors are part of the AP2/ERF domain family of DNA-binding proteins that recognize a C-repeat response cis-acting element that regulates a number of cold-responsive genes (CBF-regulon). In peach (Prunus persica), five CBF genes are situated in tandem on scaffold (Linkage Group) ...

  11. QTL mapping of pomological traits in peach and related species breeding germplasm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fresnedo-Ramírez, J.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Weg, van de W.E.; Famula, T.R.; Crisosto, C.H.; Frett, T.; Gasic, K.; Peace, C.P.; Gradziel, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Peach is an economically important fruit tree crop that exhibits high phenotypic variability yet suffers from diversity-limited gene pool. Genetic introgression of novel alleles from related species is being pursued to expand genetic diversity. This process is, however, challenging and requires the

  12. Integrated QTL detection for key breeding traits in multiple peach progenies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández Mora, José R.; Micheletti, Diego; Bink, Marco; Weg, Van de Eric; Cantín, Celia; Nazzicari, Nelson; Caprera, Andrea; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Micali, Sabrina; Banchi, Elisa; Campoy, José Antonio; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth; Lambert, Patrick; Pascal, Thierry; Troggio, Michela; Bassi, Daniele; Rossini, Laura; Verde, Ignazio; Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte; Laurens, François; Arús, Pere; Aranzana, Maria José

    2017-01-01

    Background: Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is a major temperate fruit crop with an intense breeding activity. Breeding is facilitated by knowledge of the inheritance of the key traits that are often of a quantitative nature. QTLs have traditionally been studied using the phenotype of a single

  13. Dynamics of concomitant populations of Pratylenchus vulnus and Meloidogyne incognita on peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus vulnus on nematode reproduction and vegetative growth of Prunus persica ‘Lovell’ peach was studied in field microplots. Pratylenchus vulnus suppressed the population density of M. incognita second-stage juveniles, whereas the presence o...

  14. 75 FR 17072 - Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... their 2010-11 fiscal period expenses and carryover necessary reserves to finance operations before 2011... Administrative Committee and the Peach Commodity Committee (Committees) for the 2009-10 and subsequent fiscal... reasonable and necessary expenses of the programs. The fiscal periods run from March 1 through the last day...

  15. Artificial rearing of the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) into the area-wide management of the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is a promising althernative to the localized use of chemical control tactics. Implementation of the SIT requires adequate numbers of sterile male insects that are produ...

  16. Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events: Peach Bottom, Unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Lambright, J.A.; Ferrell, W.L.; Cathey, N.G.; Najafi, B.; Harper, F.T.

    1986-10-01

    This document contains the internal event initiated accident sequence analyses for Peach Bottom, Unit 2; one of the reference plants being examined as part of the NUREG-1150 effort by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-1150 will document the risk of a selected group of nuclear power plants. As part of that work, this report contains the overall core damage frequency estimate for Peach Bottom, Unit 2, and the accompanying plant damage state frequencies. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses provided additional insights regarding the dominant contributors to the Peach Bottom core damage frequency estimate. The mean core damage frequency at Peach Bottom was calculated to be 8.2E-6. Station blackout type accidents (loss of all ac power) were found to dominate the overall results. Anticipated Transient Without Scram accidents were also found to be non-negligible contributors. The numerical results are largely driven by common mode failure probability estimates and to some extent, human error. Because of significant data and analysis uncertainties in these two areas (important, for instance, to the most dominant scenario in this study), it is recommended that the results of the uncertainty and sensitivity analyses be considered before any actions are taken based on this analysis.

  17. Variation in Phenolics, Flavanoids, Antioxidant and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Activity of Peach Blossoms at Different Developmental Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie-Chao; Jiao, Zhong-Gao; Yang, Wen-Bo; Zhang, Chun-Ling; Liu, Hui; Lv, Zhen-Zhen

    2015-11-18

    Peach blossoms were harvested and classified into six developmental stages: (I) bud emerging stage; (II) middle bud stage; (III) large bud stage; (IV) initial-flowering stage; (V) full-flowering stage; and (VI) end-flowering stage. The contents of total phenolics, flavanoids, individual phenolic compounds as well as antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of peach blossoms at different developmental stages were investigated. The total phenolic contents varied from 149.80 to 74.80 mg chlorogenic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW), and the total flavanoid contents ranged from 93.03 to 44.06 mg rutin equivalents/g DW. Both the contents of total phenolics and flavanoids decreased during blossom development. Chlorogenic acid was the predominant component, accounting for 62.08%-71.09% of the total amount of identified phenolic compounds in peach blossom. The antioxidant capacities determined by different assays and tyrosinase inhibitory activity also showed descending patterns during blossom development. Significant correlations were observed between antioxidant capacities with contents of total phenolics and total flavanoids as well as chlorogenic acid, cinnamic acid and kaempferol-3-O-galactoside, while the tyrosinase inhibitory activity had lower correlations with total phenolics and total flavanoids as well as chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-galactoside and cinnamic acid. The antioxidant activities of peach blossom seemed to be more dependent on the phenolic compounds than tyrosinase inhibitory activity.

  18. DNA-based identification of Armillaria isolates from peach orchards in Mexico state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben Damian Elias Roman; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Dionicio Alvarado Rosales; Mee-Sook Kim; Anna E. Case; Sara M. Ashiglar; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Remigio A. Guzman Plazola

    2012-01-01

    A collaborative project between the Programa de Fitopatología, Colegio de Postgraduados, Texcoco, Estado de Mexico and the USDA Forest Service - RMRS, Moscow Forest Pathology Laboratory has begun this year (2011) to assess which species of Armillaria are causing widespread and severe damage to the peach orchards from México state, Mexico. We are employing a DNA-based...

  19. Response of Green Peach Aphids and Other Arthropods to Garlic Intercropped with Tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, R.; You, M.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Vasseur, L.

    2011-01-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is an insect pest that causes extensive damage to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) in China. Field trials were conducted in 2008 and 2009 at Longyan in the Fujian Province (China) to evaluate the effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as a deterrent to

  20. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  1. Studies in the genus Riccia (Marchantiales from southern Africa. 11. Riccia montana and R. alboporosa, a further two new white-scaled species of the group ‘Squamatae’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Perold

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Another two new endemic species of the subgenus  Riccia. section  Riccia. group ‘Squamatae , are described:  R. montana and R alboporosa. The distribution of R montana is apparently restricted to high altitudes in the Drakensberg and Witteberg Mountain ranges. The species is characterized by ligulate branches, finely spongy dorsal surface and hyaline to white, calcium-encrusted scales.  R alboporosa is found in Namaqualand. but it is rare It can be recognized by the distinctly porous appearance of the dorsal surface due to the presence of large. ± regularly spaced air pores, which are encircled by six or seven radially arranged, wedge-shaped cells that become white on drying, hence the specific epithet.

  2. Airborne Thermal Imagery to Detect the Seasonal Evolution of Crop Water Status in Peach, Nectarine and Saturn Peach Orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Bellvert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current scenario of worldwide limited water supplies, conserving water is a major concern in agricultural areas. Characterizing within-orchard spatial heterogeneity in water requirements would assist in improving irrigation water use efficiency and conserve water. The crop water stress index (CWSI has been successfully used as a crop water status indicator in several fruit tree species. In this study, the CWSI was developed in three Prunus persica L. cultivars at different phenological stages of the 2012 to 2014 growing seasons, using canopy temperature measurements of well-watered trees. The CWSI was then remotely estimated using high-resolution thermal imagery acquired from an airborne platform and related to leaf water potential (ѰL throughout the season. The feasibility of mapping within-orchard spatial variability of ѰL from thermal imagery was also explored. Results indicated that CWSI can be calculated using a common non-water-stressed baseline (NWSB, upper and lower limits for the entire growing season and for the three studied cultivars. Nevertheless, a phenological effect was detected in the CWSI vs. ѰL relationships. For a specific given CWSI value, ѰL was more negative as the crop developed. This different seasonal response followed the same trend for the three studied cultivars. The approach presented in this study demonstrated that CWSI is a feasible method to assess the spatial variability of tree water status in heterogeneous orchards, and to derive ѰL maps throughout a complete growing season. A sensitivity analysis of varying pixel size showed that a pixel size of 0.8 m or less was needed for precise ѰL mapping of peach and nectarine orchards with a tree crown area between 3.0 to 5.0 m2.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Three Types of Peaches: Identification of the Key Individual Characteristic Flavor Compounds by Integrating Consumers' Acceptability with Flavor Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpeng XI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to recognize the key flavor compounds influencing the consumers' choice for honey peach, nectarine, and flat peach and provide important information for orientation breeding, sugars, organic acids, and aroma volatiles in 3 types of peaches were examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS and their key individual characteristic flavor compounds were identified by multivariate analysis integrated with consumers' evaluation. No significant differences in sugar and organic acid were observed between 3 types of peaches. In hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA and principal component analysis (PCA models, 3 types of peaches could not be differentiated by sugars or organic acids, but could be identified completely by aroma volatiles or by flavor compounds. A partial least squares regression (PLSR model revealed that the key individual characteristic volatiles in nectarine, honey peach, and flat peach are C9 compounds and terpenic compounds, norisoprenoids and C6 compounds, and benzaldehyde, γ-decalactone, and δ-dodecalactone, respectively. These results suggest that sugars and organic acids form the background flavor of peach fruit and lactones shape the typical peach aroma. However, the individual aroma volatiles play the decisive role in unique flavor determination of different types of peaches.

  4. Modelling of Peach Tree (Prunus persica) Full Blooming Dates Using APCC MME Seasonal Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jong; Kim, Sung; Lee, Hyojin; Han, Hyun-Hee; Son, In-Chang; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2016-04-01

    Due to global warming, recently, bud-burst and flowering dates of fruit crops have become earlier and the abnormal climate increases the variabilities of temperature in spring, suggesting that the risk of frost damage has increased. However, the full blooming date prediction model for peach tree used by the Rural Developmental Administration (RDA) were developed using only one cultivar (Youmyeong) and observations from a station (Suwon). This model might not adequately reflect the characteristics of peach cultivars or local orchards. the objectives of this study were to develops the site-and cultivar-specific blooming date prediction models for major peach cultivation regions and cultivars and presents a framework for applications of the APEC Climate Center Multimodel Ensemble (APCC MME) seasonal datasets.Developmental rate (DVR), and Sequential dormancy models (Chill day, New chill day, and fraction-time models) were used to develop the locally tailored full blooming date prediction models for major peach cultivars. For the development of these models, bud-burst and full blooming dates of peach tree for 5 cultivars (Cheonhong, Youmyeong, Changbangjosaeng, Cheonjoongdo, and Janghowon) were collected from the 6 major peach cultivation sites: Chuncheon, Suwon, Cheongwon, Cheongdo, Naju, and Jinju. For the chill day model, those measures for the entire dataset regardless the location and cultivar were 2.31%, 0.79, and 3.36 day for MAPE, R2, RMSE, respectively. For the new chill day model, those values (2.19%, 0.82, and 3.16 day for MAPE, R2, RMSE, respectively) were slightly better than those of the chill day model. The model results showed that the new chill day model was found slightly highest performance than others. Based on the considerations of the predictability of the statistical downscaling method and the observed periods of the full blooming dates at each site, we determined that the APCC MME seasonal datasets were applied for the new chill day model for the

  5. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...... critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U...

  6. Modified atmosphere packaging extending the storage life of 'douradão' peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Regina Radomille de Santana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 'Douradão' peach is a perishable product and when cold stored is subject to chilling injury. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP and cold storage on quality and storage life of these peaches. Fruits were packed in polypropylene (PP trays and placed inside low density polyethylene (LDPE bags (30, 50, 60, 75 μm thickness with active modified atmosphere (10 kPa CO2 + 1.5kPa O2, balance N2. The control was made with peaches held in nonwrapped PP trays. Fruits were kept at 1 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% relative humidity (RH for 28 days and CO2 and O2 within packages was monitored every two days. After 14, 21 and 28 days, samples were withdrawn from MAP and kept in air at 25 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH for ripening. On the day of removal from the cold storage and after 4 days, peaches were evaluated for weight loss, decay incidence, flesh firmness, woolliness incidence, soluble solids content (SSC, titratable acidity (TA and juice content. The results showed that MAP had influence on reducing weight loss and prevented postharvest decay. MAP of 1-2 kPa O2 and 3-6 kPa CO2 at 1 °C (from 50 and 60 μm LDPE films were effective for keeping good quality of 'Douradão' peaches during 28 days of storage, the ripe fruits showed reduced incidence of woolliness, adequate juiciness and flesh firmness. Packages of 30 and 75 μm LDPE films were ineffective for reducing woolliness during cold storage. MAP fruits showed lower SSC and no relevant effect on TA. Control fruits did not present marketable conditions after 14 days of cold storage.

  7. Correlations between root-associated microorganisms and peach replant disease symptoms in a California soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiue-in Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Replant disease often occurs when certain crops are "replanted" in a soil that had previously supported the same or similar plant species. This disease typically leads to reductions in plant growth, crop yields, and production duration, and its etiology remains ill-defined. The objective of this study was to identify microorganisms associated with peach replant disease symptoms at a field location in California, USA. Soil samples were subjected to treatments to create various levels of replant disease symptoms. Clonal peach seedlings were grown in the treated soils in greenhouse trials. After 6 weeks, plant growth parameters were measured, and both culture and culture-independent analyses were performed to identify root-associated bacteria, fungi and stramenopiles. RESULTS: A total of 295,785 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU were identified by an Illumina-based, high throughput sequence analysis of rRNA genes. Among the 60 most abundant OTUs, 27 showed significant (P<0.05 negative correlation with peach shoot weights while 10 were positively correlated. Most of these OTUs belonged to the bacterial phylum Proteobacteria (96%, including the classes Gammaproteobacteria (44.4%, Betaproteobacteria (33.3% and Alphaproteobacteria (22.2%, and the orders Pseudomonadales, Burkholderiales, Chromatiales, Rhodocyclales, and Sphingomonadales. The most abundant fungi were Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma virens, Fusarium oxysporum, Ceratocystis fimbriata and Fusarium solani. The most abundant stramenopiles were Pythium vexans, Pythium violae and an unidentified Aplanochytrium species. Validation experiments using sequence-selective quantitative PCR analyses identified negative and positive associations between P. vexans and Trichoderma spp. and peach shoot weights, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified numerous microorganisms associated with peach replant symptoms, some of which have been previously identified while others

  8. New insights into the properties of pubescent surfaces: peach fruit as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Victoria; Khayet, Mohamed; Montero-Prado, Pablo; Heredia-Guerrero, José Alejandro; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Karabourniotis, George; Del Río, Víctor; Domínguez, Eva; Tacchini, Ignacio; Nerín, Cristina; Val, Jesús; Heredia, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    The surface of peach (Prunus persica 'Calrico') is covered by a dense indumentum, which may serve various protective purposes. With the aim of relating structure to function, the chemical composition, morphology, and hydrophobicity of the peach skin was assessed as a model for a pubescent plant surface. Distinct physicochemical features were observed for trichomes versus isolated cuticles. Peach cuticles were composed of 53% cutan, 27% waxes, 23% cutin, and 1% hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (mainly ferulic and p-coumaric acids). Trichomes were covered by a thin cuticular layer containing 15% waxes and 19% cutin and were filled by polysaccharide material (63%) containing hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. The surface free energy, polarity, and work of adhesion of intact and shaved peach surfaces were calculated from contact angle measurements of water, glycerol, and diiodomethane. The removal of the trichomes from the surface increased polarity from 3.8% (intact surface) to 23.6% and decreased the total surface free energy chiefly due to a decrease on its nonpolar component. The extraction of waxes and the removal of trichomes led to higher fruit dehydration rates. However, trichomes were found to have a higher water sorption capacity as compared with isolated cuticles. The results show that the peach surface is composed of two different materials that establish a polarity gradient: the trichome network, which has a higher surface free energy and a higher dispersive component, and the cuticle underneath, which has a lower surface free energy and higher surface polarity. The significance of the data concerning water-plant surface interactions is discussed within a physiological context.

  9. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of an arginine decarboxylase gene from peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji Hong; Ban, Yusuke; Wen, Xiao-Peng; Nakajima, Ikuko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2009-01-15

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC), one of the enzymes responsible for putrescine (Put) biosynthesis, has been shown to be implicated in stress response. In the current paper attempts were made to clone and characterize a gene encoding ADC from peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, 'Akatsuki'). Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) gave rise to a full-length ADC cDNA (PpADC) with a complete open reading frame of 2178 bp, encoding a 725 amino acid polypeptide. Homology search and sequence multi-alignment demonstrated that the deduced PpADC protein sequence shared a high identity with ADCs from other plants, including several highly conservative motifs and amino acids. Southern blotting indicated that PpADC existed in peach genome as a single gene. Expression levels of PpADC in different tissues of peach (P. persica 'Akatsuki') were spatially and developmentally regulated. Treatment of peach shoots from 'Mochizuki' with exogenous 5 mM Put, an indirect product of ADC, remarkably induced accumulation of PpADC mRNA. Transcripts of PpADC in peach leaves from 'Mochizuki' were quickly induced, either transiently or continuously, in response to dehydration, high salinity (200 mM NaCl), low temperature (4 degrees C) and heavy metal (150 microM CdCl(2)), but repressed by high temperature 37 degrees C) during a 2-day treatment, which changed in an opposite direction when the stresses were otherwise removed with the exception of CdCl(2) treatment. In addition, steady-state of PpADC mRNA could be also transiently up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) in 'Mochizuki' leaves. All of these, taken together, suggest that PpADC is a stress-responsive gene and can be considered as a potential target that is genetically manipulated so as to create novel germplasms with enhanced stress tolerance in the future.

  10. Investigating the correlation between white matter and microvasculature changes in aging using large scale optical coherence tomography and confocal fluorescence imaging combined with tissue sectioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Alexandre; Avti, Pramod K.; Moeini, Mohammad; Pouliot, Philippe; Tabatabaei, Maryam S.; Bélanger, Samuel; Lesage, Frédéric

    2015-03-01

    Here, we present a serial OCT/confocal scanner for histological study of the mouse brain. Three axis linear stages combined with a sectioning vibratome allows to cut thru the entire biological tissue and to image every section at a microscopic resolution. After acquisition, each OCT volume and confocal image is re-stitched with adjacent acquisitions to obtain a reconstructed, digital volume of the imaged tissue. This imaging platform was used to investigate correlations between white matter and microvasculature changes in aging mice. Three age groups were used in this study (4, 12, 24 months). At sacrifice, mice were transcardially perfused with a FITC containing gel. The dual imaging capability of the system allowed to reveal different contrast information: OCT imaging reveals changes in refractive indices giving contrast between white and grey matter in the mouse brain, while transcardial perfusion of a FITC shows microsvasculature in the brain with confocal imaging.

  11. Activities of sucrose and sorbitol metabolizing enzymes in vegetative sinks of peach and correlation with sink growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardo Lo Bianco; Mark Rieger; Shi-Jean S. Sung

    1999-01-01

    Terminal portions of 'Flordaguard' peach roots (Prunus persica ((L.) Batsch) were divided into six segments and the activities of NAD+-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), sorbitol oxidase (SOX), sucrose synthase (SS), soluble acid invertase (AI),...

  12. Optimal Timing of Fungicide Applications for the Control of Podosphaera leucotricha, the Causal Agent of Peach Rusty Spot in Serbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nenad Dolovac; Novica Miletić; Nenad Trkulja; Erika Pfaf Dolovac; Svetlana Živković; Branka Krstić; Aleksandra Bulajić

    2011-01-01

    ... (Summerset, Suncrest, Fayetteand O’Henry). Concerns regarding the etiology of this disease have been solved using molecularidentification and cross-pathogenicity tests, which have proved that peach rustyspot is caused by Podosphaera leucotricha...

  13. The Impact of Maturity Stage on Cell Membrane Integrity and Enzymatic Browning Reactions in High Pressure Processed Peaches (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techakanon, Chukwan; Gradziel, Thomas M; Zhang, Lu; Barrett, Diane M

    2016-09-28

    Fruit maturity is an important factor associated with final product quality, and it may have an effect on the level of browning in peaches that are high pressure processed (HPP). Peaches from three different maturities, as determined by firmness (M1 = 50-55 N, M2 = 35-40 N, and M3 = 15-20 N), were subjected to pressure levels at 0.1, 200, and 400 MPa for 10 min. The damage from HPP treatment results in loss of fruit integrity and the development of browning during storage. Increasing pressure levels of HPP treatment resulted in greater damage, particularly in the more mature peaches, as determined by shifts in transverse relaxation time (T2) of the vacuolar component and by light microscopy. The discoloration of peach slices of different maturities processed at the same pressure was comparable, indicating that the effect of pressure level is greater than that of maturity in the development of browning.

  14. Elaboration of a strategy to control the peach twig borer Anarsia lineatella Zeller in the Sefrou region in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Asfers Adil; Blenzar Abdelali; Rachdaoui Mohammed; Joutei Abdelmalek Boutaleb; Houssa Abdelhadi Ait; Sekkat Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Trapping by specific sex pheromones initiated in 2009 to monitor three pests, peach twig borer (Anarsia lineatella), oriental fruit moth (Cydia molesta) and plum fruit moth (Grapholita funebrana) revealed the greater importance of peach twig borer in comparison to the others. The results of monitoring the development of larval stages over time and the accumulated degree-days from biofix show that the pest develops five generations per year, one of which undergoes a diapause. In 2009 and 2010 ...

  15. Tracking the global dispersal of a cosmopolitan insect pest, the peach potato aphid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprowicz Louise

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global commerce and human transportation are responsible for the range expansion of various insect pests such as the plant sucking aphids. High resolution DNA markers provide the opportunity to examine the genetic structure of aphid populations, identify aphid genotypes and infer their evolutionary history and routes of expansion which is of value in developing management strategies. One of the most widespread aphid species is the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae, which is considered as a serious pest on various crops in many parts of the world. The present study examined the genetic variation of this aphid at a world scale and then related this to distribution patterns. In particular, 197 aphid parthenogenetic lineages from around the world were analysed with six microsatellite loci. Results Bayesian clustering and admixture analysis split the aphid genotypes into three genetic clusters: European M. persicae persicae, New Zealand M. persicae persicae and Global M. persicae nicotianae. This partition was supported by FST and genetic distance analyses. The results showed two further points, a possible connection between genotypes found in the UK and New Zealand and globalization of nicotianae associated with colonisation of regions where tobacco is not cultivated. In addition, we report the presence of geographically widespread clones and for the first time the presence of a nicotianae genotype in the Old and New World. Lastly, heterozygote deficiency was detected in some sexual and asexual populations. Conclusion The study revealed important genetic variation among the aphid populations we examined and this was partitioned according to region and host-plant. Clonal selection and gene flow between sexual and asexual lineages are important factors shaping the genetic structure of the aphid populations. In addition, the results reflected the globalization of two subspecies of M. persicae with successful clones being spread at

  16. Leaf extrafloral nectaries enhance biological control of a key economic pest, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in peach (Rosales: Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Clarissa R; Brown, Mark W; Bottrell, Dale G

    2007-04-01

    Extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) in many plant species produce sugary secretions that commonly attract ants. This research determined the impact of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) EFNs on the biological control of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a key economic pest in peach orchards, and studied interactions of EFNs and ants. Studies (2002-2005) in peach orchards of the mid-Atlantic United States showed that 'Lovell' peach trees with EFNs supported more parasitic Hymenoptera in the spring and increased the parasitism of G. molesta larvae later in the season than those trees without EFNs. Ant exclusion experiments revealed that trees with EFNs harbored fewer G. molesta larvae when ants were permitted access to the tree canopies. Furthermore, the trees with EFNs had approximately 90% less fruit injury by G. molesta, indicating that EFNs have a protective role for the fruit as well. The results show that the combined actions of ants and parasitic Hymenoptera confer an EFN-mediated protective effect spanning the whole fruit growing season. When EFNs are present, naturally occurring biological control agents can reduce damage by G. molesta in peach orchards without insecticide inputs. The EFNs are an important host-plant characteristic that should be retained in future peach cultivar selections as a means of enhancing biological control.

  17. Field evaluation of reduced insecticide spray programs for managing plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in Alabama peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akotsen-Mensah, Clement; Boozer, Robert T; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2011-06-01

    Plum curculio (PC), Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst.), is an important pest of peaches in the southeastern United States. Commercially acceptable control of this insect is typically achieved by weekly or biweekly application of broad-spectrum conventional insecticides, resulting in 6-12 sprays per season. Experiments were conducted in a peach orchard in Alabama during 2007-2009 to compare the conventional calendar-based insecticide spray program involving weekly applications of phosmet with three different reduced spray programs using three targeted (well-timed) insecticide sprays (TIS) of phosmet, permethrin or thiamethoxam applied in an alternated fashion. All three TIS programs significantly reduced PC damage at harvest compared with the untreated control in two of the three years (2008 and 2009). Fruit damage due to stink bugs, which are emerging pests of peaches in the region, was also significantly reduced in the TIS programs in both years. In a separate trial in which one of the TIS programs (three targeted sprays of phosmet) was evaluated in a larger peach block in 2009, percentage fruit damage due to PC increased from < 1% in June to ~4% in late July. All the TIS programs evaluated provided effective control of PC and represent potential alternatives to the conventional weekly spray program in peaches with concomitant reduction in insecticide usage and associated costs. However, an additional spray may be necessary for effective control of PC and stink bugs in late-season peach varieties. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Assessment of Guardian Peach Rootstock for Resistance to Two Isolates of Pratylenchus vulnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyczepir, A P; Pinochet, J

    2001-12-01

    Guardian, Lovell, and Nemaguard peach rootstocks were evaluated for their susceptibility and growth response to two isolates of Pratylenchus vulnus. One nematode isolate was obtained from peach in Georgia (P. vulnus [GA-isolate]) and the other from apple in Idaho (P. vulnus [ID-isolate]). Nematode reproduction and pathogenicity as related to rootstock were determined 29 months after inoculation in outdoor microplots. All rootstocks were susceptible to both nematode isolates. Guardian supported a greater number of nematodes per gram dry root weight than Lovell or Nemaguard rootstocks. All rootstocks supported greater numbers of P. vulnus (GA-isolate) than P. vulnus (ID-isolate). Tree growth among the three rootstocks was similar in the presence of either P. vulnus isolate, but growth suppression was greatest in P. vulnus (GA-isolate) plots, intermediate in P. vulnus (ID-isolate) plots, and least in the uninoculated plots.

  19. Effects of Peach Cultivar on Enzymatic Browning Following Cell Damage from High-Pressure Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techakanon, Chukwan; Gradziel, Thomas M; Barrett, Diane M

    2016-10-12

    Peach cultivars contribute to unique product characteristics and may affect the degree of browning after high-pressure processing (HPP). Nine peach cultivars were subjected to HPP at 0, 100, and 400 MPa for 10 min. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) relaxometry, light microscopy, color, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, and total phenols were evaluated. The development of enzymatic browning during refrigerated storage occurred because of damage during HPP that triggered loss of cell integrity, allowing substrates to interact with enzymes. Increasing pressure levels resulted in greater damage, as determined by shifts in transverse relaxation time (T2) and by light micrographs. Discoloration was triggered by membrane decompartmentalization but limited by PPO activity, which was found to correlate to cultivar harvest time (early, mid, and late season). Outcomes from the microstructure, (1)H NMR ,and PPO activity evaluation were an effective means of determining membrane decompartmentalization and allowed for prediction of browning scenarios.

  20. Leaf nutritional levels in peach and nectarine grown in subtropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Leonel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the leaf nutritional levels of peach and nectarine trees under subtropical climate in order to improve the fertilization practices. The experiment was carried out in São Paulo state University, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experimental design consisted of subdivided plots, in which plots corresponded to cultivars and subplots to the leaf sample periods. The evaluated peach cultivars were: Marli, Turmalina, Precocinho, Jubileu, Cascata 968, Cascata 848, CP 951C, CP 9553CYN, and Tropic Beauty, and that of nectarine was 'Sun Blaze'. The sample periods were: after harvest, plants in vegetative period; dormancy; beginning of flowering and fruiting (standard sample. Results indicated significant variations in the levels of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn for the sampling period and in N, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe and Mn levels for the cultivars.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) during the late stage of fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H F; Sheng, Y; Gao, Z H; Chen, H L; Qi, Y J; Yi, X K; Qin, G H; Zhang, J Y

    2016-12-23

    Fruit ripening is a complex developmental process, the details of which remain largely unknown in fleshy fruits. In this paper, the fruit flesh of two peach varieties, "Zhongyou9" (a nectarine; Prunus persica L. Batsch) and its mutant "Hongyu", was analyzed by RNA-seq technology during two stages of ripening at 20-day intervals. One hundred and eighty significant upregulated and two hundred and thirty-five downregulated genes were identified in the experiment. Many of these genes were related to plant hormones, chlorophyll breakdown, accumulation of aroma and flavor volatiles, and stress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome analysis of peach ripening, and our data will be useful for further studies of the molecular basis of fruit ripening.

  2. Preparative-scale fractionation by isoelectric trapping under nondenaturing conditions: separation of egg white protein isoforms on a modified Gradiflow unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Clemens C; Thomas, Denise; Van Dyk, Derek; Rylatt, Dennis; Sheehan, Marian

    2005-01-01

    pH-biased isoelectric trapping was used to separate proteins from egg white at the preparative level (80 mg), into discrete protein fractions based on isoelectric point. The problems of isoelectric precipitation that are common for the separation of complex protein mixtures under isoelectric conditions were mitigated by using single-component isoelectric buffers within the sample separation compartments. This combined with the mild process conditions of the Gradiflow unit that was modified for binary isoelectric trapping separations, ensured that biological activity was maintained. This was verified by measurement of the trypsin protease inhibitory activity of the extract and separated fractions. Furthermore, the high resolving power of this system under preparative conditions was demonstrated by separation of three protein isoforms using isoelectric membranes with differences of 0.025 pH units from each other.

  3. Development of a Traceability System Based on a SNP Array for Large-Scale Production of High-Value White Spruce (Picea glauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Godbout

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological material is at the forefront of research programs, as well as application fields such as breeding, aquaculture, and reforestation. While sophisticated techniques are used to produce this material, all too often, there is no strict monitoring during the “production” process to ensure that the specific varieties are the expected ones. Confidence rather than evidence is often applied when the time comes to start a new experiment or to deploy selected varieties in the field. During the last decade, genomics research has led to the development of important resources, which have created opportunities for easily developing tools to assess the conformity of the material along the production chains. In this study, we present a simple methodology that enables the development of a traceability system which, is in fact a by-product of previous genomic projects. The plant production system in white spruce (Picea glauca is used to illustrate our purpose. In Quebec, one of the favored strategies to produce elite varieties is to use somatic embryogenesis (SE. In order to detect human errors both upstream and downstream of the white spruce production process, this project had two main objectives: (i to develop methods that make it possible to trace the origin of plants produced, and (ii to generate a unique genetic fingerprint that could be used to differentiate each embryogenic cell line and ensure its genetic monitoring. Such a system had to rely on a minimum number of low-cost DNA markers and be easy to use by non-specialists. An efficient marker selection process was operationalized by testing different classification methods on simulated datasets. These datasets were generated using in-house bioinformatics tools that simulated crosses involved in the breeding program for which genotypes from hundreds of SNP markers were already available. The rate of misidentification was estimated and various sources of mishandling or contamination were

  4. THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF ADOPTING IPM TECHNIQUES: THE CASE OF PEACH PRODUCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge; Ferraioli, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    The impact of adopting integrated pest management (IPM) techniques is examined for peach producers in eight states accounting for most of the U.S. production. The method accounts for self-selectivity, simultaneity, and the pesticide demand equations are theoretically consistent with a restricted-profit function. Biological pest management techniques tend to reduce pesticide use and pesticide toxicity substantially, while pesticide-efficiency techniques (using scouting and economic thresholds)...

  5. Influence of Maturity Stage on Fruit Quality during Storage of �Earli Grande� Peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjot GUPTA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Peach is a perishable fruit and to ensure the highest fruit quality peaches must be harvested at an appropriate stage of maturity. In the present study, effect of maturity stage at harvest and cold storage on the physical and chemical characteristics of peaches Earli Grande were determined. The fruits for storage were harvested at three stages i.e. before, during and after predictable optimum harvest stage and kept in cold store at 0-20C and 85-90% relative humidity for a period of 21 days and at ambient conditions (28-300C, 65-70% RH for 72 h. The fruits were evaluated for quality parameters at harvest and after 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. The post-cold storage ambient shelf-life was studied after 3 days to assess the market behavior of fruits. During investigation period fruit quality parameters changed according to stage of harvest. An increase in the spoilage, physiological loss in weight, TSS: acid ratio, anthocyanins was observed with the advancement of maturity and storage period. In contrast, Vitamin A content followed a linear decline with storage and advancement of maturity stages. There was a gradual decrease in reducing sugars of the fruits picked after optimum maturity with increase in storage period. Fruits harvested at optimum stage retained maximum TSS:Acid ratio and palatability rating during post-storage shelf life of three days at ambient temperature after cold storage of 21 days. Results revealed that peach fruits harvested at optimum stage can be stored for three weeks in cold store with post-storage shelf life of three days at ambient temperature.

  6. Influence of Maturity Stage on Fruit Quality during Storage of �Earli Grande� Peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjot GUPTA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Peach is a perishable fruit and to ensure the highest fruit quality peaches must be harvested at an appropriate stage of maturity. In the present study, effect of maturity stage at harvest and cold storage on the physical and chemical characteristics of peaches �Earli Grande� were determined. The fruits for storage were harvested at three stages i.e. before, during and after predictable optimum harvest stage and kept in cold store at 0-20C and 85-90% relative humidity for a period of 21 days and at ambient conditions (28-300C, 65-70% RH for 72 h. The fruits were evaluated for quality parameters at harvest and after 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. The post-cold storage ambient shelf-life was studied after 3 days to assess the market behavior of fruits. During investigation period fruit quality parameters changed according to stage of harvest. An increase in the spoilage, physiological loss in weight, TSS: acid ratio, anthocyanins was observed with the advancement of maturity and storage period. In contrast, Vitamin A content followed a linear decline with storage and advancement of maturity stages. There was a gradual decrease in reducing sugars of the fruits picked after optimum maturity with increase in storage period. Fruits harvested at optimum stage retained maximum TSS:Acid ratio and palatability rating during post-storage shelf life of three days at ambient temperature after cold storage of 21 days. Results revealed that peach fruits harvested at optimum stage can be stored for three weeks in cold store with post-storage shelf life of three days at ambient temperature.

  7. Two ω-3 FADs Are Associated with Peach Fruit Volatile Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiao-Jiao; Liu, Hong-Ru; Gao, Jie; Huang, Yu-Ji; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Kun-Song

    2016-03-29

    Aroma-related volatiles, together with sugars and acids, play an important role in determining fruit flavor quality. Characteristic volatiles of peach fruit are mainly derived from fatty acids such as linoleic acid (18:2) and linolenic acid (18:3). In the present study, six genes encoding fatty acid desaturases (FAD) were cloned, including two ω-6 FAD genes (PpFAD2, PpFAD6) and four ω-3 FAD genes (PpFAD3-1, PpFAD3-2, PpFAD7 and PpFAD8). Heterologous expression of peach FADs in tobacco plants showed that PpFAD3-1, and PpFAD3-2 significantly reduced contents of 18:2, and accumulated significant higher levels of 18:3. In the case of volatiles, transgenic plants produced lower concentrations of hexanal and higher levels of (E)-2-hexenal. Consequently, the ratio of the (E)-2-hexenal and hexanal was about 5- and 3-fold higher than that of wild type (WT) in PpFAD3-1 and PpFAD3-2 transformants, respectively. No significant changes in volatile profiles were observed in transgenic plants overexpressing the four other peach FAD genes. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis showed that ripe fruit had high PpFAD3-1 and low PpFAD3-2 transcript levels. In contrast, high PpFAD3-2 and low PpFAD3-1 transcript levels were observed in young fruit. These results indicate a temporal regulation of these two ω-3 FADs during development and ripening, influencing peach fruit volatile formation.

  8. Two ω-3 FADs Are Associated with Peach Fruit Volatile Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao-Jiao Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aroma-related volatiles, together with sugars and acids, play an important role in determining fruit flavor quality. Characteristic volatiles of peach fruit are mainly derived from fatty acids such as linoleic acid (18:2 and linolenic acid (18:3. In the present study, six genes encoding fatty acid desaturases (FAD were cloned, including two ω-6 FAD genes (PpFAD2, PpFAD6 and four ω-3 FAD genes (PpFAD3-1, PpFAD3-2, PpFAD7 and PpFAD8. Heterologous expression of peach FADs in tobacco plants showed that PpFAD3-1, and PpFAD3-2 significantly reduced contents of 18:2, and accumulated significant higher levels of 18:3. In the case of volatiles, transgenic plants produced lower concentrations of hexanal and higher levels of (E-2-hexenal. Consequently, the ratio of the (E-2-hexenal and hexanal was about 5- and 3-fold higher than that of wild type (WT in PpFAD3-1 and PpFAD3-2 transformants, respectively. No significant changes in volatile profiles were observed in transgenic plants overexpressing the four other peach FAD genes. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR analysis showed that ripe fruit had high PpFAD3-1 and low PpFAD3-2 transcript levels. In contrast, high PpFAD3-2 and low PpFAD3-1 transcript levels were observed in young fruit. These results indicate a temporal regulation of these two ω-3 FADs during development and ripening, influencing peach fruit volatile formation.

  9. Different Expression Analysis in Fruit Softening and Ethylene Biosynthetic Pathways in Peaches of Different Flesh Textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to assess differences in the expression of genes involved in fruit softening and ethylene biosynthetic pathways under different temperature storage conditions. Different peach cultivars of ‘Xiacui’ and ‘Yumyeong’, which are stonyhard, ‘Yinhualu’, which is soft-melting, ‘Hujing Milu’, which is hard-melting, and ‘Baby Gold 6’, which is non-melting at 80% ripening, were collected as test materials. The results showed that only slight ethylene production was detected after harvesting of ‘Yumyeong’ and ‘Xiacui’ under either a room temperature (25 °C or low temperature (4 °C. The fruit firmness of stonyhard cultivars was retained at a high level under room temperature over time, whereas a low temperature induced ‘Yumyeong’ fruit to soften. Quantitative real-time PCR results indicated that the PpACS1 gene was highly expressed in soft-melting, hard-melting and non-melting cultivars; however, expression was extremely low in stonyhard peaches. PpACS2 or PpACS3, however, was not detected in all five cultivars. Interestingly, cold treatment significantly decreased firmness along with endo-PG expression obviously up-regulated in ‘Yumyeong’, but not in ‘Xiacui’ peaches. In conclusion, this study revealed that fruit softening of peaches with different flesh textures was closely related to ethylene biosynthesis during the storage period, which was controlled via regulating relevant gene expression levels under different storage temperatures.

  10. GIBBERELLIC ACID REDUCES FLOWERING AND TIME OF MANUAL THINNING IN ‘MACIEL’ PEACH TREES

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    MARCOS ANTÔNIO GIOVANAZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The thinning peach fruits is to reduce the load of the plant with the aim to improve the size, flavor and color of the remaining fruits. However, the practice of thinning requires high demand of manpower and become more expensive the production costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reduction of flowering buds and the time of hand thinning in ‘Maciel’ peach after gibberellic acid (GA3 application at different times and concentrations. The experiments were performed in the harvests of 2012 and 2013 in a commercial peach orchard located in the county of Morro Redondo, RS. The plants of cultivar Maciel, in 2012, were sprayed with four doses of GA3 0, 25, 75 and 125 mg L-1, at different times 20, 40 and 60 days after full bloom (DAFB. The number of flowering buds and consequently thenumber of flowers was reduced in the 2013 season after application of GA3 on the 2012 harvest. The manual thinning decreased with doses applied at 60 DAFB. The number of flowering buds and consequently the number of flowers was reduced in 2013. There was reduction of manual thinning when applied at 60 DAFB. The doses of 25, 75 and 125 mg L-1 applied at 60 DAFB resulted in a reduction of 50.1, 76.9 and 87.1%, respectively, at the time of hand thinning. When applied the dose of 25 mg L-1 of GA at 60 DAFB reduces the number of flowering buds and hand thinning time in the next cycle in ‘Maciel’ peach, without compromising production.

  11. Supercritical fluid extraction of peach (Prunus persica) almond oil: process yield and extract composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Natália; Mileo, Bruna R; Friedrich, Maria T; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2010-07-01

    Peach kernels are industrial residues from the peach processing, contain oil with important therapeutic properties and attractive nutritional aspects because of the high concentration of oleic and linoleic acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw matter is critical for product quality definition. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare peach almond extraction yields obtained by different procedures: soxhlet extractions (Sox) with different solvents; hydrodistillation (HD); ethanolic maceration (Mac) followed by fractionation with various solvents, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 30, 40 and 50 degrees C and at 100, 200 and 300bar, performed with pure CO(2) and with a co-solvent. The extracts were evaluated with respect to fatty acid composition (FAC), fractionated chemical profile (FCP) and total phenolic content (TPC). The Sox total yields were generally higher than those obtained by SFE. The crossover pressure for SFE was between 260 and 280bar. The FAC results show oleic and linoleic acids as main components, especially for Sox and SFE extracts. The FCP for samples obtained by Sox and Mac indicated the presence of benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, components responsible for almond flavor and with important industrial uses, whereas the SFE extracts present a high content of a possible flavonoid. The higher TPC values were obtained by Sox and Mac with ethanol. In general, the maximum pressure in SFE produced the highest yield, TPC and oleic acid content. The use of ethanol at 5% as co-solvent in SFE did not result in a significant effect on any evaluated parameter. The production of peach almond oil through all techniques is substantially adequate and SFE presented advantages, with respect to the quality of the extracts due to the high oleic acid content, as presented by some Sox samples. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of processing on pesticide residues in peaches intended for baby food

    OpenAIRE

    Balinova, Anna; Mladenova, Rosica; Shtereva, Deyana

    2006-01-01

    Abstract ABSTRACT Peaches containing incurred residues of chlorpyrifos-methyl, fenitrothion, procymidone and vinclozolin were submitted to simulated industrial processing to baby food puree. The residues were determined in raw material, in intermediate products at crucial steps of the processing procedures and in final products. The determination was performed by an analytical method distinguished by high sensitivity based on acetone extraction, 2 steps clean-up/preconcentration...

  13. Herbicide selectivity in the early development of Alexander palm and peach palm

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    Juliana Roberta Gobi Queiroz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides are an efficient weed-control method, and herbicide selectivity with regard to palm species is an important subject of agricultural research. Owing to a lack of studies in the literature regarding the use of herbicides on palm trees, especially during the early stages of growth, the present study aimed to evaluate the selectivity of some herbicides during the early development of Alexander palm (Archontophoenix alexandrae and peach palm (Bactris gasipaes seedlings. The study was conducted in two seasons in a completely randomized design with eight treatments and four repetitions. The herbicide treatments and dosages (g i.a. ha-1, were as follows: fluazifop-p-butyl (93.8, sethoxydim (184.0, quizalofop-p-ethyl (75.0 clethodim + fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (50.0 + 50.0, fomesafen (225.0, lactofen (168.0, and nicosulfuron (50.0, and a no-herbicide control was included. The seedlings of both types of trees were transplanted into 3.1-L plastic containers. In the first study, herbicide was applied to Alexander palm seedlings of 25–30 cm in height. In the second study, herbicide was applied to Alexander palm seedlings of 30–40 cm in height. Herbicide was applied to peach palm tree seedlings of 40–55 cm in height in both studies. In peach palms only, the herbicides caused slight visible damage during early development. Collectively, the results suggested that all herbicides used are selective and can be used on peach palms during the various stages of development when there are one to four leaves. For Alexander palms, fluazifop-p-butyl, quizalofop-p-ethyl, and lactofen were the only herbicides that did not affect early development during the stages when the plant had one to four leaves.

  14. Variation in resistance mechanisms to the green peach aphid among different Prunus persica commercial cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, J A; Méndez, T; Ortiz-Martínez, S A; Cumsille, R; Ramírez, C C

    2012-10-01

    ABSTRACT Peaches and nectarines are frequently attacked by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), with significant negative impacts on fruit production. The genetic variability of resistance to this aphid among commercial cultivars of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch and Prunus persica variety nectarina was evaluated in this study. In total, 16 cultivars of P. persica were selected to evaluate the occurrence and population growth rate of M. persicae in commercial orchards, as well as in no-choice and probing behavior laboratory assays. The results showed variability between cultivars in resistance and susceptibility to M. persicae, with three cultivars exhibiting different signatures of resistance. The peach cultivar 'Elegant Lady' exhibited a low occurrence of aphids in the orchard, a low rate of growth, moderate leaf-rejection in a no-choice test and a higher number and longer period of salivation into sieve elements, suggesting resistance at the phloematic level. The nectarine cultivar 'August Red' also exhibited low aphid occurrence in the orchard, a low rate of growth, and resistance at the prephloem and phloem levels. Finally, the nectarine 'July Red-NS92' exhibited a low occurrence of aphids in the orchard, a higher number of rejections in no-choice assays and no ingestion of phloem during the probing behavior experiments, suggesting prephloematic resistance. The rest of the cultivars studied exhibited clear susceptibility. Hence, different resistance mechanisms are apparent among the studied cultivars. The information gathered in this study regarding the resistance to M. persicae may assist breeding programs aimed at increasing aphid resistance to peaches and nectarines.

  15. Identification and differential expression dynamics of peach small GTPases encoding genes during fruit development and ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Rachele; Cipriani, Guido; Marrazzo, Teresa; Nonis, Alberto; Vizzotto, Giannina; Ruperti, Benedetto

    2010-01-01

    The function of monomeric GTPases of the RAS superfamily in fruit development and ripening has been partially characterized. Here the identification of peach (Prunus persica) small GTPases of the RAS superfamily expressed in fruit and the characterization of their expression profiles during fruit development are described. Extensive searches on expressed sequence tag (EST) databases led to the selection of a total of 24 genes from peach encoding proteins with significant similarity to Arabidopsis small GTPases. Sequence similarity analyses and identification of conserved motifs, diagnostic of specific RAS families and subfamilies, enabled bona fide assignment of fourteen PpRAB, seven PpARF/ARL/SAR, two PpROP and one PpRAN GTPases. Transcriptional expression profiles of peach monomeric GTPases, analysed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, were obtained for mesocarp samples, collected in two consecutive years. Reproducible patterns of expression could be identified for five peach RAB-encoding genes (PpRABA1-1, PpRABA2, PpRABD2-1, PpRABD2-2, and PpRABC2), two ARFs (PpARFA1-1 and PpARLB1), and two ROPs (PpROP3 and PpROP4). Interestingly, the transient transcriptional up-regulation of PpARF genes and of PpRAB genes of the A and D clades, putatively controlling the exocytic delivery of cell wall components and modifying enzymes, appeared to coincide with peaks of growth speed and sugar accumulation and with the final phases of ripening. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the co-ordinated differential expression of a set of genes encoding small GTPases of the ARF and RAB families which takes place during key moments of fruit development and maturation. PMID:20501747

  16. Effect of Water Deficit Stress on Peach Growth under Commercial Orchard Management Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmati, M; Gh. Davarynejad; M. Bannayan Awal; Azizi, M

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the sensitivity of vegetative growth to water deficit stress of a late-maturing peach (Prunus persica L. cv. Elberta) under orchard conditions, an experiment was conducted as randomized complete-block design with three treatments and four repetitions in Shahdiran commercial orchard in Mashhad during 2011. Three irrigation treatments including 360 (low stress), 180 (moderate stress) and 90 (severe stress) m3ha-1week-1 using a drip irrigation system (minimum stem water potenti...

  17. Carvacrol and eugenol effectively inhibit Rhizopus stolonifer and control postharvest soft rot decay in peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D; Wang, Z; Li, M; Xing, M; Xian, T; Tu, K

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antifungal mechanism of carvacrol and eugenol to inhibit Rhizopus stolonifer and the control of postharvest soft rot decay in peaches. To investigate the antifungal mechanism, the effects of carvacrol and eugenol on the mycelium growth, leakages of cytoplasmic contents, mycelium morphology, cell membrane and membrane composition of R. stolonifer were studied. Carvacrol and eugenol both exhibited dose-dependent antifungal activity against R. stolonifer, carvacrol at a concentration of 2 μl per plant and eugenol at a concentration of 4 μl per plant inhibited fungal growth completely. The two essential oils (EOs) increased cell membrane penetrability and caused the leakage of cytoplasm, nucleic acid and protein content. The observation using scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent microscopy showed modification of the hyphal morphology and breakage of the cell plasma membrane. Decreased ergosterol contents confirmed that the two EOs could destroy the membrane of R. stolonifer. For the in vivo test, the inhibition of soft rot disease and the induction of defence-related enzymes were investigated. Carvacrol and eugenol significantly reduced the incidence and severity of soft rot decay in inoculated peaches. The best treatments for controlling soft rot decay were obtained at 0·5 μl l -1 for carvacrol and 1 μl l -1 for eugenol. The activities of defence-related enzymes in peaches were also enhanced by fumigation with two EOs. This study showed that carvacrol and eugenol could effectively inhibit the growth of R. stolonifer in vitro and successfully control the incidence of soft rot decay in honey peaches. The above findings may be the main antifungal mechanism of carvacrol and eugenol on R. stolonifer. Furthermore, carvacrol and eugenol are helpful for their commercial application on the preservation of fresh fruit. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Repeatability, correlation and path analysis of physical and chemical characteristics of peach fruits

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    Rosana Gonçalves Pires Matias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the number of measurements necessary to evaluate physical and chemical characteristics of peach fruits, study the relationships between them and their direct and indirect effects on the content of ascorbic acid and total carotenoids. The characteristics skin and pulp color, fruit weight, suture, equatorial and polar diameters, firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA ratio, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids were evaluated in 39 cultivars of peach and 3 cultivars of nectarine from the orchard of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa. The repeatability coefficient was estimated by ANOVA and CPCOR. Phenotypic correlation coefficients (rf were estimated and, after the multicollinearity diagnostics, they were unfolded to direct and indirect effects of the explanatory variables on the response variable using path analysis. There was agreement on the magnitude of repeatability coefficients obtained by the two methods; however, they varied among the 14 characteristics. The highest correlations were found between FW, SD, ED and PD. Seven fruits are sufficient to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of peach with a correlation coefficient of 90%. The characteristics considered in the path diagrams (b* skin, hº skin, b* pulp, hº pulp, ED, PD, FIR, SS, SS/AT and TC are not the main determinants of the ascorbic acid. The yellow hue of the pulp (hº pulp has the potential to be used in indirect selection for total carotenoids.

  19. Where does Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) overwinter in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X-F; Fan, F; Wang, C; Wei, G-S

    2016-02-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, and the diapausing larvae overwinter in cryptic habitats. Investigations of overwintering G. molesta were conducted in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards in Northern China over three consecutive winters to determine the overwintering site and habitat preferences of the moth. Counts of overwintering larvae in the different orchards demonstrated that the late-maturing peach orchard ('Shenzhou honey peach') was the most preferred overwintering habitat with more than 90% of the collected larvae. Larvae were more abundant in host trees, and they very rarely overwintered in the soil. The overwintering site preferences on the host trees were significantly different; over 50% larvae were located in the tree trunks, and followed by main branches. Most of the G. molesta overwintered on the sunny side of the host trees at or below 60 cm from the ground; a few were cocooned on the shaded sides of the trees or greater than 60 cm from the ground. G. molesta began overwintering between August and October, mid- to late September was the peak period for entering winter diapause during 2011-2013 (77.78, 67.59 and 71.15%, respectively). Our findings improve understanding of the orchard habitat and overwintering site preferences of G. molesta and would be useful in the development of efficient forecasting and pest-management strategies for orchards during the winter and early spring.

  20. De novo transcriptome assembly of two different peach cultivars grown in Korea

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    Yeonhwa Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica is one of the most popular stone fruits worldwide. Next generation sequencing (NGS has facilitated genome and transcriptome analyses of several stone fruit trees. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome analyses of two peach cultivars grown in Korea. Leaves of two cultivars, referred to as Jangtaek and Mibaek, were harvested and used for library preparation. The two prepared libraries were paired-end sequenced by the HiSeq2000 system. We obtained 8.14 GB and 9.62 GB sequence data from Jangtaek and Mibaek (NCBI accession numbers: SRS1056585 and SRS1056587, respectively. The Trinity program was used to assemble two transcriptomes de novo, resulting in 110,477 (Jangtaek and 136,196 (Mibaek transcripts. TransDecoder identified possible coding regions in assembled transcripts. The identified proteins were subjected to BLASTP search against NCBI's non-redundant database for functional annotation. This study provides transcriptome data for two peach cultivars, which might be useful for genetic marker development and comparative transcriptome analyses.

  1. Stability of polyphenols and carotenoids in strawberry and peach yoghurt throughout in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the stability and bio-accessibility of phenolic compounds and carotenoids, as well as on the antioxidant activity in strawberry and peach enriched yoghurt. The radical scavenging capacity of strawberry and peach yoghurt was 480 and 550% higher, respectively, at the level of the intestine than in fruit yoghurt not subjected to digestion. In strawberry the amount of bio-accessible anthocyanins increased during gastric digestion and the transition to the intestinal compartment produced a decrease in all the analyzed classes of polyphenols, being more pronounced in pelargonidin-3-glucoside (65%) and pelargonidin-3-rutinoside (58%). In peach the (+)-catechin content strongly decreased (80%), and neochlorogenic, chlorogenic acid, rutin and the carotenoid zeaxanthin decreased at lower levels, between 32-45%, while β-carotene was rather stable under gastric conditions (increased by 12%) during intestinal digestion. Despite the decrease in the concentration of these bioactive compounds after being subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, results suggest that fruit yoghurt is an important source of bio-accessible polyphenols and carotenoids and that despite some losses induced by digestion conditions, it still releases relevant amounts at the level of the intestine to be absorbed and to promote health benefits.

  2. Effect of controlled atmosphere on postharvest quality of 'Douradão' peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Regina Radomille de Santana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with one of the most important cultivar grown in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, which has gained the preference of consumers, due to its sweet taste, intense skin color and large size; however, these fruits are susceptible to chilling injury when cold stored for long periods. The use of controlled atmosphere (CA with elevated CO2 and reduced O2 concentrations prevent the onset of the chilling symptom. Thus, the effect of three different conditions of controlled atmosphere (CA1, CA2, CA3 and Control was evaluated in order to extend the storage life of 'Douradão' peaches. After 14, 21 and 28 days, samples were withdrawn from CA and kept in fresh air at 25 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH to complete ripening. On the day of removal and after 4 days, were the peaches quality characteristics were evaluated. The results showed that the use of CA during cold storage reduced weight loss and prevented postharvest decay. CA2 and CA3 treatments were effective in keeping good quality of 'Douradão' peaches during 28 days of cold storage, the ripe fruits showed reduced incidence of woolliness, adequate juiciness and flesh firmness. CA1 and Control treatments did not present marketable conditions after 14 days of cold storage.

  3. Growth Response of Peach and Plum Rootstocks Infected with Pratylenchus vulnus in Microplots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Dorrego, A; Pinochet, J; Calvet, C

    1999-12-01

    The effects of Pratylenchus vulnus on growth and nutrition of Cadaman peach and Ishtara and Julior plum rootstocks were evaluated in a microplot experiment lasting two growing seasons. Cadaman peach was the only rootstock that showed suppressed growth for all growth parameters at the end of the first year. At the end of the second growing season, dry and fresh shoot weights as well as shoot length and root weights of Cadaman peach were reduced in nematode-inoculated microplots in comparison to uninoculated treatments. Stem diameter was not affected. Dry and fresh shoot weights were the only growth parameters affected by the nematode in Ishtara plum at the end of the second growing season, whereas Julior was not affected by P. vulnus infection. No nutrient deficiencies were detected by foliar analysis in any of the rootstocks and treatments. All the tested rootstocks were good hosts for P. vulnus, whose mean root population ranged from 1,670 (Cadaman) to 2,895 (Julior) nematodes/g of root.

  4. Nutritional status, yield and composition of peach fruit subjected to the application of organic compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Wellington Bastos de Melo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional state, yield and composition of peaches on peach trees subjected to the application of organic compost to the soil. This experiment was conducted during the 2008 and 2009 cropping season in an orchard containing Chimarrita cultivars grafted onto Capdeboscq rootstocks and Haplumbrept soils in the municipality of Farroupilha (RS, Brazil. The treatments included 0, 9, 18, 36, 72 and 144 liters of organic compost per plant-1 year-1. The total nutrient contents in the leaves, yield components, yields per plant and hectare and compositions of the fruits were evaluated in 2008 and 2009 soon after harvest and after 30 days of storage. The application of organic compost to the soil increased the yield components and the yields per plant and hectare in the two treatments with the highest compost additions, which indicated that the addition of 72 L of compost per plant-1 is ideal economically. The organic compost had little effect on the composition of the peach fruit after harvest and after 30 days of storage.

  5. Identification of Proteins from Prunus persica That Interact with Peach Latent Mosaic Viroid▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Audrey; Bisaillon, Martin; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) is a small, single-stranded, circular RNA pathogen that infects Prunus persica trees. As with all other known viroids, the PLMVd genome does not encode any proteins. Consequently, it must interact with host cellular factors in order to ensure its life cycle. With the objective of identifying cellular proteins that interact with PLMVd, Northwestern hybridizations were performed using partially purified peach leaf extracts. Mass spectrometric analysis of the detected RNA-protein complexes led to the identification of six putative RNA-binding proteins. One of these was found to be elongation factor 1-alpha (eEF1A), and because of its known involvement in the replication and translation of various RNA viruses, further characterizations were performed. Initially, the existence of this interaction received support from an experiment that immunoprecipitated the eEF1A from a crude extract of infected peach leaves, coupled with reverse transcription-PCR detection of the PLMVd. Subsequently, eEF1A interaction with PLMVd strands of both polarities was confirmed in vitro by electrophoresis mobility shift assays, fluorescence spectroscopy, and the prediction of an altered PLMVd RNase mapping profile in the presence of the protein. The potential contribution of eEF1A to the molecular biology of PLMVd, including for viroid replication, is discussed. PMID:19759139

  6. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Il-Doo; Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Mi-Ok; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample. The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid ( ˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities. Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively. The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health.

  7. Glucitol dehydrogenase from peach (Prunus persica) fruits is regulated by thioredoxin h.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Matías D; Figueroa, Carlos M; Piattoni, Claudia V; Iglesias, Alberto A

    2014-06-01

    Glucitol (Gol) is a major photosynthetic product in plants from the Rosaceae family. Herein we report the molecular cloning, heterologous expression and characterization of Gol dehydrogenase (GolDHase, EC 1.1.1.14) from peach (Prunus persica) fruits. The recombinant enzyme showed kinetic parameters similar to those reported for orthologous enzymes purified from apple and pear fruits. The activity of recombinant GolDHase was strongly inhibited by Cu(2+) and Hg(2+), suggesting that it might have cysteine residues critical for functionality. Oxidizing compounds (such as diamide, hydrogen peroxide and oxidized glutathione) inactivated the enzyme, whereas its activity was restored after incubation with reduced glutathione and thioredoxin from Escherichia coli. Recombinant thioredoxin h from peach fruits also recovered the activity of oxidized GolDHase. Our results suggest that peach fruit GolDHase could be redox regulated in vivo and this would be of relevance to determine carbon assimilation and partitioning in plants accumulating sugar alcohols. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Fermentation Characteristics and Lactic Acid Bacteria Succession of Total Mixed Ration Silages Formulated with Peach Pomace

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    Xiaodong Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the use of peach pomace in total mixed ration (TMR silages and clarify the differences in aerobic stability between TMR and TMR silages caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB. The TMR were prepared using peach pomace, alfalfa hay or Leymus chinensis hay, maize meal, soybean meal, cotton meal, limestone, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 6.0:34.0:44.4:7.0:5.0:2.5:1.0:0.1 on a dry matter (DM basis. Fermentation quality, microbial composition, and the predominant LAB were examined during ensiling and aerobic deterioration. The results indicated that the TMR silages with peach pomace were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic stability of TMR silages were significantly higher than that of TMR. Compared with TMR silages with alfalfa hay, TMR silage with Leymus chinensis hay was much more prone to deterioration. Although the dominant LAB were not identical in TMR, the same dominant species, Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus acidilactici, were found in both types of TMR silages after 56 d of ensiling, and they may play an important role in the aerobic stability of TMR silages.

  9. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Il-Doo; Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Mi-Ok; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample. Methods The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid ( ˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities. Results Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health. PMID:25182279

  10. SAMPLING PLAN FOR ASSESSING BROWN ROT SEVERITY IN PEACHES SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT PLANT EXTRACTS

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    KELLY PAZOLINI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of brown rot control derivatives has been the focus of intense research owing to the negative effects of the unrelenting usage of fungicides. Brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola, is an important post-harvest disease of peaches. The goal of this study was to estimate the optimum sample size of peaches in order to assess the average lesion size and the influence of different plant extracts on the fruits. Three preparation forms (FPE were evaluated, as well as another seven forms of application (FAE of canola and mustard extracts on peaches, with applications of the pathogen’s inoculum. Five fruits were utilized in five repetitions per treatment. Evaluation involved measurement of the fruits’ lesioned areas. The necessary sampling size was determined for estimation of the averages for each treatment and experiment. For measurement of the lesion size, 99 fruits in FPE and 23 fruits in FAE were sufficient for estimating the average with an estimation error of 10%. Based on the same estimation error, the sampling size is contingent on the extracts (canola, and mustard, batches of fruits, forms of extraction, and extract application on the fruits.

  11. PpYUC11, a strong candidate gene for the stony hard phenotype in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch), participates in IAA biosynthesis during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Zeng, Wenfang; Niu, Liang; Lu, Zhenhua; Liu, Hui; Cui, Guochao; Zhu, Yunqin; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Weiping; Fang, Weichao; Cai, Zuguo; Li, Guohuai; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2015-12-01

    High concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are required for climacteric ethylene biosynthesis to cause fruit softening in melting flesh peaches at the late ripening stage. By contrast, the fruits of stony hard peach cultivars do not soften and produce little ethylene due to the low IAA concentrations. To investigate the regulation of IAA accumulation during peach ripening [the transition from stage S3 to stage S4 III (climacteric)], a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis was performed. The expression patterns of auxin-homeostasis-related genes were compared in fruits of the melting flesh peach 'Goldhoney 3' and the stony hard flesh peach 'Yumyeong' during the ripening stage. It is revealed here that a YUCCA flavin mono-oxygenase gene (PpYUC11, ppa008176m), a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, displayed an identical differential expression profile to the profiles of IAA accumulation and PpACS1 transcription: the mRNA transcripts increased at the late ripening stage in melting flesh peaches but were below the limit of detection in mature fruits of stony hard peaches. In addition, the strong association between intron TC microsatellite genotypes of PpYUC11 and the flesh texture (normal or stony hard) is described in 43 peach varieties, indicating that this locus may be responsible for the stony hard phenotype in peach. These findings support the hypothesis that PpYUC11 may play an essential role in auxin biosynthesis during peach fruit ripening and is a candidate gene for the control of the stony hard phenotype in peach. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

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    Charles R Clement

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  13. Antioxidant capacity, quality, and anthocyanin and nutrient contents of several peach cultivars [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] grown in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, G; Iglesias, I; Gatius, F; Alegre, S

    2013-07-03

    Antioxidant capacity, quality, and anthocyanin and nutrient contents of 106 peach cultivars from different breeding programs were evaluated at the Estació Experimental de Lleida, IRTA (Catalonia, Spain), during two growing seasons (2010 and 2011). High variability was found among cultivars within each quality trait, where different cultivars were scored as the best and the worst. For example, a 5-fold range (2.17-12.07 g of malic acid L⁻¹), 6-fold range (144.20-711.73 μg of Trolox g⁻¹ of FW), and 11-fold range (0.70-11.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside kg⁻¹ of FW) were observed in titratable acidity, relative antioxidant capacity, and anthocyanin content, respectively. The breeding program within each fruit type (melting peach, nectarine, and flat peach) and qualitative pomological traits also had significant effects on the quality. Nevertheless, each breeding program had specific characteristics that distinguished it from the others. Even so, within each breeding program, there is high variability among cultivars. Therefore, growers should not base their strategy exclusively on the choice of breeding program. Principal component analysis for each fruit type (melting peach, nectarine, nonmelting peach, and flat peach) allowed a selection of a set of cultivars from different breeding programs with the highest quality performance. For example, cultivars such as 'Azurite', 'IFF 1230', 'Amiga', 'Fire Top', 'African Bonnigold', 'Ferlot', 'Mesembrine', and 'Platifirst' had higher sweetness and flavor compared to the others. Therefore, this study could help breeders to make decisions for the selection of new cultivars able to improve the quality features of fruit intake, technicians to know better quality performance of peach cultivars, and consumers to meet their expectations for fruit with high health benefits and a specific taste.

  14. The study of a SPATULA-like bHLH transcription factor expressed during peach (Prunus persica) fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Tsaballa, Aphrodite; Stedel, Catalina; Kalloniati, Chrissanthi; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Polidoros, Alexios; Darzentas, Nikos; Ganopoulos, Ioannis; Flemetakis, Emmanouil; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios

    2011-06-01

    Extensive studies on the dry fruits of the model plant arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have revealed various gene regulators of the development and dehiscence of the siliques. Peach pericarp is analogous to the valve tissues of the arabidopsis siliques. The stone (otherwise called pit) in drupes is formed through lignification of the fruit endocarp. The lignified endocarp in peach can be susceptible to split-pit formation under certain genetic as well as environmental factors. This phenomenon delays processing of the clingstone varieties of peach and causes economical losses for the peach fruit canning industry. The fruitfull (FUL) and shatterproof (SHP) genes are key MADS-box transcription protein coding factors that control fruit development and dehiscence in arabidopsis by promoting the expression of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors like Spatula (SPT) and Alcatraz (ALC). Results from our previous studies on peach suggested that temporal regulation of PPERFUL and PPERSHP gene expression may be involved in the regulation of endocarp margin development. In the present study a PPERSPATULA-like (PPERSPT) gene was cloned and characterized. Comparative analysis of temporal regulation of PPERSPT gene expression during pit hardening in a resistant and a susceptible to split-pit variety, suggests that this gene adds one more component to the genes network that controls endocarp margins development in peach. Taking into consideration that no ALC-like genes have been identified in any dicot plant species outside the Brassicaceae family, where arabidopsis belongs, PPERSPT may have additional role(s) in peach that are fulfilled in arabidopsis by ALC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Santos, Ronaldo P; Desmouliere, Sylvain J M; Ferreira, Evandro J L; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  16. Effect of yeast antagonist in combination with heat treatment on postharvest blue mold decay and Rhizopus decay of peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyin; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Xiaodong; Dong, Ying

    2007-04-01

    The potential of using heat treatment alone or in combination with an antagonistic yeast for the control of blue mold decay and Rhizopus decay of peaches caused by Penicillium expansum and Rhizopus stolonifer respectively, and in reducing natural decay development of peach fruits, as well as its effects on postharvest quality of fruit was investigated. In vitro tests, spore germination of pathogens in PDB was greatly controlled by the heat treatment of 37 degrees C for 2 d. In vivo test to control blue mold decay of peaches, heat treatment and antagonist yeast, as stand-alone treatments, were capable of reducing the percentage of infected wounds from 92.5% to 52.5% and 62.5%, respectively, when peach fruits stored at 25 degrees C for 6 d. However, in fruit treated with combination of heat treatment and Cryptococcus laurentii, the percentage of infected wounds of blue mold decay was only 22.5%. The test of using heat treatment alone or in combination with C. laurentii to control Rhizopus decay of peaches gave a similar result. The application of heat treatment and C. laurentii resulted in low average natural decay incidences on peaches after storage at 4 degrees C for 30 days and 20 degrees C for 7 days ranging from 40% to 30%, compared with 20% in the control fruit. The combination of heat treatment and C. laurentii was the most effective treatment, and the percentage of decayed fruits was 20%. Heat treatment in combination with C. laurentii had no significant effect on firmness, TSS, ascorbic acid or titratable acidity compared to control fruit. Thus, the combination of heat treatment and C. laurentii could be an alternative to chemicals for the control of postharvest decay on peach fruits.

  17. A genome-wide analysis of MADS-box genes in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Christina E; Vendramin, Elisa; Jimenez Tarodo, Sergio; Verde, Ignazio; Bielenberg, Douglas G

    2015-02-07

    MADS-box genes encode a family of eukaryotic transcription factors distinguished by the presence of a highly-conserved ~58 amino acid DNA-binding and dimerization domain (the MADS-box). The central role played by MADS-box genes in peach endodormancy regulation led us to examine this large gene family in more detail. We identified the locations and sequences of 79 MADS-box genes in peach, separated them into established subfamilies, and broadly surveyed their tissue-specific and dormancy-induced expression patterns using next-generation sequencing. We then focused on the dormancy-related SVP/AGL24 and FLC subfamilies, comparing their numbers and phylogenetic relationships with those of other sequenced woody perennial genomes. We identified 79 MADS-box genes distributed across all eight peach chromosomes and frequently located in clusters of two or more genes. They encode proteins with a mean length of 248 ± 72 amino acids and include representatives from most of the thirteen Type II (MIKC) subfamilies, as well as members of the Type I Mα, Mβ, and Mγ subfamilies. Most Type I genes were present in species-specific monophyletic lineages, and their expression in the peach sporophyte was low or absent. Most Type II genes had Arabidopsis orthologs and were expressed at much higher levels throughout vegetative and fruit tissues. During short-day-induced growth cessation, seven Type II genes from the SVP/AGL24, AGL17, and SEP subfamilies showed significant changes in expression. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that multiple, independent expansions have taken place within the SVP/AGL24 and FLC lineages in woody perennial species. Most Type I genes appear to have arisen through tandem duplications after the divergence of the Arabidopsis and peach lineages, whereas Type II genes appear to have increased following whole genome duplication events. An exception to the latter rule occurs in the FLC and SVP/AGL24 Type II subfamilies, in which species-specific tandem

  18. Cell cycle–related genes as modifiers of age of onset of colorectal cancer in Lynch syndrome: a large-scale study in non-Hispanic white patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyun; Pande, Mala

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneity in age of onset of colorectal cancer in individuals with mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome) suggests the influence of other lifestyle and genetic modifiers. We hypothesized that genes regulating the cell cycle influence the observed heterogeneity as cell cycle–related genes respond to DNA damage by arresting the cell cycle to provide time for repair and induce transcription of genes that facilitate repair. We examined the association of 1456 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 128 cell cycle–related genes and 31 DNA repair–related genes in 485 non-Hispanic white participants with Lynch syndrome to determine whether there are SNPs associated with age of onset of colorectal cancer. Genotyping was performed on an Illumina GoldenGate platform, and data were analyzed using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis, Cox regression analysis and classification and regression tree (CART) methods. Ten SNPs were independently significant in a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model after correcting for multiple comparisons (P Lynch syndrome. PMID:23125224

  19. Cell cycle-related genes as modifiers of age of onset of colorectal cancer in Lynch syndrome: a large-scale study in non-Hispanic white patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyun; Pande, Mala; Huang, Yu-Jing; Wei, Chongjuan; Amos, Christopher I; Talseth-Palmer, Bente A; Meldrum, Cliff J; Chen, Wei V; Gorlov, Ivan P; Lynch, Patrick M; Scott, Rodney J; Frazier, Marsha L

    2013-02-01

    Heterogeneity in age of onset of colorectal cancer in individuals with mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome) suggests the influence of other lifestyle and genetic modifiers. We hypothesized that genes regulating the cell cycle influence the observed heterogeneity as cell cycle-related genes respond to DNA damage by arresting the cell cycle to provide time for repair and induce transcription of genes that facilitate repair. We examined the association of 1456 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 128 cell cycle-related genes and 31 DNA repair-related genes in 485 non-Hispanic white participants with Lynch syndrome to determine whether there are SNPs associated with age of onset of colorectal cancer. Genotyping was performed on an Illumina GoldenGate platform, and data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, Cox regression analysis and classification and regression tree (CART) methods. Ten SNPs were independently significant in a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model after correcting for multiple comparisons (P Lynch syndrome.

  20. Construction of a genetic linkage map for identification of molecular markers associated with resistance to Xanthomonas arboriciola pv. pruni in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch

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    Bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni, is a serious disease that can affect peach fruit quality and production. The molecular basis of its tolerance and susceptibility is yet to be understood. To study the genetics of the peach in response to bacterial spot, an F2 population of ...

  1. Aromatic compound in different peach cultivars and effect of preservatives on the final aroma of cooked fruits

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    Bavcon-Kralj Mojca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we were used four yellow-fleshed peach cultivars ‟Royal Glory‟, „Redhaven", 'Maria Marta' and 'Norman', during two-year period. The characterization of aromatic constituents of investigated cultivars was done using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME. The intention was to make implicit discrimination between cultivars by analysis of components present in all cultivars during two-year period. Also, the impact of added preservatives (Na-benzoate and citric acid on the final aroma of cooked peaches was studied. The cultivars' differences and the impact of preservatives (Na-benzoate and citric acid were statistically evaluated. Multiple discriminant analysis of peaches‟ aromatic profile was used to segregate investigated peach cultivars. Although they were very similar, the cultivars were segregated by two discriminant function, function 1 (which accounted for 56.9% of this peach model and function 2 (31.7%. The use of preservatives had also an important impact on the aromatic profile of cooked peaches. The statistical analysis indicated that from 57 identified volatiles, 40 volatiles showed statistically significant difference regarding the way of preservation. The main negative impact had Na-benzoate compared to control or samples preserved with citric acid.

  2. Determination of fruit maturity and its prediction model based on the pericarp index of absorbance difference (IAD for peaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Zhang

    Full Text Available Harvest maturity is closely related to peach fruit quality and has a very important effect on the fresh fruit market. Unfortunately, at present, it is difficult to determine the maturity level of peach fruits by artificial methods. The objectives of this study were to develop quadratic polynomial regression models using near-infrared spectroscopy that could determine the peel color difference, fruit firmness, soluble solids content (SSC, soluble sugar, organic acid components, and their relationships with the absorbance of chlorophyll (index of absorbance difference, IAD in late maturing 'Xiahui 8' peach and 'Xiaguang' nectarine fruits. The analysis was based on data for fruits at veraison, fruits at harvesting maturity, and all fruits. The results showed that firmness has the highest correlation coefficient with IAD. Prediction models for fruit maturity were established between firmness and the IAD of the two cultivars using the quadratic polynomial regression method. Further variance analysis on the one degree term and quadratic term of each equation showed that every partial regression coefficient reached a significant or extremely significant level. No significant difference was observed between estimated and observed values after regression prediction. The regression equations seem to fit well. Other peach and nectarine varieties were used to test the feasibility of maturity prediction by this method, and it was found that maturity was successfully predicted in all the samples. The result indicated that the IAD can be used as an index to predict peach fruit maturity.

  3. Postharvest biological control of brown rot in peaches after cold storage preceded by preharvest chemical control 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandra Pivotto Pavanello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pathogenic fungi cause skin darkening and peach quality depreciation in post harvest. Therefore, alternative techniques to chemical treatment are necessary in order to reduce risks to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of Trichoderma harzianum in association with different fungicides applied before harvest to 'Eldorado' peaches for brown rot control and other quality parameters during storage. The treatments consisted of five preharvest fungicide applications (control, captan, iprodione, iminoctadine and tebuconazole associated with postharvest application of T. harzianum, after cold storage (with and without application, in three evaluation times (zero, two and four days at 20 °C, resulting in a 5x2x3 factorial design. The application of T. harzianum only brought benefits to the control of brown rot when combined with the fungicide captan, at zero day shelf life. After two days, there was a greater skin darkening in peaches treated with T. harzianum compared with peaches without the treatment, except for peaches treated with the fungicide iprodione and T. harzianum The application of T. harzianum during postharvest showed no benefits for the control of brown rot, however, the association with fungicides reduced the incidence of Rhizopus stolonifer during the shelf life.

  4. Performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of lambs fed peach-palm by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Cabral, Ícaro; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; de Araújo, Gherman Garcia Leal; dos Santos Cruz, Cristiane Leal; Nogueira, Abdon Santos; Souza, Lígia Lins; de Oliveira, Gisele Andrade

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplying the by-product of peach-palm (Bactris gasipaes) on performance and characteristics of carcass and non-carcass components of feedlot lambs. Twenty Santa Ines lambs of 150 days average age and 22.4 ± 3.4 kg body weight were confined in individual pens. A completely randomized design was utilized with four experimental diets composed of: fresh peach-palm by-product enriched with urea, fresh peach-palm by-product + concentrate, silage of peach-palm by-product + concentrate, and silage of peach-palm by-product enriched with 15 % corn meal + concentrate. Intake was evaluated daily, and at the end of 42 days of experiments, lambs were slaughtered and the characteristics of carcass and non-carcass parts were evaluated. Performance and carcass characteristics showed differences between the animals' intake of total mixed rations (TMR) and only the diet with roughage. For the lambs that intaked TMR, the form of utilization of roughage (fresh or as silage) affected animal performance but did not change the carcass characteristics. Dry matter intake and feed conversion were influenced by the form of utilization of the silage (with and without additive). Providing fresh by-product plus concentrate improves lamb performance but does not interfere in the carcass characteristics, compared with the use of by-product in the form of silage.

  5. Determination of fruit maturity and its prediction model based on the pericarp index of absorbance difference (IAD) for peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binbin; Peng, Bin; Zhang, Chunhua; Song, Zhizhong; Ma, Ruijuan

    2017-01-01

    Harvest maturity is closely related to peach fruit quality and has a very important effect on the fresh fruit market. Unfortunately, at present, it is difficult to determine the maturity level of peach fruits by artificial methods. The objectives of this study were to develop quadratic polynomial regression models using near-infrared spectroscopy that could determine the peel color difference, fruit firmness, soluble solids content (SSC), soluble sugar, organic acid components, and their relationships with the absorbance of chlorophyll (index of absorbance difference, IAD) in late maturing 'Xiahui 8' peach and 'Xiaguang' nectarine fruits. The analysis was based on data for fruits at veraison, fruits at harvesting maturity, and all fruits. The results showed that firmness has the highest correlation coefficient with IAD. Prediction models for fruit maturity were established between firmness and the IAD of the two cultivars using the quadratic polynomial regression method. Further variance analysis on the one degree term and quadratic term of each equation showed that every partial regression coefficient reached a significant or extremely significant level. No significant difference was observed between estimated and observed values after regression prediction. The regression equations seem to fit well. Other peach and nectarine varieties were used to test the feasibility of maturity prediction by this method, and it was found that maturity was successfully predicted in all the samples. The result indicated that the IAD can be used as an index to predict peach fruit maturity.

  6. Effect of the addition of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes peel flour on the color and sensory properties of cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jader MARTÍNEZ-GIRÓN

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the color and sensorial characteristics of a cake made with different amounts of flour made with peach palm peel flour. The flour was added at different concentrations, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10% (w/w, including a control (tartrazine. Physiochemical analyses were carried out on the cakes, including total carotenoids, CIE-L*a*b* color coordinates, and sensorial attributes. The results demonstrated that the peach palm peel flour substitution increased the total carotenoid content of the cakes. The color test showed that high levels of peach palm peel flour resulted in a decrease in the values of lightness (L* and hue angle (h°, while the values of browning index (BI and color change (ΔE* increased significantly. The qualification of the sensorial evaluation indicated that the quality attributes were acceptable in the cakes made with wheat flour and 7.5% peach palm peel flour. Therefore, it was concluded that flour obtained from peach palm peel is a by-product that can be used as a natural food dye alternative in bread products.

  7. Agronomical Parameters, Sugar Profile and Antioxidant Compounds of “Catherine” Peach Cultivar Influenced by Different Plum Rootstocks

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    Carolina Font i Forcada

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1 on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of “Catherine” peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties.

  8. Dormancy in Peach (Prunus persica L.) Flower Buds : I. Floral Morphogenesis and Endogenous Gibberellins at the End of the Dormancy Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, V; Lorenzo, E; Reinoso, H; Tordable, M C; Abdala, G; Pharis, R P; Bottini, R

    1990-05-01

    Flower buds of peach (Prunus persica L.) trees, cv Novedad de Cordoba (Argentina), were collected near the end of the dormant period and immediately before anthesis. After removal of scale leaves, morphological observations of representative buds, made on transverse and longitudinal microtome sections, showed that all verticils making up the flower are present in an undifferentiated form during the dormant period (June). Flower buds collected at the end of dormant period (August) showed additional growth and differentiation, at which time formation of two ovules was beginning in the unicarpelar gynoecium. Dehiscence of anthers had not yet occurred 10 days before full bloom, and the ovules were still developing. Free endogenous gibberellin (GA)-like substances were quantified by bioassay (Tan-ginbozu dwarf rice microdrop) after SiO(2) partition column chromatography, reversed phase C18-high performance liquid chromatography, and finally Nucleosil [N(CH(3))(2)]high performance liquid chromatography. Bioactive fractions were then subjected to capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM). Gibberellins A(1), A(3), and A(8) were tentatively identified in peach flower buds using GC-SIM and Kovat's retention indices, and relative amounts approximated by GC-SIM (2:8:6 for GA(1), GA(3), and GA(8), respectively). The highest concentration (330 nanograms per gram dry weight) of free GA(1)/GA(3) was found in dormant buds (June) and diminished thereafter. The concentration free of GA(1)/GA(3) did not increase immediately prior to bud break. However, high GA(1)/GA(3) concentrations occurred during stages where rate of growth and cellular differentiation of (mainly fertile) verticils can be influenced.

  9. Postharvest application of a novel chitinase cloned from Metschnikowia fructicola and overexpressed in Pichia pastoris to control brown rot of peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banani, Houda; Spadaro, Davide; Zhang, Dianpeng; Matic, Slavica; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2015-04-16

    Metschnikowia fructicola strain AP47 is a yeast antagonist against postharvest pathogens of fruits. The yeast was able to produce chitinase enzymes in the presence of pathogen cell wall. A novel chitinase gene MfChi (GenBank accession number HQ113461) was amplified from the genomic DNA of Metschnikowia fructicola AP47. Sequence analysis showed lack of introns, an open reading frame (ORF) of 1098 bp encoding a 365 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 40.9 kDa and a predicted pI of 5.27. MfChi was highly induced in Metschnikowia fructicola after interaction with Monilinia fructicola cell wall, suggesting a primary role of MfChi chitinase in the antagonistic activity of the yeast. The MfChi gene overexpressed in the heterologous expression system of Pichia pastoris KM71 and the recombinant chitinase showed high endochitinase activity towards 4-Nitrophenyl β-d-N,N',N″-triacetylchitotriose substrate. The antifungal activity of the recombinant chitinase was investigated against Monilinia fructicola and Monilinia laxa in vitro and on peaches. The chitinase significantly controlled the spore germination and the germ tube length of the tested pathogens in PDB medium and the mycelium diameter in PDA. The enzyme, when applied on peaches cv. Redhaven, successfully reduced brown rot severity. This work shows that the chitinase MfChi could be developed as a postharvest treatment with antimicrobial activity for fruit undergoing a short shelf life, and confirms that P. pastoris KM71 is a suitable microorganism for cost-effective large-scale production of recombinant chitinases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Validity of semi-quantitative scale for brain MRI in unilateral cerebral palsy due to periventricular white matter lesions: Relationship with hand sensorimotor function and structural connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Fiori

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The sqMRI scale demonstrates first evidence of construct validity against impaired motor and sensory function measures and brain structural connectivity in a cohort of children with UCP due to PWM lesions. More severe lesions correlated with poorer paretic hand sensorimotor function and impaired structural connectivity in the hemisphere contralateral to the clinical side of hemiplegia. The quantitative structural MRI scoring may be a useful clinical tool for studying brain structure–function relationships but requires further validation in other populations of CP.

  11. Peach: a simple Perl-based system for distributed computation and its application to cryo-EM data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Peter A; Heymann, J Bernard; Jensen, Grant J

    2005-04-01

    A simple distributed processing system named "Peach" was developed to meet the rising computational demands of modern structural biology (and other) laboratories without additional expense by using existing hardware resources more efficiently. A central server distributes jobs to idle workstations in such a way that each computer is used maximally, but without disturbing intermittent interactive users. As compared to other distributed systems, Peach is simple, easy to install, easy to administer, easy to use, scalable, and robust. While it was designed to queue and distribute large numbers of small tasks to participating computers, it can also be used to send single jobs automatically to the fastest currently available computer and/or survey the activity of an entire laboratory's computers. Tests of robustness and scalability are reported, as are three specific electron cryomicroscopy applications where Peach enabled projects that would not otherwise have been feasible without an expensive, dedicated cluster.

  12. Genomic characterization of putative allergen genes in peach/almond and their synteny with apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weg Eric

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruits from several species of the Rosaceae family are reported to cause allergic reactions in certain populations. The allergens identified belong to mainly four protein families: pathogenesis related 10 proteins, thaumatin-like proteins, lipid transfer proteins and profilins. These families of putative allergen genes in apple (Mal d 1 to 4 have been mapped on linkage maps and subsequent genetic study on allelic diversity and hypoallergenic traits has been carried out recently. In peach (Prunus persica, these allergen gene families are denoted as Pru p 1 to 4 and for almond (Prunus dulcisPru du 1 to 4. Genetic analysis using current molecular tools may be helpful to establish the cause of allergenicity differences observed among different peach cultivars. This study was to characterize putative peach allergen genes for their genomic sequences and linkage map positions, and to compare them with previously characterized homologous genes in apple (Malus domestica. Results Eight Pru p/du 1 genes were identified, four of which were new. All the Pru p/du 1 genes were mapped in a single bin on the top of linkage group 1 (G1. Five Pru p/du 2 genes were mapped on four different linkage groups, two very similar Pru p/du 2.01 genes (A and B were on G3, Pru p/du 2.02 on G7,Pru p/du 2.03 on G8 and Pru p/du 2.04 on G1. There were differences in the intron and exon structure in these Pru p/du 2 genes and in their amino acid composition. Three Pru p/du 3 genes (3.01–3.03 containing an intron and a mini exon of 10 nt were mapped in a cluster on G6. Two Pru p/du 4 genes (Pru p/du 4.01 and 4.02 were located on G1 and G7, respectively. The Pru p/du 1 cluster on G1 aligned to the Mal d 1 clusters on LG16; Pru p/du 2.01A and B on G3 to Mal d 2.01A and B on LG9; the Pru p/du 3 cluster on G6 to Mal d 3.01 on LG12; Pru p/du 4.01 on G1 to Mal d 4.03 on LG2; and Pru p/du 4.02 on G7 to Mal d 4.02 on LG2. Conclusion A total of 18 putative peach

  13. Characterization and expression of beta-1,3-glucanase genes in peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmapuram, J; Ko, T S; Korban, S S

    2001-05-01

    Beta-1,3-glucanase is one of the pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins involved in plant defense responses. A peach beta-1,3-glucanase gene, designated PpGns1, has been isolated and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence of the product of PpGns indicates that it is a basic isoform (pI 9.8), and contains a putative signal peptide of 38 amino acids but has no C-terminal extension. Amino acid sequence comparisons revealed that PpGns1 is 69% and 67% identical to citrus and soybean beta-1,3-glucanases, respectively. Southern analysis of total genomic DNA also indicates that at least three genes for beta-1,3-glucanases exist in peach, forming a small gene family. Characterization of four additional clones by PCR has identified a second beta-1,3-glucanase gene, PpGns2. PpGns2 has been partially sequenced, and when compared to PpGns1, it shows high sequence homology, 96% and 99% nucleotide identity in the first and (partial) second exons, respectively. The deduced partial sequence of the PpGns2 product displays only two differences from PpGns1 in the signal peptide and one in the (partial) mature protein (141 amino acids). The 5'-flanking promoter regions of these two genes share 90% identity in nucleotide sequences interrupted by five major gaps (4-109 nt long). The promoter region contains various sequences similar to cis-regulatory elements present in different stress-induced plant genes. In leaves and stems of peach shoot cultures grown in vitro, PpGns1 is induced within 12 h after exposure to a culture filtrate of Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni or ethephon. However, it is not induced following treatment with mercuric chloride.

  14. Proteomic analysis of peach fruit mesocarp softening and chilling injury using difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilo, Ricardo; Saffie, Carlos; Lilley, Kathryn; Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Cambiazo, Verónica; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; González, Mauricio; Meisel, Lee A; Retamales, Julio; Silva, Herman; Orellana, Ariel

    2010-01-18

    Peach fruit undergoes a rapid softening process that involves a number of metabolic changes. Storing fruit at low temperatures has been widely used to extend its postharvest life. However, this leads to undesired changes, such as mealiness and browning, which affect the quality of the fruit. In this study, a 2-D DIGE approach was designed to screen for differentially accumulated proteins in peach fruit during normal softening as well as under conditions that led to fruit chilling injury. The analysis allowed us to identify 43 spots -representing about 18% of the total number analyzed- that show statistically significant changes. Thirty-nine of the proteins could be identified by mass spectrometry. Some of the proteins that changed during postharvest had been related to peach fruit ripening and cold stress in the past. However, we identified other proteins that had not been linked to these processes. A graphical display of the relationship between the differentially accumulated proteins was obtained using pairwise average-linkage cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Proteins such as endopolygalacturonase, catalase, NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, pectin methylesterase and dehydrins were found to be very important for distinguishing between healthy and chill injured fruit. A categorization of the differentially accumulated proteins was performed using Gene Ontology annotation. The results showed that the 'response to stress', 'cellular homeostasis', 'metabolism of carbohydrates' and 'amino acid metabolism' biological processes were affected the most during the postharvest. Using a comparative proteomic approach with 2-D DIGE allowed us to identify proteins that showed stage-specific changes in their accumulation pattern. Several proteins that are related to response to stress, cellular homeostasis, cellular component organization and carbohydrate metabolism were detected as being differentially accumulated. Finally, a significant proportion of

  15. Effect of Water Deficit Stress on Peach Growth under Commercial Orchard Management Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahmati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the sensitivity of vegetative growth to water deficit stress of a late-maturing peach (Prunus persica L. cv. Elberta under orchard conditions, an experiment was conducted as randomized complete-block design with three treatments and four repetitions in Shahdiran commercial orchard in Mashhad during 2011. Three irrigation treatments including 360 (low stress, 180 (moderate stress and 90 (severe stress m3ha-1week-1 using a drip irrigation system (minimum stem water potential near harvest: -1.2, -1.5 and -1.7 MPa, respectively from the mid-pit hardening stage (12th of June until harvest (23rd of Sep. applied. Predawn, stem and leaf water potentials, leaf photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf temperature, the number of new shoots on fruit bearing shoots and vegetative shoots lengths during growing season as well as leaf area at harvest were measured. The results showed that water deficit stress had negative effects on peach tree water status, thereby resulting in decreased leaf gas exchange and tree vegetative growth. As significant decreased assimilate production of tree was resulted from both decreased leaf assimilation rate (until about 23 % and 50 %, respectively under moderate and severe stress conditions compared to low stress conditions and decreased leaf area of tree (until about 57% and 79%, respectively under moderate and severe stress conditions compared to low stress conditions at harvest. The significant positive correlation between leaf water potential and vegetative growth of peach revealed that shoot growth would decrease by 30% and 50% of maximum at leaf water potential of –1.56 and –2.30 MPa, respectively.

  16. Effect of regulated deficit irrigation and crop load on the antioxidant compounds of peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía, Begoña; Allende, Ana; Nicolás, Emilio; Alarcón, Juan J; Gil, Maria I

    2008-05-28

    The use of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) strategies is becoming a common practice in areas with low water availability. Little information is available about the effects of RDI on the antioxidant content of fruits. In this study, the influence of RDI on the content of vitamin C, phenolic compounds and carotenoids was investigated. Two irrigation strategies, fully irrigated (FI) and RDI, were compared at two levels of thinning, commercial and half of the commercial crop load. RDI strategies affected the content of vitamin C, phenolics and carotenoids of Flordastar peaches. RDI caused fruit peel stress lowering the content of vitamin C and carotenoids, while increasing the phenolic content, mainly anthocyanins and procyanidins. Fruit weight was the only quality index influenced by the crop load as it increased in FI fruits at low crop load. In general, fruits from commercial crop load had slightly higher content of antioxidants to fruits from low crop load, although these influences were only observed in the peel. Additionally, the influence of irrigation controlled by two sensors related to plant water level, maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDS) and sap flow (SF) on the antioxidant constituents of peaches was evaluated. The response of the fruits to SF sensor was similar to that observed for RDI strategy. According to the tested water sensors, SF did not act as a good plant-based water indicator for use in irrigation scheduling, as it caused an increase in the content of phenolics, similar to that observed for fruits subjected to RDI. Therefore, selection of RDI strategies and plant water indicators should be taken into account as they affect the content of antioxidants of peaches.

  17. Response of early-peach [Prunus persica (L.)] trees to deficit irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrisqueta, I.; Tapia, L. M.; Conejero, W.; Sanchez-Toribio, M. I.; Abrisqueta, J. M.; Vera, J.; Ruiz-Sanchez, C.

    2010-07-01

    The effect of different irrigation strategies in water relations, vegetative growth and yield of early maturing peach trees, growing in Murcia, (Spain) was studied during two years. Treatments consisted on: a control T1, full irrigated (150% of ETc); T2, continuous deficit irrigation at 50% of ETc; T3, regulated deficit irrigation (RDI), irrigated at 100% of ETc only during stage III of fruit growth and 25% the rest of the growing season; and T4, with automatic control of irrigation based on capacitance FDR-type probe data, varying threshold values. The results indicated that irrigation deficits in T2 and T3 treatments induced the lowest soil water content and stem water potential(?stem) values during the post harvest period (e.g {psi}{sub s}tem up to -1.8 MPa in T3 during summer 2008); thus, a reduction in trunk growth and pruning weight, respect to control treatment values, was noted in both years. Also, peach yield was significantly reduced in both deficit irrigated treatments. The greatest irrigation water saving in T3 treatment (=60%) caused the higher water use efficiency values in this treatment. For these reasons, water deficit during the post harvest periods (extended in the early maturing varieties) must be limited if fruit yield is not to be reduced. Irrigation scheduling based on capacitance probes have become a useful tool in the control of soil water content. When threshold values were precisely defined, the slight water deficits limited only vegetative growth while maintaining similar peach yield to that of well irrigated trees. (Author) 31 refs.

  18. Genome-wide analysis of the AP2/ERF superfamily in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C H; Shangguan, L F; Ma, R J; Sun, X; Tao, R; Guo, L; Korir, N K; Yu, M L

    2012-10-17

    We identified 131 AP2/ERF (APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor) genes in material from peach using the gene sequences of AP2/ERF amino acids of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) as probes. Based on the number of AP2/ERF domains and individual gene characteristics, the AP2/ERF superfamily gene in peach can be classified broadly into three families, ERF (ethylene-responsive factor), RAV (related to ABI3/VP1), and AP2 (APETALA2), containing 104, 5, and 21 members, respectively, along with a solo gene (ppa005376m). The 104 genes in the ERF family were further divided into 11 groups based on the group classification made for Arabidopsis. The scaffold localizations of the AP2/ERF genes indicated that 129 AP2/ERF genes were all located on scaffolds 1 to 8, except for two genes, which were on scaffolds 17 and 10. Although the primary structure varied among AP2/ERF superfamily proteins, their tertiary structures were similar. Most ERF family genes have no introns, while members of the AP2 family have more introns than genes in the ERF and RAV families. All sequences of AP2 family genes were disrupted by introns into several segments of varying sizes. The expression of the AP2/ERF superfamily genes was highest in the mesocarp; it was far higher than in the other seven tissues that we examined, implying that AP2/ERF superfamily genes play an important role in fruit growth and development in the peach. These results will be useful for selecting candidate genes from specific subgroups for functional analysis.

  19. Proteomic analysis of peach fruit mesocarp softening and chilling injury using difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Vargas Reinaldo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peach fruit undergoes a rapid softening process that involves a number of metabolic changes. Storing fruit at low temperatures has been widely used to extend its postharvest life. However, this leads to undesired changes, such as mealiness and browning, which affect the quality of the fruit. In this study, a 2-D DIGE approach was designed to screen for differentially accumulated proteins in peach fruit during normal softening as well as under conditions that led to fruit chilling injury. Results The analysis allowed us to identify 43 spots -representing about 18% of the total number analyzed- that show statistically significant changes. Thirty-nine of the proteins could be identified by mass spectrometry. Some of the proteins that changed during postharvest had been related to peach fruit ripening and cold stress in the past. However, we identified other proteins that had not been linked to these processes. A graphical display of the relationship between the differentially accumulated proteins was obtained using pairwise average-linkage cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Proteins such as endopolygalacturonase, catalase, NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, pectin methylesterase and dehydrins were found to be very important for distinguishing between healthy and chill injured fruit. A categorization of the differentially accumulated proteins was performed using Gene Ontology annotation. The results showed that the 'response to stress', 'cellular homeostasis', 'metabolism of carbohydrates' and 'amino acid metabolism' biological processes were affected the most during the postharvest. Conclusions Using a comparative proteomic approach with 2-D DIGE allowed us to identify proteins that showed stage-specific changes in their accumulation pattern. Several proteins that are related to response to stress, cellular homeostasis, cellular component organization and carbohydrate metabolism were detected as being

  20. Field evaluation of traps and lures for monitoring plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Alabama peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akotsen-Mensah, Clement; Boozer, Robert; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2010-06-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key pest of peaches, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, in North America. We evaluated the effectiveness of two widely used trap types (pyramid versus Circle traps) and commercially available synthetic lures for monitoring the pest in two peach orchards in Alabama during 2008 and 2009. The lures evaluated alone or in combinations included benzaldehyde (BZ) (a component of fruit odor), plum essence (PE) (a mixture of fruit odor extracted from food grade plum), and grandisoic acid (GA) (a male-produced aggregation pheromone of plum curculio). In general, pyramid traps captured more plum curculio adults than Circle traps, particularly during the first generation. Trap performance was improved numerically by the addition of BZ, PE, or GA alone (single lures) and was significantly enhanced by the addition of the combined BZ + PE lure. In both first and second generations, the combined BZ + PE lure increased plum curculio captures (significant in some trials) over unbaited traps and traps baited with single lures by approximately 1.5-21-fold and had the highest response indices (RIs), which is indicative of high attractiveness. The combined BZ + GA lure and the three-component BZ + PE + GA lure also captured numerically more plum curculio adults than unbaited traps or traps baited with single lures but the differences were rarely significant. Analysis of ratios of interaction suggests the possibility of synergistic interactions between BZ and PE and between BZ and GA; however, additive effects were concluded due to high sample errors. These results are discussed in relation to the physicochemical properties of the lures and the potential of using baited monitoring traps to aid plum curculio management decisions in peach orchards.

  1. Peach gum polysaccharides-based edible coatings extend shelf life of cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengzhong; Tao, Jun; Zhang, Huanxin

    2017-07-01

    Cherry tomato is a nutritious, but highly perishable fruit. Peach gum polysaccharides (PGPs) can form edible films with antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The effects of PGP-based edible coatings on cherry tomatoes during hypothermic storage (4 °C) were investigated. PGP-based edible coatings effectively maintained firmness, decreased weight loss, inhibited respiration rate and delayed the changes in total acidity, ascorbic acid and sugar content of cherry tomatoes during hypothermic storage (4 °C) compared with those of the control (p cherry tomatoes.

  2. Selection of reliable reference genes for gene expression studies in peach using real-time PCR

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    Zhou Jun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RT-qPCR is a preferred method for rapid and reliable quantification of gene expression studies. Appropriate application of RT-qPCR in such studies requires the use of reference gene(s as an internal control to normalize mRNA levels between different samples for an exact comparison of gene expression level. However, recent studies have shown that no single reference gene is universal for all experiments. Thus, the identification of high quality reference gene(s is of paramount importance for the interpretation of data generated by RT-qPCR. Only a few studies on reference genes have been done in plants and none in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch. Therefore, the present study was conducted to identify suitable reference gene(s for normalization of gene expression in peach. Results In this work, eleven reference genes were investigated in different peach samples using RT-qPCR with SYBR green. These genes are: actin 2/7 (ACT, cyclophilin (CYP2, RNA polymerase II (RP II, phospholipase A2 (PLA2, ribosomal protein L13 (RPL13, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA, tubblin beta (TUB, tubblin alpha (TUA, translation elongation factor 2 (TEF2 and ubiquitin 10 (UBQ10. All eleven reference genes displayed a wide range of Cq values in all samples, indicating that they expressed variably. The stability of these genes except for RPL13 was determined by three different descriptive statistics, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, which produced highly comparable results. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that expression stability varied greatly between genes studied in peach. Based on the results from geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper analyses, for all the sample pools analyzed, TEF2, UBQ10 and RP II were found to be the most suitable reference genes with a very high statistical reliability, and TEF2 and RP II for the other sample series, while 18S rRNA, RPL13 and PLA2 were unsuitable as internal controls

  3. MaxDiff approaches for PDO “Calanda” peaches (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, Etienne; Albisu, Luis Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Peaches with PDO Calanda are one of the 20 fruits with PDO existing in Spain. The aim of this work is to understand how consumers make their choices based on the most important peaches’ attributes and levels. In this work, 4 attributes with 3 levels in each attribute have been considered (price: 1.5 €/kg, 2.5 €/kg and 3.5 €/kg; origin: PDO Calanda, non PDO Calanda and non Calanda; packaging: bulk, conventional packaging and active packaging; and fruit size: small, medium and big). Four Best-W...

  4. Phenology and reproductive traits of peaches and nectarines in Central-East Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Norberto Francisco Gariglio; Marisa Mendow; Marcela Emilce Weber; María Alejandra Favaro; Diego Esteban González-Rossia; Rubén Andrés Pilatti

    2009-01-01

    In Santa Fe, the central-east area of Argentina, the expansion of fruit tree crops requires the introduction and evaluation of low chilling varieties. The aims of this study was to characterize the phenological behaviour and the reproductive traits of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and nectarine varieties with chilling requirements ranging from 150 to 650 chilling hours (CH). Low chilling varieties (< 450 CH) had higher flower density (22.0-56.5 flowers m-1), fruit set (26.0-56.7%), fruit y...

  5. Sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars Perfil sensorial de onze cultivares de pêssegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars grown in an experimental orchard located in the city of Lapa (PR, Brazil in two seasons. The peach cultivars analyzed were Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier, and Vanguarda. The sensory analysis was performed by previously trained panelists; 20 of them in the first season and 10 in the second season. The sensory evaluation was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, in which the following attributes were measured: appearance, aroma, flesh color, flesh firmness, flavor, and juiciness. The results showed preference for sweet, soft, and juicy fruits. Chimarrita, Chiripá, and Coral fruits showed better sensorial performance than the other peach cultivars. It was also verified that the analysis of the attributes aroma, flesh firmness, and flavor is enough for performing the sensory profile of peach fruits for in natura consumption.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o perfil sensorial de onze cultivares de pêssego produzidos em duas safras em um pomar experimental implantado na Lapa (PR, Brasil. Os cultivares analisados foram Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier e Vanguarda. As análises sensoriais foram realizadas por julgadores previamente treinados, sendo 20 julgadores na primeira safra e 10 na segunda. O método de avaliação empregado foi a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa na qual foram mensurados os atributos aparência, aroma, cor de polpa, firmeza de polpa, sabor e suculência dos frutos. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram a preferência por frutos de sabor adocicado, com polpa macia e suculenta. Os cultivares Chimarrita, Chiripá e Coral obtiveram o melhor desempenho nas análises sensoriais. Foi verificado ainda que os atributos aroma, firmeza de polpa e sabor são considerados suficientes para a avaliação do perfil sensorial de

  6. Production and evaluation of mineral and nutrient contents, chemical composition, and sensory properties of ice creams fortified with laboratory-prepared peach fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangılar, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Background In the coming years, a nutraceutical food may provide both physical and mental benefits that are commonly attributed to the active components of the food. Objective In this study, we determined the nutrient and mineral contents, sensory properties, and physical and chemical characteristics of ice creams manufactured using peach fibre at different concentrations (1 and 2%). Method A total of five experimental groups were formed: two types (from peach peel and pulp) of flour, two fibre concentrations (1 and 2%), and a control group without fibres. Results Flour obtained from peach pulp and peel was found to have a significant (pice cream samples, especially the rates of Ca, K, Mg, and P, which increased in the samples depending on the content of peach fibre. Sensory ratings and acceptability of ice creams decreased significantly with increasing peach peel fibre, whereas ice creams made with C (control) and B1 (ice creams made from 1% peach pulp fibre) was the highest scored by the panellists. Conclusions Peach fibre concentrates might be used as a good source of nutraceutical ingredients. PMID:27814781

  7. Investigation of the aroma of commercial peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) types by Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Tiago; Weesepoel, Yannick; Koot, Alex; Iglesias, Ignasi; Eduardo, Iban; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Guerrero, Luis; Hortós, Maria; van Ruth, Saskia

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the aroma and sensory profiles of various types of peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch.). Forty-three commercial cultivars comprising peaches, flat peaches, nectarines, and canning peaches (pavías) were grown over two consecutive harvest years. Fruits were assessed for chemical aroma and sensory profiles. Chemical aroma profile was obtained by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and spectral masses were tentatively identified with PTR-Time of Flight-MS (PTR-Tof-MS). Sensory analysis was performed at commercial maturity considering seven aroma/flavor attributes. The four types of peaches showed both distinct chemical aroma and sensory profiles. Flat peaches and canning peaches showed most distinct patterns according to discriminant analysis. The sensory data were related to the volatile compounds by partial least square regression. γ-Hexalactone, γ-octalactone, hotrienol, acetic acid and ethyl acetate correlated positively, and benzeneacetaldehyde, trimethylbenzene and acetaldehyde negatively to the intensities of aroma and ripe fruit sensory scores. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between endogenous hormonal content and somatic organogenesis in callus of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and Prunus persica×Prunus dulcis rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Le-Disquet, Isabel; Guivarc'h, Anne; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between endogenous hormones content and the induction of somatic peach plant was studied. To induce multiple shoots from callus derived from the base of stem explants of the scion cultivars 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach×almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677', propagated plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog salts augmented with 0.1mgL(-1) of indolebutyric acid, 1mgL(-1) of 6-benzylaminopurine and 3% sucrose. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach×almond rootstocks. Endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed in the organogenic callus. Lower levels of several hormones, namely Z, ZR, ABA, and ACC were found in the peach×almond rootstock compared to peach cultivars, while IAA and SA presented inconclusive returns. These results suggest that the difference in somatic organogenesis capacity observed in peach and peach×almond hybrids is markedly affected by the endogenous hormonal content of the studied genotypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Production and evaluation of mineral and nutrient contents, chemical composition, and sensory properties of ice creams fortified with laboratory-prepared peach fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Yangılar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the coming years, a nutraceutical food may provide both physical and mental benefits that are commonly attributed to the active components of the food. Objective: In this study, we determined the nutrient and mineral contents, sensory properties, and physical and chemical characteristics of ice creams manufactured using peach fibre at different concentrations (1 and 2%. Method: A total of five experimental groups were formed: two types (from peach peel and pulp of flour, two fibre concentrations (1 and 2%, and a control group without fibres. Results: Flour obtained from peach pulp and peel was found to have a significant (p<0.05 effect on the chemical composition and elemental composition of ice cream samples, especially the rates of Ca, K, Mg, and P, which increased in the samples depending on the content of peach fibre. Sensory ratings and acceptability of ice creams decreased significantly with increasing peach peel fibre, whereas ice creams made with C (control and B1 (ice creams made from 1% peach pulp fibre was the highest scored by the panellists. Conclusions: Peach fibre concentrates might be used as a good source of nutraceutical ingredients.

  10. Production and evaluation of mineral and nutrient contents, chemical composition, and sensory properties of ice creams fortified with laboratory-prepared peach fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangılar, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    In the coming years, a nutraceutical food may provide both physical and mental benefits that are commonly attributed to the active components of the food. In this study, we determined the nutrient and mineral contents, sensory properties, and physical and chemical characteristics of ice creams manufactured using peach fibre at different concentrations (1 and 2%). A total of five experimental groups were formed: two types (from peach peel and pulp) of flour, two fibre concentrations (1 and 2%), and a control group without fibres. Flour obtained from peach pulp and peel was found to have a significant ( p cream samples, especially the rates of Ca, K, Mg, and P, which increased in the samples depending on the content of peach fibre. Sensory ratings and acceptability of ice creams decreased significantly with increasing peach peel fibre, whereas ice creams made with C (control) and B1 (ice creams made from 1% peach pulp fibre) was the highest scored by the panellists. Peach fibre concentrates might be used as a good source of nutraceutical ingredients.

  11. Endogenous hormones response to cytokinins with regard to organogenesis in explants of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-11-01

    Organogenesis in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and peach rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis) has been achieved and the action of the regeneration medium on 7 phytohormones, zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), has been studied using High performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three scion peach cultivars, 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach × almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677' were cultured in two different media, Murashige and Skoog supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) (regeneration medium) and without PGRs (control medium), in order to study the effects of the media and/or genotypes in the endogenous hormones content and their role in organogenesis. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach × almond rootstocks and showed a lower content of Z, IAA, ABA, ACC and JA. Only Z, ZR and IAA were affected by the action of the culture media. This study shows which hormones are external PGRs-dependent and what is the weight of the genotype and hormones in peach organogenesis that provide an avenue to manipulate in vitro organogenesis in peach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of the effects of Zimbabwean white farmers on small scale farming in Nigeria Análisis de los efectos de la presencia de agricultores blancos de Zimbabwe en la agricultura a pequeña escala en Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Olaniyi Adewumi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Many observers believe that the on-going liberalization of the world will have dramatic negative effects on small farmers in both developed and developing countries. This study aims to capture the effects of the presence of foreign migrant farmers on small scale farm­ing systems, which are prevalent in Nigeria. The Agricultural Development Project Zone D in which the white farmers settled in the state of Kwara, was used as a case study. Primary data were collected from white farmers as well as from local farmers regarding their situ­ation before and after the arrival of white farmers. Descriptive statistics and analysis of the farm budget were used in evaluating the data. The majority of local farmers (98.63% transitioned towards sole cropping since the arrival of white farmers in the area. There were significant increases in seed rate, fertilizer and other chemicals, as well as labor inputs per farmer in the area when compared to the situation that was prevalent before the white farmers settled there. Their average farm size, distances between their houses and farms and tractor use reduced significantly, while output per farm size increased considerably since the arrival of white farmers in the area. In order to provide sustainability of the posi­tive development, there is the need to seek a policy option that will calm local farmers who once in a while exhibit signs of dissatisfaction for the way in which white farmers came to settle on their land. These could be achieved through the use of the participatory approach to agricultural development in the area. This approach could also be relevant in other re­gions of the world with similar situations. Muchos observadores consideran que la creciente liberalización del mundo tendrá efectos negativos en la agricultura en pequeña escala tanto en los países desarrollados como en aquéllos en vías de desarrollo. Este estudio pretende capturar los efectos de la presencia de agricultores

  13. Relationship between fruit traits and contents of ascorbic acid and carotenoids in peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gonçalves Pires Matias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between fruit traits and their direct and indirect effects on the content of ascorbic acid and carotenoids in peaches and nectarines. The traits fruit mass (FM; equatorial diameter (ED; suture diameter (SD; polar diameter (PD; pulp firmness (FIR; soluble solids (SS; titratable acidity (TA; SS/TA ratio; contents of ascorbic acid (AA and carotenoids (CT; and skin and pulp color were evaluated in 28 peach cultivars, and two nectarine cultivars. The phenotypic correlation coefficients were estimated (rf, and after multicollinearity diagnosis, unfolding was carried out in direct and indirect effects of the explanatory variables in the response variable by using path analysis. The strongest correlations were found between ​​ FM, SD, ED, and PD, and between carotenoid content and °h pulp. The traits considered in the path diagrams are not the main determinants of the ascorbic acid content. The yellow color of the pulp has the potential for indirect selection for carotenoid content.

  14. Integrated control of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in peach orchards using insecticide and mating disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, R M; Pree, D J; Carter, N J

    2001-04-01

    The efficacy of an integrated and a conventional oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), control program was compared using 4-ha blocks of peach at three Niagara Peninsula farms during 1997-1999. In the integrated program, chlorpyrifos was used to control first-generation larvae and mating disruption using Isomate M100 pheromone dispensers was used to control the second and third generations. In the conventional program, chlorpyrifos was used to control first-generation larvae and pyrethroids were used to control larvae of the later generations. The average release rate of pheromone was 23.7-26.4 mg/ha/h over a period of 86-91 d. The pheromone treatment reduced the capture of moths in pheromone-baited traps on average by 98%, suggesting a high level of disruption. The integrated program provided control of oriental fruit moth similar to the control provided by a conventional program. The mean percentage of peach shoots infested with first- and second-generation larvae, and fruit infested with third-generation larvae was not significantly greater in the integrated-program blocks during the 3-yr study. The elimination of insecticide sprays from the integrated-program blocks did not result in an increase in damage caused by plant bugs. The incidence of damage caused by other pests was negligible in both the integrated and conventional blocks.

  15. Boric acid in germination of pollen grains and fruit set of peach cultivars in subtropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Bittencourt Machado de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The pollination and fertilization process directly affects the crop yield of peach. Previous studies have shown that some cultivars lack consistent cropping (yield variation in subtropical regions. The application of boric acid at flowering can minimize this problem. This study quantified the germination of pollen grains and fruit set on 18 cultivars of peach in a subtropical region when treated with boric acid at bud. The initial spray treatments were three concentrations of boric acid (400 mgL-1, 800 mgL-1 and 1,200 mgL-1 plus a control treatment of water. Treatments were sprayed on the shoots when the flower buds were flower bud swelling on early maturing cultivars Aurora 2 and Doçura 2. There is a cultivar difference where 'Aurora 2' had a negative effect from the application of boric acid on the percentage of germinated pollen grains and fruit set. 'Doçura 2' has a positive results at the concentration of 400 mgL-1 of boric acid. In a follow-up experiment with 18 cultivars, using only the water control and 400 mgL-1 boric acid treatment, boron increases pollen grain germination and fruit set for some cultivars. The increase in germination and fruit set varies significantly among the cultivars. The concentration of 400 mgL-1 of boric acid increases pollen germination and fruit set, but not in all cultivars.

  16. Microbiological analysis of peach palm in natura submitted to {sup 60}Co radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila V.; Araujo, Michel M.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: priscilavsilva@gmail.com, e-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Hojeije, Khalil Y. [Floresta Industria e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The palm tree (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is a species with high potential benefits, because of the nutritional value of its fruits that could be used both in human and animals feeding and mainly for peach palm extraction. It represents a great source of dietary fiber and a moderate source of magnesium and iron. Food irradiation is a worldwide technology that aims to improve the product quality, in order to eliminate diverse microorganisms that can spoil the food. Radiation processing, in the recommended doses, causes very few chemical alterations and nutritional losses in foods, being considered insignificant and/or similar to other food treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on microbiological counts of mesophilic aerobic in the peach palm in natura. Samples were irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy using a {sup 60}Co multipurpose irradiator. Radiation treatment appeared to be a useful alternative to reduce microbial contamination in the samples analyzed. (author)

  17. Trade-Off Between Fitness Gain and Cost Determines Profitability of a Peach Aphid Parasitoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Diwas; He, Xiong Z; Wang, Qiao

    2016-08-01

    Aphidius colemani (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) is commercially produced and utilized for biological control of peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on greenhouse crops in many countries. To provide knowledge for the evaluation of parasitoid-host interactions and development of effective mass rearing programs, we investigated how and why host age or size affected fitness gain in A. colemani We show that the parasitoid was significantly more likely to encounter larger hosts and that an encounter almost always triggered an attack attempt. However, the attack attempt did not proportionally translate into oviposition because larger aphids had greater ability to defend themselves and the parasitoid spent more time in handling larger aphids. The host age at parasitization had no effect on emergence rates and sex ratio of parasitoid progeny, suggesting that pupae and larvae have similar survival rate in hosts of different ages and/or the parasitoid females do not adjust sex allocation based on host size. When parasitizing mid-aged hosts, the parasitoid gained maximum fitness for their progeny in developmental period, body size, and parasitism. Taking all findings together, we suggest that parasitizing mid-aged green peach aphid nymphs is most profitable for A. colemani. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Biological control of peach fungal pathogens by commercial products and indigenous yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restuccia, Cristina; Giusino, Francesco; Licciardello, Fabio; Randazzo, Cinzia; Caggia, Cinzia; Muratore, Giuseppe

    2006-10-01

    The potential use of the commercial biocontrol products Serenade (Bacillus subtilis QST-713) and Trichodex (Trichoderma harzianum Rifai strain T39) to inhibit the postharvest pathogenic molds Penicillium crustosum and Mucor circinelloides was investigated. Both products exhibited antagonistic activity in vitro against the pathogens, reducing their growth at different levels. In addition, epiphytic yeasts isolated from peaches were identified as Candida maltosa, Pichia fermentans, and Pichia kluyveri by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of internal transcribed spacer regions and screened for antagonistic activity against the same molds. The efficacy of biocontrol in vitro was dependent on the concentration of the yeast cells. Optimal yeast concentrations were above 10(7) CFU ml(-1). However, C. maltosa and P. fermentans were more effective than P. kluyveri in inhibiting molds. The exclusion of antifungal metabolite production and direct competition for nutrients or space with the pathogens was proposed as the mechanism of biocontrol. Application of biocontrol agents directly on artificially wounded peach fruits significantly reduced the incidence of mold rot during storage at 20 degrees C.

  19. Identification and characterization of endophytic bacteria isolated from in vitro cultures of peach and pear rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaqat, Fakhra; Eltem, Rengin

    2016-12-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms which live symbiotically with almost all varieties of plant and in turn helping the plant in a number of ways. Instead of satisfactory surface sterilization approaches, repeatedly occurring bacterial growth on in vitro rootstock cultures of peach and pear was identified and isolated as endophytic bacteria in our present study. Five different isolates from peach rootstocks were molecularly identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Brevundimonas diminuta, Leifsonia shinshuensis, Sphingomonas parapaucimobilis Brevundimonas vesicularis, Agrobacterium tumefaciens while two endophytic isolates of pear were identified as Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana, and Stenotrophomonas rhizophilia. Identified endophytes were also screened for their potential of plant growth promotion according to indoleacetic acid (IAA) production, nitrogen fixation, solubilization of phosphate and production of siderophore. All seven endophytic isolates have shown positive results for IAA, nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization tests. However, two out of seven isolates showed positive results for siderophore production. On the basis of these growth promoting competences, isolated endophytes can be presumed to have significant influence on the growth of host plants. Future studies required to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile and potential application of these isolates in biological control, microbial biofertilizers and degradative enzyme production.

  20. Postirradiation examination and evaluation of Peach Bottom fuel test elements FTE-14 and FTE-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzgraf, J.F.; McCord, F.; Miller, C.M.; Norman, B.L.; Saurwein, J.J.; Wallroth, C.F.

    1979-02-01

    Peach Bottom fuel test elements FTE-14 and FTE-15 were companion nonaccelerated tests of fuel rods and fuel particles representative of the Large High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (LHTGR). The purpose of the tests was to broaden the data base of H-327 graphite and various fuel types; specifically, UO/sub 2/, UC/sub 2/, weak acid resin UC/sub x//O/sub y/, and several fertile fuel types were tested. The irradiation reached peak fuel temperatures of 1600/sup 0/C volume- and time-averaged temperatures of 1300/sup 0/C, and fast fluence exposures up to 2 x 10/sup 25/ n/m/sup 2/ (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/. Experimental results were compared with predictions based on accelerated irradiation tests, postirradiation heating, and other Peach Bottom test elements to validate HTGR design codes. The nuclear design predictions were modified by measurements which allowed the verification of thermal design calculations and thermocouple readings.

  1. Differential Sensitivity of Fruit Pigmentation to Ultraviolet Light between Two Peach Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Dong, Weiqi; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Bo; Allan, Andrew C.; Lin-Wang, Kui; Chen, Kunsong; Xu, Changjie

    2017-01-01

    Anthocyanins provide nutritional benefits and are responsible for red coloration in many fruits. Light affects anthocyanin biosynthesis in peach (Prunus persica). However, some cultivars show differential sensitivity to light. In the present study, ‘Hujingmilu (HJ),’ a naturally deeply colored cultivar, and ‘Yulu (YL),’ showing low pigmentation, were used to study the mechanism underlying UV-light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis. Both UVA and UVB induced fruit pigmentation of ‘HJ,’ but ‘YL’ was only sensitive to UVB. Transcriptomic analyses showed over 5000 genes were differentially expressed by pairwise comparisons of RNA libraries isolated from tissue of each cultivar treated with darkness, UVA and UVB. Twenty-three genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis were identified from the transcriptome data, which were coordinately up-regulated during accumulation of anthocyanins, and down-regulated in the dark. Altered expression of several light receptors, as well as CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC10 (COP10) and ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 homolog (HYH), and a specific anthocyanin transporter glutathione S-transferase (GST), in ‘YL’ fruit appears to be responsible for the insensitivity to UVA of this cultivar. Expression profiles of several transcription factors of the families MYB, bHLH, bZIP and NAC were highly correlated with those of the anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. The study provides a valuable overview of the underlying molecular mechanisms of UV-light induced anthocyanin response using peach cultivars with differing light sensitivities. PMID:28943881

  2. The evaluation of occurrence of PPV symptoms in young peach orchard according to the used rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Gogolková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of PPV occurrence was monitored in a young peach orchard during 2010–2011. This study evaluates the percentage of infected trees in 2010 as well as the intensity of PPV symptoms in 2011 in two peach varieties „Royal Glory“ and „Symphony“ grafted on seven different rootstocks of Prunus species after the natural infection. The different intensity of PPV symptoms was proved on infected parts such as flowers, leaves, fruits and from rootstocks’ point of view.In 2010 were PPV symptoms most often detected in variety ’Royal Glory’ grafted on rootstock Julior where 100% of trees were infected. No visible symptoms were observed in trees of variety ’Symphony’ on Pumiselect rootstock. As for the rootstocks evaluation, PPV symptoms were most numerous in trees grafted on MRS 2/5 rootstock (94.78%, at least were monitored on Lesiberian rootstock (28.47%.The intensity of PPV symptoms on flowers, leaves and fruits in each combination was evaluated in 2011. Generally, the PPV symptoms were present mainly on flowers and less on fruits.

  3. Investigating the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis SM21 on controlling Rhizopus rot in peach fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Jing; Jin, Peng; Zheng, Yonghua

    2013-06-17

    The efficacy of Bacillus subtilis SM21 on controlling Rhizopus rot caused by Rhizopus stolonifer in postharvest peach fruit and the possible mechanisms were investigated. The results indicated B. subtilis SM21 treatment reduced lesion diameter and disease incidence by 37.2% and 26.7% on the 2nd day of inoculation compared with the control. The in vitro test showed significant inhibitory effect of B. subtilis SM21 on mycelial growth of R. stolonifer with an inhibition rate of 48.9%. B. subtilis SM21 treatment significantly enhanced activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, and promoted accumulation of H2O2. Total phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity were also increased by this treatment. Transcription of seven defense related genes was much stronger in fruit treated with B. subtilis SM21 or those both treated with B. subtilis SM21 and inoculated with R. stolonifer compared with fruit inoculated with R. stolonifer alone. These results suggest that B. subtilis SM21 can effectively inhibit Rhizopus rot caused by R. stolonifer in postharvest peach fruit, possibly by directly inhibiting growth of the pathogen, and indirectly inducing disease resistance in the fruit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rooting of herbaceous minicuttings of peach rootstock under effect of indolebutyric acid (IBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Rejane Fiss Timm

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of rootstocks resulting from sexual propagation is a major problem that peach crop has in Brazil, reflecting the lack of plant homogeneity, which compromises the productivity of orchards. The clonal propagation is a promising alternative for the production of homogeneous seedlings with low cost and speed, as well as the maintenance of important agronomic characteristics. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the feasibility of propagation of rootstocks of Nemared, Flordaguard and Okinawa peach cultivars through herbaceous minicuttings, testing different concentrations of IBA (0; 1,000; 2,000; and 3,000mg.L-1. The minicuttings were immersed in the solution for five seconds and, then, placed in clear plastic containers containing medium grained vermiculite. The experiment was conducted with four replications of 20 minicuttings in the greenhouse. In 45 days, it was observed that Nemared obtained 76% of rooting with 1,000 mg.L-1of IBA, not differing from Flordaguard with 66%. The estimated dose of IBA for maximum rooting was 1,590 mg.L-1.

  5. Comparative survival rates of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larvae on shoots and fruit of apple and peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-08-01

    Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), survival. G. molesta larval survival in the orchard was comparable between apple (Malus spp.) and peach (Prunus spp.) shoots, indicating that both host species can harbor large larval populations during the early season. G. molesta larvae used multiple shoots for feeding and development on peaches but usually only damaged single shoots in apple. Survival differences were present between peach and apple fruit, but this survival was affected by fruit maturity level. Generally, larval survival higher was in ripening peach fruit than in green, immature apple fruit. Larval survival varied among several apple cultivars, indicating that cultivar-level variability needs to be considered. These host-associated effects may impact efforts to predictively model G. molesta populations in commercial orchards where multiple host plant species, or different cultivars of the same species are often grown in proximity. Thus, host-associated dynamics should be included into future population models that underlie management programs.

  6. Effects of exogenous salicylic acid on physiological traits and CBF gene expression in peach floral organs under freezing stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Binbin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the effects of exogenous salicylic acid (SA treatment on the cold resistance of peach flower, the floral organs of two peach cultivars were treated with 20 mg/L SA and stored at 0°C for observation and sample collection. Water application was the control. After a treatment period, the anther relative water content of the control and SA-treated flowers decreased. The extent of the reduction was greater in the control, suggesting that the SA treatment significantly helped to maintain the anther water content of peach. Analysis of the stigma relative electric conductivity revealed that the SA treatment prevented membrane injury during the low temperature treatment. Additionally, we measured CBF gene expression at low temperature in the petal, stigma and ovary. The expression was markedly upregulated in the cold-treated floral organs. CBF gene expression after SA treatment was higher than in the control when cold conditions continued. These results suggest that the effects of SA on ameliorating the freezing injury to peach floral organs and on enhancing cold tolerance may be associated with the induction of CBF gene.

  7. Auxin and expression of TAC1 and MAX1-4 in different growth habits of peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch orientation and distribution are fundamental aspects of tree architecture that influence orchard design and management. The goal of the study was to identify genetically modifiable regulatory processes or those that can be managed culturally to customize tree architecture. Peach [Prunus per...

  8. Monitoring Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Peach Twig Borer (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with Clear Delta-shaped Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies evaluated the relative performance of a clear versus several colored delta traps baited with sex pheromone or a food bait for two key moth pests of stone fruits: oriental fruit moth, Graphollita molesta (Busck); and peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella Zeller. Preliminary studies found...

  9. 76 FR 10555 - Marketing Orders for Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Notice of Request for New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Marketing Orders for Nectarines and Peaches Grown in California; Notice of Request for New Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... (44 U.S.C. chapter 35), this notice announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to...

  10. [Evaluation of consumer's acceptance of a peach palm snack (Bactris gasipaes) and determination of its potential as a functional food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calvo, Rebeca; Pérez, Ana M; Ivankovich Guillén, Carmen; Calderón Villaplana, Sandra; Pineda Castro, Maria Lourdes

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' acceptance of a peach palm snack and to determine its potential as a functional food by chemical characterization. An assessment was conducted with 100 consumers to determine the acceptance of different snack formulations and the results were subjected to cluster analysis. This analysis revealed two groups. Group 2 included people that consume snacks and peach palm frequently and showed the highest grades for the snack evaluated characteristics. All the consumers in group 2 and approximately 85% of the consumers in group 1 indicated that they would buy the product suggesting that there is a niche market for the developed peach palm snack. Also, a qualitative evaluation, using mini focus groups, of the two most widely accepted formulas of the snack (chosen according to previously described study) was performed. The sessions considered the opinion of middle class professionals and housewives. It was determined that the combination of tara gum and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) allows a positive synergistic effect on the sensory characteristics of the snack, highlighting natural peach flavor and improving crunchiness. In a dry basis, the snack contains per 100 g: 9 ± 4 g of fat, 14.0 ± 0.3 g of dietary fiber, 15500 ± 32 µg of carotenoids and has an antioxidant capacity of 4700 ± 8 µmol TE, which demonstrates its potential as a functional food.

  11. Leaf N and P in different growth habits of peach: effects of root system morphology and transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adequate mineral nutrition is critical for high fruit quality and sustained yield of fruit trees. In this experiment, peach [Prunus persica L. (Batch)] trees with different shoot and root growth habits were evaluated for leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations after fertilizer applicati...

  12. Constitutive expression of a peach AP2/ERF transcription factor in apple confers short day cessation of growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold acclimation and dormancy in Prunus persica (peach) are regulated by both photoperiod and temperature, whereas in Malus x domestica (apple), they are regulated solely by temperature. To understand the process of cold acclimation and dormancy regulation in fruit crops, we have begun a functional...

  13. Non-destructive harvest measurement can predict rate of softening of fast- and slow-melting peaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eccher Zerbini, P.; Weksler, A.; Lurie, S.; Friedman, H.

    2015-01-01

    Peaches are harvested selectively based on size and color, both peel background color and extent of blush. The background color of the fruit changes from green to yellow as chlorophyll disappears, and in many cultivars with red coloration this is hard to determine. A portable instrument that

  14. Genome-wide analysis of the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) gene family in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C H; Ma, R J; Shen, Z J; Sun, X; Korir, N K; Yu, M L

    2014-04-08

    In this study, 33 homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) genes were identified in peach using the HD-ZIP amino acid sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana as a probe. Based on the phylogenetic analysis and the individual gene or protein characteristics, the HD-ZIP gene family in peach can be classified into 4 subfamilies, HD-ZIP I, II, III, and IV, containing 14, 7, 4, and 8 members, respectively. The most closely related peach HD-ZIP members within the same subfamilies shared very similar gene structure in terms of either intron/exon numbers or lengths. Almost all members of the same subfamily shared common motif compositions, thereby implying that the HD-ZIP proteins within the same subfamily may have functional similarity. The 33 peach HD-ZIP genes were distributed across scaffolds 1 to 7. Although the primary structure varied among HD-ZIP family proteins, their tertiary structures were similar. The results from this study will be useful in selecting candidate genes from specific subfamilies for functional analysis.

  15. Development of sequence-tagged site markers linked to the pillar growth type in peach (Prunus persica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], trees showing columnar [also termed pillar or broomy] growth habit are of interest for high density production systems. While the selection of the columnar homozygote (pillar) phenotype (brbr) can be carried out prior to field planting, the intermediate hetero...

  16. Susceptibility to Xylella fastidiosa in a first generation hybrid from a non-traditional peach-almond cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    To facilitate development of Prunus rootstocks with desirable agronomic traits, domesticated peach (Prunus persica) and almond (P. dulcis) were crossed with wild almond relatives. This work reports that a hybrid from a P. webbii x P. persica cv Harrow Blood cross is susceptible to almond leaf scorch...

  17. Genome-wide analysis and identification of KT/HAK/KUP potassium transporter gene family in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z Z; Ma, R J; Yu, M L

    2015-01-30

    The KT/HAK/KUP family members encoding high-affinity potassium (K(+)) transporters mediate K(+) transport across the plasma membranes of plant cells to maintain plant normal growth and metabolic activities. In this paper, we identified 16 potassium transporter genes in the peach (Prunus persica) using the Hidden Markov model scanning strategy and searching the peach genome database. Utilizing the Arabidopsis KT/HAK/KUP family as a reference, phylogenetic analysis indicates that the KT/HAK/KUP family in the peach can be classified into 3 groups. Genomic localization indicated that 16 KT/HAK/KUP family genes were well distributed on 7 scaffolds. Gene structure analysis showed that the KT/HAK/KUP family genes have 6-9 introns. In addition, all of the KT/HAK/KUP family members were hydrophobic proteins; they exhibited similar secondary structure patterns and homologous tertiary structures. Putative cis-elements involved in abiotic stress adaption, Ca(2+) response, light and circadian rhythm regulation, and seed development were observed in the promoters of the KT/HAK/KUP family genes. Subcellular localization prediction indicated that the KT/HAK/KUP members were mainly located in the plasma membrane. Expression levels of the KT/HAK/ KUP family genes were much higher in the fruit and flower than those in the other 7 tissues examined, indicating that the KT/HAK/KUP family genes may have important roles in K(+) uptake and transport, which mainly contribute to flower formation and fruit development in the peach.

  18. Six-year performance of 14 Prunus rootstocks at 11 sites in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with either ‘Redtop’, ‘Redhaven’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] were planted at 11 locations in North America in 2001 in a randomized block design with a tree spacing of 5 by 6 m and 8 replicates. This test planting was a...

  19. Thermal inactivation of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase in Jubileu clingstone peach and yeast isolated from its spoiled puree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Menezes Lopes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The thermal inactivation of yeast isolated from spoiled Jubileu peach puree and that of polyphenoloxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POD in cv. Jubileu, which is widely cultivated in southern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, were studied. PPO and POD were extracted using the protein powder method and submitted to partial purification by precipitation followed by dialysis. The enzymatic activity was determined measuring the increase in absorbance at 420 nm for PPO and 470 nm for POD. The yeast used in this investigation was isolated from spoiled Jubileu peach puree at 22 °Brix, with total initial microbial count of 22 × 10² UFCmL- 1. Stock cultures were maintained on potato dextrose agar (PDA slants at 4 °C and pH 5 for later use for microbial growth. In all cases, kinetic analysis of the results suggests that the thermal inactivation was well described by a first-order kinetic model, and the temperature dependence was significantly represented by the Arrhenius law. Both enzymes were affected by heat denaturation, and PPO was more thermostable. PPO was also more thermosTable than the yeast isolated from peach puree. The D60-values were 1.53 and 1.87 min for PPO and yeast isolated from spoiled Jubileu peach puree, respectively.

  20. Um estudo para compreender a preferência e aceitação de consumidores de purês de pêssegos brasileiros A study to understand the consumers preference and acceptance of Brazilian peache purées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Peraça Toralles

    2006-12-01

    with four replications of twenty fruit each. The peach purées were manufactured by continuous blanching. Preference and acceptance tests were performed in peach purées with 50 consumers and the consumer's response were recorded using self-adjusting and nine-point hedonic scales respectively. In addition, the descriptive test was with nine trained judges. The results were analyzed by ANOVA, and significant differences were determined using Tukey's test. The physical and chemical characteristics of the eight cultivars of peach varied widely between themselves. In general, the total phenols increased with the crop cycle. The cvs. Eldorado, BR-6, Jubileu and Magno were superiors to SS/TA ratio (e" 15.1 that is a good indicator of high-quality fruit. Peach purées of Jubileu and Eldorado were the preferred of consumers. The main reason of this choice was the balance between sweet and acid that was significantly related to SS/TA. The peach cultivars with low total phenols contents, when the fruits were manufactured, had as results a yellow coloration desirable for peach purée.

  1. Proteomic analysis of peach fruit during ripening upon post-harvest heat combined with 1-MCP treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Zhang, Li; Shi, Yun; Lu, Zhaoxin; Yu, Zhifang

    2014-02-26

    Regulation of peach fruit ripening by heat combined with 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) was studied by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight tandem Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). Proteins from peach fruits after harvest (CK) and treated by heat combined with 1-MCP (HM) were then stored at room temperature for 0, 1, 3 and 5days. Among the identified 42 protein spots, the differential abundant proteins belonged to pathways of defense and response (35.71%), energy and metabolism (30.95%), ripening and senescence (14.29%), cell structure (14.29%) and protein fate (4.76%). Compared with separate heat or 1-MCP treatment, pectinesterase inhibitor (PEI) and heat shock protein (HSP) appeared, and abscisic stress ripening-like protein (ASR) disappeared after the treatment, while HM specifically increased the abundances of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), peroxiredoxin, calmodulin, and decreased those of cytosolic malate dehydrogenase, d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and glutamine synthetase. HM treatment protected fruit cells by enhancing the capabilities of stress response and defense, inhibiting substance and energy metabolism, limiting cell calcium loss. The results suggest that the self-defense capability of peach fruit was boosted by HM treatment. This study is informative in exploring the influences of HM on peach fruit ripening by demonstrating that 1-MCP and heat functioned synergistically. To analyze the functions of differentially expressed proteins and to elucidate the response of early-maturing melting peach fruit (cv. Huiyulu) during ripening, we herein, for the first time, studied the effects of HM treatment on involved protein profiles by a proteomic approach with 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF. This study successfully verified that HM functioned synergistically rather than simply superimposed on the proteome level. In addition, this study explains the molecular mechanism regarding peach fruit

  2. Carbohydrate-free peach (Prunus persica and plum (Prunus domestica juice affects fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana D Noratto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growing evidence shows the potential of nutritional interventions to treat obesity but most investigations have utilized non-digestible carbohydrates only. Peach and plum contain high amounts of polyphenols, compounds with demonstrated anti-obesity effects. The underlying process of successfully treating obesity using polyphenols may involve an alteration of the intestinal microbiota. However, this phenomenon is not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese Zucker rats were assigned to three groups (peach, plum, and control, n = 10 each, wild-type group was named lean (n = 10. Carbohydrates in the fruit juices were eliminated using enzymatic hydrolysis. Fecal samples were obtained after 11 weeks of fruit or control juice administration. Real-time PCR and 454-pyrosequencing were used to evaluate changes in fecal microbiota. Over 1,500 different Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity were detected in all rats. Several bacterial groups (e.g. Lactobacillus and members of Ruminococcacea were found to be more abundant in the peach but especially in the plum group (plum juice contained 3 times more total polyphenolics compared to peach juice. Principal coordinate analysis based on Unifrac-based unweighted distance matrices revealed a distinct separation between the microbiota of control and treatment groups. These changes in fecal microbiota occurred simultaneously with differences in fecal short-chain acids concentrations between the control and treatment groups as well as a significant decrease in body weight in the plum group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that consumption of carbohydrate-free peach and plum juice has the potential to modify fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model. The separate contribution of polyphenols and non-polyphenols compounds (vitamins and minerals to the observed changes is unknown.

  3. Changes in fruit sugar concentrations in response to assimilate supply, metabolism and dilution: a modeling approach applied to peach fruit (Prunus persica)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Génard, M; Lescourret, F; Gomez, L; Habib, R

    2003-01-01

    ...) fruit during the main stage of fruit enlargement was analyzed with the SUGAR model of Génard and Souty (1996). The model predicts the partitioning of carbon into sucrose, sorbitol, glucose and fructose in the mesocarp of peach fruit...

  4. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong-Gi [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong-Sun, E-mail: yhsuny@naver.co [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20+-3 deg. C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  5. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon; Kim, Hong-Gi; Yook, Hong-Sun

    2010-04-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20±3 °C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  6. Prof. John Wood, Chief Executive Designate, Dr Gordon Walker, Directorate, Chief Executive, Prof. Ken J. Peach, Head of the Particle Physics Department, CLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, United Kingdom

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    L. to. r.: Dr. Ian Wilson, CLIC Deputy Study Leader, Prof. Ken J. Peach, Head of the Particle Physics Department, Prof. John Wood, Chief Executive Designate, Dr. Gordon Walker, Directorate, Chief Executive

  7. Achillea millefolium L. extract mediated green synthesis of waste peach kernel shell supported silver nanoparticles: Application of the nanoparticles for catalytic reduction of a variety of dyes in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Bahar; Bordbar, Maryam; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are synthesized using Achillea millefolium L. extract as reducing and stabilizing agents and peach kernel shell as an environmentally benign support. FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize peach kernel shell, Ag NPs, and Ag NPs/peach kernel shell. The catalytic activity of the Ag NPs/peach kernel shell was investigated for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), Methyl Orange (MO), and Methylene Blue (MB) at room temperature. Ag NPs/peach kernel shell was found to be a highly active catalyst. In addition, Ag NPs/peach kernel shell can be recovered and reused several times with no significant loss of its catalytic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Variation in Minerals, Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Peel and Pulp of Different Varieties of Peach (Prunus persica L.) Fruit from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Ashraf; Zahed Mahmood; Umer Rashid; Maleeha Manzoor; Farooq Anwar

    2012-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica L.), being a potential source of bioactive compounds, has been demonstrated to have medicinal benefits. In this study variation of minerals and antioxidant characteristics (total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system and DPPH free radical scavenging activity) between peel and pulp parts of different peach varieties, namely Golden, Shireen, and Shahpasand were investigated. T...

  9. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosana Eichelberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch in Rio Grande do Sul, little is known about mites fluctuation population considered important to this crop. The objective of this study was to know the population diversity and fluctuation of mite species associated with Premier and Eldorado varieties in Roca Sales and Venâncio Aires counties, Rio Grande do Sul. The study was conducted from July 2008 to June 2009 when 15 plants were randomly chosen in each area. The plants were divided in quadrants and from each one a branch was chosen from which three leaves were removed: one collected in the apical region, another in the medium and the other in the basal region, totalizing 180 leaves/area. Five of the most abundant associated plants were collected monthly in enough amounts for the screening under the stereoscopic microscope during an hour. A total of 1,124 mites were found belonging to 14 families and 28 species. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 and Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 were the most abundant phytophagous mites, whereas Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 the most common predatory mites. The period of one hour under stereoscopic microscope was enough to get a representative sample. In both places evaluated the ecologic indices were low, but little higherin Premier (H' 0.56; EqJ: 0.43 when compared to Eldorado (H' 0.53; EqJ 0.40. In Premier constant species were not observed and accessory only Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni and T. aripo. Higher abundance was observed in December and January and bigger amount in April. Already in Eldorado, T. ludeni and P. ulmi were constants. Greater abundance was observed in November and December, whereas grater richness in December and January. In both orchards were not found mites in buds. Tetranychus ludeni is the most abundant phytophagous mites with outbreak population in November, December and

  10. Determining The Factors Affecting Fruit Hardness of Different Peach Types with Meta Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Küçükönder

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the factor effective in determining the hardness of Caterina, Suidring, Royal Glory and Tirrenia peach types using meta analysis. In the study, the impact force (Fi and the contact time (tc were detected and the impulse values (I that are expressed as independent variable in the area under the curve were calculated in the measurements performed using the technique of a low-mass lateral impactor multiplicated with peach. Using the theory of elasticity, the independent variables were determined as Fmax (maximum impact force, contact time (tmax, Fmax/tmax, 1/tmax, 1/tmax2,5, Fmax/tmax 1.25 and Fmax2.5 parameters. The correlation coefficient values showing the relationship between these parameters and the dependent variable Magness-Taylor force (MT were calculated and were combined with meta-analysis by using the Hunter-Schmid and Fisher’s Z methods. The Cohen’s classification criterion was used in evaluating the resulting mean effect size (combined correlation value and in determining its direction. As a result of the meta-analysis, the mean effect size according to Hunter-Schmid method was found 0.436 (0.371-0.497 positively directed in 95% confidence interval, while it was found 0.468 (0.390-0.545 according to Fisher’s Z method. The effect sizes in both methods were determined “mid-level” according to the Cohen’s classification. When the significance level of the studies was analyzed with the Z test, all of the ones that taken into the meta analysis has been found statistically significant. As a result of the meta analysis in this study evaluating the relationship of peach types with the fruit hardness, the mean effect size has been found to reach “strong level”. Consequently, “maximum shock acceleration” was found to be a more effective factor comparing to the other factors in determining the the fruit hardness according to the results of meta analysis applied in both methods.

  11. Vanishing White Matter Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In Memory Of Obituaries Contact Us Donate Vanishing White Matter Disease What is Vanishing White Matter Disease? ... of the genetic basis of VWM was a great step forward. First of all, it allows genetic ...

  12. Black-White Differences on the Vocational Preference Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughtie, Eugene B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) was administered to black and white undergraduates. The overall VPI profiles of the two groups were significantly different. The black students scored higher on the Social, Conventional, Enterprising, Self-Control, Status, and Infrequency scales. The white students scored higher on the Masculinity scale.…

  13. Air scaling and modeling studies for the 1/5-scale mark I boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1978-01-04

    Results of table-top model experiments performed to investigate pool dynamics effects due to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for the Peach Bottom Mark I boiling water reactor containment system guided subsequent conduct of the 1/5-scale torus experiment and provided new insight into the vertical load function (VLF). Pool dynamics results were qualitatively correct. Experiments with a 1/64-scale fully modeled drywell and torus showed that a 90/sup 0/ torus sector was adequate to reveal three-dimensional effects; the 1/5-scale torus experiment confirmed this.

  14. Development of biocontrol agents from food microbial isolates for controlling post-harvest peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Schneider, Karin E; Li, Xiu-Zhen

    2008-08-15

    An unconventional strategy of screening food microbes for biocontrol activity was used to develop biocontrol agents for controlling post-harvest peach brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola. Forty-four microbial isolates were first screened for their biocontrol activity on apple fruit. Compared with the pathogen-only check, seven of the 44 isolates reduced brown rot incidence by >50%, including four bacteria: Bacillus sp. C06, Lactobacillus sp. C03-b and Bacillus sp. T03-c, Lactobacillus sp. P02 and three yeasts: Saccharomyces delbrueckii A50, S. cerevisiae YE-5 and S. cerevisiae A41. Eight microbial isolates were selected for testing on peaches by wound co-inoculation with mixtures of individual microbial cultures and conidial suspension of M. fructicola. Only two of them showed significant biocontrol activity after five days of incubation at 22 degrees C. Bacillus sp. C06 suppressed brown rot incidence by 92% and reduced lesion diameter by 88% compared to the pathogen-only check. Bacillus sp.T03-c reduced incidence and lesion diameter by 40% and 62%, respectively. The two isolates were compared with Pseudomonas syringae MA-4, a biocontrol agent for post-harvest peach diseases, by immersing peaches in an aliquot containing individual microbial isolates and the pathogen conidia. Treatments with isolates MA-4, C06 and T03-c significantly controlled brown rot by 91, 100, and 100% respectively. However, only isolates MA-4 and C06 significantly reduced brown rot by 80% and 15%, respectively when bacterial cells alone were applied. On naturally infected peaches, both the bacterial culture and its cell-free filtrate of the isolate C06 significantly controlled peach decay resulting in 77 and 90% reduction, respectively, whereas the treatment using only the bacterial cells generally had no effect. Isolate C06 is a single colony isolate obtained from a mesophilic cheese starter, and has been identified belonging to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The results have clearly

  15. Severe accident source term characteristics for selected Peach Bottom sequences predicted by the MELCOR Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajo, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to compare in-containment source terms developed for NUREG-1159, which used the Source Term Code Package (STCP), with those generated by MELCOR to identify significant differences. For this comparison, two short-term depressurized station blackout sequences (with a dry cavity and with a flooded cavity) and a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) concurrent with complete loss of the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) were analyzed for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (a BWR-4 with a Mark I containment). The results indicate that for the sequences analyzed, the two codes predict similar total in-containment release fractions for each of the element groups. However, the MELCOR/CORBH Package predicts significantly longer times for vessel failure and reduced energy of the released material for the station blackout sequences (when compared to the STCP results). MELCOR also calculated smaller releases into the environment than STCP for the station blackout sequences.

  16. Low accumulation of chlorogenic acids represses reddening during flesh browning in Japanese peach "Okayama PEH7".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokotani, Naoki; Uraji, Misugi; Hara, Miyuki; Hihara, Seisuke; Hatanaka, Tadashi; Oda, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    In peaches, fruit flesh browns unattractively after peeling or cutting. A recently developed cultivar, Okayama PEH7, was distinct from other Japanese cultivars, including Okayama PEH8, with respect to its reduced browning potential. Homogenate prepared from Okayama PEH7 flesh had significantly less reddening during the browning reaction. Okayama PEH7 had less soluble phenolic compounds and higher polyphenol oxidase activity than Okayama PEH8. Reduced browning was observed even when phenols prepared from Okayama PEH7 were incubated with crude extract from Okayama PEH8, suggesting that phenols lower the browning potential of Okayama PEH7. In Okayama PEH7, contents of chlorogenic acid and its isomers were about one-tenth compared to Okayama PEH8. Exogenous addition of chlorogenic acid to Okayama PEH7 homogenate increased the browning potential and visibly enhanced reddening. These results indicate that the reduced browning of Okayama PEH7 flesh is due to a defect in chlorogenic acid accumulation.

  17. Analysis of core damage frequency: Peach Bottom, Unit 2 internal events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Cramond, W.R.; Sype, T.T.; Maloney, K.J.; Wheeler, T.A.; Daniel, S.L. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA); Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-08-01

    This document contains the appendices for the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for the Peach Bottom, Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. This is one of the five plant analyses conducted as part of the NUREG-1150 effort for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The work performed and described here is an extensive reanalysis of that published in October 1986 as NUREG/CR-4550, Volume 4. It addresses comments from numerous reviewers and significant changes to the plant systems and procedures made since the first report. The uncertainty analysis and presentation of results are also much improved, and considerable effort was expended on an improved analysis of loss of offsite power. The content and detail of this report is directed toward PRA practitioners who need to know how the work was done and the details for use in further studies. 58 refs., 58 figs., 52 tabs.

  18. Ultrastructure of the Antennal Sensillae of Male and Female Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Azza A.; Ali, Nashat A.; Mohamed, Hend O.

    2014-01-01

    Antennal morphology and funicular sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study focused on the sensillae found on the antennal segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum or funiculus that bears the arista) of B. zonata. Antennal segments of females tended to be larger than those of the males. The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, were heavily covered with microtrichia and bear bristles. Numerous microtrichia as well as trichoid (I, II), basiconic, clavate, and coeloconic sensillae were observed on the funiculus. SEM studies showed some differences in size and also in position of some sensillae on the antennae of the females of B. zonata. The sensillae found on the funiculus, such as trichoid and basiconic sensillae, were significantly larger in females.

  19. Monitoring of Microseismicity with ArrayTechniques in the Peach Tree Valley Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyes, J. L.; Clayton, R. W.

    2016-12-01

    This study is focused on the analysis of microseismicity along the San Andreas Fault in the PeachTree Valley region. This zone is part of the transition zone between the locked portion to the south (Parkfield, CA) and the creeping section to the north (Jovilet, et al., JGR, 2014). The data for the study comes from a 2-week deployment of 116 Zland nodes in a cross-shaped configuration along (8.2 km) and across (9 km) the Fault. We analyze the distribution of microseismicity using a 3D backprojection technique, and we explore the use of Hidden Markov Models to identify different patterns of microseismicity (Hammer et al., GJI, 2013). The goal of the study is to relate the style of seismicity to the mechanical state of the Fault. The results show the evolution of seismic activity as well as at least two different patterns of seismic signals.

  20. Seasonal variation of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus concentration in almond, peach, and plum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salem

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Levels of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV infection in almond, peach, and plum cultivars over the course of an entire year were determined by testing different plant parts of naturally infected trees, using the double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. The data showed that spring was the best time of year for PNRSV detection in flowers, active growing buds, and young leaves. PNRSV detection was less reliable during the summer months. Young leaves of all cultivars were the most reliable source for distinguishing between healthy and infected plants, while flowers and buds yielded high values in some cultivars but not in others. Seasonal fluctuations in virus concentration did not follow the same pattern in all cultivars. It is therefore impossible to distinguish between infected and healthy trees on the basis of one single sampling time for all cultivars.

  1. Postirradiation examination of recycle test elements from the Peach Bottom Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegs, T.N.; Long, E.L. Jr.

    1978-12-01

    The Recycle Test Elements were a series of tests of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuels irradiated in Core 2 of the Peach Bottom Unit 1 Reactor. They tested a wide variety of fissile and fertile fuel types of prime interest when the tests were designed. The fuel types included UO/sub 2/, UC/sub 2/, (2Th,U)O/sub 2/, (4Th,U)O/sub 2/, ThC/sub 2/, and ThO/sub 2/. The mixed thorium--uranium oxides and the pure thorium oxide were tested as Biso-coated particles only, while the others were tested as both Biso- and Triso-coated particles. The Biso coatings on the fissile kernels contained the fission products inadequately but on the fertile kernels they did so acceptably. The results from accelerated and real-time tests on the particle types agreed well.

  2. Benefits of multi-modal fusion analysis on a large-scale dataset: life-span patterns of inter-subject variability in cortical morphometry and white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Adrian R; Smith, Stephen M; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Walhovd, Kristine B; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Woolrich, Mark W; Westlye, Lars T

    2012-10-15

    Neuroimaging studies have become increasingly multimodal in recent years, with researchers typically acquiring several different types of MRI data and processing them along separate pipelines that provide a set of complementary windows into each subject's brain. However, few attempts have been made to integrate the various modalities in the same analysis. Linked ICA is a robust data fusion model that takes multi-modal data and characterizes inter-subject variability in terms of a set of multi-modal components. This paper examines the types of components found when running Linked ICA on a large magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometric and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data set comprising 484 healthy subjects ranging from 8 to 85 years of age. We find several strong global features related to age, sex, and intracranial volume; in particular, one component predicts age to a high accuracy (r=0.95). Most of the remaining components describe spatially localized modes of variability in white or gray matter, with many components including both tissue types. The multimodal components tend to be located in anatomically-related brain areas, suggesting a morphological and possibly functional relationship. The local components show relationships between surface-based cortical thickness and arealization, voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and between three different DTI measures. Further, we report components related to artifacts (e.g. scanner software upgrades) which would be expected in a dataset of this size. Most of the 100 extracted components showed interpretable spatial patterns and were found to be reliable using split-half validation. This work provides novel information about normal inter-subject variability in brain structure, and demonstrates the potential of Linked ICA as a feature-extracting data fusion approach across modalities. This exploratory approach automatically generates models to explain structure in the data, and may prove especially powerful for large-scale

  3. Evaluation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic kaolin particle films for peach crop, arthropod and disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Norman; Belding, Robert D; Shearer, Peter W; Frecon, Jerome L; Tietjen, William H

    2005-01-01

    Hydrophobic and/or hydrophilic kaolin particle film treatments to peach (Prunus persica (L) Batsch) trees were evaluated for crop and pest management capabilities in six studies from 1997 to 2000. Unsprayed control and standard treatments, the latter consisting of a commercial pesticide program, were included for comparison. Treatments in initial studies were applied via handgun, which resulted in a uniform and heavy deposit of kaolin after the first application. In contrast, treatments in subsequent studies used airblast equipment, which provided a uniform but less dense coverage, even after multiple applications. Results showed that both formulations of kaolin provided control of oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta (Busck)), plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst)) and Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) that was comparable with or better than the standard pesticide program. Effective management of late season catfacing insects (tarnished plant bugs Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) and stinkbugs Acrosternum hilare (Say), Euschistus servus (Say), and E tristigmus (Say)) and leafrollers (undetermined species) was also observed, although kaolin applications significantly increased phytophagous mite (Panonychus ulmi (Koch)) levels. In contrast to arthropod management, kaolin failed to control either peach scab (Cladosporium carpophilum (Von Thumen)) or rusty spot (Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell and Ev) ES Salmon) in any of the 4 years of the study. However, hydrophobic kaolin provided effective brown rot (Monilinia fructicola (G Winter) Honey) control when applied via handgun, and partial control when applied via airblast; hydrophilic kaolin failed to provide any control. These results suggest that hydrophobicity and deposit density may be important factors for effective disease management. The application of kaolin significantly delayed fruit maturation, increased fruit size and increased soluble solids relative to the standard. This effect

  4. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Du

    Full Text Available Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng, we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant

  5. Peach (Prunus persica) fruit response to anoxia: reversible ripening delay and biochemical changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, María V; Budde, Claudio O; Porrini, Lucía; Borsani, Julia; Murray, Ricardo; Andreo, Carlos S; Drincovich, María F

    2011-02-01

    The use of modified atmospheres has been successfully applied in different fruits to delay the ripening process and to prevent physiological disorders. In addition, during normal ripening, hypoxic areas are generated inside the fruit; moreover, anaerobic conditions may also arise during fruit post-harvest storage and handling. In consequence, the fruit is an interesting model to analyze the metabolic modifications due to changes in oxygen levels. In this work, a 72 h anoxic treatment by using an N(2) storage atmosphere was applied to peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch) after harvest. Ripening was effectively delayed in treated fruits, preventing fruit softening, color changes and ethylene production. Metabolic changes induced by anoxia included induction of fermentative pathways, glycolysis and enzymes involved in both sucrose synthesis and degradation. Sucrose, fructose and glucose contents remained unchanged in treated fruit, probably due to sucrose cycling. Sorbitol was not consumed and citrate was increased, correlating with citric acid cycle impairment due to O(2) deprivation. Malate content was not affected, indicating compensation in the reactions producing and consuming malate. Changes in malic enzymes and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase may provide pyruvate for fermentation or even act to regenerate NADP. After fruit transfer to aerobic conditions, no signs of post-anoxia injury were observed and metabolic changes were reversed, with the exception of acetaldehyde levels. The results obtained indicate that peach fruit is an organ with a high capacity for anoxic tolerance, which is in accord with the presence of hypoxic areas inside fruits and the fact that hypoxic pre-treatment improves tolerance to subsequent anoxia.

  6. Investigation of Soil Nutrients in Juicy Peach Orchards in the Watershed of Zhihu Harbor, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Zhi-guang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate soil fertility and guide scientific fertilization in juicy peach orchards in Zhihu Harbor watershed of Tai Lake region, soil samples in four towns were collected for the analysis of soil physical and chemical properties. The results showed that soil acidification existed in 88.0% of research area in the watershed of Zhihu Harbor with pH from 3.4 to 5.4 and strong soil acidification was over 33.7%. The average value of electrical conductivity in plow layer soils was 317.6 μS·cm-1 with the variable coefficient at 63.40%, and it was above the critical value of plant inbreed electrical conductivity barrier in 11.7% of the research area. The soil clay content increased with the soil depth. 66.7% silt loam was in the plow layer soil in total cultivated area. Similar clay soil in 20~60 cm soil layer affected the penetrations of root and leakage water. The average value of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, and available potassium in the plow layer soil were 37.7, 2.5, 0.6, 0.3 g·kg-1 and 0.6 g·kg-1, respectively. In addition, 40.7%, 75.8%, 13.7%, 92.3% and 90.4% of research area were above the value of highest soil fertility standard in the 2nd National Soil Survey for soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, and available potassium, respectively. It is necessary to develop special controlled release compound fertilizers, and to apply organic fertilizers with a deeper application to reduce the risk of eutrophication pollution and soil acidification while maintaining the fruit production in peach orchards in the watershed of Zhihu Harbor.

  7. Mediation of deep supercooling of peach and dogwood by enzymatic modifications in cell-wall structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, M; Davis, G; Schafter, K

    1991-05-01

    Treatment of stem sections of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) and flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.) with macerase, an enzyme mixture rich in pectinase, for 24-48 h resulted in a complete flattening of the low-temperature exotherm (LTE) as determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA). Ultrastructural analysis of macerase-treated tissue demonstrated a nearly complete digestion of the pit membrane (black cap and primary cell-wall) of nearly 100% of the xylem-parenchyma cells examined after 48 h of exposure to the enzyme. Additionally, the underlying amorphous layer was partially degraded in up to 57% of the cells examined. The macerase treatment had no visible effect on secondary cell-walls of xylem tissue. In contrast, treatment of stem tissue with cellulysin (mostly cellulase) resulted in a shift of the LTE to warmer temperatures as determined by DTA, and a digestion of only the outermost layer of the pit membrane in nearly 100% of the cells examined, with little or no effect on the underlying layers. Treatment of tissue with 25 mM sodiumphosphate buffer also resulted in a shift of the LTE to warmer temperatures but the shift was not as great as in cellulysin-treated tissue. The shift was associated with a partial degradation of the outermost layer of the pit membrane in dogwood (33-45% of the cells examined) but not in peach (3-7% of the cells). Collectively, the data indicate that pectins may be an integral structural element of the pit membrane and that this portion of the cell-wall, along with the underlying amorphous layer, play a major role in forming a barrier to water movement and growth of ice crystals. This barrier allows xylem parenchyma of some species of woody plants to undergo deep supercooling.

  8. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, One meter black and white digital orthophotographs created in concert with the U.S.G.S., Published in 1992, 1:9600 (1in=800ft) scale, Manitowoc County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 1992. One meter black and white digital orthophotographs created in concert with the U.S.G.S..

  9. Efeitos do condicionamento na qualidade de pêssegos Maciel = Delayed cooling on the quality of Maciel peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Seibert

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o efeito do atraso na armazenagem como tratamento para evitar danos por frio, pêssegos Maciel foram colhidos nos estádios de vez e maduros e armazenados imediatamente em refrigeração ou condicionados a 20°C por dois dias (maduros ou três dias (de vez antes da armazenagem refrigerada a 0°C. Análise dos frutos ocorreu após 7, 14, 21 ou 28 dias a 0°C e após mais três dias a 20°C. Pêssegos de vez condicionados (VCD apresentaram maiores perdas de massa fresca no armazenamento e menores perdas após o amadurecimento que pêssegos não-condicionados. Pêssegos colhidos maduros não apresentaram diferenças entre tratamentos. Pêssegos VCD apresentaram menor firmeza que os de vez não-condicionados no amadurecimento a 20°C. Os pêssegos maduros condicionados (MCD foram mais firmes que osdo tratamento maduro sem condicionamento. Sintomas de lanosidade não foram observados. Escurecimento da polpa foi observado nos pêssegos que receberam tratamento de condicionamento após 21 ou 28 dias a 0°C. O distúrbio retenção de firmeza ocorreu em todos os tratamentos no amadurecimento a 20°C após 21 ou 28 dias a 0°C. O condicionamento nãoevitou a manifestação de danos por frio em pêssegos Maciel e, portanto, não é recomendado para aplicação nesta cultivar.Delayed cooling (conditioning was evaluated for effectiveness in avoiding chilling injuries of Maciel peaches harvested at two ripeness stages, mature-green or tree-ripe, and immediately thereafterplaced in cold rooms at 0°C (controls or maintained for 2 days (tree-ripe or 3 days (mature-green at 20°C before transfer to cold storage at 0°C. After 7, 14, 21 or 28 days, samples were retrieved from storage and kept for 3 more days to complete ripening at 20°C.Delayed cooling mature-green (DCMG peaches had higher weight losses compared to control mature-green fruit at retrieval from storage and more reduced fresh weight losses after ripening. Peaches harvested at the tree

  10. Potassium contributes to zinc stress tolerance in peach (Prunus persica) seedlings by enhancing photosynthesis and the antioxidant defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z Z; Duan, C L; Guo, S L; Yang, Y; Feng, Y F; Ma, R J; Yu, M L

    2015-07-27

    Zinc (Zn) is considered to be a major industrial pollutant because excessive amounts can impair plant growth. In this paper, we found that peach 'Yoshihime' seedlings are promising Zn tolerant plants. However, heavy Zn toxicity (2 mM) damaged plant performance by disrupting biochemical processes, including photosynthesis, proline production, and K(+) nutrition. Notably, elevated external K(+) supply (10 mM) alleviated peach seedlings from Zn toxicity, evidenced by enhanced photosynthesis, antioxidant defense systems, and plant K(+) nutritional status. Moreover, the transcript levels of KUP (K(+) uptake) genes involved in K(+) acquisition, transport, and homeostasis were significantly upregulated following supply of sufficient K(+) upon Zn toxicity. In general, K(+) favorably contributes to improvements in internal K(+) homeostasis, via the help of K(+) transporters, further protecting plant photosynthesis and the antioxidative defense system. Our findings further benefit the study of the mechanisms underpinning heavy metal tolerance in woody plants.

  11. Gamma irradiation induced enhancement of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in peach ( Prunus persica Bausch, Cv. Elberta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Peerzada R.; Wani, Ali M.; Meena, Raghuveer S.; Dar, Mohd A.

    2010-09-01

    Effect of medium dose gamma irradiation on PAL and antioxidant activity of peach fruit was investigated. Peach fruit after harvest at commercial maturity was irradiated in the dose range 1.0-2.0 kGy, stored under refrigerated conditions (3±1 °C, RH 80%) and evaluated at intervals of 7 days. The antioxidant activity as determined by DPPH and FRAP methods revealed significant ( p≤0.05) increase particularly in the dose range 1.6-2.0 kGy. During storage, maximum increase in both PAL and antioxidant activity was observed after 21 days. Positive correlation ( r=0.75) existed between antioxidant activity and total phenols. EC 50 values as obtained from DPPH and FRAP experiments were significantly ( p≤0.05) lower in irradiated fruits compared to control.

  12. Complete nucleotide sequences of two isolates of cherry green ring mottle virus from peach (Prunus persica) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihui; Jiang, Dongmei; Niu, Feiqing; Lu, Meiguang; Wang, Hongqing; Li, Shifang

    2013-03-01

    Two complete nucleotide sequences of cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) isolated from peach in Hebei (Hs10) and Fujian (F9) Provinces, China, were determined. Five open reading frames (ORFs) were found in the genomes of both isolates. The F9 and Hs10 isolates shared 82.2 % and 83.4-94.4 % nucleotide sequence identity, respectively, with two CGRMV isolates from cherry. Analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences from the five ORFs of both isolates showed that Hs10 shares the greatest sequence identity with P1A (GenBank AJ291761) from cherry. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CGRMV isolates from peach and cherry are closely related to members of the genus Foveavirus.

  13. Gamma irradiation induced enhancement of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in peach (Prunus persica Bausch, Cv. Elberta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Peerzada R., E-mail: hussainpr@rediffmail.co [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar 190006, Kashmir (India); Wani, Ali M.; Meena, Raghuveer S.; Dar, Mohd A. [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar 190006, Kashmir (India)

    2010-09-15

    Effect of medium dose gamma irradiation on PAL and antioxidant activity of peach fruit was investigated. Peach fruit after harvest at commercial maturity was irradiated in the dose range 1.0-2.0 kGy, stored under refrigerated conditions (3{+-}1 {sup o}C, RH 80%) and evaluated at intervals of 7 days. The antioxidant activity as determined by DPPH and FRAP methods revealed significant (p{<=}0.05) increase particularly in the dose range 1.6-2.0 kGy. During storage, maximum increase in both PAL and antioxidant activity was observed after 21 days. Positive correlation (r=0.75) existed between antioxidant activity and total phenols. EC{sub 50} values as obtained from DPPH and FRAP experiments were significantly (p{<=}0.05) lower in irradiated fruits compared to control.

  14. Inhibition of Recombinant Aldose-6-Phosphate Reductase from Peach Leaves by Hexose-Phosphates, Inorganic Phosphate and Oxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Matías D; Figueroa, Carlos M; Arias, Diego G; Iglesias, Alberto A

    2017-01-01

    Glucitol, also known as sorbitol, is a major photosynthetic product in plants from the Rosaceae family. This sugar alcohol is synthesized from glucose-6-phosphate by the combined activities of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (Ald6PRase) and glucitol-6-phosphatase. In this work we show the purification and characterization of recombinant Ald6PRase from peach leaves. The recombinant enzyme was inhibited by glucose-1-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and orthophosphate. Oxidizing agents irreversibly inhibited the enzyme and produced protein precipitation. Enzyme thiolation with oxidized glutathione protected the enzyme from insolubilization caused by diamide, while incubation with NADP+ (one of the substrates) completely prevented enzyme precipitation. Our results suggest that Ald6PRase is finely regulated to control carbon partitioning in peach leaves. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Carbon metabolism of peach fruit after harvest: changes in enzymes involved in organic acid and sugar level modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsani, Julia; Budde, Claudio O; Porrini, Lucía; Lauxmann, Martin A; Lombardo, Verónica A; Murray, Ricardo; Andreo, Carlos S; Drincovich, María F; Lara, María V

    2009-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) is a climacteric fruit that ripens after harvest, prior to human consumption. Organic acids and soluble sugars contribute to the overall organoleptic quality of fresh peach; thus, the integrated study of the metabolic pathways controlling the levels of these compounds is of great relevance. Therefore, in this work, several metabolites and enzymes involved in carbon metabolism were analysed during the post-harvest ripening of peach fruit cv 'Dixiland'. Depending on the enzyme studied, activity, protein level by western blot, or transcript level by quantitative real time-PCR were analysed. Even though sorbitol did not accumulate at a high level in relation to sucrose at harvest, it was rapidly consumed once the fruit was separated from the tree. During the ripening process, sucrose degradation was accompanied by an increase of glucose and fructose. Specific transcripts encoding neutral invertases (NIs) were up-regulated or down-regulated, indicating differential functions for each putative NI isoform. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase was markedly induced, and may participate as a glycolytic shunt, since the malate level did not increase during post-harvest ripening. The fermentative pathway was highly induced, with increases in both the acetaldehyde level and the enzymes involved in this process. In addition, proteins differentially expressed during the post-harvest ripening process were also analysed. Overall, the present study identified enzymes and pathways operating during the post-harvest ripening of peach fruit, which may contribute to further identification of varieties with altered levels of enzymes/metabolites or in the evaluation of post-harvest treatments to produce fruit of better organoleptic attributes.

  16. Incidence and phylogenetic analyses of Armillaria spp. associated with root disease in peach orchards in the State of Mexico, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. D. Elias-Roman; R. A. Guzman-Plazola; N. B. Klopfenstein; D. Alvarado-Rosales; G. Calderon-Zavala; J. A. Mora-Aguilera; M.-S. Kim; R. Garcia-Espinosa

    2013-01-01

    Incidence of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] tree mortality attributed to Armillaria root disease was assessed from 2009 to 2011 in 15 orchards in the State of Mexico, Mexico. Incidence increased gradually every year of assessment, reaching average values of 9.7, 15.3 and 20.3% tree mortality and 23.2, 24.7 and 28.3% disease-impacted area of the orchards during 2009...

  17. Divination and fate manipulation in a popular myth of late imperial China : The wedding of Zhougong and Peach blossom girl

    OpenAIRE

    Durand-Dastès, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    International consortium for research in the humanities : fate, freedom and prognostications - Strategies for coping with the future in East Asia and Europe: Selected lectures.; Peach blossom girl may be characterized as a popular myth of late imperial China. First appearing in a Yuan dynasty zaju play, it was retold in many vernacular novels, popular operas and folktales. This article, after recalling the way diviners and divination are depicted in late imperial Chinese literature, focuses o...

  18. Modeling systems and vis/NIR device to improve peach and nectarine pre and post-harvest fruit maturity management

    OpenAIRE

    Bonora, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade peach and nectarine fruit have lost considerable market share, due to increased consumer dissatisfaction with quality at retail markets. This is mainly due to harvesting of too immature fruit and high ripening heterogeneity. The main problem is that the traditional used maturity indexes are not able to objectively detect fruit maturity stage, neither the variability present in the field, leading to a difficult post-harvest management of the product and to high fruit los...

  19. Optimal Timing of Fungicide Applications for the Control of Podosphaera leucotricha, the Causal Agent of Peach Rusty Spot in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Dolovac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peach rusty spot has regularly occurred in Serbia in recent years, causing significanteconomic losses in the production of late maturing cultivars (Summerset, Suncrest, Fayetteand O’Henry. Concerns regarding the etiology of this disease have been solved using molecularidentification and cross-pathogenicity tests, which have proved that peach rustyspot is caused by Podosphaera leucotricha. The usual recommended strategy for its control,by multiple treatments starting from petal fall phenophase, has not proved satisfactory inagro-ecological conditions in Serbia. After testing the fungicide efficacy, a three-year studywas carried out to determine the precise treatment terms and make the control of P. leucotrichamore efficient.The investigation was conducted in the conditions of natural infection in a Summersetcultivar orchard at the locality of Bela Crkva, during the period 2006-2008. Nine differentvariants of both single and mixed treatments were tested, covering six defined peachgrowth phenophases - from green top, until the phenophase of second fruit falling. In theconditions of high levels of natural infection in the control plots, in all three investigationyears the most efficient was the variant in which kresoxim-methyl was applied three times:in green top, pink bud and full bloom phenophases (91.69 - 91.92%, followed by the variantof treatments in the phenophases of rose bud, full bloom and petal fall (86.3-87.87%and the variant of two treatments, performed in the phenophases of pink bud and full bloom(79.3-83.09%. The other tested variants showed significantly lower efficiency. The resultsobtained could significantly contribute to better peach fruit production, without lossescaused by peach rusty spot which is commercially very important disease in Serbia.

  20. The potential of Prunus davidiana for introgression into peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] assessed by comparative mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulongne, M; Pascal, T; Arús, P; Kervella, J

    2003-07-01

    The potential for introgression of Prunus davidiana, a wild species related to peach, was evaluated with respect to problems of non-Mendelian segregation or suppressed recombination which often hamper breeding processes based on interspecific crosses. Three connected (F1, F2 and BC2) populations, derived from a cross between P. davidiana clone P1908 and the peach cultivar Summergrand were used. The intraspecific map of P. davidiana already established using the F1 progeny was complemented, and two interspecific maps, for the F2 and BC2 progenies, were built with a set of markers selected from the Prunus reference map. With the molecular data collected for the F2 map construction, regions with distorted marker segregation were detected on the genome; one third of all loci deviated significantly from the expected Mendelian ratios. However, some of these distorted segregations were probably not due to the interspecific cross. On linkage group 6, a skewed area under gametic selection was most likely influenced by the self-incompatibility gene of P. davidiana. Using anchor loci, a good colinearity between the three maps built and the Prunus reference map was demonstrated. Comparative mapping also revealed that homologous recombination occurred normally between P. davidiana and the Prunus persica genome. This confirmed the closeness of the two species. Higher recombination rates were generally observed between P. davidiana and P. persica than between Prunus amygdalus and P. persica. The consequences for plant breeding strategy are discussed. The three maps of the F1, F2 and BC2 progenies provide useful tools for QTL detection and marker-assisted selection, as well as for assessing the efficiency of the peach breeding scheme applied to introgress P. davidiana genes into peach cultivated varieties.

  1. Acyl-CoA oxidase 1 is involved in γ-decalactone release from peach (Prunus persica) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Li, Haiyan; Gao, Ling; Qi, Yujie; Fu, Wanyi; Li, Xiongwei; Zhou, Xiang; Gao, Qikang; Gao, Zhongshan; Jia, Huijuan

    2017-06-01

    γ-Decalactone accumulation in peach mesocarp was highly correlated with ACX enzyme activity and natural PpACX1 content. Adding the purified recombinant PpACX1 induced γ-decalactone biosynthesis in cultured mesocarp discs in vitro. Previous gene expression studies have implied that acyl coenzyme A oxidase (ACX) is related to lactones synthesis, the characteristic aroma compounds of peach. Here, we analysed the correlation between γ-decalactone content and ACX enzyme activity in mesocarp of five different types of fully ripe peach varieties. Furthermore, 'Hu Jing Mi Lu' ('HJ') and 'Feng Hua Yu Lu' ('YL'), which have strong aroma among them, at four ripening stages were selected to study the role of ACX in lactone biosynthesis. The result showed that γ-decalactone was the most abundant lactone compound. γ-Decalactone accumulation was highly correlated with ACX enzyme activity. Mass spectrometry (MS) showed that PpACX1 was the most abundant PpACX protein in fully ripe mesocarp of cv. 'HJ'. To further elucidate the function of the PpACX1 protein, the PpACX1 gene was heterologously expressed in a bacterial system and characterized in vitro. MS identification gave the molecular weight of the recombinant PpACX1 as 94.44 kDa and the coverage rate of the peptide segments was 47.3%. In cultured mesocarp discs in vitro, adding the purified recombinant PpACX1 and C16-CoA substrate induced the expected γ-decalactone biosynthesis. Using a sandwich ELISA based on mixed mono- and polyclonal antibodies against recombinant PpACX1, PpACX1 content in mesocarp was found to be highly correlated with γ-decalactone accumulation in mesocarp of five fully ripe varieties and four ripening stages of 'HJ' and 'YL'. This study revealed the vital function of PpACX1 in γ-decalactone biosynthesis in peach fruit.

  2. Effects of Fe-chlorosis on the stomatal behaviour and water relations of field-grown peach leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Eichert, Thomas; Peguero-Pina, Jose J.; Gil-Pelegrin, Eustaquio; Fernández, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Fe nutrition on the stomatal behaviour and water relations of peach leaves (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, cv. Miraflores), under field conditions. Transpiration rates, net photosynthesis and water use efficiency were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in healthy green leaves. In the course of the day, the water potentials in healthy leaves strongly declined to –2.0 MPa, whereas in chlorotic leaves the minimum water potential was only -1.0 MPa. The hydrau...

  3. Multiple R2R3-MYB transcription factors involved in the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation in peach flower

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    Hui Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin accumulation is responsible for flower coloration in peach. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of eight flavonoid-related R2R3-MYB transcription factors, designated PpMYB10.2, PpMYB9, PpMYBPA1, Peace, PpMYB17, PpMYB18, PpMYB19 and PpMYB20, respectively, in peach flower transcriptome. PpMYB10.2 and PpMYB9 are able to activate transcription of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, whilst PpMYBPA1 and Peace have a strong activation on the promoters of proanthocyanin (PA biosynthetic genes. PpMYB17-20 show a strong repressive effect on transcription of flavonoid pathway genes such as DFR. These results indicate that anthocyanin accumulation in peach flower is coordinately regulated by a set of R2R3-MYB genes. In addition, PpMYB9 and PpMYB10.2 are closely related but separated into two groups, designated MYB9 and MYB10, respectively. PpMYB9 shows a strong activation on the PpUGT78A2 promoter, but with no effect on the promoter of PpUGT78B (commonly called PpUFGT in previous studies. In contrast, PpMYB10.2 is able to activate the PpUFGT promoter, but not for the PpUGT78A2 promoter. Unlike the MYB10 gene that is universally present in plants, the MYB9 gene is lost in most dicot species. Therefore, the PpMYB9 gene represents a novel group of anthocyanin-related MYB activators, which may have diverged in function from the MYB10 genes. Our study will aid in understanding the complex mechanism regulating floral pigmentation in peach and functional divergence of the R2R3-MYB gene family in plants.

  4. Screening Quality Evaluation Factors of Freeze-Dried Peach (Prunus Persica L. Batsch Powders from Different Ripening Time Cultivars

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    Chun-ju Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality evaluation of processed products is complex. To simplify the quality evaluation process and improve the efficiency, fourteen evaluation factors of freeze-dried powders of seventeen cultivars of peach at different ripening times were analyzed. The most important evaluation indicators and criteria were obtained by analysis of variance (ANOVA, correlation analysis (CA, principal component analysis (PCA, system cluster analysis (SCA, and analytic hierarchy process (AHP. Results showed that the peach powders had the significant differences in quality (P<0.05, and some processing factors were related with some physicochemical and nutritional factors. Five principle components were extracted by PCA and the cumulative contribution achieved was 84.46%. Through the score plot of the first two principal components, a clear differentiation among ripening times was found and three distinct groups were separated according to ripening time. Five characteristic factors were obtained as titratable acid, browning index, hemicellulose, hygroscopicity, and vitamin C by SCA. Their weights of 0.1249, 0.3007, 0.0514, 0.4916, and 0.0315 were obtained by AHP, respectively. The peach cultivars were divided into four evaluation grades by the comprehensive quality score.

  5. Genome-wide identification of WRKY family genes in peach and analysis of WRKY expression during bud dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Tan, Qiuping; Sun, Mingyue; Li, Dongmei; Fu, Xiling; Chen, Xiude; Xiao, Wei; Li, Ling; Gao, Dongsheng

    2016-06-01

    Bud dormancy in deciduous fruit trees is an important adaptive mechanism for their survival in cold climates. The WRKY genes participate in several developmental and physiological processes, including dormancy. However, the dormancy mechanisms of WRKY genes have not been studied in detail. We conducted a genome-wide analysis and identified 58 WRKY genes in peach. These putative genes were located on all eight chromosomes. In bioinformatics analyses, we compared the sequences of WRKY genes from peach, rice, and Arabidopsis. In a cluster analysis, the gene sequences formed three groups, of which group II was further divided into five subgroups. Gene structure was highly conserved within each group, especially in groups IId and III. Gene expression analyses by qRT-PCR showed that WRKY genes showed different expression patterns in peach buds during dormancy. The mean expression levels of six WRKY genes (Prupe.6G286000, Prupe.1G393000, Prupe.1G114800, Prupe.1G071400, Prupe.2G185100, and Prupe.2G307400) increased during endodormancy and decreased during ecodormancy, indicating that these six WRKY genes may play a role in dormancy in a perennial fruit tree. This information will be useful for selecting fruit trees with desirable dormancy characteristics or for manipulating dormancy in genetic engineering programs.

  6. Deciphering the metabolic pathways influencing heat and cold responses during post-harvest physiology of peach fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauxmann, Martin A; Borsani, Julia; Osorio, Sonia; Lombardo, Verónica A; Budde, Claudio O; Bustamante, Claudia A; Monti, Laura L; Andreo, Carlos S; Fernie, Alisdair R; Drincovich, María F; Lara, María V

    2014-03-01

    Peaches are highly perishable and deteriorate quickly at ambient temperature. Cold storage is commonly used to prevent fruit decay; however, it affects fruit quality causing physiological disorders collectively termed 'chilling injury' (CI). To prevent or ameliorate CI, heat treatment is often applied prior to cold storage. In the present work, metabolic profiling was performed to determine the metabolic dynamics associated with the induction of acquired CI tolerance in response to heat shock. 'Dixiland' peach fruits exposed to 39 °C, cold stored, or after a combined treatment of heat and cold, were compared with fruits ripening at 20 °C. Dramatic changes in the levels of compatible solutes such as galactinol and raffinose were observed, while amino acid precursors of the phenylpropanoid pathway were also modified due to the stress treatments, as was the polyamine putrescine. The observed responses towards temperature stress in peaches are composed of both common and specific response mechanisms to heat and cold, but also of more general adaptive responses that confer strategic advantages in adverse conditions such as biotic stresses. The identification of such key metabolites, which prime the fruit to cope with different stress situations, will likely greatly accelerate the design and the improvement of plant breeding programs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Geostatistics and Geographic Information Systems to Study the Spatial Distribution of Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Peach Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, F; Calvo, M V; Borges, A; Scatoni, I B

    2015-08-01

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), is the most serious pest in peach, and several insecticide applications are required to reduce crop damage to acceptable levels. Geostatistics and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are employed to measure the range of spatial correlation of G. molesta in order to define the optimum sampling distance for performing spatial analysis and to determine the current distribution of the pest in peach orchards of southern Uruguay. From 2007 to 2010, 135 pheromone traps per season were installed and georeferenced in peach orchards distributed over 50,000 ha. Male adult captures were recorded weekly from September to April. Structural analysis of the captures was performed, yielding 14 semivariograms for the accumulated captures analyzed by generation and growing season. Two sets of maps were constructed to describe the pest distribution. Nine significant models were obtained in the 14 evaluated periods. The range estimated for the correlation was from 908 to 6884 m. Three hot spots of high population level and some areas with comparatively low populations were constant over the 3-year period, while there is a greater variation in the size of the population in different generations and years in other areas.

  8. Elaboration of a strategy to control the peach twig borer Anarsia lineatella Zeller in the Sefrou region in Morocco

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    Asfers Adil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trapping by specific sex pheromones initiated in 2009 to monitor three pests, peach twig borer (Anarsia lineatella, oriental fruit moth (Cydia molesta and plum fruit moth (Grapholita funebrana revealed the greater importance of peach twig borer in comparison to the others. The results of monitoring the development of larval stages over time and the accumulated degree-days from biofix show that the pest develops five generations per year, one of which undergoes a diapause. In 2009 and 2010 chemical control based on tolerance threshold of 10 males/trap/2 weeks showed unsatisfactory results. With this method, the percentage of affected fruits increased from 6.8% in 2009 to 18.6% in 2010 despite the application of four treatments of organophosphate-based insecticides in 2009 and the application of four treatments in 2010 using active ingredients from different chemical families (pyrethroid, organophosphate and chlorinicotinyl. On the other hand, management of the peach twig borer by the degree-days method tested and planned on the basis of a bifenthrin treatment between 150 to 204 degree-days accumulated from biofix, gave interesting results where the percentage of affected fruits hardly exceeded 0.5% over the four years of study

  9. SELECTIVITY OF INSECTICIDES USED IN PEACH FARMING TO LARVAE OF Chrysoperla externa (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE IN SEMI-FIELD CONDITIONS

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    RODOLFO VARGAS CASTILHOS

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The selectivity of five insecticides, regularly used in peach farming, was assessed for larvae of the predator Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae by means of bioassay in semi-field conditions. The bioassay was based on the counting of captured larvae after release in peach trees treated with the insecticides (% of active ingredient in spray liquid: deltamethrin (0.001, fenthion (0.050, phosmet (0.100, lufenuron (0.005 and malathion (0.200. Bait-cards with eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae were used to capture larvae from treated plants; five of them were fixed in plant canopy and five others left on the soil around stem. A protective barrier made up of galvanized steel sheet was used for each plant to avoid loss of larvae. The number of larvae feeding on the bait-cards was measured for four days. According to the number of captured larvae, each insecticide effect was estimated and classified into toxicity categories as stated by the International Organization for Biological and Integratec Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC. Based on observations, the insect growth regulator lufenuron was harmless, while the neurotoxins deltamethrin and malathion were slightly harmful; and lastly, fenthion and phosmet were moderately harmful to C. externa larvae in semi-field conditions. Thus, lufenuron should be recommended for integrated pest management, since it would preserve this predator species in peach orchards.

  10. Natural enemies associated to aphids in peach orchards in Araucária, Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuber, J M; Monteiro, L B; Almeida, L M; Zawadneak, M A C

    2012-11-01

    Natural enemies of the Class Insecta are important agents in the balance of aphid populations and an alternative to using insecticides to control these insects. The aim of this study was to identify the species of natural enemies associated with aphids present in peach orchards and observe the efficiency of capturing different sampling methods. The experiment was conducted from July, 2005 to September, 2006 in six peach orchards 'Chimarrita', in Araucária, PR, Brazil. The samples were taken by visual analysis in peach plants and weeds, yellow pan traps, sticky traps and funnels. Predator species were identified: Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, Cycloneda pulchella, Cycloneda sanguinea, Eriopis connexa, Harmonia axyridis, Hippodamia convergens and Scymnus sp. (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), Allograpta sp., Palpada sp. and Toxomerus sp. (Diptera, Syrphidae) and Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) and the parasitoids: Diaretiella rapae, Opius sp. and Praon sp (Braconidae). Examples of Encyrtidae and Eulophidae await identification. Chrysoperla sp. was a less abundant species. There were no statistically significant differences between the different sampling methods tested.

  11. Physicochemical characterization of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Arecaceae fruit skin residue flour obtained by convective drying

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    Jader Martínez-Girón

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of flour from residues of peach -palm fruit skin has been a forgotten topic from the view point of its physicochemical properties, because studies reported in the literature have focused on mesocarp flour characterization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the peach palm fruit epicarp flour obtained by convective drying at 60±2 °C through a specific production and storage process. As a result, the flour was found to be a source of bioactive compounds, showing total phenol concentration (23.40±1.30 mg gallic acid/100 g, antioxidant activity (33.10%±3.20, total carotenoids (59.31±1.61 mg β-carotene/100 g, color a* (4.95±0.58, color b* (3.25±0.57, and luminosity (33.95±3.16. On the other hand, there was a high level of total carotenoids (85% and phenolic compounds (94% retention after six months. Additionally, color change showed no significant difference during storage. In conclusion, the flour obtained is a byproduct with properties that can be used as an alternative to agroalimentary substitutes, mainly due to its color and antioxidant activity attributes. It is noteworthy to mention that this is one of the first studies to physicochemically characterize peach palm fruit skin flour from Valle del Cauca (Colombia.

  12. Conservation implications of the mating system of the Pampa Hermosa landrace of peach palm analyzed with microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Picanço-Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes is cultivated by many indigenous and traditional communities from Amazonia to Central America for its edible fruits, and is currently important for its heart-of-palm. The objective of this study was to investigate the mating system of peach palm, as this is important for conservation and breeding. Eight microsatellite loci were used to genotype 24 open-pollinated progenies from three populations of the Pampa Hermosa landrace maintained in a progeny trial for genetic improvement. Both the multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.95 to 0.99 and the progeny level multi-locus outcrossing rates (0.9 to 1.0 were high, indicating that peach palm is predominantly allogamous. The outcrossing rates among relatives were significantly different from zero (0.101 to 0.202, providing evidence for considerable biparental inbreeding within populations, probably due to farmers planting seeds of a small number of open-pollinated progenies in the same plot. The correlations of paternity estimates were low (0.051 to 0.112, suggesting a large number of pollen sources (9 to 20 participating in pollination of individual fruit bunches. Effective population size estimates suggest that current germplasm collections are insufficient for long-term ex situ conservation. As with most underutilized crops, on farm conservation is the most important component of an integrated conservation strategy.

  13. Detection of allergen coding sequences of kiwi, peach, and apple in processed food by qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Sara; Gullì, Mariolina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2017-12-06

    Food traceability becomes lifesaving for persons suffering severe allergy or intolerance, and therefore need a complete avoidance of the immune-trigger food. This paper describes how to fingerprint the presence of some allergenic species (kiwi, peach, and apple) in foods by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Five DNA extraction procedures were tested on fruits and foods. The results were statistically evaluated, and discussed. Analysis by qPCR with SYBR Green was developed to detect traces of these allergenic species in foods. Plasmids containing the target sequences of kiwi, peach and apple were employed as internal reference standard. Analysis of spiked food samples showed a limit of detection of 25 mg kg-1 for kiwi, 20 mg kg-1 for peach and 50 mg kg-1 for apple. The qPCR method here developed, combined with the use of internal plasmid reference standard, represents a specific system for the quick detection of allergenic species in complex food matrices, with a limit of detection comparable with those reported using more time-consuming methods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Improvement of flavour quality and consumer acceptance during postharvest ripening in greenhouse peaches by carbon dioxide enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wanpeng; Zhang, Qiuyun; Lu, Xiaoyan; Wei, Changqing; Yu, Songlin; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2014-12-01

    In this study we assessed the impact of carbon dioxide enrichment (CDE) on flavour quality development of peach fruit, using peach trees grown in a greenhouse with a carbon-dioxide-enriched atmosphere. Fruit sugar, organic acids, volatiles contents and consumer acceptability were investigated, focusing on the period of postharvest ripening. Higher levels of sucrose, lactones, norisoprenoids, and lower levels of malic acid were found in CDE-treated fruit than those in the control fruit grown under normal conditions. We also measured significantly elevated amounts of pyruvic acid, precursors of volatile compounds, linoleic acid and linolenic acid as a result of CDE. Additionally, CDE-treated fruit were relatively well accepted by consumers compared to the control fruit. These results suggested that CDE can markedly improve the flavour quality and consumer acceptance of greenhouse-grown peaches. The possible mechanism could be that CDE increased precursors available for the biosynthesis of flavour compounds through regulation of photosynthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Temporal Effects on the Incidence and Severity of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Feeding Injury to Peaches and Apples during the Fruiting Period in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shimat V; Nita, Mizuho; Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Exclusion cages were used to compare the incidence and severity of feeding injury from brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), on 'Redhaven' peaches, 'Golden Delicious' apples, and 'Smoothee Golden' apples at harvest, following sequential periods of exposure to natural H. halys populations during the 2011 and 2012 growing seasons in Virginia. The fruit used in these experiments were in orchards or on trees that were not managed for H. halys. Treatments were sets of 50 fruit that were always caged, never caged, or exposed during one interval during the fruiting period of peaches and apples in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The cages effectively prevented feeding injury from H. halys. Peaches and apples that were never caged showed the highest percentages of injured fruit at harvest. Exposure treatment had a significant effect on the percentage of fruit showing external injury at harvest in both years for apples and in 2012 for peaches, and a significant effect on the percentage of apples and peaches showing internal injury at harvest in both years. There was no consistent effect of each exposure period on peach injury, but apples exposed during the mid- to latter portion of the season tended to show most injury. Across all exposure periods, more internal than external injuries were recorded at harvest from peaches, while apples tended to have equal or very similar numbers of both kinds of injury. The implications of these results to H. halys management in eastern apple orchards are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Fine mapping and identification of a candidate gene for a major locus controlling maturity date in peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirona, Raul; Eduardo, Iban; Pacheco, Igor; Da Silva Linge, Cassia; Miculan, Mara; Verde, Ignazio; Tartarini, Stefano; Dondini, Luca; Pea, Giorgio; Bassi, Daniele; Rossini, Laura

    2013-10-22

    Maturity date (MD) is a crucial factor for marketing of fresh fruit, especially those with limited shelf-life such as peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch): selection of several cultivars with differing MD would be advantageous to cover and extend the marketing season. Aims of this work were the fine mapping and identification of candidate genes for the major maturity date locus previously identified on peach linkage group 4. To improve genetic resolution of the target locus two F2 populations derived from the crosses Contender x Ambra (CxA, 306 individuals) and PI91459 (NJ Weeping) x Bounty (WxBy, 103 individuals) were genotyped with the Sequenom and 9K Illumina Peach Chip SNP platforms, respectively. Recombinant individuals from the WxBy F2 population allowed the localisation of maturity date locus to a 220 kb region of the peach genome. Among the 25 annotated genes within this interval, functional classification identified ppa007577m and ppa008301m as the most likely candidates, both encoding transcription factors of the NAC (NAM/ATAF1, 2/CUC2) family. Re-sequencing of the four parents and comparison with the reference genome sequence uncovered a deletion of 232 bp in the upstream region of ppa007577m that is homozygous in NJ Weeping and heterozygous in Ambra, Bounty and the WxBy F1 parent. However, this variation did not segregate in the CxA F2 population being the CxA F1 parent homozygous for the reference allele. The second gene was thus examined as a candidate for maturity date. Re-sequencing of ppa008301m, showed an in-frame insertion of 9 bp in the last exon that co-segregated with the maturity date locus in both CxA and WxBy F2 populations. Using two different segregating populations, the map position of the maturity date locus was refined from 3.56 Mb to 220 kb. A sequence variant in the NAC gene ppa008301m was shown to co-segregate with the maturity date locus, suggesting this gene as a candidate controlling ripening time in peach. If confirmed on other

  17. Influence of pH value on Cu (II biosorption by lignocellulose peach shell waste material

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    Lopičić Zorica R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the pollution made by anthropogenic sources has reached large amounts with special attention on heavy metals because of their high toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation tendency. Since the conventional methods for their removing are either too expensive or create large quantities of toxic sludge, the great attention has been paid to the new technologies such as biosorption, technology that use cheap, abundant, organic waste for sequestering pollutants from contaminated mediums. Among the other factors that affect biosorption process, pH value is one the most important because it directs both the metal solution chemistry as well as the activity of the biomass functional groups. In this paper the influence of pH value on biosorption of Cu (II by unmodified low-cost lignocellulose biosorbent - peach shell (PS particles, have been studied. The chemical composition of PS, point of zero charge (pHPZC as well as its surface morphology is also presented. Results have showed that this biosorbent contains mainly cellulose and lignin, the components that carry the functional groups responsible for metal binding. Its multilayer surface contains many pores and channels that help diffusion in deeper layers and force biosorption process. Point of zero charge determination was performed with three different KNO3 ionic strengths: 0,1M, 0,01M and 0,001M. The obtained value for pHPZC was 4,75±0,1 and showed that this biosorbent is non-sensitive to ionic strength of electrolyte applied. Biosorption experiments were done with peach shell particles whose diameter was -0,5+0,1mm at 25oC . The initial copper (II concentration was 50 mg/dm3 while the biosorbent concentration was 10g/dm3. Experiments were done with and without keeping pH constant. The influence of pH on biosorption process was examined in 2-6 pH range. The percentage of Cu (II removed by PS, reaches its maximum at pH 6, with the 90,43% removing but this percentage can also be

  18. Inhibition of pulp browning and quality maintenance of late peach cultivars=Inibição do escurecimento da polpa e manutenção da qualidade de pêssegos de cultivares tardias, submetidas ao condicionamento térmico

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    Sérgio Ruffo Roberto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of delayed storage on the maintenance of the quality and on the control of pulp browning during cold storage of late peach cultivars. The fruit was harvested at the mature-green stage. All cultivars were exposed to temperatures of 20 ± 0.5ºC and 75 ± 3% of moisture in a cold room for 0.24, or 48 hours. Afterwards, the peaches were kept at 0 ± 0.5ºC and 92 ± 3% of R.H. for 28 days. In the end, the yellow pulp cultivars, regardless of temperature and length of delayed storage, did not present signs of internal browning and were of adequate quality for commercialization. When they were not subjected to delayed storage, the white pulp peaches presented pulp browning after 14 days of cold storage plus two days out of the cold room. From the results observed in the analysis of soluble solids, titratable acidity and decay development, these peaches showed an increased level of ripening. In both cultivars, delayed storage for 48 hours resulted in increased ripening and decay. Delayed storage for 24 hours was effective in controlling pulp browning and in maintaining the quality of the white pulp peach cultivars.Este estudo tem por objetivo identificar o efeito do armazenamento térmico na manutenção da qualidade, bem como, no controle do escurecimento da polpa durante o armazenamento refrigerado de cultivares de pêssegos tardios. Os frutos foram colhidos fisiologicamente maturos. Os frutos foram submetidos às temperaturas de 20 ± 0,5ºC e 75 ± 3% de UR, em câmara frigorífica, durante 0, 24 ou 48. Após, os frutos foram mantidos a 0 ± 0,5ºC e 92 ± 3% de UR, por 28 dias. Ao final do experimento, os frutos das cultivares de polpa amarela, independentemente de armazenamento refrigerado, não apresentaram sinais de escurecimento interno, apresentaram qualidade adequada para comercialização. Quando não submetidos ao armazenamento refrigerado, após 14 dia de armazenamento, mais dois sem

  19. Development and Fecundity Performance of Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Reared on Shoots and Fruits of Peach and Pear in Different Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Li, Guangwei; Xu, Xiangli; Wu, Junxiang

    2015-12-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) is a globally important insect pest. In some parts of its geographic range, the oriental fruit moth shifts its attack from peach orchards to pear orchards late in the growing season. The phenological effects of host plants on the performance of the moth were evaluated by examining the development and fecundity of the moth reared on peach (Prunus persica variety "Shahong") and pear (Pyrus bretshneideri variety "Dangshan Su") collected at various times of the growing season under laboratory conditions. Results showed that the moth developed faster on shoots and fruits of peach than on those of pear. The preimaginal survival rate was the highest on peach shoots, and the moth could not survive on pear fruit collected on May 10. For both peach and pear, the boring rates of neonatal larvae were significantly higher on shoots than on fruits, and the pupal mass of females was significantly higher on fruits than on shoots. The boring rate increased with pear fruits growing during later days. Fecundity was significantly less on pear shoots than on the other plant materials. The results of this study suggest a possible host adaptation process in oriental fruit moth. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Is home-based palliative care cost-effective? An economic evaluation of the Palliative Care Extended Packages at Home (PEACH) pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Nikki; Agar, Meera; Harlum, Janeane; Karnon, Jonathon; Currow, David; Eckermann, Simon

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a home-based palliative care model relative to usual care in expediting discharge or enabling patients to remain at home. Economic evaluation of a pilot randomised controlled trial with 28 days follow-up. Mean costs and effectiveness were calculated for the Palliative Care Extended Packages at Home (PEACH) and usual care arms including: days at home; place of death; PEACH intervention costs; specialist palliative care service use; acute hospital and palliative care unit inpatient stays; and outpatient visits. PEACH mean intervention costs per patient ($3489) were largely offset by lower mean inpatient care costs ($2450) and in this arm, participants were at home for one additional day on average. Consequently, PEACH is cost-effective relative to usual care when the threshold value for one extra day at home exceeds $1068, or $2547 if only within-study days of hospital admission are costed. All estimates are high uncertainty. The results of this small pilot study point to the potential of PEACH as a cost-effective end-of-life care model relative to usual care. Findings support the feasibility of conducting a definitive, fully powered study with longer follow-up and comprehensive economic evaluation.

  1. Polyphenolics from peach (Prunus persica var. Rich Lady) inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noratto, Giuliana; Porter, Weston; Byrne, David; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2014-07-01

    The tumor growth inhibition and anti-metastatic effects of peach polyphenolics were investigated in vivo using a xenograft model and MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells. Results showed that tumor growth and lung metastasis were inhibited in vivo by peach polyphenolics in a dose range of 0.8-1.6 mg/day, and these effects were mediated by inhibition of metalloproteinases gene expression. Modulation of metalloproteinase-2, metalloproteinase-3 and metalloproteinase-13 gene expression may be some of the molecular targets for anti-metastatic activity of peach polyphenolics. Therefore, these compounds may constitute a novel chemopreventive tool to reduce the risk of metastasis in the combination therapy when primary cancer is diagnosed. Conversion to equivalent human intake for future clinical studies using the body surface area normalization method gave a dose of ~370.6 mg/day for a human adult of 60 kg, which can be supplied by consuming two to three peach fruit per day or alternatively using a dietary supplement peach polyphenol extract powder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of miRNAs and their target genes in peach (Prunus persica L.) using high-throughput sequencing and degradome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoyan; Gao, Zhihong; Shi, Ting; Cheng, Zongming; Zhang, Zhen; Ni, Zhaojun

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs play critical roles in various biological and metabolic processes. The function of miRNAs has been widely studied in model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. However, the number of identified miRNAs and related miRNA targets in peach (Prunus persica) is limited. To understand further the relationship between miRNAs and their target genes during tissue development in peach, a small RNA library and three degradome libraries were constructed from three tissues for deep sequencing. We identified 117 conserved miRNAs and 186 novel miRNA candidates in peach by deep sequencing and 19 conserved miRNAs and 13 novel miRNAs were further evaluated for their expression by RT-qPCR. The number of gene targets that were identified for 26 conserved miRNA families and 38 novel miRNA candidates, were 172 and 87, respectively. Some of the identified miRNA targets were abundantly represented as conserved miRNA targets in plant. However, some of them were first identified and showed important roles in peach development. Our study provides information concerning the regulatory network of miRNAs in peach and advances our understanding of miRNA functions during tissue development.

  3. Double White Dwarf Merger Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Silvia; Nelemans, Gijs; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are very successfully used as standard candles on cosmological distance scales, but so far the nature of the progenitor(s) is unclear. A possible scenario for SNe Ia are merging carbon/oxygen white dwarfs with a combined mass exceeding the Chandrasekhar mass. We determine the theoretical rates and delay time distribution of these mergers for two different common envelope prescriptions and metallicities. The shape of the delay time distributions is rather insensitive to the assumptions. The normalization is a factor ~3-13 too low compared to observations.

  4. Sailing to White Boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This is a composite red-green-blue image of the rock called White Boat. It is the first rock target that Spirit drove to after finishing a series of investigations on the rock Adirondack. White Boat stood out to scientists due to its light color and more tabular shape compared to the dark, rounded rocks that surround it.

  5. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  6. White Teachers Talking Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, Avner; Garrett, James

    2013-01-01

    In light of the increasing racial diversity in American schools and the consistently homogenous teacher workforce in the United States, understanding the ways white teachers consider and attend to racial issues is of crucial importance to the educational landscape. This paper, based on a qualitative study, explores five white American teachers'…

  7. The effects of white matter hyperintensities and amyloid deposition on Alzheimer dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The amount of amyloid deposition and white matter damage independently predicts cognitive impairment. This suggests a diagnostic utility of qualitative white matter scales in addition to measuring amyloid levels.

  8. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Report 1. Baseline Studies. Volume II. The Fish, Mammals, and Waterfowl of Lake Conway, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    reduced. b. White amur recycle nutrients bound in aquatic macrophytes , possibly increasing the nutrient level in the water so that problems of... eutrophication , plankton blooms, and filamentous algae are aggravated. c. Sport fish population production may decline due to sim- ple displacement, direct...level fluctuations, seasonal succession of aquatic macrophytes , water quality, physical alterations, and other factors. Of course in some instances

  9. Large-Scale Candidate Gene Analysis in Whites and African Americans Identifies IL6R Polymorphism in Relation to Atrial Fibrillation The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnabel, Renate B.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Alkylbekova, Ermeg L.; Marcus, Gregory M.; Sinner, Moritz F.; Magnani, Jared W.; Wolf, Philip A.; Deo, Rajat; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Mehra, Reena; Levy, Daniel; Fox, Ervin R.; Arking, Dan E.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Young, Taylor R.; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Seshadri, Sudha; Farlow, Deborah N.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Glazer, Nicole L.; Wilson, James G.; Breteler, Monique M. B.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Kaeaeb, Stefan; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Alonso, Alvaro; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Heckbert, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Background-The genetic background of atrial fibrillation (AF) in whites and African Americans is largely unknown. Genes in cardiovascular pathways have not been systematically investigated. Methods and Results-We examined a panel of approximately 50 000 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)

  10. Black and white women's attitudes toward interracial marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paset, P S; Taylor, R D

    1991-12-01

    50 white women and 50 black women, US citizens between the ages 18 and 23 years, were asked to rate their attitudes about interracial marriage on a 10-point response scale. The white women were somewhat more favorable, if not significantly so, than the black women about men and women of their race marrying persons of another race. However, scorers at the extremes of the scale were significantly different. The white women tended to cluster at the scale extreme favoring interracial marriage, whereas the black women tended to cluster at the other unfavorable extreme. Implications and research needs are discussed.

  11. Achromatic optical correlator for white light pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chen, Ming; Cai, Luzhong

    1987-01-01

    An achromatic optical correlator using spatially multiplexed achromatic matched spatial filters (MSFs) for white light optical pattern recognition is presented. The MSF array is synthesizd using a monochromatic laser and its achromaticity is achieved by adjusting the scale and spatial carrier frequency of each MSF to accommodate the wavelength variations in white light correlation detections. Systems analysis and several experimental results showing the correlation peak intensity using white-light illumination are presented.

  12. Transgenerational Shifts in Reproduction Hormesis in Green Peach Aphid Exposed to Low Concentrations of Imidacloprid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyanath, Murali-Mohan; Cutler, G. Christopher; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D.; Sibley, Paul K.

    2013-01-01

    Hormesis is a biphasic phenomenon that in toxicology is characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. It has been observed in a wide range of organisms in response to many chemical stressors, including insects exposed to pesticides, with potential repercussions for agriculture and pest management. To address questions related to the nature of the dose-response and potential consequences on biological fitness, we examined transgenerational hormesis in the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, when exposed to sublethal concentrations of the insecticide imidacloprid. A hormetic response in the form of increased reproduction was consistently observed and a model previously developed to test for hormesis adequately fit some of our data. However, the nature of the dose-response differed within and across generations depending upon the duration and mode of exposure. Decreased reproduction in intermediate generations confirmed that fitness tradeoffs were a consequence of the hormetic response. However, recovery to levels of reproduction equal to that of controls in subsequent generations and significantly greater total reproduction after four generations suggested that biological fitness was increased by exposure to low concentrations of the insecticide, even when insects were continuously exposed to the stressor. This was especially evident in a greenhouse experiment where the instantaneous rate of population increase almost doubled and total aphid production more than quadrupled when aphids were exposed to potato plants systemically treated with low amounts of imidacloprid. Our results show that although fitness tradeoffs do occur with hormetic responses, this does not necessarily compromise overall biological fitness. PMID:24040272

  13. Transgenerational shifts in reproduction hormesis in green peach aphid exposed to low concentrations of imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyanath, Murali-Mohan; Cutler, G Christopher; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D; Sibley, Paul K

    2013-01-01

    Hormesis is a biphasic phenomenon that in toxicology is characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. It has been observed in a wide range of organisms in response to many chemical stressors, including insects exposed to pesticides, with potential repercussions for agriculture and pest management. To address questions related to the nature of the dose-response and potential consequences on biological fitness, we examined transgenerational hormesis in the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, when exposed to sublethal concentrations of the insecticide imidacloprid. A hormetic response in the form of increased reproduction was consistently observed and a model previously developed to test for hormesis adequately fit some of our data. However, the nature of the dose-response differed within and across generations depending upon the duration and mode of exposure. Decreased reproduction in intermediate generations confirmed that fitness tradeoffs were a consequence of the hormetic response. However, recovery to levels of reproduction equal to that of controls in subsequent generations and significantly greater total reproduction after four generations suggested that biological fitness was increased by exposure to low concentrations of the insecticide, even when insects were continuously exposed to the stressor. This was especially evident in a greenhouse experiment where the instantaneous rate of population increase almost doubled and total aphid production more than quadrupled when aphids were exposed to potato plants systemically treated with low amounts of imidacloprid. Our results show that although fitness tradeoffs do occur with hormetic responses, this does not necessarily compromise overall biological fitness.

  14. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCello, D.C.; Odell, A.D.; Jackson, T.J. [PECO Energy Co., Delta, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific ({mu}Ci/cm{sup 2}) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed.

  15. Analysis of core damage frequency: Peach Bottom, Unit 2 internal events appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Cramond, W.R.; Sype, T.T.; Maloney, K.J.; Wheeler, T.A.; Daniel, S.L. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA); Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1989-08-01

    This document contains the appendices for the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for the Peach Bottom, Unit 2 Nuclear Power Plant. This is one of the five plant analyses conducted as part of the NUREG-1150 effort for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The work performed and described here is an extensive reanalysis of that published in October 1986 as NUREG/CR-4550, Volume 4. It addresses comments from numerous reviewers and significant changes to the plant systems and procedures made since the first report. The uncertainty analysis and presentation of results are also much improved, and considerable effort was expended on an improved analysis of loss of offsite power. The content and detail of this report is directed toward PRA practitioners who need to know how the work was done and the details for use in further studies. The mean core damage frequency is 4.5E-6 with 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds of 3.5E-7 and 1.3E-5, respectively. Station blackout type accidents (loss of all ac power) contributed about 46% of the core damage frequency with Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) accidents contributing another 42%. The numerical results are driven by loss of offsite power, transients with the power conversion system initially available operator errors, and mechanical failure to scram. 13 refs., 345 figs., 171 tabs.

  16. Global Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Differences in Gene Expression Patterns Between Nonhyperhydric and Hyperhydric Peach Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Bakir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhydricity is a morphophysiological disorder of plants in tissue culture characterized morphologically by the presence of translucent, thick, curled, and fragile leaves as a result of excessive water intake. Since clonal propagation is a major in vitro technique for multiplying plants vegetatively, the emergence of hyperhydricity-related symptoms causes significant economic losses to agriculture and horticulture. Although numerous efforts have been hitherto devoted to the morphological and anatomical responses of plants to hyperhydricity, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, a genome-wide transcriptome analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed genes in hyperhydric and nonhyperhydric leaves of peach [ (L. Batsch]. The RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq analysis showed that the expression of >300 transcripts was altered between control and hyperhydric leaf cells. The top 30 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs were related to the posttranscriptional regulators of organelle gene expression and photosynthesis, cellular elimination, plant cuticle development, and abiotic stress response processes. The expression of 10 DETs was also conformed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR in hyperhydric and nonhyperhydric leaves. As a complex biological process, hyperhydricity alters the expression of various transcripts including transcription factor (, RNA binding protein (pentatricopeptide, , transporter protein (, and . Thus, this genome-wide transcriptome profiling study may help elucidate the molecular mechanism of hyperhydricity.

  17. Chilling requirement for seed germination and phenological observations on peach cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Wagner Júnior

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In subtropical climate areas, the models and methods proposed to evaluate the chilling requirement of temperate fruit crops often do not provide satisfactory results, thus calling for the development of alternative techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between some phonological traits and chilling requirement for seed germination of 18 peach cultivars and one nectarine cultivar. Two experiments were installed separately for the correlation studies. In experiment 1, the phenological traits were observed in the field, while in experiment 2, the chilling requirement for 50 and 100% seed germination of each cultivar was assessed. The number of days for beginning of bloom (r = 0.70**, 0.61** and full bloom (r = 0.72**, 0.76** were both significantly correlated with the number of chilling units for 50% and 100% germination of seeds. The number of days for beginning of budding and dormancy break were both significantly correlated with the number of chilling units for 50% and 100% germination (r = 0.48*, 0.50*, respectively. However, the same significant effect for these phenological traits was not found between chilling units and 50% germination of seeds, as well as between chilling units and harvest dates.

  18. Biotechnological production of γ-decalactone, a peach like aroma, by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, A; Belo, I

    2016-10-01

    The request for new flavourings increases every year. Consumer perception that everything natural is better is causing an increase demand for natural aroma additives. Biotechnology has become a way to get natural products. γ-Decalactone is a peach-like aroma widely used in dairy products, beverages and others food industries. In more recent years, more and more studies and industrial processes were endorsed to cost-effect this compound production. One of the best-known methods to produce γ-decalactone is from ricinoleic acid catalyzed by Yarrowia lipolytica, a generally regarded as safe status yeast. As yet, several factors affecting γ-decalactone production remain to be fully understood and optimized. In this review, we focus on the aromatic compound γ-decalactone and its production by Y. lipolytica. The metabolic pathway of lactone production and degradation are addressed. Critical analysis of novel strategies of bioprocess engineering, metabolic and genetic engineering and other strategies for the enhancement of the aroma productivity are presented.

  19. Optimization of osmotic dehydration conditions of peach slices in sucrose solution using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Baljeet Singh; Yadav, Ritika B; Jatain, Monika

    2012-10-01

    Osmotic dehydration (OD) conditions of peach slices were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) with respect to sucrose concentration (50-70°B), immersion time (2-4 h) and process temperature (35-55 °C) for maximum water loss (WL), minimum solute gain (SG) and maximum rehydration ratio (RR) as response variables. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used as experimental design. The models developed for all responses were significant. All model terms were significant in WL except the quadratic levels of sucrose concentration and temperature whereas in SG, linear terms of time and linear and quadratic terms of temperature were significant. All the terms except linear term of time and interaction term of time and sucrose concentration, were significant in RR. The optimized conditions were sucrose concentration = 69.9°B, time = 3.97 h and temperature = 37.63 °C in order to obtain WL of 28.42 (g/100 g of fresh weight), SG of 8.39 (g/100 g of fresh weight) and RR of 3.38.

  20. Postirradiation examination and evaluation of Peach Bottom fuel test element FTE-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallroth, C.F.; Holzgraf, J.F.; Jensen, D.D.

    1977-09-01

    Fuel test element FTE-6 was irradiated in the Peach Bottom high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) for 645 equivalent full power days. Four fuel varieties, contained in H-327 graphite bodies, were tested. A primary result of this test has been to demonstrate acceptable performance even with calculated high stresses in the graphite bodies. Heterogeneous fuel loadings in the element caused local power peaking and azimuthal power variations, deforming the graphite fuel bodies and thereby causing bowing nearly five times as large as the diametral clearance within the sleeve. The axial stresses resulting from interference between the fuel bodies and sleeve were estimated to have reached 45% of the ultimate material strength at the end of the irradiation. Residual stresses from differential contraction within the fuel body resulted in probable in-plane stress levels of 130% of the material strength at the end-of-life shutdown and of up to 150% of the strength at shutdown during the irradiation cycle. The high in-plane stresses are local peaks at the corners of a sharp notch in the element, which may account for the stresses failing to cause damage. The lack of observable damage, however, indicates that the methods and data used for stress analysis give results that are either fairly accurate or conservative.

  1. Distribution of fission products in Peach Bottom HTGR fuel element E11-07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wichner, R.P.; Dyer, F.F.; Martin, W.J.; Bate, L.C.

    1977-04-01

    This is the second in a projected series of six post-irradiation examinations of Peach Bottom High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor driver fuel elements. Element E11-07, the subject of this report, received an equivalent of 701 full-power days of irradiation prior to scheduled withdrawal. The examination procedures emphasized the determination of fission product distributions in the graphite portions of the fuel element. Continuous axial scans indicated a /sup 137/Cs inventory of 17 Ci in the graphite sleeve and 8.3 Ci in the spine at the time of element withdrawal from the core. In addition, the nuclides /sup 134/Cs, /sup 110m/Ag, /sup 60/Co, and /sup 154/Eu were found in the graphite portions of the fuel element in significant amounts. Radial distributions of these nuclides plus the distribution of the beta emitters /sup 3/H, /sup 14/C, and /sup 90/Sr were obtained at six axial locations, four within the fueled region and one each above and below. The radial dissection was accomplished by use of a manipulator-operated lathe in a hot cell. These profiles reveal an increased degree of penetration of /sup 134/Cs, relative to /sup 137/Cs, evidently due to a longer time spent as xenon precursor. In addition to fission product distribution, the appearance of the element components was recorded photographically, fuel compact and graphite dimensions were recorded at numerous locations, and metallographic examinations of the fuel were performed.

  2. Microsatellite marker analysis of peach-potato aphids (Myzus persicae, Homoptera: Aphididae) from Scottish suction traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloch, G; Highet, F; Kasprowicz, L; Pickup, J; Neilson, R; Fenton, B

    2006-12-01

    The peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is an important vector of plant viruses. A network of suction traps collects aerial samples of this aphid in order to monitor and help predict its spatial distribution and likely impact on virus transmission in crops. A suction trap catch is thought to be a good representation of the total aphid pool. Sensitive molecular markers have been developed that determine the genetic composition of the M. persicae population. In Scotland, UK, these were applied to field collections revealing a limited number of clones. Molecular markers are less successful when applied to specimens that have been preserved in an ethanol-based trap fluid designed to preserve morphology. An assessment of different DNA extraction and PCR techniques is presented and the most efficient are used to analyse M. persicae specimens caught in the Dundee suction trap in 2001, a year when exceptionally high numbers were caught. The results reveal that the majority of the M. persicae caught belonged to two highly insecticide resistant clones. In addition, it was possible to compare the relative frequencies of genotypes caught in the trap with those collected at insecticide treated and untreated field sites in the vicinity. These results indicate that, in addition to suction trap data, the ability to sample field sites provides valuable early warning data which have implications for pest control and virus management strategies.

  3. The evolution of insecticide resistance in the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Chris; Puinean, Alin M; Zimmer, Christoph T; Denholm, Ian; Field, Linda M; Foster, Stephen P; Gutbrod, Oliver; Nauen, Ralf; Slater, Russell; Williamson, Martin S

    2014-08-01

    The peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae is a globally distributed crop pest with a host range of over 400 species including many economically important crop plants. The intensive use of insecticides to control this species over many years has led to populations that are now resistant to several classes of insecticide. Work spanning over 40 years has shown that M. persicae has a remarkable ability to evolve mechanisms that avoid or overcome the toxic effect of insecticides with at least seven independent mechanisms of resistance described in this species to date. The array of novel resistance mechanisms, including several 'first examples', that have evolved in this species represents an important case study for the evolution of insecticide resistance and also rapid adaptive change in insects more generally. In this review we summarise the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying resistance in M. persicae and the insights study of this topic has provided on how resistance evolves, the selectivity of insecticides, and the link between resistance and host plant adaptation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Suppression of plant defenses by a Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary effector protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, Dezi A; De Vos, Martin; Jander, Georg

    2014-07-01

    The complex interactions between aphids and their host plant are species-specific and involve multiple layers of recognition and defense. Aphid salivary proteins, which are released into the plant during phloem feeding, are a likely mediator of these interactions. In an approach to identify aphid effectors that facilitate feeding from host plants, eleven Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary proteins and the GroEL protein of Buchnera aphidicola, a bacterial endosymbiont of this aphid species, were expressed transiently in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Whereas two salivary proteins increased aphid reproduction, expression of three other aphid proteins and GroEL significantly decreased aphid reproduction on N. tabacum. These effects were recapitulated in stable transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Further experiments with A. thaliana expressing Mp55, a salivary protein that increased aphid reproduction, showed lower accumulation of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate, callose and hydrogen peroxide in response to aphid feeding. Mp55-expressing plants also were more attractive for aphids in choice assays. Silencing Mp55 gene expression in M. persicae using RNA interference approaches reduced aphid reproduction on N. tabacum, A. thaliana, and N. benthamiana. Together, these results demonstrate a role for Mp55, a protein with as-yet-unknown molecular function, in the interaction of M. persicae with its host plants.

  5. Pattern recognition of peach cultivars (Prunus persica L.) from their volatile components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Prado, Pablo; Bentayeb, Karim; Nerín, Cristina

    2013-05-01

    The volatile compounds of four peach cultivars (Prunus persica L.) were studied: Sudanell, San Lorenzo, Miraflores and Calanda (two clones, Calante and Jesca). 17-23 Samples of each cultivar with the same maturity level were analyzed, measuring color, firmness, and soluble solids content. The pulp was crushed and mixed with water prior to HS-SPME analysis, and GC-MS was used to determine the volatile compounds. Sixty-five compounds were identified using spectral library matching, Kovat's indices and, when available, pure standards. The main components were lactones and C6 compounds. From the distribution of these compounds, Principal Component Analysis led to the clustering of the samples according to their different cultivars. Finally, Canonical Component Analysis was used to create a classification function that identifies the origin of an unknown sample from its volatile composition. The results obtained will help to avoid fraud and protect the European Designation of Origin 'Melocotón de Calanda'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Basal temperature and thermal sum in phenological phases of nectarine and peach cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Pacheco de Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate basal temperature, thermal sum at different phenological stages, phenological phase duration, yield and seasonality of one nectarine and 14 peach cultivars, between 2006 and 2009. The considered phenological phases were: pruning-sprouting; sprouting-flowering, from swollen bud to open flower; flowering-fruiting, from petal fall to medium-sized fruit; and ripening. Minimum basal temperatures (Tb obtained were: pruning-sprouting, 8°C, irrespective of the cultivars; sprouting-flowering, 10°C, except for 'Cascata 968', which required 8°C Tb; flowering-fruiting, 12°C, except for 'Oro Azteca', which required 14°C Tb; ripening, 14°C, except for 'Sunblaze', 'Diamante Mejorado' and 'Precocinho' with 12°C Tb. For most cultivars, the maximum basal temperatures were 30, 34, 34 and 28ºC for phases pruning-sprouting, sprouting-flowering, flowering-fruiting and ripening, respectively. 'Turmalina', 'Marli' and 'Tropic Beauty' showed average yields of 3,945.0, 3,969.3 and 3,954.0 kg ha-1, respectively, in 2009, while the nectarine 'Sunblaze' showed around 3,900 kg ha-1 in 2008 and 2009. The cultivars differed for their total cycle and for the accumulated thermal sums which varied, respectively, from 245 days and 1,881.4 degree-days for 'Oro Azteca', to144 days and 1,455.7 degree-days for 'Precocinho'.

  7. Biochemical Responses of Peach Leaves Infected with Taphrina Deformans Berk/Tul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubka Koleva-Valkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic fungus Taphrina deformans causing the so called “leaf curl disease” in peach trees leads to severe yield losses due to the development of leaf hypertrophy and subsequent necrosis and scission. Because of its economic importance, the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of the disease are of considerable interest to the agricultural science. In this study various biochemical parameters, including the activities of the antioxidant enzymes guaiacol peroxidase, syringaldazine peroxidase and catalase, total polyphenols and anthocyanin content, concentration of free proline, antiradical activity and quantity of plastid pigments, were characterized. All these were measured in both leaves with clear symptoms and distally situated leaves from the same plant that show no signs of the infection. The results demonstrate that the pathogen induces considerable biochemical changes concerning enzymatic and non‑enzymatic elements of the plant defense and antioxidant systems. Moreover, it seems that the fungus provokes a systemic response detectable even in the tissues without observable symptoms.

  8. Molecular Phylogeny and Identification of the Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata, Established in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Samie, Emtithal M.; El Fiky, Zaki A.

    2011-01-01

    The genetic structure of the Egyptian peach fruit fly (Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae)) population was analyzed using total RNA from adult females. A portion of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), 369 bp was amplified using RT-PCR, and was sequenced and analyzed to clarify the phylogenetic relationship of B. zonata established in Egypt. The data suggested that the gene shared a similarity in sequence compared to Bactrocera COI gene found in GenBank. Molecular phylogenetic analyses were performed based on nucleotide sequences in order to examine the position of the Egyptian population among many other species of fruit flies. The results indicate that four accession numbers of B. zonata (three from New Zealand and one from India) are closely related, while the Egyptian B. zonata are close to the 71 accession numbers of Bactrocera include one B. zonata from New Zealand. These two B. zonata from Egypt and New Zealand showed a close relationship in neighbor—joining analysis using the seven accession numbers of B. zonata. In addition, a theoretical restriction map of the homology portion of the COI gene was constructed using 212 restriction enzymes obtained from the restriction enzyme database to identify the Egyptian and New Zealand B. zonata. PMID:22958094

  9. Characterization of the vineyard byotyp collection of peach as step in prebreeding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakić Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, morphological characterization of vineyard peach collection was conducted. In 78 accessions thirty qualitative traits of tree, flower, leaf, fruit and stone were analysed by using UPOV and ECPGR descriptors. Most of the studied traits showed a high degree of variability. The lowest variability obtained for the leaf traits, and highest for skin and flesh colour. Not only were the accessions sorted into a large number of categories by the most of their properties, but also there was a significant level of variability in the collection, reflecting in the fact that the traits were recombinant in a different way. Principal component analysis (PCA and a dendrogram were performed to determine relationships among accessions and to obtain information on the usefulness of those characters for the discrimination. The PCA revealed that the first 4 principal components were able to represent 43.1% of total variance. Traits with high discriminating values comprised internal and external fruit colour, flower type and colour, flower bud density and stone shape. The cluster analysis showed that the accessions were placed in three main clusters. The greatest impact on the separation in clusters had fruit over colour and extent of fruit over colour. Moreover, the collection can also comprise some accessions with the preferred recombination of properties that might be interesting for further studies in breeding. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063

  10. Effect of low doses of precocene on reproduction and gene expression in green peach aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyanath, Murali-Mohan; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia D; Cutler, G Christopher

    2015-06-01

    Insect reproduction can be stimulated by exposure to sublethal doses of insecticide that kill the same insects at high doses. This bi-phasic dose response to a stressor is known as hormesis and has been demonstrated with many different insect-insecticide models. The specific mechanisms of the increased reproduction in insects following sublethal pesticide exposure are unknown, but may be related to juvenile hormone (JH), which has a major role in regulation of metamorphosis and reproductive development in insects. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to sublethal concentrations of precocene, an antagonist of JH, would not result in stimulated reproductive outputs in the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, as can be demonstrated with many neurotoxic insecticides. We also measured JH titers and the expression of various developmental (FPPS I), stress response (Hsp60), and dispersal (OSD, TOL and ANT) genes in aphids following exposure to the same precocene treatments. We found that when aphid nymphs were treated with certain sublethal concentrations of precocene, 1.5- to 2-fold increased reproductive stimulation occurred when they became adults, but this effect subsided in the following generation. Precocene treatments to nymphs resulted in no measurable effects on JH levels in subsequent reproducing adults. Although we detected major effects on gene expression following some precocene treatments (e.g. 100- to 300-fold increased expression of some genes), there were no clear relationships between gene expression and reproductive responses for a given treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identifying yeast isolated from spoiled peach puree and assessment of its batch culture for invertase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vega FERREIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of yeasts isolated from spoiled Jubileu peach puree using the API 20C AUX method and a commercial yeast as witness were studied. Subsequently, the yeast’s growth potential using two batch culture treatments were performed to evaluate number of colonies (N, reducing sugar concentration (RS, free-invertase (FI, and culture-invertase activity (CI. Stock cultures were maintained on potato dextrose agar (PDA slants at 4 °C and pH 5 for later use for batch-culture (150 rpm at 30°C for 24 h, then they were stored at 4 °C for subsequent invertase extraction. The FI extract was obtained using NaHCO3 as autolysis agent, and CI activity was determined on the supernatant after batch-cultured centrifugation. The activity was followed by an increase in absorbance at 490 nm using the acid 3,5-DNS method with glucose standard. Of the four yeasts identified, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen for legal reasons. It showed logarithmic growth up to 18 h of fermentation with positive correlation CI activity and inverse with RS. FI showed greater activity by the end of the log phase and an inverse correlation with CI activity. Finally, it was concluded that treatment “A” is more effective than “B” to produce invertase (EC 3.2.1.26.

  12. SOARCA Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Long-Term Station Blackout Uncertainty Analysis: Knowledge Advancement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Mattie, Patrick D.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Ross, Kyle W.; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Kalinich, Donald A.; Osborn, Douglas.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Ghosh, S. Tina

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the knowledge advancements from the uncertainty analysis for the State-of- the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) unmitigated long-term station blackout accident scenario at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This work assessed key MELCOR and MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2) modeling uncertainties in an integrated fashion to quantify the relative importance of each uncertain input on potential accident progression, radiological releases, and off-site consequences. This quantitative uncertainty analysis provides measures of the effects on consequences, of each of the selected uncertain parameters both individually and in interaction with other parameters. The results measure the model response (e.g., variance in the output) to uncertainty in the selected input. Investigation into the important uncertain parameters in turn yields insights into important phenomena for accident progression and off-site consequences. This uncertainty analysis confirmed the known importance of some parameters, such as failure rate of the Safety Relief Valve in accident progression modeling and the dry deposition velocity in off-site consequence modeling. The analysis also revealed some new insights, such as dependent effect of cesium chemical form for different accident progressions. (auth)

  13. Dynamics of soil water content during depletion cycles in peach orchards in a semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Paltineanu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the competition for water resources, increasing efforts are done in order to use more efficiently irrigation water in agriculture. The purpose of this paper is to find out daily soil water content (SWC dynamics during depletion cycles in order to emphasize its pattern and compare daylight vs. night (dark and morning vs. afternoon SWC dynamics in an irrigated peach (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch orchard under various soil water regimes. To do this, four depletion cycles were studied after irrigation application in two treatments: fully irrigated (T1 and water stressed (T2, in a semiarid region of Romania. Soil water potential was continuously measured with Watermark resistance blocks. Daylight soil water discharge (SWD is higher than night SWD (1.87 ratio in T1 and 1.50 in T2 mainly due to solar radiation (Rs, higher vapor pressure deficit (VPD, and wind speed (U, with crop transpiration and crop water uptake being higher during daylight vs. nighttime. SWD during 14:00-20:00 h is greater than 08:00-14:00 h due to higher afternoon values of air temperature (T, VPD, and U. The results help understand better the relations between the daily dynamics of SWC and Rs, T, VPD, and U, and could be utilized by fruit growers to improve water management and conservation in semiarid regions with similar environmental conditions.

  14. Instrumental and sensory characterisation of Solaris white wines in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Zhang, Shujuan; Arneborg, Nils; Bredie, Wender L P

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the volatile and non-volatile compositions as well as sensory properties of the most common monovarietal white wine (var. Solaris) in Denmark. Using dynamic headspace sampling (DHS) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), 79 volatile compounds were identified. Among the major non-volatile components glycerol, sulphite, sugars and organic acids were analysed. A primary sensory difference was observed among wine samples, half of which were characterised by floral and fruity flavours (peach/apricot, Muscat, melon, banana and strawberry) while the remainder were described by less pleasant flavours, such as chemical, wood and rooibos/smoke. Partial least squares regression (PLS) showed that acetates and ethyl esters of straight-chain fatty acids were associated with floral and fruity odours while ethyl esters of branched-chain fatty acids were less associated with them. The study also suggested that differences in vintage were less characteristic than differences caused due to sulphite management by producers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Astrometric Binaries: White Dwarfs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliversen, Nancy A.

    We propose to observe a selection of astrometric or spectroscopicastrometric binaries nearer than about 20 pc with unseen low mass companions. Systems of this type are important for determining the luminosity function of low mass stars (white dwarfs and very late main sequence M stars), and their contribution to the total mass of the galaxy. Systems of this type are also important because the low mass, invisible companions are potential candidates in the search for planets. Our target list is selected primarily from the list of 31 astrometric binaries near the sun by Lippincott (1978, Space Sci. Rev., 22, 153), with additional candidates from recent observations by Kamper. The elimination of stars with previous IUE observations, red companions resolved by infrared speckle interferometry, or primaries later than M1 (because if white dwarf companions are present they should have been detected in the visible region) reduces the list to 5 targets which need further information. IUE SWP low dispersion observations of these targets will show clearly whether the remaining unseen companions are white dwarfs, thus eliminating very cool main sequence stars or planets. This is also important in providing complete statistical information about the nearest stars. The discovery of a white dwarf in such a nearby system would provide important additional information about the masses of white dwarfs. Recent results by Greenstein (1986, A. J., 92, 859) from binary systems containing white dwarfs imply that 80% of such systems are as yet undetected. The preference of binaries for companions of approximately equal mass makes the Lippincott-Kamper list of A through K primaries with unseen companions a good one to use to search for white dwarfs. The mass and light dominance of the current primary over the white dwarf in the visible makes ultraviolet observations essential to obtain an accurate census of white dwarf binaries.

  16. Variation in minerals, phenolics and antioxidant activity of peel and pulp of different varieties of peach (Prunus persica L.) fruit from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Maleeha; Anwar, Farooq; Mahmood, Zahed; Rashid, Umer; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2012-05-30

    Peach (Prunus persica L.), being a potential source of bioactive compounds, has been demonstrated to have medicinal benefits. In this study variation of minerals and antioxidant characteristics (total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system and DPPH free radical scavenging activity) between peel and pulp parts of different peach varieties, namely Golden, Shireen, and Shahpasand were investigated. The peel and pulp extracts, derived from the varieties analyzed, exhibited an appreciable amount of total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF), ranging from 1,209.3-1,354.5, 711.7-881.3 mg GAE/100 g and 599.7-785.5, 301.3-499.7 mg CE/100 g on a dry weight basis, respectively. Reducing power of peel and pulp extracts (12.5 mg/mL concentration) ranged from 2.57-2.77 and 1.54-1.99.The inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts varied from 70.8-80.9% and 66.8-76.5% in peels, and 51.9-60.1% and 43.4-49.1% in pulps. The mineral analysis revealed that the content of K was highest in both parts of the peach fruit followed by Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn and Zn. The results of our present study indicate that peach peel had significantly higher levels of minerals, antioxidant capacity and phenolics than those of the pulp, suggesting the intake of unpeeled peach as a potential source of high-value components. The peach peel can be a useful as a viable source of natural antioxidants for functional foods and nutraceutical applications.

  17. Hypersensitivity to Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Peach-Allergic Patients: rPrup 3 and rPrup 1 Are Predictive of Symptom Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascheri, A; Farioli, L; Pravettoni, V; Piantanida, M; Stafylaraki, C; Scibilia, J; Mirone, C; Preziosi, D; Nichelatti, M; Pastorello, E A

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of allergens in the severity of tomato allergy symptoms has not yet been studied. To evaluate the relationship between severe allergic reactions to peach and tomato and between tomato allergy symptoms and the pattern of IgE positivity for rPru p 1, rPru p 3, rPru p 4, rBetv 1, rBetv 2, rBetv4, rPhl p 1, and rPhl p 12 in order to identify the role of recombinant allergens in the severity of reactions to tomato. We studied peach-allergic patients with clinical reactions to tomato by performing an open food challenge, skin prick test, and determination of serum specific IgE to tomato and to recombinant peach, birch, and grass allergens. Statistical analysis was carried out to evaluate the relationship between the severity of tomato symptoms and IgE positivity to the different allergens and to peach-induced symptoms. We found a significant association between severe reactions to tomato and severe reactions to peach (P = .01 7) and levels of IgE to rPru p3 (P = .029) and between mild tomato allergy symptoms and levels of IgE to rPru p1 (P = .047), anti-rBetv 1 (P = .0414), anti-rBetv 2 (P = .0457), and Phleum pratense (P = .0022). We observed a significant relationship between peach and symptoms of tomato allergy. IgE positivity for rPru p3 seems to be a surrogate biochemical marker for severe tomato allergy, whereas the presence of anti-rPru p 1 IgE may be an indicator of mild tomato allergy.

  18. Consumption of polyphenol-rich peach and plum juice prevents risk factors for obesity-related metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease in Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noratto, Giuliana; Martino, Hercia S D; Simbo, Sunday; Byrne, David; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2015-06-01

    Polyphenols from fruits have been implied in the prevention of risk factors for cardiometabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the consumption of peach and plum juice has a protective effect against obesity and metabolic disorders that promote the development of cardiovascular diseases. Obese Zucker and lean rats were fed with peach, plum juice ad libitum or placebo. Body weight gain, biochemical markers and molecular markers for inflammation and cardiovascular disease in heart tissue were quantified. Results show that peach and plum juice consumption protected against a combination of obesity-induced metabolic disorders including hyperglycemia, insulin and leptin resistance, dyslipidemia and low-density lipoprotein oxidation. This was accompanied by a decreased expression of pro-atherogenic and pro-inflammatory biomarkers in plasma and heart tissues including intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, NF-κB and foam cell adherence to aortic arches. In addition, peach and plum juice consumption decreased the levels of angiotensin II in plasma and its receptor Agtr1 in heart tissues, suggesting a role of peach and plum polyphenols as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists. Furthermore, only plum juice significantly prevented body weight gain and increased the ratio high-density lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol in plasma. This effect is most likely attributed to the plum's higher content of polyphenols (three times that of peach). Altogether, these results imply that cardioprotective effects can be achieved by replacing drinks high in sugar content with fruit juice rich in polyphenols in a diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Variation in Minerals, Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Peel and Pulp of Different Varieties of Peach (Prunus persica L. Fruit from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashraf

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L., being a potential source of bioactive compounds, has been demonstrated to have medicinal benefits. In this study variation of minerals and antioxidant characteristics (total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, reducing power, inhibition of peroxidation using linoleic acid system and DPPH free radical scavenging activity between peel and pulp parts of different peach varieties, namely Golden, Shireen, and Shahpasand were investigated. The peel and pulp extracts, derived from the varieties analyzed, exhibited an appreciable amount of total phenolics (TP and total flavonoids (TF, ranging from 1,209.3–1,354.5, 711.7–881.3 mg GAE/100 g and 599.7–785.5, 301.3–499.7 mg CE/100 g on a dry weight basis, respectively. Reducing power of peel and pulp extracts (12.5 mg/mL concentration ranged from 2.57–2.77 and 1.54–1.99.The inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts varied from 70.8–80.9% and 66.8–76.5% in peels, and 51.9–60.1% and 43.4–49.1% in pulps. The mineral analysis revealed that the content of K was highest in both parts of the peach fruit followed by Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn and Zn. The results of our present study indicate that peach peel had significantly higher levels of minerals, antioxidant capacity and phenolics than those of the pulp, suggesting the intake of unpeeled peach as a potential source of high-value components. The peach peel can be a useful as a viable source of natural antioxidants for functional foods and nutraceutical applications.

  20. In silico search and biological validation of microRNAs related to drought response in peach and almond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Fazileh; Shiran, Behrouz; Fallahi, Hossein; Mirakhorli, Neda; Budak, Hikmet; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2017-05-01

    Plant responses to drought stress are regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels through noncoding endogenous microRNAs. These microRNAs play key roles in gene expression, mainly by down-regulating target mRNAs. In this work, an in silico search and validation for microRNAs related to drought response in peach ('G.H. Hill'), almond ('Sefied') and an interspecific peach-almond hybrid ('GN 15') has been performed. We used qPCR to analyse the gene expression of several miRNAs described as being related to drought response in peach, including miR156, miR159, miR160, miR167, miR171, miR172, miR398, miR403, miR408, miR842 and miR2275 under mild and severe water deficit. These miRNAs were in silico selected on the basis of previous works, their conservation in plants and their drought response. qPCR analysis confirmed the implication of these miRNAs in the dehydration stress response in the three assayed genotypes. Comparison of miRNA expression patterns in the three evaluated genotypes indicated that the hybrid GN 15 showed higher expression levels of specific miRNAs which should be related to the observed drought tolerance. mRNA target transcripts of the miRNAs studied were predicted using the Rose database, which includes transcription factors that regulate plant growth and development. In addition, results showed that the promoter region contains responsive elements to hormone-mediated regulatory elements. Network analysis not only unravelled the interaction between miRNAs and their predicted gene targets but also highlighted the roles of miRNAs in response to drought stress.

  1. Proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside accumulation in blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Juan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the characteristics and mechanisms of proanthocyanidin monomers and anthocyanin synthesis in blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch, the accumulation of catechin, epicatechin and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was determined, and the expression patterns of structural genes associated with biosynthesis of those compounds were investigated in the blood-flesh peach fruit of cultivar “Dahongpao” during fruit development. Our results show that catechin concentration remained low and comparatively stable throughout fruit development. The concentration of epicatechin remained low at the early stages of fruit development and rapidly accumulated during ripening. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was not detected in theearly stages. Epicatechin started to rapidly accumulate during the ripening period, reaching a maximum at the mature stage. The expressions of the early and common genes, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone isomerase, were less associated with proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside accumulation. The expression of other flavonoid ‘early’ biosynthetic genes, including chalcone synthase (CHS, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX, were partly associated with proanthocyanidin monomers and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside levels, with expression quantities peaking synchronously at the mature stage. Leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase, which were the key genes for proanthocyanidin monomer synthesis, correlated during fruit development with catechin and epicatechin accumulation respectively; UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UGFT, the key gene for anthocyanin synthesis, was correlated with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside levels. The synchronous accumulation of epicatechin and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside in blood-flesh peach could not be explained by the current theory of competitive distribution mechanism of common substrate.

  2. Multivariate analysis applied to the study of the relationship between soil and plant properties in a peach orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Santos Silva Terra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Rio Grande do Sul, the municipality of Pelotas is responsible for 90 % of peach production due to its suitable climate and soil conditions. However, there is the need for new studies that aim at improved fruit quality and increased yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship that exists between soil physical properties and properties in the peach plant in the years 2010 and 2011 by the technique of multivariate canonical correlation. The experiment was conducted in a peach orchard located in the municipality of Morro Redondo, RS, Brazil, where an experimental grid of 101 plants was established. In a trench dug beside each one of the 101 plants, soil samples were collected to determine silt, clay, and sand contents, soil density, total porosity, macroporosity, microporosity, and volumetric water content in the 0.00-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m layers, as well as the depth of the A horizon. In each plant and in each year, the following properties were assessed: trunk diameter, fruit size and number of fruits per plant, average weight of the fruit per plant, fruit pulp firmness, Brix content, and yield from the orchard. Exploratory analysis of the data was undertaken by descriptive statistics, and the relationships between the physical properties of the soil and of the plant were assessed by canonical correlation analysis. The results showed that the clay and microporosity variables were those that exhibited the highest coefficients of canonical cross-loading with the plant properties in the soil layers assessed, and that the variable of mean weight of the fruit per plant was that which had the highest coefficients of canonical loading within the plant group for the two years assessed.

  3. Evaluation of different doses of gamma radiation on physicochemical characteristics of peach Prunus persica (cv. Chimarrita) minimally processed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia S.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Perecin, Thalita Neme; Arthur, Valter; Harder, Marcia N.C. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente], e-mail: acsoliveira@usp.br, e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br; Mansi, Debora N.; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2009-07-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the physico-chemical characteristics of peach Prunus persica (cv. Chimarrita) minimally processed, to increase the useful life of the fruit. The peaches were purchased at Ceasa of Campinas/SP and taken to the Laboratory of Radiobiology and Environment of CENA/USP (Piracicaba/SP), which were washed in tap water, peeled and cut into four pieces. The pieces of peach were dipped in sodium hypochlorite solution of 15 mL/L for 4 minutes and dry in a plastic support. Then it were placed in plastic containers (polypropylene). Subsequently, they were irradiated in a Cobalt-60 source, type Gammacell-220 (dose rate of 0,543 kGy/hour) with doses of: 0 (control), 1.0 and 2.0 kGy and stored at a temperature of 8 deg C. The experimental was developed entirely at random with 3 replicates for each treatment. For the statistic analysis was using the Tuckey test at 5% level of probability. Subsequently, analysis was carried out: color factors (l, a, b), pH, soluble solids (deg Brix), acidity and vitamin C. The tests were performed at 1, 3 and 6 days after irradiation. According to the results concluded that the analysis of color and acidity there was no significant difference between treatments, however, for the soluble solids (deg Brix), vitamin C and texture significant difference showing a decrease proportional to increasing doses of radiation and storage time. But the pH increased in relation to dose and during the analysis. (author)

  4. Comparative RNA-seq analysis of early-infected peach leaves by the invasive phytopathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni.

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    Didier Socquet-Juglard

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is a quarantine bacterial pathogen that threatens peach production by causing necrotic spots on leaves and fruits, thus with the potential of severely reducing yields. The current understanding of the host plant defense responses to the pathogen is very limited. Using whole transcriptome sequencing, differential gene expression was analyzed at two time points, 2 h and 12 h post inoculation (hpi, by comparing the inoculated samples to their respective controls. On the total of 19,781 known peach genes that were expressed in all time points and conditions, 34 and 263 were differentially expressed at 2 and 12 hpi, respectively. Of those, 82% and 40% were up-regulated, respectively; and 18% and 60% were down-regulated, respectively. The functional annotation based on gene ontology (GO analysis highlighted that genes involved in metabolic process and response to stress were particularly represented at 2 hpi whereas at 12 hpi cellular and metabolic processes were the categories with the highest number of genes differentially expressed. Of particular interest among the differentially expressed genes identified were several pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP receptors, disease resistance genes including several RPM1-like and pathogenesis related thaumatin encoding genes. Other genes involved in photosynthesis, in cell wall reorganization, in hormone signaling pathways or encoding cytochrome were also differentially expressed. In addition, novel transcripts were identified, providing another basis for further characterization of plant defense-related genes. Overall, this study gives a first insight of the peach defense mechanisms during the very early stages of infection with a bacterial disease in the case of a compatible interaction.

  5. Comparative RNA-seq analysis of early-infected peach leaves by the invasive phytopathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socquet-Juglard, Didier; Kamber, Tim; Pothier, Joël F; Christen, Danilo; Gessler, Cesare; Duffy, Brion; Patocchi, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is a quarantine bacterial pathogen that threatens peach production by causing necrotic spots on leaves and fruits, thus with the potential of severely reducing yields. The current understanding of the host plant defense responses to the pathogen is very limited. Using whole transcriptome sequencing, differential gene expression was analyzed at two time points, 2 h and 12 h post inoculation (hpi), by comparing the inoculated samples to their respective controls. On the total of 19,781 known peach genes that were expressed in all time points and conditions, 34 and 263 were differentially expressed at 2 and 12 hpi, respectively. Of those, 82% and 40% were up-regulated, respectively; and 18% and 60% were down-regulated, respectively. The functional annotation based on gene ontology (GO) analysis highlighted that genes involved in metabolic process and response to stress were particularly represented at 2 hpi whereas at 12 hpi cellular and metabolic processes were the categories with the highest number of genes differentially expressed. Of particular interest among the differentially expressed genes identified were several pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) receptors, disease resistance genes including several RPM1-like and pathogenesis related thaumatin encoding genes. Other genes involved in photosynthesis, in cell wall reorganization, in hormone signaling pathways or encoding cytochrome were also differentially expressed. In addition, novel transcripts were identified, providing another basis for further characterization of plant defense-related genes. Overall, this study gives a first insight of the peach defense mechanisms during the very early stages of infection with a bacterial disease in the case of a compatible interaction.

  6. Analysis of gene expression changes in peach leaves in response to Plum pox virus infection using RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Manuel; Rodríguez-Moreno, Luis; Ballester, Ana Rosa; de Moura, Manuel Castro; Bonghi, Claudio; Candresse, Thierry; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-02-01

    Differences in gene expression were studied after Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease) infection in peach GF305 leaves with and without sharka symptoms using RNA-Seq. For each sample, more than 80% of 100-nucleotide paired-end (PE) Illumina reads were aligned on the peach reference genome. In the symptomatic sample, a significant proportion of reads were mapped to PPV reference genomes (1.04% compared with 0.00002% in non-symptomatic leaves), allowing for the ultra-deep assembly of the complete genome of the PPV isolate used (9775 nucleotides, missing only 11 nucleotides at the 5' genome end). In addition, significant alternative splicing events were detected in 359 genes and 12 990 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, 425 of which could be annotated. Gene ontology annotation revealed that the high-ranking mRNA target genes associated with the expression of sharka symptoms are mainly related to the response to biotic stimuli, to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and to the negative regulation of catalytic activity. A greater number of differentially expressed genes were observed in the early asymptomatic phase of PPV infection in comparison with the symptomatic phase. These early infection events were associated with the induction of genes related to pathogen resistance, such as jasmonic acid, chitinases, cytokinin glucosyl transferases and Lys-M proteins. Once the virus had accumulated, the overexpression of Dicer protein 2a genes suggested a gene silencing plant response that was suppressed by the virus HCPro and P1 proteins. These results illustrate the dynamic nature of the peach-PPV interaction at the transcriptome level and confirm that sharka symptom expression is a complex process that can be understood on the basis of changes in plant gene expression. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  7. Effect prediction of identified SNPs linked to fruit quality and chilling injury in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Pedro J; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Parfitt, Dan E; Gradziel, Thomas M; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are a fundamental source of genomic variation. Large SNP panels have been developed for Prunus species. Fruit quality traits are essential peach breeding program objectives since they determine consumer acceptance, fruit consumption, industry trends and cultivar adoption. For many cultivars, these traits are negatively impacted by cold storage, used to extend fruit market life. The major symptoms of chilling injury are lack of flavor, off flavor, mealiness, flesh browning, and flesh bleeding. A set of 1,109 SNPs was mapped previously and 67 were linked with these complex traits. The prediction of the effects associated with these SNPs on downstream products from the 'peach v1.0' genome sequence was carried out. A total of 2,163 effects were detected, 282 effects (non-synonymous, synonymous or stop codon gained) were located in exonic regions (13.04 %) and 294 placed in intronic regions (13.59 %). An extended list of genes and proteins that could be related to these traits was developed. Two SNP markers that explain a high percentage of the observed phenotypic variance, UCD_SNP_1084 and UCD_SNP_46, are associated with zinc finger (C3HC4-type RING finger) family protein and AOX1A (alternative oxidase 1a) protein groups, respectively. In addition, phenotypic variation suggests that the observed polymorphism for SNP UCD_SNP_1084 [A/G] mutation could be a candidate quantitative trait nucleotide affecting quantitative trait loci for mealiness. The interaction and expression of affected proteins could explain the variation observed in each individual and facilitate understanding of gene regulatory networks for fruit quality traits in peach.

  8. The Change of First-flowering Date over South Korea Projected from Downscaled IPCC AR5 Simulation: Peach and Pear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, J. B.; Hur, J.

    2014-12-01

    The variations in the first-flowering date (FFD) of peach (Prunus persica) and pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) under future climate change in South Korea are investigated using simulations obtained from five models of the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. For the study, daily temperature simulations with Historical (1986-2005), and RCP (2071-2090) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are statistically downscaled to 50 peach and pear FFD (FFDpeach and FFDpear, respectively) observation sites over South Korea. The number of days transformed to standard temperature (DTS) method is selected as the phenological model and applied to simulations for estimating FFDpeach and FFDpear over South Korea, due to its superior performance on the target plants and region compared to the growing degree days (GDD) and chill days (CD) methods. In the analysis, mean temperatures for early spring (February to April) over South Korea in 2090 under RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are expected to have increased by 1.9K and 3.3K, respectively. Among the early spring months of February to April, February shows the largest temperature increase of 2.1K and 3.7K for RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios, respectively. The increased temperature during February and March accelerates the plant growth rate and thereby advances FFDpeach by 7.0 and 12.7 days and FFDpear by 6.1 and 10.7 days, respectively. These results imply that the present flowering of peach and pear in the middle of April will have advanced to late March or early April by the end of this century. Acknowledgements This work was carried out with the support of the Rural Development Administration Cooperative Research Program for Agriculture Science and Technology Development under Grant Project No. PJ009953, Republic of Korea.

  9. Comparative analysis of Monilinia fructicola and M. laxa isolates from Brazil: monocyclic components of peach brown rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthela Siqueira Angeli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Brown rot is the most important disease of peaches in Brazil. The objective of this study was to compare the brown rot monocyclic components from Monilinia fructicola and M. laxa isolates from Brazil on peaches, due to the detection of M. laxa in the São Paulo production area. Conidia germination and pathogen sporulation were assessed in vitro under a temperature range of 5-35oC and wetness duration of 6-48h. Incubation and latent periods, disease incidence, disease severity and pathogen reproduction on peach fruit were evaluated under 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30oC and wetness duration of 6, 12 and 24h. Six of seven parameters of a generalised beta function fitted to conidia germination of M. fructicola and M. laxa were similar. Only the shape parameter was higher for M. fructicola indicating that the range of temperatures and wetness periods favourable for germination is wider for M. laxa than for M. fructicola. The optimum temperature for brown rot development caused by M. fructicola was 24.5oC and for. Monilinia laxa was 19.8oC. At 10oC M. laxa lesions produced more conidia than M. fructicola, and the opposite occurred at 30oC. The estimated maximum temperature for lesion development was also higher for M. fructicola than for M. laxa. M. fructicola is favored by warmer weather than M. laxa and the presence and impact of this specie in Brazil must be investigated especially in the South states.

  10. White Blood Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Blood Additional Content Medical News Overview of White Blood Cell Disorders By Mary Territo, MD, Emeritus ... service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Manual in the ...

  11. Distribution System White Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA worked with stakeholders and developed a series of white papers on distribution system issues ranked of potentially significant public health concern (see list below) to serve as background material for EPA, expert and stakeholder discussions.

  12. White Lake AOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    White Lake is in Muskegon County along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. It was named an Area of Concern on the Great Lakes under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1987 and delisted in 2014.

  13. Residue levels and storage responses of nectarines, apricots, and peaches after dip treatments with fludioxonil fungicide mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aquino, Salvatore; Schirra, Mario; Palma, Amedeo; Tedde, Marco; Angioni, Alberto; Garau, Anna; Cabras, Paolo

    2007-02-07

    Mature apricots (Prunus armeniaca), nectarines [Prunus persica var. nectarine (Ait.)], and peaches [P. persica (L.) Batsch.] were subjected to a 2 min dip treatment with warm water at 48 degrees C or with fludioxonil (FLU) at 100 mg L-1 and 20 degrees C or at 25 mg L-1 FLU and 48 degrees C and then stored at 5 degrees C and 90-95% relative humidity (RH) for 1 week plus 1 additional week at 18 degrees C and approximately 80% RH. Fruit residue uptake was determined as a function of fungicide concentration, dip temperature, treatment time (only on nectarines), and fruit storage conditions. FLU residue level was closely related to fungicide concentration and treatment temperatures and was dependent on fruit species. FLU residues showed great persistence over both storage and shelf life. Fruit dipping in water at 48 degrees C effectively reduced decay development in cvs. 'May Grand' nectarines and 'Pelese' apricots but was ineffective in cvs. 'Red Top' and 'Sun Crest' nectarines during 7 days of storage compared with nontreated fruit. Decay rates in cvs. 'Glo Haven' peaches and 'Fracasso' apricots were very low in fruit dipped in water at both 20 and 48 degrees C. Fungicide treatments at 20 and 48 degrees C resulted in the total or almost total suppression of decay in all cultivars. During shelf life, fruit became very prone to decay, averaging 25.7-100% depending on the cultivar. Fruit dipping in hot water effectively reduced decay in 'Pelese' and 'Fracasso' apricots, 'Sun Crest' peaches, and 'May Grand' nectarines as compared to control, but was ineffective in 'Glo Haven' and 'Red Top' peaches. Fungicide treatments at 20 degrees C were more effective than hot water in most cultivars. The combination of FLU with water at 48 degrees C further improved the fungicide performance. Indeed, reduced levels (a fourth) of active ingredient were required to achieve a control of decay comparable to that for treatment at 20 degrees C. Residue levels in fruit after treatment with

  14. Influence of Irrigation Scheduling Using Thermometry on Peach Tree Water Status and Yield under Different Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Remotely-sensed canopy temperature from infrared thermometer (IRT sensors has long been shown to be effective for detecting plant water stress. A field study was conducted to investigate peach tree responses to deficit irrigation which was controlled using canopy to air temperature difference (ΔT during the postharvest period at the USDA-ARS (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center in Parlier, California, USA. The experimental site consisted of a 1.6 ha early maturing peach tree orchard. A total of 18 IRT sensors were used to control six irrigation treatments including furrow, micro-spray, and surface drip irrigation systems with and without postharvest deficit irrigation. During the postharvest period in the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 growing seasons, ΔT threshold values at mid-day was tested to trigger irrigation in three irrigation systems. The results showed that mid-day stem water potentials (ψ for well irrigated trees were maintained at a range of −0.5 to −1.2 MPa while ψ of deficit irrigated trees dropped to lower values. Soil water content in deficit surface drip irrigation treatment was higher compared to deficit furrow and micro-spray irrigation treatments in 2012. The number of fruits and fruit weight from peach trees under postharvest deficit irrigation treatment were less than those well-watered trees; however, no statistically significant (at the p < 0.05 level reduction in fruit size or quality was found for trees irrigated by surface drip and micro-spray irrigation systems by deficit irrigation. Beside doubles, we found an increased number of fruits with deep sutures and dimples which may be a long-term (seven-year postharvest regulated deficit irrigation impact of deficit irrigation on this peach tree variety. Overall, deployment of IRT sensors provided real-time measurement of canopy water status and the information is valuable for making irrigation

  15. The role of sonic signals in the sexual communication of peach twig borers, Anarsia lineatella, Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    I tested the hypothesis that feinale peach twig borers, Anarsia lineatella, Zeller (Lepidotpera: Gelechiidae), use acoustic signals in addition to known pherornone signals during sexual communication. I employed a digital system to record and pla.yback sound. Males, flying on a tether, emitted signals of 12 dB above ambient sound intensity with wingbeats of 60 Hz and upper signal components at 2.5 and 10 kHz. Females produced sonic reply signals [50 Hz (wingbeat), 2 and 14 kHz) when exposed e...

  16. 2010 - Black & White - Bennington and Windham (0.5m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTORTHO_0_5M_PAN_2010 data includes panchromatic (black and white) orthophotography (orthophoto) at 1:5000 scale (0.5 meter cell resolution)....

  17. 1994 - Black & White - Rutland and Windsor (0.5m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTORTHO_0_5M_PAN_1994 data includes panchromatic (black and white) orthophotography (orthophoto) at 1:5000 scale (0.5 meter cell resolution)....

  18. 1998 - Black & White - Randolph Village (0.13m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTORTHO_0_13M_PAN_1998 data includes panchromatic (black and white) orthophotography (orthophoto) at 1:1250 scale (0.125 meter cell...

  19. Atmosfera refrigerada e controlada para pêssegos 'Eragil' Cold and controlled atmosphere of 'Eragil' peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as condições de atmosfera controlada em associação à baixa temperatura, visando a manter a qualidade e diminuir as perdas durante o armazenamento de pêssegos da cultivar 'Eragil'. Os frutos foram conservados nas seguintes condições: atmosfera refrigerada, atmosfera controlada com pressões parciais de 1,0kPa de O2 + 3,0kPa de CO2, 2,0kPa de O2 + 5,0kPa de CO2, 2,0kPa de O2 + 8,0kPa de CO2, sendo todos armazenados por um período de 57 dias, a -0,5°C. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com oito repetições de 10 frutos. Após 57 dias de armazenamento e dois dias de exposição a 20°C, os frutos em atmosfera controlada mantiveram maior acidez titulável e apresentaram menor incidência de escurecimento interno da polpa. Os sólidos solúveis e a taxa respiratória não apresentaram diferença entre as condições de armazenamento. Entretanto, todas as condições de atmosfera controlada apresentaram maior síntese de etileno e atividade ACC oxidase em relação ao armazenamento em atmosfera refrigerada. Após a exposição à temperatura de 20°C, os frutos armazenados em 2,0kPa de O2 + 8,0kPa de CO2 apresentaram maior degradação da firmeza, menor incidência de lanosidade, escurecimento da polpa e da epiderme, sendo esta a condição de atmosfera controlada mais eficiente para o armazenamento de pêssegos 'Eragil'.The objective of this research was to evaluate the conditions of controlled atmosphere associated with low temperature, aiming to maintain the quality and reduce losses during storage of 'Eragil' peaches. The evaluated treatments were cold atmosfhere, controlled atmosphere (CA with partial pressure of 1.0kPa of O2 + 3.0kPa of CO2, 2.0kPa of O2 + 5.0kPa of CO2 and 2.0kPa of O2 + 8.0kPa of CO2, all stored for a period of 57 days at -0.5°C. The experimental design was completely randomized with eight repetitions. After 57 days of storage plus two days of

  20. Optimization of Allelic Combinations Controlling Parameters of a Peach Quality Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte; Génard, Michel; Valsesia, Pierre; Memmah, Mohamed-Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Process-based models are effective tools to predict the phenotype of an individual in different growing conditions. Combined with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping approach, it is then possible to predict the behavior of individuals with any combinations of alleles. However the number of simulations to explore the realm of possibilities may become infinite. Therefore, the use of an efficient optimization algorithm to intelligently explore the search space becomes imperative. The optimization algorithm has to solve a multi-objective problem, since the phenotypes of interest are usually a complex of traits, to identify the individuals with best tradeoffs between those traits. In this study we proposed to unroll such a combined approach in the case of peach fruit quality described through three targeted traits, using a process-based model with seven parameters controlled by QTL. We compared a current approach based on the optimization of the values of the parameters with a more evolved way to proceed which consists in the direct optimization of the alleles controlling the parameters. The optimization algorithm has been adapted to deal with both continuous and combinatorial problems. We compared the spaces of parameters obtained with different tactics and the phenotype of the individuals resulting from random simulations and optimization in these spaces. The use of a genetic model enabled the restriction of the dimension of the parameter space toward more feasible combinations of parameter values, reproducing relationships between parameters as observed in a real progeny. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of such an approach to refine the solutions toward more realistic ideotypes. Perspectives of improvement are discussed.

  1. Irrigation and weed control alter soil microbiology and nutrient availability in North Carolina Sandhill peach orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Liangju; Yuan, Yongge; Xu, Jing; Tu, Cong; Fisk, Connie; Zhang, Weijian; Chen, Xin; Ritchie, David; Hu, Shuijin

    2018-02-15

    Orchard management practices such as weed control and irrigation are primarily aimed at maximizing fruit yields and economic profits. However, the impact of these practices on soil fertility and soil microbiology is often overlooked. We conducted a two-factor experimental manipulation of weed control by herbicide and trickle irrigation in a nutrient-poor peach (Prunus persica L. cv. Contender) orchard near Jackson Springs, North Carolina. After three and eight years of treatments, an array of soil fertility parameters were examined, including soil pH, soil N, P and cation nutrients, microbial biomass and respiration, N mineralization, and presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Three general trends emerged: 1) irrigation significantly increased soil microbial biomass and activity, 2) infection rate of mycorrhizal fungi within roots were significantly higher under irrigation than non-irrigation treatments, but no significant difference in the AMF community composition was detected among treatments, 3) weed control through herbicides reduced soil organic matter, microbial biomass and activity, and mineral nutrients, but had no significant impacts on root mycorrhizal infection and AMF communities. Weed-control treatments directly decreased availability of soil nutrients in year 8, especially soil extractable inorganic N. Weed control also appears to have altered the soil nutrients via changes in soil microbes and altered net N mineralization via changes in soil microbial biomass and activity. These results indicate that long-term weed control using herbicides reduces soil fertility through reducing organic C inputs, nutrient retention and soil microbes. Together, these findings highlight the need for alternative practices such as winter legume cover cropping that maintain and/or enhance organic inputs to sustain the soil fertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ascorbic Acid Alleviates Water Stress in Young Peach Trees and Improves Their Performance after Rewatering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penella, Consuelo; Calatayud, Ángeles; Melgar, Juan C.

    2017-01-01

    Exogenous application of biochemicals has been found to improve water stress tolerance in herbaceous crops but there are limited studies on deciduous fruit trees. The goal of this research was to study if ascorbic acid applications could improve physiological mechanisms associated with water stress tolerance in young fruit trees. Ascorbic acid was foliarly applied at a concentration of 250 ppm to water-stressed and well-watered peach trees (control) of two cultivars (‘Scarletprince’ and ‘CaroTiger’). Trees received either one or two applications, and 1 week after the second application all trees were rewatered to field capacity. Upon rewatering, CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance of water-stressed ‘Scarletprince’ trees sprayed with ascorbic acid (one or two applications) were similar to those of well-irrigated trees, but water-stressed trees that had not received ascorbic acid did not recover photosynthetical functions. Also, water status in sprayed water-stressed ‘Scarletprince’ trees was improved to values similar to control trees. On the other hand, water-stressed ‘CaroTiger’ trees needed two applications of ascorbic acid to reach values of CO2 assimilation similar to control trees but these applications did not improve their water status. In general terms, different response mechanisms to cope with water stress in presence of ascorbic acid were found in each cultivar, with ‘Scarletprince’ trees preferentially using proline as compatible solute and ‘CaroTiger’ trees relying on stomatal regulation. The application of ascorbic acid reduced cell membrane damage and increased catalase activity in water-stressed trees of both cultivars. These results suggest that foliar applications of ascorbic acid could be used as a management practice for improving water stress tolerance of young trees under suboptimal water regimes. PMID:28979284

  3. Insecticide Resistance Mechanisms in the Green Peach Aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) I: A Transcriptomic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andrea X.; Jander, Georg; Samaniego, Horacio; Ramsey, John S; Figueroa, Christian C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance is one of the best examples of rapid micro-evolution found in nature. Since the development of the first synthetic insecticide in 1939, humans have invested considerable effort to stay ahead of resistance phenotypes that repeatedly develop in insects. Aphids are a group of insects that have become global pests in agriculture and frequently exhibit insecticide resistance. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, has developed resistance to at least seventy different synthetic compounds, and different insecticide resistance mechanisms have been reported worldwide. Methodology/Principal Findings To further characterize this resistance, we analyzed genome-wide transcriptional responses in three genotypes of M. persicae, each exhibiting different resistance mechanisms, in response to an anti-cholinesterase insecticide. The sensitive genotype (exhibiting no resistance mechanism) responded to the insecticide by up-regulating 183 genes primarily ones related to energy metabolism, detoxifying enzymes, proteins of extracellular transport, peptidases and cuticular proteins. The second genotype (resistant through a kdr sodium channel mutation), up-regulated 17 genes coding for detoxifying enzymes, peptidase and cuticular proteins. Finally, a multiply resistant genotype (carrying kdr and a modified acetylcholinesterase), up-regulated only 7 genes, appears not to require induced insecticide detoxification, and instead down-regulated many genes. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests strongly that insecticide resistance in M. persicae is more complex that has been described, with the participation of a broad array of resistance mechanisms. The sensitive genotype exhibited the highest transcriptional plasticity, accounting for the wide range of potential adaptations to insecticides that this species can evolve. In contrast, the multiply resistant genotype exhibited a low transcriptional plasticity, even for the expression of genes encoding

  4. Insecticide Resistance Mechanisms in the Green Peach Aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) II: Costs and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Andrea X.; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D.; Luna-Rudloff, Manuela; Figueroa, Christian C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Among herbivorous insects that have exploited agro-ecosystems, the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae, is recognized as one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Uses over 400 plant species and has evolved different insecticides resistance mechanisms. As M. persicae feeds upon a huge diversity of hosts, it has been exposed to a wide variety of plant allelochemicals, which probably have promoted a wide range of detoxification systems. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work we (i) evaluated whether insecticide resistance mutations (IRM) in M. persicae can give an advantage in terms of reproductive fitness when aphids face two hosts, pepper (Capsicum annuum) a suitable host and radish (Raphanus sativus) the unfavorable host and (ii) examined the transcriptional expression of six genes that are known to be up-regulated in response to insecticides. Our results show a significant interaction between host and IRM on the intrinsic rate of increase (rm). Susceptible genotypes (not carrying insensitivity mutations) had a higher rm on pepper, and the transcriptional levels of five genes increased on radish. The rm relationship was reversed on the unfavorable host; genotypes with multiple IRM exhibited higher rm, without altering the transcriptional levels of the studied genes. Genotypes with one IRM kept a similar rm on both hosts, but they increased the transcriptional levels of two genes. Conclusions/Significance Although we have studied only nine genotypes, overall our results are in agreement with the general idea that allelochemical detoxification systems could constitute a pre-adaptation for the development of insecticide resistance. Genotypes carrying IRM exhibited a higher rm than susceptible genotypes on radish, the more unfavorable host. Susceptible genotypes should be able to tolerate the defended host by up-regulating some metabolic genes that are also responding to insecticides. Hence, our results suggest that the trade-off among

  5. Transgenerational shifts in reproduction hormesis in green peach aphid exposed to low concentrations of imidacloprid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali-Mohan Ayyanath

    Full Text Available Hormesis is a biphasic phenomenon that in toxicology is characterized by low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. It has been observed in a wide range of organisms in response to many chemical stressors, including insects exposed to pesticides, with potential repercussions for agriculture and pest management. To address questions related to the nature of the dose-response and potential consequences on biological fitness, we examined transgenerational hormesis in the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, when exposed to sublethal concentrations of the insecticide imidacloprid. A hormetic response in the form of increased reproduction was consistently observed and a model previously developed to test for hormesis adequately fit some of our data. However, the nature of the dose-response differed within and across generations depending upon the duration and mode of exposure. Decreased reproduction in intermediate generations confirmed that fitness tradeoffs were a consequence of the hormetic response. However, recovery to levels of reproduction equal to that of controls in subsequent generations and significantly greater total reproduction after four generations suggested that biological fitness was increased by exposure to low concentrations of the insecticide, even when insects were continuously exposed to the stressor. This was especially evident in a greenhouse experiment where the instantaneous rate of population increase almost doubled and total aphid production more than quadrupled when aphids were exposed to potato plants systemically treated with low amounts of imidacloprid. Our results show that although fitness tradeoffs do occur with hormetic responses, this does not necessarily compromise overall biological fitness.

  6. A functional genomics approach identifies candidate effectors from the aphid species Myzus persicae (green peach aphid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorunn I B Bos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are amongst the most devastating sap-feeding insects of plants. Like most plant parasites, aphids require intimate associations with their host plants to gain access to nutrients. Aphid feeding induces responses such as clogging of phloem sieve elements and callose formation, which are suppressed by unknown molecules, probably proteins, in aphid saliva. Therefore, it is likely that aphids, like plant pathogens, deliver proteins (effectors inside their hosts to modulate host cell processes, suppress plant defenses, and promote infestation. We exploited publicly available aphid salivary gland expressed sequence tags (ESTs to apply a functional genomics approach for identification of candidate effectors from Myzus persicae (green peach aphid, based on common features of plant pathogen effectors. A total of 48 effector candidates were identified, cloned, and subjected to transient overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana to assay for elicitation of a phenotype, suppression of the Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP-mediated oxidative burst, and effects on aphid reproductive performance. We identified one candidate effector, Mp10, which specifically induced chlorosis and local cell death in N. benthamiana and conferred avirulence to recombinant Potato virus X (PVX expressing Mp10, PVX-Mp10, in N. tabacum, indicating that this protein may trigger plant defenses. The ubiquitin-ligase associated protein SGT1 was required for the Mp10-mediated chlorosis response in N. benthamiana. Mp10 also suppressed the oxidative burst induced by flg22, but not by chitin. Aphid fecundity assays revealed that in planta overexpression of Mp10 and Mp42 reduced aphid fecundity, whereas another effector candidate, MpC002, enhanced aphid fecundity. Thus, these results suggest that, although Mp10 suppresses flg22-triggered immunity, it triggers a defense response, resulting in an overall decrease in aphid performance in the fecundity assays. Overall, we

  7. Ascorbic Acid Alleviates Water Stress in Young Peach Trees and Improves Their Performance after Rewatering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penella, Consuelo; Calatayud, Ángeles; Melgar, Juan C

    2017-01-01

    Exogenous application of biochemicals has been found to improve water stress tolerance in herbaceous crops but there are limited studies on deciduous fruit trees. The goal of this research was to study if ascorbic acid applications could improve physiological mechanisms associated with water stress tolerance in young fruit trees. Ascorbic acid was foliarly applied at a concentration of 250 ppm to water-stressed and well-watered peach trees (control) of two cultivars ('Scarletprince' and 'CaroTiger'). Trees received either one or two applications, and 1 week after the second application all trees were rewatered to field capacity. Upon rewatering, CO 2 assimilation and stomatal conductance of water-stressed 'Scarletprince' trees sprayed with ascorbic acid (one or two applications) were similar to those of well-irrigated trees, but water-stressed trees that had not received ascorbic acid did not recover photosynthetical functions. Also, water status in sprayed water-stressed 'Scarletprince' trees was improved to values similar to control trees. On the other hand, water-stressed 'CaroTiger' trees needed two applications of ascorbic acid to reach values of CO 2 assimilation similar to control trees but these applications did not improve their water status. In general terms, different response mechanisms to cope with water stress in presence of ascorbic acid were found in each cultivar, with 'Scarletprince' trees preferentially using proline as compatible solute and 'CaroTiger' trees relying on stomatal regulation. The application of ascorbic acid reduced cell membrane damage and increased catalase activity in water-stressed trees of both cultivars. These results suggest that foliar applications of ascorbic acid could be used as a management practice for improving water stress tolerance of young trees under suboptimal water regimes.

  8. Analysis of basic leucine zipper genes and their expression during bud dormancy in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming-Yue; Fu, Xi-Ling; Tan, Qiu-Ping; Liu, Li; Chen, Min; Zhu, Cui-Ying; Li, Ling; Chen, Xiu-De; Gao, Dong-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Dormancy is a biological characteristic developed to resist the cold conditions in winter. The bZIP transcription factors are present exclusively in eukaryotes and have been identified and classified in many species. bZIP proteins are known to regulate numerous biological processes, however, the role of bZIP in bud dodormancy has not been studied extensively. In total, 50 PpbZIP transcription factor-encoding genes were identified and categorized them into 10 groups (A-I and S). Similar intron/exon structures, additional conserved motifs, and DNA-binding site specificity supported our classification scheme. Additionally, chromosomal distribution and collinearity analyses suggested that expansion of the PpbZIP transcription factor family was due to segment/chromosomal duplications. We also predicted the dimerization properties based on characteristic features of the leucine zipper and classified PpbZIP proteins into 23 subfamilies. Furthermore, qRT-PCR results indicated that PpbZIPs genes may be involved in regulating dormancy. The same gene of different species might participate in different regulating networks through interactions with specific partners. Our expression profiling results complemented the microarray data, suggesting that co-expression patterns of bZIP transcription factors during dormancy differed among deciduous fruit trees. Our findings further clarify the molecular characteristics of the PpbZIP transcription factor family, including potential gene functions during dormancy. This information may facilitate further research on the evolutionary history and biological functions of bZIP proteins in peach and other rosaceae plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. POTENTIAL OF TURMERIC EXTRACT AND ITS FRACTIONS TO CONTROL PEACH FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizwan Riaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Potential of turmeric extract and its chemical fractions were evaluated to control the infestation of Bactrocera zonata peach fruit fly in a mortality-based bioassay. The turmeric extract (TE was taken on Soxhelt's extraction apparatus and chemically fractioned by thin layer followed by column chromatography into 6 fractions (F1 ...F6. Fifty pairs of the flies were fed in cages with 250 and 500 ppm TE and its fractions separately for 20 days along with flies fed on untreated diet to serve as control. The toxicity of TE and each of its fractions was evaluated by calculating percent mortality of fly population after every 5th day in 4 consecutive intervals. Mortality of fly population was observed to be positively correlated with increasing concentrations of TE and its fractions in diet. The mortality of flies fed at 250 and 500 ppm TE was significantly higher at 44.17 and 66.33% compared to 28.88% in control. Percent mortality was much higher in case of flies fed with fractions F1, F3 and F6 i.e. 72.22, 50.00 and 48.76 respectively. Maximum rise of mortality was observed at the end of 3rd interval; in case of flies fed at 500 ppm TE, 52.45 percent mortality was observed at the end of 3rd interval; highest mortality was caused by fraction F1, 51.39% in case of flies fed at 250 ppm and 70.37% in case of those fed at 500 ppm.

  10. Insecticide resistance mechanisms in the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae I: A transcriptomic survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea X Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance is one of the best examples of rapid micro-evolution found in nature. Since the development of the first synthetic insecticide in 1939, humans have invested considerable effort to stay ahead of resistance phenotypes that repeatedly develop in insects. Aphids are a group of insects that have become global pests in agriculture and frequently exhibit insecticide resistance. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, has developed resistance to at least seventy different synthetic compounds, and different insecticide resistance mechanisms have been reported worldwide. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further characterize this resistance, we analyzed genome-wide transcriptional responses in three genotypes of M. persicae, each exhibiting different resistance mechanisms, in response to an anti-cholinesterase insecticide. The sensitive genotype (exhibiting no resistance mechanism responded to the insecticide by up-regulating 183 genes primarily ones related to energy metabolism, detoxifying enzymes, proteins of extracellular transport, peptidases and cuticular proteins. The second genotype (resistant through a kdr sodium channel mutation, up-regulated 17 genes coding for detoxifying enzymes, peptidase and cuticular proteins. Finally, a multiply resistant genotype (carrying kdr and a modified acetylcholinesterase, up-regulated only 7 genes, appears not to require induced insecticide detoxification, and instead down-regulated many genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests strongly that insecticide resistance in M. persicae is more complex that has been described, with the participation of a broad array of resistance mechanisms. The sensitive genotype exhibited the highest transcriptional plasticity, accounting for the wide range of potential adaptations to insecticides that this species can evolve. In contrast, the multiply resistant genotype exhibited a low transcriptional plasticity, even for the expression

  11. White Rose Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, W. [Husky Oil Operations Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The status of Husky's White Rose Project in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland was presented with particular focus on the province of Newfoundland, resource development applications and project challenges. Husky Energy merged with Renaissance Energy in August 2000. It is publicly traded on the Toronto Stock Exchange. Its Q1 2000 production was 270 mboe/d with a clear strategy to deliver an additional 200 mboe/d by 2005. The 5 major projects which represent 80 per cent of Husky's growth are the White Rose, Tucker Lake, Wenchang, Terra Nova and Lloyd Project. This presentation included a map showing the land holdings related to Husky's White Rose Project. The development plans include the drilling of 15-20 wells in the basin which holds an estimated 230 mm/bbls of oil reserves. The presentation also described the Canada-Newfoundland benefits that White Rose will bring in terms of direct person-hours and spin off employment. No gas export infrastructure is currently in place. It is believed that between 7 and 10 tcf of discovered gas reserves is required and there is not enough White Rose gas on which to base an economic gas development. The White Rose challenge will be to deliver a technically and commercially viable project that meets the needs of the owners, governments, unions and supply community. The successful completion of the White Rose Project will demonstrate that the Grand Banks can be developed effectively and efficiently and will contribute to Newfoundland's offshore petroleum industry. tabs., figs.

  12. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Digital orthophographs (DOPs) were derived from black and white aerial photographs taken in the spring of 2000. The DOP scale is 1:4800 (1" = 400') rectified to 18" pixels., Published in 2000, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Manitowoc County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset current as of 2000. Digital orthophographs (DOPs) were derived from black and white aerial photographs taken...

  13. A deletion affecting an LRR-RLK gene co-segregates with the fruit flat shape trait in peach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Girona, Elena; Zhang, Yu; Eduardo, Iban; Mora, José Ramón Hernández; Alexiou, Konstantinos G; Arús, Pere; Aranzana, María José

    2017-07-27

    In peach, the flat phenotype is caused by a partially dominant allele in heterozygosis (Ss), fruits from homozygous trees (SS) abort a few weeks after fruit setting. Previous research has identified a SSR marker (UDP98-412) highly associated with the trait, found suitable for marker assisted selection (MAS). Here we report a ∼10 Kb deletion affecting the gene PRUPE.6G281100, 400 Kb upstream of UDP98-412, co-segregating with the trait. This gene is a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) orthologous to the Brassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BAK1) group. PCR markers suitable for MAS confirmed its strong association with the trait in a collection of 246 cultivars. They were used to evaluate the DNA from a round fruit derived from a somatic mutation of the flat variety 'UFO-4', revealing that the mutation affected the flat associated allele (S). Protein BLAST alignment identified significant hits with genes involved in different biological processes. Best protein hit occurred with AtRLP12, which may functionally complement CLAVATA2, a key regulator that controls the stem cell population size. RT-PCR analysis revealed the absence of transcription of the partially deleted allele. The data support PRUPE.6G281100 as a candidate gene for flat shape in peach.

  14. Control of Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae, Steinernematidae) in peach orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Barbosa Negrisoli, Carla Ruth; Negrisoli, Aldomario Santo; Garcia, Mauro Silveira; Dolinski, Claudia; Bernardi, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is considered a major pest in temperate fruit trees, such as peach and apple. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are regarded as viable for pest management control due to their efficiency against tortricid in these trees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of native EPNs from Rio Grande do Sul state against pre-pupae of G. molesta under laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, pre-pupae of G. molesta were placed in corrugated cardboard sheets inside glass tubes and exposed to 17 different EPNs strains at concentrations of 6, 12, 24, 48 and 60 IJs/cm(2) and maintained at 25 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and photophase of 16 h. Insect mortality was recorded 72 h after inoculation of EPNs. Steinernema rarum RS69 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora RS33 were the most virulent strains and selected for field application (LC95 of 70.5 and 53.8 IJs/cm(2), respectively). Both strains were highly efficient under field conditions when applied in aqueous suspension directed to larvae on peach tree trunk, causing mortality of 94 and 97.0%, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cold storage of peaches cv. Aurora grown in the Zona da Mata Mineira, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Fabíola Pereira Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the postharvest behavior of peach cv. Aurora 1 harvested in the Zona da Mata region of Minas Gerais in two ripening stages and kept under different storage temperatures. Fruits on mid-ripe and fully ripe stages were stored at three temperatures: 5.6 ± 1.57 °C and 72.8 ± 3.8% RH; 10.4 ± 0.5 °C and 95.8 ± 5.5% RH; 21.04 ± 1.63 °C and 96.9 ± 2.6% RH up to 28 storage days (SD . During storage, fruits stored at 21.04 ± 1.63 °C were evaluated every two days until 8 SD, and every four days for fruits stored at other temperatures. The harvest day was assigned as day zero. The variables evaluated were CO2 production, color of the pericarp and pulp, fresh mass loss, flesh firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, contents of ascorbic acid and carotenoids. The fresh mass loss increased during storage, peaking at 5.6 °C. The reduction in ascorbic acid content was higher in fully ripe fruits at all temperatures. Mid-ripe fruits reached the end of the storage period with better quality. The temperature of 10.4 °C was the most efficient in keeping postharvest quality of peach cv. Aurora 1 harvested in the Zona da Mata region.

  16. Fuel Summary for Peach Bottom Unit 1 High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Cores 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karel I. Kingrey

    2003-04-01

    This fuel summary report contains background and summary information for the Peach Bottom Unit 1, High-Temperature, Gas-Cooled Reactor Cores 1 and 2. This report contains detailed information about the fuel in the two cores, the Peach Bottom Unit 1 operating history, nuclear parameters, physical and chemical characteristics, and shipping and storage canister related data. The data in this document have been compiled from a large number of sources and are not qualified beyond the qualification of the source documents. This report is intended to provide an overview of the existing data pertaining to spent fuel management and point to pertinent reference source documents. For design applications, the original source documentation must be used. While all referenced sources are available as records or controlled documents at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), some of the sources were marked as informal or draft reports. This is noted where applicable. In some instances, source documents are not consistent. Where they are known, this document identifies those instances and provides clarification where possible. However, as stated above, this document has not been independently qualified and such clarifications are only included for information purposes. Some of the information in this summary is available in multiple source documents. An effort has been made to clearly identify at least one record document as the source for the information included in this report.

  17. Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 3. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Cunningham, P.A.; Gray, D.D.; Kumar, K.D.; Witten, A.J.

    1976-08-10

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Units 2 and 3 of the Peach Bottom Nuclear Power Plant was conducted for the Office of Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of both the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected from 1967 through 1976. Specific recommendations are made for improving both the present hydrothermal and ecological monitoring programs. Hydrothermal monitoring would be improved by more complete reporting of in-plant operating parameters. In addition, the present boat surveys could be discontinued, and monitoring efforts could be directed toward expanding the present thermograph network. Ecological monitoring programs were judged to be of high quality because standardized collection techniques, consistent reporting formats, and statistical analyses were performed on all of the data and were presented in an annual report. Sampling for all trophic groups was adequate for the purposes of assessing power plant induced perturbations. Considering the extensive period of preoperational data (six years) and operational data (three years) available for analysis, consideration could be given to reducing monitoring effort after data have been collected for a period when both units are operating at full capacity. In this way, an assessment of the potential ecological impact of the Peach Bottom facility can be made under conditions of maximum plant induced perturbations.

  18. Yield and crop cycle time of peaches cultivated in subtropical climates and subjected to different pruning times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Augusto Ferraz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of peaches in regions of subtropical and tropical climate is currently achieved through a set of practices such as using less demanding cultivars in cold conditions, applying plant growth regulators to break dormancy, and performing specific pruning, like production and renewal pruning. Research on the climate adaptation of cultivars is of great importance in establishing a crop in a given region. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of three cultivars subjected to different production pruning times in Botucatu/SP, where 2-year old peach trees were evaluated, grown at a spacing of 6.0 x 4.0 meters. The experimental design was a split plot design with four blocks, using the cultivars Douradão, BRS Kampai and BRS Rubimel, and the subplots corresponded to pruning times in May, June, July and August. Ten plants were used per plot, with the four central plants considered useful and the remaining considered as margins. Pruning in June and July showed the best results in terms of percentage of fruit set and production. The cultivar BRS Rubimel showed the best percentage of fruit set when pruned in June (44.96%, and best fruit production when pruned in July (18.7 kg plant-1. Pruning in May anticipated the harvest of cultivar BRS Rubimel by 13 days whereas pruning carried out in July and August provided late harvests for cultivars Douradão and BRS Kampai.

  19. Assessment of antioxidant activity and total polyphenolic compounds of peach varieties infected with the Plum pox virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Horsáková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Just like in other stone fruits, also in peach trees, the Plum pox virus is commonly known to be the cause of lower yields, worse quality and smaller size of fruits and it also affects the contained substances. The fruits of peach trees infected with the Plum pox virus (PPV were subjected to various analyses to determine the content of antioxidant activity and overall polyphenolic compounds. The evaluation took place from 2011 to 2012. To conduct this experiment, two cultivars that had been infected by PPV naturally were selected – ‘Royal Glory’ and ‘Symphony’. Antioxidant activity was established using five principally different methods (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, DMPD and Free Radicals. The content of total polyphenolic compounds was established using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results of these analyses are expressed as the equivalent of gallic acid (GAE in mg·kg−1. Furthermore, in the period from April to October the intensity of PPV symptoms in blossoms, leaves and fruits was also assessed. It was discovered that as a result of the PPV infection, the content of antioxidant activity as well as of total polyphenols had increased. Average reading of antioxidant activity in the PPV infected fruits had increased by 13.2 % (DPPH, 26.7 % (FRAP, 27.6 % (ABTS, 28.1 % (DMPD, 39.2 % (Free Radicals and the content of polyphenolic compounds had gone up by about 30.4 % in comparison with the control varieties.

  20. Comparison between in toto peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) supplementation and its polyphenolic extract on rat liver xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canistro, Donatella; Vivarelli, Fabio; Cirillo, Silvia; Costa, Guglielmo; Andreotti, Carlo; Paolini, Moreno

    2016-11-01

    Over the past years, there has been a growing interest in the natural constituents of foods as a potential means of cancer control. To date, epidemiology studies seem to indicate an inverse association between regular consumption of fruit and vegetables and cancer risk. Here, the potential chemopreventive activity of the polyphenolic extract (PPE) of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and of the freeze-dried fruit in toto (LFT), focusing on the modulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) in vivo, was investigated. Rats were daily supplemented with LFT at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. or with the corresponding amount of PPE (2.5 and 5 mL/kg b.w., respectively) for either 7 or 14 days. While PPE treatment resulted in a widespread phase-I inactivation, a complex modulation pattern with drastic decreases (7α-testosterone hydroxylase, pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD)), coupled with marked up-regulations of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) after LFT administration, was seen. A notable down-regulation (over 50%) following LFT or PPE treatment for the phase-II enzymes was also recorded. The observed remarkable changes in XMEs, if reproduced in humans, might have public health implications. These data suggest caution in promoting peach fruit (mono-diet) consumption or its polyphenolic extract in the field of chemoprevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date in peach (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shenghua; Bielenberg, Douglas G; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana N; Reighard, Gregory L; Okie, William R; Holland, Doron; Abbott, Albert G

    2010-03-01

    *Chilling requirement, together with heat requirement, determines the bloom date, which has an impact on the climatic distribution of the genotypes of tree species. The molecular basis of floral bud chilling requirement is poorly understood, despite its importance to the adaptation and production of fruit trees. In addition, the genetic nature of heat requirement and the genetic interrelationships among chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date remain unclear. *A peach (Prunus persica) F(2) population of 378 genotypes developed from two genotypes with contrasting chilling requirements was used for linkage map construction and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. The floral bud chilling and heat requirements of each genotype were evaluated over 2 yr and the bloom date was scored over 4 yr. *Twenty QTLs with additive effects were identified for three traits, including one major QTL for chilling requirement and two major QTLs for bloom date. The majority of QTLs colocalized with QTLs for other trait(s). In particular, one genomic region of 2 cM, pleiotropic for the three traits, overlapped with the sequenced peach EVG region. *This first report on the QTL mapping of floral bud chilling requirement will facilitate marker-assisted breeding for low chilling requirement cultivars and the map-based cloning of genes controlling chilling requirement. The extensive colocalization of QTLs suggests that there may be one unified temperature sensing and action system regulating chilling requirement, heat requirement and bloom date together.

  2. Copigmentation triggers the development of skin burning disorder on peach and nectarine fruit [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantín, Celia M; Tian, Li; Qin, Xiaoqiong; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2011-03-23

    Skin burning is a new type of skin damage related to exposure to high pH values during the brushing-waxing postharvest operations that has been observed recently on some newly released peach and nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] cultivars. In this work, we described this skin disorder for the first time and studied its triggers and biological basis. Different skin burning susceptibility was observed after screening 21 peach and nectarine cultivars. The stability of the skin phenolic extracts to pH in the range 7-10 was studied by UV-visible spectroscopy. This study demonstrated that fruit skin phenolics are not stable at high pH and that the transformations occurring at high pH are reversible and time-dependent. The changes on the UV-visible absorption spectra at different pH values pointed out the copigmentation of anthocyanins as the mechanism beyond the skin burning disorder. Finally, some recommendations to minimize this postharvest damage are also discussed.

  3. Accelerated solvent extraction of carotenoids from: Tunisian Kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoudi, Khalil; Pontvianne, Steve; Framboisier, Xavier; Achard, Mathilde; Kudaibergenova, Rabiga; Ayadi-Trabelsi, Malika; Kalthoum-Cherif, Jamila; Vanderesse, Régis; Frochot, Céline; Guiavarc'h, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Extraction of carotenoids from biological matrices and quantifications remains a difficult task. Accelerated solvent extraction was used as an efficient extraction process for carotenoids extraction from three fruits cultivated in Tunisia: kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Based on a design of experiment (DoE) approach, and using a binary solvent consisting of methanol and tetrahydrofuran, we could identify the best extraction conditions as being 40°C, 20:80 (v:v) methanol/tetrahydrofuran and 5 min of extraction time. Surprisingly and likely due to the high extraction pressure used (103 bars), these conditions appeared to be the best ones both for extracting xanthophylls such as lutein, zeaxanthin or β-cryptoxanthin and carotenes such as β-carotene, which present quite different polarities. Twelve surface responses were generated for lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in kaki, peach and apricot. Further LC-MS analysis allowed comparisons in carotenoids profiles between the fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bacillus cereus AR156 induces resistance against Rhizopus rot through priming of defense responses in peach fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Xu, Feng; Wang, Jing; Jin, Peng; Zheng, Yonghua

    2013-01-15

    The biocontrol effects of Bacillus cereus AR156 on Rhizopus rot caused by Rhizopus stolonifer in postharvest peach fruit and the possible mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that fruit treated with B. cereus AR156 had significantly lower disease incidence and smaller lesion diameter than the control fruit did. B. cereus AR156 treatment remarkably enhanced activities of chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, promoted accumulation of H(2)O(2), and improved total phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity. Transcripts of four defense related genes were only significantly enhanced in fruit both treated with B. cereus AR156 and inoculated with R. stolonifer compared with those that were only treated with B. cereus AR156 or inoculated with R. stolonifer. These results suggest that B. cereus AR156 can effectively inhibit Rhizopus rot caused by R. stolonifer and enhance antioxidant activity in peach fruit through the priming of defense responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficiency of fungicides in the control of brown rot in peaches and its relationship with physiological parameters of the fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandra Pivotto Pavanello

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The brown rot, caused by the fungus Monilinia fructicola, is the main cause for losses in pre and postharvest of peaches. The study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of preharvest application of fungicides on the control of brown rot in the field and during cold storage, and its relation to parameters of maturation and fruit quality. Therefore, we evaluated the following active ingredients: [1] control (water application, [2] captan; [3] iprodione; [4] iminoctadine; [5] tebuconazole; [6] procymidone; [7 ] azoxystrobin; [8] difenoconazole; [9] azoxystrobin / difenoconazole; [10] trifloxystrobin / tebuconazole; [11] sequence iminoctadine + captan; [12] sequence iminoctadine + iprodione; [13] sequence of tebuconazole + captan; [14] sequence of tebuconazole + iprodione. All treatments were applied according recommended doses and grace period for culture. The fruits were evaluated at harvest and after 40 days storage at –0.5 ° C, plus six days at 20 º C. At harvest time, the best control of brown rot was obtained with difenoconazole, while the fungicide iminoctadine and its association with iprodione showed good results in controlling brown rot after 40 days of cold storage, plus six days shelf life at 20 º C. The preharvest application of captan cause skin browning. The fungicide azoxystrobin influences the fruit maturation by decreasing acidity and firmness at harvest. Good levels of control of brown rot of peach can be achieved with the use of iminoctadine and iprodione.

  6. Monitoring plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), populations in apple and peach orchards in the mid-Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskey, Tracy C; Wright, Starker E

    2004-02-01

    We evaluated responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), to four trap types in commercial and unsprayed apple and peach orchards. Trap types included black pyramid and clear Plexiglas panel traps deployed outside the orchard 2 m from the border row, and branch-mimicking cylinder and trunk-mounted screen traps attached to trees in the border row. Bait treatments evaluated in conjunction with each trap type included the synthetic fruit volatile benzaldehyde, the aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid (GA), benzaldehyde in combination with GA, and an unbaited control treatment. In commercial apple orchards, significantly more plum curculio were captured in traps baited with benzaldehyde + GA compared with traps baited with other treatments. Furthermore, significantly more plum curculio were captured by screen traps baited with benzaldehyde + GA compared with unbaited control traps. Significantly more plum curculio were captured by screen traps compared with other trap types in an unsprayed apple orchard. Very few captures were recorded in commercial peach orchards. Dissections of trapped females indicate that bivoltine populations are present in the mid-Atlantic. In general, correlations between timing and amount of trap captures and timing and amount of fruit injury inflicted concurrently or 1 wk after trap captures were very weak for all trap types and bait combinations. Our results agree with previous studies in the northeastern United States in which trap captures are increased by presence of semiochemical baits but fail to serve as reliable tools to determine need for and timing of insecticide application against plum curculio.

  7. Structure–property characterization of the crinkle-leaf peach wood phenotype: a future model system for wood properties research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Rafael Arévalo; Craig Ledbetter; Joseph E. Jakes

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 400 million years of evolution and field-testing by the natural world has given humans thousands of wood types, each with unique structure– property relationships to study, exploit, and ideally, to manipulate, but the slow growth of trees makes them a recalcitrant experimental system. Variations in wood features of two genotypes of peach (Prunus persica L.)...

  8. Effect of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid treatment on proline accumulation and chilling injury in peach fruit after long-term cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Haitao; Cao, Shifeng; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cai, Yuting; Zheng, Yonghua

    2011-02-23

    The effect of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on chilling injury of peach fruit was investigated. Freshly harvested peaches were treated with 1, 5, or 10 mM GABA at 20 °C for 10 min and then stored at 1 °C for up to 5 weeks. The results showed that all of the GABA treatments could reduce chilling injury of peach fruit with 5 mM being the most effective concentration. GABA treatment significantly enhanced the accumulation of endogenous GABA and proline, which resulted from the increased activities of glutamate decarboxylase, Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, and ornithine δ-aminotransferase and decreased proline dehydrogenase activity. Our results revealed that GABA treatment may be a useful technique to alleviate chilling injury in cold-stored peach fruit, and the reduction in chilling by GABA may be due to the induction of endogenous GABA and proline accumulation. These data are the first evidence that exogenous GABA induced chilling tolerance in postharvest horticultural products.

  9. Morphological, molecular, and differential-host characterization of Meloidogyne floridensis n. sp (Nematoda : Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode parasitizing peach in Florida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handoo, Z.A.; Nyczepir, A.P.; Esmenjaud, D.; Beek, van J.G.; Castagnone-Sereno, P.; Carta, L.K.; Skantar, A.M.; Higgins, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    A root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne floridensis n. sp., is described and illustrated from peach originally collected from Gainesville, Florida. This new species resembles M. incognita, M. christiei, M. graminicola, and M. hispanica, but with LM and SEM observations it differs from these species either

  10. The impact of a novel peach gum-derived polysaccharide on postprandial blood glucose control in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuting; Lin, Dingbo; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhu, Wei; Ye, Junli; Li, Guohuai; Ma, Zhaocheng; Deng, Xiuxin

    2017-05-01

    Peach [Prunus persica (L.)] gum exudates are produced by the trunks and fruits in peach gummosis. Clinically, these exudates have been used to treat diabetes in China, though the molecular mechanism underlying remains unclear. In the current study, a novel peach gum-derived polysaccharide was isolated, designated as PGPSD, and its anti-diabetic effect was assessed in mice. This polysaccharide was composed of arabinose, xylose and galactose in the molar ratio of 5.98:1:3.55, with the average molecular weight at 1.00×10 6 Da. The animal study demonstrated that the PGPSD polysaccharide significantly lowered the postprandial blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Histology and immunohistochemistry results further confirmed that the application of PGPSD polysaccharide partially restored the pancreatic islets in diabetic mice, and enhanced the expression of pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1, insulin and hexokinase1. Collectively, the data suggested that the peach gum-derived polysaccharide had a meaningful potential as a non-insulin therapeutic compound in the treatment of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria innocua on minimally-processed peaches under different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Isabel; Abadias, Maribel; Anguera, Marina; Usall, Josep; Viñas, Inmaculada

    2010-10-01

    Consumption of fresh-cut produce has sharply increased recently causing an increase of foodborne illnesses associated with these products. As generally, acidic fruits are considered 'safe' from a microbiological point of view, the aim of this work was to study the growth and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria innocua on minimally-processed peaches. The three foodborne pathogens population increased more than 2 log(10)units on fresh-cut peach when stored at 20 and 25 degrees C after 48 h. At 10 degrees C only L. innocua grew more than 1 log(10)unit and it was the only pathogen able to grow at 5 degrees C. Differences in growth occurred between different peach varieties tested, with higher population increases in those varieties with higher pH ('Royal Glory' 4.73+/-0.25 and 'Diana' 4.12+/-0.18). The use of common strategies on extending shelf life of fresh-cut produce, as modified atmosphere packaging and the use of the antioxidant substance, ascorbic acid (2%w/v), did not affect pathogens' growth at any of the temperatures tested (5 and 25 degrees C). Minimally-processed peaches have shown to be a good substrate for foodborne pathogens' growth regardless use of modified atmosphere and ascorbic acid. Therefore, maintaining cold chain and avoiding contamination is highly necessary. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Survey of resistance to four insecticides and their associated mechanisms in different genotypes of the green peach aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of agriculture worldwide that is particularly adept at evolving insecticide resistance very frequently develop insecticide resistance. Seven mechanisms that confer resistance to many insecticide types have been des...

  13. Toxicity of newly isolated piperideine alkaloids from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is a major insect pest of many agronomic and horticultural crops and is distributed worldwide Aphid management is often based on application of insecticides. However, the aphid is now resistant to many of these and much interest has recently develope...

  14. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with changes in the morphology and pathogenicity of Pichia fermentans on apple and peach fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichia fermentans (strain DISAABA 726) is an effective biocontrol agent against Monilinia fructicola or Botrytis cinerea when inoculated in artificially wounded apple fruit but is an aggressive pathogen when inoculated on wounded peach fruit, causing severe fruit decay. P. fermentans grows as a bud...

  15. Reductions in flesh discolouration and internal morphological changes in Nanhui peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, cv. Nanhui) by electrolysed water and 1-methylcyclopropene treatment during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ran; Zhang, Guixiang; Hu, Yunsheng; Wu, Hui; Xie, Jing; Luo, Yudan

    2012-12-01

    The effects of electrolysed water (EW) and EW in combination with 1-methylcyclopropene (EW/MCP) on flesh discolouration of Nanhui peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, cv. Nanhui) were examined during storage at 2°C. Changes in flesh colour, ethylene production, membrane permeability, malondialdehyde (MDA), total phenolic contents and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) were assayed periodically after harvest and during 44days of storage. The internal morphological characteristics of Nanhui peaches were monitored using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the beginning and end of storage. These data revealed that the EW/MCP treatment is more effective than the EW treatment for decreasing ethylene production and maintaining fruit cell membrane integrity, delaying increases in MDA and total phenolic contents, and lessening changes in PPO and POD activities and the internal morphology of peaches. Each of these effects contributes to suppressing flesh discolouration and maintaining the quality of Nanhui peaches during storage. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rootstock and fruit canopy position affect peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] (cv. Rich May) plant productivity and fruit sensorial and nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Gregorio; Motisi, Antonio; Zappia, Rocco; Dattola, Agostino; Diamanti, Jacopo; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2014-06-15

    The right combination of rootstock and training system is important for increased yield and fruit sensorial and nutritional homogeneity and quality with peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]. We investigated the effects of rootstock and training system on these parameters, testing the effect of vigorous GF677 and weaker Penta rootstock on 'Rich May' peach cultivar. Fruit position effects regarding photosynthetically active radiation availability, along the canopy profile using the Y training system, were investigated. The positive relationships between total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity according to canopy vigour and architecture were determined for the two scion/stock combinations. Changes in fruit epicarp colour and content of bioactive compounds were also determined. Lower-vigour trees from Penta rootstock grafting yielded larger fruit with improved skin overcolour, and greater total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity. GF677 rootstock produced more vigorous trees with fruit with lower sensorial and nutritional parameters. Canopy position strongly affects fruit sensorial and nutritional qualities. These data define potential for improvements to peach production efficiency and fruit quality, particularly for southern Europe peach cultivation conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phenotypic diversity among peach and nectarine (Prunus persica L.) fruit in the national prunus collection at the USDA-ARS, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diversity and relationships of fruit quality traits peach and nectarine (Prunus persica L.) in the National Prunus collection were studied using comprehensive phenotyping methods. The collection was re-propagated in 2013 and planted in 2014 providing a unique opportunity to evaluate an even-aged...

  18. Dormancy-associated MADS genes from the EVG locus of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] have distinct seasonal and photoperiodic expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Reighard, Gregory Lynn; Abbott, Albert Glenn; Bielenberg, Douglas Gary

    2009-01-01

    Mapping and sequencing of the non-dormant evg mutant in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] identified six tandem-arrayed DAM (dormancy-associated MADS-box) genes as candidates for regulating growth cessation and terminal bud formation. To narrow the list of candidate genes, an attempt was made to associate bud phenology with the seasonal and environmental patterns of expression of the candidates in wild-type trees. The expression of the six peach DAM genes at the EVG locus of peach was characterized throughout an annual growing cycle in the field, and under controlled conditions in response to a long day-short day photoperiod transition. DAM1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 were responsive to a reduction in photoperiod in controlled conditions and the direction of response correlated with the seasonal timing of expression in field-grown trees. DAM3 did not respond to photoperiod and may be regulated by chilling temperatures. The DAM genes in peach appear to have at least four distinct patterns of expression. DAM1, 2, and 4 are temporally associated with seasonal elongation cessation and bud formation and are the most likely candidates for control of the evg phenotype.

  19. QTL mapping and breeding value estimation through pedigree-based analysis of fruit size and weight in four diverse peach breeding programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Frett, Terrence J.; Sandefur, Paul J.; Bink, Marco C.A.M.; Weg, van de Eric

    2016-01-01

    The narrow genetic base of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) challenges efforts to accurately dissect the genetic architecture of complex traits. Standardized phenotypic assessment of pedigree-linked breeding germplasm and new molecular strategies and analytical approaches developed and conducted

  20. Genetic differentiation and trade among populations of Peach Palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the Peruvian Amazon - implications for genetic resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adin, A.; Weber, J.C.; Sotelo Montes, C.; Vidaurre, H.; Vosman, B.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is cultivated for fruit and 'heart of palm', and is an important component of agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon. In this study, AFLP was used to compare genetic diversity among domesticated populations along the Paranapura and Cuiparillo rivers, which