Means, Darris R.
Spirituality plays a significant role in the lives of college students (Astin, Astin, & Lindholm, 2011; Bryant, Choi, & Yasuno, 2003; Chickering, 2006; Parks, 2000). However, Black gay males are uniquely positioned with regards to spirituality given how race, gender, and sexual orientation are generally perceived and experienced in the…
Campbell, Jamonn; Cothren, Denise; Rogers, Ross; Kistler, Lindsay; Osowski, Anne; Greenauer, Nathan; End, Christian
The purpose of this study was to examine sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes. Participants formed impressions of a fictional athlete from their favorite team after reading a short scenario about the player. The scenarios described the athlete as being gay or straight, and either becoming a distraction or not causing a distraction to the team. While males' ratings of the athlete did not significantly differ, female fans formed significantly more positive impressions of the gay male player than the straight athlete. These results are discussed in terms of the ingroup bias and the shifting culture of homophobia in sport.
Chesebro, James W., Ed.
In a departure from previous statistical studies, this book focuses on the social responses to homosexuality rather than on homosexual behavior itself. The essays in the book maintain that communication--how gay men and lesbians relate to one another as well as to heterosexuals--is the major factor that determines public opinion about…
... represents gay images that are in agreement with the 1996 Constitution of South Africa, which protects the rights of gay people. The analysis of male gayness is situated within the theoretical framework of intercultural communication. Intercultural communication theory regards gay identities as microcultures or subcultures ...
Nagorski, Alec P.
The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the relationship between a gay male's low self-esteem and environmental oppression, thereby establishing guidelines for the counselor in directing the client toward a more positive gay identity. This document is divided into the following sections: (1) Initial Interview; (2) Theory of…
Koc, Yasin; Vignoles, Vivian L
In most parts of the world, hegemonic masculinity requires men to endorse traditional masculine ideals, one of which is rejection of homosexuality. Wherever hegemonic masculinity favours heterosexuality over homosexuality, gay males may feel under pressure to negotiate their conflicting male gender and gay sexual identities to maintain positive self-perceptions. However, globalization, as a source of intercultural interaction, might provide a beneficial context for people wishing to create alternative masculinities in the face of hegemonic masculinity. Hence, we tested if global identification would predict higher levels of gay-male identity integration, and indirectly subjective well-being, via alternative masculinity representations for gay and male identities. A community sample of 219 gay and bisexual men from Turkey completed the study. Structural equation modelling revealed that global identification positively predicted gay-male identity integration, and indirectly subjective well-being; however, alternative masculinity representations did not mediate this relationship. Our findings illustrate how identity categories in different domains can intersect and affect each other in complex ways. Moreover, we discuss mental health and well-being implications for gay men living in cultures where they experience high levels of prejudice and stigma. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Weiner, Brittany A; Zinner, Leah
This study examined American attitudes toward transsexual and gay male parenting, compared to straight parenting. After reporting levels of transphobia, participants read a vignette regarding a couple seeking child adoption. Individuals high in transphobia perceived nontraditional couples as more emotionally unstable than straight couples and were less willing to grant custody of a child to the nontraditional couples vs. the straight couples. In addition, the transsexual couple faced more prejudice and discrimination than the gay male couple. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.
Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…
Mizzi, Robert C.
This paper expands on the extant research on gay male educators by comparing two research projects on such educators who taught in international settings. One study focused on five gay, male, adult educators who relocated to Canada from countries in the Global South and the second study focused on eight gay, male, adult educators who relocated to…
Mitchell, Jason W
Research has shown that gay male couples' sexual agreements may affect their risk for HIV. Few U.S. studies have collected dyadic data nationally from gay male couples to assess what sexual behaviors they allow to occur by agreement type and the sequence of when certain behaviors occur within their relationships. In our cross-sectional study, dyadic data from a convenience sample of 361 male couples were collected electronically throughout the United States by using paid Facebook ads. Findings revealed that couples discussed their HIV status before having unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) but established their agreement some time after having UAI. About half of the couples (N = 207) concurred about having an agreement. Among these couples, 58% concurred about explicitly discussing their agreement, 84% concurred about having the same type of agreement, and 54% had both men adhering to it. A variety of sexual behaviors were endorsed and varied by agreement type. Concordance about aspects of couples' agreements varied, suggesting the need to engage couples to be more explicit and detailed when establishing and communicating about their agreements. The allowed behaviors and primary reasons for establishing and breaking sexual agreements further highlight the need to bolster HIV prevention for gay male couples.
Full Text Available Based on original interviews with key protagonists and documentary research, the article examines the way in which the DJs who worked at the Saint forged a white gay aesthetic across the first half of the 1980s. A private party located in the East Village, New York, the Saint attracted a privileged white male crowd, and this group's position within the emerging culture of neoliberalism, along with the deepening impact of the AIDS epidemic, encouraged its spinners to sever their ties with sounds that were associated with blackness. However, if Saint DJs rejected a high proportion of records that were being released by New York's independents, and also snubbed Chicago house when it broke in 1985, their forging of an aesthetic that emphasised seamless transitions, often between records that contained similar sonic qualities, preempted the style of mixing that would be popularised in house music culture.
Varangis, Eleanna; Lanzieri, Nicholas; Hildebrandt, Tom; Feldman, Matthew
The purpose of this study was to examine gay men's perceived attractiveness of male figures based on short-term and long-term partner contexts. A sample of 190 gay adult men rated the attractiveness of line-drawings depicting male figures varying systematically in muscularity and body fat percentage in both short-term and long-term dating contexts. Mixed effects modeling was used to estimate the effects of figure (muscularity and body fat), dating context (short-term vs. long-term), and individual rater characteristics on attractiveness ratings. Results indicated that figure muscularity and body-fat had significant non-linear (i.e., quadratic) relationships with attractiveness ratings, and short-term dating context was associated with more discriminating ratings of attractiveness. Interactions between individual characteristics and figure characteristics indicated that the more available the individual and lower body fat, the more discriminating they were in ratings of attractiveness. The implications for future investigations considering both object and observer characteristics of attractiveness preferences are discussed. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kendall, Christopher N
In 2000, in the case of Little Sisters Book and Art Emporium, the Canadian Supreme Court was asked to determine whether gay male pornography violated the sex equality protections guaranteed by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Throughout this case, gay male activists and academics emphasised the risk posed by antipornography legal strategies to the dissemination of materials intended to promote safer sexual behaviour. Other arguments were advanced that gay male pornography should not be restricted because it serves as a learning tool for young men and, in so doing, does much to reduce the alarming incidence of gay youth suicide. The author examines these assumptions within the context of the gay male pornography defended in Little Sisters. His conclusion is that the present gay male obsession with hyper-masculinity, best evidenced in the pornography now widely touted by some gay men as a source of gay male identity and freedom, undermines safer sexual practices and the self-respect needed to combat youth suicide. The author concludes that gay men must commit to a sexuality built on mutuality, respect and caring (i.e., an identity politic built around sex equality).
McFarland, William P.; McMahon, Timothy R.
The male archetypes of king, lover, magician, and warrior provide important and timeless insights into mature masculine qualities. Homosexual identity development models describe tasks that confront gay men as they move through the identity development process. Proposes that by understanding the metaphor of male archetypes, gay men will discover…
Elizur, Y; Ziv, M
While heterosexist family undermining has been demonstrated to be a developmental risk factor in the life of persons with same-gender orientation, the issue of protective family factors is both controversial and relatively neglected. In this study of Israeli gay males (N = 114), we focused on the interrelations of family support, family acceptance and family knowledge of gay orientation, and gay male identity formation, and their effects on mental health and self-esteem. A path model was proposed based on the hypotheses that family support, family acceptance, family knowledge, and gay identity formation have an impact on psychological adjustment, and that family support has an effect on gay identity formation that is mediated by family acceptance. The assessment of gay identity formation was based on an established stage model that was streamlined for cross-cultural practice by defining three basic processes of same-gender identity formation: self-definition, self-acceptance, and disclosure (Elizur & Mintzer, 2001). The testing of our conceptual path model demonstrated an excellent fit with the data. An alternative model that hypothesized effects of gay male identity on family acceptance and family knowledge did not fit the data. Interpreting these results, we propose that the main effect of family support/acceptance on gay identity is related to the process of disclosure, and that both general family support and family acceptance of same-gender orientation play a significant role in the psychological adjustment of gay men.
Skorska, Malvina N; Blanchard, Ray; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J; Bogaert, Anthony F
Recent findings suggest that there may be a maternal immune response underpinning the etiology of sexual orientation of gay male only-children. This maternal immune response appears to be distinct from that which is purported to explain the classic fraternal birth order effect found in studies of male sexual orientation. We tested two predictions related to the hypothesized maternal immune response in mothers of gay male only-children: (1) elevated fetal loss among mothers who have had gay male only-children and (2) lower birth weight in gay male only-children. Mothers of at least one gay son (n = 54) and mothers of heterosexual son(s) (n = 72) self-reported their pregnancy histories, including the birth weights of newborns and number of fetal losses (e.g., miscarriages). Mothers of gay male only-children (n = 8) reported significantly greater fetal loss compared with mothers of males with four other sibship compositions (gay with no older brothers, gay with older brothers, heterosexual only-children, heterosexual with siblings) (n = 118). Also, firstborn gay male only-children (n = 4) had a significantly lower birth weight than firstborn children in the four other sibship compositions (n = 59). Duration of pregnancy was not significantly different among the groups of firstborn children in the birth weight analyses. Thus, this study found further support for a distinct pattern of maternal immune response implicated in the etiology of male sexual orientation. Mechanisms that may underlie this potential second type of maternal immune response are discussed.
Woodford, Michael R.; Howell, Michael L.; Kulick, Alex; Silverschanz, Perry
"That's so gay," a popular expression on campuses, is a sexual orientation microaggression that can contribute to a hostile environment for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students. Using data from a campus climate survey conducted at a large urban university, we investigated use of the phrase among heterosexual male undergraduates who…
Anderson, Eric; McCormack, Mark
This article examines the influence of the racial categories of White and Black and the sexual categories of gay and straight on sporting American men. The effect of the intersection of these cultural categories is discussed by investigating the exclusion of athletes who are both Black and gay, as well as highlighting the culturally perceived differences of (straight) Black and (White) gay men. However, the analysis accounts for more than just difference, examining the commonalities of oppression between these discrete identity groups. We use the research on Black athletes to call for further empirical study on gay athletes. It is argued that critical race theory and intersectionality offer complex and nuanced understandings of these oppressions, which, when theorizing is left solely to the realm of poststructuralism, can otherwise be missed.
Kelley, Thomas M; Robertson, Richard A
This article presents two studies that are the first to examine relational aggression and relational victimization in gay male peer relationships. A qualitative pilot study provides a strong rationale for a subsequent empirical investigation of 100 young adult, self-identified gay males. Results of both studies demonstrate that relational aggression and relational victimization are common experiences in gay male relationships. They also reveal forms of relational aggression and victimization that appear to be unique to gay males (e.g., outing). Results of the empirical study found significant relations between engaging in relational aggression against gay males and experiencing relational victimization and between experiencing relational victimization and internalized homophobia. However, there was no significant correlation between internalized homophobia and engaging in relational aggression. A multiple regression analysis found that experiencing relational victimization was correlated more strongly with the combination of engaging in relational aggression and internalized homophobia together than with relational aggression alone. Results are discussed within the framework of Allport's "traits due to victimization" theory and Meyer's theory of "minority stress." Implications for the prevention of relational aggression/victimization in gay male relationships are offered. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Han, Chong-Suk; Ayala, George; Paul, Jay P; Choi, Kyung-Hee
Rather than a defined endpoint that is waiting to be discovered or developed, racial and sexual identities can be considered social identities which are fluid, malleable, and socially created through a social process that defines what it means to be a member of a social group. This paper expands the work on how social identities are constructed by examining personal anecdotes used by gay men of color to discuss how they come to see themselves as "gay men of color." In doing so, we find that gay men of color use a number of cultural tropes that provide them the framework necessary to structure their experiences within a larger social context of a largely white, heterosexual society. Drawing on these cultural tropes, gay men of color create a social identity that is simultaneously raced and sexed through the use of shared cultural tropes that define what it means to be a member of this group.
Perry, Nicholas S; Huebner, David M; Baucom, Brian R; Hoff, Colleen C
Men who have sex with men (MSM) in primary relationships engage in condomless sex both within and outside their relationships and a majority of HIV transmission risk may actually occur within primary relationships. Sexual agreements regarding non-monogamy are a critical component to understanding HIV prevention in male couples. Relationship factors have been associated with how sexual agreements function and power is one dyadic construct likely to affect couple's maintenance of non-monogamy agreements. Multilevel modeling was used in a cross-sectional study of gay male couples (N = 566 couples) to examine associations between partners' demographic characteristics traditionally used to define relationship power, a scale of decision-making power, and outcomes related to sexual agreements, including investment, agreement breaks, and break disclosure. Results indicated that decision-making power relative to one's partner was not associated with any agreement outcome, contrary to hypotheses. However, controlling for decision-making power, demographic bases of power were variably associated with sexual agreements' functioning. Younger partners were less invested in and more frequently broke their agreements. Lower-earning partners broke their agreements more frequently, but also disclosed breaks more often. White men in white-minority relationships broke their agreement more often than their partners. Concordant HIV-positive couples were less invested in their agreements and HIV-positive men disclosed breaks more frequently. HIV prevention efforts for same-sex couples must attend to the social, developmental, and cultural influences that affect their agreements around non-monogamy.
Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.
Gay men face decisions associated with disclosure, the process of coming out as gay, when and if to disclose, and how much information. These decisions carry more weight in masculinized industries such as law enforcement. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to critically explore gay male law enforcement officers' experiences working in…
Lanzieri, Nicholas; Hildebrandt, Tom
This article reviews relevant research on male homosexual attraction. Utilizing masculinity as its theoretical frame, the authors use childhood experiences with both fathers and peers, the gay community's inculcation of heteronormative ideologies, and the gay media's adherence to masculine prototypes, to provide causal explanations for the appeal of muscular, lean, and athletic physiques. While the authors acknowledge that not all individuals within the gay community look toward muscularity and athleticism as the primary components of attractiveness, it nonetheless remains important to examine the theoretical perspectives that may explain the appeal of this specific aesthetic.
This study utilizes a qualitative thematic analysis methodology and a social identity theory framework to explore ways in which early midlife gay men report enhancing their social identities through social and psychological creativity. Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews were conducted with forty early midlife gay men (aged 40-53) in four US cities. Men discussed the collective and individual essences of their age and gay identities, including attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours that they embraced to self-enhance at midlife. These discussions emphasized differences from the younger gay outgroup, often in the context of intergenerational interaction. Identified were three strategies (and seven substrategies) that summarized the ways that interviewees constructed their identities in the interest of self-enhancement, specifically in the context of intergenerational comparisons with younger gay men. These strategies may be considered as extensions to social creativity strategies presented in Tajfel and Turner's (Psychology of intergroup relations. Chicago, IL: Nelson, 1986: 7) social identity theory. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Golom, Frank D; Mohr, Jonathan J
Despite the recent proliferation of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) thematic content in U.S. media, there have been relatively few empirical investigations examining its impact on heterosexuals' attitudes toward LGB individuals. This study examined the effect of one type of content, male-male homoerotic imagery, on male and female heterosexuals' attitudes toward, stereotypes about, and affective reactions to gay men. One hundred ninety-eight undergraduate students were assigned to either a male-male or male-female erotica condition, and their corresponding attitudes toward gay men were assessed. Results revealed that the effect of erotic imagery (male-male vs. male-female) on participants' stereotype and affect scores differed for men and women at varying levels of sexual anxiety. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of the literature on exposure to erotic imagery and attitudes toward gay men. In particular, the study highlights the need for additional research that acknowledges within-gender heterogeneity with respect to antigay attitude valence, extremity, and function.
Raley, Amber B; Lucas, Jennifer L
The current content analysis of prime-time network television during the fall of 2001 seeks to identify the representation of Gay male, Lesbian, and Bisexual characters in shows known to have one reoccurring homosexual character based on the theories of Clark and Berry. Clark (1969) established four stages of media representation for minority groups: non-representation, ridicule, regulation, and respect. The findings of the study support the premise that Gay males and Lesbians have passed Clark's stage of non-representation and have progressed into the stage of ridicule and some are moving into the stages of regulation and respect. Berry (1980) devised three periods based on the television portrayal of Blacks: The Stereotypic Age, The New Awareness, and Stabilization. Results were mixed, with only a partial support of the hypothesis that Gay males and Lesbians had advanced beyond The Stereotypic Age.
Cabrera, Nolan L.
This qualitative study relies on Freire's conception of liberatory praxis to examine White male college students' becoming aware of racism and translating awareness into action. The participants developed racial cognizance via cross-racial contact and course content. They also tended to be open to interrogating racism and racial privilege due to…
Anderson-Martinez, Richard; Vianden, Jörg
This article presents the results of a qualitative exploration of the performance of masculine gender identities in six gay male students enrolled at a master's comprehensive public institution in the Midwest. This article builds on the work of Laker and Davis (2011) and Rankin (2005). The findings indicate participants adapted their gender…
This paper draws on a piece of wide-scale mixed-methods research that examines the motivations behind women who watch gay male pornography. To date there has been very little interdisciplinary research investigating this phenomenon, despite a recent survey by PornHub (one of the largest online porn sites in the world) showing that gay male porn is the second most popular choice for women porn users out of 25+ possible genre choices. While both academic literature and popular culture have look...
Adams, Melvin D., III
This doctoral thesis studied the religious and spiritual experiences of undergraduate gay males at a Protestant affiliated higher education institution and how undergraduate gay males made sense of their personal journeys. Data was collected from four participants and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Five themes emerged…
Zakalik, Robyn A.; Wei, Meifen
This study examined perceived discrimination as both a mediator and moderator between adult attachment (anxiety and avoidance) and levels of depression in a gay male sample. Survey data were collected from 234 self-identified gay males through the Internet and in person through community resources across several states. Results from structural…
Based on ethnographic data collected at a gay bar with sexual minority youths as dancers or strippers, this study calls attention to the gazes through which adults view and position male youths. It highlights a dancer named Austin, who at times engaged in the underground hustling economy centered in the bar. The findings suggest that the social…
Willette, James M.
The purpose of this interpretative phenomenological study was to understand how male undergraduate students who identify as openly gay experience marginality and mattering at a Jesuit Catholic university. There were 28 Jesuit colleges and universities in the United States as of this writing, each with its own varying approach towards the treatment…
Reddick, Rinardo Lamon
There have been many studies that focus on understanding various aspects of human sexuality and how it relates to college students. However, the current research focuses on heterosexual students, leaving a void in the research that focuses on gay male college students. Even more crucially, there is a void in research that focuses on the sexual…
Squire, Dian D.; Mobley, Steve D., Jr.
This study explores the college choice process for Black gay males and what factors played significant roles in why they chose to attend either HBCUs or PWIs. Findings revealed that these students considered race and sexual orientation in different ways when deciding to attend either an HBCU or PWI. Implications for high school counselors and…
Parrott, Dominic J.
This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440
Oginni, Olakunle A; Mosaku, Kolawole S; Mapayi, Boladale M; Akinsulore, Adesanmi; Afolabi, Temitope O
Homosexuality is a recognized risk factor for depression in high-income countries; however, there is little research investigating the relationship between depression and sexual orientation in developing countries, especially in Africa. In this first study to investigate psychopathology in sexual minority men in Nigeria, the prevalence rates of depression in Nigerian gay and heterosexual individuals were compared as well as the explanatory power of risk and resilience factors in both groups. Eighty-one gay and 81 heterosexual male university students were, respectively, recruited from the Obafemi Awolowo University. Both groups were assessed for depression and other clinical factors, including alcohol and other substance use, suicidal ideation, and resilience. Gay students were further assessed for sexuality-related variables, including minority stress factors such as internalized homophobia and perceived stigma. The prevalence rates of depression among gay and heterosexual students were, respectively, 16 and 4.9% (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.15-11.82), and this increased likelihood for depression was significantly attenuated by resilience. Clinical factors correlated significantly with depression in both groups, explaining 31% of the variance in depression in gay and heterosexual students, respectively. Sexuality-related variables including internalized homophobia and perceived stigma were further associated with depression in gay students-accounting for a further 14% of the variance of depression in gay students. The findings highlight the importance of minority stress factors in understanding depression among non-heterosexual individuals in a developing country, and the need for further research to investigate the mechanisms of these relationships in such settings.
Huebner, David M.; Mandic, Carmen Gómez; Mackaronis, Julia E.; Beougher, Sean C.; Hoff, Colleen C.
Parenthood changes couples' relationships across multiple domains, generally decreasing relationship quality, sexual satisfaction, and sexual frequency. Emerging research suggests that gay couples who are parenting might experience similar challenges. However, such changes might have even more profound implications for gay couples' health, and in particular their HIV risk, given the somewhat different ways in which they negotiate and tolerate sexual behaviors with outside partners. We aimed to examine these issues in a qualitative analysis of interviews from 48 gay male couples who were actively parenting children. Findings suggest that parenthood increases men's commitment to their primary relationship while simultaneously decreasing time and energy for relationship maintenance, and generally decreasing sexual satisfaction. These challenges alone did not generally result in greater infidelity or HIV risk, as most men reported successfully coping with such changes through a combination of acceptance and revaluing what is important in their relationships. Additionally, couples reported negotiating agreements regarding sex with outside partners that closely resemble those documented in studies of gay couples who are not parents. Men reported that parenthood typically decreased their opportunities to engage in sex with outside partners, but also posed barriers to talking about these behaviors with their partners and healthcare providers. HIV-related sexual risk behavior was relatively rare, but nevertheless present in some men. Providers should assess sexual function as a regular part of their work with gay couples who parent, and facilitate opportunities for men to discuss their sexual agreements both with their primary partners and with relevant healthcare providers. PMID:25674355
Zheng, Lijun; Zheng, Yong
Previous studies have documented the correlation between preferences for male facial masculinity and perceived masculinity: women who rate their male partner as more masculine tend to prefer more masculine faces. Men's self-rated masculinity predicts their female partner's preference for masculinity. This study examined the association between other trait preferences and preference for male facial masculinity among 556 gay and bisexual men across multiple cities in China. Participants were asked to choose the three most important traits in a romantic partner from a list of 23 traits. Each participant was then asked to choose a preferred face in each of 10 pairs of male faces presented sequentially, with each pair consisting of a masculinized and feminized version of the same base face. The results indicated that preferences for health and status-related traits were correlated with preferences for male facial masculinity in gay and bisexual men in China; individuals who were more health- or status-oriented in their preferences for a romantic partner preferred more masculine male faces than individuals with lower levels of these orientations. The findings have implications for the correlated preferences for facial masculinity and health- and status-related traits and may be related to perceived health and dominance/aggression of masculine faces based on a sample of non-Western gay and bisexual men.
Friedman, Mark S; Koeske, Gary F; Silvestre, Anthony J; Korr, Wynne S; Sites, Edward W
This study hypothesized that gender-role nonconformity is associated with suicidality, and bullying mediates this relationship. Gay males retrospectively answered questions pertaining to elementary, middle, and high school. Support for the hypotheses was found. Results can help screen gay youth for suicidality and support the need for policies prohibiting harassment based on sexual orientation.
Rosenfeld, Dana; Bartlam, Bernadette; Smith, Ruth D.
Regardless of HIV status, all gay male Baby Boomers are aging in a context strongly shaped by HIV/AIDS. For this subcohort within the Baby Boom generation, the disproportionately high volume of AIDS deaths among gay men aged 25-44 years at the epidemic's peak (1987-1996) created a cohort effect, decimating their social networks and shaping their…
Mcneal, J L
Despite all of the education and public awareness about AIDS in the US, some gay men have not adopted risk-reduction behaviors. Findings are reported from a study exploring the extent to which a gay man idealizes his partner is linked to reported condom use among gay male couples. The study also explored how the following intimacy factors are linked to condom use: relationship satisfaction, relationship excitement, and interpersonal closeness. Questionnaires were distributed to 125 gay male couples; both members of 45 of these couples completed and returned the questionnaire. The participants were recruited in the New York City area, were age 21-52 years (mean age, 33.06 years), and the couples had been together for an average period of 29.5 months (range, 1-163 months). The degree of idealization was found to have a significant negative correlation with condom use, suggesting that the more the men idealized each other, the less likely they were to use condoms during sex. Relationship satisfaction and excitement were also significantly negatively associated with condom use. No significant association was found between closeness and condom use.
Polasek, Katherine M.; Roper, Emily A.
Dance, ballet and modern in particular, is culturally defined as a feminine activity in the United States. The purpose of the present study was to examine the experiences of professional male modern and ballet dancers in the United States. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 current professional ballet and modern dancers. We examined…
Starks, Tyrel J; Pawson, Mark; Stephenson, Rob; Sullivan, Patrick; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Sexual risk reduction among gay male couples has received increasing attention in light of evidence that primary partners account for many-and possibly most-new HIV infections. This study examined the content of condom use scripts in interviews conducted with both members of 17 HIV-negative gay male couples. In each couple, at least one partner was an emerging adult (aged 18 to 29). Three scripts were identified: romantic love, unanticipated condomless anal intercourse (CAI), and negotiated safety. Scripts varied in their emphasis on emotional factors versus HIV risk reduction, the salience of sexual agreements, and the presence of an explicit communication goal. Results indicated that condom use may vary for couples as a result of script content and from the fluid adoption of scripts across contexts. Results highlighted potential tensions between emotional closeness and HIV prevention. Condom use cessation and sexual agreements-a potential mechanism for HIV risk reduction-may also serve as expressions of intimacy. This implies interventions that facilitate direct communication about sexual and relational goals-as well as those that expand couples' repertoires for expressing emotional closeness-may enhance sexual health for gay couples, particularly during the period of emerging adulthood.
Steffens, Melanie C; Jonas, Kai J; Denger, Lisa
Anti-gay attitudes vary across cultures because the larger social context plays a role in attitude formation. Psychological correlates of these attitudes have been investigated in the United States and Europe. Endorsement of traditional gender roles has emerged from that research as a central correlate, next to religiosity and personal contact with lesbians/gay men. In a cross-sectional study, we tested whether these correlates are relevant in Mexico, characterized as an androcentric culture in which both gender-role traditionalism and religiosity are high, using a college-age student sample (N = 63). Because we relied on self-reports, the motivation to appear nonprejudiced was also assessed. We found typical gender differences in attitudes toward gay men. In bivariate tests, anti-gay attitudes were related to male role endorsement, contact with lesbians/gay men, and religiosity. In a multivariate analysis, variance in attitudes was explained by male role endorsement; personal contact or religiosity did not explain additional variance. In a German comparison sample (N = 112), male role endorsement played a smaller role. Variance in anti-gay attitudes in the German sample was also related to personal contact, religiosity, and the motivation to appear nonprejudiced. We discuss the centrality of (male) gender-role endorsement in cultures with high gender-role traditionalism.
Harper, Gary W; Serrano, Pedro A; Bruce, Douglas; Bauermeister, Jose A
One emerging avenue for the exploration of adolescents' sexual orientation identity development is the Internet, since it allows for varying degrees of anonymity and exploration. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the role of the Internet in facilitating the sexual orientation identity development process of gay and bisexual male adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 63 gay/bisexual male adolescents (ages 15-23). Participants reported using a range of Internet applications as they explored and came to accept their sexual orientation identity, with the intended purpose and degree of anonymity desired determining which applications were used. Youth reported that the Internet provided a range of functions with regard to the exploration and acceptance of their sexual orientation identity, including (1) increasing self-awareness of sexual orientation identity, (2) learning about gay/bisexual community life, (3) communicating with other gay/bisexual people, (4) meeting other gay/bisexual people, (5) finding comfort and acceptance with sexual orientation, and (6) facilitating the coming out process. Future research and practice may explore the Internet as a platform for promoting the healthy development of gay and bisexual male adolescents by providing a developmentally and culturally appropriate venue for the exploration and subsequent commitment to an integrated sexual orientation identity. © The Author(s) 2015.
Wilson, Bianca D. M.; Harper, Gary W.; Hidalgo, Marco A.; Jamil, Omar B.; Torres, Rodrigo Sebastián; Fernandez, M. Isabel
In the context of a U.S. dominant masculinity ideology, which devalues men who are not heterosexually identified, many gay, bisexual and questioning (GBQ) adolescent males must develop their own affirming and health-promoting sense of masculinity. In order to promote the well-being of GBQ young men, exploration of their reactions and responses to dominant images of masculinity is needed. We qualitatively analyzed interviews with 39 GBQ African American, Latino, and European American male adolescents (15–23 years old). Participants reported a range of responses to traditional masculinity ideologies, most of which centered on balancing presentations of masculine and feminine characteristics. Negotiation strategies served a variety of functions, including avoiding anti-gay violence, living up to expected images of masculinity, and creating unique images of personhood free of gender role expectations. These data suggest a complex picture of GBQ male adolescents’ management of masculinity expectations and serve as a basis for culturally and developmentally specific HIV prevention programs. PMID:20082238
Cabrera, Nolan L.
This research is a cross-site analysis of how white, male, college students see their Asian American peers. Semi-structured interviews with 43 white males were conducted at two universities that differed substantially in their representation of Asian American students. The interviews were theoretically framed by Critical Whiteness Studies and Bobo…
Savin-Williams, Ritch C.
Reviews verbal and physical abuse that threatens well-being and physical survival of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths. Notes that this response to gay male, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents by significant others in their environment is often associated with several problematic outcomes, including school-related problems, running away,…
Mattingly, Doreen J; Boyd, Ashley
In March 1977, President Carter's Assistant Margaret "Midge" Costanza made history by meeting with representatives from the National Gay Task Force (NGTF) to hear their grievances about discriminatory federal policies. The effects of the meeting were many, including changes in policies of the Bureau of Prisons and the Public Health Service. It also initiated policy discussions that would continue for decades and contributed to the incorporation of gay rights within the Democratic Party. Midge Costanza was fundamental to the process. It was her decision to hold the meeting and to advocate on behalf of the NGTF, and she bore many of the meeting's political costs. In this article we make use of Costanza's own papers and multiple interviews with her to closely analyze Costanza's role in the historic meeting. In addition to adding detail to its politics and policy impacts of the meeting, we also look at her complex motivations for holding such a controversial meeting. Costanza maintained until her death in 2010 that she was motivated by her feminism and overall commitment to social justice, rather than her own identity or experiences.
The prototype of a safer-sex comic book was designed in response to the need for HIV intervention material targetting gay male youth in Toronto. This prototype depicted three separate stories, each based on recorded interviews, and each revolving around the negotiation of condom use between a different pair of characters. The characters were based on observations of respondents. The prototype's plausibility, relevance and attractiveness were assessed through focus groups and an evaluation questionnaire. Results indicated that most readers found the depicted stories pleasing, realistic and personally relevant. Readers found fault with the transitions between the stories and with certain character elements. Suggested solutions and comments about condom use served as directions for further development of the prototype into a finished product.
Couzens, Jimmy; Mahoney, Berenice; Wilkinson, Dean
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals come from diverse cultural groups with differing ethnic and racial identities. However, most research on LGB people uses white western samples and studies of Afro-Caribbean diaspora often use Jamaican samples. Thus, the complexity of Afro-Caribbean LGB peoples' experiences of homophobia is largely unknown. The authors' analyses explore experiences of homophobia among LGB people in St. Lucia. Findings indicate issues of skin-shade orientated tolerance, regionalized disparities in levels of tolerance toward LGB people and regionalized passing (regionalized sexual identity shifting). Finally, the authors' findings indicate that skin shade identities and regional location influence the psychological health outcomes of homophobia experienced by LGB people in St. Lucia.
An experiment was designed to evaluate genitalia morphometry of the male white Japanese quails at three different age groups. Fifty-four male Japanese quails were allotted to 3 treatment groups (Pubertal, Mature and Adult) in a completely randomized design. Pubertal (7-10 weeks), mature (15-20 weeks) and the adults ...
Mitchell, Jason W
Prior studies with men who have sex with men have documented a strong association between substance use with sex and risk for acquisition of HIV. However, few studies have been conducted about gay male couples' use of substances with sex, despite the fact that between one third and two thirds of men who have sex with men acquire HIV from their relationship partners. The present study sought to (1) describe whether one or both partners in the male couple uses substances with sex-by substance type-within and/or outside of their relationship, and (2) assess whether differences exist in those who use substances with sex within and outside the relationship by the couples' HIV status. Dyadic data for this analysis were collected in the United States from a nation-wide cross-sectional Internet study about male couples' relationships and behaviors. Couple-level descriptive and comparative analyses were employed with 361 male couples. Except for alcohol, most couples did not use substances with sex. Of those who did, rates of who used it with sex and substance type within the relationship varied; most couples only had one partner who used substances with sex outside the relationship. Significantly higher proportions of concordantly HIV-negative and HIV-positive couples had both partners who used substances (all types) with sex within their relationship over discordant couples. Most couples had one partner who used outside the relationship; only marijuana and erectile dysfunction medication use with sex significantly differed by couples' HIV status. Findings indicate the need to conduct additional research for prevention development. © The Author(s) 2014.
Carrillo, Héctor; Fontdevila, Jorge
The topic of same-sex sexual initiation has generally remained understudied in the literature on sexual identity formation among sexual minority youth. This article analyzes the narratives of same-sex sexual initiation provided by 76 gay and bisexual Mexican immigrant men who participated in interviews for the Trayectos Study, an ethnographic study of sexuality and HIV risk. These participants were raised in a variety of locations throughout Mexico, where they also realized their same-sex attraction and initiated their sexual lives with men. We argue that Mexican male same-sex sexuality is characterized by three distinct patterns of sexual initiation--one heavily-based on gender roles, one based on homosociality, and one based on object choice--which inform the men's interpretations regarding sexual roles, partner preferences, and sexual behaviors. We analyzed the social factors and forms of cultural/sexual socialization that lead sexual minority youth specifically to each of these three patterns of sexual initiation. Our findings confirm the importance of studying same-sex sexual initiation as a topic in its own right, particularly as a tool to gain a greater understanding of the diversity of same-sex sexual experiences and sexual identities within and among ethnic/cultural groups.
Gilley, Brian Joseph; Co-Cké, John Hawk
Many gay American Indian (GAI) men feel alienated from their tribal, ceremonial and social communities because of homophobia and heterosexism. As a result, they often turn to their local gay community for social participation and sex opportunities. It is no secret that a significant aspect of some gay communities is socializing in local bars and clubs. The gay bar scene makes healthy living difficult for Native American gay men. This is especially the case for those who are in alcohol or drug recovery. In response, gay Native men's support groups are attempting to make available a cultural alternative to the double bind of alienation from one's Native community and exposure to substance abuse by providing alcohol and substance free opportunities for ceremonial and social involvement. The hope is that the men will go to bars less frequently and instead turn to Native cultural activities in men's groups for social, spiritual and emotional support. The logic of this approach assumes that individuals who are culturally invested in a community will gain a level of self and social acceptance, making them less likely to abuse substances and put themselves at risk for HIV infection. The information presented in this article comes from over six years of ethnographic research among GAI men concerning self and social acceptance, HIV/AIDS and American Indian GLBT identity.
Stinson, David W.
This article shows how equity research in mathematics education can be decentered by reporting the "voices" of mathematically successful African American male students as they recount their experiences with school mathematics, illustrating, in essence, how they negotiated the White male math myth. Using post-structural theory, the…
This paper analyses the use of the concept of 'barebacking' as a risk category in the discourses of French gay men. It discusses how the rise and spread of the term barebacking contributes to reframing gay men's personal experiences of HIV prevention and their sense of belonging (or a lack thereof) to a gay community. The study is based on 30 qualitative interviews with French gay men conducted between 2005 and 2008. An import from the USA, the term barebacking emerged publicly in France in the late-1990s and was first used to describe intentionally unprotected sexual practices. Debates surrounding this risk category were marked by violent controversy over its use and its definition among HIV prevention actors. There remains a general lack of consensus on the definition of the term, despite its use by activists, in porn culture and in the daily discourses of gay men. By focusing on the relational roots of risk perception, I consider how uses of the term barebacking invoke a moral framework around risk taking.
Walters, Karina L.; Simoni, Jane M.
Ninety-six lesbians and gay men completed Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and modified version of Racial Identity Attitude Scale. Results indicated moderate inverse relationship between preencounter attitudes and self-esteem and positive relationship between internalization attitudes and self-esteem. Encounter and immersion-emersion attitudes were…
Sophus, Amber I; Fujitani, Loren; Vallabhbhai, Samantha; Antonio, Jo Anna; Yang, Pua Lani; Elliott, Elyssa; Mitchell, Jason W
Partner-oriented services and Health Information and Communication technology (HICT) in the forms of mHealth (eg, smartphone applications), eHealth (eg, interactive websites), telemedicine, and social media play an important and growing role in HIV prevention. Accordingly, the present study sought to describe: (1) the primary and secondary HIV prevention services available in Hawai'i, (2) the prevention services that are available for gay male couples and partners, and (3) the prevention services that use HICT. Information about prevention services and use of HICT were obtained from websites and phone calls made to 19 organizations in the state, including the Hawai'i Department of Health. Overall, partner-oriented services were limited and only 1 couples-based service was currently being offered. Technology, namely social media, was used by 14 organizations, primarily to increase HIV awareness and advertise events. These findings may inform how best to adapt and better leverage the use of innovative technological tools to help expand access to HIV testing and counseling, sexual health education, and case management services for gay male couples and other MSM populations in the state.
Mowlabocus, Sharif; Harbottle, Justin; Witzel, Charlie
Since the late 1990s, the use of condoms within gay male pornography has been on the wane. Moving from a niche category into more mainstream forms of commercial pornography, unprotected anal sex has become a dominant theme within this sphere of gay male sexual representation. However, while the definition of what constitutes bareback pornography may at first sight appear unproblematic, this article argues that meanings and understandings of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) are not constant across all genres of gay male pornography. Using textual analysis and focus group methods, the authors demonstrate how subcultural understandings of UAI are dependent on a variety of textual factors. These include the age, body type, and racial identities of the performers; the setting, context, and mise-en-scène of the pornographic scene; and the deployment of power relations between the insertive and receptive partners. The article concludes by suggesting that the recognition of the diverse representations of "barebacking" found in contemporary gay male pornography should influence the ways in which health promotion strategies address discussions of UAI and bareback pornography.
Julien, Danielle; Chartrand, Elise; Simard, Marie-Claude; Bouthillier, Donald; Bégin, Jean
Data from 42 heterosexual, 46 gay male, and 33 lesbian couples were used to assess the contribution of conflict and support discussions to relationship quality. Couples completed questionnaires, and videotaped discussions were coded for levels of negative and positive behaviors. Correlations showed that behaviors were associated with relationship quality in the expected directions. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses assessed the unique contributions of individual and dyadic behaviors to the variability of relationship quality. The findings indicated that, beyond the contribution of individual negative behaviors in the conflict task, the variables of dyadic positive behaviors in the conflict task, individual positive behaviors in the support task, and perceived help accounted for unexplained variance in relationship quality. There were no differences between types of couples on levels of behaviors or on their contributions to relationship quality.
Full Text Available Introduction Despite several recent studies documenting high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV among gay and bisexual men (GBM, the literature is silent regarding GBM’s perceptions of IPV within their community. We examine GBM’s perceptions of same-sex IPV: its commonness, its severity, and the helpfulness of a hypothetical police response to a GBM experiencing IPV.Methods: We drew data from a 2011 survey of venue-recruited GBM (n¼989. Respondents were asked to describe the commonness of IPV, severity of IPV, and helpfulness of a hypothetical police response to IPV among GBM and among heterosexual women. We fitted a logistic model for the outcome of viewing the police response to a gay/bisexual IPV victim as less helpful than for a female heterosexual IPV victim. The regression model controlled for age, race/ethnicity, education, sexual orientation, employment status, and recent receipt of physical, emotional, and sexual IPV, with key covariates being internalized homophobia and experiences of homophobic discrimination.Results: The majority of respondents viewed IPV among GBM as common (54.9% and problematic(63.8%. While most respondents had identical perceptions of the commonness (82.7% and severity (84.1% of IPV in GBM compared to heterosexual women, the majority of the sample (59.1% reported perceiving that contacting the police would be less helpful for a GBM IPV victim than for a heterosexual female IPV victim. In regression, respondents who reported more lifetime experiences of homophobic discrimination were more likely to have this comparatively negative perception (odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.17.Conclusion: The results support a minority stress hypothesis to understand GBM’s perceptions of police helpfulness in response to IPV. While IPV was viewed as both common and problematic among GBM, their previous experiences of homophobia were correlated with a learned anticipation of rejection and stigma from
Downing, Martin J.; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Antebi, Nadav; Siegel, Karolynn
Recent research suggests that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM), i.e., adult videos, may influence sexual risk taking among men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite this evidence, very little is known about the content of gay male SEM on the Internet, including the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and their relation to video- and performer-characteristics, viewing frequency, and favorability. The current study content analyzed 302 sexually explicit videos featuring male same-sex perfor...
Worthen, Meredith G F
While past research has certainly explored a variety of correlates of attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, the current study is among the first in an emerging line of inquiry that examines attitudes toward each of these groups separately utilizing an intersectional framework with special attention to racial, ethnic, and sexual identities. Using a college sample of students from the Bible Belt of the United States (N = 1,940), I investigated the roles of racial and ethnic identities (Caucasian/White, African American/Black, Asian/Pacific Islander, Native American/Alaskan Native, other race, and Hispanic/Latinx), religiosity, patriarchal gender norms, parental perspectives, and the intersections among these identities and experiences as they relate to attitudes toward LGBT individuals among heterosexual (n = 1,551) and LGB respondents (n = 389). This moves beyond explorations of White heterosexual people's attitudes about "homosexuals" (i.e., away from a focus only on gayness and Whiteness) and expands to include non-White LGB people's LGBT attitudes. Overall, results indicate that racial, ethnic, and sexual identities play a significant role in southern college students' LGBT attitudes, and these patterns are further complicated by interacting cultural experiences with religiosity, patriarchy, and family dynamics. Campus policy and program implications are provided.
Van Borsel, John; De Bruyn, Els; Lefebvre, Evelien; Sokoloff, Anouschka; De Ley, Sophia; Baudonck, Nele
This study evaluated the stereotype that gay men lisp. Two clinicians who were unaware of the specific purpose of the study and the populations involved judged randomized audio-recordings of 175 gay males, 100 heterosexual males and 100 heterosexual females for the presence of lisping during reading of a standardized text. In the gay males a…
Cahill, Sean; Taylor, S Wade; Elsesser, Steven A; Mena, Leandro; Hickson, DeMarc; Mayer, Kenneth H
Gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) account for more than two thirds of new HIV infections in the U.S., with Black MSM experiencing the greatest burden. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can reduce MSM's vulnerability to HIV infection. Uptake of PrEP has been limited, particularly among racial and ethnic minority MSM. Four semi-structured focus groups with gay and bisexual men and other MSM at risk for HIV infection were convened in Boston and Jackson in late 2013. The analysis plan utilized a within-case, across-case approach to code and analyze emerging themes, and to compare results across the two cities. Participants recruited in Jackson were primarily Black gay men, while Boston participants were mostly non-Hispanic White gay men. Participants in both sites shared concerns about medication side effects and culturally insensitive health care for gay men. Jackson participants described stronger medical mistrust, and more frequently described experiences of anti-gay and HIV related stigma. Multiple addressable barriers to PrEP uptake were described. Information about side effects should be explicitly addressed in PrEP education campaigns. Providers and health departments should address medical mistrust, especially among Black gay and bisexual men and other MSM, in part by training providers in how to provide affirming, culturally competent care. Medicaid should be expanded in Mississippi to cover low-income young Black gay and bisexual men and other MSM.
Downing, Martin J; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Antebi, Nadav; Siegel, Karolynn
Recent research suggests that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM), i.e., adult videos, may influence sexual risk taking among men who have sex with men. Despite this evidence, very little is known about the content of gay male SEM on the Internet, including the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and their relation to video- and performer-characteristics, viewing frequency, and favorability. The current study content analyzed 302 sexually explicit videos featuring male same-sex performers that were posted to five highly trafficked adult-oriented websites. Findings revealed that gay male SEM on the Internet features a variety of conventional and nonconventional sexual behaviors. There was a substantial prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) (34 %) and was virtually the same as the prevalence of anal sex with a condom (36 %). The presence of UAI was not associated with video length, amateur production, number of video views, favorability, or website source. However, the presence of other potentially high-risk behaviors (e.g., ejaculation in the mouth, and ejaculation on/in/rubbed into the anus) was associated with longer videos, more views, and group sex videos (three or more performers). The findings of high levels of sexual risk behavior and the fact that there was virtually no difference in the prevalence of anal sex with and without a condom in gay male SEM have important implications for HIV prevention efforts, future research on the role of SEM on sexual risk taking, and public health policy.
Bartone, Michael D.
Are being Black and gay problematic in the United States? Are Black gay youth "suffering" with these two intersecting identities? Traditional Eurocentric epistemologies would have one believe that Black males, Black gay males, and gay males (liminal groups) are suffering, rarely acknowledging those successfully navigating through…
The present research draws from literature relating to gay identity in psychology and sociology and feminist theory to consider the effect of gay identity and gender on gays' and lesbians' attitudes toward various types of advertising content that are most commonly used to target gay consumers. As such, this study empirically tests whether gay males' and lesbians' responses to gay-oriented advertising content are moderated by individual characteristics: (1) the degree to which they identify as gay, and (2) their gender, and by the explicitness and gender of the gay-oriented advertising imagery.
Crath, Rory; Rangel, Cristian
Canadian media discourses on gay men's sexuality and political inclusion serve as a rich site for understanding current tensions in debates on sexual citizenship under biopolitical regimes. This paper addresses how public health reporting in one health news media source, Canada's leading newspaper The Globe and Mail, discursively produced contiguous understandings of the moral, social and biological dimensions of gay male subjectivity and sexuality within the context of HIV risk discourses. Specifically, we critically examine the newspaper's coverage of what constitutes the public good when national blood supplies are at stake. Our analysis reveals a profound dichotomy in which gay men - as sexual subjects and subjects of rights - are recalibrated following the political and economic investments of bourgeoisie communities of interest. However encompassing the securing of legal social rights might be, gay men's sexuality is resistant to a reformatting under a heteronormative regulatory regime, as the social traumas caused by HIV continue to cast a shadow on sexual behaviours that purportedly risk leakage of contamination into the body politic.
Bártová, Klára; Štěrbová, Zuzana; Martinec Nováková, Lenka; Binter, Jakub; Varella, Marco Antonio Corrêa; Valentova, Jaroslava Varella
The main aims of this research were to test the similarity of masculinity-femininity in long-term male same-sex couples from the Czech Republic and to examine whether this similarity predicts higher relationship quality. In Study 1, participants (N = 30) and their partners completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and the Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale (CGN). In Study 2, participants (N = 40) and their partners completed DAS and the Gender Diagnosticity Scale (GD). Results showed that the partners were no more alike than individuals paired at random in their CGN or GD, but greater similarity in CGN between partners increased Dyadic Cohesion (r = -.41 [-.71, -.02]) and Affectional Expression (r = -.38 [-.60, -.13]). Our results add to previous evidence showing that similarity in same-sex couples increased relationship quality. Although, on average, gay men were not coupled on the basis of homogamy in gender roles, their relationship quality is linked to the gender egalitarian model rather than to the gender stratified one. Thus, a widespread stereotype suggesting that same-sex partners are divided by different gender roles seems to be, at least in our sample from a Western society, rather incorrect.
Hopcke, Robert H.
Describes homosexual male counselor's experiences as marriage, family, and child counselor. Claims, because of counselor's comfort and openness to alternative roles, parenting situations, and identities, client couples are freed to dialogue about making role changes. Concludes homophobia often obscures valuable contributions homosexual men and…
Vörös , Florian
International audience; This chapter uses John Gagnon and William Simon's sexual script theory in order to make sense of gay men's relation to barebacking fantasies. Bracketing moral panics, it proposes an interpretative sociology of how gay men who enjoy watching barebacking pornography account for the relation between their pornographic fantasies and their sexual realities. Barebacking pornography is a controversial entertainment that relies on an eroticized focus on condomless " raw " and ...
Fisher, D S; Ryan, R; Esacove, A W; Bishofsky, S; Wallis, J M; Roffman, R A
This paper reports on the development, implementation, and evaluation of a social marketing campaign designed to recruit clients Project ARIES, and AIDS prevention study funded by the National Institute of Mental Health. Marketing channels employed for the campaign included advertising in the gay press, generating coverage in the mainstream press, distributing materials to HIV testing centers and other health and social service providers, and displaying posters in gay bars and baths. While these approaches all succeeded in eliciting inquiries from individuals engaging in high risk sexual behaviors, they differed in several respects, including their ability to reach specific subgroups that are often underserved by more traditional programs, such as men of color, younger men, and men who self-report as being closeted. Promotional materials displayed in gay bars and baths resulted in the highest percentage of callers who, after inquiring about the program, decided to participate in the counseling. Coverage in the mainstream press was the most successful in reaching closeted men, men who were less active in the gay community, and individuals who did not self-identify as gay. Display and classified ads in the gay press produced the highest number of initial inquiries. Finally, recruitment of participants via materials distributed to HIV test sites and other service providers was the most effective in reaching men who were HIV-positive.
Seeking to understand the highly unfavorable conditions for the development of gay male theater in Sweden, this essay engages in a historical study of the national opening of Mart Crowley's The Boys in the Band at Malmö City Theatre in 1970. Propelled by a Foucauldian-inspired theoretical approach, it identifies the subtle, yet highly effective, measures of control that the, at the time, social democratic welfare state exercised over representations of homosexuality on stage. State representatives, who complied with the official political and medical doctrine that homosexuality was a mental illness and posed a potential threat to social stability, interfered at various levels of the production, including the rehearsal process and post-performance talks between cast members and audiences. This alliance between Swedish theaters and members of the medical, psychological, and sexological professions constituted a medico-artistic complicity that supervised and regulated early attempts of gay representation on stage.
Newmanxy, Bernie Sue
SUMMARY This study measured the effects of religious affiliation and gender on attitudes about lesbians and gay men among 2,846 college graduates who were beginning graduate study in social work or counseling. Males were more negative than females in their attitudes toward both lesbians and gay men. Conservative Protestants were the most negative in their attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, while those who were Atheist, Agnostic, Jewish or claimed no religion were most positive. Beliefs that the Bible forbids homosexuality are discussed and readings and arguments challenging this belief that can be used as class content are presented.
Joyce Gonçalves Altaf
Full Text Available The emergence of the identity of the homosexual modern consumer, favored by the social, economic and psychological conditions produced by capitalism, allowed homosexuals to feel free to express their identity, among other ways through the use of products and services. Thus, understanding what stimulates the consumption of a specific product category by this market niche is no doubt of great importance for the companies that intend to serve this public, considering their attractive consumption profile. This stimulated this exploratory qualitative study, that seeked to identify the relationship between luxury clothing consumption by homosexual men and the development of their extended self, and well as their self image construction. The four steps of the research, done with 12 men, were literature review, in-depth interviews, the filling of two forms (one with Likert scale and the other with a semantic scale, and the analysis of the results. The conclusion is that self concept directly influences the buying behavior of male homosexuals, and that most of the interviewees actually use luxury brands clothes to compose their extended selves.
Campbell, Chadwick K.; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Dworkin, Shari; Wilson, Patrick A.; Grisham, Kirk; McReynolds, Jaih; Vielehr, Peter; Hoff, Colleen
Among gay and bisexual men, primary partners are a leading source of HIV infection. Trust, intimacy, and advancements in HIV treatment may impact same-sex male couples’ decisions to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). This qualitative study explored how Black, White and interracial couples discussed, and made decisions regarding condoms. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 same-sex male couples in the New York and San Francisco metropolitan areas. Stratified purposive sampling was used to include Black (n = 16), White (n = 17), and interracial (Black-White) (n = 15) couples. Twenty-six couples were concordant HIV-negative and 22 were HIV-discordant. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Some couples described explicit processes, which involved active discussion, while others described implicit processes, where condom-use decisions occurred without any explicit discussion. These processes also differed by race and HIV status. Black couples tended to report condom-use as “just understood.” White, HIV-discordant couples decided not to use condoms, with some identifying the HIV-positive partner’s suppressed viral load and high CD4 count as deciding factors. After an unplanned episode of UAI, White, HIV-negative couples tended to discontinue condom use while Black HIV-negative couples decided to revert to using condoms. HIV prevention efforts focused on same-sex, male couples must consider the explicit/implicit nature of condom decision-making processes. Understanding differences in these processes and considering relationship dynamics, across race and HIV status, can promote the development of innovative couple–level, HIV prevention interventions. PMID:23912774
Full Text Available Between 1960 and 1995 the black-white difference in male life expectancy in the United States increased from 6.7 years to 8.2 years. To provide insights into why mortality trends have been more adverse for black men than for white men, we investigate which causes of death were principally responsible for changes in the black-white difference in male mortality at ages 15-64 between 1960 and 1995. We find that black-white differences in male mortality varied substantially during this period. The gap increased in the 1960s, declined in the 1970s, and widened in the 1980s-early 1990s. Our findings reveal considerable variation in black-white disparities by cause of death and by age, as well as changes in the relative importance of various causes of death to the black-white male mortality disparity over time. The results suggest that consequences of black-white differences in socioeconomic status, access to quality health care, living conditions, and residential segregation vary by cause of death.
Steffens, M.C.; Jonas, K.J.; Denger, L.
Anti-gay attitudes vary across cultures because the larger social context plays a role in attitude formation. Psychological correlates of these attitudes have been investigated in the United States and Europe. Endorsement of traditional gender roles has emerged from that research as a central
Full Text Available Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB individuals come from diverse cultural groups with differing ethnic and racial identities. However, most research on LGB people uses white western samples and studies of Afro-Caribbean diaspora often use Jamaican samples. Thus, the complexity of Afro-Caribbean LGB peoples' experiences of homophobia is largely unknown. The authors' analyses explore experiences of homophobia among LGB people in St. Lucia. Findings indicate issues of skin-shade orientated tolerance, regionalized disparities in levels of tolerance toward LGB people and regionalized passing (regionalized sexual identity shifting. Finally, the authors' findings indicate that skin shade identities and regional location influence the psychological health outcomes of homophobia experienced by LGB people in St. Lucia.
Couzens, Jimmy; Mahoney, Berenice; Wilkinson, Dean
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals come from diverse cultural groups with differing ethnic and racial identities. However, most research on LGB people uses white western samples and studies of Afro-Caribbean diaspora often use Jamaican samples. Thus, the complexity of Afro-Caribbean LGB peoples' experiences of homophobia is largely unknown. The authors' analyses explore experiences of homophobia among LGB people in St. Lucia. Findings indicate issues of skin-shade orientated tolerance, regionalized disparities in levels of tolerance toward LGB people and regionalized passing (regionalized sexual identity shifting). Finally, the authors' findings indicate that skin shade identities and regional location influence the psychological health outcomes of homophobia experienced by LGB people in St. Lucia. PMID:28674508
Campbell, Chadwick K; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Dworkin, Shari; Wilson, Patrick A; Grisham, Kirk K; McReynolds, Jaih; Vielehr, Peter; Hoff, Colleen
Among gay and bisexual men, primary partners are a leading source of HIV infection. Trust, intimacy, and advancements in HIV treatment may impact same-sex male (SSM) couples' decisions to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). This qualitative study explored how Black, White and interracial couples discussed, and made decisions regarding condoms. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 SSM couples in the New York and San Francisco metropolitan areas. Stratified purposive sampling was used to include Black (n = 16), White (n = 17), and interracial (Black-White) (n = 15) couples. Twenty-six couples were concordant HIV-negative and 22 were HIV-discordant. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Some couples described explicit processes, which involved active discussion, while others described implicit processes, where condom-use decisions occurred without any explicit discussion. These processes also differed by race and HIV status. Black couples tended to report condom-use as "just understood." White, HIV-discordant couples decided not to use condoms, with some identifying the HIV-positive partner's suppressed viral load and high CD4 count as deciding factors. After an unplanned episode of UAI, White, HIV-negative couples tended to discontinue condom use while Black HIV-negative couples decided to revert to using condoms. HIV prevention efforts focused on same-sex, male couples must consider the explicit/implicit nature of condom decision-making processes. Understanding differences in these processes and considering relationship dynamics, across race and HIV status, can promote the development of innovative couple-level, HIV prevention interventions.
Cabrera, Nolan León
This research critically examines racial views and experiences of 12 white men in a single higher education institution via semi-structured interviews. Participants tended to utilize individualized definitions of racism and experience high levels of racial segregation in both their pre-college and college environments. This corresponded to…
Kapur, K.K.; Lestrel, P.
The objective of this investigation was to establish clinical 'norms' of craniofacial skeletal orientation and the associated soft tissue facial profile for adult white males. Lateral and frontal cephalometric radiographs and study casts taken on 305 white males, with 28 or more teeth and 25-75 years of age, were used to develop these craniofacial standards. The goal of the research program has been to develop a computerized approach based upon dentofacial templates for the fabrication of complete dentures and to define clinical standards that can be applied in assessing the prosthodontic and orthodontic treatment needs of adult patients
Jack, Katharine M; Schoof, Valérie A M; Sheller, Claire R; Rich, Catherine I; Klingelhofer, Peter P; Ziegler, Toni E; Fedigan, Linda
Much attention has been paid to hormonal variation in relation to male dominance status and reproductive seasonality, but we know relatively little about how hormones vary across life history stages. Here we examine fecal testosterone (fT), dihydrotestosterone (fDHT), and glucocorticoid (fGC) profiles across male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Study subjects included 37 males residing in three habituated social groups in the Área de Conservacíon Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Male life history stages included infant (0 to Life history stage was a significant predictor of fT; levels were low throughout the infant and juvenile phases, doubled in subadult and subordinate adults, and were highest for alpha males. Life history stage was not a significant predictor of fDHT, fDHT:fT, or fGC levels. Puberty in white-faced capuchins appears to begin in earnest during the subadult male phase, indicated by the first significant rise in fT. Given their high fT levels and exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics, we argue that alpha adult males represent a distinctive life history stage not experienced by all male capuchins. This study is the first to physiologically validate observable male life history stages using patterns of hormone excretion in wild Neotropical primates, with evidence for a strong association between fT levels and life history stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brooks, Ronald A.; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Lieber, Eli; Landovitz, Raphael J.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Leibowitz, Arleen A.
The purpose of this study was to identify factors that may facilitate or impede future adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among gay and bisexual men in HIV-serodiscordant relationships. This qualitative study utilized semi-structured interviews conducted with a multi-racial/ethnic sample of 25 gay and bisexual HIV serodiscordant male couples (n=50 individuals) recruited from community settings in Los Angeles, California. A modified grounded theory approach was employed to identify major themes relating to future adoption of PrEP for HIV prevention. Motivators for adoption included protection against HIV infection, less concern and fear regarding HIV transmission, the opportunity to engage in unprotected sex, and endorsements of PrEP’s effectiveness. Concerns and barriers to adoption included the cost of PrEP, short- and long-term side effects, adverse effects of intermittent use or discontinuing PrEP, and accessibility of PrEP. The findings suggest the need for a carefully planned implementation program along with educational and counseling interventions in the dissemination of an effective PrEP agent. PMID:21476147
Katzell, Raymond A.; And Others
A 74-item attitude questionnaire was administered in six companies to 101 black and 87 white male blue-collar employees holding similar jobs in the same company. Differences between the two ethnic groups were not marked, both in terms of job satisfaction and in other respects. (Author)
Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Molina, Yamile; Dirkes, Jessica
Stigma negatively affects the health of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Negative attitudes and discriminatory actions towards PLWHA are thought to be based, among other factors, on stigma towards sexual minorities and beliefs about personal responsibility. Yet, there is little evidence to support these linkages and explain how they take place, especially among Latinos. This study analyzes attitudes towards PLWHA among 643 Latino gay/bisexual men and transgender (GBT) people. It examines whether discriminatory actions are predicted by beliefs about personal responsibility and internalized homosexual stigma. Results indicate that Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA is associated with HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs and Internalized Homosexual Stigma. Further, HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs partially mediates the relationship between Internalized Homosexual Stigma and Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA. Latino GBT persons who have internalized negative views about homosexuality may project those onto PLWHA. They may think PLWHA are responsible for their serostatus and, hence, deserving of rejection. PMID:23631713
Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Molina, Yamile; Dirkes, Jessica
Stigma negatively affects the health of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Negative attitudes and discriminatory actions towards PLWHA are thought to be based, among other factors, on stigma towards sexual minorities and beliefs about personal responsibility. Yet, there is little evidence to support these linkages and explain how they take place, especially among Latinos. This study analyzes attitudes towards PLWHA among 643 Latino gay/bisexual men and transgender (GBT) people. It examines whether discriminatory actions are predicted by beliefs about personal responsibility and internalized homosexual stigma. Results indicate that Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA is associated with HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs and Internalized Homosexual Stigma. Further, HIV/AIDS Personal Responsibility Beliefs partially mediates the relationship between Internalized Homosexual Stigma and Discriminatory Actions towards PLWHA. Latino GBT persons who have internalized negative views about homosexuality may project those onto PLWHA. They may think PLWHA are responsible for their serostatus and, hence, deserving of rejection.
Full Text Available Although much research considers the relationship between imprisonment and mortality, little existing research has tested whether the short-term mortality advantage enjoyed by prisoners extends to Hispanics. We compared the mortality rates of non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic male and female state prisoners to mortality rates in the general population using data from the Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, the National Prisoner Statistics, the National Corrections Reporting Program, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The results indicate that the mortality advantage for prisoners was greatest for black males, followed by black females, Hispanic males, white females, and white males. Hispanic female prisoners were the only group not at a mortality advantage relative to the general population, with an SMR of 1.18 [95% CI: 0.93–1.43]. Taken together, the results suggest that future research should seek to better understand the curious imprisonment–mortality relationship among Hispanic females, although given the small number of inmate deaths that happen to this group (~0.6%, this research should not detract from broader research on imprisonment and mortality. Keywords: Imprisonment, Mortality, Population health, Racial disparities
Full Text Available The purpose of this cross-sectional observational study was to identify ethnic differences in body composition and obesity-related risk factors between Chinese and white males living in China. 115 Chinese and 114 white male pilots aged 28-63 years were recruited. Fasting body weight, height and blood pressure were measured following standard procedures. Whole-body and segmental body composition were measured using an 8-contact electrode bioimpedance analysis (BIA system. Fasting serum glucose, fasting plasma total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG were assessed using automatic biochemistry analyzer. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI, Chinese males had significantly higher percentage of body fat (PBF both with respect to whole body (Chinese: 23.7%±0.2% vs. Whites: 22.4%±0.2% and the trunk area (Chinese: 25.0%±0.3% vs. Whites: 23.2%±0.3% compared to their white counterparts. At all BMIs, Chinese males had significantly higher fasting glucose levels (Chinese: 5.7±1.0 mmol/L vs. Whites: 5.2±1.0 mmol/L but lower high-density lipoprotein levels (Chinese: 0.8±1.0 mmol/L vs. Whites: 1.0±1.0 mmol/L than white males. In addition, a marginally significantly higher diastolic blood pressure was found among Chinese men than that among white men (Chinese: 80±1.0 mmHg vs. Whites: 77±1.0 mmHg. Chinese males had more body fat and a greater degree of central fat deposition pattern than that seen in white males in the present study. Furthermore, data on blood pressure, fasting glucose and blood lipids suggest that Chinese men may be more prone to obesity-related risk factors than white men.
Gunnarsson, Gudjon L; Brandt, Pernille B; Gad, Dorte
We report a case of monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis caused by hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae in an immunocompromised white male after travel to China. The K. pneumoniae isolate belonged to the K2 serotype, and carried the virulence factors RmpA and aerobactin. To the best of our...... knowledge this is the first report of necrotizing fasciitis caused by hypermucoviscous K. pneumoniae resembling the highly virulent K. pneumoniae isolates associated with liver abscess syndrome in Asia....
Nakanishi, N; Yoshida, H; Nagano, K; Kawashimo, H; Nakamura, K; Tatara, K
STUDY OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the association of long working hours with the risk for hypertension. DESIGN—A five year prospective cohort study. SETTING—Work site in Osaka, Japan. PARTICIPANTS—941 hypertension free Japanese male white collar workers aged 35-54 years were prospectively examined by serial annual health examinations. Men in whom borderline hypertension and hypertension were found during repeated surveys were defined as incidental cases of borderline hypertension and hypertension. ...
Matharu, Kabir; Kravitz, Richard L; McMahon, Graham T; Wilson, Machelle D; Fitzgerald, Faith T
Abstract Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371) with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or w...
Bruce, Douglas; Harper, Gary W.
Health disparities among gay men (HIV, substance use, depression) have been described as a mutually occurring "syndemic" that is socially produced through two overarching dynamics: marginalization and migration. Although the syndemic theory proposes a developmental trajectory, it has been largely based on epidemiological studies of adult gay men…
Kawasaki, Yurika; Nishitani, Naoko; Sakakibara, Hisataka
Mental disorders are increasing and their influence on productivity is a concern in the workplace. However, few studies have investigated depression among blue-collar and white-collar workers in the manufacturing industry. The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors associated with depressive symptoms, focusing on lifestyles and insomnia. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted of 1,963 workers at an annual health checkup in a manufacturing company. Of the 1,712 respondents (response rate: 87%), 1,258 male worker subjects (blue-collar 674; white-collar 584) were analyzed after excluding those with mental diseases. The questionnaire included items on basic attributes and lifestyle. The Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and The Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale (CES-D) were used to evaluate insomnia and depressive symptoms. The incidence of depressive symptoms with CES-D scores of ≥16 was 15.1% in both the blue-collar and the white-collar workers. Insomnia with AIS scores of ≥6 were encountered in 18.8% of the blue-collar workers and 18.3% of the white-collar workers. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that for the blue-collar workers, depressive symptoms were associated with "AIS scores ≥6" (Odds ratio (OR): 10.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.12-19.15), "not get rid of fatigue with sleep" (OR: 3.36; 95%CI: 1.85-6.09), "skip breakfast over 3 times a week" (OR: 3.10; 95%CI:1.42-6.76), "no family living together" (OR: 2.08; 95%CI: 1.05-4.12), and "commuting time" (OR: 1.01; 95%CI: 1.00-1.02). For the white-collar workers, depressive symptoms were related to "AIS scores ≥6" (OR: 14.91; 95%CI: 7.54-29.49), and "no family living together" (OR: 2.54; 95%CI: 1.27-5.09). Sleep time was not associated with depression in both blue- and white-collar workers. Depressive symptoms were found in 51.6% of the blue-collar workers with insomnia with AIS scores ≥6 and 53.8% of white-collar workers. Depressive symptoms were
Boon, S D; Miller, R J
This paper examines the role that interpersonal trust plays in gay and bisexual males' accounts of the factors that led them to decide to reveal or to withhold their sexual identities from their mothers. Fifty men completed a questionnaire about their coming out experiences in the context of their relationships with their mothers. As part of this questionnaire, they indicated whether or not they had disclosed their sexual orientation to their mothers and explained the basis for their decision in this regard. A content analysis of the explanations offered supports findings from previous research which suggest that a considerable range of motivations underlie the decision to disclose (or not to disclose). More importantly, consistent with expectations that the mother's trustworthiness would emerge as a principle concern in participants' responses, several of the classes of explanation identified in disclosers' and non-disclosers' decision accounts suggest that the move toward disclosure is guided in part by the climate of trust existing in individuals' relationships with their mothers.
Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Emlet, Charles A; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Muraco, Anna; Erosheva, Elena A; Goldsen, Jayn; Hoy-Ellis, Charles P
Based on resilience theory, this paper investigates the influence of key health indicators and risk and protective factors on health outcomes (including general health, disability, and depression) among lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) older adults. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with LGB older adults, aged 50 and older (N = 2,439). Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the contributions of key health indicators (access to health care and health behaviors), risk factors (lifetime victimization, internalized stigma, and sexual identity concealment), and protective factors (social support and social network size) to health outcomes, when controlling for background characteristics. The findings revealed that lifetime victimization, financial barriers to health care, obesity, and limited physical activity independently and significantly accounted for poor general health, disability, and depression among LGB older adults. Internalized stigma was also a significant predictor of disability and depression. Social support and social network size served as protective factors, decreasing the odds of poor general health, disability, and depression. Some distinct differences by gender and sexual orientation were also observed. High levels of poor general health, disability, and depression among LGB older adults are of major concern. These findings highlight the important role of key risk and protective factors, which significantly influences health outcomes among LGB older adults. Tailored interventions must be developed to address the distinct health issues facing this historically disadvantaged population.
van Eeden-Moorefield, Brad; Pasley, Kay; Crosbie-Burnett, Margaret; King, Erin
This Internet-based study used data from a convenience sample of 176 gay men in current partnerships to examine differences in outness, cohesion, and relationship quality between three types of gay male couples: first cohabiting partnerships, repartnerships, and gay stepfamilies. Also, we tested whether relationship quality mediated the link…
Olofsson, Anna; Rashid, Saman
Previous research has shown that white males have a relatively low perception of risks, known as the "white male effect" (WME). Many of the explanations of this effect refer to the privileged position of this particular demographic group in society, adducing white males' socio-economic resources, sense of control, worldviews, etc. It can thus be argued that inequality leads women and ethnic minorities to have higher risk perception than men and the ethnic majority. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the WME in a gender-equal country, Sweden, to see if the pattern is similar to previous studies from the comparably less gender-equal United States. The empirical analyses are based on a national survey (n= 1,472) on the perception of risk conducted in Sweden in the winter of 2005. The results show that in Sweden there is no significant difference between men and women in risk perception, while people with foreign backgrounds perceive risks higher than native people. The chief finding is that there is no WME in Sweden, which we concluded results from the relative equality between the sexes in the country. On the other hand, ethnicity serves as a marker of inequality and discrimination in Sweden. Consequently, ethnicity, in terms of foreign background, mediates inequality, resulting in high risk perception. Equality therefore seems to be a fruitful concept with which to examine differences in risk perception between groups in society, and we propose that the "societal inequality effect" is a more proper description than the "WME." © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.
Erin C Westgate
Full Text Available Legal rights and cultural attitudes towards lesbian women and gay men have shifted rapidly in the early 21st century. Using 683,976 visitors to Project Implicit from February 2006 to August 2013, we investigated whether shifts were also observable in implicit evaluations that occur outside of conscious awareness or control. Similar to public opinion polling, the estimated explicit preference for straight people over lesbian women and gay men was 26% weaker on the last day compared to the first. The estimated implicit preference for straight people declined by 13.4% over the same period. The largest shifts in implicit evaluations occurred among Hispanic, White, female, liberal, and young adult participants; the smallest shifts occurred among Black, Asian, male, conservative, and older adult participants. Societal change in evaluation of lesbian and gay people is not limited to what people are willing and able to report. However, change in implicit evaluation appears to be slower.
Reports research on the nature of enduring sexual liaisons among homosexual men. Such relationships vary widely and may be subinstitutional adaptions to lack of community support. Gay men committed to the heterosexual world were less likely to enter enduring relationships. Open marriage is the more enduring form of gay male liaisons. (Author)
Sigelman, C K; Howell, J L; Cornell, D P; Cutright, J D; Dewey, J C
We investigated the operation of courtesy stigma with American male college students who reacted to a fictitious male student described as gay, rooming by choice with a gay male student, involuntarily assigned to room with a gay, or rooming with a male heterosexual. Among respondents who expressed strong intolerance of gays, the voluntary associate of a gay was perceived as having homosexual tendencies and as possessing the same stereotyped personality traits attributed to a gay. No such courtesy stigma was attached to the involuntary associate of a gay by these respondents. Relatively tolerant respondents engaged in no courtesy stigmatization at all. Thus, courtesy stigmatization occurred only under circumscribed conditions and appeared to depend more on the tendency of highly intolerant individuals to infer that a male student who apparently liked a gay individual was himself gay than on a motivation to maintain cognitive consistency.
Peters, Brian M.
This is an exploration of gay youth subculture and emo boys. The study is a mesh of findings and related theoretical understandings about gay emo subculture, masculinities, style, and alternative gay youth. This study looks at gay male teenagers who identify with emo, a movement that stems from music and aesthetics creating a particular visual for…
Bunnell, D.B.; Thomas, S.E.; Stein, R.A.
In this study, an outdoor pool experiment was used to evaluate the effect of prey resources during 4 months before spawning on the gonadal investments of male and female white crappie Pomoxis annularis, a popular freshwater sportfish that exhibits erratic recruitment. Fish were assigned one of three feeding treatments: starved, fed once every 5 days (intermediate) or fed daily (high). All measurements of male testes (i.e. wet mass, energy density and spermatocrit) were similar across treatments. Conversely, high-fed females produced larger ovaries than those of intermediate-fed and starved fish, and invested more energy in their ovaries than starved fish. Compared to pre-experiment fish, starved and intermediate-fed females appeared to increase their ovary size by relying on liver energy stores (‘capital’ spawning). Conversely, high-fed females increased liver and gonad mass, implying an ‘income’-spawning strategy (where gonads are built from recently acquired energy). Fecundity did not differ among treatments, but high-fed fish built larger eggs than those starved. Females rarely ‘skipped’ spawning opportunities when prey resources were low, as only 8% of starved females and 8% of intermediate-fed females lacked vitellogenic eggs. These results suggest that limited prey resources during the months before spawning can limit ovary production, which, in turn, can limit reproductive success of white crappies.
Full Text Available In Indonesia, avocado leaves have been used as traditional medicines for diureticum to cure urolithiasis. This research was to determine anti lithiasis activity of avocado leaves (Persea americana Mill extract on white male rats nefrolithiasis model induced by ethylene glycol. Ethanol extraction method was used to get extract of avogadro leaves. Twenty adult male white rats were divided into 4 different induction treatments i.e. aquadest, ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2%, and extract of avocado leaves with different levels of 100 and 300 mg/kg bw respectively. Their body weight was measured daily to determine their growth ratio. And at the end of the trial, the kidney was analyzed its calcium level and inhibitory activity to formation of calcium oxalate crystals. The results showed that the amount of calcium level in the kidney of rats treated with extract of avogadro leaves was significantly decreased than that of rats treated with ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2% (P < 0.05. The extract avocado leaves as a herbal remedy can be recommended as a phytotherapeutic agent especially for preventive action for urolithiasis diseases.
Ronald Reyses Tapilatu
Full Text Available The habit of smoking white cigarettes and clove cigarettes may affect the gustatory function, that is, it will cause damage to taste buds, resulting in an increase in gustatory threshold. This research used the descriptive comparative method and had the purpose of obtaining an illustration of gustatory threshold and compare gustatory threshold in white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers in young, male adults. For gustatory threshold evaluation, the Murphy method was used to obtain a value for perception threshold and taste identification threshold using sucrose solution of 0.0006 M-0.06 M concentration. Research results indicate that the perception threshold and identification threshold of young, male adult smokers are 0.0119 M and 0.0292 M. Young, male adult clove cigarette smokers have a perception threshold and identification threshold of 0.0151 M and 0.0348 M. The conclusion of this research is that the perception threshold of young, male adult white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers are the same, whereas the identification threshold of young, male adult white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers are different, that is, the identification threshold of clove cigarette smokers is higher than that of white cigarette smokers.
Sulé, Venice Thandi
Given the prevalence of racial segregation in the U.S., college is an opportunity to prepare students for diversity through cross-racial interaction. Hip-hop, a culture steeped in black and Latino experiences, has significant white supporters. Through diversity and critical whiteness frameworks, this research considers how white hip-hop collegians…
Krantz, Gunilla; Berntsson, Leeni; Lundberg, Ulf
The aim of this study was to analyse how paid work, unpaid household tasks, child care, work-child care interactions and perceived work stress are associated with reported symptoms in male and female white-collar employees. A questionnaire was mailed to 1300 men and 1300 women belonging to the white-collar sector, with at least 35 hours of regular employment a week and a participant age of between 32 and 58 years. It contained items relating to total workload (hours spent on paid work, unpaid household tasks and childcare), subjective indices for work stress and symptoms. The response rate was 65% (743 women; 595 men). Gender difference in symptom prevalence was tested by analyses of variance. Odds ratios were used to estimate the bivariate associations between work-related variables and symptom prevalence. A multivariate analysis estimated the effect of paid and unpaid work interaction, work-childcare interplay and possible synergy. The frequency and severity of symptoms was higher in women than in men (P women's health was determined by the interaction between conditions at work and household duties (OR 2.09; 1.06-4.14), whereas men responded more selectively to long working hours, i.e. >50 h/week (OR 1.61; 1.02-2.54). However, childcare (women.
Tallman, Sean D; Winburn, Allysha P
Ancestry assessment from the postcranial skeleton presents a significant challenge to forensic anthropologists. However, metric dimensions of the femur subtrochanteric region are believed to distinguish between individuals of Asian and non-Asian descent. This study tests the discriminatory power of subtrochanteric shape using modern samples of 128 Thai and 77 White American males. Results indicate that the samples' platymeric index distributions are significantly different (p≤0.001), with the Thai platymeric index range generally lower and the White American range generally higher. While the application of ancestry assessment methods developed from Native American subtrochanteric data results in low correct classification rates for the Thai sample (50.8-57.8%), adapting these methods to the current samples leads to better classification. The Thai data may be more useful in forensic analysis than previously published subtrochanteric data derived from Native American samples. Adapting methods to include appropriate geographic and contemporaneous populations increases the accuracy of femur subtrochanteric ancestry methods. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Douris, Nicholas; Stevanovic, Darko M; Fisher, Ffolliott M; Cisu, Theodore I; Chee, Melissa J; Nguyen, Ngoc L; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Adams, Andrew C; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Flier, Jeffrey S; Bartness, Timothy J; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has multiple metabolic actions, including the induction of browning in white adipose tissue. Although FGF21 stimulated browning results from a direct interaction between FGF21 and the adipocyte, browning is typically associated with activation of the sympathetic nervous system through cold exposure. We tested the hypothesis that FGF21 can act via the brain, to increase sympathetic activity and induce browning, independent of cell-autonomous actions. We administered FGF21 into the central nervous system via lateral ventricle infusion into male mice and found that the central treatment increased norepinephrine turnover in target tissues that include the inguinal white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue. Central FGF21 stimulated browning as assessed by histology, expression of uncoupling protein 1, and the induction of gene expression associated with browning. These effects were markedly attenuated when mice were treated with a β-blocker. Additionally, neither centrally nor peripherally administered FGF21 initiated browning in mice lacking β-adrenoceptors, demonstrating that an intact adrenergic system is necessary for FGF21 action. These data indicate that FGF21 can signal in the brain to activate the sympathetic nervous system and induce adipose tissue thermogenesis.
Nakanishi, N; Yoshida, H; Nagano, K; Kawashimo, H; Nakamura, K; Tatara, K
To evaluate the association of long working hours with the risk for hypertension. A five year prospective cohort study. Work site in Osaka, Japan. 941 hypertension free Japanese male white collar workers aged 35-54 years were prospectively examined by serial annual health examinations. Men in whom borderline hypertension and hypertension were found during repeated surveys were defined as incidental cases of borderline hypertension and hypertension. 336 and 88 men developed hypertension above the borderline level and definite hypertension during the 3940 and 4531 person years, respectively. After controlling for potential predictors of hypertension, the relative risk for hypertension above the borderline level, compared with those who worked hours per day, was 0.63 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.43, 0.91) for those who worked 10.0-10.9 hours per day and 0.48 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.74) for those who worked > or = 11.0 hours per day. The relative risk for definite hypertension, compared with those who worked hours per day, was 0.33 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.95) for those who worked > or = 11.0 hours per day. The multivariate adjusted slopes of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) during five years of follow up decreased as working hours per day increased. From the multiple regression analyses, working hours per day remained as an independent negative factor for the slopes of systolic blood pressure, DBP, and MABP. These results indicate that long working hours are negatively associated with the risk for hypertension in Japanese male white collar workers.
Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P
Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ronald Reyses Tapilatu; Edeh Rolleta Haroen; Rosiliwati Wihardja
The habit of smoking white cigarettes and clove cigarettes may affect the gustatory function, that is, it will cause damage to taste buds, resulting in an increase in gustatory threshold. This research used the descriptive comparative method and had the purpose of obtaining an illustration of gustatory threshold and compare gustatory threshold in white cigarette smokers and clove cigarette smokers in young, male adults. For gustatory threshold evaluation, the Murphy method was used to obtain ...
Harper, Gary W.; Brodsky, Asya; Bruce, Douglas
This article explores gay and bisexual male adolescents' positive perceptions of their sexual orientation identity. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 63 gay/bisexual male adolescents in Chicago (N = 42) and Miami (N = 21). Data revealed two major conceptual categories: (1) positive personal…
Analysis of North Carolina survey data indicates that females' average hourly wages were 71% of males', and blacks' wages were 78% of whites'. Human capital factors (educational attainment and occupational experience) explained 31% and 3% of the racial and gender gaps, respectively. Job gender composition explained 56% of the gender gap; job…
Horton, E. Gail; Gil, Andres
This study examined the longitudinal effects of five family factors (familism, parent derogation, parent-child communication, family alcohol problems, and family drug problems) on intensity of alcohol use among a sample of 451 African American and White non-Hispanic males from early to mid-adolescence (sixth through eighth grades). Results…
Plöderl, Martin; Faistauer, Gregor; Fartacek, Reinhold
School-related factors contributing to the suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals are understudied, especially in German-speaking Europe. Among our Web-based sample of 468 Austrian gay or bisexual adults, 18% attempted suicide and about one half of them reported that hard times at school related to one's homosexuality partly or mainly caused the attempt. Such suicide attempts were associated with a lack of acceptance at school and harassment experiences. In contrast to suicide attempts, acceptance at school was significantly associated with protective factors such as teachers intervening against homophobia or presence of openly homosexual teachers or peers. These findings may be important for consideration in school-based suicide prevention programs.
Petersen, Michael Nebeling
Based on eight interviews with Danish gay male couples and one gayman, who had or were planning to become fathers through transnationalcommercial surrogacy, I examine the ways the men form familysubjectivities between traditional kinship patterns and fundamentally newforms of kinship and family....... Arguing that class, mobility, and privilegeshould also be understood as relational and negotiated positions, I showthat gay men engaged in surrogacy must be understood as more flexibleand differentiated. Second, I show how kinship as synonymous withbiogenetic relatedness is supplemented by notions...
Muniz, Laura; Perry, Susan; Manson, Joseph H; Gilkenson, Hannah; Gros-Louis, Julie; Vigilant, Linda
Theory and a growing body of empirical evidence suggest that higher ranking males experience reproductive advantages in group-living mammals. White-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) exhibit an interesting social system for investigating the relationship between dominance and reproductive success (RS) because they live in multimale multifemale social groups, in which the alpha males can have extraordinarily long tenures (i.e. they coreside with daughters of reproductive age). Genetic paternity was determined from fecal samples for 120 infants born into three social groups of wild C. capucinus at Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica. Alpha males produced far more offspring than expected by chance, and significantly high Nonac's B indices (a measure of deviation from a random distribution of RS among potentially breeding individuals) were a feature of six out of eight male tenures. The likelihood of the alpha male siring a particular offspring was predicted by the kin relationship between the mother and the alpha male, as well as the total number of males and females in the group. The almost complete lack of father-daughter inbreeding [Muniz et al., 2006] constitutes an impediment to alpha male reproductive monopolization in this population, particularly toward the end of long alpha male tenures. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Memon, M. Q.; Simpson, E. J.; Macdonald, I. A.
Objective: To assess how acute consumption of fructose affects flow-mediated dilatation in brachial artery. Methods: The randomised cross-over study was conducted at the University of Nottingham's Medical School, Nottingham, United Kingdom in July 2009. Ten healthy, white European males visited the laboratory twice, on separate mornings. On each visit, the volunteers consumed water (3ml/kg body weight) and rested semi-supine on the bed. After 30 minutes, baseline diastolic brachial artery diameter and blood velocity was measured. At 60 minutes, blood velocity and five scans of brachial artery diameter were recorded before a blood pressure cuff was inflated on the forearm for 5 minutes and at 50-60-70-80 and 90 sec after cuff deflation. Fifteen minutes later, the volunteers consumed 500ml of test-drink containing either fructose (0.75 g/kg body weight) or sucralose (sweetness-matched with fructose drink); 45 minutes later, baseline and flow-mediated dilatation was re-measured. Results: Pre-drink and post-drink baseline values were similar on two occasions (p> 0.05). Brachial artery diameter increased (p < 0.05) by 7+-3% pre-fructose and by 6. 3% above baseline values post-fructose with no significant difference in these responses (p < 0.15). It increased (p < 0.05) by 5.9+-3% above baseline before and by 6.7+-2% (p < 0.01) after sucralose; a significant difference was noted in these flow-mediated dilatation responses (p < 0.02). Responses before and after sucralose were not different from those before and after fructose (p < 0.294). Conclusion: Acute ingestion of fructose or sucralose had no effect on flow-mediated dilatation measured at brachial artery. (author)
... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Gay and Lesbian Parents Page Content Article Body I am gay. Should I worry how this will affect my children? Millions of children have one or more gay and/or lesbian parents. For some children, having ...
Helene C. Weldt-Basson
Full Text Available Mayra Santos-Febres’s 2006 novel, Nuestra señora de la noche , is based on the life of the Puerto Rican madam, Isabel la Negra, a legendary figure in Puerto Rican culture. Using both Mervin Alleyne’s theory of racial discrimination and Aída Hurtado’s theory of racially-based gender discrimination, which shows how the reactions of white and black females are governed by their relation of dependency on or rejection by the white male, this study illustrates how the character Isabel la Negra evolves as a postmodern, feminist character who opposes racism and gender subordination in Puerto Rico through her role as a prostitute. Conversely, the study also illustrates how madness, associated with both white (Cristina Rangel and black (Montse females in the novel, is a powerless rather than feminist strategy, into which women descend due to their mistreatment by patriarchal society. The study illustrates how Fernando Fornarís, the white male protagonist, serves as the narrative axis for the development of women’s polarized reactions to patriarchal domination in the novel.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Downing, Jordan B.; Moyer, April M.
The current qualitative study of 35 preadoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men's motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to…
Sexual politics in the gay male world would be enhanced by a serious engagement with radical feminist politics, particularly critiques of pornography and the sex industry. As the domination/subordination dynamic at the heart of patriarchy damages homosexual men, such engagement is crucial to the future of a gay movement.
Sánchez, Francisco J; Greenberg, Stefanie T; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric
This exploratory study used consensual qualitative research methodology (Hill et al., 2005) to analyze what gay men associate with masculinity and femininity, how they feel masculine ideals affect their self-image, and how masculine ideals affect their same-sex relationships. Written responses were collected from 547 self-identified gay men in the U.S. via an Internet-based survey. Findings supported previous reports that perceptions of gender roles among gay men appear based on masculine and feminine stereotypes. Additionally, more adverse versus positive effects on self-image and same-sex romantic relationships were reported including difficulty being emotional and affectionate, pressure to be physically attractive, and pressure to appear masculine in order to be accepted by society and to be seen as desirable by other gay men. While research on gay men's experience with masculinity continues, psychologists should consider the possible influence of traditional masculine ideals when conceptualizing their gay male clients.
Jaspal, Rusi; Cinnirella, Marco
This study explores identity processes, identity threat, and interpersonal relations with other gay men in a qualitative interview study with a sample of young British Muslim gay men of Pakistani background. Transcripts were subjected to qualitative thematic analysis. Data were analyzed through the interpretive lens of Identity Process Theory. Three superordinate themes are reported: (a) self-continuity and the transition from straight to gay space; (b) interpersonal relations with other gay men and self- and other categorization; and (c) interpersonal contact or identification with White gay men as an identity enhancer. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.
Sergio Rendón Rodríguez
Full Text Available We rated some reproductive characteristics of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 males using 46 farmed individuals (weighing 21.42±0.56 g and 40 wild individuals (weighing 36.10±0.72 g. In farmed shrimps, spermatophore mean weight was 8.94±0.51 mg; total mean sperm count was 3.90±0.27 x 10(6 in each spermatophore; and mean percentage of normal sperm was 86.9±0.37 %. In wild individuals, the respective values were 30.68±2.32 mg; 6.22±1.09 x 10(6; and 62.1±3.56 %. In both groups, the differences between right and left spermatophore were not significant (pResumen Se evaluaron características reproductivas como peso del espermatóforo, número de espermatozoides y porcentaje de espermatozoides normales en 86 organismos de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei. de éstos, 46 individuos provinieron de estanques de cultivo con un peso de 21.42±0.56 g y el resto, 40, silvestres con un peso de 36.10±0.72 g. En los camarones cultivados, el peso de los espermatóforos fue de 8.94±0.51 mg; el número total de espermatozoides en cada espermatóforo fue de 3.90±0.27 x 10(6; y el porcentaje de espermatozoides normales fue de 86.9±0.37 %. En los silvestres, los valores respectivos fueron de 30.68±2.32 mg; 6.22±1.09 x 10(6; y 62.1±3.56 %. En ambos grupos, las diferencias entre los espermatóforos derecho e izquierdo no fueron estadísticamente diferentes (p<0.01. Las diferencias en el peso de los espermatóforos y el porcentaje de espermatozoides normales, entre los camarones cultivados y silvestres, fueron significativas (p<0.01; sin embargo, en el número de espermatozoides tales diferencias no fueron significativas (p<0.01. La relación entre el peso del espermatóforo (Ws y el peso de los individuos (Wo fue Ws (mg=1.23(Wo-17.34 (r²=0.89, en camarones cultivados; y Ws (mg=2.57(Wo-60.04 (r²=0.64, en los silvestres. En organismos cultivados, la relación entre el número de espermatozoides (Cs y el peso de los individuos (Wo fue
Harper, Shaun R.
In this article, Shaun R. Harper investigates how Black undergraduate men respond to and resist the internalization of racist stereotypes at predominantly White colleges and universities. Prior studies consistently show that racial stereotypes are commonplace on many campuses, that their effects are usually psychologically and academically…
Scott, DeWitt T.
Since the creation of American higher education, the majority of the nation's colleges have been led, managed, and directed by White men. From the Boards of Trustees to the dean level, racial representation in higher education leadership has traditionally not included people of color. This lack of diversity in senior leadership is juxtaposed…
Silvestre, A J
The success of efforts to prevent continued transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to increase compliance with HIV prophylactic interventions among homosexual and bisexual men will depend in part on health care professionals' understanding of and ability to establish linkages with these men. In order to recruit men into a research project and an educational program, staff at the Pitt Men's Study, an epidemiological investigation of HIV infection, developed a process described here as "brokering," which was based on community organizing and marketing principles. Brokering is a dynamic process by which researchers and public health professionals exchange goods and services with formal and informal leaders of the gay community in order to establish strong, long-term linkages. To date, this process yielded 2,989 homosexual and bisexual recruits into the study, which began in 1983. After 8 years, 79% of those still alive continue to return for follow-up. While recruitment techniques will need to vary from city to city, the importance of establishing linkages with the local indigenous leadership remains of major importance.
Johnson, Odis, Jr.
This study explores how linkages between adolescents' educational attitudes and achievement vary according to race, expressive culture, and neighborhood collective socialization qualities. Specifically, the study examines (a) racial differences in how males' educational attitudes relate to their academic performance (i.e.,…
Gay still be controversial and viewed negatively in Indonesian society. Most assume that it is impossible for gay to have religiosity. But in the reality, gays also have religiosity. This study aims to determine how the religiosity that is owned by a gay. In addition to knowing religiosity, this study also aims to determine the factors that led to participants being gay. This study used a qualitative phenomenological method. Participants in this study consists of 3 people. M...
Drasin, Harry; Beals, Kristin P; Elliott, Marc N; Lever, Janet; Klein, David J; Schuster, Mark A
As the social context in which gay men live changes due to greater visibility, greater acceptance, and easier access to gay subculture, gay males may self-identify and take part in gay social activities at earlier ages than in the past. This study examined whether developmental milestones associated with sexual orientation for gay men have changed over the past several decades. A large and diverse sample of 2,402 gay men who responded to a 1994 survey published in a national magazine provided retrospective information on the age at which they reached individual psychological, social, and sexual behavior developmental milestones. We found evidence that individual psychological and sexual behavior milestones (e.g., awareness of attraction to males, having an orgasm with other male) are slowly moving toward earlier chronological ages (by 1 year of age every 8-25 years, p coming out) are moving more rapidly in a similar direction (by 1 year of age every 2-5 years, p < 0.001). The authors perform an innovative sensitivity test to demonstrate the persistence of the finding after correcting for the bias attributable to underrepresentation of those who have not yet self-identified as gay in such samples.
Nishitani, Naoko; Sakakibara, Hisataka
Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts.
Krantz, Gunilla; Lundberg, Ulf
This study aimed to analyse, in a homogeneous population of highly educated men and women, gender differences in self-reported sickness absence as related to paid and unpaid work and combinations of these (double exposure), as well as to perceived work stress and work-home conflict, i.e. conflict between demands from the home and work environment. A total of 743 women and 596 men, full-time working white-collar employees randomly selected from the general Swedish population aged 32-58, were assessed by a Swedish total workload instrument. The influence of conditions in paid and unpaid work and combinations of these on self-reported sickness absence was investigated by multivariate regression analyses. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess differences between men and women. Overtime was associated with lower sickness absence, not only for men but also for women, and a double-exposure situation did not increase the risk of sick leave. Contrary to what is normally seen, conflict between demands did not emerge as a risk factor for sickness absence for women, but for men. Our assumption that sickness absence patterns would be more similar for white-collar men and women than for the general population was not confirmed. However, the women working most hours were also the least sick-listed and assumed less responsibility for household chores. These women were mainly in top-level positions and therefore we conclude that men and women in these high-level positions seem to share household burdens more evenly, but they can also afford to employ someone to assist in the household.
Matharu, Kabir; Kravitz, Richard L; McMahon, Graham T; Wilson, Machelle D; Fitzgerald, Faith T
Healthcare providers' attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371) with a response rate of 68%. Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25 years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches.
Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371) with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25 years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. Conclusions We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches. PMID:22873668
Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371 with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25 years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. Conclusions We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was done to discover the effect of addition of chromosome number on phenotype F1 hybrid of females kohaku (white-red and sanke (white-red-black koi with males white and red koi. The white and red males koi were the F1 of gynogenesis. Spawning of koi was done by hormonal (ovaprim 0,5 ml/kg body weight and fertilization was done artificially. Triploidization was done by heat shock at 40°C during 1,0-1,5 minutes after 2-3 minute from egg fertilization. Colour analysis was done on 4 months old fish. Triplodization was succeeding on 86,67%. Addition of chromosome number on koi due to triploidization was suppressed the percentage of koi with combination color (kohaku, shiro-bekko, hi-utsuri, and sanke. It was seen on hybridization of sanke vs white koi as much as 5,55%, while on sanke vs red koi reached 45,02%. Hybridization of kohaku vs white koi as well as kohaku vs red koi produced higher percentages of kohaku compared to kohaku vs kohaku.Key words: Phenotype, diploid, triploid, koi fish, hybrid, chromosome AbstrakStudi ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan jumlah set kromosom terhadap fenotipe keturunan persilangan ikan koi kohaku (putih-merah dan sanke (putih-merah-hitam betina dengan jantan putih dan merah. Ikan koi jantan putih dan merah merupakan hasil ginogenesis generasi pertama. Pemijahan ikan koi dilakukan dengan rangsangan hormonal ovaprim 0,5 ml/kg induk dengan sistim pembuahan buatan. Triploidisasi dilakukan dengan memberikan kejutan panas 400C selama 1,0-1,5 menit pada saat 2,0-3,0 menit setelah pembuahan telur. Analisis warna dilakukan setelah ikan berumur 4 bulan. Tingkat keberhasilan triploidisasi yang diperoleh cukup tinggi, yaitu sebesar 86,67%. Penambahan jumlah set kromosom ikan koi akibat triploidisasi menurunkan persentase ikan koi yang berwarna kombinasi (putih-merah, putih-hitam, merah-hitam dan putih-merah-hitam sebesar 5,55% untuk persilangan sanke vs putih, dan 45,02% untuk persilangan
Lundberg, U; Mårdberg, B; Frankenhaeuser, M
A questionnaire assessing various aspects of paid as well as unpaid forms of productive activity was mailed to stratified samples of male and female white collar workers, approximately matched for educational and occupational level. Data from 501 men and 679 women employed full time revealed traditional gender differences in terms of main responsibility for household duties, child care etc. In keeping with this, women reported higher levels of work overload, stress and conflict than men, which increased significantly with the number of children at home. The various stress indices reached a peak between the ages of 35 and 39. Men reported more autonomy in their paid work whereas women reported more control at home. Men and women at the upper managerial levels reported more control over their total work situation and less conflict between demands.
Guo, Guang; Tong, Yuying; Cai, Tianji
In this study, we set out to investigate whether introducing molecular genetic measures into an analysis of sexual partner variety will yield novel sociological insights. The data source is the white male DNA sample in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Our empirical analysis has produced a robust protective effect of the 9R/9R genotype relative to the Any10R genotype in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1). The gene-environment interaction analysis demonstrates that the protective effect of 9R/9R tends to be lost in schools in which higher proportions of students start having sex early or among those with relatively low levels of cognitive ability. Our genetics-informed sociological analysis suggests that the “one size” of a single social theory may not fit all. Explaining a human trait or behavior may require a theory that accommodates the complex interplay between social contextual and individual influences and genetic predispositions. PMID:19569400
Boraita, Araceli; Heras, Maria-Eugenia; Morales, Francisco; Marina-Breysse, Manuel; Canda, Alicia; Rabadan, Manuel; Barriopedro, Maria-Isabel; Varela, Amai; de la Rosa, Alejandro; Tuñón, José
There is limited information regarding the aortic root upper physiological limits in all planes in elite athletes according to static and dynamic cardiovascular demands and sex. A cross-sectional study was performed in 3281 healthy elite athletes (2039 men and 1242 women) aged 23.1±5.7 years, with body surface area of 1.9±0.2 m 2 and 8.9±4.9 years and 19.2±9.6 hours/week of training. Maximum end-diastolic aortic root diameters were measured in the parasternal long axis by 2-dimensional echocardiography. Age, left ventricular mass, and body surface area were the main predictors of aortic dimensions. Raw values were greater in males than in females (Pvalues >40 mm and 34 mm, respectively. Raw and corrected aortic measures at all levels were significantly greater in sports, with a high dynamic component in both sexes, except for corrected values of the sinotubular junction in women. Aortic root dimensions in healthy elite athletes are within the established limits for the general population. This study describes the normal dimensions for healthy elite athletes classified according to sex and dynamic and static components of their sports. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Savin-Williams, R C
Based on a population of 317 gay and lesbian youths, the current investigation explores the appropriateness of a reflected appraisals perspective in predicting the degree to which parental attitudes, as perceived by youth, affects their self-esteem and comfortableness being gay. A lesbian was most comfortable with her sexual orientation if she also reported that her parents accepted her homosexuality; these variables did not, however, predict her level of self-esteem. Among the gay males, parental acceptance predicted comfortable being gay if the parents were also perceived as important components of a youth's self-worth; a male most comfortable with his sexual orientation had the highest level of self-esteem. Results are discussed in terms of: (a) sex of parent, (b) sex-role development, (c) comparisons of gays and lesbians, and (d) research on gay and lesbian youth.
... men who have sex with men (MSM), including gay and bisexual men. GLMA President Jesse Joad, MD, ... to establish clear and comprehensive regulations ensuring lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people do not face discrimination ...
Daxing Wu; Ying Zhao; Jian Liao; Huifang Yin; Wei Wang
Voxel-based morphometry-diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra analysis was used to investigate the structural characteristics of white matter in young males with antisocial personality disorder (APD) and healthy controls without APD. The results revealed that APD subjects, relative to healthy subjects, exhibited increased white matter volume in the bilateral prefrontal lobe, right insula, precentral gyrus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right precuneus, right middle occipital lobe, right parahippocampal gyrus and bilateral cingulate, and decreased volume in the middle temporal cortex and right cerebellum. The white matter volume in the medial frontal gyrus was significantly correlated with antisocial type scores on the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire in APD subjects. These experimental findings indicate that white matter abnormalities in several brain areas may contribute to antisocial behaviors in APD subjects.
Full Text Available Santoso U, Sutarno. 2009. Slaughter weight and carcass of male New Zealand White rabbits after rationing with koro bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 117-122. The objectives of the research were to know the effects of koro bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis present on slaughter weight and carcass of rabbits and to know the optimum dosage that resulted the best slaughter weight and carcass. The research used Randomized Block Design whereas 25 heads of six weeks old rabbits with 450-1270 g of body weight were devided into five groups according to the body weight. Each group were treated with different treatment. The treatment were unpresent of M. pruriens as a control (R0 and various percentage of M. pruriens as much as 21.5%, in the ration with treatment as follows: R1 (raw, R2 (heating, R3 (boiling, and R4 (fermentation. The parameters observed were slaughter weight, carcass weight, meat weight, bone weight, and adipose tissue weigth. The data analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA followed with Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The present of processed M. pruriens could increase production of slaughter weight better than the present of unprocessed M. pruriens. The additional of 21.5% of fermented M. pruriens resulted in the best production of slaughter weight and carcass of rabbits.
Hagihara, A; Tarumi, K; Morimoto, K
Numerous studies have examined the health effects of Type A behavior and job satisfaction/dissatisfaction, but we know very little about the relationship between aspects of the work environment related to job satisfaction and the Type A behavior pattern. In the present study, we analyzed data concerning work Stressors, private aspects of life, and job satisfaction among male white-collar workers (n=657) in a large steel company, and identified the respective aspects of the work environment related to job satisfaction among groups divided by Type A/B behavior patterns.We found that the nature of predictors for job satisfaction varied with the behavior type. "Being not busy at work" (pjob satisfaction among the Type A workers while "working less than 10 hours per day" (pjob satisfaction among the Type workers. "Work performance is evaluated" was a significant predictor of job satisfaction among all three behavior types (A, B, and A/B).Our results can provide information useful for the creation of programs to lower the level of job dissatisfaction and mental stress depending upon the behavior type of employees.
Maney, D W; Cain, R E
This preliminary investigation assessed preservice elementary teacher's attitudes toward homosexual parents and their children. The study populations included 195 college students enrolled in an elementary school health methods course at a large northeastern university. A 51-item " and Lesbian Parenting Questionnaire" was used for data collection purposes. Reliability estimates for the scales were: attitudes toward lesbians and gay men (alpha = .90), comfort toward gay and lesbian families (alpha = .92), and knowledge about homosexuality (alpha = .52). Most respondents agreed gay men: were not disgusting, should be allowed to teach, were not perverted, and should not overcome their feelings of homosexuality. Most respondents disagreed lesbians cannot fit into society or were sick. Nearly all agreed female homosexuality should not be a basis for job discrimination. Females were significantly (p attitudes toward gay fathers than did male respondents. Respondents with stronger religious attitudes had significantly (p attitudes toward lesbian parents than respondents with weaker religious attitudes.
Peterson, Grant Tyler
This article adopts an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the intersections of gender, sexuality, and dance. It examines the expressions of sexuality among gay males through culturally popular forms of club dancing. Drawing on political and musical history, I outline an account of how gay men's gendered choreographies changed throughout the 1970s, 80s, and 90s. Through a notion of "technologies of the body," I situate these developments in relation to cultural levels of homophobia, exploring how masculine expressions are entangled with and regulated by musical structures. My driving hypothesis is that as perceptions of cultural homophobia decrease, popular choreographies of gay men's dance have become more feminine in expression. Exploring this idea in the context of the first decade of the new millennium, I present a case study of TigerHeat, one of the largest weekly gay dance club events in the United States.
Carreras, Alba; Zhang, Shelley X L; Almendros, Isaac; Wang, Yang; Peris, Eduard; Qiao, Zhuanhong; Gozal, David
Chronic intermittent hypoxia during sleep (IH), as occurs in sleep apnea, promotes systemic insulin resistance. Resveratrol (Resv) has been reported to ameliorate high-fat diet-induced obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. To examine the effect of Resv on IH-induced metabolic dysfunction, male mice were subjected to IH or room air conditions for 8 weeks and treated with either Resv or vehicle (Veh). Fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and leptin were obtained, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index levels were calculated, and insulin sensitivity tests (phosphorylated AKT [also known as protein kinase B]/total AKT) were performed in 2 visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) depots (epididymal [Epi] and mesenteric [Mes]) along with flow cytometry assessments for VWAT macrophages and phenotypes (M1 and M2). IH-Veh and IH-Resv mice showed initial reductions in food intake with later recovery, with resultant lower body weights after 8 weeks but with IH-Resv showing better increases in body weight vs IH-Veh. IH-Veh and IH-Resv mice exhibited lower fasting glucose levels, but only IH-Veh had increased homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index vs all 3 other groups. Leptin levels were preserved in IH-Veh but were significantly lower in IH-Resv. Reduced VWAT phosphorylated-AKT/AKT responses to insulin emerged in both Mes and Epi in IH-Veh but normalized in IH-Resv. Increases total macrophage counts and in M1 to M2 ratios occurred in IH-Veh Mes and Epi compared all other 3 groups. Thus, Resv ameliorates food intake and weight gain during IH exposures and markedly attenuates VWAT inflammation and insulin resistance, thereby providing a potentially useful adjunctive therapy for metabolic morbidity in the context of sleep apnea.
McKeown, Eamonn; Nelson, Simon; Anderson, Jane; Low, Nicola; Elford, Jonathan
Using findings from a qualitative investigation based on in-depth email interviews with 47 Black and South Asian gay men in Britain, this paper explores the cross-cutting identities and discourses in relation to being both gay and from an ethnic minority background. Taking an intersectional approach, detailed accounts of identity negotiation, cultural pressures, experiences of discrimination and exclusion and the relationship between minority ethnic gay men and mainstream White gay culture are presented and explored. The major findings common to both groups were: cultural barriers limiting disclosure of sexuality to family and wider social networks; experiences of discrimination by White gay men that included exclusion as well as objectification; a lack of positive gay role models and imagery relating to men from minority ethnic backgrounds. Among South Asian gay men, a major theme was regret at being unable to fulfil family expectations regarding marriage and children, while among Black gay men, there was a strong belief that same-sex behaviour subverted cultural notions related to how masculinity is configured. The paper concludes by highlighting the importance of social location, particularly education and income, when examining the intersection of ethnicity and sexuality in future research.
Fasoli, Fabio; Maass, Anne; Paladino, Maria Paola; Sulpizio, Simone
The growing body of literature on the recognition of sexual orientation from voice ("auditory gaydar") is silent on the cognitive and social consequences of having a gay-/lesbian- versus heterosexual-sounding voice. We investigated this issue in four studies (overall N = 276), conducted in Italian language, in which heterosexual listeners were exposed to single-sentence voice samples of gay/lesbian and heterosexual speakers. In all four studies, listeners were found to make gender-typical inferences about traits and preferences of heterosexual speakers, but gender-atypical inferences about those of gay or lesbian speakers. Behavioral intention measures showed that listeners considered lesbian and gay speakers as less suitable for a leadership position, and male (but not female) listeners took distance from gay speakers. Together, this research demonstrates that having a gay/lesbian rather than heterosexual-sounding voice has tangible consequences for stereotyping and discrimination.
Ladino, L. A.; Rondón, S. H.
In this paper, we present a low-cost method to study the Gay-Lussac's law. We use a heating wire wrapped around the test tube to heat the air inside and make use of a solid state pressure sensor which requires a previous calibration to measure the pressure in the test tube.
Shield, Andrew DJ
In this (open-access) essay, I assess the idea that Grindr and related apps render urban gay spaces obsolete, and offer three counter-arguments based on my research with immigrants and tourists who use Grindr. In short: newcomers who use Grindr might actually bring new life to queer urban spaces...
Satterly, Brent A.
Little research exists on how self-disclosure is taught in social work education (Pianko, 2001). Few social work education programs include precontemplative components of exploring identity for gay male students. In this study, the data from 4 focus groups of gay male therapists, who discussed their self-disclosure, decision-making processes, were…
Poteat, V. Paul; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Calzo, Jerel P.; Gray, Mary L.; DiGiovanni, Craig D.; Lipkin, Arthur; Mundy-Shephard, Adrienne; Perrotti, Jeff; Scheer, Jillian R.; Shaw, Matthew P.
Gay-straight alliances (GSAs) may promote resilience. Yet, what GSA components predict well-being? Among 146 youth and advisors in 13 GSAs (58% lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning; 64% White; 38% received free/reduced-cost lunch), student (demographics, victimization, attendance frequency, leadership, support, control), advisor (years served,…
This paper is a report of a study to examine the construction of the stereotype of male nurses as gay, and to describe how this discourse impacts on a group of New Zealand male nurses. A discourse stereotyping male nurses as gay is accompanied by one which privileges hegemonic masculinity and marginalizes homosexuality. This social constructionist study drew on data collected from existing texts on men, nursing and masculinity and interviews with 18 New Zealand men conducted in 2003-2004. Discourse analysis, informed by masculinity theory and queer theory, was used to analyse the data. Despite the participants' beliefs that the majority of male nurses are heterosexual, the stereotype persists. A paradox emerged between the 'homosexual' general nurse and the 'heterosexual' psychiatric nurse. The stigma associated with homosexuality exposes male nurses to homophobia in the workplace. The heterosexual men employed strategies to avoid the presumption of homosexuality; these included: avoiding contact with gay colleagues and overt expression of their heterosexuality. There is a paradox between widespread calls for men to participate more in caring and discourses which stereotype male nurses as gay and conflate homosexuality and sexual predation. These stigmatizing discourses create a barrier to caring and, aligned with the presence of homophobia in the workplace, deter men's entry into the profession and may be important issues with respect to their retention. Nurse educators must ensure that nurses are able to resist collusion with stigmatizing discourses that marginalize men (and women) in the profession through the perpetration of gender and sexual stereotypes.
Lanzieri, Nicholas; Cook, Brian J
Previous content analyses of magazine images have typically examined within genres but failed to include comparisons between publications intended for various populations. The purpose of this study was to examine depictions of muscularity and thinness of male images in several widely distributed magazines that target male audiences from a variety of genres. Twenty-three magazine titles with the highest circulation rates that targeted heterosexual men, gay men, and general audiences were selected for image analyses. We found that magazines that target gay male audiences depicted images of men who were thinner in comparison to magazines targeting heterosexual men. Both gay and heterosexual magazines depicted male images with greater muscularity than magazines intended for general audiences. Differences in male image depictions in magazines may contribute to the promotion of an unattainable body ideal in some subgroups of gay culture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ackermann, Dirk Wouter Jacobus
Young men who grew up with emotionally absent fathers seem to find it difficult to attain equilibrium through dedication to both personal and relational concerns, probably because they tend to have low self-esteem, struggle to establish intimate relationships and may be at greater risk of engaging in antisocial or violent behaviour. The aim of this study was to explore the self-regulation strategies that white young adult male students employ to deal with the emotions and cognitions related t...
Walters, Sabrina Denise
African American males face daunting obstacles as they pursue higher education as research has shown. This study sought to better understand the impact of specific factors--social support, racial identity, perceived racial discrimination, coping, and religious coping--on the academic achievement of African American male college student…
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Morgan, John F; Arcelus, Jon
Recent research has emphasized vulnerability to eating disorders in gay men, with calls for research on causality, cultural factors and focus on a younger age cohort. This study aimed to examine body image and related eating behaviours in younger gay and straight men. Qualitative study using a sample of gay and straight male university students, applying audiotaped and transcribed depth interview subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Fifteen young men (18-24) with a spectrum of sexual orientation (gay, straight and bisexual) agreed to participate. Five dominant categories emerged: body image ideal, external influences, perception of body image, dieting, mechanisms for modification (diet, exercise, cosmetics) and sexual orientation. Health and aesthetic ideals appear less divorced for young men than women, offering some degree of protection from eating disorders. Nonetheless there is widespread body dissatisfaction. Media and social influences are powerful, particularly for single gay men, but the study suggests fewer differences than similarities between gay and straight men. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Yafi Sabila Rosyad
Full Text Available Background: The presence of gays in the community still makes heterosexual as normal sex orientation.Thereareunfair perceptionsof heterosexual group that develop into real behaviorswhicharevery detrimental for homosexuals group in the form of stigmatization against homosexuals.Stigmatization for gay in society also comes fromhealthprofessionals when they think homosexualsconduct violationto theruleof law,social andreligiousvalues.Therefore gays tend to visit certain healthcare providers who are familiar with them or to hide the identity that they are homosexuals.Objective:Todeterminetheperceptionsof gaysregarding gaystigmatizationofhealthcare providers.Methods:A qualitativeby using snowball samplingwith the total of 10participants was applied.TheConceptual Content CognitiveMap(3CMmethods followedby interviewwere utilized to gather data.Results:Six themesregarding gaystigmatizationofhealthcare as perceived by gays as follows: (1 gay isa divergence and contagious; (2 being gay is normal; (3 flamboyant and hedonist personality; (4 exclusiveand bad personality; (5 at high risk of sexually transmitted diseases, lack of self-control, and diseased; and(6 having good personality.Conclusion:Six themes with predominantly negative perceptions regarding stigmatization on gays byhealth careproviders as perceived by gays describe the need of transformation of health care service toincrease the quality of health of minor population like gay.
Murray, Stephen O
This article explores conceptions of same-sex sexual behavior and desires by American gay males who grew up in Pacific Island or Asian societies. In the absence of systematic survey data, representations, which are not assumed to be autobiographical, by two South Asian émigrés to Canada (Badruddin Khan and Shyam Selvadurai), two second generation Filipino-Americans (Joël Tan and Ricardo Ramos), a second generation Chinese-Hawaiian (Norman Wong) and three men of Chinese descent born and raised in Southeast Asia (Lawrence Chua, Justin Chin, and T. C. Huo) are examined. The unsatisfying script of sexual submission of Asians to whites is particularly central, except for the South Asians. These books provide recurrent evidence of role distance, of switching roles (often without rewriting a dominance-submission conception of insertion-reception) and of some degree of reconceiving the (sexual) self.
Full Text Available As members of consumerist societies, we are socialized into what it means to be good citizens and participate in society through our consumption. For many, this is taught in the home, yet for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ individuals, home is often not a source of reliable information about our identities. As such, LGBTQ individuals turn to the marketplace to seek information about their sexual and gender identities. This autoethnographic account shares, through three vignettes, how coming out as a queer man is shaped by consumptive pedagogy—that is, learning through consumption. First, material goods are explored as the signifier of sexual orientation. Then, the gay bar as marketplace and the online marketplace for relationships are explored.
Waugh, I M; Rienzi, B M
Photographic images (N = 2,700) from three 1997 Pacific-Bell Yellow Pages (n = 1,976) and from three 1996-97 gay, lesbian, and bisexual community telephone books (n = 724) were classified into three groups by visible features (definite male, definite female, and gender nonspecific). The latter were excluded. The proportion of male photographic images was larger in gay community books than in Pacific-Bell telephone books.
Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Cash, Brian M; McCormack, Mark; Rieger, Gerulf
This exploratory study assessed physiological, behavioral, and self-report measures of sexual and romantic indicators of sexual orientation identities among young men (mean age = 21.9 years) with predominant same-sex sexual and romantic interests: those who described themselves as bisexual leaning gay (n = 11), mostly gay (n = 17), and gay (n = 47). Although they were not significantly distinguishable based on physiological (pupil dilation) responses to nude stimuli, on behavioral and self-report measures a descending linear trend toward the less preferred sex (female) was significant regarding sexual attraction, fantasy, genital contact, infatuation, romantic relationship, sex appeal, and gazing time to the porn stimuli. Results supported a continuum of sexuality with distinct subgroups only for the self-report measure of sexual attraction. The other behavioral and self-report measures followed the same trend but did not significantly differ between the bisexual leaning gay and mostly gay groups, likely the result of small sample size. Results suggest that romantic indicators are as good as sexual measures in assessing sexual orientation and that a succession of logically following groups from bisexual leaning gay, mostly gay, to gay. Whether these three groups are discrete or overlapping needs further research.
Hyde, Margaret O.; Forsyth, Elizabeth H.
Homosexuality has emerged as a major issue making headlines across the country, including initiatives, which have been put on state and local ballots, that limit or guarantee the civil rights of gays and lesbians. This book, designed as a guide for juveniles, separates fact from fiction about gays and lesbians and explains homosexuality in clear,…
Hayes, Robert E., III
Globalization of the world economy has confirmed the need for citizens to exemplify competitive capacities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields. Since the 1970s, American higher education has seen increasing numbers of students entering college but has witnessed a decline in the number of students enrolling in STEM programs. African American men fall behind other students in regards to academic performance, persistence, and success throughout primary, secondary, and tertiary schooling. Accordingly, participation of African American men in STEM disciplines is low in comparison to White males and other race groups. Various factors have been identified as contributing to the academic failures of Black men. Poor academic and social preparedness, racial identity issues, institutional climates, negative stereotypes, and fear of success have been cited as potential contributors to the relative invisibility of African American men in STEM disciplines. This study explores the life stories of five African American male scholars in the college of engineering at a predominantly white university. The goal of the qualitative investigation is to help university faculty and administrators understand the institutional, interpersonal, and collective mechanisms influencing the success identities of African American male undergraduates in STEM academic programs. Understanding the lived experiences of this population may help universities innovate stronger supports for men of color in college and broaden the borders for all students interested in STEM careers.
Zhang, Yan-hui; Bao, Yu-gang; Chen, Hao; Tan, Hong-zhuan
To explore the relevant factors of the causes of sexual orientations of gay. From March to June 2013, 350 gays were recruited from one music bar and three bath centers where gays frequently visited in Changsha city, by proportional stratified sampling method. Meanwhile, another 332 males who identify themselves as non-homosexuality were also recruited considering the composition of ages, gender and educational background. Questionnaire survey was conducted to all the subjects, with 300 effective ones reclaimed. The questionnaire included the general demographic information, traits of character, the condition of foster in childhood and information of family members. The differences between the gays and non-homosexuality groups were analyzed to explore the causes of the sexual orientations of gays. There were statistical significant differences between gays and non- homosexuality group on following indexes (χ(2) was 59.63, 5.90, 16.01, 84.99, 161.57, 77.77, 112.32, 190.84, 30.10 respectively, all of P books or films about homosexual and experienced sexual pleasure from that before the age of 18. The rate of gays on these indexes was separately 62.3% (187/300), 57.7% (173/300) , 62.3% (187/300) , 63.0% (189/300), 67.3% (202/300) , 62.7% (189/300), 68.0% (204/300), 65.0% (195/300) and the rate on these indexes of non-homosexuality group was separately 21.3% (64/300), 28.0% (84/300) , 25.0% (75/300) , 12.7% (38/300), 31.3% (94/300), 17.7% (53/300) , 12.7% (38/300), 42.7% (128/300) . The rate of gays on these factors:the youngest boy in family, had the father or twin brothers who were homosexual or self identified as gay was 62.7% (188/300), 56.0% (168/300) and 62.0% (18/29) respectively; and the rate was 40.7% (122/300), 4.0% (12/300) and 20.0% (2/10), respectively among non-homosexuality group. The difference showed statistical significance (χ(2) was 34.52, 193.14, 5.27 respectively, all of P gays maybe was family relationship, tend and education since childhood
Vernedering, in: Gay Amsterdam News 125 (jan 2002), pp. 20-21; Webseks, zaad, zweetseks, in: Gay Amsterdam News 126 (feb 2002), pp. 30-31; Wurgseks, in: Gay Amsterdam News 127 (mrt 2002), pp. 30-31; Wijnandus Johannes Sengers (1927-2002), in: Gay Amsterdam News 133 (sept 2002), pp. 49.
van der Meer, T.A.M.
Most of what is known about the perpetrators of anti-gay violence is reported by victims of such violence. None the less, it is obvious from such reports that 'gay bashers' are overwhelmingly young men who operate in groups, sometimes at gay cruising sites or near gay bars. Drawing on finding from
Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel; Martínez, Carmen; Paterna, Consuelo
Two hundred and twenty-six heterosexual participants (115 women and 111 men) were asked to indicate their attitude toward gender-roles, their perceived similarities with gay men, and their attitude toward gay men (i.e., sexual prejudice). As expected, male participants showed more sexual prejudice than female participants, and perceived dissimilarities were related to a greater sexual prejudice. Support for gender-roles was related to sexual prejudice for male participants, but not for female participants. More interestingly, the three-way interaction suggested that perceived similarities moderated the link between gender-roles and sexual prejudice among heterosexual men, but not among heterosexual women. Attitude in favor of traditional gender-roles was related to sexual prejudice for male participants who perceived gay men as different, but not for those who perceived gay men as similar. These findings are discussed in terms of the defensive function of men's attitude toward homosexuality as a result of threat to masculinity.
Goldberg, Abbie E; Downing, Jordan B; Moyer, April M
The current qualitative study of 35 pre-adoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men's motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically-oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to teach a child tolerance) may have been uniquely shaped by their sexual minority status, and others (e.g., desire to give a child a good home) in part reflect their adoptive status. Men named age, finances, and relationship factors, as well as unique contextual factors such as the need to find and move to gay-friendly neighborhoods, as influencing their readiness to pursue parenthood at the current time. Gay men's motivations to parent echo normative life course decision-making processes, but also reflect concerns that are uniquely informed by their sexual minority status.
Jankowski, Glen S; Fawkner, Helen; Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika
With little actual appraisal, a more 'appearance potent' (i.e., a reverence for appearance ideals) subculture has been used to explain gay men's greater body dissatisfaction in comparison to straight men's. This study sought to assess the respective appearance potency of each subculture by a content analysis of 32 issues of the most read gay (Attitude, Gay Times) and straight men's magazines (Men's Health, FHM) in the UK. Images of men and women were coded for their physical characteristics, objectification and nudity, as were the number of appearance adverts and articles. The gay men's magazines featured more images of men that were appearance ideal, nude and sexualized than the straight men's magazines. The converse was true for the images of women and appearance adverts. Although more research is needed to understand the effect of this content on the viewer, the findings are consistent with a more appearance potent gay male subculture. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McCormack, Mark; Wignall, Liam; Morris, Max
This article draws on in-depth interviews with 35 openly gay male undergraduates from four universities in England to develop an understanding of the changing nature of language related to homosexuality. In addition to finding a diminution in the prevalence of homophobic language, we demonstrate that participants maintain complex and nuanced understandings of phrases that do not use homophobic pejoratives, such as 'that's so gay'. The majority of participants rejected the notion that these phrases are inherently homophobic, instead arguing that the intent with which they are said and the context in which they are used are vital in understanding their meaning and effect. We conceptualize an intent-context-effect matrix to understand the interdependency of these variables. Highlighting the situated nature of this matrix, we also demonstrate the importance of the existence of shared norms between those saying and hearing the phrase when interpreting such language. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.
Lunn, Mitchell R; Cui, Wanjun; Zack, Matthew M; Thompson, William W; Blank, Michael B; Yehia, Baligh R
This study aimed to characterize the sociodemographic characteristics of sexual minority (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual) adults and compare sexual minority and heterosexual populations on nine Healthy People 2020 leading health indicators (LHIs). Using a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey (National Health Interview Survey 2013-2015) of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population (228,893,944 adults), nine Healthy People 2020 LHIs addressing health behaviors and access to care, stratified using a composite variable of sex (female, male) and sexual orientation (gay or lesbian, bisexual, heterosexual), were analyzed individually and in aggregate. In 2013-2015, sexual minority adults represented 2.4% of the U.S. Compared to heterosexuals, sexual minorities were more likely to be younger and to have never married. Gays and lesbians were more likely to have earned a graduate degree. Gay males were more likely to have a usual primary care provider, but gay/lesbian females were less likely than heterosexuals to have a usual primary care provider and health insurance. Gay males received more colorectal cancer screening than heterosexual males. Gay males, gay/lesbian females, and bisexual females were more likely to be current smokers than their sex-matched, heterosexual counterparts. Binge drinking was more common in bisexuals compared to heterosexuals. Sexual minority females were more likely to be obese than heterosexual females; the converse was true for gay males. Sexual minorities underwent more HIV testing than their heterosexual peers, but bisexual males were less likely than gay males to be tested. Gay males were more likely to meet all eligible LHIs than heterosexual males. Overall, more sexual minority adults met all eligible LHIs compared to heterosexual adults. Similar results were found regardless of HIV testing LHI inclusion. Differences between sexual minorities and heterosexuals suggest the need for targeted health assessments and public
Rosqvist, Hanna Bertilsdotter
There has long been ambivalence in the LGBT movement and related research as to the meaning of gay identity in relation to marriage. The article explores changing homonormative discourses of marriage and married men within the Swedish gay press from the mid 1950s to the mid 1980s. Expressions of the changes are a shift in language and in views of extramarital relationships, openness, and gay male identity. As a result of the shift, “married men,” including both “married homosexuals” and “bisexuals,” came to be distinguished from “gays.”
Soeker, Shaheed; Bonn, Gerri-Lee; de Vos, Zahraa; Gobhozi, Thobile; Pape, Candice; Ribaudo, Shelly
The South African constitution protects the rights of gays; however in the workplace gays experience discrimination and marginalization. As a result of marginalization they struggle to reach their potential regarding career development and the fulfilment of their worker role. The study explored the experiences and perceptions of gay males with regard to acquiring and maintaining their worker roles. The study is phenomenological and qualitative in design. Eleven of these men participated in two focus groups. One male participated in two in-depth interviews and one interview was conducted with a key informant. Three themes emerged: 1) Being boxed in, 2) The glass ceiling, 3) This is where I can wear my feather boa. The study findings clearly depicted the many barriers experienced by homosexual men and how this negatively impacts on their worker role. Minimal facilitatory factors exist, to assist gay males %in with regard to their worker role. It was found that homo-prejudice still exists in South Africa and its workplaces and has a negative impact not only on gay men's worker role but also their well-being. This significantly highlights the great need for occupational therapy intervention in the lives of these gay men, and their workplaces.
Barker, Nicole K.S.; Dabelsteen, Torben; Mennill, Daniel J.
We performed a song transmission experiment to investigate the effects of distance, song post height, receiver perch height, signaller sex, and microhabitat on song degradation in rufous-and-white wrens (Thryothorus rufalbus), a neotropical duetting songbird. We quantified the effects of these fa......We performed a song transmission experiment to investigate the effects of distance, song post height, receiver perch height, signaller sex, and microhabitat on song degradation in rufous-and-white wrens (Thryothorus rufalbus), a neotropical duetting songbird. We quantified the effects...... of these factors on excess attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio, tail-to-signal ratio, and blur ratio of male and female songs. As expected, song degradation increased with distance between signaller and receiver. Songs transmitted best when emitted from moderate heights (5-7 m), although this pattern varied....... Rufous-and-white wren songs appeared more attenuated in open field than forest habitats, but microhabitat conditions within the forests exerted a strong influence on song degradation. These findings match previous studies showing an effect of distance, song post height, and habitat, but contrast...
Hirshfield, Sabina; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Anderson, Ian; Chiasson, Mary Ann
Though Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are at an increased risk for HIV, few HIV risk reduction interventions that target HIV-positive MSM, and even fewer that use technology, have been designed to target these groups. Despite similar rates of social media and technology use across racial/ethnic groups, online engagement of minority MSM for HIV prevention efforts is low. Since minority MSM tend to have less representation in online HIV prevention studies, the goals of this online anonymous study of HIV-positive gay-identified men were to test the feasibility of conducting targeted recruitment by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, to assess technology and social media use, and to assess global HIV transmission risk. In 2011, an anonymous online survey was conducted among 463 members of an HIV-positive personals website. Emails were sent to a subset of HIV-positive male members who self-identified as gay. While 57 % were White, substantial proportions of participants were Black (20 %) or Hispanic (18 %). Median age was 46 (range 18-79). Men who reported using 3 or more websites or apps to meet sex partners were significantly more likely to report anal intercourse (AOR 4.43, p social media use, and sexual risk among a diverse sample of HIV-positive gay men. Efficacy trials of technology-based HIV prevention interventions targeting high-risk minority HIV-positive MSM are warranted.
Sattler, Frank A; Franke, Gabriele H; Christiansen, Hanna
International studies have revealed that gay and bisexual men present more mental health problems than the general male population. Furthermore, there is evidence that minority stress predicts mental health problems in gay and bisexual men. The aim of the present study is to provide initial data on mental health differences in Germany and to analyze the effect of minority stress. Mental health data on n = 1903 German gay and bisexual men and n = 958 men from a population-based sample were assessed using a shortened version of the SCL-90-S. The mental health of the two samples was compared. Furthermore, a linear regression was conducted for the gay and bisexual sample: mental health was used as the criterion and minority stressors as predictors. As compared to our population sample, gay and bisexual men demonstrated more mental health problems with a moderate effect size. In the regression, minority stress predicted mental health problems in the gay and bisexual sample. We observed pronounced mental health differences between gay and bisexual men versus the population sample. These differences could be at least partly due to the minority stress gay and bisexual men face. Research should focus on how to reduce and cope with minority stress.
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A.; Monks, D. Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P.
Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333) completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role) were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role). In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles. PMID:28234947
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Monks, D Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P
Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333) completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role) were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role). In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles.
Full Text Available Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333 completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role. In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles.
I Nengah Kerta Besung
Full Text Available Purpose of this research is to learn the level of effectiveness of ethanol extract from red betel leaf (Piper crocatum within increase weight of male white mouse in condition for diabetes mellitus. 20 male white mice (Rattus novergicus in 3 mounth with weight between 190-250 gram which adapted during 2 weeks. It classified to be 5 groups random, each group consisty by 4 mice. The first treatment as a negative control (healty mouse whitout giving treatment. The second treatment as alloxan positive control, the third treatment alloxan added by 2% suspension of ethaol extract from red betel leaf (dose 100 mg/kg bb per oral. The fifth treatment is alloxan added by 0.02% suspension glibenclamide (dose 1 ml/kg bb per oral. Giving extract betel leaf is done by oral with used sonde. Giving treatment at treatment III, IV and V is done everyday start from day 3 until the end of the day (21 day. The weight of mouse is measure at day 7, 14 and day 21 used analytical balanced. The result of this research show up that giving 2% ethanol extract from red betel leaf (Piper crocatum with dose (50 mg/kg bb, dose (100 mg/kg bb and glibenclamide 0,02% ( 1 ml/kg bb with significant can increase weight (P<0,05 of white mice which induce alloxan. Result of this research could be conclude that ethanol extract of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum can used for increase the weight.
Emily K. Hobson
Full Text Available This article analyzes the radical imagination of lesbian and gay activism in solidarity with the Nicaraguan Revolution. It examines the reasons US lesbian and gay radicals supported that revolution and investigates the ways that homoerotic, especially lesbian, desire shaped their solidarity. Drawing on Herbert Marcuse and Michel Foucault, the article argues that lesbian and gay radicals viewed the Nicaraguan Revolution in erotic and heterotopic terms. Posters, fliers, and interviews reveal that US activists, people of color and white, represented the Revolution and solidarity through tropes of female masculinity and women’s affection. Many Nicaraguan lesbians and gay men shared these nonnormative images of socialist change. Yet while Nicaraguans claimed Sandinismo as their own, for US activists revolution remained a distant object of desire and solidarity a “seduction,” “crush,” or embrace. United States activists who embraced developmentalist views of Latin American sexualities remained unable to witness lesbian and gay life inside Nicaragua, while lesbian and gay Sandinistas kept silent about FSLN homophobia so as not to undermine solidarity against the Contra war. Desire served as a powerful tool for mobilizing transnational solidarity. By failing to examine desire critically, however, US activists limited their communications with Nicaraguan lesbians and gay men and weakened the relationship they sought with revolution itself.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Downing, Jordan B.; Moyer, April M.
The current qualitative study of 35 pre-adoptive gay male couples (70 men) examined gay men’s motivations to parent and their reasons for pursuing parenthood at the current time. Similar to heterosexual couples, gay men described a range of psychologically-oriented reasons as shaping their decision to become parents. Some of these (e.g., desire to teach a child tolerance) may have been uniquely shaped by their sexual minority status, and others (e.g., desire to give a child a good home) in pa...
Derryberry, Elizabeth P; Gentry, Katherine; Derryberry, Graham E; Phillips, Jennifer N; Danner, Raymond M; Danner, Julie E; Luther, David A
The soundscape acts as a selective agent on organisms that use acoustic signals to communicate. A number of studies document variation in structure, amplitude, or timing of signal production in correspondence with environmental noise levels thus supporting the hypothesis that organisms are changing their signaling behaviors to avoid masking. The time scale at which organisms respond is of particular interest. Signal structure may evolve across generations through processes such as cultural or genetic transmission. Individuals may also change their behavior during development (ontogenetic change) or in real time (i.e., immediate flexibility). These are not mutually exclusive mechanisms, and all must be investigated to understand how organisms respond to selection pressures from the soundscape. Previous work on white-crowned sparrows ( Zonotrichia leucophrys ) found that males holding territories in louder areas tend to sing higher frequency songs and that both noise levels and song frequency have increased over time (30 years) in urban areas. These previous findings suggest that songs are changing across generations; however, it is not known if this species also exhibits immediate flexibility. Here, we conducted an exploratory, observational study to ask whether males change the minimum frequency of their song in response to immediate changes in noise levels. We also ask whether males sing louder, as increased minimum frequency may be physiologically linked to producing sound at higher amplitudes, in response to immediate changes in environmental noise. We found that territorial males adjust song amplitude but not minimum frequency in response to changes in environmental noise levels. Our results suggest that males do not show immediate flexibility in song minimum frequency, although experimental manipulations are needed to test this hypothesis further. Our work highlights the need to investigate multiple mechanisms of adaptive response to soundscapes.
Lick, David J; Johnson, Kerri L
Preferences for anal sex roles (top/bottom) are an important aspect of gay male identity, but scholars have only recently begun to explore the factors that covary with these preferences. Here, we argue that the gendered nature of both racial stereotypes (i.e., Black men are masculine, Asian men are feminine) and sexual role stereotypes (i.e., tops are masculine, bottoms are feminine) link the categories Asian/bottom and the categories Black/top. We provide empirical evidence for these claims at three levels of analysis: At the cultural level based upon gay men's stereotypic beliefs about others (Study 1), at the interpersonal level based upon gay men's perceptions of others' sexual role preferences (Study 2), and at the intrapersonal level based upon racially diverse men's self-reported sexual roles on a public hookup website (Study 3). These studies offer the first systematic evidence of linkages between race categories and sexual roles in gay male communities.
Dank, Meredith; Lachman, Pamela; Zweig, Janine M; Yahner, Jennifer
Media attention and the literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth overwhelmingly focus on violence involving hate crimes and bullying, while ignoring the fact that vulnerable youth also may be at increased risk of violence in their dating relationships. In this study, we examine physical, psychological, sexual, and cyber dating violence experiences among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth--as compared to those of heterosexual youth, and we explore variations in the likelihood of help-seeking behavior and the presence of particular risk factors among both types of dating violence victims. A total of 5,647 youth (51 % female, 74 % White) from 10 schools participated in a cross-sectional anonymous survey, of which 3,745 reported currently being in a dating relationship or having been in one during the prior year. Results indicated that lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth are at higher risk for all types of dating violence victimization (and nearly all types of dating violence perpetration), compared to heterosexual youth. Further, when looking at gender identity, transgender and female youth are at highest risk of most types of victimization, and are the most likely perpetrators of all forms of dating violence but sexual coercion, which begs further exploration. The findings support the development of dating violence prevention programs that specifically target the needs and vulnerabilities of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth, in addition to those of female and transgender youth.
Lai, Calvin K; Haidt, Jonathan; Nosek, Brian A
Disgust is linked to social evaluation. People with higher disgust sensitivity exhibit more sexual prejudice, and inducing disgust increases sexual prejudice. We tested whether inducing moral elevation, the theoretical opposite of disgust, would reduce sexual prejudice. In four studies (N = 3622), we induced elevation with inspiring videos and then measured sexual prejudice with implicit and explicit measures. Compared to control videos that elicited no particular affective state, we found that elevation reduced implicit and explicit sexual prejudice, albeit very slightly. No effect was observed when the target of social evaluation was changed to race (Black-White). Inducing amusement, another positive emotion, did not significantly affect sexual prejudice. We conclude that elevation weakly but reliably reduces prejudice towards gay men.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental health of lesbians and gay men during the transition to parenthood. In addition, the role of contextual support was examined. Higher perceived workplac...
Freeland, Ryan; Goldenberg, Tamar; Stephenson, Rob
The prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in same-sex male relationships has been reported to be at least as prevalent as is observed in female-male relationships. Though research has focused on understanding the prevalence and antecedents of IPV in male-male relationships, there is a paucity of data describing perceptions of coping strategies adopted by gay and bisexual men who may experience IPV. Ten focus group discussions were conducted with 64 gay and bisexual men in Atlanta, Georgia, between September 2013 and November 2013. Focus groups examined perceptions of how gay and bisexual men would respond to IPV and the IPV-coping services they would utilize. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify themes that describe how gay and bisexual men perceive existing IPV services and how they would use these services, if gay and bisexual men were to experience IPV. The results indicate that men experiencing IPV in male-male relationships do not have adequate access to IPV services that are tailored to their unique needs. As a result, there is a strong reliance on informal sources of support. Services are urgently needed to meet the unique needs of men experiencing IPV in same-sex relationships.
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Monks, D Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P
Androphilia is associated with an elevated number of older brothers among natal males. This association, termed the fraternal birth order effect, has been observed among gay men who exhibit marked gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity has been linked to gay men's preferred anal sex role. The present study investigated whether these two lines of research intersect by addressing whether the fraternal birth order effect was associated with both gender nonconformity and a receptive anal sex role (243 gay men, 91 heterosexual men). Consistent with previous research, we identified the fraternal birth order effect in our sample of gay men. Also, gay men were significantly more gender-nonconforming on adulthood and recalled childhood measures compared to heterosexual men. When gay men were compared based on anal sex role (i.e., top, versatile, bottom), all groups showed significantly greater recalled childhood and adult male gender nonconformity than heterosexual men, but bottoms were most nonconforming. Only gay men with a bottom anal sex role showed evidence of a fraternal birth order effect. A sororal birth order effect was found in our sample of gay men, driven by versatiles. No significant associations were found between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity measures. These results suggest that the fraternal birth order effect may apply to a subset of gay men who have a bottom anal sex role preference and that this subgroup is more gender-nonconforming. However, there were no significant associations between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity at the individual level. As such, based on the present study, whether processes underpinning the fraternal birth order effect influence gender nonconformity is equivocal.
James C Walton
Full Text Available Brain plasticity, in relation to new adult mammalian neurons generated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, has been well described. However, the functional outcome of new adult olfactory neurons born in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles is not clearly defined, as manipulating neurogenesis through various methods has given inconsistent and conflicting results in lab mice. Several small rodent species, including Peromyscus leucopus, display seasonal (photoperiodic brain plasticity in brain volume, hippocampal function, and hippocampus-dependent behaviors; plasticity in the olfactory system of photoperiodic rodents remains largely uninvestigated. We exposed adult male P. leucopus to long day lengths (LD and short day lengths (SD for 10 to 15 weeks and then examined olfactory bulb cell proliferation and survival using the thymidine analog BrdU, olfactory bulb granule cell morphology using Golgi-Cox staining, and behavioral investigation of same-sex conspecific urine. SD mice did not differ from LD counterparts in granular cell morphology of the dendrites or in dendritic spine density. Although there were no differences due to photoperiod in habituation to water odor, SD mice rapidly habituated to male urine, whereas LD mice did not. In addition, short day induced changes in olfactory behavior were associated with increased neurogenesis in the caudal plexiform and granule cell layers of the olfactory bulb, an area known to preferentially respond to water-soluble odorants. Taken together, these data demonstrate that photoperiod, without altering olfactory bulb neuronal morphology, alters olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in Peromyscus leucopus.
Beardslee, Jordan; Docherty, Meagan; Mulvey, Edward; Schubert, Carol; Pardini, Dustin
Adolescent gun violence is a serious public health issue that disproportionately affects young Black males. Although it has been postulated that differential exposure to childhood risk factors might account for racial differences in adolescent gun carrying, no longitudinal studies have directly examined this issue. We examined whether childhood risk factors indexing neighborhood crime, peer delinquency, and conduct problems predicted the initiation of adolescent gun carrying among a community sample of Black and White boys. Analyses then examined whether racial differences in risk factors accounted for racial differences in gun carrying. Data came from a sample of 485 Black and White boys who were repeatedly assessed from 2nd grade until age 18. Multi-informant data collected across the first 3 years of the study were used to assess neighborhood crime, peer delinquency, and conduct problems. Illegal gun carrying was assessed annually from 5th grade through age 18. Growth curve analyses indicated that children with higher initial levels of conduct problems and delinquent peer involvement, as well as those who increased in conduct problems across childhood, were more likely to carry a gun prior to age 18. Black boys were also more likely to carry guns than Whites. Racial differences were greatly reduced, but not eliminated, after controlling for initial levels of conduct problems and delinquent peer involvement. Findings suggest that early prevention programs designed to reduce adolescent gun violence (including racial disparities in gun violence) should target boys with severe conduct problems and those who affiliate with delinquent peers during elementary school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Gitau, Tabither M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A
This cross-sectional study of urban high schools in Johannesburg, South Africa, sought to examine eating attitudes, body image and self-esteem among male adolescents (n = 391). Anthropometric measurements, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Rosenberg self-esteem, body image satisfaction and perception of females were collected at age 13, 15 and 17 years. Descriptive analysis was done to describe the sample, and non-parametric Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test was used to test for significant differences between data that were not normally distributed (EAT-26). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analyses were conducted to test for associations between self-esteem scores and eating attitudes, body mass indices and body image satisfaction scores. To assess the differences between groups that were normally distributed chi-square tests were carried out. Ethnic differences significantly affected adolescent boys' body mass index (BMI), eating attitudes and self-esteem; White boys had higher self-esteem, BMI and normal eating attitudes than the Black boys did. BMI was positively associated with self-esteem (p = 0.01, r = 0.134) and negatively with dieting behaviour in White boys (p = 0.004, r = -0.257), and with lower EAT-26 bulimic and oral control scores in Black boys. In conclusion, the findings highlight ethnic differences and a need to better understand cultural differences that influence adolescent attitudes and behaviour.
... Lifestyle Adult health Understand important health issues for gay men and men who have sex with men — ... Staff All men face certain health risks. However, gay men and men who have sex with men ...
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Oliveira, Ariclecio Cunha de; Andreotti, Sandra; Sertie, Rogério António Laurato; Campana, Amanda Baron; de Proença, André Ricardo Gomes; Vasconcelos, Renata Prado; Oliveira, Keciany Alves de; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha; Donato-Junior, José; Lima, Fábio Bessa
Melatonin treatment has been reported to be capable of ameliorating metabolic diabetes-related abnormalities but also to cause hypogonadism in rats. We investigated whether the combined treatment with melatonin and insulin can improve insulin resistance and other metabolic disorders in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes during neonatal period and the repercussion of this treatment on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. At the fourth week of age, diabetic animals started an 8-wk treatment with only melatonin (0.2 mg/kg body weight) added to drinking water at night or associated with insulin (NHP, 1.5 U/100 g/day) or only insulin. Animals were then euthanized, and the subcutaneous (SC), epididymal (EP), and retroperitoneal (RP) fat pads were excised, weighed and processed for adipocyte isolation for morphometric analysis as well as for measuring glucose uptake, oxidation, and incorporation of glucose into lipids. Hypothalamus was collected for gene expression and blood samples were collected for biochemical assays. The treatment with melatonin plus insulin (MI) was capable of maintaining glycemic control. In epididymal (EP) and subcutaneous (SC) adipocytes, the melatonin plus insulin (MI) treatment group recovered the insulin responsiveness. In the hypothalamus, melatonin treatment alone promoted a significant reduction in kisspeptin-1, neurokinin B and androgen receptor mRNA levels, in relation to control group. Combined treatment with melatonin and insulin promoted a better glycemic control, improving insulin sensitivity in white adipose tissue (WAT). Indeed, melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic genes related to reproductive function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
This is the first quantitative research to investigate attitudes toward heterosexual anal and oral sex in Jamaica, compare them to anti-gay and anti-lesbian attitudes, and frame them within a broader understanding of sexual prejudice based on gender norms. Fifty Jamaican participants’ attitudes toward heterosexual anal sex were as negative as attitudes toward gay male sex, and more negative than attitudes toward lesbian sex. Negative attitudes toward male sexual behaviours were predicted by m...
Beougher, Sean C.; Bircher, Anja E.; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Darbes, Lynae A.; Gómez Mandic, Carmen; Neilands, Torsten B.; Garcia, Carla C.; Hoff, Colleen C.
Previous studies of HIV testing among gay men describe the motivations, facilitators and barriers, behaviors, and demographic characteristics of individuals who test. What little research focuses on HIV testing among gay men in relationships shows that they do not test regularly or, in some cases, at all – their motivations to test have not been investigated. With so little data on HIV testing for this population, and the continued privileging of individually-focused approaches, gay men in relationships fall into a blind spot of research and prevention efforts. This study examined motivations to test for HIV using qualitative data from both partners in 20 gay male couples. Analysis revealed that the partners’ motivations were either event-related (e.g., participants testing the beginning of their relationship or HIV-negative participants in an HIV-discordant relationship testing after risky episode with their discordant primary partner) or partner-related (e.g., participants testing in response to a request or suggestion to test from their primary partner or participants testing out of concern for their primary partner’s health and wellbeing). These data provide insight into relationship-oriented motivations to test for HIV for gay men in relationships and, in doing so, demonstrates their commitment to their primary partner and relationship. These motivations can be leveraged to increase HIV testing among gay men in relationships, a population that tests less often than single gay men, yet, until recently, has been underserved by prevention efforts. PMID:25550145
Full Text Available We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.
Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of psychopathy on antigay aggression. Participants were 84 heterosexual men who competed in an aggression paradigm in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a randomly determined fictitious opponent (heterosexual male, gay male) during a competitive reaction time…
This interview-based, narrative study examines the effects of schooling in a Deep South urban community on the identity construction of gay African American boys and young men. Specifically, it exposes the ways in which the dominant culture of White racism creates and imposes a hegemonic masculinity on Black youth culture that forces these young…
Poteat, V. Paul; Heck, Nicholas C.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Calzo, Jerel P.
Using youth program models to frame the study of Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs), we identified individual and structural predictors of greater engagement in these settings with a cross-sectional sample of 295 youth in 33 GSAs from the 2014 Massachusetts GSA Network Survey (69% LGBQ, 68% cisgender female, 68% White, M[subscript age] =16.07).…
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the significance of the prison scenario and its various permutations in the texts of American commercial pornographic video. The paper will identify the prison as a highly eroticised all male environment, an arena where the active/passive dichotomy of gay pornography is staged and re-staged. The significances of the prison are multiple. The prison draws on a gay mythology of homosexual desire that has its origins in sources as diverse as the literature of the Marquis de Sade and Jean Genet and the erotic illustrations of Tom of Finland and Etienne. Prison scenarios take many shapes in gay pornography such as the American penitentiary, the military brig, and the fantasised dungeon of the leatherman. I see these scenarios as performing an important function within gay porn by offering idealised spaces for the acts of pornography: voyeurism, narcissistic display and active/ passive role-play.
Bradbury, Stacey L; Davis, Alan K; Leith, Jaclyn; Hinman, Nova; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Burmeister, Jacob M; Dworsky, Dryw
We evaluated the acceptability and justness of anti-lesbian and gay victimization among 473 undergraduates. Participants were assigned to one of four vignette conditions that described an individual being verbally victimized in a typical college setting. Each vignette varied by victim gender (male; female) and sexual orientation (lesbian/gay; heterosexual). Participants completed background questionnaires and a measure that assessed the acceptability of the actions described in the vignettes. Overall, victimization was rated as unacceptable regardless of the sexual orientation and gender of the victim. However, participants rated the victimization of lesbian and gay students as more harmful and unjust than victimization of heterosexual students. Although the acceptability of anti-lesbian and gay victimization was low, 3%-12% of participants rated anti-lesbian and gay victimization as slightly or completely acceptable and just. Given that victimization is associated with long-term negative outcomes, college administrators should consider interventions aimed at decreasing the acceptability of victimization among students.
Ibañez, Gladys E; Van Oss Marin, Barbara; Flores, Stephen A; Millett, Gregorio; Diaz, Rafael M
Latino gay men report experiences of racial discrimination within and outside the gay community. This study focused on correlates of racism within general and gay contexts. Racism was assessed in a probability sample of 911 Latino gay men recruited from 3 U.S. cities. Factor analysis of the 10-item scale produced 2 factors: (a) General Racism Experiences, and (b) Racism Experiences in Gay Contexts. The scale and each factor showed adequate reliability and validity. Latino gay men with darker skin, more Indian features, more time in the United States, and low self-esteem reported more racism in both general and gay contexts. The authors examine the psychometric properties of a measure that assesses interpersonal racism among Latinos, report correlates of racism within a gay context, and provide an assessment tool for understanding the role of racism in the lives of Latino gay men.
Hall, J M
This essay serves as a broad investigation of the origins of what came to be called the "gay boom" in 1990's Japanese cinema: a culmination of print media, television, and especially films which made the gay male not merely a visible (political) subject but also the site of displaced contestations of gendered (female) desire. The most visible transnational signifier of the "gay boom" was the 1992 film Okoge, a film which, in keeping with a Japanese trend which relocates the gay male as a safe displacement of female desire, posits the heterosexual female as the audience's point of identification in a film about the lives of gay Japanese men. Using this as a starting point, this essay seeks to explore how male homosexuality and gender construction operate within both Japanese nationalism and the transnational discourse of Japanese cinema's dissemination.
Kluge, H; Gessner, D K; Herzog, E; Eder, K
The present study was performed to assess the bioefficacy of DL-methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid (MHA) in comparison to DL-methionine (DLM) as sources of methionine for growing male white Pekin ducks in the first 3 wk of life. For this aim, 580 1-day-old male ducks were allocated into 12 treatment groups and received a basal diet that contained 0.29% of methionine, 0.34% of cysteine and 0.63% of total sulphur containing amino acids or the same diet supplemented with either DLM or MHA in amounts to supply 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.25% of methionine equivalents. Ducks fed the control diet without methionine supplement had the lowest final body weights, daily body weight gains and feed intake among all groups. Supplementation of methionine improved final body weights and daily body weight gains in a dose dependent-manner. There was, however, no significant effect of the source of methionine on all of the performance responses. Evaluation of the data of daily body weight gains with an exponential model of regression revealed a nearly identical efficacy (slope of the curves) of both compounds for growth (DLM = 100%, MHA = 101%). According to the exponential model of regression, 95% of the maximum values of daily body weight gain were reached at methionine supplementary levels of 0.080% and 0.079% for DLM and MHA, respectively. Overall, the present study indicates that MHA and DLM have a similar efficacy as sources of methionine for growing ducks. It is moreover shown that dietary methionine concentrations of 0.37% are required to reach 95% of the maximum of daily body weight gains in ducks during the first 3 wk of life. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Decades' worth of studies point to the importance of parental involvement in K-12 schooling. Yet when it comes to policies related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students, families are often deliberately left out of the conversation, according to several leading experts in LGBT youth development. Even in schools where…
Full Text Available Prolonged and excessive glucocorticoids (GC exposure resulted from Cushing's syndrome or GC therapy develops central obesity. Moreover, mitochondria are crucial in adipose energy homeostasis. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to chronic GC exposure-induced epididymal adiposity in the present study. A total of thirty-six 5-week-old male C57BL/6J mice (∼20 g were administrated with 100 µg/ml corticosterone (CORT or vehicle through drinking water for 4 weeks. Chronic CORT exposure mildly decreased body weight without altering food and water intake in mice. The epididymal fat accumulation was increased, but adipocyte size was decreased by CORT. CORT also increased plasma CORT, insulin, leptin, and fibroblast growth factor 21 concentrations as measured by RIA or ELISA. Interestingly, CORT increased plasma levels of triacylglycerols and nonesterified fatty acids, and up-regulated the expression of both lipolytic and lipogenic genes as determined by real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, CORT impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative function in epididymal WAT. The reactive oxygen species production was increased and the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes were reduced by CORT treatment as well. Taken together, these findings reveal that chronic CORT administration-induced epididymal adiposity is, at least in part, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse epididymal white adipose tissue.
Barry, Adam E; Jackson, Zachary; Watkins, Daphne C; Goodwill, Janelle R; Hunte, Haslyn E R
While there is a sizeable body of research examining the association between alcohol use and mental health conditions among college students, there are sparse investigations specifically focusing on these associations among Black college students. This is concerning given Black college students face different stressors compared with their non-Black peers. Black males appear especially at risk, exhibiting increased susceptibility to mental health issues and drinking in greater quantities and more frequently than Black females. This investigation examined the association between alcohol consumption and mental health conditions among Black men attending institutions of higher education in the United States and sought to determine differences between Black men attending predominantly White institutions (PWIs) compared with those attending postsecondary minority institutions. Final sample included 416 Black men, 323 of which attended a PWI. Data were from the National College Health Assessment. Black men attending a PWI reported significantly greater levels of alcohol consumption and significantly more mental health conditions. Attendance at a minority-serving institution was associated with fewer mental health conditions among Black men. Future studies should seek to replicate these findings and conduct culturally sensitive and gender-specific research examining why Black men at PWIs report greater alcohol consumption and more mental health conditions than their peers attending postsecondary minority institutions.
This essay chooses as its texts three films representing contemporary gay male subjects from each of the "three" China's: HK, Taiwan, and the Mainland. Relocating the homoerotic image of the "sad young man," a trope popular from Hollywood rebellion films of the 1950s and 1960s, to contemporary China, I discuss how this masculine icon has been transformed from one of heroic rebellion to one of existential isolation. Indeed, as the politics of both the outmoded Confucian family and fractured Chinese nationhood intersect, what the sad young (gay) man rebels against is a political fluctuation which is no longer fixed; as the young man's opposition is no longer fixed, so too does he become alienated even from his own rebellious cause.
Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Vissman, Aaron T; Stowers, Jason; Davis, A Bernard; Hannah, Anthony; Alonzo, Jorge; Marsiglia, Flavio F
Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. This study was designed to explore sexual risk among MSM using community-based participatory research (CBPR). An academic-community partnership conducted nine focus groups with 88 MSM. Participants self-identified as African American/Black (n=28), Hispanic/Latino (n=33), White (n=21), and biracial/ethnic (n=6). The mean age was 27 years (range=18-60 years). Grounded theory was used. Twelve themes related to HIV risk emerged, including low knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases, particularly among Latino MSM and MSM who use the Internet for sexual networking; stereotyping of African American MSM as sexually "dominant" and Latino MSM as less likely to be HIV infected; and the eroticization of "barebacking." Twelve intervention approaches also were identified, including developing culturally congruent programming using community-identified assets, harnessing social media used by informal networks of MSM, and promoting protection within the context of intimate relationships. A community forum was held to develop recommendations and move these themes to action. © The Author(s) 2011
Putri Aprilina, Noni; Naryoso, Agus
Gay people in Indonesia are still a minority. The low population of gays causes jealousy and possessiveness to be the gay nature feeling of gay with each other. They will be very angry if their partner see theyre dating someone else (Aditya, 2009). Based on the above phenomenon can be concluded that gays also experience conflict in the relationship they live. Conflict experienced by gay is different from one another. Some show conflict-related issues of jealousy, usually higher sexual jealous...
Iyer, Ganesh R; Cason, Marita M; Womble, Scott W; Li, Guangming; Chastain, James E
The primary objective of this study was to compare uptake and distribution of the commercially available formulation of 0.2% olopatadine and the newly developed 0.77% olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution formulation with improved solubility following a single (30 μL), bilateral topical ocular dose in male New Zealand white rabbits. Each animal received a single 30-μL topical ocular dose (0.2% olopatadine or 0.77% olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution) to the right (OD) eye followed by the left (OS) eye for a total dose of 60 μL. Olopatadine concentrations were measured in ocular tissues (cornea, bulbar, conjunctiva, choroid, iris-ciliary body, whole lens, retina), aqueous humor, and plasma at prespecified time points over 24 h using a qualified liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method. Olopatadine was absorbed into the eye and reached maximal levels (Cmax) within 30 min (0.5 h) to 2 h (Tmax) in ocular tissues and plasma for both treatment groups, except for the lens in which the Tmax was 4 h in the 0.2% olopatadine group and 8 h in the 0.77% olopatadine hydrochloride group, respectively. Tissues associated with the site of dosing, that is, the conjunctiva and cornea, had the highest concentrations of olopatadine in both the 0.2% olopatadine (609 and 720 ng/g) and 0.77% olopatadine hydrochloride (3,000 and 2,230 ng/g) dose groups. The greatest differences between 0.2% olopatadine and 0.77% olopatadine hydrochloride were associated with the overall duration and level of ocular exposures. The newly developed 0.77% olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution formulation resulted in a higher and more prolonged olopatadine concentration in the target tissue, that is, conjunctiva compared to the commercial formulation of 0.2% olopatadine ophthalmic solution.
Bela Risqiyani Fajrilah
Full Text Available Malondialdehyde (MDA is the end product of lipid peroxidation and a marker of free radicals. Honey is a safe sweetener proven to lower blood glucose level and contains flavonoids, vitamin A, C, E as a source of antioxidant that can capture free radicals. This study aims to determine the effect of honey on plasma MDA level ionalloxan-induced hyperglycemicrats. This was an experimental study with post-test only control group design conducted for 25 days using 18 white male Wistar rats divided into 3 groups randomly. A negative control group, group B were given honey orally at the dose of 0.54 ml/mice/day, and group C were given honey orally at the of dose 0.9 ml/head/day. Each group consisted of 6 rats. Blood plasma MDA was evaluated by Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substance (TBARS test assay. One way ANOVA analysis test followed post hoc were applied for data analysis. The results showed that mean levels of MDA in group A, B, and C were 6.02 mmol/l Â± 0.36, 4.37 mmol/Â± 0.30, and 1.12 mmol/l Â± 0.11 respectively. Bivariate analysis One way ANOVA test showed a significant difference (p<0,05. Post hoc tests showed a significant differences between the study groups (p<0,05. It can be concluded that honey had an effect on the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA in the blood plasma of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats.
Krause, Jesse S; Pérez, Jonathan H; Meddle, Simone L; Wingfield, John C
For wild free-living animals the availability of food resources can be greatly affected by environmental perturbations such as weather events. In response to environmental perturbations, animals activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to adjust physiology and behavior. The literature asserts that during weather events food intake declines leading to changes in HPA axis activity, as measured by both baseline and stress-induced glucocorticoid concentrations. Here we investigated how body condition, locomotor activity, and stress physiology were affected by varying lengths of a fast (1, 2, 6, and 24h; similar to that experienced by free-living birds) compared to when food was provided ad libitum in captive wintering male white-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii, exposed to a short day photoperiod. Baseline corticosterone concentrations were increased for all fasting durations but were highest in 6 and 24h fasted birds. Stress-induced corticosterone was elevated in 1h fasted birds with a trend for the 2h of fast; no other differences were found. Baseline corticosterone concentrations were negatively related to both total fat scores and body mass. All birds lost body mass regardless of fast length but birds fasted for 24h lost the most. Fat scores declined in the 6 and 24h groups, and no measureable changes were detected in pectoralis muscle profile. Locomotor activity was increased over the entire period in which food was removed regardless of fasting duration. Together this suggests that reduced food availability is responsible, at least in part, for the rapid elevation both baseline corticosterone under any duration of fast and stress-induced concentrations during short-term fasts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Padilla, Mark B
This article draws on ethnographic research among two categories of male sex workers in the Dominican Republic in order to describe the relationships between gay male tourists and the Dominican men they hire on their trips to the Caribbean. Drawing on both qualitative interview data and quantitative surveys, the discussion examines the usefulness of theories of 'authenticity,' as they have been applied in the analysis of tourist practices more generally, in accounting for the behaviors and practices of male sex workers and their foreign gay clients. While the flow of international remittances from 'Western Union daddies' to their Dominican 'boys' creates a continuous reminder of the utilitarian nature of the exchange, both sex workers and clients are motivated to camouflage this instrumentality in their construction of a more 'authentic,' fulfilling relationship. The article examines the consequences of this ambivalent negotiation for the emotional and economic organization of gay male sex tourism in the Caribbean.
Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.
The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)
Sánchez, Francisco J; Vilain, Eric
Some gay men are preoccupied with traditional notions of masculinity and express negative feelings towards effeminate behavior in gay men. Various scholars have speculated that such attitudes by gay men reflect internalized negative feelings about being gay. Thus, we sought to assess the importance of masculinity among gay men, to compare their ideal versus perceived masculinity-femininity, to ask how gay men assess masculinity, and to test whether masculine consciousness and anti-effeminacy could predict negative feelings about being gay. Results from an online survey of 751 gay men in the United States (MAge=32.64 years, SD=11.94) showed that the majority rated masculinity for themselves and in a same-sex partner as important, and they ideally wished that their behavior was more masculine (Cohen's d=.42) and less feminine (d=.42) than they perceived it to be. Furthermore, one's behavior was more important than how one looks when assessing masculinity. A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree to which they were preoccupied with masculinity and expressed anti-effeminacy accounted for 30% of the variance in negative feelings about being gay. These finding further support the idea that masculinity is an important construct for gay men and that masculine consciousness and anti-effeminacy are related to negative feelings about being gay.
Suen, Yiu Tung
Previous research saw older gay men as subject to structural marginalization of ageism but yet possessing agency to interpret aging in diverse ways. I move beyond this duality, drawing on the theory of defensive othering to understand how older gay men live with the aging discourse in the gay community. Informed by grounded theory, I analyzed interviews with 25 self-identified single gay men aged 50 or above in England inductively. It emerged that many older gay men found it difficult to escape the discourse that marginalizes the aging body. Even when they argued they were the exception and "looked good," they were discursively producing a two-tier system: they themselves as the "good older gay men," as opposed to the other "bad older gay men," who "had given up." Such a defensive othering tactic seemingly allowed them to resist age norms from applying to them personally, but unintentionally reinforced an ageist discourse.
Cullinan, Robert G.
Subjects were ten male volunteers from Wayne State University's Gay Liberation Front who were interviewed and given the Tennessee Self Concept Scale. The results reinforce the view that the homosexual's self concept in general falls within expectations according to national norms. These ten men, at least, tended to view their homosexuality as a…
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental…
Satterfield, Jason M.; Crabb, Rebecca
Although strong evidence supports cognitive-behavioral therapy for late-life depression and depression in racial and ethnic minorities, there are no empirical studies on the treatment of depression in older sexual minorities. Three distinct literatures were tapped to create a depression treatment protocol for an older gay male. Interventions were…
Wright, Sara L.; Canetto, Silvia Sara
This study examined stereotypes of older lesbians and gay men. Key findings are that older lesbians and gay men were perceived as similar to older heterosexual women and men with regard to aging stereotypes, such as being judicious. At the same time, sexual minorities were targets of unique stereotypes. Consistent with the implicit inversion…
Full Text Available Background Sexuality is a part of one’s identity and personality that is shaped under the influence of biological and environmental factors and interactions with society. The results of research conducted so far and concerning the personality traits of gay men and women are not consistent, and only a small number of them concern the Polish population. Hence the objective of the present research was to provide personality profiles of men and women with different sexual orientations. Participants and procedure The participants (N = 346 included 84 gay women, 82 gay men, 95 heterosexual women and 85 heterosexual men. The following measures were used: a survey developed by the author, the Kinsey Scale, the EPQ-R (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised adapted by Brzozowski and Drwal (1995, and the Sixteen-factor Personality Questionnaire of Cattell adapted by Nowakowska (1970. Results The results support the hypothesis that gay women and heterosexual men share similar personality traits, while gay men have more diverse traits, similar to the traits typical for heterosexual women and men. In particular, personalities of gay men are described by such traits as progressive attitude, independence, or willingness to take risks, which means traits linked to factor Q1. The highest values of that factor are observable in the case of gay men, as compared to gay women, and also in comparison with heterosexual men and women. Conclusions Sexual orientation is responsible for differences in personality traits of the studied group to a greater extent than their biological sex.
Full Text Available The article deals with the development of the gay and lesbian scene in ACC Metelkova, while specifying the preliminary aspects of establishing and building gay and lesbian activism associated with spatial issues. The struggle for space or occupying public space is vital for the gay and lesbian scene, as it provides not only the necessary socializing opportunities for gays and lesbians, but also does away with the historical hiding of homosexuality in the closet, in seclusion and silence. Because of their autonomy and long-term, continuous existence, homo-clubs at Metelkova contributed to the consolidation of the gay and lesbian scene in Slovenia and significantly improved the opportunities for cultural, social and political expression of gays and lesbians. Such a synthesis of the cultural, social and political, further intensified in Metelkova, and characterizes the gay and lesbian community in Slovenia from the very outset of gay and lesbian activism in 1984. It is this long-term synthesis that keeps this community in Slovenia so vital and politically resilient.
The current study examined whether there are differences between gay father families (n = 36) and heterosexual families (n = 36) on father-child relationship, fathers' experiences of parental stress and children's wellbeing. The gay fathers in this study all became parents while in same-sex
American Library Association Social Responsibilities Round Table.
This selective nonfiction bibliography features materials that present or support positive views of the gay experience, that help in understanding a gay-related issue, or that have special historical value. Listed are 200 nonfiction items: books, pamphlets, articles, periodicals, audiovisuals, directories,and other bibliographies. Complete…
Annicchiarico Iseda, Ivan Darío; Universidad Nacional de Colombia
In this paper, empirical and theoretical reports which question the causes of male homosexuality are examined. According to these reports, male homosexuality differs from female homosexuality in some respects. Additionally, evidence favouring the consideration of male homosexuality as a biological condition is shown: there are brain differences between gay men and heterosexual men, there are genetic and perinatal factors associated to male homosexuality, there are cognitive and behavioral dif...
Purcell, D W; Blanchard, R; Zucker, K J
The birth order of a contemporary North American sample of 97 gay men was quantified using Slater's Index. For the 84 probands with at least one sibling, the results showed a late mean birth order compared with the expected value of .50. Additional birth order indices derived from Slater's Index suggested that the mean later birth order was accounted for more strongly by the proband's number of older brothers than by his number of older sisters. The present findings constitute a replication of a series of recent studies and add to the growing body of evidence that birth order is a reliable correlate of sexual orientation in males.
A history of literature and views existing within the COC (Cultural and Recreational Center), the major Dutch organization of homosexual men and women, regarding pedophilia and its relationship to homosexuality are discussed, beginning with definite separation between the pedophile and homosexual identities and ending with an abolishment of oppression towards pedophilia, for which the COC is in part responsible. The article argues that the homosexual identify is by no means a "constant" but a fluid identity, based on societal views and conditions. By accepting pedophilia, the COC hopefully will broaden the idea of the gay identity.
This paper is a strategic intervention in the debate over the value of globalised gay identity for emerging sexual minority communities in the South. Focusing on self-identifying gay men in Botswana using semi-structured interviews, it explores their views of what characterises 'modern gay culture' and relates these to international media clichés of a glamorous, stylish, hedonistic gayness. I argue that identifying with what is so visibly a Western image of gayness exposes sexual minority communities to the most dangerous of the justifications for homophobia in Africa, the argument that sexual dissidence is a neo-colonial conspiracy to subvert 'African values'. The 'unAfrican' argument has to be taken very seriously, not only because it taps into the intense, conflicted emotions at the heart of the post-colonial condition, but also because it contains an undeniable germ of truth. This poses a dilemma, since global gay discourses, including the media clichés, are an important source of inspiration for African sexual minorities. A communication activism strategy is proposed to undermine the unAfrican argument by cultivating and asserting the 'tswanarisation' of gay culture in Botswana that is already taking place. A similar strategy may also be effective in other African societies.
Warriner, Katrina; Nagoshi, Craig T; Nagoshi, Julie L
This research assessed the correlates of homophobia and transphobia in heterosexual and homosexual individuals, based on a theory of different sources of perceived symbolic threat to social status. Compared to 310 heterosexual college students, a sample of 30 gay male and 30 lesbian college students scored lower on homophobia, transphobia, and religious fundamentalism. Mean gender differences were smaller for gay men and lesbians for homophobia, aggressiveness, benevolent sexism, masculinity, and femininity. Fundamentalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and hostile and benevolent sexism were correlated only with homophobia in lesbians, whereas fundamentalism and authoritarianism were correlated only with transphobia in gay men. Correlates of internalized homophobia were different than those found for homophobia and transphobia, which was discussed in terms of gender differences in threats to status based on sexual orientation versus gender identity.
Yu, Yong; Xiao, Shuiyuan
To understand Chinese gay men's health and life satisfaction in Guanzhou, and to analyze the main factors for life satisfaction. Methods: Male gay participants were recruited through respondent-driven sampling and face-to-face investigations with self-administered questionnaires, including a general demographic questionnaire, a suicide questionnaire, the Depression-Anxiety Stress Scale, the Self-Stigma Scale, the Perceived Social Support Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Results: Surveys were successfully conducted for 420 gay men. High levels of depression, anxiety, and stress were observed among the respondents. A total of 29.3% had suicidal tendency in the past year, 36.5% experienced dating violence, 39.2% had homosexual sex without protection in the past 6 months, and 14.0% were infected with at least one type of infection of sexually transmitted diseases. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that gay men who felt highly satisfied with life exhibited low levels of self-stigma, high self-esteem, and low levels of depression. Moreover, they did not suffer dating violence and playing passive sex roles. Conclusion: The survey confirmed that gay men in Guangzhou, China, have poor health and lower life satisfaction levels. Self-stigma, self-esteem, sex roles, depression, and dating violence are the main factors that influence the life satisfaction of them.
Norton, Wendy; Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine
Assisted reproduction technologies have developed at an extraordinary rate in recent years. This, combined with the changing landscape of legal, technical and social possibilities, enables gay men to consider their options for fatherhood as new opportunities emerge for them to create families. Media coverage of gay celebrities embracing surrogacy as a way of having a family and high-profile legal cases have raised awareness of surrogacy across the world. However, gay fatherhood achieved through assisted reproduction is a highly under-researched area, both in the UK and internationally. The research that currently exists on gay fatherhood is largely related to gay men who become parents through processes such as adoption and fostering and children conceived through previous heterosexual relationships. Much of this evidence has centred on parenting experiences, the outcomes for children or the legal perspectives. This paper outlines the different types of surrogacy and the legal issues facing gay men who choose this route to parenthood, summarizes the limited research on gay men and surrogacy and discusses gaps in the current knowledge base. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
One of the hottest growing segments of the romance genre is male-on-male (M/M) romance--gay romantic fiction mostly written and read by straight women. Featuring traditional romance conventions, including mistaken identities, star-crossed lovers, and happy endings, these stories show both physical and emotional intimacy between men. M/M builds on…
Graziano, Kevin J
Guided by photovoice, a form of participatory action research that uses documentary photography and storytelling, this study examines how Black gay men and lesbians view themselves in relation to White gay men and lesbians in South Africa. Participants were from 4 South African townships and included 4 women, and 3 men. Participants discussed interracial dating, a lack of education, and information regarding differing sexualities and health care. They reported being sexually and physically assaulted for challenging the heterosexual status quo. Other themes that emerged from this study were classism, cultural traditions of visiting African healers, and segregated social spaces. Amidst oppression and despair, participants showed signs of strength, hope, and optimism.
Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina; Maria, Estephanie Sta; Lohan, Maria; Howard, Terry; Stewart, Donna E; MacMillan, Harriet
Though intimate partner violence (IPV) is predominately understood as a women's health issue most often emerging within heterosexual relationships, there is increasing recognition of the existence of male victims of IPV. In this qualitative study we explored connections between masculinities and IPV among gay men. The findings show how recognising IPV was based on an array of participant experiences, including the emotional, physical and sexual abuse inflicted by their partner, which in turn led to three processes. Normalising and concealing violence referred to the participants' complicity in accepting violence as part of their relationship and their reluctance to disclose that they were victims of IPV. Realising a way out included the participants' understandings that the triggers for, and patterns of, IPV would best be quelled by leaving the relationship. Nurturing recovery detailed the strategies employed by participants to mend and sustain their wellbeing in the aftermath of leaving an abusive relationship. In terms of masculinities and men's health research, the findings reveal the limits of idealising hegemonic masculinities and gender relations as heterosexual, while highlighting a plurality of gay masculinities and the need for IPV support services that bridge the divide between male and female as well as between homosexual and heterosexual. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Drawing on the work of Didier Eribon and his theorization of the construction of gay male subjectivity, this article examines different "texts," broadly defined, that grapple specifically with straight men attempting to represent male homosexuality: Norman Mailer's essay, "The Homosexual Villain"; the Bravo reality television series Boy Meets Boy, and Michael Griffith's short story, "Hooper Gets a Perm." These texts represent attempts by straight authors to grapple with queer experience in ways that move the imagination of queers beyond simple stereotypes or uncritical explorations of the sexual "other." In the process of examining these texts, the following questions are addressed: What happens when a straight man attempts to represent a gay man? Does he "get it right," and is such a question even useful? More specifically, what is the value in having straights imagine queerness? Is such an imagining possible? Is such desirable? And, if so, what are the contours of such an imagining-as well as its possibilities and limitations, pedagogically, personally, and politically? Ultimately, I contend that the straight imagining of queerness offers rich potential for mutual understanding; furthermore, attempting to understand what goes into the making of those representations tells us much about how queerness circulates in our culture as a subject, a figure of discussion, contention, and representation.
Aline Ferraz da Silva
unfixing potencial of those individuals, intending to think the unthinkable about the school curriculum. This work starts on the visibility of a sexual identity that runs away from the heterossexual rule and challenges the education tendency to normality. The way this gay group stands and constructs their bodies allow them to cross the borders of male/female, pointing out thenon-natural caracter of sexual and gender identities based on biology, presenting themselves as diference that scapes from binary classifications. One of the references of this research is the thinking of Michel Foucault, specially when talking about thehistorical and discursive construction of concepts such as sexuality, identity, diference and normality that have been used to create and maintain patterns of conduct. When driving these problematization to the school context, I consider the queer theorization useful to think the possibility of a non heteronormative education, that would be able to produce diferences and desconstruct identities instead of cristalize them.
Morrison, Todd G; Bearden, Anomi G
Social scientists appear to focus on negative beliefs about, and attitudes toward, gay men and lesbian women. This emphasis, though understandable in view of the widespread oppression of gay and lesbian individuals, is somewhat myopic because it ignores what might be referred to as the positive dimension of stereotypes. Although such a concept may appear oxymoronic, it is widely recognized that individuals may endorse a mixture of positive and negative stereotypes toward stigmatized groups such as African Americans and women. The purpose of the current series of studies (Study 1, N = 212; Study 2, N = 105) was to devise an instrument measuring endorsement of positive stereotypes about gay men (Homopositivity Scale; HPS). Two versions of the HPS (of varying length) were evaluated, with scale scores on both appearing to be internally consistent and factorially distinct from scales measuring negative stereotypes and prejudices about gay men. These studies also suggest that females are more likely than males to endorse positive stereotypes about gay men, and that such endorsement is negatively associated with need for uniqueness and need for cognition, and positively associated with media contact and benevolent sexism. The limitations of the two studies are outlined and the importance of assessing positive stereotypes about gay men in conjunction with oft-examined homonegativity is discussed.
Full Text Available Introduction: Despite a recent focus on intimate partner violence (IPV among men who have sex with men (MSM, the male-male couple is largely absent from the IPV literature. Specifically, research on dyadic factors shaping IPV in male-male couples is lacking.Methods: We took a subsample of 403 gay/bisexual men with main partners from a 2011 survey of approximately 1,000 gay and bisexual men from Atlanta. Logistic regression models of recent (,12 month experience and perpetration of physical and sexual IPV examined dyadic factors, including racial differences, age differences, and social network characteristics of couples as key covariates shaping the reporting of IPV.Results: Findings indicate that men were more likely to report perpetration of physical violence if they were a different race to their main partner, whereas main partner age was associated with decreased reporting of physical violence. Having social networks that contained more gay friends was associated with significant reductions in the reporting of IPV, whereas having social networks comprised of sex partners or closeted gay friends was associated with increased reporting of IPV victimization and perpetration.Conclusion: The results point to several unique factors shaping the reporting of IPV within male-male couples and highlight the need for intervention efforts and prevention programs that focus on male couples, a group largely absent from both research and prevention efforts. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:316–323.
Caswell, T Andrew; Sackett-Fox, Kyrsten
Research consistently finds that homosexuality elicits strong feelings of disgust, but the reasons remain unclear. In the current research, we investigate responses to gay men who violate social norms governing the expression of gender and sexuality. Two hundred forty-three college undergraduates read a vignette about a gay male college student whose personality traits (masculine, feminine, or neutral) and sexual behavior (active vs. passive) varied and reported their affective responses to and cognitive appraisals of the target. The gay target who displayed a feminine personality elicited more disgust and was perceived as lower in gender role conformity than a gay man who displayed a masculine personality. Similarly, the gay target who assumed a passive sex role elicited more disgust and was perceived as lower in gender role conformity than a gay man who assumed an active sex role. The sexual behavior/disgust relationship was mediated by perceived gender role conformity.
Stachowski, Courtney; Stephenson, Rob
Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the US and estimates suggest that one to two-thirds of new infections occur among main partners. Previous research has focused on individual MSM and their risk for HIV, yet couples' ability to manage risk has been largely understudied. In particular, the role that homophobia plays in shaping the ability of gay male couples to cope with HIV risk is currently understudied. A sample of 447 gay/bisexual men with main partners was taken from a 2011 survey of gay and bisexual men in Atlanta. Linear regression models were fitted for three couples' coping outcome scales (outcome efficacy, couple efficacy, communal coping) and included indicators of homophobia (internalized homophobia and homophobic discrimination). Findings indicate that reporting of increased levels of internalized homophobia were consistently associated with decreased outcome measures of couples' coping ability regarding risk management. The results highlight the role that homophobia plays in gay male couples' relationships and HIV risk, extending the existing literature in the field of same-sex relationships as influenced by homophobia.
Rahman, Qazi; Yusuf, Sifat
This study tested whether male sexual orientation and gender nonconformity influenced functional cerebral lateralization for the processing of facial emotions. We also tested for the effects of sex of poser and emotion displayed on putative differences. Thirty heterosexual men, 30 heterosexual women, and 40 gay men completed measures of demographic variables, recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), IQ, and the Chimeric Faces Test (CFT). The CFT depicts vertically split chimeric faces, formed with one half showing a neutral expression and the other half showing an emotional expression and performance is measured using a "laterality quotient" (LQ) score. We found that heterosexual men were significantly more right-lateralized when viewing female faces compared to heterosexual women and gay men, who did not differ significantly from each other. Heterosexual women and gay men were more left-lateralized for processing female faces. There were no significant group differences in lateralization for male faces. These results remained when controlling for age and IQ scores. There was no significant effect of CGN on LQ scores. These data suggest that gay men are feminized in some aspects of functional cerebral lateralization for facial emotion. The results were discussed in relation to the selectivity of functional lateralization and putative brain mechanisms underlying sexual attraction towards opposite-sex and same-sex targets.
Full Text Available Neste estudo, procuro explorar determinada perspectiva crítica relacionada à articulação entre raça, sexualidade e gênero, entendendo que a pornografia gay se prestaria exemplarmente a flagrar a produção de um sistema ordenado de classificações e categorias, estereótipos e representações, instituídos como um discurso capaz de ser lido como o inventário da fetichização socialmente produzida para o desejo sexual racializado. Para desenvolver essa perspectiva apresento uma breve discussão teórica sobre a pornografia, interrogada pela articulação prazer/poder e a leitura de três conjuntos êmicos de representação racial associados ao desejo homossexual: a negritude, a branquidade e a brasilidade.In this study the author seeks to explore a specific critical perspective related to the race, sexuality and gender articulation, understanding that gay pornography will be exemplary to show the production of a coordinated system of classifications and categories, stereotypes and representations built as a discourse that may be read as a socially produced inventory of fetichization for racialized sexual desire. In order to develop this view the author presents a short theoretical discussion on pornography, interrogated by the power/pleasure articulation and the reading of three hemic corpora of racial representation related to homosexual desire: blackness, whiteness and brazilianness.
Brewer, Paul R; Wilson, David C; Habegger, Michael
This study uses an experiment embedded in a large, nationally representative survey to test whether exposure to imagery of a gay or lesbian couple's wedding influences support for gay marriage. It also tests whether any such effects depend on the nature of the image (gay or lesbian couple, kissing or not) and viewer characteristics (sex, age, race, education, religion, and ideology). Results show that exposure to imagery of a gay couple kissing reduced support for gay marriage relative to the baseline. Other image treatments (gay couple not kissing, lesbian couple kissing, lesbian couple not kissing) did not significantly influence opinion.
Grov, Christian; Cain, Demetria; Rendina, H Jonathan; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Gay and bisexual men are at elevated risk for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis (GC/CT). Rectal GC/CT symptoms may be less obvious than urethral, increasing opportunities for undiagnosed rectal GC/CT. A US national sample of 1071 gay and bisexual men completed urethral and rectal GC/CT testing and an online survey. In total, 6.2% were GC/CT positive (5.3% rectal, 1.7% urethral). We calculated adjusted (for education, race, age, relationship status, having health insurance, and income) odds ratios for factors associated with rectal and urethral GC/CT diagnoses. Age was inversely associated with urethral and rectal GC/CT. Compared with white men, Latinos had significantly greater odds of rectal GC/CT. Among men who reported anal sex, those reporting only insertive sex had lower odds of rectal GC/CT than did men who reported both insertive and receptive. There was a positive association between rectal GC/CT and number of male partners (<12 months), the number of anal receptive acts, receptive condomless anal sex (CAS) acts, and insertive CAS acts. Compared with those who had engaged in both insertive and receptive anal sex, those who engaged in only receptive anal sex had lower odds of urethral GC/CT. The number of male partners (<12 months) was associated with increased odds of urethral GC/CT. Rectal GC/CT was more common than urethral and associated with some demographic and behavioral characteristics. Our finding that insertive CAS acts was associated with rectal GC/CT highlights that providers should screen patients for GC/CT via a full range of transmission routes, lest GC/CT go undiagnosed.
Tan, Tony Xing; Jordan-Arthur, Brittany; Garafano, Jeffrey S; Curran, Laura
We investigated 109 (79.8% female; 76% White, and 83.5% Heterosexual) mental health trainees' explicit and implicit attitudes toward heterosexual, lesbian, and gay White couples adopting and raising Black children. To determine explicit attitudes, we used a vignette depicting a Black child ready for adoption and three types of equally qualified White families who were headed by a heterosexual couple, gay couple, or lesbian couple. The trainees were asked to indicate which type of family they preferred to adopt the child. To determine implicit attitudes, we used the computer programed latency-based multifactor implicit association test (IAT) protocol. The IAT data were collected from each participant individually. Explicit data showed that over 80% of the participants indicated no strong preference in terms of which type of family should adopted the child. However, IAT data showed that the trainees implicitly preferred lesbian couples. Overall, the degree of congruence between explicit and implicit was very low. Implications for training were discussed.
Heck, Nicholas C.; Flentje, Annesa; Cochran, Bryan N.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at risk for engaging in negative health behaviors and for experiencing at-school victimization. Specific benefits of attending a high school with a gay-straight alliance (GSA), including lower levels of suicidality, have been published; however, it is unclear whether GSAs are related to…
In July 1977, the Ontario Humans Rights Commission recommended adding sexual orientation to the Code. This move was generally supported but Toronto newspapers and evangelists sought assurances that school boards could still dismiss homosexual teachers. They demanded children be shielded from gay teachers, who they accused of sexual predation. I historically link this to a reenergized fear of homosexuals which emerged during Toronto sex education debates in the 1970s. Later, influenced by Anita Bryant's Save the Children crusade, Toronto newspapers and evangelists argued gay teachers were the dangerous effect of gay rights. After the 1977 murder of Emanuel Jaques and the publication of Gerald Hannon's "Men Loving Boys, Loving Men" article, anti-gay sentiment in Toronto exploded, temporarily halting the progress of gay rights.
Full Text Available Peer reviewed article. “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder”, which first appeared in the 3rd century BC in Greek, quickly gained proverbial currency in the English language thanks to its wisdom. Admittedly, whenever beauty has been acknowledged, one should take it primarily as a comment on the beholder rather than on the model. In heterosexual relationships, male beauty would thus be informative of the female gaze and conception of aesthetics. But what of homosexual relationships? Logically, male beauty would inform as much on the aesthetics of the beholder as on the canons of male beauty through the representation of the perfect man. Now what if the male model appeals to both male and female beholders? Can gay men and straight women share the same aesthetics of the male body? Do they seek and value the same things in a partner? And then what if the male model switches to female beauty all the while sustaining an unflinching power of seduction? Would that prove that beauty is genderless or would that mean that desirability is unrelated to beauty? On a creative level, when White depicts an ambiguous protean protagonist, beauty essentially relies on his characterization skills. But is male beauty objectively inherent to the model or is it solely to be found in the novelist’s subjective representation of his central character?
Feinstein, Brian A; Thomann, Matthew; Coventry, Ryan; Macapagal, Kathryn; Mustanski, Brian; Newcomb, Michael E
Close parent-adolescent relationships and specific parenting practices (e.g., communication about sex, monitoring) are associated with reduced sexual risk behavior among heterosexual youth. Despite gay/bisexual male youth being at increased risk of HIV, little is known about parental influences on their sexual behavior. As such, the goal of the current study was to examine parent-adolescent relationships and parenting practices related to teen sex and dating from the perspective of gay/bisexual adolescent boys. Online focus groups were conducted with 52 gay/bisexual male youth ages 14-17 years. Most gay/bisexual adolescent boys felt that their sexual orientation had an influence on their relationships with their parents and discussions about sex/dating. Although some felt that their relationships improved after coming out, a larger percentage reported that it put strain on their relationships. Discussions about sex/dating generally decreased after coming out, but some youth described positive conversations with their parents. Many reported that their parents struggled with whether or not to adapt parenting practices (e.g., rules about dating) after they came out. Youth consistently noted that parent-adolescent relationships and parenting practices depended on the adolescent's level of outness. Findings have important implications for refining HIV prevention programs for gay/bisexual adolescent boys, especially interventions that include parents.
Simon Rosser, B R; West, William; Weinmeyer, Richard
This study sought to identify how urban gay communities are undergoing structural change, reasons for that change, and implications for HIV prevention planning. Key informants (N=29) at the AIDS Impact Conference from 17 cities in 14 countries completed surveys and participated in a facilitated structured dialog about if gay communities are changing, and if so, how they are changing. In all cities, the virtual gay community was identified as currently larger than the offline physical community. Most cities identified that while the gay population in their cities appeared stable or growing, the gay community appeared in decline. Measures included greater integration of heterosexuals into historically gay-identified neighborhoods and movement of gay persons into suburbs, decreased number of gay bars/clubs, less attendance at gay events, less volunteerism in gay or HIV/AIDS organizations, and the overall declining visibility of gay communities. Participants attributed structural change to multiple factors including gay neighborhood gentrification, achievement of civil rights, less discrimination, a vibrant virtual community, and changes in drug use. Consistent with social assimilation, gay infrastructure, visibility, and community identification appears to be decreasing across cities. HIV prevention planning, interventions, treatment services, and policies need to be re-conceptualized for MSM in the future. Four recommendations for future HIV prevention and research are detailed.
... Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African American Gay and Bisexual Men Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Black/African American a gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with ...
... Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Persons and Tobacco Use Recommend ... and Influence Resources References People who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) include all races and ...
... their lives. The Effects of Negative Attitudes on Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Some people may have negative attitudes toward gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with ...
Monterrubio, J. Carlos
The present article aims to contribute to the recognition of two relevant aspects in gay travel; identity and sex. The paper explores the existing published work related to the relationships between tourism, gay men and identity. It concludes that the issue of identity commonly plays a crucial role as a travel reason in gay tourism. Also, it analyses the research evidence to suggest that sex is a frequently-present phenomenon in gay travel. By critically analysing the available research, the ...
Goldberg, Abbie E
Little research has examined the school experiences of lesbian/gay (LG) parent families or adoptive parent families. The current exploratory study examined the experiences of 79 lesbian, 75 gay male, and 112 heterosexual adoptive parents of preschool-age children with respect to their (a) level of disclosure regarding their LG parent and adoptive family status at their children's schools; (b) perceived challenges in navigating the preschool environment and advocating on behalf of their children and families; and (c) recommendations to teachers and schools about how to create affirming school environments with respect to family structure, adoption, and race/ethnicity. Findings revealed that the majority of parents were open about their LG and adoptive family status, and had not encountered challenges related to family diversity. Those parents who did experience challenges tended to describe implicit forms of marginalization, such as insensitive language and school assignments. Recommendations for teachers included discussing and reading books about diverse families, tailoring assignments to meet the needs of diverse families, and offering school community-building activities and events to help bridge differences across families.
Cramer, Robert J.; Burks, Alixandra C.; Golom, Frank D.; Stroud, Caroline H.; Graham, James L.
We tested the psychometric properties of the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale. Findings included (1) a three-factor structure (i.e., Negative Identity, Identity Uncertainty, Identity Superiority); (2) less positive identities among HIV-positive persons, African Americans, males, and bisexuals; and (3) convergent patterns with subjective…
Building upon conceptualisations of the sexualisation of space, this paper interrogates the ways in which heterosexual discourses are produced, enforced, legitimised and maintained as dominant within student accommodation. Analysis is derived from interviews with 17 gay male undergraduates attending a UK institution. I detail the micro-level…
Balsam, Kimberly F; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Mickey, Ruth M; Rothblum, Esther D
Self-identified lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) individuals were recruited via convenience sampling, and they in turn recruited their siblings (79% heterosexual, 19% LGB). The resulting sample of 533 heterosexual, 558 lesbian or gay male, and 163 bisexual participants was compared on mental health variables and their use of mental health services. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that sexual orientation predicted suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, self-injurious behavior, use of psychotherapy, and use of psychiatric medications over and above the effects of family adjustment. Sexual orientation was unrelated to current psychological distress, psychiatric hospitalizations, and self-esteem. This is the 1st study to model family effects on the mental health of LGB participants and their siblings. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
Reed, Donald B.
Gay youth enter high school with the knowledge that they are different and with the belief that heterosexuality is normal and that homosexuality is not normal. Also, gay youth enter high school with the belief that honesty and integrity are important personal values. Additionally, the gay youth enter high school without family knowledge of their…
Pope, Mark; Wierzalis, Edward A.; Barret, Bob; Rankins, Michael
The authors focus on the special issues involved in providing counseling to aging gay men regarding sex and intimacy. Although the stresses of aging experienced by gay men are similar to those of heterosexual men, older gay men face issues of a stigmatized sexual orientation, invisibility, negative stereotypes, and discrimination regarding aging.
There has been only cursory research into the sociological and psychological aspects of ethnic/racial discrimination among ethnic minority gay and bisexual men, and none that focuses specifically upon British ethnic minority gay men. This article focuses on perceptions of intergroup relations on the gay scene among young British South Asian gay…
Slaatten, Hilde; Hetland, Jørn; Anderssen, Norman
The aim of this study was to examine whether attitudes about gay-related name-calling, social norms concerning gay-related name-calling among co-students, teacher intervention, and school-related support would predict whether secondary school pupils had called another pupil a gay-related name during the last month. A total of 921 ninth-grade…
Kus, Robert J
.... Addiction and Recovery is a vital resourcefor anyone providing servicesfor gay, lesbian, and bisexualclients. Rik Isensee,LCSW Author, LOVE BEIWEEN MEN, and GROWING UP GAY IN A DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILYMore pre-publication REVIEWS,COMMENTARIES, EVALUATIONS . .. "A ddiction and Recovery in Gay and Lesbian Persons" is an excellentcollection of multifa...
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.
This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental health of lesbians and gay men during the transition to parenthood. In addition, the role of contextual support was examined. Higher perceived workplace support, family support, and relationship quality were related to lower depressive and anxious symptoms at the time of the adoption, and higher perceived friend support was related to lower anxiety symptoms. Lower internalized homophobia and higher perceived neighborhood gay-friendliness were related to lower depressive symptoms. Finally, individuals with high internalized homophobia who lived in states with unfavorable legal climates regarding gay adoption experienced the steepest increases in depressive and anxious symptoms. Findings have important implications for counselors working with sexual minorities, especially those experiencing the transition to parenthood. PMID:21171740
Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z
This is the first study to examine change in depression and anxiety across the first year of adoptive parenthood in same-sex couples (90 couples: 52 lesbian, 38 gay male). Given that sexual minorities uniquely contend with sexual orientation-related stigma, this study examined how both internalized and enacted forms of stigma affect the mental health of lesbians and gay men during the transition to parenthood. In addition, the role of contextual support was examined. Higher perceived workplace support, family support, and relationship quality were related to lower depressive and anxious symptoms at the time of the adoption, and higher perceived friend support was related to lower anxiety symptoms. Lower internalized homophobia and higher perceived neighborhood gay-friendliness were related to lower depressive symptoms. Finally, individuals with high internalized homophobia who lived in states with unfavorable legal climates regarding gay adoption experienced the steepest increases in depressive and anxious symptoms. Findings have important implications for counselors working with sexual minorities, especially those experiencing the transition to parenthood.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Garcia, Randi L.
The current longitudinal study examined patterns and predictors of parent-reported gender-typed play behavior in adopted boys and girls in lesbian, gay, and heterosexual two-parent families, across early childhood (Mage = 2.82 to 6.06 years). Specifically, using a sample of 181 couples (56 lesbian couples, 48 gay male couples, and 77 heterosexual couples), we examined parent reports of children’s gender-typed play behavior on the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI; Golombok & Rust, 1993) at three time points (mean age = 2.82 years at T1, 3.93 years at T2, and 6.06 years at T3). Family structure variables (i.e., parents’ gender and sexual orientation; children’s gender and sibling status) were included as predictors. At T1, according to parent reports, children in lesbian-parent families had less gender-differentiated behavior (boys were less masculine, girls were less feminine) than children in heterosexual- and gay-parent families, whereas the degree of gender differentiation did not differ between heterosexual- versus gay-parent families. Findings from a Common Fate Growth Model (Ledermann & Macho, 2014) revealed that, regardless of family type, the parent-reported gender-typed behavior of boys, but not girls, significantly changed over time (i.e., boys’ behavior became more masculine). Our findings have implications for researchers who study gender development in children and adolescents, particularly those who are being raised by two mothers or two fathers. PMID:27416364
Elmer, Eddy Michael
Young and older gay men from 40 countries rated the importance of 258 body features in judging the physical attractiveness of other men (N = 3,600). Exploratory factor analyses using two separate, independent samples suggested four factors underlying male same-sex physical attractiveness: Facial Attractiveness; Muscularity/Body Shape; Body Fat/Overall Appearance; and Intimate Regions. Twenty items representing the four dimensions were selected. Confirmatory factor analytic models using two ot...
Virginity loss is a vital milestone in the development of one's sexual identity. Unfortunately, there is very little literature available studying virginity loss definitions among the wider straight population, and even less examining virginity loss among LGBTQ+ populations. The present study recruited 251 (45.4%) cisgender straight men and 114 (54.6%) cisgender gay men. An online, anonymous survey was administered to explore whether they considered various male-on-male (M-M) and male-on-female (M-F) sexual behaviors as constitutive of virginity loss. Results indicate that more gay men than straight considered M-M receptive anal intercourse (i.e., bottoming) and M-F penetrative anal intercourse to be constitutive of virginity loss. Results also indicate that both gay and straight men almost unanimously endorsed M-F penovaginal sex to be constitutive of virginity loss. This study is a first-step toward gaining a better understanding of LGBTQ+ virginity loss conceptualizations. Future research is strongly encouraged.
Aoki, H.; Yuzawa, H. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)
White Ring is a citizen`s gymnasium used for figure skating and short track speed skating games of 18th Winter Olympic Games in 1998. White Ring is composed of a main-arena and a sub-arena. For the main-arena with an area 41mtimes66m, an ice link can be made by disengaging the potable floor and by flowing brine in the bridged polystyrene pipes embedded in the concrete floor. Due to the fortunate groundwater in this site, well water is used for the outside air treatment energy in 63% during heating and in 35% during cooling. Ammonia is used as a cooling medium for refrigerating facility. For the heating of audience area in the large space, heat load from the outside is reduced by enhancing the heat insulation performance of the roof of arena. The audience seats are locally heated using heaters. For the White Ring, high quality environment is realized for games through various functions of the large-scale roof of the large space. Success of the big event was expected. 15 figs., 4 tabs.
Szymanski, Dawn M.; Gupta, Arpana
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) persons come from diverse cultural groups with diverse racial and ethnic identities. However, most research on LGBQ persons has used primarily White samples, and most research on African Americans has used largely heterosexual samples. Thus, research has largely failed to attend to and investigate the…
Körner, Henrike; Newman, Christy; Mao, Limin; Kippax, Susan; Kidd, Michael R; Saltman, Deborah
This paper reports on in-depth interviews with general practitioners (GPs) about their views and experiences of diagnosing depression in gay men - some of whom are living with HIV - and the broader social contexts in which such a diagnosis is located. This analysis is a key outcome of a collaboration between social researchers, primary healthcare researchers, GPs and community partners, to investigate the management of depression in gay men in primary care settings. As the qualitative component of this project, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 16 GPs with high caseloads of gay men, in three geographical settings in Australia: Sydney, Adelaide and a rural-coastal town. GPs considered the diagnosis and management of depression to be an integral part of primary care, especially in gay male patients. They had a heightened sense of awareness that depression was common in the group of patients they were seeing. Central to diagnosing depression was the ongoing, long-term relationship GPs had with their gay male patients. GPs were vigilant and proactively inquired about depression, taking into account somatic, social and psychological indicators. In their approach to diagnosing depression, GPs considered not only the life circumstances of individual patients but also the broader social context of stigma related to homosexuality, and the effects that the HIV epidemic has had on individuals, especially on gay men who have been living with HIV for a long time.
Fussner, Lauren M; Smith, April R
This study explored perceptions of partner body image preferences and symptoms of disordered eating in gay and heterosexual men. Participants were male college students (n = 201; M age = 20.46), and over one third identified as gay. We compared discrepancies between participants' current and ideal body type and participants' current body type and the body type they believed they should have to attract a dating partner. For gay men, the discrepancy between their current body and the body they believed they should have to attract a dating partner was significantly greater than the discrepancy between their current and ideal body types. In gay and heterosexual men, the discrepancy between current body and the body they believed they should have to attract a dating partner predicted eating, shape, and weight concern. Results suggest that perceptions of partner body image preferences may contribute to eating disorder pathology in men.
Anjar Mahardian Kusuma
Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a disease associated with high levels of cholesterol and LDL levels in the blood. Utilization of the commercial drugs can be given; however apart from the expensive price, adverse side effects might occur. It makes people choose alternative medication with herbal medicine through the use of natural materials. This study aimed to determine the effect of the combination of mangosteen peel extract-extract of roselle calyx and mangosteen peel extract-extract the ant nest plant as lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels in male rats. The method used in this study was a laboratory experimental method using device posttest only control group design (simple experimental design. This study used 25 male rats of Wistar strain, divided into 5 groups; Group I: group without treatment, group II: control group solvent (NaCMC 1%, group III: positive control group (Simvastatin, Group IV: combination group mangosteen peel extract (200 mg / kg - extract of roselle calyx (250 mg / kg, group V: group combination of mangosteen peel extract 200 mg / kg - extract anthill (270 mg / kg. Induction of cholesterol in rats using quail egg yolk (10 ml / kg. The results showed that there was no significant difference in cholesterol and triglycerides between the combination of both extracts of mangosteen peel with a positive control (p<0,05.
Wiggs, L.D.; Johnson, E.R.; Cox-DeVore, C.A.; Voelz, G.L.
A cohort mortality study was conducted of 15,727 white men employed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a nuclear research and development facility. Some of the workers at this facility have been exposed to various forms of ionizing radiation and other potentially hazardous materials. These analyses focused on whole-body ionizing radiation exposures and internal depositions of plutonium. The results indicated that overall mortality among this cohort is quite low, even after nearly 30 y of follow-up. No cause of death was significantly elevated among plutonium-exposed workers when compared with their unexposed coworkers; however, a rate ratio for lung cancer of 1.78 (95% CI = 0.79-3.99) was observed. A case of osteogenic sarcoma, a type of cancer related to plutonium exposure in animal studies, was also observed. Dose-response relationships for whole-body dose from external ionizing radiation and tritium were observed for cancers of the brain/central nervous system, the esophagus, and Hodgkin's disease. 34 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs
Notes that adoption agencies have developed few specific policies on the issue of lesbian and gay adoption. Provides an overview of key considerations about homosexual adopters, including beliefs and values of agency professionals, the legal and social ramifications of adoption into a relationship not based on marriage, and possible consequences…
LaSala, Michael C.
To begin to understand the role that family relationships and interactions play in young gay men's decisions to avoid unsafe sexual practices, parents and sons (ages 16 to 25) in 30 families were qualitatively interviewed about issues and concerns related to HIV risk. Most of the youths reported feeling obliged to their parents to stay healthy,…
Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy
A bill that has been sent to the floor of the California Senate would require textbooks used in public schools to include information on the roles and contributions of gay people throughout history, a move that could affect the content of instructional materials throughout much of the country. The measure would help build tolerance of diverse…
Cramer, Elizabeth P.; Ford, Charles H.
The environment for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students, staff, and faculty on college campuses has certainly improved over the last generation, but recent dramatic episodes confirm the continuing need for vigilance and reform. Students remain the constituency most vulnerable to the effects of entrenched bigotry: the harassment…
Meyer, Ilan H.; Wilson, Patrick A.
Sampling has been the single most influential component of conducting research with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. Poor sampling designs can result in biased results that will mislead other researchers, policymakers, and practitioners. Investigators wishing to study LGB populations must therefore devote significant energy and…
Chonody, Jill M.; Siebert, Darcy Clay; Rutledge, Scott Edward
A variety of pedagogical techniques have shown promising results in promoting acceptance and affirmation of gays and lesbians among students in social work, allied health, and education professions. In this article we examine whether 211 students enrolled in a human sexuality course in a southeastern university changed their attitudes toward gays…
Saxton, Peter J; Dickson, Nigel P; Hughes, Anthony J; Ludlam, Adrian H
To identify predictors of non-condom use among gay and bisexual men (GBM) in New Zealand with casual male partners. We analysed anonymous self-completed data from GBM who participated in the communitybased Gay Auckland Periodic Sex Survey (GAPSS) and Internet-based Gay Online Sex Survey (GOSS), undertaken in 2014. Infrequent condom use was defined as not using condoms "always" or "almost always" during anal intercourse in the prior six months. Of the 1,912 GBM reporting anal intercourse with a casual partner, 27.2% reported infrequent condom use. Being recruited from Internet dating sites, Pacific ethnicity, having over 20 recent male partners, infrequent condom use with a current regular partner, or being HIV-positive were independently predictive of infrequent condom use. Conversely, being older, having a tertiary degree, using a condom at first anal intercourse, being exclusively receptive with a casual partner/s, and seeing condoms promoted through multiple channels predicted frequent condom use. Attitudes to condoms and safe sex were strongly predictive of actual condom use. Social marketing should target the modifiable predictors of condom use, such as attitudes to safe sex. Interventions also need to engage successfully with GBM reporting non-modifiable traits such as HIV-positive GBM.
This article reviews the literature on the relationships between gay men with AIDS and their families of origin to determine why the family is not a principal source of social support. Several reasons explain the absence of the family from the support network, including the family's lack of acceptance of homosexuality and the relationship with a male partner; the stigma associated with AIDS; the inability of family members to communicate openly about homosexuality and AIDS; the lack of competence among family members in dealing with HIV issues; and overprotective, infantilizing behavior by parents. A sibling, most often a sister, is the family member to whom the gay man with AIDS feels closest and from whom he is most likely to seek support. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
Ng, Henry H
The article addresses the author's perspectives on the Gay Games on individual, community and public health. Using the Gay Games motto of "Participation, Inclusion, Personal Best," the author will explore the many benefits and effects of the Gay Games.
Kadek Karina Dewi Wijayanthi
Full Text Available Deksametason telah diketahui sebagai obat kortikosteroid sintetik yang banyak digunakan oleh masyarakat. Jika deksametason digunakan dalam jangka waktu panjang dan pemakaian dosis besar, menyebabkan stres oksidatif pada sel akibat akumulasi radikal bebas yang menyebabkan kematian sel pada jaringan organ tubuh. Vitamin E diketahui memiliki peran yang baik sebagai antioksidan. Saat ini belum diketahui efek samping pemberian deksametason dan vitamin E terhadap kerusakan usus halus tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus. Penelitian ini menggunakan sampel 25 ekor tikus putih jantan, dibagi dalam 5 kelompok perlakuan, yaitu kontrol negatif (P0, kontrol positif (P1 diberikan deksametason Harsen 0.13 mg/kg, dan perlakuan diberikan deksametason Harsen 0.13 mg/kg dengan variasi vitamin E (Natur-E bertingkat yaitu P2 (100 mg/kg, P3 (150 mg/kg, dan P4 (200 mg/kg. Setelah perlakuan diberikan selama 2 minggu, tikus dinekropsi dan usus halus diambil untuk selanjutnya dibuat sediaan histopatologi dengan pewarnaan hematoksilin-eosin (HE. Hasil menunjukkan perlakuan P1 terlihat nekrosis berat (kaseosa pada usus halus, sedangkan seluruh perlakuan P2, P3, dan P4 berpengaruh terhadap perbaikan kerusakan akibat efek samping deksametason. Perlakuan 4 (P4 sebagai hasil paling baik dalam mengurangi efek samping deksametason. Dexamethasone it’s in period a synthetic corticosteroid drug that widely used by the public. If it used for long time and the use of large doses, causing oxidative stress in cells due to the accumulation of free radicals which may cause cell death in the body organs tissues. Vitamin E was known to have a good role as an antioxidant effect. Currently, unknown effects of dexamethasone and vitamin E administration on damage of the small intestine of rat (Rattus norvegicus. This study used an experimental design. Samples 25 male rats were divided into 5 groups, namely the negative control or no treatment (P0, positive control (P1 was given
When lacking explicit knowledge of someone's sexual orientation, gay people commonly assess the likelihood that another is gay using their "gaydar." The term gaydar is a playful mix of the word gay with radar, suggesting that one can sense, intuit, or perceive some set of characteristics in another that signal a shared minority status. While commonly mentioned, the exact criteria a gay person uses when employing their gaydar are little discussed. Drawing methodologically on a series of five focus groups of self-identified lesbians and gay men, this study explores the physical, visual, energetic, and conversational cues gay people consider when they employ the trope of gaydar. Specifically, interview subjects most often described their gaydar as triggered by the following elements: physical presentation, including mannerisms, dress, and voice; interactions, especially eye contact; a presence or absence of certain conversational social norms; and, intangibly, as a kind of energetic exchange.
Sánchez, Francisco J.; Greenberg, Stefanie T.; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric
This exploratory study used consensual qualitative research methodology (Hill et al., 2005) to analyze what gay men associate with masculinity and femininity, how they feel masculine ideals affect their self-image, and how masculine ideals affect their same-sex relationships. Written responses were collected from 547 self-identified gay men in the U.S. via an Internet-based survey. Findings supported previous reports that perceptions of gender roles among gay men appear based on masculine and...
Pachankis, John E; Eldahan, Adam I; Golub, Sarit A
Young gay and bisexual men might move to urban enclaves to escape homophobic environments and achieve greater sexual and social freedom, yet little is known about the health risks that these young migrants face. Drawing on recent qualitative depictions of gay and bisexual men's urban ecologies and psychological research on motivation and goal pursuit, we investigated migration-related motivations, experiences, health risks, and their associations among young gay and bisexual men in New York City. Gay and bisexual men (n = 273; ages 18-29) who had moved to New York City within the past 12 months completed an online survey regarding their hometowns, new urban experiences, migration motivations, and health risks. Not having a college degree, HIV infection, hometown stigma, within-US migration, and moving to outside a gay-dense neighborhood were associated with moving to escape stress; hometown structural stigma and domestic migration were associated with moving for opportunity. Migrating from larger US-based hometowns, having recently arrived, and moving for opportunity predicted HIV transmission risk. Social isolation predicted lower drug use but more mental health problems. Higher income predicted lower HIV and mental health risk but higher alcohol risk. Hometown interpersonal discrimination predicted all health risks, but hometown structural stigma protected against drug risk. Findings offer a comprehensive picture of young gay and bisexual male migrants' experiences and health risks and help build a theory of high-risk migration. Results can inform structural- and individual-level interventions to support the health of this sizeable and vulnerable segment of the urban population.
... for Reproductive Medicine Counseling issues to discuss with gay men and lesbians seeking assisted reproductive technology (ART) More lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals and couples are ...
Alexander, Christopher J
...: parenting, coming out processes of lesbians, gay men's self-image, adolescence as a homosexual, parental guidance of homosexual children, eating disorders, aging, dual needs of ethnic homosexuals...
Alessi, Edward J; Dillon, Frank R; Kim, Hillary Mi-Sung
The current study tested a conceptual model based on social-cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986), highlighting the influence of attitudes toward sexual minority individuals, training hours, affirmative counseling self-efficacy, and beliefs about affirmative practice on therapist engagement in lesbian and gay affirmative practice. We recruited via the Internet 443 heterosexual psychologists (n = 270), clinical social workers (n = 110), and marriage and family therapists (n = 63) residing in various parts of the United States. The majority of participants identified as female (70%) and White (88%). A path analysis indicated that beliefs and affirmative counseling self-efficacy mediated associations between attitudes and therapist engagement in affirmative practice. Furthermore, self-efficacy mediated the relation between training hours and engagement in affirmative practice. Results suggest that more affirmative attitudes are linked with higher levels of affirmative counseling self-efficacy and more positive beliefs, which in turn positively influences therapist engagement in affirmative practice. Additionally, more hours of training influence affirmative counseling self-efficacy, which in turn correlates with higher levels of therapist engagement in affirmative practice. The discussion includes implications for affirmative practice training. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Taywaditep, K J
Contemporary research has shown that a significant portion of gay men have traits, interests, occupations, and behaviors that are consistent with the stereotype of gay men as effeminate, androgynous, or unmasculine. A great number of gay men exhibit gender nonconformity during childhood; most, however, "defeminize" during adolescence, possibly in response to stigmatization and society's gender-role prescription. Only a relatively small percentage of gay men continue to be gender-nonconforming in their adulthood, often at a price, as they also tend to have lower psychological well-being. Although gay culture historically appreciated camp and drag, which subvert the gender-based power hierarchy and celebrate gender nonconformity, anti-effeminacy prejudice is widespread among gay men. Ironically, gender-nonconforming gay men may suffer from discrimination not only from society at large, but from other gay men, who are most likely to have experienced stigmatization and may have been effeminate earlier in their lives. Drawing from anecdotes and findings from various sources, this article suggests that beyond many gay men's erotic preference for masculinity lies contempt and hostility toward effeminacy and effeminate men on sociopolitical and personal levels. Two correlates of gay men's anti-effeminacy attitudes are proposed: (a) hegemonic masculinity ideology, or the degree to which one subscribes to the value system in which masculinity is an asset, and men and masculinity are considered superior to women and femininity; and (b) masculinity consciousness, or the saliency of masculinity in one's self-monitoring, public self-consciousness, and self-concept. These two variables are hypothesized to interact with gay men's self-perceived masculinity-femininity and their history of defeminization in predicting attitudes toward effeminacy. Research is underway to measure levels of anti-effeminacy attitudes and explore hypothesized correlates.
This study examined whether relationship quality, dispositional jealousy, and attitudes towards monogamy were associated with gay men's satisfaction with the agreements they have in their relationships about extra-dyadic sex. Three types of sexual agreement were examined: closed (no extra-dyadic sex is allowed), monogamish (extra-dyadic sex is allowed only when both members of the couple are present), and open (extra-dyadic sex is allowed). Results from a 2010 survey of 772 gay men in relationships indicated that sexual agreement satisfaction was positively associated with levels of intimacy and commitment for all three types of sexual agreement, but was differentially associated with sexual satisfaction within the relationship, jealousy, and monogamy attitudes as a function of sexual agreement type. Mean levels of sexual satisfaction, jealousy, and monogamy attitudes also differed between types of agreement. These findings provided preliminary evidence that sexual agreement satisfaction may be influenced by different factors depending on the type of agreement, which has useful implications for professionals with gay male clients experiencing dissatisfaction with their agreement or with their relationship more generally.
Eradication of White Grub (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) by the Sterile - Male Technique; Eradication du ver blanc (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) par la methode du lacher de males steriles; Unichtozhenie lichinok majskogo zhuka (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) metodom sterilizatsii muzhskikh osobej; Erradicacion de la larva del abejorro (Melolontha Vulgaris F.) por la tecnica de los machos esterilizados
Horber, E. [Swiss Experimental Station for Agriculture, Zurich-Oerlikon (Switzerland)
Laboratory tests indicated that an X-ray dose of 3000 r was sufficient to induce sterility in male cockchafers. During two flight periods, sterilized males were released among a natural population in order to eliminate white grubs in a general farming region of north-western Switzerland. In 1950 an outbreak of this pest was reduced by a chemical treatment. Gradation had been watched during every flight from 1953 to 1962. In 1959 five areas, each with a surface of about 30 ha, were selected to serve as: (a) The treated area, where the males were captured, irradiated and released; (b) The ''bank,'' where cockchafers were collected and the males were irradiated for release in area a; and (c) Control areas, where undisturbed gradation was observed. The males were irradiated in a therapeutical X-ray unit. Irradiated males were hand-painted in order to estimate the ratio of sterilized males by means of the isotopic dilution technique. In 1959, for the first treatment, about 6 l of sterilized males, representing about 50% of the male population, were released in (a).The white grub infestation sampled in grassland dropped thereafter to about twothirds of that in the other areas. The reproduction rate was less than unity only in (a). A further reduction of the population in (a) to one-tenth of that in (b) and (c) was observed when the number of surviving cockchafers was estimated in 1962. The greatest mortality from 1959 to 1962 occurred in (a). In 1962, for the second treatment, a total of 17 l of irradiated males was released in (a). At least 76% of the male population of (a) had been sterilized. The following sampling of the white grub population showed complete eradication in (a). Some reduction was also observed in (b) and (c) due to drought in the whole region. It has been demonstrated that the sterile-male technique may successfully be applied to an insect pest in an area which is not strictly isolated geographically, the females of which mate several times and the
Goldberg, Abbie E; Garcia, Randi L
The current longitudinal study examined patterns and predictors of parent-reported gender-typed play behavior in adopted boys and girls in lesbian, gay, and heterosexual 2-parent families, across early childhood (Mage = 2.82 to 6.06 years). Specifically, using a sample of 181 couples (56 lesbian couples, 48 gay male couples, and 77 heterosexual couples), we examined parent reports of children's gender-typed play behavior on the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI; Golombok & Rust, 1993) at 3 time points (mean age = 2.82 years at T1, 3.93 years at T2, and 6.06 years at T3). Family structure variables (i.e., parents' gender and sexual orientation; children's gender and sibling status) were included as predictors. At T1, according to parent reports, children in lesbian-parent families had less gender-differentiated behavior (boys were less masculine, girls were less feminine) than children in heterosexual- and gay-parent families, whereas the degree of gender differentiation did not differ between heterosexual- versus gay-parent families. Findings from a Common Fate Growth Model (Ledermann & Macho, 2014) revealed that, regardless of family type, the parent-reported gender-typed behavior of boys, but not girls, significantly changed over time (i.e., boys' behavior became more masculine). Our findings have implications for researchers who study gender development in children and adolescents, particularly those who are being raised by 2 mothers or 2 fathers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Sánchez, Francisco J; Westefeld, John S; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric
Professional psychologists who work with gay men have noted that traditional masculine ideals play a prominent role in the gay community whereby some endorse these traditional ideals and stigmatize effeminate behavior by other gay men. One hypothesis is that this behavior reflects negative feelings about being gay. This article examined this hypothesis by reporting the results of an online survey of 622 self-identified gay men. Participants completed the Gender Role Conflict Scale, Lesbian and Gay Identity Scale, the Social Desirability Scale, and questions related to the importance of masculinity. Results showed that most participants valued the public appearance of masculinity; and they ideally wished to be more masculine than they felt they were (Cohen's d = 0.42). A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree to which they valued masculinity and were concerned with violating masculine ideals was positively related with negative feelings about being gay (Cohen's f(2) = .67). These findings highlight the importance of exploring the role that masculine ideals play in gay client's lives given that negative feelings about oneself can adversely affect psychological well-being.
Sánchez, Francisco J.; Westefeld, John S.; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric
Professional psychologists who work with gay men have noted that traditional masculine ideals play a prominent role in the gay community whereby some endorse these traditional ideals and stigmatize effeminate behavior by other gay men. One hypothesis is that this behavior reflects negative feelings about being gay. This article examined this hypothesis by reporting the results of an online survey of 622 self-identified gay men. Participants completed the Gender Role Conflict Scale, Lesbian and Gay Identity Scale, the Social Desirability Scale, and questions related to the importance of masculinity. Results showed that most participants valued the public appearance of masculinity; and they ideally wished to be more masculine than they felt they were (Cohen’s d = 0.42). A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree to which they valued masculinity and were concerned with violating masculine ideals was positively related with negative feelings about being gay (Cohen’s f2 = .67). These findings highlight the importance of exploring the role that masculine ideals play in gay client’s lives given that negative feelings about oneself can adversely affect psychological well-being. PMID:20428323
In this article, Cris Mayo examines the relationship among anti-LGBTQ policies, gay marriage, and sexuality education. Her concern is that because gay marriage is insufficiently different from heterosexual marriage, adding it as an issue to curriculum or broader culture debate elides rather than addresses sexual difference. In other words,…
Bailey, J. Michael; And Others
Examined the sexual orientation of 82 adult sons of 55 gay men. Found that more than 90% of the sons whose sexual orientation could be rated were heterosexual. Gay and heterosexual sons did not differ on potentially relevant variables such as length of time they had lived with their fathers. (MDM)
VIRAL HEPATITIS Information for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by one of several ... each virus is spread in different ways. Are gay and bisexual men at risk for viral hepatitis? ...
Herbstrith, Julie C.; Tobin, Renée M.; Hesson-McInnis, Matthew S.; Schneider, W. Joel
Gay and lesbian parents are raising an increasing number of children, but little is known about how these parents are viewed by school personnel. In this study, preservice teacher attitudes toward gay and lesbian parents were assessed using implicit, explicit, behavioral, and behavioroid measures. Implicit measures indicate that participants rated…
Hart, Trevor A.; Schwartz, Danielle R.
The purpose of the present paper is to assist cognitive-behavioral therapists who are treating erectile dysfunction among gay men. Little information is available to cognitive-behavioral therapists about the psychological and social effects of erectile dysfunction in this population, or how to incorporate the concerns of gay men with erectile…
Dunn, Merrily; Glassmann, Danny; Garrett, J. Matthew; Badaszewski, Philip; Jones, Ginny; Pierre, Darren; Fresk, Kara; Young, Dallin; Correll-Hughes, Larry
This study examines the experiences of gay-identified college men related to their faith and sexual orientation identity development. The findings suggest that for gay-identified college men, faith and sexual orientation identity development includes examination of one's faith and sexual orientation identity, important relationships, and a desire…
American Psychologist, 2012
The "Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients" provide psychologists with (a) a frame of reference for the treatment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients and (b) basic information and further references in the areas of assessment, intervention, identity, relationships, diversity, education, training, and…
Rowell, Elizabeth H.
Early childhood educators carefully reflect on the messages conveyed about family diversity in the materials they select to use. Picture books depicting gay and lesbian families can enhance the curriculum and make an important contribution to young children's development. Families comprised of same-sex parents or those who have gay and lesbian…
Wu, S. (Shangwei); J.R. Ward (Janelle)
textabstractA growing body of literature focuses on gay men's use of mobile dating applications or “dating apps.” Running on smartphones and working with GPS, dating apps connect users to others in close geographic proximity and often in real time. These apps allow users to create profiles to
Currie, Sean; Mayberry, Maralee; Chenneville, Tiffany
Drawing upon research with Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA) advisors, high-school principals, and two district-level administrators, we examine the potential and limits of the safe-space discourse that encompasses the aims of GSAs. We argue that this discourse conceals heteronormative school environments, which supplies the groundwork for hostility…
Full Text Available In recent years, the use of the word “gay” as a synonym for dumb or lame or stupid has become prevalent in our culture. Because of this, it is clear that many individuals do not consider the word to be a slur and are not offended by its use. Using an original data set (N = 790 collected from four Midwestern universities in the winter of 2011-2012, this article examines the characteristics of those college students who perceive the word gay to be a slur or who are offended. We find that those individuals who report having more gay friends are more likely to take offense at the use of the word gay as a slur even after controls are instituted. We also find that, contrary to expectations, attendance at religious services appears to have a direct relationship, with more frequent attenders more likely to express offense at the use of gay as a slur. Egalitarianism also emerged as a significant predictor. We offer suggestions as to why some college students perceive the word to be a slur while a majority of college students do not.
Wu, S.; Ward, J.
textabstractA growing body of literature focuses on gay men's use of mobile dating applications or “dating apps.” Running on smartphones and working with GPS, dating apps connect users to others in close geographic proximity and often in real time. These apps allow users to create profiles to
Kuhar, Roman; Svab, Alenka
The article deals with the comparison of the characteristics, experiences, and perceptions of everyday life of gays and lesbians living in rural and urban areas of Slovenia. We focus on the following thematic aspects: (1) coming out; (2) intimate partnerships; (3) the access and the use of gay infrastructure; and (4) violence against gays and lesbians. The article also addresses and discusses the urban/rural divide as a Western construct that might not be completely applicable to other social and cultural contexts. Taking Slovenia as an example, this article questions the self-evidence of rural/urban divide as an analytical concept. On the basis of our research, we conclude that this concept requires continuous revisions and reinterpretations in a concrete social and cultural context(s). The characteristics of gay and lesbian everyday life either in rural or in urban context in Slovenia lead to the conclusion that even within a specific social and cultural context, the concept of urban/rural divide should be used carefully, taking into account complexities of everyday lives and various factors that influence them.
Corneau, Simon; van der Meulen, Emily
Despite the proliferation of writing on pornography generally, much of the literature that focuses on gay pornography specifically conforms to either a pro- or anti-porn framework. This overly simplistic dichotomy positions pornography as a homogeneous construct, albeit one that is either "good" or "bad." Even theorists who situate pornography on a continuum, with erotica at one end and hardcore at the other, tend to reify these discourses. Further, it is not uncommon for researchers to draw conclusions about the effects of pornography consumption without defining exactly what pornography is. This ethnographic research draws on qualitative interviews with 20 consumers' of gay pornography in Toronto, Canada. By using a thematic analysis to document the ways in which gay men define, distinguish, and conceptualize gay pornography, five definitional categories were developed: Mellow; Commercial; Raunch; Amateur; and Bareback. These broad conceptualizations are discussed in reference to writing on gay pornography. Our research results emphasize the importance of clear definitions of pornography within pornography research.
Mutchler, Matt G.; McDavitt, Bryce
Young adults, particularly young gay men (YGM), are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Yet, little is known about how YGM discuss sexual health issues with their friends ("gay boy talk"). We conducted semi-structured interviews with YGM and their best friends (11 YGM/YGM dyads and 13 YGM/heterosexual female dyads). In this paper, we…
Murphy, Heather Elise
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students face many risk factors every day when they enter their school's door. These students often fear for their safety at school, are victimized, have academic difficulties, suffer from issues with their identity development, and are at risk for suicide. School-based Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs)…
Mizzi, Robert C
Western-oriented workplaces use professionalism as a normative value to sustain and promote a cohesive work environment. Yet, through this qualitative study, the author points out some implications of using professionalism to manage staff relationships and behaviors. Using post-conflict Kosovo as the context, the author examined (a) the work experiences of 8 gay male aid workers and (b) the attitudes toward homosexuality of foreign staff members in 2 international aid agencies. The author introduces and suggests heteroprofessionalism as a root to homophobic and heterosexist behaviors present in the study. Heteroprofessionalism is defined as a professional value that screens out homosexuality.
Grabovac, Igor; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Milošević, Milan
Discrimination and harassment of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) physicians from their colleagues and superiors are known. However there is little knowledge about the patients’ attitudes and discrimination toward physicians. A cross sectional Internet survey was conducted in urban Croatian regions. The participants were asked to answer questions regarding their socio-demographic status, the Attitudes Towards Lesbians and Gay Men Scale (ATLG), and whether they would refuse to see a LGB physician and, if so, why. Of the 1004 participants, 8.8% said they would refuse a male GB physician while 7.9% would refuse a female LB physician, and 7.3% would refuse both. The two most common reasons for discriminating were: “disaccord with political or religious beliefs” and “fear of being sexually harassed”. A logistical regression model showed that male sex, higher ATLG score and higher age were associated with more refusals of male GB physicians. Also higher age, higher ATLG score were associated with more refusals of female LB physicians, while personal contact with LGB people was associated with less refusals of both groups. The observed prevalence of discrimination is significant. The results suggest that discrimination is based on emotional reasons and stereotypical beliefs. Educational efforts should be directed towards changing misconceptions about LGB people.
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Full Text Available Even though prejudice toward male homosexuality is one of the main reasons for discrimination in Argentina, there is no valid measure to assess it. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Attitudes Toward Gay Men Scale (ATG and to examine the influence of sex, right wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation on anti-gay attitudes. Data were collected with a convenience sample of 436 undergraduate students from University of Buenos Aires. Analysis of the data showed adequate psychometric properties for the ATG Scale and the moderating effect of sex, right wing uthoritarianism and social dominance orientation on anti-gay attitudes. Implications of these findings were discussed.
Gay men have been implicated in neoliberal urban development strategies (e.g. the creative city) as a ‘canary’ population that forecasts growth. Paradoxically, both neoliberal re-development of North American inner-cities and the ways in which gay men become neoliberalised as individuals contribute to the dissolution of urban gay communities. In contrast to discourses of homonormativity, which suggest that gay men’s declining attachments to gay communities stem from new equalities and consequ...
Davis, Gary L.; Cross, Herbert J.
This paper presents the results of a study to examine the existence of sexual stereotyping of black males by white college students. Subjects were 180 male and 180 female white undergraduates; they were tested in sexually segregated groups. Each read one of three types of pornographic stories (hard-core, erotic realism, or sexual fantasy). The…
Leap, William L
Erotic imagery is an important component of gay pornographic cinema, particularly, where work of audience reception is concerned. However, to assume the audience engagement with the films is limited solely to the erotic realm is to underestimate the workings of ideological power in the context and aftermath of reception. For example, the director of the film under discussion here (Men of Israel; Lucas, 2009b) intended to present an erotic celebration of the nation-state. Yet, most viewers ignore the particulars of context in their comments about audience reception, placing the "Israeli" narrative within a broader framework, using transnational rather than film-specific criteria to guide their "reading" of the Israeli-centered narrative. This article uses as its entry point the language that viewers employ when describing their reactions to Men of Israel on a gay video club's Web site; this article shows how the work of audience reception may draw attention to a film's erotic details while invoking social and political messages that completely reframe the film's erotic narrative.
Public policy regarding bathhouses has been criticized as being based on political expediency rather than on medical or social science. To affect that shortcoming, we include here a brief history of gay bathhouses. The history of the baths is rarely told, but whenever it is told it necessarily reflects the times in which it was written. For that reason, we include a history written in 1984, at the time that much of what was known about AIDS, routes of transmission and the role of the bathhouses was very much in flux. This history not only gives a context for the current discussion, but also allows the reader to see the history from that distant point in time. This paper was first published in December 1984 as an article in Coming Up!, a lesbian and gay community newspaper published monthly in San Francisco (California). It was later edited and reprinted in a book titled Policing Public Sex (1996). The version of the paper presented here is from the original 1984 article (pp. 15-19); several images appeared with the article that are not reproduced here. As with all the reprinted papers in this volume, no editorial changes were made to the paper and only minor typographical errors were corrected.
Lacaba Gutiérrez, José Juan
Full Text Available In this paper, I explain the development of a tourist village in the Catalonian coast (northeast of Spain as a gay destination during carnival times during the month February. My intention is to include my reflections in this paper in the symbolic - cognitive studies about tourism and I want also to reflect about the idea of the constructions in gay culture of different places all around the world of leisure or/and pilgrimage. Sitges is a scale gay destination really knowledge in Western Europe during the hole year, but during carnival times, it's convert in a gay pilgrimage in different ways and there is have been crated during those last years gays places of leisure in the village that make me create the idea of the existence of a gay Carnival in Sitges Carnival. Because we cannot consider the gay carnival independent of what I call Sitges Carnival, I explain also the development and the historical conflicts between those two carnivals, and how those separate spaces have been created
Downing, Martin J; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Scheinmann, Roberta; Antebi-Gruszka, Nadav; Hirshfield, Sabina
Advances in production and distribution of sexually explicit media (SEM) online have resulted in widespread use among men. Limited research has compared contexts of use and behaviors viewed in Internet SEM by sexual identity. The current study examined differences in recent SEM use (past 6 months) by sexual identity among an ethnically diverse sample of 821 men who completed an online survey in 2015. Both gay and bisexual men reported significantly more frequent use of Internet SEM compared to heterosexual men. Although most participants reported viewing SEM at home (on a computer, tablet, or smartphone), significantly more gay men reported SEM use at a sex party or commercial sex venue than either heterosexual or bisexual men. Sexual identity predicted viewing of high-risk and protective behaviors in separate logistic regression models. Specifically, compared to heterosexual men, gay and bisexual men had increased odds of viewing condomless anal sex (gay OR 5.20, 95 % CI 3.35-8.09; bisexual OR 3.99, 95 % CI 2.24-7.10) and anal sex with a condom (gay OR 3.93, 95 % CI 2.64-5.83; bisexual OR 4.59, 95 % CI 2.78-7.57). Compared to gay men, heterosexual and bisexual men had increased odds of viewing condomless vaginal sex (heterosexual OR 27.08, 95 % CI 15.25-48.07; bisexual OR 5.59, 95 % CI 3.81-8.21) and vaginal sex with a condom (heterosexual OR 7.90, 95 % CI 5.19-12.03; bisexual OR 4.97, 95 % CI 3.32-7.44). There was also evidence of identity discrepant SEM viewing as 20.7 % of heterosexual-identified men reported viewing male same-sex behavior and 55.0 % of gay-identified men reported viewing heterosexual behavior. Findings suggest the importance of assessing SEM use across media types and contexts and have implications for research to address the potential influence of SEM on sexual behavior (e.g., investigate associations between viewing condomless vaginal sex and engaging in high-risk encounters with female partners).
Barnes, David M; Meyer, Ilan H
Most religious environments in the United States do not affirm homosexuality. The authors investigated the relationship between exposure to nonaffirming religious environments and internalized homophobia and mental health in a sample of lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) in New York City. Guided by minority stress theory, the authors hypothesized that exposure to nonaffirming religious settings would lead to higher internalized homophobia, more depressive symptoms, and less psychological well-being. The authors hypothesized that Black and Latino LGBs would be more likely than White LGBs to participate in nonaffirming religious settings and would therefore have higher internalized homophobia than White LGBs. Participants were 355 LGBs recruited through community-based venue sampling and evenly divided among Black, Latino, and White race or ethnic groups and among age groups within each race or ethnic group, as well as between women and men. Results supported the general hypothesis that nonaffirming religion was associated with higher internalized homophobia. There was no main effect of nonaffirming religion on mental health, an unexpected finding discussed in this article. Latinos, but not Blacks, had higher internalized homophobia than Whites, and as predicted, this was mediated by their greater exposure to nonaffirming religion. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Thirty years of academic and critical scholarship on the subject of gay porn have born witness to significant changes not only in the kinds of porn produced for, and watched by, gay men, but in the modes of production and distribution of that porn, and the legal, economic and social contexts in which it has been made, sold/shared, and watched. Those thirty years have also seen a huge shift in the cultural and political position of gay men, especially in the US and UK, and other apparently ‘ad...
Manalansan, M F
This paper attempts to critically analyze issues of postcolonial displacement, immigration, and homosexuality by examining the works of two Filipino gay immigrant writers, John Silva and Ralph Peña. Using postcolonial and critical theories, anthropological studies, and ethnographic fieldwork in New York City, this paper focuses on the role of language, memory, the body, race/ethnicity, and social class in the narrative strategies of the two writers. This paper argues that gay postcolonial writers such as these two relocate and reconfigure homosexual/gay identity in the face of new and oppressive hierarchies, identities, and practices.
May 29, 1971 ... Sitting and standing heights have been recorded for Bantu and Whites, males and females. It !Vas found that Bantu males and females have relatively longer lower extremities than White South African males and females. Anthropo- metric differences account for only about 15% of the actual observed ...
(Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can
Tan, Chris K K
Anglo-American ontologies posit that gay men should come out to match their outer selves with their inner ones. In Confucianized Singapore, however, gay men refrain from coming out to their parents to avoid shaming their families. Instead, they couch their homosexuality in kinship terms and "go home" with their boyfriends (Chou, 2000). "Going home" gains familial acceptance, but it does not challenge mainstream discourses of homosexuality. By examining how Singaporean gay men negotiate their sexuality with their families, I question the validity of coming out and going home as both ontological discourses and strategies.
Goldberg, Abbie E.; Garcia, Randi
Little work has examined relationship dissolution or divorce in adoptive parents or same-sex parent couples. The current study examined predictors of relationship dissolution across the first 5 years of parenthood among a sample of heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male adoptive couples. Of the 190 couples in the study, 15 (7.9%) dissolved their relationships during the first 5 years of adoptive parenthood. Specifically, 7 of 57 lesbian couples (12.3%), 1 of 49 gay male couples (2.0%), and 7 of 84 heterosexual couples (8.3%) dissolved their unions. Results of our logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds of relationship dissolution were significantly higher for (a) couples who adopted a non-infant (i.e., older) child); (b) participants who reported feeling less prepared for the adoption, three months post-adoptive placement; and (c) couples in which both partners reported very low, or very high, pre-adoption levels of relationship maintenance behaviors. Findings have implications for adoption professionals seeking to support same-sex and heterosexual prospective adopters, as well as societal debates and policy regarding same-sex relationships and parenting. PMID:26053348
Poteat, V Paul; Calzo, Jerel P; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) may promote wellbeing for sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning youth) and heterosexual youth. We considered this potential benefit of GSAs in the current study by examining whether three GSA functions-support/socializing, information/resource provision, and advocacy-contributed to sense of agency among GSA members while controlling for two major covariates, family support and the broader school LGBT climate. The sample included 295 youth in 33 Massachusetts GSAs (69 % LGBQ, 68 % cisgender female, 68 % white; M age = 16.06 years). Based on multilevel models, as hypothesized, youth who received more support/socializing, information/resources, and did more advocacy in their GSA reported greater agency. Support/socializing and advocacy distinctly contributed to agency even while accounting for the contribution of family support and positive LGBT school climate. Further, advocacy was associated with agency for sexual minority youth but not heterosexual youth. Greater organizational structure enhanced the association between support/socializing and agency; it also enhanced the association between advocacy and agency for sexual minority youth. These findings begin to provide empirical support for specific functions of GSAs that could promote wellbeing and suggest conditions under which their effects may be enhanced.
Poteat, V. Paul; Calzo, Jerel P.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) may promote wellbeing for sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning youth) and heterosexual youth. We considered this potential benefit of GSAs in the current study by examining whether three GSA functions – support/socializing, information/resource provision, and advocacy – contributed to sense of agency among GSA members while controlling for two major covariates, family support and the broader school LGBT climate. The sample included 295 youth in 33 Massachusetts GSAs (69% LGBQ, 68% cisgender female, 68% white; Mage = 16.06 years). Based on multilevel models, as hypothesized, youth who received more support/socializing, information/resources, and did more advocacy in their GSA reported greater agency. Support/socializing and advocacy distinctly contributed to agency even while accounting for the contribution of family support and positive LGBT school climate. Further, advocacy was associated with agency for sexual minority youth but not heterosexual youth. Greater organizational structure enhanced the association between support/socializing and agency; it also enhanced the association between advocacy and agency for sexual minority youth. These findings begin to provide empirical support for specific functions of GSAs that could promote wellbeing and suggest conditions under which their effects may be enhanced. PMID:26781740
Palmer, R; Bor, R
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and disease progression create imbalance in long-term, HIV-serodiscordant, gay male relationships, particularly in sexual relations and issues of physical and emotional intimacy. Stage of disease progression and worldview of the couple both affect the relationship and its survival. To redress imbalance, partners employ a range of coping strategies and techniques. This article explores these issues in the context of HIV serodiscordant gay couples and how they preserve their relationships in the face of these unique challenges. For workers who provide psychotherapeutic and community support for people with HIV and for their partners, the results of this study may be helpful in recognizing stress factors for couples, and tailoring support services to the needs of both partners. Overall, this study provides a basis for further work examining the dynamics of serodiscordant relationships.
Filipa Daniela Marques
Full Text Available Abstract Research in the field of older gay men remains scarce. This exploratory study examines older gay men's experiences in the construction of family integrity (versus disconnection and alienation. The family integrity approach is a developmental perspective that links ego integrity to a larger process of constructing meaning within the family system. The sample comprises ten participants (from 60 to 88 years old. A semi-structured interview was conducted and submitted to content analysis. The main findings suggest three experiences in older gay men's construction of family integrity: (i influence of homosexuality throughout life; (ii establishing a family of choice; (iii creating a legacy associated with homosexuality. Family integrity in older gay men seems to evolve from disclosure at a young age to making homosexuality a legacy in old age.
Netzley, Sara Baker
A content analysis of 98 episodes of primetime entertainment programs on commercial broadcast and cable television stations from the 2005-2006 season showed that gay characters on television were more likely to be shown in sexual situations than straight characters, and women were more likely to be shown in same-sex sexual situations than men. In addition, gay characters were more likely to be depicted as sexually active on cable television than they were on commercial broadcast television, and they were more likely to be relegated to guest star status on commercial broadcast television than on cable television. The study also showed that gay characters made up 7.5% of all the characters studied. This study discusses the implications of these findings for gay and straight audiences.
frames to express anti-gay sentiments, the Mail & Guardian primarily used these ... it is often silenced among traditional sources of knowledge such as friends, ... suggested by Van Dijk (1991) in considering issues of language and power, the ...
The taken-for-granted dominance of heteronormativity in contemporary society has been well documented and critiqued in several social science studies. Acutely aware of its fragility and vulnerability (Butler 1991), its proponents constantly seek to reinforce its hegemonic influence through ritualised performances associated with ‘doing’, ‘using’ and performing gender and sexual orientation. The article will provide a theoretical contemplation on whether both the proscriptive an...
Luz María Rubio Rivas
Full Text Available Este documento aborda desde el campo de los estudios culturales, las representaciones del personaje gay en la novela colombiana de los primeros siete años del presente siglo. Fue posible reconocer en las representaciones, una serie de normas positivas y negativas que rigen la sexualidad y el género de los personajes, los cuales se encuentran inscritos en estructuras de poder y de subordinación basadas en dichas normas, impuestas o administradas a través de diversas estrategias. También se encontró, en mayor o menor medida, la presencia de estereotipos, creencias y atribuciones de causalidad, de las que se presenta una breve mención.
de Miguel, E.; Rull, L.F.; Gubbins, K.E.
Using molecular-dynamics computer simulation, we study the dynamical behavior of the isotropic and nematic phases of highly anisotropic molecular fluids. The interactions are modeled by means of the Gay-Berne potential with anisotropy parameters κ=3 and κ'=5. The linear-velocity autocorrelation function shows no evidence of a negative region in the isotropic phase, even at the higher densities considered. The self-diffusion coefficient parallel to the molecular axis shows an anomalous increase with density as the system enters the nematic region. This enhancement in parallel diffusion is also observed in the isotropic side of the transition as a precursor effect. The molecular reorientation is discussed in the light of different theoretical models. The Debye diffusion model appears to explain the reorientational mechanism in the nematic phase. None of the models gives a satisfactory account of the reorientation process in the isotropic phase
To discuss lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-specific survivorship issues including: integrating sexual and gender minority identities with cancer survivor identities; coordinating medical care and disclosing identities to health care providers; dealing with late effects of treatment; and addressing LGBT family and relationship issues. Published articles, quotes from an online survey of 311 LGBT survivors. The transition from active cancer treatment to survivorship presents challenges, and LGBT cancer survivors may face additional challenges as they enter the survivorship phase. Oncology nurses can improve the quality of survivorship care delivered to LGBT survivors and their caregivers by addressing the disparities and gaps in health care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Inspired by Alain Robbe-Grillet’s novel La Jalousie (1957), the essay contends that Michael Haneke’s Caché (2005) takes its viewers inside a postcolonial white paranoia which is, arguably, the root cause of the exclusion, segregation and racist discrimination that many immigrants from the former ...
Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...
support from the lesbian, gay, bi-sexual, transgender ( LGBT ) community and in return made several campaign promises along the way. One of the campaign ...Lesbian, Gay, Bi-sexual, Transgender] ( LGBT ) rights is exploited by those seeking to divide us. But at its core, this issue is about who we are as...No. 85. July 2007. Donnelly, Elaine. Who Will Confront the “ LGBT Left?”. Center for Military Readiness. (5 February 2008). Frank
McDavitt, Bryce; Mutchler, Matt G.
Conversations with friends are a crucial source of information about sexuality for young gay men, and a key way that sexual health norms are shared during emerging adulthood. However, friends can only provide this support if they are able to talk openly about sexuality. We explored this issue through qualitative interviews with an ethnically diverse sample of young gay men and their best friends. Using theories of sexual scripts, stigma, and emerging adulthood, we examined how conversations about sex could be obstructed or facilitated by several key factors, including judgmentalism, comfort/discomfort, and receptivity. Gay male friends sometimes spoke about unprotected sex in judgmental ways (e.g., calling a friend “slut” or “whore” for having sex without condoms). In some cases, this language could be used playfully, while in others it had the effect of shaming a friend and obstructing further communication about sexual risk. Female friends were rarely openly judgmental, but often felt uncomfortable talking about gay male sexuality, which could render this topic taboo. Sexual communication was facilitated most effectively when friends encouraged it through humor or supportive questioning. Drawing on these findings, we show how judgmentalism and discomfort may generate sexual scripts with contradictory norms, and potentially obstruct support from friends around sexual exploration during a period of life when it may be most developmentally important. PMID:25419044
Prestage, Garrett; Brown, Graham; De Wit, John; Bavinton, Benjamin; Fairley, Christopher; Maycock, Bruce; Batrouney, Colin; Keen, Phillip; Down, Ian; Hammoud, Mohamed; Zablotska, Iryna
Gay and bisexual men (GBM) who participate in gay community subcultures have different profiles, including differing risk behaviors. We examined men's participation in gay community subcultures, and its association with risk behavior. In a cross-sectional survey, 849 GBM provided information about men in their personal networks. We devised measures of their participation in five subcultural groupings and explored their associations with sexual behavior. We identified five subcultural groupings: sexually adventurous; bear tribes; alternative queer; party scene; and sexually conservative. Higher scores on the sexually adventurous measure was associated with being older, having more gay friends, being HIV-positive, and being more sexually active. It was also independently associated with unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners (AOR 1.82; 95 % CI 1.20-2.76; p = 0.005). HIV prevention strategies need to account for the different subcultural groupings in which GBM participate. Measures of engagement with gay subcultures are useful indicators of differential rates of risk behavior and modes of participation in gay community life. Men in more sexually adventurous subcultures are more likely to engage in sexual risk behavior.
Stephenson, Rob; Finneran, Catherine
Intimate partner violence (IPV) rates are disproportionately high among sexual minority populations. Few studies have examined the plausible relationship between minority stress and IPV among men who have sex with men. This study examines the associations between IPV and three indicators of minority stress: internalized homophobia, sexuality-based discrimination, and racism, in a large venue-based sample of gay and bisexual men from Atlanta, USA. Each of the minority stress measures was found to be significantly associated with increased odds of self-reporting any form of receipt of IPV. Significant associations were also identified between perpetration of IPV and minority stressors, with most types of IPV perpetration linked to internalized homophobia. This study confirms findings in a growing body of research supporting the relationship between minority stress and increased prevalence of IPV among men who have sex with men, and points to the need to address structural factors in IPV prevention programs for male-male couples.
Callander, Denton; Holt, Martin; Newman, Christy E
Racialised language is a salient and contested aspect of contemporary sexual cultures, particularly in the online domain. This paper explores the ways in which gay men in Australia employ race-related language when using online sex/dating websites. Using inductive content analysis, descriptive categories were developed to identify recurrent patterns in the racialised language employed by website users. A coding framework was then constructed to identify the 'subject' (self, other or concept) of each piece of race-related content, its 'purpose' (marketing, negative or positive discrimination, commentary) and the 'position' adopted (defensive, normalised or critical). Descriptive and comparative analyses revealed differences in the ways in which members of racial groups employed racialised language online. These differences are reviewed in relation to broader discourses on Whiteness and race in Australia, as well as recent community-produced anti-racism campaigns.
To investigate the awareness of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge and AIDS-related behaviors among youth students in gay dating sites, and to provide evidences for AIDS prevention education through the internet. The students in gay dating sites, selected by a snowball sampling, were interviewed by questionnaires. Chi-square tests were used to analyze the awareness of AIDS knowledge among the students of different characteristics. The Logistic regression was used to analyze the factors associated with ever testing for HIV. In the study, 469 youth students in gay dating sites filled in the questionnaires, and a total of 442 (94.2%) valid samples were collected. The awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge for the public among the youth students in gay dating sites was 83.9% (371).The awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge for the youth students was 77.1% (341), and the rate of ever testing for HIV was 52.0% (230). The awareness of HIV/AIDS knowledge for the public in the students were different in different age groups (P=0.001), different marital statuses (Pdating sites was 75.1% (332), and the rate of multiple sexual partnerships among the youth students was 41.3% (137). Compared with homosexual orientation, sexual orientation as heterosexual (OR=0.282, 95%CI: 0.151 to 0.528) and not sure (OR=0.175, 95%CI: 0.035 to 0.885) were risk factors of ever testing for HIV. Multiple sexual partnerships (OR=2.103, 95%CI: 1.278 to 3.462) were promoting factors of ever testing for HIV. The rate of high-risk behaviors among the youth students in gay dating sites was high. The concern should be raised to heterosexual male students who had tendency to homosexual behavior. The AIDS prevention education should be developed in gay dating sites, to improve the self-protection awareness of the youth students.
Heather M. Clarke
Full Text Available Research demonstrates the bias faced by individuals engaged in occupations that are perceived as inconsistent with their gender. The lack of fit model and role congruity theory explain how gender stereotypes give rise to the perception that an individual lacks the attributes necessary to be successful in a gender-incongruent job. Men employed in jobs traditionally held by women are perceived as wimpy and undeserving of respect. The majority of studies in this area have, however, failed to account for the sexual orientation of the individual being rated. Therefore, we carried out an experiment where 128 adults with experience in recruitment and selection, recruited through Qualtrics, rated heterosexual and gay male applicants applying for a gender-typed job. The heterosexual male was rated less effectual, less respect-worthy, and less hirable in the female-typed job condition than in the male-typed job condition. The gay male applicant, however, was rated similarly on all criteria across job gender-types, suggesting the gay male applicant was viewed as androgynous rather than high in femininity and low in masculinity as inferred by implicit inversion theory. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Clarke, Heather M; Arnold, Kara A
Research demonstrates the bias faced by individuals engaged in occupations that are perceived as inconsistent with their gender. The lack of fit model and role congruity theory explain how gender stereotypes give rise to the perception that an individual lacks the attributes necessary to be successful in a gender-incongruent job. Men employed in jobs traditionally held by women are perceived as wimpy and undeserving of respect. The majority of studies in this area have, however, failed to account for the sexual orientation of the individual being rated. Therefore, we carried out an experiment where 128 adults with experience in recruitment and selection, recruited through Qualtrics, rated heterosexual and gay male applicants applying for a gender-typed job. The heterosexual male was rated less effectual, less respect-worthy, and less hirable in the female-typed job condition than in the male-typed job condition. The gay male applicant, however, was rated similarly on all criteria across job gender-types, suggesting the gay male applicant was viewed as androgynous rather than high in femininity and low in masculinity as inferred by implicit inversion theory. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Concetta P Pelullo
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of discrimination, harassment, and violence and the associated factors among a random sample of 1000 lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men recruited from randomly selected public venues in Italy. METHODS: A face-to-face interview sought information about: socio-demographics, frequency of discrimination, verbal harassment, and physical and sexual violence because of their sexual orientation, and their fear of suffering each types of victimization. RESULTS: In the whole sample, 28.3% and 11.9% self-reported at least one episode of victimization because of the sexual orientation in their lifetime and in the last year. Those unmarried, compared to the others, and with a college degree or higher, compared to less educated respondents, were more likely to have experienced an episode of victimization in their lifetime. Lesbians, compared to bisexual, had almost twice the odds of experiencing an episode of victimization. The most commonly reported experiences across the lifetime were verbal harassment, discrimination, and physical or sexual violence. Among those who had experienced one episode of victimization in their lifetime, 42.1% self-reported one episode in the last year. Perceived fear of suffering violence because of their sexual orientation, measured on a 10-point Likert scale with a higher score indicative of greater fear, ranges from 5.7 for verbal harassment to 6.4 for discrimination. Participants were more likely to have fear of suffering victimization because of their sexual orientation if they were female (compared to male, lesbian and gay men (compared to bisexual women and men, unmarried (compared to the others, and if they have already suffered an episode of victimization (compared to those who have not suffered an episode. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides important insights into the violence experiences of lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men and the results
Pelullo, Concetta P; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Angelillo, Italo F
This cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of discrimination, harassment, and violence and the associated factors among a random sample of 1000 lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men recruited from randomly selected public venues in Italy. A face-to-face interview sought information about: socio-demographics, frequency of discrimination, verbal harassment, and physical and sexual violence because of their sexual orientation, and their fear of suffering each types of victimization. In the whole sample, 28.3% and 11.9% self-reported at least one episode of victimization because of the sexual orientation in their lifetime and in the last year. Those unmarried, compared to the others, and with a college degree or higher, compared to less educated respondents, were more likely to have experienced an episode of victimization in their lifetime. Lesbians, compared to bisexual, had almost twice the odds of experiencing an episode of victimization. The most commonly reported experiences across the lifetime were verbal harassment, discrimination, and physical or sexual violence. Among those who had experienced one episode of victimization in their lifetime, 42.1% self-reported one episode in the last year. Perceived fear of suffering violence because of their sexual orientation, measured on a 10-point Likert scale with a higher score indicative of greater fear, ranges from 5.7 for verbal harassment to 6.4 for discrimination. Participants were more likely to have fear of suffering victimization because of their sexual orientation if they were female (compared to male), lesbian and gay men (compared to bisexual women and men), unmarried (compared to the others), and if they have already suffered an episode of victimization (compared to those who have not suffered an episode). The study provides important insights into the violence experiences of lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men and the results may serve for improving policy initiatives to reduce such
Hotchkins, Bryan K.
Background/Context: High school educational environments find Black males experience systemic racial microaggressions in the form of discipline policies, academic tracking and hegemonic curriculum (Allen, Scott, & Lewis, 2013). Black males in high school are more likely than their White male peers to have high school truancies and be viewed as…
Full Text Available The experimental material involved 7 Carex ligerica Gay populations which were cultured in standardised conditions in a greenhouse before their spikes were collected for morphological studies. Four characters reflecting size of male and female glumes, selected from particular spikes were examined. Mahalanobis distances for each pair of populations were calculated and their significance was estimated using Hotellings T2 statistics. Dendrite was constructed on the basis of shortest Mahalanobis distances while Euclidean distances provided grounds for hierarchy grouping. The result obtained from a multivariate analysis indicated a definite interpopulation variability within the species. All of the examined populations were found to differ significantly on the grounds of Mahalanobis distances. The dendrograms manifested the distinct character of the populations originating from regions around the lower course of the Vistula river - 5 (Toruń-Wrzosy, 3 (Tychnowy, 2 (Piaski and 6 (Kadyny, not noted before. Moreover, similarity of two geographically distant populations, the population 1 (Złotoria from the Central Poland and the population 4 (Szumiłowo from the western part of the country, attracted attention, as well as the individual character of the population 7 (Kopanica originating from the southernmost location. From the point of view of historical geography of plants, the obtained differentiation pattern may represent sequele of migration in the postglacial period, which crossed the area of Poland along multiple distinct pathways. The obtained results point to importance of culturing plants in uniform conditions of a greenhouse, which permits to describe genetic variability unbiased by modifying effects of the environment.
Vincent, Wilson; Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.
Sexual prejudice and antigay anger were examined as mediators of the associations between traditional male gender norms, religious fundamentalism, and aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Participants were 201 self-identified heterosexual men recruited from the community to complete computer-administered measures of adherence to traditional male gender norms (i.e., status, toughness, antifemininity), religious fundamentalism, sexual prejudice, and frequency of aggression toward gay men and lesbians. Additionally, participants completed a structured interview designed to assess anger in response to a vignette depicting a male-male intimate relationship (i.e., partners saying “I love you,” holding hands, kissing). Results showed that sexual prejudice and antigay anger partially mediated the effect of antifemininity on aggression and fully mediated the effect of religious fundamentalism on aggression. Sexual prejudice alone fully mediated the effect of status on aggression and neither sexual prejudice nor antigay anger mediated the effect of toughness on aggression. Further, results suggested that religious fundamentalism is a multifaceted construct of which some aspects increase risk for aggression toward gay men and lesbians, whereas other aspects decrease this risk. These data provide multivariate evidence from a nonprobability, community-based sample that extreme internalization of dominant cultural values can set the stage for violence toward marginalized groups. Implications for intervention programming and future research are reviewed. PMID:22081759
Hudepohl, Adam D; Parrott, Dominic J; Zeichner, Amos
The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexual men. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. In contrast, among low-prejudiced men, viewing erotic, but not non-erotic, intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. Implications for understanding heterosexual men's anger, and aggression, toward gay men were discussed.
Hudepohl, Adam D.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos
The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexual men. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. In contrast, among low-prejudiced men, viewing erotic, but not non-erotic, intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. Implications for understanding heterosexual men's anger, and aggression, toward gay men were discussed. PMID:20818528
Neville, Stephen; Kushner, Bernie; Adams, Jeffery
Explore the coming out narratives in a group of older gay men. A narrative gerontological approach was employed to explore the coming out narratives of older gay men. Semi-structured digitally recorded individual interviews were undertaken with 12 gay men aged between 65 and 81 years who lived in the community. Data were analysed using a narrative data analytic process. Three collective narratives related to the coming out of older gay men were identified: 'early gay experiences', 'trying not to be gay' and 'acceptance'. Older gay men come from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds. However, they all grew up in an era where same-sex attraction was a criminal offence. The path to accepting being a gay man was individualised and stressful for these participants. Consequently health and social service providers need to support the ongoing development of resilience and provide a person-centred approach to care that promotes wellbeing. © 2015 AJA Inc.
Reese, G.; Steffens, M.C.; Jonas, K.J.
Previous research suggests that people from some religious backgrounds hold more negative attitudes towards gay men than others do. The current research focuses on psychological variables as an alternative explanation to religious affiliation, testing whether masculinity beliefs regarding gay men
... Conference Newsroom Support GLMA Site Search Ten Things Gay Men Should discuss with Their Healthcare Provider ( Download . ... have identified as most commonly of concern for gay men. While not all of these items apply ...
Wald, Kenneth D; Rienzo, Barbara A; Button, James W
In what has sometimes provoked a "culture war" over America's schools, gays and lesbians have sought an expanded voice in the making of education policy. This paper explores the factors that promote gay representation on school boards, how this variable in turn influences gay representation in both administrative and teaching positions, and how all three forms of gay representation relate to school board policies regarding sexual orientation education. Three of the four models drawn from the social movement literature help to explain gay school board representation. In a manner similar to other minority groups, gay representation on school boards directly or indirectly promotes the appointment of gays to administrative and teaching positions and the adoption of policies that address the problems faced by gay and lesbian students in the public schools.
Šević, Sandra; Ivanković, Iva; Štulhofer, Aleksandar
Emotional intimacy cuts across contexts as diverse as sexual motivation and satisfaction, psychological and physical health, and relational well-being. Although the experience of intimacy and its effects on sex life may be gender and sexual orientation-specific, the role of intimacy in personal and sexual relationships has been studied mostly among heterosexual individuals and couples. Using the minority stress framework (Meyer, 2003) to address this gap in knowledge, the present study comparatively explored levels and predictors/correlates of emotional intimacy, and its association with sexual satisfaction among coupled heterosexual and gay/bisexual men sampled online in a predominantly homonegative country (Croatia). Heterosexual participants (n = 860; M age = 36.4, SD = 9.09) were recruited in 2011 and gay/bisexual participants (n = 250; M age = 29.4, SD = 7.13) in 2013. Controlling for age and relationship duration, gay/bisexual men reported higher levels of emotional intimacy than heterosexual men. Suggesting that the role of emotional intimacy in sexual satisfaction is not sexual orientation-specific, the strength of the association between these two constructs was similar in both samples. However, internalized homonegativity, which was negatively associated with emotional intimacy in this study, remains a challenge to creating and maintaining intimacy in male same-sex relationships.
Clarke, V.; Kitzinger, C.; Potter, J.
Psychologists recognise homophobic bullying as a serious problem for young lesbians and gay men; however, when it comes to children in lesbian and gay households the issue is not so clear cut. Whereas some psychologists sympathetic to lesbian and gay parenting regard it as a problem, most do not. Despite this, the inevitability and severe psychological consequences of homophobic bullying is a prevalent theme in discussions of lesbian and gay parenting in contexts ranging from custody cases to...
This dissertation research is aimed at analyzing the gay roles portrayal in print advertisements by the advertisers. In order to conduct this study, the researcher had selected sample of gay advertisements from the leading US gay magazine and the mainstream magazine. The researcher also developed a coding sheet for the purpose of this analysis. The coding sheet was developed on the basis of various aspects which would enable to find out the various roles that could be portrayed by the gay men...
Xu, Wenjian; Zheng, Lijun; Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong
Social attitudes toward male homosexuality in China so far are still not optimistic. Sexual minorities in China have reported high levels of internalized homophobia. This Internet-based study examined the associations among internalized homophobia, mental health, sexual behaviors, and outness among 435 gay/bisexual men in Southwest China from 2014 to 2015. Latent profile analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, univariate logistic regression, and separate multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. This descriptive study found the Internalized Homophobia Scale to be suitable for use in China. The sample demonstrated a high prevalence of internalized homophobia. Latent profile analysis suggested a 2-class solution as optimal, and a high level of internalized homophobia was significantly associated with greater psychological distress (Wald = 6.49, AOR = 1.66), transactional sex during the previous 6 months (Wald = 5.23, AOR = 2.77), more sexual compulsions (Wald = 14.05, AOR = 2.12), and the concealment of sexual identity from others (Wald = 30.70, AOR = 0.30) and parents (Wald = 6.72, AOR = 0.49). These findings contribute to our understanding of internalized homophobia in China, and highlight the need to decrease gay-related psychological stress/distress and improve public health services.
Epstein, Steven; Carrillo, Héctor
Existing literature on sexual citizenship has emphasized the sexuality-related claims of de jure citizens of nation-states, generally ignoring immigrants. Conversely, the literature on immigration rarely attends to the salience of sexual issues in understanding the social incorporation of migrants. This article seeks to fill the gap by theorizing and analyzing immigrant sexual citizenship. While some scholars of sexual citizenship have focused on the rights and recognition granted formally by the nation-state and others have stressed more diffuse, cultural perceptions of community and local belonging, we argue that the lived experiences of immigrant sexual citizenship call for multiscalar scrutiny of templates and practices of citizenship that bridge national policies with local connections. Analysis of ethnographic data from a study of 76 Mexican gay and bisexual male immigrants to San Diego, California reveals the specific citizenship templates that these men encounter as they negotiate their intersecting social statuses as gay/bisexual and as immigrants (legal or undocumented); these include an “asylum” template, a “rights” template, and a “local attachments” template. However, the complications of their intersecting identities constrain their capacity to claim immigrant sexual citizenship. The study underscores the importance of both intersectional and multiscalar approaches in research on citizenship as social practice. PMID:25013360
Epstein, Steven; Carrillo, Héctor
Existing literature on sexual citizenship has emphasized the sexuality-related claims of de jure citizens of nation-states, generally ignoring immigrants. Conversely, the literature on immigration rarely attends to the salience of sexual issues in understanding the social incorporation of migrants. This article seeks to fill the gap by theorizing and analyzing immigrant sexual citizenship . While some scholars of sexual citizenship have focused on the rights and recognition granted formally by the nation-state and others have stressed more diffuse, cultural perceptions of community and local belonging, we argue that the lived experiences of immigrant sexual citizenship call for multiscalar scrutiny of templates and practices of citizenship that bridge national policies with local connections. Analysis of ethnographic data from a study of 76 Mexican gay and bisexual male immigrants to San Diego, California reveals the specific citizenship templates that these men encounter as they negotiate their intersecting social statuses as gay/bisexual and as immigrants (legal or undocumented); these include an "asylum" template, a "rights" template, and a "local attachments" template. However, the complications of their intersecting identities constrain their capacity to claim immigrant sexual citizenship. The study underscores the importance of both intersectional and multiscalar approaches in research on citizenship as social practice.
Bregman, Hallie R.; Malik, Neena M.; Page, Matthew J. L.; Makynen, Emily; Lindahl, Kristin M.
Sexual identity development is a central task of adolescence and young adulthood and can be especially challenging for sexual minority youth. Recent research has moved from a stage model of identity development in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth to examining identity in a non-linear, multidimensional manner. In addition, although families have been identified as important to youth's identity development, limited research has examined the influence of parental responses to youth's disclosure of their LGB sexual orientation on LGB identity. The current study examined a multidimensional model of LGB identity and its links with parental support and rejection. One hundred and sixty-nine LGB adolescents and young adults (ages 14–24, 56% male, 48% gay, 31% lesbian, 21% bisexual) described themselves on dimensions of LGB identity and reported on parental rejection, sexuality-specific social support, and non-sexuality-specific social support. Using latent profile analysis (LPA), two profiles were identified, indicating that youth experience both affirmed and struggling identities. Results indicated that parental rejection and sexuality-specific social support from families were salient links to LGB identity profile classification, while non-sexuality specific social support was unrelated. Parental rejection and sexuality-specific social support may be important to target in interventions for families to foster affirmed LGB identity development in youth. PMID:22847752
Halpin, Sean A; Allen, Michael W
The current study evaluated the stage theory of Homosexual Identity Formation (HIF) developed by Cass (1979), in terms of the relationship between stage of gay identity development and psychosocial well-being. Four hundred twenty-five males (12 to 64 years, M = 29.2) reporting sexual attraction to other men provided demographic information and completed psychosocial measures: the Happiness-Sadness Scale (McGreal & Joseph, 1993), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985), the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau & Ferguson, 1978), the Index of Self-Esteem (Hudson, 1982), and the Gay Identity Questionnaire (Brady & Busse, 1994). Correlation analysis and ANCOVAs controlling for age and nationality demonstrated that the 6 sequential stages of HIF were associated with a U-shaped function for the psychosocial variables. Well-being was high during the initial Confusion and Comparison stages of HIF, was reduced during the middle Tolerance and Acceptance stages, and was again high in the later Pride and Synthesis stages. Each of the psychosocial variables was significantly different according to stage of development (p <.001). Qualitative analysis of subjects' comments also revealed support for the U-shaped pattern.
Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul
The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…
Collier, Kate L.; Horn, Stacey S.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.
Attitudes toward lesbians and gays vary across national populations, and previous research has found relatively more accepting attitudes in the Netherlands as compared to the U.S. In this study, we compared beliefs about and attitudes toward lesbians and gays in samples of Dutch and American heterosexual adolescents, utilizing survey data from 1,080 American adolescents (mean age = 15.86 years) attending two schools and from 1,391 Dutch adolescents (mean age = 16.27 years) attending eight schools. Findings indicated the Dutch participants were more tolerant of lesbians and gays, after adjusting for the gender, age, and racial/ethnic minority status of the participants. However, between-country differences were attenuated by accounting for the beliefs about lesbians and gays that participants used to justify their attitudes. American participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to social norms and religious opposition, while the Dutch participants were more likely to justify their attitudes using beliefs related to individual rights and the biological/genetic basis of homosexuality. The results suggest that the relative importance of particular beliefs about lesbians and gays to attitudes at the group level may be context-dependent but also that certain beliefs are salient to attitudes across national contexts. PMID:24512056
Riggs, Damien W; Due, Clemence; Power, Jennifer
While growing numbers of Australian gay men are entering into 'offshore' surrogacy arrangements in order to become parents, little empirical research has been conducted with this population. This article reports on a qualitative analysis of interviews with 12 gay men who had entered into surrogacy arrangements in India. The findings outline both positive and negative experiences in terms of support pre-conception, during the birth and post-birth. Changes to legislation in India mean that gay men can no longer access surrogacy services there, but it is important to understand the experiences of men who had previously accessed those services. The article concludes by highlighting aspects of the data that demonstrate the particular experiences of gay men who undertake offshore surrogacy arrangements, especially with regard to their need for support and involvement in all aspects of the process. A more thoroughly developed network of care may help to facilitate such support and this may further increase the positive outcomes reported by gay men who form families through surrogacy arrangements. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
The impact and meanings of homophobic violence on gay men's identities are explored with a particular focus on their identities as men and as gay men. Homosexuality can pose a challenge to conventional masculinities, and for some gay men, being victimized on account of sexual orientation reawakens conflicts about their masculinity that they thought they had resolved. Being victimized can reinvoke shame that is rooted in failure or unwillingness to uphold masculine norms. For some gay men, victimization therefore has connotations of nonmasculinity that make being a victim an undesirable status, yet that status must be claimed to obtain a response from criminal justice or victim services. Men who experience homophobic abuse are helped by accepting a victim identity, but only if they can quickly move on from it by reconstructing a masculine gay (nonvictim) identity. This process can be facilitated by agencies such as the police and victim services, provided they help men exercise agency in "fighting back," that is, resisting further victimization and recovering.
Full Text Available Interrogeant le rôle des populations homosexuelles dans la gentrification d’un ancien quartier historique de Paris (celui du Marais, cet article aborde cette question dans sa dimension commerciale. Depuis le début des années 80, l’implantation de commerces gays dans ce secteur a accompagné les effets de la gentrification et les a même accélérés pour partie depuis les années 90. Aujourd’hui cependant, la relation entre cette présence commerciale spécifique et les transformations socio-économiques de ce quartier parisien apparaissent nettement plus ambigus.In this paper, we examinate the role of gay men towards gentrification and urban renaissance by focusing on gay business development in “Le Marais”. We demonstrate that, in this old neighbourhood of the city-center, the emergence of a gay commercial area has supported gentrification during the eighties and then contributed to the urban, economical and cultural renaissance. The historical link between gentrification and “gay spaces” has changed and became since a few years more and more diversified.
Mental health professionals working with people with HIV disease are often confronted by the patients' feelings of shame and should be prepared to recognize and treat what can sabotage the openness crucial to the therapeutic process. Shame is unlike guilt in that instead of being a transgression against some moral code or value, it is the failure to live up to an internal ideal image of oneself; its sanction is rejection or abandonment as opposed to punishment. Shame can have many triggers, and when faced with these triggers, a strong sense of self can protect a person. However, most people with HIV find that shame does arise in some situations. In its wake, shame can cause withdrawal, substance abuse, depression, denial, rage, grandiosity, lack of entitlement, and perfectionism. Therapists can help gay men deal with shame and cope better with the indignities of HIV infection. Guidelines include building a strong patient/therapist relationship to build trust and improve self-esteem; and identifying the shame, and bringing it out for validation by the patient. Therapists must guide patients to an awareness of their true feelings, and help them trust their perceptions of these needs and feelings.
Kissen, Rita M.
This study explores issues of importance to gay and lesbian teachers. It seeks to answer questions and to dramatize the damaging effects of homophobia on the lives of gay teachers, as well as all teachers and students. The project was narrative and qualitative, consisting of informal and open ended interviews of 10 self-identifies gay or lesbian…
Potarca, Gina; Mills, Melinda; Neberich, Wiebke
There is currently little knowledge about what gay men and lesbians seek in a romantic relationship. This study extends the literature on gay men and lesbians' partnership preferences by engaging in the first large-scale empirical study of the long-term dating intentions and monogamy beliefs of gay
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. DI11-12-000] Gay & Robinson... Filed: July 11, 2011. d. Applicant: Gay & Robinson, Inc. e. Name of Project: Olokele River Hydroelectric... Contact: Charles Okamoto, President, Gay & Robinson, Inc., P.O. Box 156, Kaumakani, Hawaii 96747...
..., Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A... live and love as we see fit. The lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community has written a... coverage to someone just because they are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. Because we understand...
..., Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A... equality from founding promise into lasting reality. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT... Constitution and the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim June 2013 as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and...
Despite a significant increase in gay representation in contemporary television fiction, many media scholars argue that the representation of gay men and women is governed by heteronormativity. They postulate that even rounded and heterogeneous representations of gay men and women are characters that desire to participate in institutions,…
... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Project No. 14219-000] Gay & Robinson... Intervene, and Competing Applications On July 1, 2011, Gay & Robinson, Inc., filed an application for a.... Applicant Contact: Mr. Charles Okamoto, President, Gay & Robinson, Inc., P.O. Box 156, Kaumakani, Hawaii...
..., Gay, Bisexual, And Transgender Pride Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The story of America's Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) community is the story of..., Don't Tell'' policy. With this repeal, gay and lesbian Americans will be able to serve openly in our...
Annes, Alexis; Redlin, Meredith
This research focuses on the complex meaning and role of the city in American and French rural gay men's imaginary and life experience. It explores how gay men who grew up in the country build their sense of self through back-and-forth movement from rural to urban spaces. Therefore, it questions traditional gay migration studies, which have often…
..., Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A... equality on behalf of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. This month, as we.... That is why we must give committed gay couples the same rights and responsibilities afforded to any...
In this paper, I analyse the relationship between US high schools' organisational cultures and student perceptions of responses to anti-gay language in their school. Using data from 67 interviews with young people who identified as gay, lesbian or bisexual, I compare teachers' responses to anti-gay language in schools that do and schools that do…
In 2003 the book Gayle: the language of kinks and queens: a history and dictionary of gay language in South Africa was published, documenting more than 1400 lexical items used by South African gays and lesbians. Given that the field of gay language is an established discipline within sociolinguistic research elsewhere ...
Rosenberger, Joshua G; Herbenick, Debby; Novak, David S; Reece, Michael
Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately impacted by STIs and HIV. In addition to traditional risk factors, increasing attention has been given to the potential role of affective components of a sexual encounter, including mood state. To date, no study has described sexual behaviors engaged in by those who report being in love (or not) during a given sexual event. Internet-based survey data were collected from 24,787 gay and bisexual men who were members of online websites facilitating social or sexual interactions with other men. Measures included sociodemographics, recent sexual behavior history, sexual event characteristics, and perceptions of "love" with men's most recent male sexual partner. Participants' mean age was 39.2 years; ethnicities included white (84.6 %), Latino (6.4 %), and African American (3.6 %). Nearly all men (91 %) were matched by presence (I love him/he loves me), absence (I don't love him/he doesn't love me), or uncertainty (I don't know if I do/I don't know if he does) of love with their most recent sexual partner. Men who reported love for their partner and believed their partner loved them were significantly more likely to have engaged in behaviors such as cuddling and kissing on the mouth. Differences were also seen in regard to love and men's reports of anal intercourse and oral sex. Findings highlight differences in sexual behaviors based on perceptions of love and suggest the need to further explore how these differences influence sexual health.
Weststrate, Nic M; McLean, Kate C
Research on identity development has paid relatively little attention to the development of marginalised identities such as those of gays and lesbians, whose isolation from the canonical narrative of sexuality may limit the available resources required for establishing a coherent identity. We examined these contested identities in relation to cultural-historical factors that may have played a role in shaping these identities over the past 50 years, and looked at how such factors have impacted the voicing and silencing of gay experiences. Participants (N=251) reported (1) a memory of a cultural event relevant to their sexuality, and (2) a self-defining memory about their sexuality. Those in older cohorts reported cultural memories centred on politics and other external events (e.g., Stonewall riots), and younger cohorts reported more personal memories (e.g., coming out), suggesting that homosexual identities have become less culturally defined, and instead more personally defined. Further, participants of older cohorts reported self-defining events that were predominantly from one private domain (e.g., sex). In contrast, younger participants reported a variety of self-defining events. These results suggest that cultural-historical factors play an important role in defining the developmental pathway of individuals, perhaps especially those who have marginalised identities.
Mitchell, Rebecca J; Ozminkowski, Ronald J
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of health risk factors by sexual orientation over a 4-year period within a sample of employees from a large firm. Propensity score-weighted generalized linear regression models were used to estimate the proportion of employees at high risk for health problems in each year and over time, controlling for many factors. Analyses were conducted with 6 study samples based on sex and sexual orientation. Rates of smoking, stress, and certain other health risk factors were higher for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) employees compared with rates of these risks among straight employees. Lesbian, gay, and straight employees successfully reduced risk levels in many areas. Significant reductions were realized for the proportion at risk for high stress and low life satisfaction among gay and lesbian employees, and for the proportion of smokers among gay males. Comparing changes over time for sexual orientation groups versus other employee groups showed that improvements and reductions in risk levels for most health risk factors examined occurred at similar rates among individuals employed by this firm, regardless of sexual orientation. These results can help improve understanding of LGB health and provide information on where to focus workplace health promotion efforts to meet the health needs of LGB employees.
Reiter, Paul L; Katz, Mira L; Bauermeister, Jose A; Shoben, Abigail B; Paskett, Electra D; McRee, Annie-Laurie
Web-based approaches, specifically social media sites, represent a promising approach for recruiting young gay and bisexual men for research studies. Little is known, however, about how the performance of social media advertisements (ads) used to recruit this population is affected by ad content (ie, image and text). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different images and text included in social media ads used to recruit young gay and bisexual men for the pilot test of a Web-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination intervention. In July and September 2016, we used paid Facebook advertisements to recruit men who were aged 18-25 years, self-identified as gay or bisexual, US resident, and had not received HPV vaccine. A 4x2x2 factorial experiment varied ad image (a single young adult male, a young adult male couple, a group of young adult men, or a young adult male talking to a doctor), content focus (text mentioning HPV or HPV vaccine), and disease framing (text mentioning cancer or a sexually transmitted disease [STD]). Poisson regression determined whether these experimental factors affected ad performance. The recruitment campaign reached a total of 35,646 users who viewed ads for 36,395 times. This resulted in an overall unique click-through rate of 2.01% (717/35,646) and an overall conversion rate of 0.66% (241/36,395). Reach was higher for ads that included an image of a couple (incidence rate ratio, IRR=4.91, 95% CI 2.68-8.97, Psocial media recruitment ads. ©Paul L Reiter, Mira L Katz, Jose A Bauermeister, Abigail B Shoben, Electra D Paskett, Annie-Laurie McRee. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 02.06.2017.
Jose M Prat Forga
Full Text Available Municipal governments increasingly turn to cultural and leisure activities to promote and revitalize their cities. This study analysed the development of gay tourism in Barcelona (Spain by means of music festivals. While a significant body of literature has examined revitalization strategies that focus primarily around entertainment and commerce, this paper focuses on strategies in the development of cultural and leisure activities around this specific tourism population. It presents findings from a local survey distributed to key stakeholders in the promotion and development of this tourism (local agents and gay tourists. The survey data indicate that although most agents are guided by a varied set of goals, marketing objectives (“image city” and “brand city” guide the development and support of urban gay tourism in Barcelona.
Samar, V J
This essay explores, in two parts, the problems of justifying civil rights legislation for gays, lesbians, and bisexuals. Part I shows that discrimination against gays and lesbians at least in respect to employment, housing, and public accommodations is an evil unsupported by ethical traditions in utilitarianism, rights theory, and communitarianism. It also shows that two theories, Kantian theory and natural law theory, which do support such discrimination on the claim that homoerotic behavior is universally or objectively immoral only do so because of a failure to make precise the concept of "natural" which underlies those theories. Part II argues that anti-discrimination legislation is both an appropriate and effective means to promote the idea that discrimination against lesbians and gays in respect to most employment, housing, and public accommodations is sufficiently injurious to both individuals and society that it should not be tolerated. The section also explains how such legislation might succeed practically in eliminating discrimination in these areas.
Reyna, Christine; Wetherell, Geoffrey; Yantis, Caitlyn; Brandt, Mark J.
Attributions for sexual orientation strongly predict opposition to gay rights policies; however, we propose that beliefs that gays and lesbians violate important values drive gay rights opposition and account for the relationship between attributions and anti-gay discrimination. In two studies, we
Kousari-Rad, Pantea; McLaren, Suzanne
Body image dissatisfaction has been linked to belonging to the gay community and poor self-esteem among gay men. This study was designed to explore the applicability of a moderation model and a mediation model in explaining the relations between sense of belonging to the gay community, body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem among 90 self-identified Australian gay men. Participants completed the psychological subscale of the Sense of Belonging Instrument, the Body Satisfaction Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results supported the moderation model; the relation between body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem was found to be statistically significant only at average and high levels of belonging to the gay community. The mediation model was also supported; body image dissatisfaction partially mediated the sense of belonging-self-esteem relation. Educating gay men and health professionals about the possible negative outcomes of "belonging" to an appearance-oriented community is important.
Dibble, Suzanne; Eliason, Michele J; Dejoseph, Jeanne F; Chinn, Peggy
To provide an overview of health care needs and related sexuality issues of lesbian and gay patients. Research articles, books, clinical experience. Attitudes of health professionals as well as patients impact care in relation to sexuality and sexual issues. Oncology nurses using a framework of awareness, sensitivity, and knowledge can obtain and apply the essential information needed to provide culturally appropriate nursing care to this population. Lesbian and gay patients need nurses as allies in their fight with cancer. This is particularly true in assessment and managing concerns about sexuality and sexual issues.
Salinas Hernández, Héctor Miguel
El presente trabajo propone presentar un panorama sobre la pornografía hecha en México por y para varones gay, en el ámbito del video y del cine. Arranca con la hipótesis de que la posibilidad de creación en México de porno exclusivo para varones gay se inserta en la visibilidad adquirida por el Movimiento de Disidencia Sexual a nivel mundial, facilitado por el mercado como elemento preponderante en la globalización. El documento presenta algunas aproximaciones teóricas a la pornografía y sus...
O'Byrne, Patrick; Bryan, Alyssa; Hendriks, Andrew; Horvath, Cynthia; Bouchard, Christiane; Etches, Vera
A total of 27 gay and bisexual men were interviewed about how they perceived the criminal prosecution of persons living with HIV who do not disclose their HIV status. The stories that emerged from the interviews raise questions about the nature of the gay community. The findings centre on the participants' descriptions of (1) the heterosexual meta-culture, (2) the locales of gay life, and (3) unsupportive elements in the gay community. Analysis of the interview data situates the gay community as a place of both inclusion and exclusion and as a heterogeneous environment. Copyright© by Ingram School of Nursing, McGill University.
Full Text Available Gay marriage has become a major transnational gay rights issue: a key marker of gay citizenship, to the extent that it is considered self-evident that its legalisation represents progress. Yet it is becoming apparent that this ‘progress’ is concurrent with other forms of exclusion. In this article, I argue that gay marriage is a convenient liberal smokescreen, leaving other exclusions unaddressed or even enabling their reinforcement. The discussion involves examination of three case studies: Argentina, the first Latin American country to legalise gay marriage in 2010; France, which legalised gay marriage in May, 2013; and Australia, which has not legalised gay marriage at the time of this writing.
... hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal problems have a number of possible underlying causes. Defects of tubules that transport sperm. Many ... syndrome — in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one ...
Parrott, Dominic J; Zeichner, Amos
The present study examined the effects of hypermasculinity and exposure to male gender role violations on antigay anger and aggression. Participants were 148 heterosexual men who were randomly assigned to view either a male-male or a male-female erotic video. Participants completed a measure of hypermasculinity and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic video. A laboratory paradigm was then used to measure physical aggression toward a gay or heterosexual man. Hypermasculinity predicted greater increases in anger among men who viewed male-male erotica relative to men who viewed male-female erotica. Hypermasculinity also predicted higher levels of physical aggression toward a gay, relative to a heterosexual, man, but only after viewing male-male erotica. Findings were discussed within the context of the General Aggression Model.
This thesis investigates the black lesbian, gay, transgender representations in three US-American films. Using feminist film theory and intersectionality theory, the thesis analyzes the films Set It Off, Tangerine and Moonlight. This analysis includes three themes: 1) Stereotypes including drugs, violence and low socioeconomic status 2) Power relations including white and/or heterosexual supremacy 3) Representation of gender. Overall the study seeks to understand and explore the ways of how i...
The Nigrescence of the "Okay" Brother: a Phenomenological Study on the Impact of an Education in a Traditionally White Learning Institution on the Racial Identity Development of Black Males in Professional Careers
Edwards, Hayley E.
There are many stereotypes of the Black male that have been portrayed in the media through news stories, film, and television. They are often portrayed as shiftless, lazy, violent, or subservient, or praised for their athletic prowess, their music, or their value as entertainers. Occasionally, Black men are portrayed as the lone person of color…
Bozett, Frederick W.
Focuses on the spousal relationship of gay men who had been married. Describes the man's disclosure of his homosexuality, the wife's response, and the interactional effects on the marriage relationship. Suggests the wife appeared to be an enabler of his transition to a homosexual life-style. (Author/JAC)
Full Text Available My research and deliberation made in this study show that homosexuality is only one of the signs of human diversity - one from innumerable number of personality features. Therefore, one cannot talk about "gay identity", "homosexual personality", because, as far as I am concerned, it doesn't exist. Artificially generted gay population is only a group of peple being much different from one another and having only one common feature - their sexual orientation. Besides they differ from one another as much as one man from another. Gay relationships take on countless forms, but all of them, as the results of my research indicate, fulfil the majority of family in traditional point of view functions. The deliberation points out at one more conclusion - one cannot examine gay relationships as a separate model of family-marriage life. It should be forgotten about their different psyhosexual orientation and treat their trlationships, together with other interpersonal relationships, equally. Only from such position one can discern in their specific alternative models of family-marriage life.
Auerback, Sandra; Moser, Charles
Found groups for wives of gay and bisexual men to be an effective therapeutic intervention for the problems that arise when a husband makes a disclosure to his wife that he is interested in pursuing homosexual relationships. The groups helped wives resolve the issues of the marriage and to make positive changes in their lives. (Author)
Maree, Jacobus Gideon
This article reports on the value of career construction counselling (CCC) with a gay person. The participant was selected purposively, with the selection criteria calling for a mid-career woman who had sought career counselling. The intervention involved administration of the "Career Construction Interview" (CCI) and the creation of a…
Sadownick, Douglas G.
This article explores the possibility of a "homosexual hermeneutic" by which the great literary works of the western canon can be taught. This "interpretative methodology" is based in the author's own individuation process as gay. The author details his personal journey from engulfment in heteronormativity to the first crisis of his homosexual…
Security for women and the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people in the conflict-affected regions in Colombia. Colombia is currently in the process of concluding peace negotiations with the guerrilla group Colombian Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARC). One of the principal expectations generated by the ...
Social science research as well as a rise in sexually transmitted diseases and new HIV infections among men who have sex with men point to increasing numbers of gay men engaging in unprotected anal intercourse without condoms, a practice called "barebacking." There is some evidence that barebacking is linked to the rise of crystal methamphetamine…
Daugelli, Anthony R.; Grossman, Arnold H.; Starks, Michael T.
This study used a sample of 293 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth to examine factors that differentiated youth whose parents knew of their sexual orientation from youth whose parents did not know. Earlier awareness and disclosure of same-gender attractions, greater childhood gender atypicality, and less internalized homophobia were characteristic…
Hillman, Jennifer; Martin, Renee A.
We designed an active learning activity to allow students to experience stereotyping and consider the social stigma often directed toward gays and lesbians. We used an unusual fictional scenario to alleviate students' concerns about impression management and permit them to experience the role of someone faced with discrimination without the…
van Bergen, Diana; Bos, Henny M.W.; van Lisdonk, jantine; Keuzenkamp, S; Sandfort, T.G.M
We examined Netherlands Institute for Social Research data, collected between May and August 2009, on 274 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. The data showed that victimization at school was associated with suicidal ideation and actual suicide attempts. Homophobic rejection by parents was also
Bayne, Hannah Barnhill
This article explores the impact of sexual and religious identity on college student development, examining developmental models and discussing how counselors can assist gay and lesbian students with integrating these 2 personal identities. Treatment approaches are presented, and the article concludes with an examination of ethical and…
Volchkov, Valerii V; Volchkov, Vitaly V
We obtain a solution of the Berenstein-Gay problem on the local analogue of spectral analysis on Riemannian symmetric spaces X of rank 1. The proof is based on constructing transmutation maps connected with eigenfunction expansions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on X.
Ferfolja, Tania; Hopkins, Lucy
Discrimination against lesbians and gay men has been endemic throughout Australia's history. However, in twenty-first century Australian society there are signs of growing sophistication and acceptance of sexual diversities. Despite this, schools continue to be organisations where sexual "difference" is marginalised and silenced, having…
Goldfried, Marvin R.
Illustrates how clinical and research writings on gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) issues remain invisible to mainstream psychology in such areas as life span development and aging, teen suicide, substance abuse, victimization, and family and couple relationships, examining determinants of wellbeing among GLBs and discussing what mainstream…
Parnell, Martha Keeton; Lease, Suzanne H.; Green, Michael L.
This study examined career-related barriers that gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) individuals had encountered in the past and anticipated in the future and the degree of hindrance associated with future barriers. Two hundred forty-one GLB participants (126 women and 115 men) completed the Career Barriers Inventory-Revised and 11 additional items…
Odd Couples. A History of Gay Marriage in Scandinavia is het eerste omvangrijke boek over de geschiedenis van het geregistreerd partnerschap en het homohuwelijk in Scandinavië. Dit boek presenteert een grondig onderzoek naar de wisselwerking tussen het homoactivisme en traditionele partijpolitiek.
van Bergen, D.D.; Bos, H.M.W.; van Lisdonk, J.; Keuzenkamp, S.; Sandfort, T.G.M.
We examined Netherlands Institute for Social Research data, collected between May and August 2009, on 274 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. The data showed that victimization at school was associated with suicidal ideation and actual suicide attempts. Homophobic rejection by parents was also
van Bergen, D.D.; Bos, H.M.W.; van Lisdonk, J.; Keuzenkamp, S.; Sandfort, T.G.M.
We examined Netherlands Institute for Social Research data, collected between May and August 2009, on 274 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. The data showed that victimization at school was associated with suicidal ideation and actual suicide attempts. Homophobic rejection by parents was also
The Hetrick-Martin Institute and AIDS educators help gay and lesbian adolescents confront issues such as AIDS education and discrimination. Intolerance and religious convictions held by the community impede proper AIDS education. Peer education programs in schools or health care facilities, and use of near-peer educators, are effective vehicles for AIDS education.
Mulcahy, Molly; Dalton, Sarah; Kolbert, Jered; Crothers, Laura
The authors identified the process that 10 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) high school students used to establish an informal adult-mentor relationship with a school personnel member. Five major themes emerged: (a) how LGBT students determined whether this person would be a safe mentor, (b) a listing of the important qualities of…
Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick
The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…
Reback, Cathy J; Shoptaw, Steven
This study compared outcomes in methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviors from a modified gay-specific, cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) combined with a low-cost contingency management (CM; [GCBT+CM]) intervention to prior findings from clinical trials of the original GCBT. Effect sizes for primary outcomes were compared using meta analysis. Comparisons of effect sizes at end of treatment showed the modified GCBT+CM produced significantly fewer consecutive weeks of methamphetamine abstinence (-0.44, CI: -0.79, -0.09) and fewer male sexual partners (-0.36, CI: -0.71, -0.02) than the first trial of GCBT, and more days of methamphetamine use (0.35, CI: 0.02, 0.68) than the second trial of GCBT. At 26-week follow-up, the modified GCBT+CM produced greater effects in reducing the number of male sexual partners (-0.54, CI: -0.89, -0.19; -0.51, CI: -0.84, -0.18). The original GCBT produced more and mostly short-term beneficial drug use outcomes, though sexual behavior changes consistently favored the modified GCBT+CM. On balance, most benefits are retained with the modified GCBT+CM intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro
support the role of sexual beliefs as facilitators of the activation of incompetence schemas in the face of negative sexual events in gay and heterosexual men, emphasizing the need to develop treatment and prevention strategies aimed at challenging common male beliefs about sexuality. Peixoto MM, Nobre P. "Macho" Beliefs Moderate the Association Between Negative Sexual Episodes and Activation of Incompetence Schemas in Sexual Context, in Gay and Heterosexual Men. J Sex Med 2017;14:518-525. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kennedy, Tammie M
At a time when lesbian families are experiencing more acceptance, gaining membership into mainstream society often depends on diluting any kind of queer sensibility that might challenge the centrality of white, neoliberal, middle-class values. Although many queer scholars have traced the link between "normativity" and gay and lesbian representations, few have noted how whiteness operates in these depictions. Building on the analyses forwarded by scholarship on white normativity and homonormativity, this article explores how the representation of a lesbian family in the movie The Kids Are All Right promotes white homonormativity to appeal to a mainstream audience. Interrogating Kids… at the intersection of same-sex families and white homonormativity reveals how the film's appeal to universality invokes hegemonic racial hierarchies that mask the ways "normal" conceals power and liberatory progress.
This critical narrative inquiry was guided by two overarching research questions. First, this study examined how white undergraduates interpreted and gave meaning to their white racial identities. This line of inquiry sought to understand how participants made sense of their white racial selves, the self in relation to people of color, and the…
... the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an ... Adulthood In adult males, hypogonadism may alter certain masculine physical characteristics and impair normal reproductive function. Signs ...
... to have a baby? If treatment doesn’t work, what are our other options? Resources National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, What Causes Male Infertility? Last Updated: May 30, 2017 This ...
Amory, John K
Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE Some ...
Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi
Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...
Ginsberg, Terrie B
It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jered B. Kolbert
Full Text Available This study was designed to ascertain teachers’ perceptions of bullying of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ youth. In a sample of 200 educators (61.0% female; 96.5% White from a county in southwestern Pennsylvania, there was a significant positive relationship between the teachers’ perceptions of the supportiveness of school staff towards students regardless of sexual orientation and those teachers’ reports of the frequency of bullying victimization experienced by LGBTQ students. Teachers’ perceptions of a higher level of staff and student support was associated with higher reported frequencies of students’ use of derogatory language about LGBTQ individuals and various types of bullying of LGBTQ students. Teachers with a lesbian, gay, or bisexual orientation were found to rate the school staff and students as significantly less supportive of students regardless of their sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression in comparison to heterosexual teachers. Finally, teachers who either were unaware of or believed that their school lacked an anti-bullying policy reported significantly higher rates of physical bullying victimization of LGBTQ students when compared to the rates observed by teachers who reported knowledge of their schools’ anti-bullying policies.
Kolbert, Jered B.; Crothers, Laura M.; Bundick, Matthew J.; Wells, Daniel S.; Buzgon, Julie; Berbary, Cassandra; Simpson, Jordan; Senko, Katherine
This study was designed to ascertain teachers’ perceptions of bullying of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ) youth. In a sample of 200 educators (61.0% female; 96.5% White) from a county in southwestern Pennsylvania, there was a significant positive relationship between the teachers’ perceptions of the supportiveness of school staff towards students regardless of sexual orientation and those teachers’ reports of the frequency of bullying victimization experienced by LGBTQ students. Teachers’ perceptions of a higher level of staff and student support was associated with higher reported frequencies of students’ use of derogatory language about LGBTQ individuals and various types of bullying of LGBTQ students. Teachers with a lesbian, gay, or bisexual orientation were found to rate the school staff and students as significantly less supportive of students regardless of their sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression in comparison to heterosexual teachers. Finally, teachers who either were unaware of or believed that their school lacked an anti-bullying policy reported significantly higher rates of physical bullying victimization of LGBTQ students when compared to the rates observed by teachers who reported knowledge of their schools’ anti-bullying policies. PMID:26030341
Kolbert, Jered B; Crothers, Laura M; Bundick, Matthew J; Wells, Daniel S; Buzgon, Julie; Berbary, Cassandra; Simpson, Jordan; Senko, Katherine
This study was designed to ascertain teachers' perceptions of bullying of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ) youth. In a sample of 200 educators (61.0% female; 96.5% White) from a county in southwestern Pennsylvania, there was a significant positive relationship between the teachers' perceptions of the supportiveness of school staff towards students regardless of sexual orientation and those teachers' reports of the frequency of bullying victimization experienced by LGBTQ students. Teachers' perceptions of a higher level of staff and student support was associated with higher reported frequencies of students' use of derogatory language about LGBTQ individuals and various types of bullying of LGBTQ students. Teachers with a lesbian, gay, or bisexual orientation were found to rate the school staff and students as significantly less supportive of students regardless of their sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression in comparison to heterosexual teachers. Finally, teachers who either were unaware of or believed that their school lacked an anti-bullying policy reported significantly higher rates of physical bullying victimization of LGBTQ students when compared to the rates observed by teachers who reported knowledge of their schools' anti-bullying policies.
Lea, Toby; Mao, Limin; Hopwood, Max; Prestage, Garrett; Zablotska, Iryna; de Wit, John|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06883652X; Holt, Martin
BACKGROUND: Gay and bisexual men typically report high rates of illicit drug use, including methamphetamine use. This paper aimed to analyse trends in crystal methamphetamine ('crystal') and powder methamphetamine ('speed') use among gay and bisexual men in Australia, and characterise the
McCormick, Adam; Schmidt, Kathryn; Clifton, Emily
Few studies have examined the effectiveness of gay-straight alliances (GSAs) on the social and academic experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youths. The limited research on GSAs suggests that they are associated with positive youth development and increased safety; however, little qualitative information…
Rob Jay Fredericksen
Full Text Available Young gay men’s negative perceptions of growing older have been indicated in prior research [Bergling, 2004; Jones & Pugh, 2005; Cohler & Galatzer-Levy, 2000]. A recent resurgence of HIV infection rates among young gay men [Mitsch et al, 2008] calls into question whether these negative perceptions contribute to a lack of future-oriented health investments; i.e., a “live for now” outlook. Strength of future orientation has repeatedly predicted risk aversion [McCabe & Barnett, 2000], hence, it is of great social and public health value to ask: what does aging mean to today’s youngest generation of gay men? How do cultural norms in the gay community inform how today’s young gay men imagine growing older? This research explores these questions.
Lewis, Nathaniel M.; Bauer, Greta R.; Coleman, Todd A.; Blot, Soraya; Pugh, Daniel; Fraser, Meredith; Powell, Leanne
Changes in gay and bisexual men’s connectedness to the gay community are related to the declining public visibility of HIV/AIDS and greater acceptance for homosexuality and bisexuality in mainstream society. Little work, however, has focused on perceived acceptance for subgroups within the gay community or broader society. Using interviews (n = 20) and a survey (n = 202) of gay and bisexual men in a mid-sized Canadian city, we find perceived hierarchies of acceptance for the various subgroups as well as an age effect wherein middle-aged men perceive the least acceptance for all groups. These differences are linked with the uneven impact of social, political, and institutional changes relevant to gay and bisexual men in Canada. PMID:26011048
Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 2011 B.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder Research Assistant, Colorado School of Mines, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2006-2011 Field Team Erick A. White Photo of Erick A. White Erick White Chemical Reaction Engineer Erick.White@nrel.gov
Male baldness is very common. Its effect on individuals is extremely variable, and in some people it will have a significant adverse effect on their quality of life. The objectives of this article are to help general practitioners (GPs) be aware of potential health problems related to male baldness, to have an approach to assessing hair loss and to be aware of treatment options. Male baldness is, most often, a normal occurrence, but it may have significant effects on a man's health. It may also be a pointer to other potential health issues. The GP is in the ideal position to conduct an initial evaluation, consider other health issues and advise on treatment options.
Lassiter, Jonathan M; Saleh, Lena; Starks, Tyrel; Grov, Christian; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T
This study examined the rates of spirituality, religiosity, religious coping, and religious service attendance in addition to the sociodemographic correlates of those factors in a U.S. national cohort of 1,071 racially and ethnically diverse HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Descriptive statistics were used to assess levels of spirituality, religiosity, religious coping, and religious service attendance. Multivariable regressions were used to determine the associations between sociodemographic characteristics, religious affiliation, and race/ethnicity with four outcome variables: (1) spirituality, (2) religiosity, (3) religious coping, and (4) current religious service attendance. Overall, participants endorsed low levels of spirituality, religiosity, and religious coping, as well as current religious service attendance. Education, religious affiliation, and race/ethnicity were associated with differences in endorsement of spirituality and religious beliefs and behaviors among gay and bisexual men. Men without a 4-year college education had significantly higher levels of religiosity and religious coping as well as higher odds of attending religious services than those with a 4-year college education. Gay and bisexual men who endorsed being religiously affiliated had higher levels of spirituality, religiosity, and religious coping as well as higher odds of religious service attendance than those who endorsed being atheist/agnostic. White men had significantly lower levels of spirituality, religiosity, and religious coping compared to Black men. Latino men also endorsed using religious coping significantly less than Black men. The implications of these findings for future research and psychological interventions with gay and bisexual men are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Huebner, David M; Rebchook, Gregory M; Kegeles, Susan M
We examined the 6-month cumulative incidence of anti-gay harassment, discrimination, and violence among young gay/bisexual men and documented their associations with mental health. Gay/bisexual men from 3 cities in the southwestern United States completed self-administered questionnaires. Thirty-seven percent of men reported experiencing anti-gay verbal harassment in the previous 6 months; 11.2% reported discrimination, and 4.8% reported physical violence. Men were more likely to report these experiences if they were younger, were more open in disclosing their sexual orientation to others, and were HIV positive. Reports of mistreatment were associated with lower self-esteem and increased suicidal ideation. Absent policies preventing anti-gay mistreatment, empowerment and community-building programs are needed for young gay/bisexual men to both create safe social settings and help them cope with the psychological effects of these events.
Rhodebeck, Laurie A
Drawing from the theory of policy voting, this study examines the impact of opinions about gay rights on voting for presidential candidates. Qualitative analysis of the major party platforms and candidate campaign rhetoric from the six presidential elections held between 1988 and 2008 indicates that Democratic and Republican presidential candidates began openly expressing opposing positions on gay rights issues in 1992. Quantitative analysis of public opinion shows that, starting in 1992 and continuing through 2008, gay rights issues became more salient to the public, and opinions about gay rights began to exert a significant effect on vote choice. The study concludes with a discussion of the partisan forces that shaped the electoral significance of gay rights issues during the period from 1988 to 2008 and speculation about the role of gay rights issues in shaping future partisan electoral strategy.
Hollekim, Ragnhild; Slaatten, Hilde; Anderssen, Norman
In Norway, a gender-neutral Marriage Law that secured equal marriage and parenting rights for lesbian, gay and heterosexual couples took effect in January 2009. The aim of the current study was to explore Norwegian beliefs about equal marriage and parenting rights for lesbian, gay and heterosexual couples and the welfare of children with lesbian and gay parents. A sample of 1,246 Norwegians participated in the study by filling out a questionnaire. The majority reported...
Adail Sebastião Rodrigues Júnior
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta parte dos resultados de minha pesquisa de doutorado, com foco em como personagens gays e suas realidades de mundo são representados por meio da transitividade (HALLIDAY; MATTHIESSEN, 2004. Os corpora sob análise são uma coletânea de contos gays intitulada Stud (ANDROS, 1969 e sua tradução brasileira As Aventuras de um Garoto de Programa (ANDROS, 1998, re-textualizada quase trinta anos após a publicação do original nos Estados Unidos da América. Cinco excertos foram escolhidos a fim de mostrar como partes dos corpos dos personagens são usadas para representar suas realidades de mundo, o que aponta para o papel do corpo na constituição de relações sociais homossexuais no contexto dos anos 1960 nos EUA. De igual modo, a tradução, embora feita nos anos 1990 no Brasil, enfatiza o mesmo papel empregado pelos fragmentos dos corpos dos personagens. Os resultados, portanto, abrem novas possibilidades de discussão de como os gays são representados no discurso literário.This paper aims at presenting part of the results of my doctorate research, with a focus on how gay characters and their world realities are represented by means of transitivity (HALLIDAY; MATTHIESSEN, 2004. The corpora under analysis are a collection of gay short stories entitled Stud (ANDROS, 1969 and its Brazilian translation As Aventuras de um Garoto de Programa (ANDROS, 1998, re-textualized almost thirty years after the original publication in the United States of America. Five excerpts were chosen in order to show how parts of the characters' bodies are used to represent their world realities, which points to the role of the body in the constitution of homosexual social relations in the context of the 1960s in the U.S. Likewise, the translation, though rendered in the 1990s in Brazil, emphasizes the same role played by fragments of the characters' bodies. Thus, the results open new possibilities for discussing further how gays are represented
Since the 1973 decision to remove homosexuality from the list of mental disorders, most mental health practitioners have shifted their clinical focus from "the cure" of homosexuality to treating the concerns of gay and lesbian patients. Some clinicians, however, reject the mental health mainstream's view and continue to conceptualize homosexuality as a mental disorder. Their clinical theories have been incorporated into wider societal debates regarding the status of gay and lesbian people. The sexual conversion or reparative therapies they practice, however, may include routine ethical violations in the realm of improper pressure, confidentiality, informed consent, and fiduciary responsibility to the patient's best interest. On the other hand, a normal/identity approach to treatment, particularly in its most reductionistic forms, may involve ethical lapses in the areas of informed consent and fiduciary responsibility to the patient's best interests as well.
Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality-that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior-is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness.
Kerr, Dianne L; Ding, Kele; Chaya, Julie
To compare self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students to heterosexual peers and to each other on alcohol, tobacco and other drug (ATOD) measures and alcohol use consequences. Preexisting data (Falls 2009-2011) from the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA-II) were analyzed. Bisexual college students had greater odds of ATOD use than heterosexual and gay/lesbian students. Bisexual women had the highest levels of use. LGB students had more serious consequences due to alcohol use. ATOD use among LGB students was more prevalent than heterosexuals during the past 30 days, year, and life-time. LGB students report more negative alcohol consequences.
Full Text Available Resumo: Este ensaio introduz algumas questões relativas aos estudos feministas, gays, lésbicos, transgênecos e teoria queer na busca de contribuições teórico-metodológicas na análise da cultura contemporânea. Palavras-chave: Estudos gays e lésbicos, estudos transgêneros, teoria queer, cultura. Abstrat: This essay introduces some issues related tofeminist studies, gay and lesbian studies, transgender studies and queer theory in the search of theoretical and methodological contributions in the analysis of contemporary culture. Key-words: Gay and Lesbian Studies, transgender studies, queer theory, culture
Jankowski, G.; Slater, A.; Tiggemann, M.; Fawkner, H.
Gay men's greater body dissatisfaction compared to straight men has been explained as a result of gay men’s more 'appearance potent' subculture. This study aimed to critically appraise this explanation by assessing images of men and women for their physical characteristics and objectification across 8 popular gay and straight men's dating and porn websites. 1,415 images of men and 715 images of women across the website’s main pages were coded. Results showed that the gay men's websites featur...
Severino Joaquim Nunes Pereira
Full Text Available It is not easy to study socially marginalized groups such as gays, ethnic minorities, and others. This is, however,an extremely relevant topic in the consumer behavior area since the status of members of a modern consumersociety is largely denied to stigmatized social groups (Barbosa, 2006. The objective of this work is to shed lighton how gay men in Rio de Janeiro use the discourse associated with their possessions to build and maintain thesymbolic and hierarchical boundaries between the gay and heterosexual worlds, as well as to investigate the roleconsumption plays in this boundary setting. An ethnographic observation of a group of gay men in Rio deJaneiro was conducted, along with 20 semi-structured interviews with openly gay men between 2005 and 2008.The results suggest that: (a the world culturally built by gays seems to be divided into a gay world and aheterosexual world, where the division between these two worlds not only happens in their minds, but also intheir possessions and purchasing decisions; (b the meaning of gay mens’ places of consumption range fromprofane to sacred along their lives; and (c in the gay world, the body is seen both as a cultural construction andas an asset.
Nordqvist, Petra; Smart, Carol
Legal and social attitudes towards gay men and lesbians have altered considerably in latter years and yet recent research suggests that â€˜coming outâ€™ as lesbian and gay may remain a troubled business, especially in oneâ€™s own family. Exploring this theme, we situate gay and lesbian identities in wider family networks and explore how gay men and women negotiate family relationships at particular and significant moments in their lives, such as weddings and child birth. In doing so, we draw ...
Ludlam, Adrian H; Saxton, Peter J; Dickson, Nigel P; Hughes, Anthony J
General practitioners (GPs) can improve HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening, vaccination and wellbeing among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) if they are aware of a patient's sexual orientation. To estimate GP awareness of their GBM patients' sexual orientation and examine whether HIV and STI screening was associated with this. We analysed anonymous, self-completed data from 3168 GBM who participated in the community-based Gay Auckland Periodic Sex Survey (GAPSS) and Internet-based Gay men's Online Sex Survey (GOSS) in 2014. Participants were asked if their usual GP was aware of their sexual orientation or that they had sex with men. Half (50.5%) believed their usual GP was aware of their sexual orientation/behaviour, 17.0% were unsure, and 32.6% believed he/she was unaware. In multivariate analysis, GP awareness was significantly lower if the respondent was younger, Asian or an 'Other' ethnicity, bisexual-identified, had never had anal intercourse or had first done so very recently or later in life, and had fewer recent male sexual partners. GBM whose GP was aware of their sexual orientation were more likely to have ever had an HIV test (91.5% vs 57.9%; p<0.001), specific STI tests (91.7% vs 68.9%; p<0.001), and were twice as likely to have had an STI diagnosed. Lack of sexual orientation disclosure is resulting in missed opportunities to reduce health inequalities for GBM. More proactive, inclusive and safe environments surrounding the care of sexual orientation minorities are needed in general practice to encourage disclosure.
Paul Poteat, V; Russell, Stephen T; Dewaele, Alexis
Sexual minority adolescent sexual risk behavior studies often overlook young women, do not consider behavior- and identity-based sexual orientation indicators in combination, and focus mainly on condomless sex. We examined multiple risk behaviors in a large sample of adolescent young men and women using combined behavior- and identity-based indices. The 2015 Dane County Youth Assessment data included 4734 students in 22 high schools who had ever voluntarily engaged in sexual contact (51.7% male; 76.0% White, non-Hispanic). Items assessed having sex with unfamiliar partners, sex while using substances, using protection, and STI testing. Logistic regressions tested for disparities based on combined identity- and behavior-based sexual orientation indicators. For both young men and women, youth who reported heterosexual or questioning identities-but who had sex with same-sex partners-were at consistently greater risk than heterosexual youth with only different-sex partners. Also, for both young men and women, bisexuals with partners of both sexes more consistently reported higher risk than heterosexual youth than did bisexuals with only different-sex partners. Risk behavior for gay young men who had sex only with men mirrored those in extant literature. Risk levels differed for specific groups of sexual minority young women, thus deserving further attention. Findings underscore the need for sexual health research to consider sexual orientation in a more multidimensional manner.
The objective of the thesis was to gather information on as well as draw attention to the Gay Market among representatives connected to the tourism business who met during the international fair Matka Expo 2012 held in the Helsinki Exposition and Convention Centre. The aim was to seek to improve the future situation on this particular niche market through increased interest and knowledge, which would lead to better understanding, cooperation and prejudice release. The thesis was aimed to make...
Nakamura, Nadine; Semple, Shirley J.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Patterson, Thomas L.
This study describes factors associated with methamphetamine initiation in a racially diverse sample of 340 methamphetamine-using, HIV-positive gay and bisexual men. A factor analysis was conducted on reasons for initiation, and four factors were identified: to party, to cope, for energy, and to improve self-esteem. Methamphetamine to party accounted for more than one-third of the variance in the factor analysis. Methamphetamine to cope captured almost 9% of the variance, methamphetamine for ...
This study ia a pre-experimental research that aimed to examine the effect of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) in improving psychological well-being in gay adolescent. CBT is a psychotherapy that focuses on thought and core beliefs that cause emotional distress, which aims to assist individuals in changing irrational thoughts or cognitions become more rational thinking. Psychological well-being improvement seen using Psychological Well-Being Scale that reveals self-acceptance, positive relati...
Russell, Stephen T.; Muraco, Anna; Subramaniam, Aarti; Laub, Carolyn
In the field of positive youth development programs, “empowerment” is used interchangeably with youth activism, leadership, civic participation and self-efficacy. However, few studies have captured what empowerment means to young people in diverse contexts. This article explores how youth define and experience empowerment in youth-led organizations characterized by social justice goals: high school Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs). Through focus group interviews, fifteen youth leaders of GSAs fr...
Sonia Amparo Guerrero-Cabrera
Full Text Available Given the great importance of literary journalism has been gaining in the West, this work performs a scan of the main circumstances which allowed the emergence of it; then it resorts to one of the greatest representatives of this field to state its essential characteristics. Based on the book Portraits and meetings (2003 of Gay Talese, the key components of literary journalism are exemplified.
Meletti, Alexandre Trevisani; Scorsolini-Comin, Fabio
The aim of this study was to understand the processes of construction of the marital relationship and expectations about parenthood in same-sex couples. It has been interviewed four gay couples (four men and four women) who have been living together for four years, on average. Semi-structured interviews have been used and the technique of the life history has been also performed in an individual appliance. They have also been audio taped, fully and literally transcribed. The content analysis ...
Holbrow, Charles H.; Amato, Joseph C.
In his 1802 paper Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac reported the first definitive experimental evidence that many different gases exhibit the same fractional expansion of volume when heated. This property is known as Charles Law, Amontons Law, Dalton's Law, or the law of volumes. Gay-Lussac concluded from his experiments that many gases expand by 37.5% when heated from 0 ,oC to 100,oC. Although his result is within 2.5% of the modern value of 36.6% = 100/273.15, the discrepancy is surprising because his direct and simple experimental method allowed him to measure changes in volume with a precision of a few tenths of a percent. An examination of his original paper suggests, however, that he did not take into account that his measurements of the initial and final volumes of gas were made at slightly different pressures. With reasonable assumptions about the diagrams in his paper, one can use Pascal's law and the ideal gas law to correct the measured volumes so that they correspond to the same initial and final pressure. With this correction the results imply δV/V = .366. Gay-Lussac did better than he knew.
Filip-Crawford, Gabrielle; Neuberg, Steven L
Negative behaviors targeting gay men and lesbians range from violent physical assault to casting a vote against gay marriage, with very different implications for those targeted. Existing accounts of such actions, however, are unable to differentially predict specific anti-gay behaviors, leaving a large theoretical hole in the literature and hindering the design of effective interventions. We propose (a) that many sexually prejudiced laypersons conceptualize homosexuality and pro-gay ideology as "contaminants" analogous to infectious pathogens and (b) that anti-gay behaviors can thus be viewed as strategic attempts to prevent, contain, treat, or eradicate the "pathogens" of homosexuality and pro-gay ideology. By considering analogues to disease-spread processes (e.g., susceptibility of specific subpopulations, inoculation procedures, prevalence in the local environment, interconnections among community members), we derive novel predictions regarding the incidence and nature of anti-gay behaviors and provide leverage for creating more tailored interventions to reduce such discrimination. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Logie, Carmen H; Rwigema, Marie-Jolie
White privilege constructs whiteness as normative and central to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) identities and is reproduced through social norms, media representations, and daily interactions. We aimed to enhance understanding of the processes by which white privilege was experienced among lesbian, bisexual, and queer (LBQ) women of color in Toronto, Canada. We conducted two focus groups with LBQ women of color, one with participants who self-identified as masculine of center (n = 8) and the second with participants who identified as feminine of center (n = 8). Findings indicate that LBQ women of color experience intersectional stigma (e.g., homophobia, racism, sexism) on a daily basis. Participant narratives revealed that white privilege shaped the representations of women of color in a particular way that promoted their exclusion from white LBQ spaces and broader society. By representing queerness as white, LBQ women of color were rendered invisible in both queer and racialized communities. LBQ women of color were further marginalized by constructions of "real" women as passive, feminine and white, and conversely perceptions of women of color as aggressive, emotional, and hypersexualized. These representations inform spatialized practices and social interactions through constructing racialized communities as discriminatory and "backwards" while maintaining the invisibility of white privilege and racism in LBQ spaces.
Warren, Jacob C; Fernández, M Isabel; Harper, Gary W; Hidalgo, Marco A; Jamil, Omar B; Torres, Rodrigo Sebastián
Despite the recognized need for culturally tailored HIV prevention interventions for gay, bisexual, and questioning youth, few studies have examined if predictors of unprotected sex vary for youth from different ethnic groups. This study reports on a sample of 189 gay, bisexual, and questioning youth (age 15-22) from three racial/ethnic backgrounds (African American, Hispanic, and White) recruited in Chicago, IL and Miami-Dade and Broward Counties, Florida. For African American youth, being in a long-term relationship, having been kicked out of the home for having sex with men, and younger age at initiation of sexual behavior were associated with unprotected sex. For Hispanic youth, higher ethnic identification and older age at initiation of sexual behavior were associated with unprotected sex. For White youth, no predictors were associated with unprotected sex. Our findings point to the importance of understanding the varying predictors of unprotected sex and integrating them into tailored prevention interventions.
This article outlines the shared identity construction of five gay and lesbian members of an LGBT youth group, situated in a conservative, working-class, Northern English town. It is shown that the young people’s identity work emerges in response to the homophobia and ‘othering’ they have experienced from those in their local community. Through ethnography and discourse analysis, and using theoretical frameworks from interactional sociolinguistics, the strategies that the young people employ ...
Swarr, Amanda Lock
This article draws on seventeen months of ethnographic fieldwork in South Africa to explore the experiences of urban and township drag performers. I show that two distinct sex-gender-sexuality systems have emerged based in the sociopolitical history of South Africa, and I argue that urban drag produces race oppositionally and examine how township femininity creates raced forms of gender, sex, and sexuality. Contemporary South African drag foregrounds the performativity and constitution of race and gender. My analysis attempts to challenge definitions of "drag" and "audience," suggesting the necessity for an integrated reconceptualization of drag studies.
Meanley, Steven; Pingel, Emily S.; Bauermeister, José A.
Religiosity and spirituality are often integral facets of human development. Young gay and bisexual men (YGBM), however, may find themselves at odds when attempting to reconcile potentially conflicting identities like religion and their sexual orientation. We sought to explore how different components of religiosity (participation, commitment, spiritual coping) are linked to different markers of psychological well-being (life purpose, self-esteem, and internalized homophobia). Using data collected in Metro Detroit (N = 351 ages 18–29 years; 47% African American, 29% Non-Latino White, 8% Latino, 16% Other Race), we examined how components of religiosity/spirituality were associated with psychological well-being among religious/spiritual-identified participants. An overwhelming majority (79.5%) identified as religious/spiritual, with most YGBM (91.0%) reporting spirituality as a coping source. Over three quarters of our religious/spiritual sample (77.7%) reported attending a religious service in the past year. Religious participation and commitment were negatively associated with psychological well-being. Conversely, spiritual coping was positively associated with YGBM’s psychological well-being. Programs assisting YGBM navigate multiple/conflicting identities through sexuality-affirming resources may aid improve of their psychological well-being. We discuss the public health potential of increasing sensitivity to the religious/spiritual needs of YGBM across social service organizations. PMID:28163799
Eisenberg, Marla E; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J
Research demonstrates that young people involved in bullying are at greater risk for poor emotional health outcomes, but this association may not be consistent for youth of different sexual orientations. Understanding the unique needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual and questioning (LGBQ) youth may suggest important opportunities for intervention and prevention. This study, therefore, examines whether involvement with bullying is differentially associated with emotional well-being across sexual orientation. Survey data were collected from a large statewide sample of 9th and 11th grade students in 2013 (N = 79,039, 49.8% female, 74.6% white). Logistic regression tested associations between sexual orientation, physical or relational bullying perpetration and five measures of emotional health. In the full sample, those reporting bullying perpetration had significantly elevated odds of emotional health problems. However, interaction terms and stratified models indicated that in nine out of ten physical bullying models and two out of ten relational bullying models, perpetration was not as strongly associated with poor emotional health among LGBQ adolescents as it was among heterosexual youth. Possible explanations for this finding include unhealthy coping strategies or masking one's own vulnerable status as LGBQ. Continued efforts to prevent bullying are needed for all youth.
Carson, Scott A.
Using a new source of 19th century state prison records, this study contrasts the biological living conditions of comparable US African-American and white female statures during economic development. Black and white female statures varied regionally, and white Southeastern and black Southwestern females reached the tallest statures. White females were consistently taller than black females. Black and white female statures also varied over time with emancipation and were similar to black male ...
Zarwell, Meagan C; Robinson, William T
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) represent more new HIV infections than all other at-risk populations. Many young black MSM belong to constructed families (i.e., the house ball community, gay families, and pageant families) which are often organized in a family structure with members referred to as parents and children. Many constructed families are associated with a family surname which is informally adopted by members. In some cases, however, constructed families do not identify with a collective family name. In 2014, 553 MSM were recruited through venue-based time-space sampling during the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) in New Orleans to complete a structured survey and HIV test. Black, Latino, and other race MSM were more likely to belong to constructed families in comparison to white MSM. In addition, participants who belonged to constructed families with a family name were more likely to engage in protective behaviors including wearing condoms at last sexual intercourse. Overall, younger, white MSM who did not belong to any social groups were more likely to engage in at least one risk behavior. These findings significantly contribute to understanding variations in HIV risk behavior among members of constructed families.
Duncan, D.; Prestage, G.; Grierson, J.
Few studies have explored how young gay men negotiate opportunities for rethinking sexual and relationship life associated with gay sexual cultures upon coming out. Drawing on qualitative interview data with Australian gay men aged 18–30, this article explores a tension these participants described between a desire for monogamy as the basis to a committed, enduring and mature relationship on one hand, and sexual opportunities associated with ‘the gay scene’ on the other. We analyse these men’...
As the last male northern white rhino is euthanased, leaving just two females - his daughter and granddaughter - what is the future for this subspecies? Sophie Ingledew explains. British Veterinary Association.
Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Simán, Florence M; Andrade, Mario; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H
The burden of HIV is disproportionate for Guatemalan sexual minorities (e.g., gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men [MSM], and transgender persons). Our bi-national partnership used authentic approaches to community-based participatory research (CBPR) to identify characteristics of potentially successful programs to prevent HIV and promote sexual health among Guatemalan sexual minorities. Our partnership conducted Spanish-language focus groups with 87 participants who self-identified as male (n=64) or transgender (n=23) and individual in-depth interviews with ten formal and informal gay community leaders. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we identified 20 characteristics of potentially successful programs to reduce HIV risk, including providing guidance on accessing limited resources; offering supportive dialogue around issues of masculinity, socio-cultural expectations, love, and intimacy; using Mayan values and images; harnessing technology; increasing leadership and advocacy skills; and mobilizing social networks. More research is clearly needed, but participants reported needing and wanting programming and had innovative ideas to prevent HIV exposure and transmission.
Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Samayoa, Andrés Castro; Gasman, Marybeth; Mobley, Steve, Jr.
Background: Researchers have tended to favor scholarship that looks at institutional forms of support for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender students in the context of resource centers specifically tailored to gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender students. Our study makes two distinct contributions to the study of gay and lesbian students…
... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8387 of June 1, 2009. Lesbian, Gay... Proclamation 8387 of June 1, 2009 Proc. 8387 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, 2009By the... lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. Out of this resistance, the LGBT rights movement...
Walls, N. Eugene; Wisneski, Hope; Kane, Sarah
Using a sample of 284 sexual minority youth and young adults, this paper examines the relationships between mental health variables, the absence or presence of a gay-straight alliance, and membership status in a gay-straight alliance. The results suggest that the presence of a gay-straight alliance in a school or college, rather than actual…
Herdt, Gilbert; Boxer, Andrew
This book confronts myths about gay and lesbian youth and explores their real experiences of coming out. The research for the book was conducted at the Horizons lesbian and gay social service agency in Chicago, Illinois. Chapter 1 takes a historical look at homosexuality and proposes a new theory of gay and lesbian development to explain a…
Erich, Stephen; Leung, Patrick; Kindle, Peter; Carter, Sharon
Traditional legal and social forces have hindered the adoption of children by gay and lesbian individuals and couples. Using a convenience sample drawn from gay and lesbian support groups and Internet sites, this exploratory study examines adoptive families with gay and lesbian parents in terms of family functioning capabilities, child's behavior,…
Tairy, Daniel; Levy, Itzchak; Turner, Dan; Livnat, Yuval; Mor, Zohar
HIV-discordant gay male couples may play an important role in HIV-transmissions. This cross-sectional study compared the knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviors of HIV-uninfected gay men, between those in HIV-discordant and those in HIV-concordant steady relationships. Anonymous questionnaires were distributed electronically in designated gay-related internet sites and in AIDS-clinics in 2015. The dependent variable was defined as a steady relationship of an HIV-uninfected man with an HIV-infected partner. Risky sexual behavior was defined as unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with a sex partner whose HIV-status was either positive or unknown. Of 2,319 responders, 460 (20%) were HIV-uninfected gay men in steady relationships, of whom 72 were in HIV-discordant relationships and 388 were in HIV-concordant relationships. Those in HIV-discordant relationships presented better established knowledge regarding HIV-transmission, more lenient attitudes regarding UAI, and reported being involved in riskier sexual behavior, both within and outside their steady relationship compared to men in HIV-concordant relationships. UAI was performed by 48% of the HIV-discordant couples and was associated with the use of sero-positioning strategy and with achieving undetectable viral-load. These findings reflect the complexity of constant use of condoms during long-term sero-discordant relationships. Targeted interventions for HIV-prevention in HIV-discordant couples should be employed for balancing the partners' desire for intimacy and sexual pleasure in the relationship, while reducing the risk for acquiring HIV. ART: Antiretroviral therapy; PEP: Post exposure prophylaxis; PrEP: Pre exposure prophylaxis; STI: Sexually transmitted infections; UAI: Unprotected anal intercourse.
Houston, Lawrence N.
A questionnaire was administered to 1,142 Black and White university students of both sexes in an effort to determine the relationship between eroticism, romanticism and sexual identity. Results indicated that males were more erotic, females more romantic, and that the discrepancy was greater for Blacks than for Whites. (Author/CM)
Tyler A. Campbell; Benjamin R. Laseter; W. Mark Ford; Karl V. Miller; Karl V. Miller
Reliable estimates of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population parameters are needed for effective population management. We used radiotelemetrv to compare survival and cause-specific mortality rates between male and female white-tailed deer and present reproductive data for a high-density deer herd in the central Appalachians of West Virginia during...
Brenner, O. C.; Tomkiewicz, Joseph
Examined differences in job orientation between Black and White male and female business college graduates. Significant race differences were found. Factor analysis indicates that Blacks value long-range career objectives and structure considerably more than do Whites, while their preference for intrinsic and extrinsic factors was less pronounced.…
Choi, Hee-sook; Thul, Candrice A.; Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Norris, James L.
School psychologists' attitudes and feelings toward gay and lesbian parents were surveyed in relation to their training and exposure, and professional services offered to gay and lesbian parents and their children. The relationship between attitudes, feelings, training, exposure, and demographic characteristics was explored as well. A stratified…
This brochure is written out of concern for the impact anti-gay prejudice and discrimination have on children--gay and straight. Although people have different views about homosexuality, most Americans believe that everyone should be treated fairly and with respect. American society has many kinds of families, and many people have neighbors,…
Vega, Miriam Y.; Spieldenner, Andrew R.; DeLeon, Dennis; Nieto, Bolivar X.; Stroman, Carolyn A.
Latino gay men face multiple barriers to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, in particular a lack of intervention programs that integrate prevention messages with cultural norms and address issues of social marginalization from multiple communities (gay community and Latino community), homophobia and racism. In order to address these…