WorldWideScience

Sample records for white dot syndrome

  1. Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome associated with retinal vasculitis

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    Takahashi A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Akihiro Takahashi, Wataru Saito, Yuki Hashimoto, Susumu Ishida Department of Ophthalmology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan Purpose: A recent study revealed thickening of the inner retinal layers in acute stage of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS; however, the pathogenesis is still unknown. We report two cases with MEWDS whose funduscopy showed obvious retinal vasculitis. Methods: Case reports. Results: Healthy myopic 16- and 27-year-old women were the cases under study. In both cases, funduscopic examination revealed multiple, faint, small, subretinal white dots at the posterior pole to the midperiphery and macular granularity oculus dexter. Retinal vascular sheathing was also observed at midperiphery. Late-phase fluorescein angiography revealed leakages corresponding to the vascular sheathing. Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography revealed the discontinuity of the ellipsoid zone corresponding to the white dots and increased macular choroidal thickness. One month later, these white dots and retinal sheathing spontaneously resolved in both cases. Three months later, impairments of the outer retinal morphology and the visual acuity were restored. Conclusion: These results suggest that retinal vasculitis possibly plays a role in the pathogenesis of thickened inner retinal layers in acute stage of MEWDS. Keywords: enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, choroidal thickness, inner retinal layer, retinal vascular sheathing

  2. Atypical presentation of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS).

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    Yenerel, Nursal Melda; Kucumen, Beril; Gorgun, Ebru; Dinc, Umut Asli

    2008-01-01

    To present fundus autofluorescence (FAF), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and microperimetry (MP) findings of a patient with multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS). Observational case report. A 30-year-old woman with blurry vision was referred for evaluation. Fundus examination revealed only foveal granularity. FAF showed hyperautofluorescent spots, although they were not visible clinically. On ICGA, matching areas were hypofluorescent. Microperimetry revealed mean sensitivity decrease. The resolution of the symptoms was followed by disappearance of these spots in FAF and ICGA and increase of mean macular sensitivity in MP. FAF is a noninvasive imaging technique that might help in the differential diagnosis of chorioretinal pathologies.

  3. [Indocyanine green angiography in "multiple evanescent white dot syndrome" (MEWDS)].

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    Desarnaulds, A B; Borruat, F X; Herbort, C P; de Courten, C

    1998-05-01

    Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) is a benign acquired chorioretinal disorder occurring mostly in young adults. Its pathophysiology is unknown. To describe the results of indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in MEWDS. Four patients with MEWDS were investigated by ICGA. In all cases, ICGA revealed numerous choroidal hypofluorescent lesions that largely outnumbered the lesions visible with either fundoscopy or fluorescein angiography. Three cases showed a blind spot enlargement on perimetry associated with the presence of a large peripapillary hypofluorescent zone on ICGA. Three cases showed macular granularity on fundoscopy correlating with a significant subfoveal hypfluorescent lesion on ICGA. Evolution was always favorable with disappearance of the hypofluorescent choroidal lesions. Our results confirm that MEWDS is primarily a choroidal disorder. The blind spot enlargement and the macular granularity, frequently detected in MEWDS, result from larger peripapillary and subfoveal choroidal lesions.

  4. Fundus autofluorescence imaging of the white dot syndromes.

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    Yeh, Steven; Forooghian, Farzin; Wong, Wai T; Faia, Lisa J; Cukras, Catherine; Lew, Julie C; Wroblewski, Keith; Weichel, Eric D; Meyerle, Catherine B; Sen, Hatice Nida; Chew, Emily Y; Nussenblatt, Robert B

    2010-01-01

    To characterize the fundus autofluorescence (FAF) findings in patients with white dot syndromes (WDSs). Patients with WDSs underwent ophthalmic examination, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and FAF imaging. Patients were categorized as having no, minimal, or predominant foveal hypoautofluorescence. The severity of visual impairment was then correlated with the degree of foveal hypoautofluorescence. Fifty-five eyes of 28 patients with WDSs were evaluated. Visual acuities ranged from 20/12.5 to hand motions. Diagnoses included serpiginous choroidopathy (5 patients), birdshot retinochoroidopathy (10), multifocal choroiditis (8), relentless placoid chorioretinitis (1), presumed tuberculosis-associated serpiginouslike choroidopathy (1), acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (1), and acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (2). In active serpiginous choroidopathy, notable hyperautofluorescence in active disease distinguished it from the variegated FAF features of tuberculosis-associated serpiginouslike choroidopathy. The percentage of patients with visual acuity impairment of less than 20/40 differed among eyes with no, minimal, and predominant foveal hypoautofluorescence (P < .001). Patients with predominant foveal hypoautofluorescence demonstrated worse visual acuity than those with minimal or no foveal hypoautofluorescence (both P < .001). Fundus autofluorescence imaging is useful in the evaluation of the WDS. Visual acuity impairment is correlated with foveal hypoautofluorescence. Further studies are needed to evaluate the precise role of FAF imaging in the WDSs.

  5. Fundus Autofluorescence in Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome

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    Fernando Marcondes Penha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient complained of photopsia and vision loss in the left eye for two days, with visual acuity of 20/32. Right eye was normal. Funduscopy revealed foveal granularity and gray-white lesions in the posterior pole, mainly temporal to the fovea. The lesions (dots and spots, along with a few other areas surrounding them, showed hyperautofluorescence on autofluorescence imaging. Fluorescein angiogram (FA depicted some early hyperfluorescent dots with late staining. Indocyanine green angiogram (ICGA showed hypofluorescent lesions in a greater number compared with funduscopy, autofluorescence, and FA. Thirty days later, BCVA was 20/20 in both eyes and the complimentary exams were almost normal, despite an ICGA that showed few small hypofluorescent lesions. This case supports the hypothesis that the choroidal involvement occurs primarily in MEWDS, with secondary involvement of the RPE and the neurosensory retina.

  6. [A case of MEWDS. "The multiple evanescent white-dot syndrome"].

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    Lefrançois, A; Hamard, H; Corbe, C; Schmitt, A; Badelon, I; Vidal, A

    1989-01-01

    A young white man developed acute bilateral visual loss with no previous general illness. Ophthalmoscopic examination showed multiple small yellow-white lesions scattered throughout the posterior poles and mild periphery fundus. There was also fine granularity of two foveal areas and one optic disc margin was blurred. Fluorescein angiography showed early hyperfluorescence of the lesions and late staining of the retinal pigment epithelium. Electrophysiologic abnormalities were transient, asymmetric, more marked in photopic than in scotopic. The origin could be in retinal bipolar cells. These lesions regressed, with return of normal visual function within several weeks. These clinical findings are different from others acute inflammatory diseases primarily involving retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors. This aspect is usually described as "multiple evanescent white dot syndrome". The etiology of this syndrome remains unknown with no evidence of systemic disease. A history of flulike illness is rare.

  7. HLA typing in patients with multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS).

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    Borruat, F X; Herbort, C P; Spertini, F; Desarnaulds, A B

    1998-03-01

    Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) is an acquired chorioretinal disorder of unknown etiology. We investigated the possibility that MEWDS might be related to a specific HLA subtyping. Blood was obtained from nine patients affected by MEWDS. HLA-B51 was found in four of these nine patients with MEWDS. There was a 3.7-fold increased frequency of HLA-B51 in patients affected by MEWDS (relative risk 5.86). MEWDS might then be related to the presence of a specific HLA subtype, HLA-B51. However, due to the small sample size, our results need to be confirmed by further testing.

  8. The white dot syndromes Síndromes dos pontos brancos retinianos

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    Raul Nunes Galvarro Vianna

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Several entities must be considered when a patient presents with a white dot syndrome. In most cases these can be distinguished from one another based on the appearance or distribution of the lesions, the clinical course, or patient variables such as age, sex, laterality, and functional and image examinations. In this paper we review the distinctive and shared features of the white dot syndromes, highlighting the clinical findings, diagnostic test results, proposed etiologies, treatment, and prognosis.Várias doenças devem ser consideradas quando nos deparamos com paciente com uma entidade clínica incluída no grupo das "síndromes dos pontos brancos retinianos". O diagnóstico diferencial na maioria das vezes é baseado na aparência e/ou na distribuição das lesões, no curso clínico, ou por algumas variáveis relacionadas ao paciente, tais como idade, sexo, lateralidade, bem como por meio de exames funcionais e de imagem. O presente artigo revisa os achados clínicos das doenças que fazem parte do grupo das "síndromes dos pontos brancos retinianos", enfatizando as similaridades e as diferenças entre essas entidades. Os exames complementares, bem como a etiologia, o tratamento e o prognóstico de cada uma delas são descritos e comentados.

  9. [Choroidal neovascularization followed in a patient with "Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome" (MEWDS) -- a case report].

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    Löw, U; Palmowski, A M; Weich, C-M; Ruprecht, K W

    2004-12-01

    Since the description of the "multiple evanescent white dot syndrome" (MEWDS) by Jampol et al, choroiditis has been in the focus of interest. But the classical type of MEWDS was an exceptional case in clinical routine. A 48-year-old female presented to our hospital with a sudden unilateral visual acuity decrease and an extension of the blind spot. Ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein angiography revealed typical multiple grey-white chorioretinal patches of the same stage with lesion areas of about 100 - 200 microm compatible with the diagnose of MEWDS. Although visual acuity increased continuously the patient developed a classical choroidal neovascularization within 4 weeks. She was treated with PDT and visual acuity as well as the ophthalmoscopic diagnosis remained stable. In spite of visual improvement in MEWDS, regular control is recommended. In addition we propose to consider the diagnosis of MEWDS if an enlargement of the blind spot and CNV without lesions of the retinal pigment epithelium are diagnosed.

  10. Choroidal neovascularisation triggered multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) in predisposed eyes.

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    Mathis, Thibaud; Delaunay, Benoit; Cahuzac, Armelle; Vasseur, Vivien; Mauget-Faÿsse, Martine; Kodjikian, Laurent

    2017-09-28

    Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) is an inflammatory disease that can be associated with choroidalneovascularisation (CNV). However, few studies in the literature have described the occurrence of MEWDS in association with CNV. This paper discusses whether CNV can trigger MEWDS in a predisposed eye. A retrospective multicentric case series of six eyes in six patients with acute onset of MEWDS and evidence of previous CNV was conducted between January 2015 and January 2017. All patients underwent ophthalmic examination including multimodal imaging at baseline and during follow-up. The mean age was 32.2±12.2 years. The majority of patients were women (5/1). In each case, MEWDS was diagnosed during a recurrence or occurrence of CNV secondary to choriocapillaritis, central serous chorioretinopathy or atrophic scar, presumably due to congenital toxoplasmosis. All patients were treated with intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) with good anatomical and functional responses (mean gain of 0.3±0.31 logMAR). The mean duration of follow-up was 13.5±10.65 months. This study highlights a sequence in the development of MEWDS, following the occurrence or recurrence of CNV. CNV may trigger MEWDS, possibly due to the proinflammatory environment created by the retinal tissue surrounding the CNV. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. “En-Face” Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome

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    Flore De bats

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The recent use of “en-face” enhanced-depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI SD-OCT helps distinguish the retinal layers involved in the physiopathology of multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS. Methods. Four patients presenting with MEWDS underwent a comprehensive ocular examination including C-scan (“en-face” EDI SD-OCT at the initial visit and during follow-up. Results. C-scans combined with the other multimodal imaging enabled the visualization of retinal damage. Acute lesions appeared as diffuse and focal disruptions occurring in the ellipsoid and interdigitation zones. The match between autofluorescence imaging, indocyanine green angiography, and “en-face” OCT helped identify the acute microstructural damages in the outer retina further than the choroid. Follow-up using “en-face” EDI-OCT revealed progressive and complete recovery of the central outer retinal layers. Conclusion. “En-face” EDI SD-OCT identified the site of initial damage in MEWDS as the photoreceptors and the interdigitation layers rather than the choroid. Moreover, “en-face” OCT is helpful in the follow-up of these lesions by being able to show the recovery of the outer retinal layers.

  12. Recurrent focal choroidal excavation following multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) associated with acute idiopathic blind spot enlargement.

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    Jabbarpoor Bonyadi, Mohammad Hossein; Hassanpour, Kiana; Soheilian, Masoud

    2018-04-01

    To present a recurrent case of conforming focal choroidal excavation (FCE) following multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) in a 25-year-old woman. Following spontaneous MEWDS sings resolution our patient noted a recurrent decrease in vision. Repeated OCT revealed elevation and mild disruption of RPE layer at fovea without previous angiographic MEWDS signs. At this time, short-term systemic steroid therapy was started and visual acuity became normal. Following quiescence of the new-onset phase, the conforming type of FCE located in inferior macula appeared in OCT. In the following next 2 years recurrence of presumptive focal subfoveal choriocapillaritis occurred for three times presenting with blurred vision. During every acute attack, above-mentioned FCE disappeared and returned back again after resolution of presumptive focal choriocapillaritis. This is the first and unique case of recurrent type of FCE following MEWDS. It seems to disappear during active phase of presumptive focal choriocapillaritis and then returns after the eye has become quiescent.

  13. IMAGING WITH MULTIMODAL ADAPTIVE-OPTICS OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY IN MULTIPLE EVANESCENT WHITE DOT SYNDROME: THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP.

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    Labriola, Leanne T; Legarreta, Andrew D; Legarreta, John E; Nadler, Zach; Gallagher, Denise; Hammer, Daniel X; Ferguson, R Daniel; Iftimia, Nicusor; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the location of pathological changes in multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) with the use of multimodal adaptive optics (AO) imaging. A 5-year observational case study of a 24-year-old female with recurrent MEWDS. Full examination included history, Snellen chart visual acuity, pupil assessment, intraocular pressures, slit lamp evaluation, dilated fundoscopic exam, imaging with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT), blue-light fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography. Three distinct acute episodes of MEWDS occurred during the period of follow-up. Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography and adaptive-optics imaging showed disturbance in the photoreceptor outer segments (PR OS) in the posterior pole with each flare. The degree of disturbance at the photoreceptor level corresponded to size and extent of the visual field changes. All findings were transient with delineation of the photoreceptor recovery from the outer edges of the lesion inward. Hyperautofluorescence was seen during acute flares. Increase in choroidal thickness did occur with each active flare but resolved. Although changes in the choroid and RPE can be observed in MEWDS, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography, and multimodal adaptive optics imaging localized the visually significant changes seen in this disease at the level of the photoreceptors. These transient retinal changes specifically occur at the level of the inner segment ellipsoid and OS/RPE line. En face optical coherence tomography imaging provides a detailed, yet noninvasive method for following the convalescence of MEWDS and provides insight into the structural and functional relationship of this transient inflammatory retinal disease.

  14. Outer Retinal and Choroidal Evaluation in Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome (MEWDS): An Enhanced Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

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    Fiore, Tito; Iaccheri, Barbara; Cerquaglia, Alessio; Lupidi, Marco; Torroni, Giovanni; Fruttini, Daniela; Cagini, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    To perform an analysis of optical coherence tomography (OCT) abnormalities in patients with MEWDS, during the acute and recovery stages, using enhanced depth imaging-OCT (EDI-OCT). A retrospective case series of five patients with MEWDS was included. EDI-OCT imaging was evaluated to detect retinal and choroidal features. In the acute phase, focal impairment of the ellipsoid zone and external limiting membrane, hyperreflective dots in the inner choroid, and full-thickness increase of the choroidal profile were observed in the affected eye; disappearance of these findings and restoration of the choroidal thickness (p = 0.046) was appreciated in the recovery phase. No OCT abnormalities were assessed in the unaffected eye. EDI-OCT revealed transient outer retinal layer changes and inner choroidal hyperreflective dots. A transient increased thickness of the whole choroid was also identified. This might confirm a short-lasting inflammatory involvement of the whole choroidal tissue in the active phase of MEWDS.

  15. Combination of carbon dot and polymer dot phosphors for white light-emitting diodes.

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    Sun, Chun; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Kai; Reckmeier, Claas; Zhang, Tieqiang; Zhang, XiaoYu; Zhao, Jun; Wu, Changfeng; Yu, William W; Rogach, Andrey L

    2015-07-28

    We realized white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index (85-96) and widely variable color temperatures (2805-7786 K) by combining three phosphors based on carbon dots and polymer dots, whose solid-state photoluminescence self-quenching was efficiently suppressed within a polyvinyl pyrrolidone matrix. All three phosphors exhibited dominant absorption in the UV spectral region, which ensured the weak reabsorption and no energy transfer crosstalk. The WLEDs showed excellent color stability against the increasing current because of the similar response of the tricolor phosphors to the UV light variation.

  16. Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Accessory Pathways

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    ... the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Accessory Pathways James Kulig , Bruce ... rate, which can be dangerous. What is Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome? Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) is ...

  17. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome in infants.

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    Hermosura, Tisha; Bradshaw, Wanda T

    2010-01-01

    Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a ventricular preexcitation that presents as supraventricular tachycardia. Health care professionals can attain optimal results in caring for infants with WPW syndrome by understanding both its pathophysiology and proper management to prevent and treat complications associated with it. This article reviews the prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic modalities, assessment, and management of WPW syndrome.

  18. White-Nose Syndrome of bats

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    Jessie A. Glaeser; Martin J. Pfeiffer; Daniel L. Lindner

    2016-01-01

    Devastating. Catastrophic. Unprecedented. This is how white-nose syndrome of bats (WNS) is characterized. It is one of the deadliest wildlife diseases ever observed and could have significant impacts on outdoor recreation, agriculture and wildlife management.

  19. Overset Wolff-Parkinson-White-syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Skov; Dalager, Søren; Larsen, Maiken Kudahl

    2010-01-01

    An autopsy in a 28-year-old man did not explain the cause of sudden unexpected death. However, a history of episodes with tachycardia and dizziness and a reassessed previous electrocardiogram exhibiting ventricular pre-excitation was consistent with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. In this p......An autopsy in a 28-year-old man did not explain the cause of sudden unexpected death. However, a history of episodes with tachycardia and dizziness and a reassessed previous electrocardiogram exhibiting ventricular pre-excitation was consistent with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome...

  20. Overset Wolff-Parkinson-White-syndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Skov; Dalager, Søren; Larsen, Maiken Kudahl

    2010-01-01

    An autopsy in a 28-year-old man did not explain the cause of sudden unexpected death. However, a history of episodes with tachycardia and dizziness and a reassessed previous electrocardiogram exhibiting ventricular pre-excitation was consistent with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome...

  1. Structural Control of InP/ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots Enables High-quality White LEDs.

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    Ganesh Kumar, Baskaran; Sadeghi, Sadra; Melikov, Rustamzhon; Mohammadi Aria, Mohammed; Bahmani Jalali, Houman; Ow-Yang, Cleva; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2018-05-30

    Herein, we demonstrate that the structural and optical control of InP-based quantum dots can lead to high-performance LEDs. Zinc sulphide (ZnS) shells passivate the InP quantum dot core and increase the quantum yield in green-emitting quantum dots by 13-fold and red-emitting quantum dots by 8-fold. The optimised quantum dots are integrated in the liquid-state to eliminate aggregation induced emission quenching and we fabricated white LEDs with warm, neutral, and cool white appearance by the down-conversion mechanism. The quantum dot-functionalized white LEDs achieve luminous efficiency up to 14.7 lm/W and colour-rendering index up to 80. The structural and optical control of InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots enable 23-fold enhancement in luminous efficiency of white LEDs compared to ones containing only QDs of InP core. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  2. Inherited Wolff–Parkinson–White Syndrome

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    Yang Liu, MD, PhD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wolff–Parkinson–White (WPW syndrome is a congenital disorder of cardiac conduction system characterized by electrocardiographic preexcitation and episodes of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. It is caused by a cardiac developmental defect in the electrical insulation between the atria and the ventricles due to the presence of an accessory pathway. WPW syndrome is a common cause of supraventricular tachycardia with benign prognosis. However, this clinical entity also predisposes patients to an increased risk of sudden cardiac death, especially in the setting of preexcited atrial fibrillation. WPW syndrome is usually sporadic and of unknown etiology in most cases. During the past 10 years, a significant heritable factor is increasingly recognized. Identification of the genetic basis among patients with WPW syndrome has important implications for understanding the molecular mechanism of ventricular preexcitation and the development of therapeutic strategies for risk stratification and management. The goal of this review is to examine the previous studies on hereditary variants, as well as to outline potential future avenues toward defining the heritability of WPW syndrome.

  3. Investigating white-nose syndrome in bats

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    Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    A devastating, emergent disease afflicting hibernating bats has pread from the northeast to the mid-Atlantic region of the United States at an alarming rate. Since the winter of 2006-2007, hundreds of thousands of insect-eating bats from at least nine states have died from this new disease, named White-Nose Syndrome (WNS). The disease is named for the white fungus often seen on the muzzles, ears, and wings of bats. This disease poses a threat to cave hibernating bats of the United States and potentially all temperate regions of the world. USGS scientists from the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT), in collaboration with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and others have linked a newly described, cold-loving fungus to WNS.

  4. Simple process of hybrid white quantum dot/organic light-emitting diodes by using quantum dot plate and fluorescence

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    Lee, Ho Won; Lee, Ki-Heon; Lee, Jae Woo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Yang, Heesun; Kim, Young Kwan

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the simple process of hybrid quantum dot (QD)/organic light-emitting diode (OLED) was proposed to apply a white illumination light by using QD plate and organic fluorescence. Conventional blue fluorescent OLEDs were firstly fabricated and then QD plates of various concentrations, which can be controlled of UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence spectrum, were attached under glass substrate of completed blue devices. The suggested process indicates that we could fabricate the white device through very simple process without any deposition of orange or red organic emitters. Therefore, this work would be demonstrated that the potential simple process for white applications can be applied and also can be extended to additional research on light applications.

  5. Electrical aging effect of ZnS based quantum dots for white light-emitting diodes

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    Kim, Yohan; Ippen, Christian; Greco, Tonino; Jang, Ilwan; Park, Sungkyu; Oh, Min Suk; Han, Chul Jong; Lee, Jeongno; Wedel, Armin; Kim, Jiwan

    2014-03-01

    The present work reports cadmium-free colloidal ZnS:Al quantum dot (QD) based white quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs). The device was fabricated with a structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK/QDs/TPBi/LiF/Al using synthesized ZnS:Al QDs which has 393 nm of peak wavelength and sub peaks in visible wavelength. White emission with high color rending index (CRI) was achieved by the combination of blue emission from PVK and ZnS:Al QDs, electroplex emission at the interface between PVK and ZnS:Al QDs, and Al traps/defects emission, which are controlled by electrical aging effect. The characteristic of our device shows the potential for spectrum tunable and Cd-free white QD-LEDs in the near future.

  6. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences...

  7. Influence of Gaussian white noise on the frequency-dependent linear polarizability of doped quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Linear polarizability of quantum dot has been studied. • Quantum dot is doped with a repulsive impurity. • The polarizabilities are frequency-dependent. • Influence of Gaussian white noise has been monitored. • Noise exploited is of additive and multiplicative nature. - Abstract: We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent linear (α xx and α yy ) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. The dopant impurity potential chosen assumes Gaussian form. The study principally puts emphasis on investigating the role of noise on the polarizability components. In view of this we have exploited Gaussian white noise containing additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The frequency-dependent polarizabilities are studied by exposing the doped dot to a periodically oscillating external electric field of given intensity. The oscillation frequency, confinement potentials, dopant location, and above all, the noise characteristics tune the linear polarizability components in a subtle manner. Whereas the additive noise fails to have any impact on the polarizabilities, the multiplicative noise influences them delicately and gives rise to additional interesting features

  8. White light emission from organic-inorganic hererostructure devices by using CdSe quantum dots as emitting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Aiwei; Teng Feng; Gao Yinhao; Li Dan; Zhao Suling; Liang Chunjun; Wang Yongsheng

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, white light emission was obtained from organic-inorganic heterostructure devices by using CdSe quantum dots as emitting layer, in which CdSe quantum dots were synthesized via a colloidal chemical approach by using CdO and Se powder as precursors. Photoluminescence of CdSe quantum dots demonstrated a white emission with a full wavelength at half maximum (FWHM) of about 200 nm under ambient conditions, and the white emission could be observed in both multilayer device ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CdSe/BCP/Alq 3 /Al and single-layer device: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CdSe/Al. The broad emission was attributed to the inhomogeneous broadening. The CIE coordinates of the multilayer device were x=0.35 and y=0.40. The white-light-emitting diodes with CdSe quantum dots as the emitting layer are potentially useful in lighting applications

  9. Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: Electrocardiogram

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    Brianna Miner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 26-year-old male with no significant past medical history presented to the emergency department with palpitations. The patient experienced these symptoms five times before in his life, but they had self-resolved with squatting or raising his arms. He denied chest pain, shortness of breath, dizziness, syncope, or pre-syncope symptoms. He denied any recent illnesses, cough, chest pain, drug use, or infections. Significant findings: The initial EKG showed wide complex, irregular tachycardia > 200 bpm (EKG 1. Given the possibility of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW, procainamide was given to the patient. The patient’s heart rate responded and decreased to 120-140 bpm with narrowing of the QRS complex. A repeat EKG showed narrow complex tachycardia without P waves approximately 120 bpm (EKG 2. Once the procainamide infusion was complete, the patient had converted to sinus rhythm with a delta wave now apparent, consistent with WPW (EKG 3. Discussion: Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is a combination of the presence of a certain congenital accessory pathway (Bundle of Kent and episodes of tachyarrhythmia.1 The incidence is less than one percent of the general population,2 but it is associated with the risk of sudden cardiac death, making the diagnosis imperative. When examining a wide-based tachycardia, it is important to consider WPW when choosing medications for rate control or chemical cardioversion. The first EKG shows an example of atrial fibrillation with WPW. While procainamide blocks the accessory pathway, other drugs such as beta blockers and calcium channel blockers can inhibit the AV node resulting in increased use of the accessory pathway. This can worsen the tachyarrhythmia and potentially lead to ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, or asystole.

  10. White light emission of carbon dots by creating different emissive traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Julin; Anappara, Aji A.

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a facile and rapid synthetic strategy for white light emitting carbon dots (CDs) by creating inhomogeneity in the surface-moieties by carbonizing ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) and ethylene glycol (EG) which are having different functional groups. The aqueous solution of the as-synthesised nanoparticles exhibits broad-band emission at several excitation wavelengths, with CIE parameters in the white gamut. Furthermore, white light emission is demonstrated through remote-phosphor technology, by capping 365 nm UV chip with PMMA, after dispersing the polymer with CDs. The resulting emission from the white-LED reported colour parameters such as CIE (0.34, 0.38), CRI of 84 and CCT of 5078 K.

  11. White light emission of carbon dots by creating different emissive traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Julin; Anappara, Aji A., E-mail: aji@nitc.ac.in

    2016-10-15

    Here we report a facile and rapid synthetic strategy for white light emitting carbon dots (CDs) by creating inhomogeneity in the surface-moieties by carbonizing ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) and ethylene glycol (EG) which are having different functional groups. The aqueous solution of the as-synthesised nanoparticles exhibits broad-band emission at several excitation wavelengths, with CIE parameters in the white gamut. Furthermore, white light emission is demonstrated through remote-phosphor technology, by capping 365 nm UV chip with PMMA, after dispersing the polymer with CDs. The resulting emission from the white-LED reported colour parameters such as CIE (0.34, 0.38), CRI of 84 and CCT of 5078 K.

  12. Histopathology confirms white-nose syndrome in bats in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikula, Jiri; Bandouchova, Hana; Novotny, Ladislav; Meteyer, Carol U; Zukal, Jan; Irwin, Nancy R; Zima, Jan; Martínková, Natália

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome, associated with the fungal skin infection geomycosis, caused regional population collapse in bats in North America. Our results, based on histopathology, show the presence of white-nose syndrome in Europe. Dermatohistopathology on two bats (Myotis myotis) found dead in March 2010 with geomycosis in the Czech Republic had characteristics resembling Geomyces destructans infection in bats confirmed with white-nose syndrome in US hibernacula. In addition, a live M. myotis, biopsied for histopathology during hibernation in April 2011, had typical fungal infection with cupping erosion and invasion of muzzle skin diagnostic for white-nose syndrome and conidiospores identical to G. destructans that were genetically confirmed as G. destructans.

  13. Histopathology confirms white-nose syndrome in bats in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikula, J.; Bandouchova, H.; Novotny, L.; Meteyer, C.U.; Zukal, J.; Irwin, N.R.; Zima, J.; Martinkova, N.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome, associated with the fungal skin infection geomycosis, caused regional population collapse in bats in North America. Our results, based on histopathology, show the presence of white-nose syndrome in Europe. Dermatohistopathology on two bats (Myotis myotis) found dead in March 2010 with geomycosis in the Czech Republic had characteristics resembling Geomyces destructans infection in bats confirmed with white-nose syndrome in US hibernacula. In addition, a live M. myotis, biopsied for histopathology during hibernation in April 2011, had typical fungal infection with cupping erosion and invasion of muzzle skin diagnostic for white-nose syndrome and conidiospores identical to G. destructans that were genetically confirmed as G. destructans. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2012.

  14. Anaesthetic management of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome for hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sahu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW is an uncommon cardiac disorder having an aberrant pathway between atria and ventricles. We are reporting a known case of WPW syndrome for hysterectomy under combined spinal epidural anaesthesia. Management of the present case is an important pearl to revisit management of WPW syndrome. The perioperative management should be tailored according to the nature of surgery and the clinical presentation of the patient.

  15. Excitation kinetics of impurity doped quantum dot driven by Gaussian white noise: Interplay with external field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Suvajit; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The excitation kinetics of impurity doped quantum dot has been investigated. • The dot is subject to Gaussian white noise. • External oscillatory field is also applied. • Noise strength and field intensity fabricate the kinetics. • Role of dopant location has also been analyzed. - Abstract: We investigate the excitation kinetics of a repulsive impurity doped quantum dot initiated by simultaneous application of Gaussian white noise and external sinusoidal field. We have considered both additive and multiplicative noise (in Stratonovich sense). The combined influences of noise strength (ζ) and the field intensity (∊) have been capsuled by invoking their ratio (η). The said ratio and the dopant location have been found to fabricate the kinetics in a delicate way. Moreover, the influences of additive and multiplicative nature of the noise on the excitation kinetics have been observed to be widely different. The investigation reveals emergence of maximization/minimization and saturation in the excitation kinetics as a result of complex interplay between η and the dopant coordinate (r 0 ). The present investigation is believed to provide some useful insights in the functioning of mesoscopic devices where noise plays some significant role

  16. CdSe white quantum dots-based white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Sheng; Hsiao, Chih-Chun; Chung, Shu-Ru

    2016-09-01

    A white light emission CdSe quantum dots (QDs) can be prepared by chemical route under 180°C. An organic oleic acid (OA) is used to react with CdO to form Cd-OA complex. Hexadecylamine (HDA) and 1-Octadecene (ODE) were used as co-surfactants. By controlling the reaction time, a white light emission CdSe QDs can be obtained after reacts for 3 to 10 min. The luminescence spectra compose two obvious emission peaks and entire visible light ranges from 400 to 650 nm. Based on TEM measurement result, spherical morphologies with particle size 2.39+/-0.27 nm can be obtained. The quantum yields (QYs) of white CdSe QD are between 20 and 60 %, which depends on reaction time. A white CdSe QDs were mixed with UV cured gel (OPAS-226) with weight ratios 50.0 wt. %, and putted the mixture into reflective cup (3020, 13 mil) as convert type. The white LEDs have controllable CIE coordinates and correlated color temperature (CCT). The luminous efficacy of the device is less than 3 lm/W, but the color rendering index (CRI) for all devices are higher than 80. Since the luminous efficacy of hybrid devices has a direct dependence on the external QY of the UV-LED as well, the luminous efficacy can be improved by well dispersion of CdSe QDs in UV gel matrix and using optimized LED chips. Therefore, in this study, we provide a new and simple method to prepare high QY of white CdSe QDs and its have a potential to applicate in solid-state lighting.

  17. Surface defect assisted broad spectra emission from CdSe quantum dots for white LED application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Boni; Mathew, S.; Anand, V. R.; Correya, Adrine Antony; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Mujeeb, A.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports, broadband photoluminescence from CdSe quantum dots (QDs) under the excitation of 403 nm using fluorimeter and 403 nm CW laser excitation. The broad spectrum obtained from the colloidal quantum dots was ranges from 450 nm to 800 nm. The broadness of the spectra was attributed to the merging of band edge and defect driven emissions from the QDs. Six different sizes of particles were prepared via kinetic growth method by using CdO and elemental Se as sources of Cd and Se respectively. The particle sizes were measured from TEM images. The size dependent effect on broad emission was also studied and the defect state emission was found to be predominant in very small QDs. The defect driven emission was also observed to be redshifted, similar to the band edge emission, due to quantum confinement effect. The emission corresponding to different laser power was also studied and a linear relation was obtained. In order to study the colour characteristics of the emission, CIE chromaticity coordinate, CRI and CCT of the prepared samples were measured. It is observed that, these values were tunable by the addition of suitable intensity of blue light from the excitation source to yield white light of various colour temperatures. The broad photoluminescence spectrum of the QDs, were compared with that of a commercially available white LED. It was found that the prepared QDs are good alternatives for the phosphor in phosphor converted white LEDs, to provide good spectral tunability.

  18. Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Mimics a Conduction Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marrakchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is important to recognise Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome in electrocardiograms (ECG, as it may mimic ischaemic heart disease, ventricular hypertrophy, and bundle branch block. Recognising WPW syndrome allows for risk stratification, the identification of associated conditions, and the institution of appropriate management. Objective. The present case showed that electrophysiological study is indicated in patients with abnormal ECG and syncope. Case Report. A 40-year-old man with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome was presented to emergency with syncope. A baseline ECG was a complete right branch block and posterior left hemiblock. He was admitted to the cardiac care unit for pacemaker implantation. The atypical figure of complete right branch block and posterior left hemiblock was thought to be a “false positive” of conduction abnormality. But the long anterograde refractory period of the both accessory pathway and atrioventricular conduction may cause difficulty in diagnosing Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, Conclusion. A Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome may mimic a conduction disease. No reliable algorithm exists for making an ECG diagnosis of a preexcitation syndrome with conduction disorders. This can lead to diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas in the context of syncope.

  19. Wolff-Parkinson-white syndrome mimics a conduction disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrakchi, S; Kammoun, I; Kachboura, S

    2014-01-01

    Background. It is important to recognise Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in electrocardiograms (ECG), as it may mimic ischaemic heart disease, ventricular hypertrophy, and bundle branch block. Recognising WPW syndrome allows for risk stratification, the identification of associated conditions, and the institution of appropriate management. Objective. The present case showed that electrophysiological study is indicated in patients with abnormal ECG and syncope. Case Report. A 40-year-old man with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome was presented to emergency with syncope. A baseline ECG was a complete right branch block and posterior left hemiblock. He was admitted to the cardiac care unit for pacemaker implantation. The atypical figure of complete right branch block and posterior left hemiblock was thought to be a "false positive" of conduction abnormality. But the long anterograde refractory period of the both accessory pathway and atrioventricular conduction may cause difficulty in diagnosing Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, Conclusion. A Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome may mimic a conduction disease. No reliable algorithm exists for making an ECG diagnosis of a preexcitation syndrome with conduction disorders. This can lead to diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas in the context of syncope.

  20. White light emitting device based on single-phase CdS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Nie, Chao; You, Lai; Jin, Xiao; Zhang, Qin; Qin, Yuancheng; Zhao, Feng; Song, Yinglin; Chen, Zhongping; Li, Qinghua

    2018-05-01

    White light emitting diodes (WLEDs) based on quantum dots (QDs) are emerging as robust candidates for white light sources, however they are suffering from the problem of energy loss resulting from the re-absorption and self-absorption among the employed QDs of different peak wavelengths. It still remains a challenging task to construct WLEDs based on single-phase QD emitters. Here, CdS QDs with short synthesis times are introduced to the fabrication of WLEDs. With a short synthesis time, on one hand, CdS QDs with a small diameter with blue emission can be obtained. On the other hand, surface reconstruction barely has time to occur, and the surface is likely defect-ridden, which enables the existence of a broad emission covering the range of green, yellow and red regions. This is essential for the white light emission of CdS QDs, and is very important for WLED applications. The temporal evolution of the PL spectra for CdS QDs was obtained to investigate the influence of growth time on the luminescent properties. The CdS QDs with a growth time of 0.5 min exhibited a colour rendering index (CRI) of 79.5 and a correlated colour temperature (CCT) of 6238 K. With increasing reaction time, the colour coordinates of the CdS QDs will move away from the white light region in the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram. By integrating the as prepared white light emission CdS QDs with a violet GaN chip, WLEDs were fabricated. The fabricated WLEDs exhibited a CRI of 87.9 and a CCT of 4619 K, which satisfy the demand of general illumination. The luminous flux and the luminous efficiency of the fabricated WLEDs, being less advanced than current commercial white light sources, can be further improved, meaning there is a need for much more in-depth studies on white light emission CdS QDs.

  1. Optimal nitrogen and phosphorus codoping carbon dots towards white light-emitting device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Yaling; Miao, Yanqin; Yang, Yongzhen, E-mail: yyztyut@126.com, E-mail: liuxuguang@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Research Center on Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); He, Yuheng; Liu, Xuguang, E-mail: yyztyut@126.com, E-mail: liuxuguang@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2016-08-22

    Through a one-step fast microwave-assisted approach, nitrogen and phosphorus co-doped carbon dots (N,P-CDs) were synthesized using ammonium citrate (AC) as a carbon source and phosphates as additive reagent. Under the condition of an optimal reaction time of 140 s, the influence of additive with different N and P content on fluorescent performance of N,P-CDs was further explored. It was concluded that high nitrogen content and moderate phosphorus content are necessary for obtaining high quantum yield (QY) N,P-CDs, among which the TAP-CDs (CDs synthesized using ammonium phosphate as additive reagent) show high quantum yield (QY) of 62% and red-green-blue (RGB) spectral composition of 51.67%. Besides, the TAP-CDs exhibit satisfying thermal stability within 180 °C. By virtue of good optical and thermal properties of TAP-CDs, a white light-emitting device (LED) was fabricated by combining ultraviolet chip with TAP-CDs as phosphor. The white LED emits bright warm-white light with the CIE chromaticity coordinate of (0.38, 0.35) and the corresponding color temperature (CCT) of 4450 K, indicating the potential of TAP-CDs phosphor in white LED.

  2. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bat, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puechmaille, Sébastien J.; Verdeyroux, Pascal; Fuller, Hubert; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Bekaert, Michaël

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans and is responsible for the deaths of >1,000,000 bats since 2006. This disease and fungus had been restricted to the northeastern United States. We detected this fungus in a bat in France and assessed the implications of this finding. PMID:20113562

  3. Caring for the Student with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenni, Patricia G.

    2009-01-01

    Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is a cardiac condition in which an extra electrical pathway within the heart causes an abnormal increase in heart rate. It affects one to three people of every 1,000 people worldwide, occurring more often in males. Diagnosis usually occurs during young adulthood, so it is important for school nurses to be familiar…

  4. Surgical cure ofthe Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome a comparison ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surgical cure ofthe Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome a comparison oftwo techniques. u. o. VON OPPELL, R. N. SCOTT MILLAR, D. A. MILNE. TABLE!. Characteristics of WPW patients referred for surgical ablation of their aberrant atrioventricular pathways. Patient population and methods. We' retrospectively reviewed 19 ...

  5. Immune defence White Spot Syndrome Virus infected shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important viral pathogen of cultured penaeid shrimp worldwide. Since the initial discovery of the virus inTaiwanin 1992, it has spread to shrimp farming regions in Southeast Asia, the

  6. Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The recognition and attachment of virus to its host cell surface is a critical step for viral infection. Recent research revealed that -integrin was involved in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this study, the interaction of -integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV infection was ...

  7. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture, and its rampant spread has resulted in great economic loss. Identification of host cellular proteins interacting with WSSV will help in unravelling the repertoire of host proteins involved in WSSV infection. In this study, we have employed ...

  8. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans Peter; Seidl, Hans Peter; Blehert, David S

    2010-08-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  9. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbelt, G.; Kurth, A.; Hellmann, D.; Weishaar, M.; Barlow, A.; Veith, M.; Pruger, J.; Gorfol, T.; Grosche, T.; Bontadina, F.; Zophel, U.; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, P.M.; Blehert, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  10. Coexistent Brugada Syndrome and Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: What is the Optimal Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Jaiswal, MBBS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Coexistent Brugada syndrome and Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome is rare, and as such poses management challenges. The overlap of symptoms attributable to each condition, the timing of ventricular stimulation after accessory pathway ablation and the predictive value of programmed stimulation in Brugada syndrome are controversial. We describe a case of coexistent Brugada syndrome and WPW syndrome in a symptomatic young adult. We discuss our treatment approach and the existing literature along with the challenges in management of such cases.

  11. Microwave-assisted one-step synthesis of white light-emitting carbon dot suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanessa, Hinterberger; Wenshuo, Wang; Cornelia, Damm; Simon, Wawra; Martin, Thoma; Wolfgang, Peukert

    2018-06-01

    In this contribution, we demonstrate that an aqueous solution with adjustable fluorescent color, including white light emission, can be achieved by a rapid one-step microwave synthesis method resulting in a mixture of blue-emitting carbon dots (CDs) and the yellow-emitting 2,3-diaminophenazine (DAP). Aqueous mixtures of o-phenylene-diamine (oPD) and citric acid (CA) are used as precursors. The resulting product structures are analyzed by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy and the size of the resulting CDs is determined by atomic force microscopy to be 1.1 ± 0.3 nm. The synthesized solution exhibits two fluorescence emission peaks at 430 and 560 nm, which were found to originate from the CDs and DAP, respectively. The intensity ratio of both fluorescence peaks depends on pH, which is driven by the protonation state of DAP. In consequence, the fluorescence emission color of the CD solution can be tuned precisely and reproducibly from blue to white to yellow by careful control of the pH. Finally, at a pH level of 5.4, at which there is equal blue and yellow emission intensity, a white light emitting solution can be successfully produced in a very fast and simple synthesis procedure.

  12. White emitting CdS quantum dot nanoluminophores hybridized on near-ultraviolet LEDs for high-quality white light generation and tuning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizamoglu, Sedat; Mutlugun, Evren; Akyuz, Ozgun; Perkgoz, Nihan Kosku; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Liebscher, Lydia; Sapra, Sameer; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmueller, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    To generate white light using semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) quantum dots integrated on light emitting diodes (LEDs), multiple hybrid device parameters (emission wavelengths of the NCs and the excitation platform, order of the NCs with different sizes, amount of the different types of NCs, etc) need to be carefully designed and properly implemented. In this study, we introduce and demonstrate white LEDs based on simple device hybridization using only a single type of white emitting CdS quantum dot nanoluminophores on near-ultraviolet LEDs. Here we present their design, synthesis-growth, fabrication and characterization. With these hybrid devices, we achieve high color rendering index (>70), despite using only a single NC type. Furthermore, we conveniently tune their photometric properties including the chromaticity coordinates, correlated color temperature, and color rendering index with the number of hybridized nanoluminophores in a controlled manner

  13. Design of a High-Power White Light Source with Colloidal Quantum Dots and Non-Rare-Earth Phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, Kristopher T.

    This thesis describes the design process of a high-power white light source, using novel phosphor and colloidal quantum dot materials. To incorporate multiple light emitters, we generalized and extended a down-converting layer model. We employed a phosphor mixture comprising of YAG:Ce and K2TiF 6:Mn4+ powders to illustrate the effectiveness of the model. By incorporating experimental photophysical results from the phosphors and colloidal quantum dots, we modeled our system and chose the design suitable for high-power applications. We report a reduction in the correlated color temperature by 600K for phosphor and quantum dot systems, enabling the creation of a warm white light emission at power densities up to 5 kW/cm 2. Furthermore, at this high-power, their emission achieves the digital cinema initiative (DCI) requirements with a luminescence efficacy improvement up to 32% over the stand-alone ceramic YAG:Ce phosphor.

  14. Malignant vasovagal syndrome in two patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, N M; Bennett, D H

    2004-01-01

    The presence of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in patients presenting with syncope suggests that tachyarrhythmia may be the cause. However, the symptoms require careful evaluation. Two young patients presented with syncope and were found to have WPW syndrome on their ECG. In both patients symptoms were suggestive of vasovagal syncope. During tilt testing, both the patients developed their typical symptoms with a fall in blood pressure and heart rate confirming the diagnosis of malignant vasovagal syndrome. PMID:15020537

  15. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: Implications for an anaesthesiologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya Udaybhaskar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome is an electrical conduction abnormality of the heart that can induce potentially fatal arrhythmias at intermittent intervals. The induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia for a patient with WPW syndrome are risky due to the triggering capability of arrhythmias by various drugs and instrumentation. We hereby present the case of a 28-year-old male with previous cardiac illness, admitted for neurosurgical procedure, with drug-controlled WPW syndrome. The pre-operative optimisation, intraoperative scrutiny and vigil, along with readiness of standby medications and defibrillator made the ingress and egress from general anaesthesia uneventful. Thus, the potential dangers of WPW syndrome can be circumvented with watchful preparedness and meticulous monitoring.

  16. Bat white-nose syndrome: An emerging fungal pathogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, D.S.; Hicks, A.C.; Behr, M.; Meteyer, C.U.; Berlowski-Zier, B. M.; Buckles, E.L.; Coleman, J.T.H.; Darling, S.R.; Gargas, A.; Niver, R.; Okoniewski, J.C.; Rudd, R.J.; Stone, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a condition associated with an unprecedented bat mortality event in the northeastern United States. Since the winter of 2006*2007, bat declines exceeding 75% have been observed at surveyed hibernacula. Affected bats often present with visually striking white fungal growth on their muzzles, ears, and/or wing membranes. Direct microscopy and culture analyses demonstrated that the skin of WNS-affected bats is colonized by a psychro-philic fungus that is phylogenetically related to Geomyces spp. but with a conidial morphology distinct from characterized members of this genus. This report characterizes the cutaneous fungal infection associated with WNS.

  17. Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Turner, Gregory G; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michelle; Russell, Robin E; Castle, Kevin T

    2013-04-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

  18. Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Turner, Gregory G.; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michelle L.; Russell, Robin E.; Castle, Kevin T.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

  19. White spot syndrome virus inactivation study by using gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidareh, Marzieh; Sedeh, Farahnaz Motamedi; Soltani, Mehdi; Rajabifar, Saeed; Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Dashtiannasab, Aghil

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). White spot syndrome virus is a pathogen of major economic importance in cultured penaeid shrimp industries. White spot disease can cause mortalities reaching 100% within 3-10 days of gross signs appearing. During the period of culture, immunostimulant agents and vaccines may provide potential methods to protect shrimps from opportunistic and pathogenic microrganisms. In this study, firstly, WSSV was isolated from infected shrimp and then multiplied in crayfish. WSSV was purified from the infected crayfish haemolymph by sucrose gradient and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo virus titration was performed in shrimp, Penaeus semisulcatus. The LD50 of live virus stock was calculated 10 5.4/mL. Shrimp post-larvae (1-2 g) were treated with gamma-irradiated (different doses) WSSV (100 to 10-4 dilutions) for a period of 10 days. The dose/survival curve for irradiated and un-irradiated WSSV was drawn; the optimum dose range for inactivation of WSSV and unaltered antigenicity was obtained 14-15 kGy. This preliminary information suggests that shrimp appear to benefit from treatment with gammairradiated WSSV especially at 14-15 KGy.

  20. Formulating CdSe quantum dots for white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fei; Li, Wan-Nan; Fu, Shao-Yun; Xiao, Hong-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Generation of white light using CdSe quantum dots (QDs) alone presents exciting possibilities for solid state lighting technology. In this work, Cd(Ac) 2 ·2H 2 O and Na 2 SeSO 3 are used as precursors to synthesize CdSe-QDs with an average diameter ranging from 2.77 to 4.65 nm at the low temperature from 60 to 180 °C. Smaller CdSe-QDs with an average diameter of 2.29 nm are got by an oxidation etching process using H 2 O 2 as oxidant. The structural and optical properties of these QDs are investigated and proper formulation of CdSe QDs with various sizes is carefully designed to achieve white light with a high color rendering index (CRI). It is observed for the first time that the as-prepared white light-emitting diodes from single CdSe-QDs show the Commission Inernationale del’Eclairage coordinate (CIE) of (0.30,0.34) very close to that (0.33,0.33) of pure white light and a high CRI of 84. Owing to these advantages, the as-prepared white light-emitting diodes from a single compound are promising for lighting applications. - Highlights: • CdSe-quantum dots (QDs) with a continuously changing size from 2.31 to 4.74 nm are prepared. • The obtained CdSe-QDs emit lights with tunable colors in the whole visible range. • The obtained mixture sample generates white light with a high color rendering index of 84. • The sample yields white light with the CIE coordinate (0.30, 0.34) very close to that of pure white light

  1. Coral disease physiology: the impact of Acroporid white syndrome on Symbiodinium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roff, G.; Kvennefors, E. C. E.; Ulstrup, Karin Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Acroporid white syndrome, a disease-like syndrome from the Great Barrier Reef, results from degenerative host tissue at lesion borders. Tissue preceding lesion borders appears visually healthy, but it is currently unclear whether the endosymbiotic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) are physiologically...

  2. White coat hypertension in definition of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvaci, Mehmet Rami; Kaya, Hasan; Seyhanli, Mahmut; Yalcin, Atilla

    2008-07-01

    Although white coat hypertension (WCH) is believed to have an effect on health, there is no term defining WCH in metabolic syndrome. Consecutive patients 20 years old or older who underwent a check-up were included. The study included 1068 cases. The prevalences of hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and WCH were similar to excess weight in that they increased significantly until the seventh decade of life and decreased thereafter significantly (P hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), and coronary heart disease (CHD) always increased significantly with age without any decrease (P definition of metabolic syndrome should include reversible metabolic risk factors such as excess weight (overweight and obesity), hyperbetalipoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, IGT, and WCH, instead of irrevesible diseases such as DM, HT, CHD, and stroke that have already developed and require drug therapy. After development of one of the final metabolic diseases, the term metabolic syndrome probably loses most of its significance, since from that point on, nonpharmaceutical approaches such as lifestyle changes, diet, and exercise will provide little benefit to prevent development of the others, most likely due to the cumulative effects of the risk factors on body systems over a long period of time.

  3. The use of echocardiography in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiangjun; Shuraih, Mossaab; Nagueh, Sherif F

    2012-04-01

    Endocardial mapping and radiofrequency catheter ablation are well established modalities for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome associated with tachyarrhythmias. However, the electrophysiologic techniques are invasive, require radiation exposure, and lack spatial resolution of cardiac structures. A variety of echocardiographic techniques have been investigated as a non-invasive alternative for accessory pathway localization. Conventional M-mode echocardiography can detect the fine premature wall motion abnormalities associated with WPW syndrome. However, it is unable to identify the exact site of accessory pathway with sufficient accuracy. 2D, 2D-guided M-mode, and 2D phase analysis techniques are limited by image quality and endocardial border definition. Various modalities of tissue Doppler echocardiography significantly increase the accuracy of left-sided accessory pathway localization to 80-90% even in patients with poor acoustic window. However, right-sided pathways remain a diagnostic challenge. Strain echocardiography by speckle tracking has recently been evaluated and appears promising. Different cardiac abnormalities have been detected by echocardiography in WPW patients. Patients with WPW syndrome and tachyarrhythmias have impaired systolic and diastolic function which improves after radiofrequency ablation. Echocardiography is useful in identifying patient with accessory pathway-associated left ventricular dyssynchrony and dysfunction who may benefit from ablation therapy. Transesophageal and intracardiac echocardiography have been used to guide ablation procedure. Ablation-related complications detected by routine echocardiography are infrequent, rarely clinically relevant, and of limited value.

  4. Molecular Pathogenesis of Familial Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Miyamotoa

    2018-01-01

    Familial Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited disease and consists of a small percentage of WPW syndrome which exhibits ventricular pre-excitation by development of accessory atrioventricular pathway. A series of mutations in PRKAG2 gene encoding gamma2 subunit of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been identified as the cause of familial WPW syndrome. AMPK is one of the most important metabolic regulators of carbohydrates and lipids in many types of tissues including cardiac and skeletal muscles. Patients and animals with the mutation in PRKAG2 gene exhibit aberrant atrioventricular conduction associated with cardiac glycogen overload. Recent studies have revealed "novel" significance of canonical pathways leading to glycogen synthesis and provided us profound insights into molecular mechanism of the regulation of glycogen metabolism by AMPK. This review focuses on the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of cardiac abnormality due to PRKAG2 mutation and will provide current overviews of the mechanism of glycogen regulation by AMPK. J. Med. Invest. 65:1-8, February, 2018.

  5. Phase analysis in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Bunko, Hisashi; Tada, Akira; Taki, Junichi; Tonami, Norihisa

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome who underwent surgical division of the accessory conduction pathway (ACP) were studied by gated blood pool studies and phase analyses. All of 11 patients with right cardiac type (R-type) had abnormal initial phase in the right ventricle (RV), while 10 out of 14 patients with left cardiac type (L-type) had initial phase in the left ventricle (LV). However, in 4 L-type patients, there were no significant differences in the initiation of both ventricular contractions. In 10 patients who had radionuclide studies before and after surgical division of the ACP, the ventricular contraction patterns were apparently changed and the abnormal wall motions induced by the presence of ACPs disappeared. These observations indicate that the abnormal initial contraction is associated with pre-excitation of WPW syndrome. Sensitivities to identify the side of preexcitation were 100% (11/11) for R-type and 71% (10/14) for L-type. However, regarding the detection of the precise site of ACP, the agreement was 48% (12/25). Therefore, as a method of preoperative study, it seemed difficult to identify the precise localization of the ACP by phase analysis alone. Phase analysis provided interesting informations and was useful for evaluating patients with WPW syndrome before and after surgery. (author)

  6. White spot syndrome virus epizootic in cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Lin, W-H; Wang, P-C; Tsai, M-A; Hsu, J-P; Chen, S-C

    2013-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused significant losses in shrimp farms worldwide. Between 2004 and 2006, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) were collected from 220 farms in Taiwan to determine the prevalence and impact of WSSV infection on the shrimp farm industry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis detected WSSV in shrimp from 26% of farms. Juvenile shrimp farms had the highest infection levels (38%; 19/50 farms) and brooder shrimp farms had the lowest (5%; one of 20 farms). The average extent of infection at each farm was as follows for WSSV-positive farms: post-larvae farms, 71%; juvenile farms, 61%; subadult farms, 62%; adult farms, 49%; and brooder farms, 40%. Characteristic white spots, hypertrophied nuclei and basophilic viral inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of gills and tail fans, appendages, cephalothorax and hepatopancreas, and virions of WSSV were observed. Of shrimp that had WSSV lesions, 100% had lesions on the cephalothorax, 96% in gills and tail fans, 91% on appendages and 17% in the hepatopancreas. WSSV was also detected in copepoda and crustaceans from the shrimp farms. Sequence comparison using the pms146 gene fragment of WSSV showed that isolates from the farms had 99.7-100% nucleotide sequence identity with four strains in the GenBank database--China (AF332093), Taiwan (AF440570 and U50923) and Thailand (AF369029). This is the first broad study of WSSV infection in L. vannamei in Taiwan. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Bat white-nose syndrome in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol U.

    2011-01-01

    * The newly described fungus, Geomyces destructans, causes an invasive skin infection in bats and is the likely agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS). * With immune system functions and body temperatures reduced during hibernation, bats may be unusually susceptible to a pathogenic fungus such as G. destructans. * WNS was first observed in a popular show cave near Albany, New York, leading some investigators to suspect that a visitor inadvertently introduced G. destructans at this site, triggering a wider WNS outbreak in North America. * Biologists trying to manage WNS within North American bat populations face major challenges, including the variety of susceptible host species, incredible dispersal capabilities of bats, difficulties in treating such populations, and persistence of the pathogen in their vulnerable underground habitats.

  8. Distinct white matter abnormalities in different idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Concha, Luis; Beaulieu, Christian; Gross, Donald W

    2011-12-01

    By definition idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is not associated with structural abnormalities on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, recent quantitative studies suggest white and gray matter alterations in IGE. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are white and/or gray matter structural differences between controls and two subsets of IGE, namely juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and IGE with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only (IGE-GTC). We assessed white matter integrity and gray matter volume using diffusion tensor tractography-based analysis of fractional anisotropy and voxel-based morphometry, respectively, in 25 patients with IGE, all of whom had experienced generalized tonic-clonic convulsions. Specifically, 15 patients with JME and 10 patients with IGE-GTC were compared to two groups of similarly matched controls separately. Correlations between total lifetime generalized tonic-clonic seizures and fractional anisotropy were investigated for both groups. Tractography revealed lower fractional anisotropy in specific tracts including the crus of the fornix, body of corpus callosum, uncinate fasciculi, superior longitudinal fasciculi, anterior limb of internal capsule, and corticospinal tracts in JME with respect to controls, whereas there were no fractional anisotropy differences in IGE-GTC. No correlation was found between fractional anisotropy and total lifetime generalized tonic-clonic seizures for either JME or IGE-GTC. Although false discovery rate-corrected voxel-based morphometry (VBM) showed no gray matter volume differences between patient and control groups, spatial extent cluster-corrected VBM analysis suggested a trend of gray matter volume reduction in frontal and central regions in both patient groups, more lateral in JME and more medial in IGE-GTC. The findings support the idea that the clinical syndromes of JME and IGE-GTC have unique anatomic substrates. The fact that the primary clinical

  9. Economic Impacts of White Chick Syndrome in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kathleen E; Hastie, Gordon M; Ojkić, Davor; Brash, Marina L

    2017-09-01

    A cluster of 12 cases of White Chick Syndrome (WCS) in broiler breeder flocks producing affected progeny occurred from June to November 2015 in two broiler chicken hatcheries owned by a single company in Ontario, Canada. Cases were identified by the presence of typical chicks in the hatchery characterized by pale to white down, enlarged abdomens, and occasionally brown wiry fluff on the dorsum of the neck that were generally weak. Affected broiler breeder flocks experienced egg production drops of 0% to 15% and hatchability drops of 1.8% to 49.1%. Some flocks experienced increased feed clean-up duration and/or reduced hatching egg weight. The financial impacts of WCS to affected hatching egg producers averaged $5,912 CAD (US$4,417) per 10 000 hens and were as great as $16,788 CAD (US$12,544) per 10 000 hens. The financial impacts of WCS to the affected hatcheries averaged $1,723 CAD (US$1,287) per 10 000 broiler breeder hens and were as great as $4,096 (US$3,060) per 10 000 hens.

  10. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome with cleft lip and palate: A rare, previously unreported association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kannan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, also called Pre Excitation Syndrome, is characterized by an extra pathway that conducts the electrical impulses from the atria to the ventricles without the normal delay. We are reporting a case of WPW syndrome with a cleft lip and palate, which is a rare association and previously unreported in literature.

  11. The History of the Wolff–Parkinson–White Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinman, Melvin M.

    2012-01-01

    While Drs Wolff, Parkinson, and White fully described the syndrome in 1930, prior case reports had described the essentials. Over the ensuing century this syndrome has captivated the interest of anatomists, clinical cardiologists, and cardiac surgeons. Stanley Kent described lateral muscular connections over the atrioventricular (AV) groove which he felt were the normal AV connections. The normal AV connections were, however, clearly described by His and Tawara. True right-sided AV connections were initially described by Wood et al., while Öhnell first described left free wall pathways. David Scherf is thought to be the first to describe our current understanding of the pathogenesis of the WPW syndrome in terms of a re-entrant circuit involving both the AV node–His axis as well as the accessory pathway. This hypothesis was not universally accepted, and many theories were applied to explain the clinical findings. The basics of our understanding were established by the brilliant work of Pick, Langendorf, and Katz who by using careful deductive analysis of ECGs were able to define the basic pathophysiological processes. Subsequently, Wellens and Durrer applied invasive electrical stimulation to the heart in order to confirm the pathophysiological processes. Sealy and his colleagues at Duke University Medical Center were the first to successfully surgically divide an accessory pathway and ushered in the modern era of therapy for these patients. Morady and Scheinman were the first to successfully ablate an accessory pathway (posteroseptal) using high-energy direct-current shocks. Subsequently Jackman, Kuck, Morady, and a number of groups proved the remarkable safety and efficiency of catheter ablation for pathways in all locations using radiofrequency energy. More recently, Gollob et al. first described the gene responsible for a familial form of WPW. The current ability to cure patients with WPW is due to the splendid contributions of individuals from diverse

  12. The History of the Wolff–Parkinson–White Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvin M. Scheinman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available While Drs Wolff, Parkinson, and White fully described the syndrome in 1930, prior case reports had described the essentials. Over the ensuing century this syndrome has captivated the interest of anatomists, clinical cardiologists, and cardiac surgeons. Stanley Kent described lateral muscular connections over the atrioventricular (AV groove which he felt were the normal AV connections. The normal AV connections were, however, clearly described by His and Tawara. True right-sided AV connections were initially described by Wood et al., while Öhnell first described left free wall pathways. David Scherf is thought to be the first to describe our current understanding of the pathogenesis of the WPW syndrome in terms of a re-entrant circuit involving both the AV node–His axis as well as the accessory pathway. This hypothesis was not universally accepted, and many theories were applied to explain the clinical findings. The basics of our understanding were established by the brilliant work of Pick, Langendorf, and Katz who by using careful deductive analysis of ECGs were able to define the basic pathophysiological processes. Subsequently, Wellens and Durrer applied invasive electrical stimulation to the heart in order to confirm the pathophysiological processes. Sealy and his colleagues at Duke University Medical Center were the first to successfully surgically divide an accessory pathway and ushered in the modern era of therapy for these patients. Morady and Scheinman were the first to successfully ablate an accessory pathway (posteroseptal using high-energy direct-current shocks. Subsequently Jackman, Kuck, Morady, and a number of groups proved the remarkable safety and efficiency of catheter ablation for pathways in all locations using radiofrequency energy. More recently, Gollob et al. first described the gene responsible for a familial form of WPW. The current ability to cure patients with WPW is due to the splendid contributions of individuals

  13. Modulation of the photoluminescence in carbon dots through surface modification: from mechanism to white light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinyang; Shao, He; Bai, Xue; Zhai, Yue; Zhu, Yongsheng; Chen, Xu; Pan, Gencai; Dong, Biao; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Hanzhuang; Song, Hongwei

    2018-06-01

    Carbon dots (CDs) have emerged as a new type of fluorescent material because of their unique optical advantages, such as high photoluminescence quantum yields (QYs), excellent photo-stability, excitation-dependent emissions, and low toxicity. However, the photoluminescence mechanism for CDs remains unclear, which limits their further practical application. Here, CDs were synthesized via a solvothermal route from citric acid and urea. Through the oxidation and reduction treatment of pristine CDs, the origin of the photoluminescence and the involved mechanism were revealed. We found that the blue/green/red emissions originated from three diverse emitting states, i.e. the intrinsic state, and C=O- and C=N-related surface states, respectively. Based on the as-prepared CDs, a pH sensor depending on the radiometric luminescence detection was developed. Furthermore, we constructed CD/PVP (PVP, polyvinylpyrrolidone) composite films, which exhibited white light emission with photoluminescence QYs of 15.3%. The white light emission with different correlated color temperatures (CCTs), from 4807 K to 3319 K, was obtained by simply changing the amount of PVP solution. Benefiting from the white light-emitting solid-state films, single-component white light-emitting diodes were fabricated with an average color rendering index value (Ra) of 80.0, luminous efficiency of 10.2 lm W‑1, and good working stability, thus indicating a promising potential for practical lighting applications.

  14. Asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: Incidental EKG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Assaf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 38-year-old male presents to the emergency department for a minor trauma evaluation after falling off a bicycle at a moderate rate of speed. The patient was not wearing a helmet when he hit his head with unknown loss of consciousness. Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST exam and head computed tomography (CT were negative. Routine electrocardiogram (ECG showed sinus rhythm with pre-excitation indicative of Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome (WPW. The patient confirmed a previous diagnosis of WPW, but had not previously followed up with a cardiologist. Significant findings: The ECG shows slurred up-stroking of the QRS complexes characteristic of a delta wave. The PR interval is normal; however, the QT interval is greater than 110ms. Discussion: Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome (WPW is a frequently encountered macro-reentrant arrhythmia characterized by a shortened PR interval less than 120ms, prolonged QRS greater than 120ms with an up-stroking QRS complex (delta wave, and occasional ST abnormalities.1 The incidence is reported to be 0.9%-3% of the general population and most diagnoses are made on routine EKGs.2,3 WPW is thought to be caused by abnormalities of conduction through the accessory pathway, also known as the Bundle of Kent, causing premature excitation of the ventricles. The complications from WPW are supraventricular tachycardia, atrial arrhythmias, and ventricular fibrillation leading to sudden cardiac death.3 Approximately 40-50% of patients who die from sudden cardiac arrest associated with WPW were previously asymptomatic.4 Unfortunately, it is agreed that approximately 50% of patients with WPW are asymptomatic and unaware of their diagnosis.5 The definitive treatment for WPW is radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA. However, it comes with a low risk of complications including arrhythmias and death.6 For asymptomatic WPW, children are at the highest risk for ventricular arrhythmias while

  15. The performance of quantum dots-based white light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Lin; Chung, Shu-Ru

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the investigation of quantum dots (QDs) as a color converter for white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) application has attracted a great deal of attention. Because the narrow emission wavelength of QDs can be controlled by their particle sizes and compositions, which is facilitated to improve the color gamut of display as well as color rendering index (CRI) and the correlated color temperature (CCT) of WLEDs. In a typical commercially available LCD display, the color gamut is approximately to 75 % which is defined by the National Television System Committee (NTSC). In order to enhance NTSC, the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of color converter should be less than 30 nm. Therefore, the QDs are the best choice for display application due to the FWHM of QDs is meet the demand of display application. In this study, the hot injection method with one-pot process is used to synthesis of colloidal ternary ZnCdSe green (G-) and red-emission (R-) QDs with a narrow emission wavelength around 537 and 610 nm. By controlling the complex reagents-stearic acid (SA) and lauric acid (LA), high performance of G- and R-QDs can be prepared. The quantum yields (QYs), particle sizes and FWHM for G- and R-QDs are 70, 30 %, 3.2 +/- 0.5, 4.1 +/- 0.5 nm and 25, 26 nm, respectively. In order to explore the performance of QDs-based WLEDs, mixing ratios effect between G-QD and R-QD are studied and the WLED is packed as conformal-type. Different ratios of R-QD and G-QD (1:10, 1:20 and 1:30) are mixed and fill up the 3020 SMD blue-InGaN LED, and named as LED-10, LED-20 and LED-30. After that, UV curable gel is deposited on the top of QD layer to form WLED and named as LED-10*, LED-20* and LED-30*. The results show that the Commission International d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates, color rendering index (CRI), luminous efficacy of LED-10*, LED-20* and LED-30* are (0.27, 0.21), 53, 1.9 lm/W, (0.29, 0.30), 72, 3.3 lm/W and (0.25, 0.34), 45, 6.8 lm/W, respectively. We can find

  16. Glycerophospholipid Profiles of Bats with White Nose Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannkuk, Evan L.; Mcguire, Liam P.; Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M.; Willis, Craig K.R.; Risch, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is an ascomycetous fungus responsible for the disease dubbed white nose syndrome (WNS) and massive mortalities of cave dwelling bats. The fungus infects bat epidermal tissue causing damage to integumentary cells and pilosebaceous units. Differences in epidermal lipid composition caused by P. destructans infection could have drastic consequences for a variety of physiological functions, including innate immune efficiency and water retention. While bat surface lipid and stratum corneum lipid composition have been described; the differences in epidermal lipid content between healthy tissue and P. destructans infected tissue have not been documented. In this study, we analyzed the effect of wing damage from P. destructans infection on the epidermal polar lipid composition (glycerophospholipids [GPs] and sphingomyelin [SM]) of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus). We hypothesized that bats infected with P. destructans would have altered lipid profiles compared to healthy bats. Polar lipids from three damaged and three healthy wing samples were profiled by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The SM fraction was not significantly affected by P. destructans infection. We found lower total broad lipid levels in damaged tissue, specifically ether-linked phospholipids, lysophospholipids, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine. Thirteen individual GP species from 4 broad GP classes were present in higher amounts in healthy tissue. Six unsaturated GP species were absent in damaged tissue. Our results confirm P. destructans infection leads to altered lipid profiles. Clinical signs of WNS may include lower lipid levels and lower proportions of unsaturated lipids due to cellular and glandular damage. PMID:26052639

  17. Medical image of the week: Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hook C

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 38-year-old man developed sustained rapid heart rate while rock climbing. The patient reported that he had experienced rare bouts of self-limited palpitations in the past. Blood pressure on arrival to the emergency department was 112/ 65 mm Hg. The patient’s initial EKG demonstrated a regular, narrow complex supraventricular tachycardia, with a rate of 232 (Figure 1. Intravenous adenosine was administered with no change in his rate or rhythm. The patient then received amiodarone by intravenous bolus, with subsequent conversion to sinus rhythm (Figure 2. Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome is a congenital cardiac condition present in approximately 0.15% of the general population. WPW is characterized by the abnormal presence of conduction tissue that creates an accessory atrioventricular pathway and thus potentiates reentrant tachycardia (1. The classic resting EKG findings in WPW are: a shortened PR interval (less than 0.12 seconds, an indistinct initial upslope of the QRS complex (known as the …

  18. Electrophysiological evaluation of Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembilla-Perrot, Beatrice

    2002-01-01

    Sudden death might complicate the follow-up of symptomatic patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) and might be the first event in patients with asymptomatic WPW. The risk of sudden death is increased in some clinical situations. Generally, the noninvasive studies are unable to predict the risk of sudden death correctly . The electrophysiological study is the best means to detect the risk of sudden death and to evaluate the nature of symptoms. Methods used to define the prognosis of WPW are well-defined. At first the maximal rate of conduction through the accessory pathway is evaluated; programmed atrial stimulation using 1 and 2 extrastimuli delivered at different cycle lengths is then used to determine the accessory pathway refractory period and to induce a supraventricular tachycardia. These methods should be performed in the control state and repeated in adrenergic situations either during exercise test or more simply during a perfusion of small doses of isoproterenol. The induction of an atrial fibrillation with rapid conduction through the accessory pathway (> 240/min in control state, > 300/min after isoproterenol) is the sign of a form of WPW at risk of sudden death. PMID:16951730

  19. Electrophysiological evaluation of Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Brembilla-Perrot

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Sudden death might complicate the follow-up of symptomatic patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW and might be the first event in patients with asymptomatic WPW. The risk of sudden death is increased in some clinical situations. Generally, the noninvasive studies are unable to predict the risk of sudden death correctly . The electrophysiological study is the best means to detect the risk of sudden death and to evaluate the nature of symptoms. Methods used to define the prognosis of WPW are well-defined. At first the maximal rate of conduction through the accessory pathway is evaluated; programmed atrial stimulation using 1 and 2 extrastimuli delivered at different cycle lengths is then used to determine the accessory pathway refractory period and to induce a supraventricular tachycardia. These methods should be performed in the control state and repeated in adrenergic situations either during exercise test or more simply during a perfusion of small doses of isoproterenol. The induction of an atrial fibrillation with rapid conduction through the accessory pathway (> 240/min in control state, > 300/min after isoproterenol is the sign of a form of WPW at risk of sudden death.

  20. Glycerophospholipid Profiles of Bats with White-Nose Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannkuk, Evan L; McGuire, Liam P; Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M; Willis, Craig K R; Risch, Thomas S

    2015-01-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is an ascomycetous fungus responsible for the disease dubbed white-nose syndrome (WNS) and massive mortalities of cave-dwelling bats. The fungus infects bat epidermal tissue, causing damage to integumentary cells and pilosebaceous units. Differences in epidermal lipid composition caused by P. destructans infection could have drastic consequences for a variety of physiological functions, including innate immune efficiency and water retention. While bat surface lipid and stratum corneum lipid composition have been described, the differences in epidermal lipid content between healthy tissue and P. destructans-infected tissue have not been documented. In this study, we analyzed the effect of wing damage from P. destructans infection on the epidermal polar lipid composition (glycerophospholipids [GPs] and sphingomyelin) of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus). We hypothesized that infection would lead to lower levels of total lipid or higher oxidized lipid product proportions. Polar lipids from three damaged and three healthy wing samples were profiled by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. We found lower total broad lipid levels in damaged tissue, specifically ether-linked phospholipids, lysophospholipids, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylethanolamine. Thirteen individual GP species from four broad GP classes were present in higher amounts in healthy tissue. Six unsaturated GP species were absent in damaged tissue. Our results confirm that P. destructans infection leads to altered lipid profiles. Clinical signs of WNS may include lower lipid levels and lower proportions of unsaturated lipids due to cellular and glandular damage.

  1. Pseudogymnoascus destructans transcriptome changes during white-nose syndrome infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Sophia M; Palmer, Jonathan M; Prokkola, Jenni M; Lilley, Thomas M; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Field, Kenneth A

    2017-11-17

    White nose syndrome (WNS) is caused by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans that can grow in the environment saprotrophically or parasitically by infecting hibernating bats. Infections are pathological in many species of North American bats, disrupting hibernation and causing mortality. To determine what fungal pathways are involved in infection of living tissue, we examined fungal gene expression using RNA-Seq. We compared P. destructans gene expression when grown in culture to that during infection of a North American bat species, Myotis lucifugus, that shows high WNS mortality. Cultured P. destructans was grown at 10 to 14 C and P. destructans growing in vivo was presumably exposed to temperatures ranging from 4 to 8 C during torpor and up to 37 C during periodic arousals. We found that when P. destructans is causing WNS, the most significant differentially expressed genes were involved in heat shock responses, cell wall remodeling, and micronutrient acquisition. These results indicate that this fungal pathogen responds to host-pathogen interactions by regulating gene expression in ways that may contribute to evasion of host responses. Alterations in fungal cell wall structures could allow P. destructans to avoid detection by host pattern recognition receptors and antibody responses. This study has also identified several fungal pathways upregulated during WNS infection that may be candidates for mitigating infection pathology. By identifying host-specific pathogen responses, these observations have important implications for host-pathogen evolutionary relationships in WNS and other fungal diseases.

  2. Datasheet: Pseudogymnoascus destructans (white-nose syndrome fungus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David; Lankau, Emily W.

    2017-01-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is a psychrophilic (cold-loving) fungus that causes white-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging disease of North American bats that has caused unprecedented population declines. The fungus is believed to have been introduced to North America from Europe or Asia (where it is present but does not cause significant mortality), but the full extent of its native range is unknown. The route of introduction is also unknown. In North America, hibernating bats become infected with P. destructans when body temperature decreases during winter torpor into the range permissive for growth of this fungus. Infected bats may develop visible fungal growth on the nose or wings, awaken more frequently from torpor, and experience a cascade of physiologic changes that result in weight loss, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and death. P. destructans persists in the environments of underground bat hibernation sites (hibernacula) and is believed to spread primarily by natural movements of infected bats. The first evidence of WNS in North America is from a photograph of a hibernating bat taken during winter of 2005-2006 in a hibernaculum near Albany, New York. P. destructans subsequently spread rapidly from the northeastern United States throughout much of the eastern portions of the United States and Canada, and most recently (as of May 2017) was detected in Washington State. It has killed millions of bats, threatening some species with regional extirpation and putting at risk the valuable environmental services that bats provide by eating harmful insects.

  3. Deep insight into white spot syndrome virus vaccines: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Badhul Haq

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV, the causative virus of the disease, is found in most shrimp farming areas of the world, where it causes large economic losses to the shrimp farming industry. The potentially fatal virus has been found to be a threat not only to all shrimp species, but also to other marine and freshwater crustaceans, such as crab and crayfish. To date, no effective prophylactic treatment measures are available for viral infections in shrimp and other crustaceans. Due to current aquaculture practices and the broad host range of WSSV, intervention strategies including vaccination against this virus would be pivotal to save and protect shrimp farming. Several achievements have been attained in the search of novel vaccines for WSSV. DNA vaccination, recombinant vaccines, oral vaccination techniques and gene therapy are some of the thrust areas of focus for scientists and researchers. This review article highlights the recent trends in the development of WSSV vaccines either as DNA vaccines or recombinant vaccines and their functioning strategies as suggested by the researchers worldwide.

  4. Intestinal bacterial signatures of white feces syndrome in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dongwei; Huang, Zhijian; Zeng, Shenzheng; Liu, Jian; Wei, Dongdong; Deng, Xisha; Weng, Shaoping; Yan, Qingyun; He, Jianguo

    2018-04-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the intestinal microbiota is closely correlated with the host's health status. Thus, a serious disturbance that disrupts the stability of the intestinal microecosystem could cause host disease. Shrimps are one of the most important products among fishery trading commodities. However, digestive system diseases, such as white feces syndrome (WFS), frequently occur in shrimp culture and have led to enormous economic losses across the world. The WFS occurrences are unclear. Here, we compared intestinal bacterial communities of WFS shrimp and healthy shrimp. Intestinal bacterial communities of WFS shrimp exhibited less diversity but were more heterogeneous than those of healthy shrimp. The intestinal bacterial communities were significantly different between WFS shrimp and healthy shrimp; compared with healthy shrimp, in WFS shrimp, Candidatus Bacilloplasma and Phascolarctobacterium were overrepresented, whereas Paracoccus and Lactococcus were underrepresented. PICRUSt functional predictions indicated that the relative abundances of genes involved in energy metabolism and genetic information processing were significantly greater in WFS shrimp. Collectively, we found that the composition and predicted functions of the intestinal bacterial community were markedly shifted by WFS. Significant increases in Candidatus Bacilloplasma and Phascolarctobacterium and decreases in Paracoccus and Lactococcus may contribute to WFS in shrimp.

  5. MRI of white matter changes in the Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.Z.; Oba, H.; Ohtomo, K.; Aihara, M.; Hayashibe, H.; Nakazawa, S.; Uchiyama, G.

    1995-01-01

    We report a case of Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome with spastic diplegia and conduction aphasia. MRI demonstrated the white matter changes deep in the cerebral hemispheres. We analyse the MRI findings and compare the results with neuropsychological signs. (orig.)

  6. MRI of white matter changes in the Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, M.Z. [Dept. of Radiology, Yamanashi Medical Coll., Yamanashi (Japan); Oba, H. [Dept. of Radiology, Yamanashi Medical Coll., Yamanashi (Japan); Ohtomo, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Yamanashi Medical Coll., Yamanashi (Japan); Aihara, M. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Yamanashi Medical Coll., Tamahocho, Yamanashi (Japan); Hayashibe, H. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Yamanashi Medical Coll., Tamahocho, Yamanashi (Japan); Nakazawa, S. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Yamanashi Medical Coll., Tamahocho, Yamanashi (Japan); Uchiyama, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Yamanashi Medical Coll., Yamanashi (Japan)

    1995-10-01

    We report a case of Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome with spastic diplegia and conduction aphasia. MRI demonstrated the white matter changes deep in the cerebral hemispheres. We analyse the MRI findings and compare the results with neuropsychological signs. (orig.)

  7. Antiviral property of marine actinomycetes against white spot syndrome virus in penaeid shrimps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.S.; Philip, R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Aquaculture farms, particularly in Southeast Asia are facing severe crisis due to increasing incidences of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). Actinomycetes have provided many important bioactive compounds of high prophylactic and therapeutic value...

  8. Defect induced photoluminescence in MoS2 quantum dots and effect of Eu3+/Tb3+ co-doping towards efficient white light emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Dhrubaa; Ghosh, Arnab; Bose, Saptasree; Mondal, Supriya; Ghorai, Uttam Kumar; Saha, Shyamal K.

    2018-05-01

    Intensive research has been carried out on optical properties of MoS2 quantum dots for versatile applications in photo catalytic, sensing and optoelectronic devices. However, white light generation from MoS2 quantum dots particularly using doping effect is relatively unexplored. Herein we report successful synthesis of Europium (Eu)/Terbium (Tb) co-doped MoS2 quantum dots to achieve white light for potential applications in optoelectronic devices. The dopant ions are introduced into the host lattice to retain the emission colors to cover the entire range of visible light of solar spectrum. Perfect white light (CIE = 0.31, 0.33) with high intensity (quantum yield = 28.29%) is achieved in these rare earth elements co-doped quantum dot system. A new peak is observed in the NIR region which is attributed to the defects present in MoS2 quantum dots. Temperature dependent study has been carried out to understand the origin of this new peak in the NIR region. It is seen that the 'S' defects in the QDs cause the appearance of this peak which shows a blue shift at higher temperature.

  9. Characterisation of three-dimensional mapping in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome with septal aneurysmal dyskinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Seigo; Muneuchi, Jun; Origuchi, Hideki

    2018-01-01

    A 21-year-old man with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and aneurysmal septal dyskinesis underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation of the accessory pathways. Before radiofrequency catheter ablation, the activation wavefront arose from the aneurysmal septum, whereas the propagation of the left ventricle was normalised after radiofrequency catheter ablation. These findings demonstrate the importance of the electro-mechanical interaction in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and ventricular dysfunction.

  10. Effects of white-nose syndrome on regional population patterns of 3 hibernating bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Thomas E; Sewall, Brent J; Amelon, Sybill K

    2016-10-01

    Hibernating bats have undergone severe recent declines across the eastern United States, but the cause of these regional-scale declines has not been systematically evaluated. We assessed the influence of white-nose syndrome (an emerging bat disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, formerly Geomyces destructans) on large-scale, long-term population patterns in the little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus), the northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis), and the tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus). We modeled population trajectories for each species on the basis of an extensive data set of winter hibernacula counts of more than 1 million individual bats from a 4-state region over 13 years and with data on locations of hibernacula and first detections of white-nose syndrome at each hibernaculum. We used generalized additive mixed models to determine population change relative to expectations, that is, how population trajectories differed with a colony's infection status, how trajectories differed with distance from the point of introduction of white-nose syndrome, and whether declines were concordant with first local observation of the disease. Population trajectories in all species met at least one of the 3 expectations, but none met all 3. Our results suggest, therefore, that white-nose syndrome has affected regional populations differently than was previously understood and has not been the sole cause of declines. Specifically, our results suggest that in some areas and species, threats other than white-nose syndrome are also contributing to population declines, declines linked to white-nose syndrome have spread across large geographic areas with unexpected speed, and the disease or other threats led to declines in bat populations for years prior to disease detection. Effective conservation will require further research to mitigate impacts of white-nose syndrome, renewed attention to other threats to bats, and improved surveillance efforts to ensure

  11. White matter integrity deficits in prefrontal-amygdala pathways in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Suzanne N; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A; Anderson, Adam W; Blackford, Jennifer Urbano

    2012-01-16

    Williams syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with significant non-social fears. Consistent with this elevated non-social fear, individuals with Williams syndrome have an abnormally elevated amygdala response when viewing threatening non-social stimuli. In typically-developing individuals, amygdala activity is inhibited through dense, reciprocal white matter connections with the prefrontal cortex. Neuroimaging studies suggest a functional uncoupling of normal prefrontal-amygdala inhibition in individuals with Williams syndrome, which might underlie both the extreme amygdala activity and non-social fears. This functional uncoupling might be caused by structural deficits in underlying white matter pathways; however, prefrontal-amygdala white matter deficits have yet to be explored in Williams syndrome. We used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate prefrontal-amygdala white matter integrity differences in individuals with Williams syndrome and typically-developing controls with high levels of non-social fear. White matter pathways between the amygdala and several prefrontal regions were isolated using probabilistic tractography. Within each pathway, we tested for between-group differences in three measures of white matter integrity: fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and parallel diffusivity (λ(1)). Individuals with Williams syndrome had lower FA, compared to controls, in several of the prefrontal-amygdala pathways investigated, indicating a reduction in white matter integrity. Lower FA in Williams syndrome was explained by significantly higher RD, with no differences in λ(1), suggestive of lower fiber density or axon myelination in prefrontal-amygdala pathways. These results suggest that deficits in the structural integrity of prefrontal-amygdala white matter pathways might underlie the increased amygdala activity and extreme non-social fears observed in Williams syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Selecting the optimal synthesis parameters of InP/CdxZn1-xSe quantum dots for a hybrid remote phosphor white LED for general lighting applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckaert, Jana; Correia, António; Tessier, Mickael D; Dupont, Dorian; Hens, Zeger; Hanselaer, Peter; Meuret, Youri

    2017-11-27

    Quantum dots can be used in white LEDs for lighting applications to fill the spectral gaps in the combined emission spectrum of the blue pumping LED and a broad band phosphor, in order to improve the source color rendering properties. Because quantum dots are low scattering materials, their use can also reduce the amount of backscattered light which can increase the overall efficiency of the white LED. The absorption spectrum and narrow emission spectrum of quantum dots can be easily tuned by altering their synthesis parameters. Due to the re-absorption events between the different luminescent materials and the light interaction with the LED package, determining the optimal quantum dot properties is a highly non-trivial task. In this paper we propose a methodology to select the optimal quantum dot to be combined with a broad band phosphor in order to realize a white LED with optimal luminous efficacy and CRI. The methodology is based on accurate and efficient simulations using the extended adding-doubling approach that take into account all the optical interactions. The method is elaborated for the specific case of a hybrid, remote phosphor white LED with YAG:Ce phosphor in combination with InP/CdxZn 1-x Se type quantum dots. The absorption and emission spectrum of the quantum dots are generated in function of three synthesis parameters (core size, shell size and cadmium fraction) by a semi-empirical 'quantum dot model' to include the continuous tunability of these spectra. The sufficiently fast simulations allow to scan the full parameter space consisting of these synthesis parameters and luminescent material concentrations in terms of CRI and efficacy. A conclusive visualization of the final performance allows to make a well-considered trade-off between these performance parameters. For the hybrid white remote phosphor LED with YAG:Ce and InP/CdxZn 1-x Se quantum dots a CRI Ra = 90 (with R9>50) and an overall efficacy of 110 lm/W is found.

  13. p-Type modulation doped InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire white-light-emitting diodes monolithically grown on Si(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H P T; Zhang, S; Cui, K; Han, X; Fathololoumi, S; Couillard, M; Botton, G A; Mi, Z

    2011-05-11

    Full-color, catalyst-free InGaN/GaN dot-in-a-wire light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were monolithically grown on Si(111) by molecular beam epitaxy, with the emission characteristics controlled by the dot properties in a single epitaxial growth step. With the use of p-type modulation doping in the dot-in-a-wire heterostructures, we have demonstrated the most efficient phosphor-free white LEDs ever reported, which exhibit an internal quantum efficiency of ∼56.8%, nearly unaltered CIE chromaticity coordinates with increasing injection current, and virtually zero efficiency droop at current densities up to ∼640 A/cm(2). The remarkable performance is attributed to the superior three-dimensional carrier confinement provided by the electronically coupled dot-in-a-wire heterostructures, the nearly defect- and strain-free GaN nanowires, and the significantly enhanced hole transport due to the p-type modulation doping.

  14. White spot syndrome virus molecular epidemiology: relation with shrimp farming and disease outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Tuyet, H.

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the causative agent of white spot disease (WSD), has been responsible for most shrimp production losses around the world since the early 1990s. Previous research has focused mainly on the characterization of WSSV genomic variation to gain a better insight in the

  15. Influence of Gaussian white noise on the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizability of doped quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, Jayanta [Department of Chemistry, Brahmankhanda Basapara High School, Basapara, Birbhum 731215, West Bengal (India); Ghosh, Manas, E-mail: pcmg77@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Section, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan, Birbhum 731 235, West Bengal (India)

    2014-05-07

    We investigate the profiles of diagonal components of frequency-dependent first nonlinear (β{sub xxx} and β{sub yyy}) optical response of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots. We have assumed a Gaussian function to represent the dopant impurity potential. This study primarily addresses the role of noise on the polarizability components. We have invoked Gaussian white noise consisting of additive and multiplicative characteristics (in Stratonovich sense). The doped system has been subjected to an oscillating electric field of given intensity, and the frequency-dependent first nonlinear polarizabilities are computed. The noise characteristics are manifested in an interesting way in the nonlinear polarizability components. In case of additive noise, the noise strength remains practically ineffective in influencing the optical responses. The situation completely changes with the replacement of additive noise by its multiplicative analog. The replacement enhances the nonlinear optical response dramatically and also causes their maximization at some typical value of noise strength that depends on oscillation frequency.

  16. Red carbon dots-based phosphors for white light-emitting diodes with color rendering index of 92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yuechen; Wang, Yi; Li, Di; Zhou, Ding; Jing, Pengtao; Shen, Dezhen; Qu, Songnan

    2018-05-29

    Exploration of solid-state efficient red emissive carbon dots (CDs) phosphors is strongly desired for the development of high performance CDs-based white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs). In this work, enhanced red emissive CDs-based phosphors with photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) of 25% were prepared by embedding red emissive CDs (PLQYs of 23%) into polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Because of the protection of PVP, the phosphors could preserve strong luminescence under long-term UV excitation or being mixed with conventional packaging materials. By applying the red emissive phosphors as the color conversion layer, WLEDs with high color rendering index of 92 and color coordinate of (0.33, 0.33) are fabricated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of the metabolic syndrome in black and white adolescent girls : A longitudinal assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, JA; Friedman, LA; Harlan, WR; Harlan, LC; Barton, BA; Schreiber, GB; Klein, DJ

    Background. The metabolic syndrome, associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, begins to develop during adolescence. Objective. We sought to identify early predictors of the presence of the syndrome at the ages of 18 and 19 years in black and white girls.

  18. Development of the metabolic syndrome in black and white adolescent girls : A longitudinal assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, JA; Friedman, LA; Harlan, WR; Harlan, LC; Barton, BA; Schreiber, GB; Klein, DJ

    2005-01-01

    Background. The metabolic syndrome, associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, begins to develop during adolescence. Objective. We sought to identify early predictors of the presence of the syndrome at the ages of 18 and 19 years in black and white girls.

  19. Early White-Matter Abnormalities of the Ventral Frontostriatal Pathway in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Brian W.; Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Lightbody, Amy A.; Patnaik, Swetapadma S.; Hoeft, Fumiko; Hazlett, Heather; Piven, Joseph; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Fragile X syndrome is associated with cognitive deficits in inhibitory control and with abnormal neuronal morphology and development. Method: In this study, we used a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography approach to reconstruct white-matter fibers in the ventral frontostriatal pathway in young males with fragile X syndrome (n = 17;…

  20. The ecology of 'Acroporid white syndrome', a coral disease from the southern Great Barrier Reef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Roff

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of coral disease have increased worldwide over the last few decades. Despite this, remarkably little is known about the ecology of disease in the Indo-Pacific Region. Here we report the spatiotemporal dynamics of a coral disease termed 'Acroporid white syndrome' observed to affect tabular corals of the genus Acropora on the southern Great Barrier Reef. The syndrome is characterised by rapid tissue loss initiating in the basal margins of colonies, and manifests as a distinct lesion boundary between apparently healthy tissue and exposed white skeleton. Surveys of eight sites around Heron Reef in 2004 revealed a mean prevalence of 8.1±0.9%, affecting the three common species (Acropora cytherea, A. hyacinthus, A. clathrata and nine other tabular Acropora spp. While all sizes of colonies were affected, white syndrome disproportionately affected larger colonies of tabular Acroporids (>80 cm. The prevalence of white syndrome was strongly related to the abundance of tabular Acroporids within transects, yet the incidence of the syndrome appears unaffected by proximity to other colonies, suggesting that while white syndrome is density dependant, it does not exhibit a strongly aggregated spatial pattern consistent with previous coral disease outbreaks. Acroporid white syndrome was not transmitted by either direct contact in the field or by mucus in aquaria experiments. Monitoring of affected colonies revealed highly variable rates of tissue loss ranging from 0 to 1146 cm(-2 week(-1, amongst the highest documented for a coral disease. Contrary to previous links between temperature and coral disease, rates of tissue loss in affected colonies increased threefold during the winter months. Given the lack of spatial pattern and non-infectious nature of Acroporid white syndrome, further studies are needed to determine causal factors and longer-term implications of disease outbreaks on the Great Barrier Reef.

  1. Histopathologic criteria to confirm white-nose syndrome in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Buckles, Elizabeth L; Blehert, David S; Hicks, Alan C; Green, D Earl; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Thomas, Nancy J; Gargas, Andrea; Behr, Melissa J

    2009-07-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a cutaneous fungal disease of hibernating bats associated with a novel Geomyces sp. fungus. Currently, confirmation of WNS requires histopathologic examination. Invasion of living tissue distinguishes this fungal infection from those caused by conventional transmissible dermatophytes. Although fungal hyphae penetrate the connective tissue of glabrous skin and muzzle, there is typically no cellular inflammatory response in hibernating bats. Preferred tissue samples to diagnose this fungal infection are rostral muzzle with nose and wing membrane fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. To optimize detection, the muzzle is trimmed longitudinally, the wing membrane is rolled, and multiple cross-sections are embedded to increase the surface area examined. Periodic acid-Schiff stain is essential to discriminate the nonpigmented fungal hyphae and conidia. Fungal hyphae form cup-like epidermal erosions and ulcers in the wing membrane and pinna with involvement of underlying connective tissue. In addition, fungal hyphae are present in hair follicles and in sebaceous and apocrine glands of the muzzle with invasion of tissue surrounding adnexa. Fungal hyphae in tissues are branching and septate, but the diameter and shape of the hyphae may vary from parallel walls measuring 2 microm in diameter to irregular walls measuring 3-5 microm in diameter. When present on short aerial hyphae, curved conidia are approximately 2.5 microm wide and 7.5 microm in curved length. Conidia have a more deeply basophilic center, and one or both ends are usually blunt. Although WNS is a disease of hibernating bats, severe wing damage due to fungal hyphae may be seen in bats that have recently emerged from hibernation. These recently emerged bats also have a robust suppurative inflammatory response.

  2. Polycystic ovary syndrome and the peripheral blood white cell count.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Herlihy, A C

    2012-02-01

    This retrospective cross-sectional study examined if the white cell count (WCC) is increased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and if so, is it due to PCOS or to the associated obesity? Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Of the 113 women studied, 36 had PCOS and 77 did not. The mean WCC was higher in the PCOS group compared with the non-PCOS group (8.9 x 10(9)\\/l vs 7.4 x 10(9)\\/l p = 0.002). This increase was due to a higher neutrophil count (5.6 x 10(9)\\/l vs 4.3 x 10(9)\\/l; p = 0.003). There was a leucocytosis (WCC >11 x 10(9)\\/l) present in 19% of the PCOS group compared with 1% in the non-PCOS group (p < 0.001). The neutrophil count was abnormally high (>7.7 x 10(9)\\/l) in 14% of the PCOS group compared with 4% in the non-PCOS group (p < 0.001). On regression analysis, however, the only independent variable which explained both the increased WCC and the increased neutrophil count was PCOS. We found that PCOS is associated with an increased WCC due to increased neutrophils, which supports the evidence that PCOS is associated with low-grade inflammation. The increase appears to be due to the underlying PCOS, and not to the increased adiposity associated with PCOS.

  3. Histopathologic criteria to confirm white-nose syndrome in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Carol U.; Buckles, Elizabeth L.; Blehert, David S.; Hicks, Alan C.; Green, David E.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Thomas, Nancy J.; Gargas, Andrea; Behr, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a cutaneous fungal disease of hibernating bats associated with a novel Geomyces sp. fungus. Currently, confirmation of WNS requires histopathologic examination. Invasion of living tissue distinguishes this fungal infection from those caused by conventional transmissible dermatophytes. Although fungal hyphae penetrate the connective tissue of glabrous skin and muzzle, there is typically no cellular inflammatory response in hibernating bats. Preferred tissue samples to diagnose this fungal infection are rostral muzzle with nose and wing membrane fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. To optimize detection, the muzzle is trimmed longitudinally, the wing membrane is rolled, and multiple cross-sections are embedded to increase the surface area examined. Periodic acid-Schiff stain is essential to discriminate the nonpigmented fungal hyphae and conidia. Fungal hyphae form cup-like epidermal erosions and ulcers in the wing membrane and pinna with involvement of underlying connective tissue. In addition, fungal hyphae are present in hair follicles and in sebaceous and apocrine glands of the muzzle with invasion of tissue surrounding adnexa. Fungal hyphae in tissues are branching and septate, but the diameter and shape of the hyphae may vary from parallel walls measuring 2 ??m in diameter to irregular walls measuring 3-5 ??m in diameter. When present on short aerial hyphae, curved conidia are approximately 2.5 ??m wide and 7.5 ??m in curved length. Conidia have a more deeply basophilic center, and one or both ends are usually blunt. Although WNS is a disease of hibernating bats, severe wing damage due to fungal hyphae may be seen in bats that have recently emerged from hibernation. These recently emerged bats also have a robust suppurative inflammatory response.

  4. Suppression of Shrimp Melanization during White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-01-01

    The melanization cascade, activated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, plays a key role in the production of cytotoxic intermediates, as well as melanin products for microbial sequestration in invertebrates. Here, we show that the proPO system is an important component of the Penaeus monodon shrimp immune defense toward a major viral pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmproPO(s) resulted in increased cumulative shrimp mortality after WSSV infection, whereas incubation of WSSV with an in vitro melanization reaction prior to injection into shrimp significantly increased the shrimp survival rate. The hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity of WSSV-infected shrimp was extremely reduced at days 2 and 3 post-injection compared with uninfected shrimp but was fully restored after the addition of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that WSSV probably inhibits the activity of some proteinases in the proPO cascade. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays, the viral protein WSSV453 was found to interact with the proPO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) of P. monodon. Gene silencing of WSSV453 showed a significant increase of PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp, whereas co-silencing of WSSV453 and PmPPAE2 did not, suggesting that silencing of WSSV453 partially restored the PO activity via PmPPAE2 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Moreover, the activation of PO activity in shrimp plasma by PmPPAE2 was significantly decreased by preincubation with recombinant WSSV453. These results suggest that the inhibition of the shrimp proPO system by WSSV partly occurs via the PmPPAE2-inhibiting activity of WSSV453. PMID:25572398

  5. Suppression of shrimp melanization during white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-03-06

    The melanization cascade, activated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, plays a key role in the production of cytotoxic intermediates, as well as melanin products for microbial sequestration in invertebrates. Here, we show that the proPO system is an important component of the Penaeus monodon shrimp immune defense toward a major viral pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmproPO(s) resulted in increased cumulative shrimp mortality after WSSV infection, whereas incubation of WSSV with an in vitro melanization reaction prior to injection into shrimp significantly increased the shrimp survival rate. The hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity of WSSV-infected shrimp was extremely reduced at days 2 and 3 post-injection compared with uninfected shrimp but was fully restored after the addition of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that WSSV probably inhibits the activity of some proteinases in the proPO cascade. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays, the viral protein WSSV453 was found to interact with the proPO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) of P. monodon. Gene silencing of WSSV453 showed a significant increase of PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp, whereas co-silencing of WSSV453 and PmPPAE2 did not, suggesting that silencing of WSSV453 partially restored the PO activity via PmPPAE2 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Moreover, the activation of PO activity in shrimp plasma by PmPPAE2 was significantly decreased by preincubation with recombinant WSSV453. These results suggest that the inhibition of the shrimp proPO system by WSSV partly occurs via the PmPPAE2-inhibiting activity of WSSV453. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. White-nose syndrome in North American bats - U.S. Geological Survey updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, Emily W.; Moede Rogall, Gail

    2016-12-27

    White-nose syndrome is a devastating wildlife disease that has killed millions of hibernating bats. This disease first appeared in New York during 2007 and has continued to spread at an alarming rate from the northeastern to the central United States and throughout eastern Canada. The disease is named for the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which often appears white when it infects the skin of the nose, ears, and wings of hibernating bats. This fact sheet provides updates on white-nose syndrome research and management efforts and highlights US Geological Survey scientists’ contributions to understanding and combating this disease.

  7. Thermal behavior of a quantum dot nanocomposite as a color converting material and its application to white LED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Ju Yeon; Kim, Kyung Nam; Jeong, Sohee; Han, Chang-Soo, E-mail: cshan@kimm.re.kr [Nano-Mechanical Systems Research division, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), Daejeon 305343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-10

    We present a novel nanocomposite, a mixture of a CdSe/CdS/ZnS red quantum dot (QD), an Sr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Eu green phosphor and silicone resin for a color converting material. The temperature rise and the optical characteristics of the nanocomposite due to the addition of the QD have been investigated in terms of QD content ratio and the mixing components. The experimental results suggested that a small addition of QDs generated a large amount of heat during light conversion at the wavelength of QD emission. Considering the temperature rise in a nanocomposite, we applied 0.2 wt% QDs on an InGaN blue LED chip. As a result, we could achieve a white LED device with a high color rendering index of 83.2, a high luminance of 65.86 lm W{sup -1} and a moderate temperature increase of 94 deg. C. The white LED converted by the newly developed QD-phosphor nanocomposite has great potential in future illumination.

  8. Microbial inhibitors of the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causal agent of white-nose syndrome in bats

    OpenAIRE

    Micalizzi, Emma W.; Mack, Jonathan N.; White, George P.; Avis, Tyler J.; Smith, Myron L.

    2017-01-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungus that causes white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats, has spread across eastern North America over the past decade and decimated bat populations. The saprotrophic growth of P. destructans may help to perpetuate the white-nose syndrome epidemic, and recent model predictions suggest that sufficiently reducing the environmental growth of P. destructans could help mitigate or prevent white-nose syndrome-associated bat colony collapse. In this study, we scre...

  9. How to maintain the oral health of a child with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroniatis, Tsampikos; Ortu, Eleonora; Marchili, Nicola; Giannoni, Mario; Marzo, Giuseppe; Monaco, Annalisa

    2014-09-30

    Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is one of the most important disorders of the heart conduction system. It is caused by the presence of an abnormal accessory electrical conduction pathway between the atria and the ventricles. In the present report, we describe the correct oral health management of a 12-year-old Caucasian girl with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. We successfully undertook the dental care of a girl with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, which we describe here.

  10. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based flow-through immunoassay (FTA) for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, R; Shankar, K M; Kumar, B T N; Kulkarni, A; Patil, P; Moger, N

    2013-09-01

    A flow-through immunoassay (FTA), an improved version of immunodot, was developed using a nitrocellulose membrane baked onto adsorbent pads enclosed in a plastic cassette to detect white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. Sharp purple dots developed with WSSV against the white background of the nitrocellulose membrane. The detection limits of WSSV by the FTA and immunodot were 0.312 and 1.2 μg mL(-1) crude WSSV protein, respectively. The FTA could be completed in 8-10 min compared with 90 min for immunodot. The FTA was 100 times more sensitive than 1-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in between that of the 1- and 2-step PCR protocol recommended by the Office of International Epizootics (OIE). In experimental, orally infected shrimp post-larvae, WSSV was first detected 14, 16 and 18 h post-infection (hpi) by FTA, immunodot and one-step PCR, respectively. The FTA detected WSSV 2 and 4 h earlier than immunodot and one-step PCR, respectively. The FTA was more sensitive (25/27) than one-step PCR (23/27) and immunodot (23/27) for the detection of WSSV from white spot disease outbreak ponds. The reagent components of the FTA were stable giving expected results for 6 m at 4-8 °C. The FTA is available as a rapid test kit called 'RapiDot' for the early detection of WSSV under field conditions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. WOLFF–PARKINSON–WHITE SYNDROME IN CHILDREN: CLINICAL COURSE, DIAGNOSTICS, TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.K. Kruchina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolff–Parkinson–White (WPW syndrome — is the most common cause of tachycardia in children. The clinical significance of WPW udden cardiac death. Data are presented on the principles of diagnosis of various types of WPW syndrome and characteristics of various types of tachycardia occurring in this disease. At present there is a radical method of treatment of the WPW syndrome — radiofrequency ablation of atrioventricular additional connections. Antiarhythmic therapy remains relevant in arresting attacks of tachycardia, as well as in the treatment of young children who have the age limits for radiofrequency ablation. The principles of choice of treatment and relief of the attack algorithm tachycardia syndrome WPW are described. Key words: Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome, paroxysmal atrioventricular reciprocal tachycardia, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (5: 49–53.

  12. White-nose syndrome in bats: a primer for resource managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, K.T.; Cryan, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome emerged as a devastating new disease of North American hibernating bats over the past four winters. The disease has spread more than 1,600 kilometers (1,000 mi) since it was first observed in a small area of upstate New York, and has affected six species of bats in the caves and mines they rely on for winter survival. A newly discovered, cold-loving fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes the characteristic skin infection of white-nose syndrome and can infect presumably healthy bats when they hibernate. Although clear links between skin infection by G. destructans and death have not yet been established, the fungus is the most plausible cause of the disease. Thousands of caves and mines are administered by the National Park Service. Although bats testing positive for white-nose syndrome have been detected only at two sites in the National Park System thus far, the National Park Service (NPS) has been preparing for the spread and effects of white-nose syndrome through a proactive national program of response coordination, research support and interpretation, and education. National park areas across the nation are uniquely situated to help understand white-nose syndrome and its ecosystem impacts, and assist in the conservation and recovery of affected bat species.

  13. Controlling the magic and normal sizes of white CdSe quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Sheng; Chung, Shu-Ru

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we have demonstrated a facile chemical route to prepare CdSe QDs with white light emission, and the performance of white CdSe-based white light emitting diode (WLED) is also exploded. An organic oleic acid (OA) is used to form Cd-OA complex first and hexadecylamine (HDA) and 1-octadecene (ODE) is used as surfactants. Meanwhile, by varying the reaction time from 1 s to 60 min, CdSe QDs with white light can be obtained. The result shows that the luminescence spectra compose two obvious emission peaks and entire visible light from 400 to 700 nm, when the reaction time less than 10 min. The wide emission wavelength combine two particle sizes of CdSe, magic and normal, and the magic-CdSe has band-edge and surface-state emission, while normal size only possess band-edge emission. The TEM characterization shows that the two different sizes with diameter of 1.5 nm and 2.7 nm for magic and normal size CdSe QDs can be obtained when the reaction time is 4 min. We can find that the magic size of CdSe is produced when the reaction time is less than 3 min. In the time ranges from 3 to 10 min, two sizes of CdSe QDs are formed, and with QY from 20 to 60 %. Prolong the reaction time to 60 min, only normal size of CdSe QD can be observed due to the Ostwald repining, and its QYs is 8 %. Based on the results we can conclude that the two emission peaks are generated from the coexistence of magic size and normal size CdSe to form the white light QDs, and the QY and emission wavelength of CdSe QDs can be increased with prolonging reaction time. The sample reacts for 2 (QY 30 %), 4 (QY 32 %) and 60 min (QY 8 %) are choosing to mixes with transparent acrylic-based UV curable resin for WLED fabrication. The Commission International d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity, color rendering index (CRI), and luminous efficacy for magic, mix, and normal size CdSe are (0.49, 0.44), 81, 1.5 lm/W, (0.35, 0.30), 86, 1.9 lm/W, and (0.39, 0.25), 40, 0.3 lm/W, respectively.

  14. Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-03-20

    Mar 20, 2014 ... β-integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV infection was examined. The results showed ... Introduction. White spot ... denatured conditions and renatured by successive 12 h incu- bations with 6, 4, ...

  15. Fabricating off-diagonal components of frequency-dependent linear and nonlinear polarizabilities of doped quantum dots by Gaussian white noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Surajit; Ganguly, Jayanta; Ghosh, Manas

    2015-01-01

    We make a rigorous exploration of the profiles of off-diagonal components of frequency-dependent linear (α xy , α yx ), first nonlinear (β xyy , β yxx ), and second nonlinear (γ xxyy , γ yyxx ) polarizabilities of quantum dots driven by Gaussian white noise. The quantum dot is doped with repulsive Gaussian impurity. Noise has been applied additively and multiplicatively to the system. An external oscillatory electric field has also been applied to the system. Gradual variations of external frequency, dopant location, and noise strength give rise to interesting features of polarizability components. The observations reveal intricate interplay between noise strength and dopant location which designs the polarizability profiles. Moreover, the mode of application of noise also modulates the polarizability components. Interestingly, in case of additive noise the noise strength has no role on polarizabilities whereas multiplicative noise invites greater delicacy in them. The said interplay provides a rather involved framework to attain stable, enhanced, and often maximized output of linear and nonlinear polarizabilities. - Highlights: • Linear and nonlinear polarizabilities of quantum dot are studied. • The polarizability components are off-diagonal and frequency-dependent. • Quantum dot is doped with a repulsive impurity. • Doped system is subject to Gaussian white noise. • Mode of noise application affects polarizabilities

  16. Screening for the metabolic syndrome using simple anthropometric measurements in south Asian and white Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khunti, Kamlesh; Taub, Nick; Tringham, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    more predictive of metabolic syndrome than body mass index or waist-hip ratio. The area under the curve for waist circumference was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.69-0.80) and 0.76 (0.72-0.81) for south Asian men and women; 0.83 (0.80-0.85) and 0.80 (0.77-0.82) for white European men and women. Conclusions......Aims: To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a general population sample of south Asians and white Europeans and compare predictors of metabolic syndrome, using ethnic specific definitions of obesity. Methods: 3099 participants (71.4% white European, 28.6% south Asian) aged 40-75 years......-hip ratio. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome using the definitions above was 29.9% (29.2% south Asian, 30.2% white European), and 34.4% (34.2% south Asian, 34.5% white European), respectively. Using the National Cholesterol Education Programme definition, waist circumference was significantly...

  17. Atrial flutter with 1:1 conduction in undiagnosed Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jessie G; Zhu, Dennis W

    2014-05-01

    Atrial flutter with 1:1 atrioventricular conduction via an accessory pathway is an uncommon presentation of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome not previously reported in the emergency medicine literature. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, a form of ventricular preexcitation sometimes initially seen and diagnosed in the emergency department (ED), can present with varied tachydysrhythmias for which certain treatments are contraindicated. For instance, atrial fibrillation with preexcited conduction needs specific consideration of medication choice to avoid potential degeneration into ventricular fibrillation. We describe an adult female presenting with a very rapid, regular wide complex tachycardia successfully cardioverted in the ED followed by a normal electrocardiogram (ECG). Electrophysiology study confirmed atrial flutter with 1:1 conduction and revealed an accessory pathway consistent with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, despite lack of ECG findings of preexcitation during sinus rhythm. Why should an emergency physician be aware of this? Ventricular tachycardia must be the first consideration in patients with regular wide complex tachycardia. However, clinicians should consider atrial flutter with 1:1 conduction related to an accessory pathway when treating patients with the triad of very rapid rate (>250 beats/min), wide QRS complex, and regular rhythm, especially when considering pharmacologic treatment. Emergency physicians also should be aware of electrocardiographically concealed accessory pathways, and that lack of delta waves does not rule out preexcitation syndromes such as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term stable stacked CsPbBr3 quantum dot films for highly efficient white light generation in LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Hyun; Yoo, Jin Sun; Kang, Bong Kyun; Choi, Seung Hee; Ji, Eun Kyung; Jung, Hyun Suk; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2016-12-01

    We report highly efficient ethyl cellulose with CsPbBr 3 perovskite QD films for white light generation in LED application. Ethyl cellulose with CsPbBr 3 quantum dots is applied with Sr 2 Si 5 N 8  : Eu 2+ red phosphor on an InGaN blue chip, achieving a highly efficient luminous efficacy of 67.93 lm W -1 under 20 mA current.

  19. Syndrome and Phenomenon of Wolff — Parkinson — White in Children (Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Nagornaya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the data on the history of the discovery and study of the phenomenon and syndrome Wolff — Parkinson — White (WPW. The features of the anatomy and electrophysiology of additional ways, mechanisms of attacks of atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia in WPW syndrome are considered. The role of the standard ECG, methods for topical analysis of additional atrioventricular connections and non-invasive electrophysiological studies in the diagnosis of this disease is shown.

  20. Chip-scale white flip-chip light-emitting diode containing indium phosphide/zinc selenide quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bingfeng; Yan, Linchao; Lao, Yuqin; Ma, Yanfei; Chen, Zimin; Ma, Xuejin; Zhuo, Yi; Pei, Yanli; Wang, Gang

    2017-08-01

    A method for preparing a quantum dot (QD)-white light-emitting diode (WLED) is reported. Holes were etched in the SiO2 layer deposited on the sapphire substrate of the flip-chip LED by inductively coupled plasma, and these holes were then filled with QDs. An ultraviolet-curable resin was then spin-coated on top of the QD-containing SiO2 layer, and the resin was cured to act as a protecting layer. The reflective sidewall structure minimized sidelight leakage. The fabrication of the QD-WLED is simple in preparation and compatible with traditional LED processes, which was the minimum size of the WLED chip-scale integrated package. InP/ZnS core-shell QDs were used as the converter in the WLED. A blue light-emitting diode with a flip-chip structure was used as the excitation source. The QD-WLED exhibited color temperatures from 5900 to 6400 K and Commission Internationale De L'Elcairage color coordinates from (0.315, 0.325) to (0.325, 0.317), under drive currents from 100 to 400 mA. The QD-WLED exhibited stable optoelectronic properties.

  1. Structural optimization for remote white light-emitting diodes with quantum dots and phosphor: packaging sequence matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bin; Chen, Wei; Hao, Junjie; Wu, Dan; Yu, Xingjian; Chen, Yanhua; Hu, Run; Wang, Kai; Luo, Xiaobing

    2016-12-26

    White light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) with quantum dots (QDs) and phosphor have attracted tremendous attentions due to their excellent color rendering ability. In the packaging process, QDs layer and phosphor-silicone layer tend to be separated to reduce the reabsorption losses, and to maintain the stability of QDs surface ligands. This study investigated the packaging sequence between QDs and phosphor on the optical and thermal performances of WLEDs. The output optical power and PL spectra were measured and analyzed, and the temperature fields were simulated and validated experimentally by infrared thermal imager. It was found that when driven by 60 mA, the QDs-on-phosphor type WLEDs achieved luminous efficiency (LE) of 110 lm/W, with color rendering index (CRI) of Ra = 92 and R9 = 80, while the phosphor-on-QDs type WLEDs demonstrated lower LE of 68 lm/W, with Ra = 57 and R9 = 24. Moreover, the QDs-on-phosphor type WLEDs generated less heat than that of another, consequently the highest temperature in the QDs-on-phosphor type was lower than another, and the temperature difference can reach 12.3°C. Therefore, in terms of packaging sequence, the QDs-on-phosphor type is an optimal packaging architecture for higher optical efficiency, better color rendering ability and lower device temperature.

  2. Highly stable CsPbBr3 quantum dots coated with alkyl phosphate for white light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Tongtong; Yang, Xianfeng; Lou, Sunqi; Huang, Junjian; Liu, Yong; Yu, Jinbo; Li, Huili; Wong, Ka-Leung; Wang, Chengxin; Wang, Jing

    2017-10-19

    Inorganic halide perovskite quantum dots (QDs) suffer from problems related to poor water stability and poor thermal stability. Here we developed a simple strategy to synthesize alkyl phosphate (TDPA) coated CsPbBr 3 QDs by using 1-tetradecylphosphonic acid both as the ligand for the CsPbBr 3 QDs and as the precursor for the formation of alkyl phosphate. These QDs not only retain a high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY, 68%) and narrow band emission (FHWM ∼ 22 nm) but also exhibit high stability against water and heat. The relative PL intensity of the QDs was maintained at 75% or 59% after being dispersed in water for 5 h or heated to 375 K (100 °C), respectively. Finally, white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) with a high luminous efficiency of 63 lm W -1 and a wide color gamut (122% of NTSC) were fabricated by using green-emitting CsPbBr 3 /TDPA QDs and red-emitting K 2 SiF 6 :Mn 4+ phosphors as color converters. The luminous efficiency of the WLEDs remained at 90% after working under a relative humidity (RH) of 60% for 15 h, thereby showing promise for use as backlight devices in LCDs.

  3. White matter microstructure and cognitive decline in metabolic syndrome: a review of diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Freddy J; Gavrieli, Anna; Saade-Lemus, Patricia; Lioutas, Vasileios-Arsenios; Upadhyay, Jagriti; Novak, Vera

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors defined by the presence of abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension and/or dyslipidemia. It is a major public health epidemic worldwide, and a known risk factor for the development of cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Several studies have demonstrated a positive association between the presence of metabolic syndrome and worse cognitive outcomes, however, evidence of brain structure pathology is limited. Diffusion tensor imaging has offered new opportunities to detect microstructural white matter changes in metabolic syndrome, and a possibility to detect associations between functional and structural abnormalities. This review analyzes the impact of metabolic syndrome on white matter microstructural integrity, brain structure abnormalities and their relationship to cognitive function. Each of the metabolic syndrome components exerts a specific signature of white matter microstructural abnormalities. Metabolic syndrome and its components exert both additive/synergistic, as well as, independent effects on brain microstructure thus accelerating brain aging and cognitive decline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Davis AM, Drago F, Janousek J, Klein GJ, Law IH, Morady FJ, Paul T, Perry JC, Sanatani S, Tanel RE. PACES/HRS expert consensus statement on the management of the asymptomatic young patient with a Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW, ventricular preexcitation) electrocardiographic pattern: developed in ...

  5. White-Nose Syndrome (WNS, nemoc bílých nosů)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Alena

    -, č. 114 (2010), s. 44 ISSN 1213-5887. [Micromyco 2010. 15.09.2010-16.09.2010, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : White - Nose Syndrome * bats * caves Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Interannual Survival of Myotis lucifugus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) near the Epicenter of White-Nose Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Jonathan D.; Fuller, Nathan W.; Bennett, Alyssa B.; Darling, Scott R.; Moore, Marianne S.; Langwig, Kate E.; Preston, Emily D.; von Oettingen, Susi; Richardson, Christopher S.; Reynolds, D. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Reduced populations of Myotis lucifugus (Little Brown Myotis) devastated by white-nose syndrome (WNS) persist in eastern North America. Between 2009 and 2013, we recaptured 113 marked individuals that survived between 1 and 6 winters in New England since the arrival of WNS. We also observed signs of reproductive success in 57 recaptured bats. PMID:26229422

  7. Clonal genotype of Geomyces destructans among bats with White Nose Syndrome, New York, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sunanda S; Li, Xiaojiang; Rudd, Robert J; Okoniewski, Joseph C; Xu, Jianping; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2011-07-01

    The dispersal mechanism of Geomyces destructans, which causes geomycosis (white nose syndrome) in hibernating bats, remains unknown. Multiple gene genealogic analyses were conducted on 16 fungal isolates from diverse sites in New York State during 2008-2010. The results are consistent with the clonal dispersal of a single G. destructans genotype.

  8. Population-level impact of white-nose syndrome on the endangered Indiana bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; King, R. Andrew; McKann, Patrick C.; Szymanski, Jennifer A.; Pruitt, Lori

    2012-01-01

    Establishing status and trend for an endangered species is critical to recovery, especially when it is faced with a nascent extinction agent. We calculated, with hierarchical log-linear change-point models, hibernaculum-level population trends between 1983 and 2009 for the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) now subjected to the fast-spreading fungal disease white-nose syndrome. We combined trends from 222 wintering populations before and after onset of the disease to determine trend for clusters of interacting wintering populations, recovery units, and the species. Before onset of the disease, a west-to-east gradient in trends existed, with westernmost populations declining and easternmost populations increasing in abundance. The species as a whole, however, was stationary between 1983 and 2005 (-0.5% mean annual change; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -2.8, +1.8%). Estimated mean population size in 2009 was 377,124 bats (195,398-957,348), with large variance apparently caused by white-nose syndrome. With the onset of white-nose syndrome (2006-2009), the species exhibited a 10.3% annual decline (95% CI = -21.1, +2.0%). White-nose syndrome is having an appreciable influence on the status and trends of Indiana bat populations, stalling and in some cases reversing population gains made in recent years.

  9. Clonal Genotype of Geomyces destructans among Bats with White Nose Syndrome, New York, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar, Sunanda S.; Li, Xiaojiang; Rudd, Robert J.; Okoniewski, Joseph C.; Xu, Jianping; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2011-01-01

    The dispersal mechanism of Geomyces destructans, which causes geomycosis (white nose syndrome) in hibernating bats, remains unknown. Multiple gene genealogic analyses were conducted on 16 fungal isolates from diverse sites in New York State during 2008–2010. The results are consistent with the clonal dispersal of a single G. destructans genotype.

  10. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus in a 1918 Bat Specimen from France

    OpenAIRE

    Campana, Michael G.; Kurata, Naoko P.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Helgen, Lauren E.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Helgen, Kristofer M.

    2017-01-01

    White-nose syndrome, first diagnosed in North America in 2006, causes mass deaths among bats in North America. We found the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in a 1918 sample collected in Europe, where bats have now adapted to the fungus. These results are consistent with a Eurasian origin of the pathogen.

  11. White-nose syndrome fungus: a generalist pathogen of hibernating bats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukal, Jan; Banďouchová, H.; Bartonička, T.; Berková, Hana; Brack, V.; Brichta, J.; Dolinay, M.; Jaron, K. S.; Kováčová, V.; Kovařík, M.; Martínková, Natália; Ondráček, K.; Řehák, Z.; Turner, G. G.; Pikula, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 5 (2014), e97224 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : white-nose syndrom (WNS) * bats Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  12. Extreme sensitivity to ultraviolet light in the fungal pathogen causing white-nose syndrome of bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan M. Palmer; Kevin P. Drees; Jeffrey T. Foster; Daniel L. Lindner

    2018-01-01

    Bat white-nose syndrome (WNS), caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has decimated North American hibernating bats since its emergence in 2006. Here, we utilize comparative genomics to examine the evolutionary history of this pathogen in comparison to six closely related nonpathogenic species....

  13. Alternating Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome associated with attack of angina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangiafico, R.A.; Petralito, A.; Grimaldi, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    In a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and an inferior-posterior bypass tract, transient restoration of normal conduction occurred during an attack of angina. The ECG pattern of inferior posterior ischemia was present when the conduction was normal. Thallium scintigraphy showed a reversible posterolateral perfusion defect. The possible mechanisms for production of intermittent preexcitation are discussed

  14. Role of atrial fibrillation and atrioventricular conduction (including Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome) in sudden death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Tweel, I. van der; Herbschleb, J.N.; Hauer, R.N.W.; Robles de Medina, E.O.

    A short refractory period of the accessory pathway is considered a major threat for sudden death in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and atrial fibrillation. RR interval and QRS signal analysis together with signal analysis of a bipolar high right atrial electrogram were obtained in six

  15. Alternating Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome associated with attack of angina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangiafico, R.A.; Petralito, A.; Grimaldi, D.R. (Univ. of Catania (Italy))

    1990-07-01

    In a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and an inferior-posterior bypass tract, transient restoration of normal conduction occurred during an attack of angina. The ECG pattern of inferior posterior ischemia was present when the conduction was normal. Thallium scintigraphy showed a reversible posterolateral perfusion defect. The possible mechanisms for production of intermittent preexcitation are discussed.

  16. Normalization of reverse redistribution of thallium-201 with procainamide pretreatment in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nii, T.; Nakashima, Y.; Nomoto, J.; Hiroki, T.; Ohshima, F.; Arakawa, K.

    1991-01-01

    Stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Reverse redistribution phenomenon was observed in the absence of coronary artery disease. This seems to be the first report of normalization of this phenomenon in association with reversion of accessory pathway to normal atrioventricular conduction after pretreatment with procainamide

  17. Sudden death in a young competitive athlete with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedermann, C. J.; Becker, A. E.; Hopferwieser, T.; Mühlberger, V.; Knapp, E.

    1987-01-01

    The case history is documented of a young competitive athlete known to have the electrocardiographic pattern of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, but considered asymptomatic. On that basis competitive sport was not proscribed. In retrospect, he had experienced occasional tachycardias which were of

  18. SAFETY OF AMIODARONE USAGE IN PATIENTS WITH WOLFF-PARKINSON-WHITE SYNDROME AND ATRIAL FIBRILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Kuzhel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amiodarone is one of the basic antiarrhytmic drugs for atrial fibrillation treatment. However application of amiodarone in patients with atrial fibrillation and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome can induce ventricular fibrillation. Amiodarone usage in these patients should be accompanied by readiness for performance of resuscitation. This is confirmed by clinical case presentation.

  19. Normalization of reverse redistribution of thallium-201 with procainamide pretreatment in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nii, T.; Nakashima, Y.; Nomoto, J.; Hiroki, T.; Ohshima, F.; Arakawa, K. (Fukuoka Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))

    1991-03-01

    Stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Reverse redistribution phenomenon was observed in the absence of coronary artery disease. This seems to be the first report of normalization of this phenomenon in association with reversion of accessory pathway to normal atrioventricular conduction after pretreatment with procainamide.

  20. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus in a 1918 Bat Specimen from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Michael G; Kurata, Naoko P; Foster, Jeffrey T; Helgen, Lauren E; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Fleischer, Robert C; Helgen, Kristofer M

    2017-09-01

    White-nose syndrome, first diagnosed in North America in 2006, causes mass deaths among bats in North America. We found the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in a 1918 sample collected in Europe, where bats have now adapted to the fungus. These results are consistent with a Eurasian origin of the pathogen.

  1. Invasion dynamics of white-nose syndrome fungus, midwestern United States, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langwig, Kate E; Hoyt, Joseph R; Parise, Katy L; Kath, Joe; Kirk, Dan; Frick, Winifred F; Foster, Jeffrey T; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2015-06-01

    White-nose syndrome has devastated bat populations in eastern North America. In Midwestern United States, prevalence increased quickly in the first year of invasion (2012-13) but with low population declines. In the second year (2013-14), environmental contamination led to earlier infection and high population declines. Interventions must be implemented before or soon after fungal invasion to prevent population collapse.

  2. White-nose syndrome in bats: an overview of current knowledge for land managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry

    2013-01-01

    White-nose syndrome recently emerged as a disease affecting bats that hibernate in caves and abandoned mines during winter. This disease is caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, and has caused the death of millions of bats in the Eastern United States and Canada. This fungus grows in relatively cold conditions with high humidity, which...

  3. Phylogenetics of a fungal invasion: origins and widespread dispersal of white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin P. Drees; Jeffrey M. Lorch; Sebastien J. Puechmaille; Katy L. Parise; Gudrun Wibbelt; Joseph R. Hoyt; Keping Sun; Ariunbold Jargalsaikhan; Munkhnast Dalannast; Jonathan M. Palmer; Daniel L. Lindner; A. Marm Kilpatrick; Talima Pearson; Paul S. Keim; David S. Blehert; Jeffrey T. Foster; Joseph. Heitman

    2017-01-01

    Globalization has facilitated the worldwide movement and introduction of pathogens, but epizoological reconstructions of these invasions are often hindered by limited sampling and insufficient genetic resolution among isolates. Pseudogymnoascus destructans, a fungal pathogen causing the epizootic of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, has...

  4. Effects of white-nose syndrome on regional population patterns of 3 hibernating bat species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Ingersoll; Brent J. Sewall; Sybill K. Amelon

    2016-01-01

    Hibernating bats have undergone severe recent declines across the eastern United States, but the cause of these regional-scale declines has not been systematically evaluated. We assessed the influence of white-nose syndrome (an emerging bat disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, formerly Geomyces destructans...

  5. White spot syndrome virus envelope protein VP28 is involved in the systemic infection of shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M.C.W.; Witteveldt, J.; Snippe, M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large DNA virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans. The virus particles contain at least five major virion proteins, of which three (VP26, VP24, and VP15) are present in the rod-shaped nucleocapsid and two (VP28 and VP19) reside in the envelope. The mode of

  6. Transcriptional analysis of the ribonucleotide reductase genes in shrimp white spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsai, M.F.; Lo, C.F.; Hulten, van M.C.W.; Tzeng, H.F.; Chou, C.M.; Huang, C.J.; Wang, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    The causative agent of white spot syndrome (WSS) is a large double-stranded DNA virus, WSSV, which is probably a representative of a new genus, provisionally called Whispovirus. From previously constructed WSSV genomic libraries of a Taiwan WSSV isolate, clones with open reading frames (ORFs) that

  7. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haryadi, D.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Vlak, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina

  8. Protection of Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus using a WSSV subunit vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveldt, J.; Vlak, J.M.; Hulten, van M.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    Although invertebrates lack a true adaptive immune response, the potential to vaccinate Penaeus monodon shrimp against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using the WSSV envelope proteins VP19 and VP28 was evaluated. Both structural WSSV proteins were N-terminally fused to the maltose binding protein

  9. Fitness and virulence of an ancestral White Spot Syndrome Virus isolate from shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, H.; Duijse, J.J.A.; Zuidema, D.; Hulten, van M.C.W.; Vlak, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus, the type species of the virus family Nimaviridae, is a large dsDNA virus infecting shrimp and other crustaceans. Genomic analysis of three completely sequenced WSSV isolates identified two major polymorphic loci, ¿variable region ORF14/15¿ and ¿variable region ORF23/24¿.

  10. Protection of Penaeus monodon against White Spot Syndrome Virus by oral vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveldt, J.; Cifuentes, C.; Vlak, J.M.; Hulten, van M.C.W.

    2004-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) occurs worldwide and causes high mortality and considerable economic damage to the shrimp farming industry. No adequate treatments against this virus are available. It is generally accepted that invertebrates such as shrimp do not have an adaptive immune response

  11. Virion composition and genomics of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M.C.W.

    2001-01-01


    Since its first discovery in Taiwan in 1992, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused major economic damage to shrimp culture. The virus has spread rapidly through Asia and reached the Western Hemisphere in 1995 (Texas), where it continued its devastating effect

  12. Platelets and white blood cells in acute coronary syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jaap Jan Johannes

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, we have studied the role of leukocytes and platelets as methods to measure platelets aggregation, in the clinical management of presenting with acute coronary syndromes. We have tried to incidence and to identify predictors of adverse cardiac events with function tests or

  13. Multiple Cardiac Rhabdomyomas, Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome, and Tuberous Sclerosis: An Infrequent Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla Cabanes, Elena; Lacambra Blasco, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac rhabdomyomas are benign cardiac tumours and are often associated with tuberous sclerosis. They are often asymptomatic with spontaneus regresion but can cause heart failure, arrhythmias, and obstruction. There have also been a few isolated reports of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome occurring in association with tuberous sclerosis and the great majority has been detected in patients with concomitant rhabdomyomas. We report a 12-day-old infant girl with tuberous sclerosis who presented with intraparietal and intracavitary rhabdomyomas with a Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW). She represents one of the few published cases of WPW syndrome and tuberous sclerosis and particularly interesting because of intramural rhabdomyomas regression with persistent intracavitary rhabdomyomas after two years of followup. PMID:25328743

  14. Multiple Cardiac Rhabdomyomas, Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome, and Tuberous Sclerosis: An Infrequent Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Castilla Cabanes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac rhabdomyomas are benign cardiac tumours and are often associated with tuberous sclerosis. They are often asymptomatic with spontaneus regresion but can cause heart failure, arrhythmias, and obstruction. There have also been a few isolated reports of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome occurring in association with tuberous sclerosis and the great majority has been detected in patients with concomitant rhabdomyomas. We report a 12-day-old infant girl with tuberous sclerosis who presented with intraparietal and intracavitary rhabdomyomas with a Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW. She represents one of the few published cases of WPW syndrome and tuberous sclerosis and particularly interesting because of intramural rhabdomyomas regression with persistent intracavitary rhabdomyomas after two years of followup.

  15. Patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome with intermittent pre-excitation under subarachnoid block for urological surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Garg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome is one of the pre-excitation syndromes in which activation of an accessory atrioventricular (AV conduction pathway leads to bypass the AV node and cause earlier ventricular activation than the normal pathway. We report a patient with intermittent WPW syndrome who repeatedly manifested pre-excitation after subarachnoid block.

  16. Patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome with intermittent pre-excitation under subarachnoid block for urological surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rakesh; Sinha, Renu; Nishad, PK

    2011-01-01

    Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is one of the pre-excitation syndromes in which activation of an accessory atrioventricular (AV) conduction pathway leads to bypass the AV node and cause earlier ventricular activation than the normal pathway. We report a patient with intermittent WPW syndrome who repeatedly manifested pre-excitation after subarachnoid block. PMID:21712875

  17. Histopathology confirms White-Nose Syndrome in bats in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pikula, J.; Banďouchová, H.; Novotný, L.; Meteyer, C. U.; Zukal, Jan; Irwin, N. R.; Zima, Jan; Martínková, Natália

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2012), s. 207-211 ISSN 0090-3558 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Geomyces destructans * geomycosis * histopathology * Myotis myotis * whitenose syndrome Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.271, year: 2012 http://www.jwildlifedis.org/content/48/1/207.full.pdf

  18. Broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric phenotypes associated with white matter disease in PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Tugce B; Davila, Jorge; Lewis, Denice; Boafo, Addo; Sell, Erick; Richer, Julie; Nikkel, Sarah M; Armour, Christine M; Tomiak, Eva; Lines, Matthew A; Sawyer, Sarah L

    2018-01-01

    White matter lesions have been described in patients with PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS). How these lesions correlate with the neurocognitive features associated with PTEN mutations, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or developmental delay, has not been well established. We report nine patients with PTEN mutations and white matter changes on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), eight of whom were referred for reasons other than developmental delay or ASD. Their clinical presentations ranged from asymptomatic macrocephaly with normal development/intellect, to obsessive compulsive disorder, and debilitating neurological disease. To our knowledge, this report constitutes the first detailed description of PTEN-related white matter changes in adult patients and in children with normal development and intelligence. We present a detailed assessment of the neuropsychological phenotype of our patients and discuss the relationship between the wide array of neuropsychiatric features and observed white matter findings in the context of these individuals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome in a Term Infant Presenting With Cardiopulmonary Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffler, Christina D; Krenek, Michele E; Brand, M Colleen

    2016-02-01

    Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is a congenital abnormality of the cardiac conduction system caused by the presence of an abnormal accessory electrical pathway between the atria and the ventricles. This can result in intermittent tachyarrhythmias such as supraventricular tachycardia. In rare occasions, sudden death may occur from atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular conduction. Supraventricular tachycardia typically has a sudden onset and offset, classified as a paroxysmal arrhythmia. Because of the variable occurrence, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome may go undiagnosed in the immediate newborn period. To highlight arrhythmia as a possible cause of sudden decompensation in infants. The clinical presentation of this infant is complex and a number of potential diagnoses were considered. Preexcitation on electrocardiogram resulted in the diagnosis of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Nurses caring for infants should be alert to tachycardia and irregularities of the heart rate, including those in the prenatal history, and should report them for evaluation. While all parents should be taught to watch for signs of illness, parents of infants with Wolff-Parkinson-White have additional learning needs, including recognizing early signs and symptoms of heart failure.

  20. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: lessons learnt and lessons remaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D Woodrow; Cohen, Mitchell I

    2017-01-01

    The Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern refers to the electrocardiographic appearance in sinus rhythm, wherein an accessory atrioventricular pathway abbreviates the P-R interval and causes a slurring of the QRS upslope - the "delta wave". It may be asymptomatic or it may be associated with orthodromic reciprocating tachycardia; however, rarely, even in children, it is associated with sudden death due to ventricular fibrillation resulting from a rapid response by the accessory pathway to atrial fibrillation, which itself seems to result from orthodromic reciprocating tachycardia. Historically, patients at risk for sudden death were characterised by the presence of symptoms and a shortest pre- excited R-R interval during induced atrial fibrillation Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern and availability of catheter ablation, there has been a need to identify risk among asymptomatic patients. Recent guidelines recommend invasive evaluation for such patients where pre-excitation clearly does not disappear during exercise testing. This strategy has a high negative predictive value only. The accuracy of this approach is under continued investigation, especially in light of other considerations: Patients having intermittent pre-excitation, once thought to be at minimal risk may not be, and the role of isoproterenol in risk assessment.

  1. Mutation of Mitochondrial DNA G13513A Presenting with Leigh Syndrome, Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bing Wang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA G13513A, encoding the ND5 subunit of respiratory chain complex I, can cause mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS and Leigh syndrome. Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome and optic atrophy were reported in a high proportion of patients with this mutation. We report an 18-month-old girl, with an 11-month history of psychomotor regression who was diagnosed with WPW syndrome and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, in association with Leigh syndrome. Supplementation with coenzyme Q10, thiamine and carnitine prevented further regression in gross motor function but the patient's heart function deteriorated and dilated cardiomyopathy developed 11 months later. She was found to have a mutation of mtDNA G13513A. We suggest that mtDNA G13513A mutation is an important factor in patients with Leigh syndrome associated with WPW syndrome and/or optic atrophy, and serial heart function monitoring by echocardiography is recommended in this group of patients.

  2. Zinc and nitrogen ornamented bluish white luminescent carbon dots for engrossing bacteriostatic activity and Fenton based bio-sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Poushali; Ganguly, Sayan; Bose, Madhuparna; Mondal, Subhadip; Choudhary, Sumita; Gangopadhyay, Subhashis; Das, Amit Kumar; Banerjee, Susanta; Das, Narayan Chandra

    2018-07-01

    Carbon dots with heteroatom co-doping associated with consummate luminescence features are of acute interest in diverse applications such as biomolecule markers, chemical sensing, photovoltaic, and trace element detection. Herein, we demonstrate a straightforward, highly efficient hydrothermal dehydration technique to synthesize zinc and nitrogen co-doped multifunctional carbon dots (N, Zn-CDs) with superior quantum yield (50.8%). The luminescence property of the carbon dots can be tuned by regulating precursor ratio and surface oxidation states in the carbon dots. A unique attribution of the as-prepared carbon dots is the high monodispersity and robust excitation-independent emission behavior that is stable in enormously reactive environment and over a wide range of pH. These N, Zn-CDs unveils captivating bacteriostatic activity against gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli. Furthermore, the excellent luminescence properties of these carbon dots were applied as a platform of sensitive biosensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide. Under optimized conditions, these N, Zn-CDs reveals high sensitivity over a broad range of concentrations with an ultra-low limit of detection (LOD) indicating their pronounced prospective as a fluorescent probe for chemical sensing. Overall, the experimental outcomes propose that these zero-dimensional nano-dots could be developed as bacteriostatic agents to control and prevent the persistence and spreading of bacterial infections and as a fluorescent probe for hydrogen peroxide detection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. White-nose Syndrome management: Report on structured decision making initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Jennifer A.; Runge, Michael C.; Parkin, Mary J.; Armstrong, Mike

    2009-01-01

    This report describes an analysis undertaken to assist state and federal natural resources managers in addressing the following question: What management measures should be taken this year within a given area to control the spread and minimize the effects of white-nose syndrome (WNS) on hibernating bats at the individual and population levels? The answer depends upon specific characteristics of the bat species, the hibernacula, and the syndrome itself, all of which could vary across the geographic extent of WNS and change over time. It also depends on a large number of agency and societal judgments concerning how to balance disease management against other objectives.

  4. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome concomitant with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation associated with inferior early repolarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Naohiko; Shinohara, Tetsuji; Hara, Masahide; Saikawa, Tetsunori

    2012-01-01

    We encountered a 39-year-old man with documented ventricular fibrillation (VF). His ECGs showed intermittent Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome pattern. During electrophysiological study, no ventricular preexcitation was observed. An accessory pathway located at the posterior mitral annulus was identified, and successfully eliminated by radiofrequency catheter ablation. VF was not induced. His ECGs in the absence of delta waves demonstrated early repolarization in the inferior leads. This case raises the possibility that patients with manifest WPW syndrome may have an arrhythmogenic substrate associated with early repolarization, and the characteristic J waves can be masked by the presence of ventricular preexcitation.

  5. Reduced white matter connectivity in the corpus callosum of children with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Grüner, Renate; Lundervold, Arvid

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain imaging studies have revealed anatomical anomalies in the brains of individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS). Prefrontal regions have been found to be larger and the corpus callosum (CC) area smaller in children and young adults with TS compared with healthy control subjects......, and these anatomical features have been understood to reflect neural plasticity that helps to attenuate the severity of tics. METHOD: CC white matter connectivity, as measured by the Fractional Anisotropy (FA) index from diffusion tensor images, was assessed in 20 clinically well-defined boys with Tourette syndrome...

  6. The use of sugammadex in a pregnant patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Turker; Saracoglu, Ayten; Sener, Sibel; Bezen, Olgac

    2016-09-01

    Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a rare pre-excitation syndrome which develops when atrioventricular conduction occurs through a pathologic accessory pathway known as the bundle of Kent instead of atrioventricular node, hence resulting in tachycardia. Patients with WPW syndrome may experience various symptoms arising from mild-to-moderate chest disease, palpitations, hypotension, and severe cardiopulmonary dysfunction. These patients are most often symptomatic because of cardiac arrhythmias. In this case report, we present an uneventful anesthetic management of a pregnant patient with WPW syndrome undergoing cesarean delivery. A 23-year-old American Society of Anesthesiologists class 2 pregnant patient was diagnosed with WPW syndrome. Her preoperative 12-lead electrocardiogram showed a sinus rhythm at 82 beats per minute, a delta wave, and a short PR interval. After an uneventful surgery, sugammadex 2mg/kg was administered as a reversal agent instead of neostigmine. Then she was discharged to her obstetrics service. Serious hemodynamic disorders may occur in patients with WPW syndrome due to development of fatal arrhythmias. Neostigmine used as a reversal agent in general anesthesia can trigger such fatal arrhythmias by leading changes in cardiac conduction. We believe that sugammadex, which is safely used in many areas in the scope of clinical practice, can be also used for patients diagnosed with WPW syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differentiating fasciculoventricular pathway from Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome by electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tsugutoshi; Nakamura, Yoshihide; Yoshida, Shuichiro; Yoshida, Yoko; Shintaku, Haruo

    2014-04-01

    In school-based cardiovascular screening programs in Japan, Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is diagnosed based on the presence of an electrocardiographic (ECG) delta wave without differentiation from the fasciculoventricular pathway (FVP), although the risk of sudden death is associated only with the former. The purpose of this study was to differentiate FVP patients among children diagnosed with WPW syndrome by ECG. Children who were diagnosed with WPW syndrome through school screening between April 2006 and March 2008 and had QRS width ≤120 ms were included. Patients with asthma and/or coronary heart disease were excluded. FVP and WPW syndrome were differentiated based on ECG responses to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) injection. Age, PR interval, QRS width, and Rosenbaum classification were compared among patients. Thirty patients (median age 12.7 years, range 6.5-15.7 years) participated in the study. FVP was diagnosed in 23 patients (76.7%), and WPW syndrome in 7 (23.3%). In Rosenbaum type A patients, all six patients had WPW syndrome, whereas FVP was diagnosed in 23 of 24 and WPW syndrome was diagnosed in 1 of 24 of type B patients. Age, PR interval, and QRS width were not significantly different between the two conditions. ATP stress test was reliable in differentiating FVP from WPW syndrome. Although FVP is considered rare, the results of our study indicate that many WPW syndrome patients with QRS width ≤120 ms may actually have FVP. Patients categorized as type B are more likely to have FVP, whereas type A patients are most likely to have WPW syndrome. © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society Published by Heart Rhythm Society All rights reserved.

  8. Optical efficiency enhancement in white organic light-emitting diode display with high color gamut using patterned quantum dot film and long pass filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Jun; Shin, Min-Ho; Kim, Young-Joo

    2016-08-01

    A new structure for white organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays with a patterned quantum dot (QD) film and a long pass filter (LPF) was proposed and evaluated to realize both a high color gamut and high optical efficiency. Since optical efficiency is a critical parameter in white OLED displays with a high color gamut, a red or green QD film as a color-converting component and an LPF as a light-recycling component are introduced to be adjusted via the characteristics of a color filter (CF). Compared with a conventional white OLED without both a QD film and the LPF, it was confirmed experimentally that the optical powers of red and green light in a new white OLED display were increased by 54.1 and 24.7% using a 30 wt % red QD film and a 20 wt % green QD film with the LPF, respectively. In addition, the white OLED with both a QD film and the LPF resulted in an increase in the color gamut from 98 to 107% (NTSC x,y ratio) due to the narrow emission linewidth of the QDs.

  9. Patterns of acoustical activity of bats prior to and following white-nose syndrome occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.M. Ford; E.R. Britzke; C.A. Dobony; J.L. Rodrigue; J.B. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    White-nose Syndrome (WNS), a wildlife health concern that has decimated cave-hibernating bat populations in eastern North America since 2006, began affecting source-caves for summer bat populations at Fort Drum, a U.S. Army installation in New York in the winter of 2007-2008. As regional die-offs of bats became evident, and Fort Drum's known populations began...

  10. Wing pathology of white-nose syndrome in bats suggests life-threatening disruption of physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Boyles Justin G; Meteyer Carol; Cryan Paul M; Blehert David S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract White-nose syndrome (WNS) is causing unprecedented declines in several species of North American bats. The characteristic lesions of WNS are caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans, which erodes and replaces the living skin of bats while they hibernate. It is unknown how this infection kills the bats. We review here the unique physiological importance of wings to hibernating bats in relation to the damage caused by G. destructans and propose that mortality is caused by catastrophic...

  11. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: a single exercise stress test might be misleading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavitabar, Arash; Silver, Eric S; Liberman, Leonardo

    2017-05-01

    Risk stratification of patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome for sudden death is a complex process, particularly in understanding the utility of the repeat exercise stress test. We report a case of an 18-year-old patient who was found to have a high-risk pathway by both invasive and exercise stress testing after an initial exercise stress test showing beat-to-beat loss of pre-excitation.

  12. Noninvasive risk stratification for sudden death in asymptomatic patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novella, John; DeBiasi, Ralph M; Coplan, Neil L; Suri, Ranji; Keller, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) as the first clinical manifestation of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a well-documented, although rare occurrence. The incidence of SCD in patients with WPW ranges from 0% to 0.39% annually. Controversy exists regarding risk stratification for patients with preexcitation on surface electrocardiogram (ECG), particularly in those who are asymptomatic. This article focuses on the role of risk stratification using exercise and pharmacologic testing in patients with WPW pattern on ECG.

  13. Spread of white-nose syndrome on a network regulated by geography and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Sean P; Kramer, Andrew M; Pulliam, J Tomlin; Zokan, Marcus A; Bowden, Sarah E; Barton, Heather D; Magori, Krisztian; Drake, John M

    2012-01-01

    Wildlife and plant diseases can reduce biodiversity, disrupt ecosystem services and threaten human health. Emerging pathogens have displayed a variety of spatial spread patterns due to differences in host ecology, including diffusive spread from an epicentre (West Nile virus), jump dispersal on a network (foot-and-mouth disease), or a combination of these (Sudden oak death). White-nose syndrome is a highly pathogenic infectious disease of bats currently spreading across North America. Understanding how bat ecology influences this spread is crucial to management of infected and vulnerable populations. Here we show that white-nose syndrome spread is not diffusive but rather mediated by patchily distributed habitat and large-scale gradients in winter climate. Simulations predict rapid expansion and infection of most counties with caves in the contiguous United States by winter 2105-2106. Our findings show the unique pattern of white-nose syndrome spread corresponds to ecological traits of the host and suggest hypotheses for transmission mechanisms acting at the local scale.

  14. Natural history of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome diagnosed in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Nicole; Irving, Claire; Webber, Steven; Beerman, Lee; Arora, Gaurav

    2013-10-01

    Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome carries a risk for symptomatic arrhythmias and sudden death. The aim of this study was to examine the natural history of patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome diagnosed in childhood followed longitudinally at a single institution. The study population consisted of 446 patients. The median age of diagnosis was 7 years, and 61% were male. Associated heart disease was present in 40 patients (9%). Modes of presentation included supraventricular tachycardia (38%), palpitations (22%), chest pain (5%), syncope (4%), atrial fibrillation (0.4%), sudden death (0.2%), and incidental findings (26%); data were unavailable in 4%. During the study period, a total of 243 patients (54%) had supraventricular tachycardia, and 7 patients (1.6%) had atrial fibrillation. Of patients who presented at ≤3 months of age, 35% had resolution of manifest preexcitation compared with 5.8% who presented at >3 months of age (p Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome diagnosed in childhood, 64% had symptoms at presentation, and an additional 20% developed symptoms during follow-up. There were 6 sudden deaths (1.3%), with an overall incidence of 1.1 per 1,000 patient-years in patients with structurally normal hearts and 27 per 1,000 patient-years in patients with associated heart disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Controlling reabsorption effect of bi-color CdSe quantum dots-based white light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siao, Cyuan-Bin; Chung, Shu-Ru; Wang, Kuan-Wen

    2017-08-01

    The colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have the potentials to be used in white light-emitting diode (WLED) as a down-converting component to replace incandescent lamps, because the traditional WLED composed of Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ (YAG:Ce) phosphor lack of red color emissions and shows low color quality. Among various QDs, CdSe has been extensively studied because it possesses attractive characteristics such as high quantum yields (QYs), narrow emission spectral bandwidth, as well as size-tunable optical characteristics. However, in order to enhance the color rendering index (CRI) of WLED, blending materials with different emission wavelengths has been used frequently. Unfortunately, these procedures are complex and time-consuming, and the emission energy of smaller QDs can be reabsorbed by larger QDs, resulting in decreasing the excitation intensity in yellowish-green region. Therefore, in this study, in order to decrease the reabsorption effect and to simplify the procedures, we have demonstrated a facile thermal pyrolyzed route to prepare bicolor CdSe QDs with dual-wavelengths. The emission wavelengths, particle sizes, and QYs of QDs can be tuned from 537/595 to 537/602 nm, 2.59/3.92 to 2.59/4.01 nm, and 27 to 40 %, for GR1 to 3 samples, respectively when the amount of Se precursor is decreased from 1.5 to 0.75 mmol. Meanwhile, the area ratio of green to red (Ag/Ar) in fluorescence spectra is gradually increased, due to the increase in growth rate, and decrease in nuclei formation in red emission. The GR1, GR2, and GR3 QDs are then encapsulated by convert types to form the LED, in which the QDs are deposited on the blue-emitting InGaN LED chip (λem = 450 nm). After encapsulation, the devices properties of Commission International d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity and Ag/Ar area ratio are (0.40, 0.24), 0.28/1, (0.40, 0.31), 0.52/1, and (0.40, 0.38), 1.02/1, respectively for GR1, GR2, and GR3. The results show that the green emission intensity are strongly

  16. Destructin-1 is a collagen-degrading endopeptidase secreted by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donoghue, AJ; Knudsen, GM; Beekman, C; Perry, JA; Johnson, AD; DeRisi, JL; Craik, CS; Bennett, RJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Pseudogymnoascus destructans is the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, a disease that has caused the deaths of millions of bats in North America. This psychrophilic fungus proliferates at low temperatures and targets hibernating bats, resulting in their premature arousal from stupor with catastrophic consequences. Despite the impact of white-nose syndrome, little is known about the fungus itself or how it infects its mammalian ho...

  17. White light-emitting nanocomposites based on an oxadiazole–carbazole copolymer (POC) and InP/ZnS quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Annalisa, E-mail: annalisa.bruno@enea.it; Borriello, Carmela, E-mail: carmela.borriello@enea.it; Di Luccio, Tiziana, E-mail: tiziana.diluccio@enea.it; Nenna, Giuseppe [Centro Ricerche Portici, ENEA, UTTP NANO (Italy); Sessa, Lucia [University of Salerno, Department of Pharmacy (Italy); Concilio, Simona [University of Salerno, Department of Industrial Engineering (Italy); Haque, Saif A. [Imperial College London, Chemistry Department (United Kingdom); Minarini, Carla [Centro Ricerche Portici, ENEA, UTTP NANO (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    In this work, we studied energetic and optical proprieties of a polyester-containing oxadiazole and carbazole units that we will indicate as POC. This polymer is characterized by high photoluminescence activity in the blue region of the visible spectrum, making it suitable for the development of efficient white-emitting organic light emission devices. Moreover, POC polymer has been combined with two red emitters InP/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) to obtain nanocomposites with wide emission spectra. The two types of QDs have different absorption wavelengths: 570 nm [InP/ZnS(570)] and 627 nm [InP/ZnS(627)] and were inserted in the polymer at different concentrations. The optical properties of the nanocomposites have been investigated and compared to the ones of the pure polymer. Both spectral and time resolved fluorescence measurements show an efficient energy transfer from the polymer to QDs, resulting in white-emitting nanocomposites.

  18. White light-emitting nanocomposites based on an oxadiazole-carbazole copolymer (POC) and InP/ZnS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Annalisa; Borriello, Carmela; Di Luccio, Tiziana; Nenna, Giuseppe; Sessa, Lucia; Concilio, Simona; Haque, Saif A.; Minarini, Carla

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we studied energetic and optical proprieties of a polyester-containing oxadiazole and carbazole units that we will indicate as POC. This polymer is characterized by high photoluminescence activity in the blue region of the visible spectrum, making it suitable for the development of efficient white-emitting organic light emission devices. Moreover, POC polymer has been combined with two red emitters InP/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) to obtain nanocomposites with wide emission spectra. The two types of QDs have different absorption wavelengths: 570 nm [InP/ZnS(570)] and 627 nm [InP/ZnS(627)] and were inserted in the polymer at different concentrations. The optical properties of the nanocomposites have been investigated and compared to the ones of the pure polymer. Both spectral and time resolved fluorescence measurements show an efficient energy transfer from the polymer to QDs, resulting in white-emitting nanocomposites.

  19. Cold white light generation through the simultaneous emission from Ce{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+} in 90Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}2CeCl{sub 3}{center_dot}3DyCl{sub 3}{center_dot}5MnCl{sub 2} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, W. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Alvarez, E. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora (UNISON), Boulevard Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Martinez-Martinez, R.; Yescas-Mendoza, E. [Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Tecnologica de la Mixteca, Carretera a Acatlima Km. 2.5, Huajuapan de Leon, Oaxaca 69000 (Mexico); Camarillo, I. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico); Caldino, U., E-mail: cald@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, Mexico, D.F. 09340 (Mexico)

    2012-08-15

    The photoluminescence of a CeCl{sub 3}, DyCl{sub 3} and MnCl{sub 2} doped aluminum oxide film deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis was characterized by excitation, emission and decay time spectroscopy. A nonradiative energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+} to Dy{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+} is observed upon UV excitation at 278 nm (peak emission wavelength of AlGaN-based LEDs). Such energy transfer leads to a simultaneous emission of these ions in the blue, green, yellow and red regions, resulting in white light emission with CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, x=0.34 and y=0.23, which correspond to cold white light with a color temperature of 4900 K. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 90Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}2CeCl{sub 3}{center_dot}3DyCl{sub 3}{center_dot}5MnCl{sub 2} thin film (AOCDM) could be prepared by spray pyrolysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-radiative energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+} to Dy{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+} takes place in AOCDM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AOCDM (pumped with 278 nm-UV light) can generate 4900 K cold white light.

  20. Electroconvulsive therapy-induced Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Shingo; Yoshino, Aihide; Takase, Bonpei; Kuwahara, Tatsuro; Tatsuzawa, Yasutaka; Nomura, Soichiro

    2013-01-01

    Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is characterized by premature ventricular excitation due to the presence of an abnormal accessory pathway. Electrocardiography (ECG) of patients with WPW syndrome portrays a short PR interval and a wide QRS interval with a delta wave. Herein, we report the case of a patient with schizophrenia who developed a wide QRS interval with a delta wave immediately following electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Initially, the delta wave disappeared within 2 days after ECT. However, the duration of the delta wave increased exponentially to 4 months when ECT was repeated. Although the patient's cardiocirculatory dynamics remained normal, we continued to monitor her ECG until the delta wave disappeared because WPW syndrome can lead to serious arrhythmia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sugammadex Use in a Patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Sevtap Hekimoğlu; Öztekin, İlhan; Kuzucuoğlu, Aytuna; Aslanoğlu, Ayça

    2015-07-01

    Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a disease associated with episodes of supraventricular tachycardia and ventricular pre-excitation or atrial fibrillation. WPW is characterized by an aberrant electrical conduction pathway between atria and ventricles. The major anesthetic problem connected with WPW syndrome is the risk of tachyarrhythmias due to accessory pathway. Therefore, it has been proposed that the aim of anesthetic management should be the avoidance of tachyarrhythmia and sympathetic stimulation. Sugammadex was administered as a neuromuscular reversal agent in this case. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of sugammadex use in a patient with WPW. This report presents a case of general anesthesia management in a patient with WPW syndrome. We think that it is appropriate to use sugammadex to reverse rocuronium for the prevention of sudden hemodynamic changes in patients with WPW who underwent general anesthesia.

  2. Phase analysis of regional and global ventricular contraction patterns in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tokuji; Koyama, Takao; Ichikawa, Takehiko

    1989-01-01

    Multigated blood pool scintigraphy was performed in 20 normal subjects and 39 patients with various intraventricular conduction abnormalities, including 25 patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Cardiac imaging was performed in the modified left anterior oblique, right anterior oblique, and left lateral projections. In WPW syndrome, early contraction sites which were not seen in normal subjects were detected at the ventricular base in phase images. These anomalous early contraction sites disappeared after successful suppression of conduction through an accessory pathway by intravenous procainamide. These sites are believed to correspond to the location of the bundle of Kent and were consistent with the electrocardiographic findings. Phase mapping is a suitable noninvasive method to locate the position of the bundle of Kent and evaluate the ventricular contraction pattern in WPW syndrome and other intraventricular conduction abnormalities. (author)

  3. Sugammadex Use in a Patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevtap Hekimoğlu Şahin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome is a disease associated with episodes of supraventricular tachycardia and ventricular pre-excitation or atrial fibrillation. WPW is characterized by an aberrant electrical conduction pathway between atria and ventricles. Case Report: The major anesthetic problem connected with WPW syndrome is the risk of tachyarrhythmias due to accessory pathway. Therefore, it has been proposed that the aim of anesthetic management should be the avoidance of tachyarrhythmia and sympathetic stimulation. Sugammadex was administered as a neuromuscular reversal agent in this case. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of sugammadex use in a patient with WPW. This report presents a case of general anesthesia management in a patient with WPW syndrome. Conclusion: We think that it is appropriate to use sugammadex to reverse rocuronium for the prevention of sudden hemodynamic changes in patients with WPW who underwent general anesthesia.

  4. Extracorporeal life support for cardiac arrest in a 13-year-old girl caused by Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyoung Hwan; Lee, Byung Kook; Jeung, Kyung Woon; Lee, Dong Hun

    2015-10-01

    Generally, Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome presents good prognosis. However, several case reports demonstrated malignant arrhythmia or sudden cardiac death as WPW syndrome's first presentation. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation using extracorporeal life support is a therapeutic option in refractory cardiac arrest. We present a WPW syndrome patient who had sudden cardiac arrest as the first presentation of the disease and treated it using extracorporeal life support with good neurologic outcome.

  5. Duplication of 20p12.3 associated with familial Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kimberly I; Anderson, Jacqueline; Levy, Philip T; Cole, F Sessions; Silva, Jennifer N A; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Shinawi, Marwan

    2013-01-01

    Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is caused by preexcitation of the ventricular myocardium via an accessory pathway which increases the risk for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. The condition is often sporadic and of unknown etiology in the majority of cases. Autosomal dominant inheritance and association with congenital heart defects or ventricular hypertrophy were described. Microdeletions of 20p12.3 have been associated with WPW syndrome with either cognitive dysfunction or Alagille syndrome. Here, we describe the association of 20p12.3 duplication with WPW syndrome in a patient who presented with non-immune hydrops. Her paternal uncle carries the duplication and has attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and electrocardiographic findings consistent with WPW. The 769 kb duplication was detected by the Affymetrix Whole Genome-Human SNP Array 6.0 and encompasses two genes and the first two exons of a third gene. We discuss the potential role of the genes in the duplicated region in the pathogenesis of WPW and possible neurobehavioral abnormalities. Our data provide additional support for a significant role of 20p12.3 chromosomal rearrangements in the etiology of WPW syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. "White Cord Syndrome" of Acute Hemiparesis After Posterior Cervical Decompression and Fusion for Chronic Cervical Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Prince; Grant, Ryan; Kuzmik, Gregory; Abbed, Khalid

    2018-05-01

    "White cord syndrome" is a very rare condition thought to be due to acute reperfusion of chronically ischemic areas of the spinal cord. Its hallmark is the presence of intramedullary hyperintense signal on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences in a patient with unexplained neurologic deficits following spinal cord decompression surgery. The syndrome is rare and has been reported previously in 2 patients following anterior cervical decompression and fusion. We report an additional case of this complication. A 68-year-old man developed acute left-sided hemiparesis after posterior cervical decompression and fusion for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The patient improved with high-dose steroid therapy. The rare white cord syndrome following either anterior cervical decompression and fusion or posterior cervical decompression and fusion may be due to ischemic-reperfusion injury sustained by chronically compressed parts of the spinal cord. In previous reports, patients have improved following steroid therapy and acute rehabilitation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. PRKAG3 polymorphisms associated with sporadic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome among a Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Ken-Pen; Yuh, Yeong-Seng; Huang, Shih-Hui; Hsiao, Hsiang-Chiang; Wu, Huang-Wei; Chien, Jen-Hung; Chen, Bo-Hau; Huang, Shih-Ming; Chien, Kuang-Jen; Ger, Luo-Ping

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether mutation in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) subunit genes (PRKAG3-230) is associated with sporadic, isolated Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. This study consisted of 87 patients with symptomatic WPW syndrome and 93 healthy controls. PRKAG3-230 genotypes were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Genotype and allele frequencies of PRKAG3-230 between patients with WPW syndrome and healthy controls were ascertained using chi-square test or Fisher exact test when appropriate. PRKAG3-230 were genotyped in 87 patients (53 men and 34 women; age=24.4±18.0 years) with WPW syndrome and 93 healthy controls (57 men and 36 women; age=16.8±4.2 years). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of age and sex. The patients with CG and CG+CC genotypes had a significantly increased risk of WPW syndrome compared with those with GG genotype [odds ratio (OR)=1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01-3.89, p=0.045; OR=1.99, 95% CI=1.04-3.78, p=0.037, respectively]. The allelic types were not associated with the risk of WPW syndrome. The patients with manifest type with CG and CG+CC genotypes had a significantly increased risk of WPW syndrome compared with those with GG genotype (OR=2.86, 95% CI=1.16-7.05, p=0.022; OR=2.84, 95% CI=1.19-6.80, p=0.019, respectively). The patients with right-side accessory pathways with CG and CG+CC genotypes had a significantly increased risk of WPW syndrome compared with those with GG genotype (OR=3.07, 95% CI=1.25-7.51, p=0.014; OR=2.84, 95% CI=1.19-6.80, p=0.019, respectively). The allelic types were not associated with the risk of WPW types and locations. This study shows that PRKAG3-230 may be associated with sporadic WPW syndrome among a Taiwanese population. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the role of mutations in AMPK subunit genes other than PRKAG3-230 in sporadic WPW syndrome. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  8. Clinical characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome: investigating differences in White and South Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Hamidreza; Davies, Melanie J; Bodicoat, Danielle H; Levy, Miles J; Gray, Laura J; Howlett, Trevor A; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2015-10-01

    To understand the phenotypic presentation of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) of different ethnicities and at different ages. Cross-sectional, retrospective data analysis (1988 - 2009). Specialist clinic in a University Hospital, Leicestershire, UK. Women with PCOS, n = 1310 (mean age 26·2 years), 70·9% White and 29·1% South Asian (SA) attending a speciality clinic in Leicester UK. Clinical and demographic characteristics of women with PCOS including age at first clinic appointment, signs and symptoms, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP). Compared to White women, the SA were younger (24·3 vs 27·1 years, P women with PCOS appear to be significantly different depending on ethnicity, obesity and age. This has implications for management strategies in these groups. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Bland-White-Garland syndrome - a rare and serious cause of failure to thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigielska, Agnieszka; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria; Gołąbek-Dylewska, Małgorzata; Tomik, Agnieszka; Brzewski, Michał; Werner, Bożena

    2013-01-01

    Male, 0 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Bland-White-Garland syndrome Symptoms: Cardiomegaly, feeding problems Medication: - Clinical Procedure: Reimplantation of the left coronary artery to the aorta Specialty: Pediatrics and Neonatology. Rare disease. Bland-White-Garland syndrome (BWGS) is a very rare disease characterized by anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk (ALCAPA). WBGS affects 1 in every 300 000 live births. Children typically present with dyspnea, pallor, and failure to thrive. Without surgical repair, most of these children die during the first months of life. This case report describes 3-month-old boy admitted to the hospital because of feeding problems. The boy was born at term, with birth weight 3200 g, and was 10 points in Apgar score. He was breast-fed from birth. From the seventh week of age, his mother observed his increasing difficulties with feeding. Physical examination revealed pale skin, diminished heart sounds, tachycardia, cardiomegaly, and hepatomegaly. Results of urine and blood tests and ultrasonography of the central nervous system and abdomen were normal. The chest radiography showed cardiomegaly and electrocardiogram revealed anterolateral myocardial infarction. On echocardiography, an anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery was found. The life-saving treatment of choice was immediate surgical reimplantation of the left coronary artery to the aorta. Children with congenital heart disease are often prone to malnutrition, but in rare cases failure to thrive and breast-feeding problems can be the first symptoms of life-threatening diseases like myocardial infarction secondary to Bland-White-Garland syndrome (BWGS).

  10. Bland-White-Garland syndrome – a rare and serious cause of failure to thrive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigielska, Agnieszka; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria; Gołąbek-Dylewska, Małgorzata; Tomik, Agnieszka; Brzewski, Michał; Werner, Bożena

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 0 Final Diagnosis: Bland-White-Garland syndrome Symptoms: Cardiomegaly, feeding problems Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Reimplantation of the left coronary artery to the aorta Specialty: Pediatrics and Neonatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Bland-White-Garland syndrome (BWGS) is a very rare disease characterized by anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk (ALCAPA). WBGS affects 1 in every 300 000 live births. Children typically present with dyspnea, pallor, and failure to thrive. Without surgical repair, most of these children die during the first months of life. Case Report: This case report describes 3-month-old boy admitted to the hospital because of feeding problems. The boy was born at term, with birth weight 3200 g, and was 10 points in Apgar score. He was breast-fed from birth. From the seventh week of age, his mother observed his increasing difficulties with feeding. Physical examination revealed pale skin, diminished heart sounds, tachycardia, cardiomegaly, and hepatomegaly. Results of urine and blood tests and ultrasonography of the central nervous system and abdomen were normal. The chest radiography showed cardiomegaly and electrocardiogram revealed anterolateral myocardial infarction. On echocardiography, an anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery was found. The life-saving treatment of choice was immediate surgical reimplantation of the left coronary artery to the aorta. Conclusions: Children with congenital heart disease are often prone to malnutrition, but in rare cases failure to thrive and breast-feeding problems can be the first symptoms of life-threatening diseases like myocardial infarction secondary to Bland-White-Garland syndrome (BWGS). PMID:24086793

  11. White lighting device from composite films embedded with hydrophilic Cu(In, Ga)S2/ZnS and hydrophobic InP/ZnS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Yang, Heesun

    2014-06-01

    Two types of non-Cd quantum dots (QDs)—In/Ga ratio-varied, green-to-greenish-yellow fluorescence-tuned Cu-In-Ga-S (CIGS) alloy ones, and red-emitting InP ones—are synthesized for use as down-converters in conjunction with a blue light-emitting diode (LED). Among a series of Ga-rich CI1-xGxS/ZnS core/shell QDs (x = 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9), CI0.2G0.8S/ZnS QD is chosen for the hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic surface modification via an in-situ ligand exchange and then embedded in a water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). This free-standing composite film is utilized as a down-converter for the fabrication of a remote-type white QD-LED, but the resulting bi-colored device exhibits a cool white light with a limited color rendering index property. To improve white light qualities, another QD-polymer film of hydrophobic red InP/ZnS QD-embedding polyvinylpyrrolidone is sequentially stacked onto the CI0.2G0.8S/ZnS QD-PVA film, producing a unique dual color-emitting, flexible and transparent bilayered composite film. Tri-colored white QD-LED integrated with the bilayered QD film possesses an exceptional color rendering property through reinforcing a red spectral component and balancing a white spectral distribution.

  12. White lighting device from composite films embedded with hydrophilic Cu(In, Ga)S2/ZnS and hydrophobic InP/ZnS quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Yang, Heesun

    2014-01-01

    Two types of non-Cd quantum dots (QDs)—In/Ga ratio-varied, green-to-greenish-yellow fluorescence-tuned Cu−In−Ga−S (CIGS) alloy ones, and red-emitting InP ones—are synthesized for use as down-converters in conjunction with a blue light-emitting diode (LED). Among a series of Ga-rich CI 1−x G x S/ZnS core/shell QDs (x = 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9), CI 0.2 G 0.8 S/ZnS QD is chosen for the hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic surface modification via an in-situ ligand exchange and then embedded in a water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). This free-standing composite film is utilized as a down-converter for the fabrication of a remote-type white QD-LED, but the resulting bi-colored device exhibits a cool white light with a limited color rendering index property. To improve white light qualities, another QD-polymer film of hydrophobic red InP/ZnS QD-embedding polyvinylpyrrolidone is sequentially stacked onto the CI 0.2 G 0.8 S/ZnS QD-PVA film, producing a unique dual color-emitting, flexible and transparent bilayered composite film. Tri-colored white QD-LED integrated with the bilayered QD film possesses an exceptional color rendering property through reinforcing a red spectral component and balancing a white spectral distribution. (papers)

  13. Transmission of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Possible Use of Physical Barrier as Preventive Measure (Transmisi White Spot Syndrome Virus dan Penggunaan Barier Fisik Sebagai Upaya Pencegahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Taslihan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Penyakit bercak putih viral hingga saat ini masih menjadi masalah dalam budidaya udang. Munculnya penyakit tersebut diikuti kematian massal, sehingga menimbulkan kerugian besar. Penyakit yang disebabkan white spots syndrome virus (WSSV menular cepat dari satu petakan tambak ke petakan lain. Penelitian bertujuan melakukan uji kuantitas WSSV pada transmisi virus baik melalui air dan kohabitasi. Metode penelitian adalah bioassay dilakukan skala laboratorium. Penularan melalui air disimulasi pada akuarium disekat dengan 3 jenis kasa berukuran pori berbeda, yaitu 300μ, 700μ dan 2 mm. Kohabitasi dilakukan dengan memelihara udang terinfeksi WSSV secara buatan dengan udang dan moluska sehat. Hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa WSSV menimbulkan infeksi pada udang sehat yang ditempatkan terpisah dari udang sakit menggunakan sekat kasa. Virus bercak putih juga menular secara kohabitasi udang sakit dengan udang sehat baik dari udang windu ke udang windu (sejenis maupun udang windu ke udang vannamei (berlainan jenis. Hasi penelitian menunjukkan bahwa trisipan bukan karier WSSV, karena tidak menularkan. Analisis LT-50 (lethal time 50% didapatkan bahwa udang yang diuji tantang WSSV melalui inkubasi dengan air mengandung ekstrak WSSV didapatkan konsentrasi 2,75x102 WSSV copy.mL-1 menyebabkan kematian 50% dalam waktu 108 jam atau hampir lima hari. Penggunaan kasa putih meskipun tidak sepenuhnya menahan, dapat menghambat sebagian transmisi WSSV. Hasil kajian memberikan gambaran tentang kecepatan penyebaran WSSV di lingkungan budidaya udang serta memberikan panduan bagaimana mengendalikan WSSV. Kata kunci: penyakit, transmisi WSSV, udang, kohabitasi, trisipan White spot viral disease has devastated shrimp industry in Indonesia. The emergence of this disease is always followed by massive death causing huge losses. Disease is caused by a virus namely White spots syndrome virus (WSSV is rapidly transmitted from one pond to other ponds. This study aims to quantify

  14. Wing pathology of white-nose syndrome in bats suggests life-threatening disruption of physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Boyles, Justin G; Blehert, David S

    2010-11-11

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is causing unprecedented declines in several species of North American bats. The characteristic lesions of WNS are caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans, which erodes and replaces the living skin of bats while they hibernate. It is unknown how this infection kills the bats. We review here the unique physiological importance of wings to hibernating bats in relation to the damage caused by G. destructans and propose that mortality is caused by catastrophic disruption of wing-dependent physiological functions. Mechanisms of disease associated with G. destructans seem specific to hibernating bats and are most analogous to disease caused by chytrid fungus in amphibians.

  15. Geomyces destructans sp. nov. associated with bat white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargas, Andrea; Trest, M.T.; Christensen, M.; Volk, T.J.; Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    We describe and illustrate the new species Geomyces destructans. Bats infected with this fungus present with powdery conidia and hyphae on their muzzles, wing membranes, and/or pinnae, leading to description of the accompanying disease as white-nose syndrome, a cause of widespread mortality among hibernating bats in the northeastern US. Based on rRNA gene sequence (ITS and SSU) characters the fungus is placed in the genus Geomyces, yet its distinctive asymmetrically curved conidia are unlike those of any described Geomyces species.

  16. Fungal disease and the developing story of bat white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Two recently emerged cutaneous fungal diseases of wildlife, bat white-nose syndrome (WNS) and amphibian chytridiomycosis, have devastated affected populations. Fungal diseases are gaining recognition as significant causes of morbidity and mortality to plants, animals, and humans, yet fewer than 10% of fungal species are known. Furthermore, limited antifungal therapeutic drugs are available, antifungal therapeutics often have associated toxicity, and there are no approved antifungal vaccines. The unexpected emergence of WNS, the rapidity with which it has spread, and its unprecedented severity demonstrate both the impacts of novel fungal disease upon naïve host populations and challenges to effective management of such diseases.

  17. Wing pathology of white-nose syndrome in bats suggests life-threatening disruption of physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyles Justin G

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract White-nose syndrome (WNS is causing unprecedented declines in several species of North American bats. The characteristic lesions of WNS are caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans, which erodes and replaces the living skin of bats while they hibernate. It is unknown how this infection kills the bats. We review here the unique physiological importance of wings to hibernating bats in relation to the damage caused by G. destructans and propose that mortality is caused by catastrophic disruption of wing-dependent physiological functions. Mechanisms of disease associated with G. destructans seem specific to hibernating bats and are most analogous to disease caused by chytrid fungus in amphibians.

  18. White-nose syndrome pathology grading in Nearctic and Palearctic bats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pikula, J.; Amelon, S. K.; Banďouchová, H.; Bartonička, T.; Berková, Hana; Brichta, J.; Hooper, S.; Kokurewicz, T.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Köllner, B.; Kováčová, V.; Linhart, P.; Piaček, V.; Turner, G. G.; Zukal, Jan; Martínková, Natália

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 8 (2017), č. článku e0180435. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-20286S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : white-nose syndrome * bats Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) OBOR OECD: Veterinary science; Microbiology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  19. Environmental conditions associated with bat white-nose syndrome in the north-eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Abigail R.; Kumar, Sunil; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    1. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease of hibernating North American bats that is caused by the cold-growing fungus Geomyces destructans. Since first observed in the winter of 2007, WNS has led to unprecedented mortality in several species of bats and may threaten more than 15 additional hibernating bat species if it continues across the continent. Although the exact means by which fungal infection causes mortality are undetermined, available evidence suggests a strong role of winter environmental conditions in disease mortality.

  20. Reduced white matter connectivity in the corpus callosum of children with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Grüner, Renate; Lundervold, Arvid

    2006-01-01

    , and these anatomical features have been understood to reflect neural plasticity that helps to attenuate the severity of tics. METHOD: CC white matter connectivity, as measured by the Fractional Anisotropy (FA) index from diffusion tensor images, was assessed in 20 clinically well-defined boys with Tourette syndrome...... interhemispheric fibers or reduced axonal myelination. FA values did not correlate significantly with the severity of tic symptoms. Group differences in measures of connectivity did not seem to be attributable to the presence of comorbid ADHD or OCD, to medication exposure, or group differences in IQ. CONCLUSION...

  1. Wing pathology of white-nose syndrome in bats suggests life-threatening disruption of physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Boyles, Justin G.; Blehert, David S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is causing unprecedented declines in several species of North American bats. The characteristic lesions of WNS are caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans, which erodes and replaces the living skin of bats while they hibernate. It is unknown how this infection kills the bats. We review here the unique physiological importance of wings to hibernating bats in relation to the damage caused by G. destructans and propose that mortality is caused by catastrophic disruption of wing-dependent physiological functions. Mechanisms of disease associated with G. destructans seem specific to hibernating bats and are most analogous to disease caused by chytrid fungus in amphibians.

  2. White-nose syndrome pathology grading in Nearctic and Palearctic bats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pikula, J.; Amelon, S. K.; Banďouchová, H.; Bartonička, T.; Berková, Hana; Brichta, J.; Hooper, S.; Kokurewicz, T.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Köllner, B.; Kováčová, V.; Linhart, P.; Piacek, V.; Turner, G. G.; Zukal, Jan; Martínková, Natália

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 8 (2017), č. článku e0180435. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-20286S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : white-nose syndrome * bat s Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) OBOR OECD: Veterinary science; Microbiology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  3. Anaesthetic management of a case of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabade, Savitri D; Sheikh, Safiya; Periyadka, Bhavya

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of fibroid uterus with Wolff–Parkinson–White (WPW) syndrome in a 48-year-old female, posted for elective hysterectomy. Patient gave history of short recurrent episodes of palpitation and electrocardiograph confirmed the diagnosis of WPW syndrome. The anaesthetic management of these patients is challenging as they are known to develop life threatening tachyarrhythmia like paroxysmal supra-ventricular tachycardia (PSVT) and atrial fibrillation (AF). Epidural anaesthesia is preferred compared to general anaesthesia to avoid polypharmacy, noxious stimuli of laryngoscopy and intubation. To deal with perioperative complications like PSVT and AF, anti-arrhythmic drugs like adenosine, beta blockers and defibrillator should be kept ready. Perioperative monitoring is essential as patients can develop complications. PMID:22013256

  4. Anaesthetic management of a case of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitri D Kabade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of fibroid uterus with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome in a 48-year-old female, posted for elective hysterectomy. Patient gave history of short recurrent episodes of palpitation and electrocardiograph confirmed the diagnosis of WPW syndrome. The anaesthetic management of these patients is challenging as they are known to develop life threatening tachyarrhythmia like paroxysmal supra-ventricular tachycardia (PSVT and atrial fibrillation (AF. Epidural anaesthesia is preferred compared to general anaesthesia to avoid polypharmacy, noxious stimuli of laryngoscopy and intubation. To deal with perioperative complications like PSVT and AF, anti-arrhythmic drugs like adenosine, beta blockers and defibrillator should be kept ready. Perioperative monitoring is essential as patients can develop complications.

  5. Depression masquerading as chest pain in a patient with Wolff Parkinson White syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madabushi, Rajashree; Agarwal, Anil; Gautam, Sujeet K S; Khuba, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Wolff Parkinson White (WPW) syndrome is a condition in which there is an aberrant conduction pathway between the atria and ventricles, resulting in tachycardia. A 42-year-old patient, who was treated for WPW syndrome previously, presented with chronic somatic pain. With her cardiac condition in mind, she was thoroughly worked up for a recurrence of disease. As part of routine screening of all patients at our pain clinic, she was found to have severe depression as per the Patient Health Questionnaire–9 (PHQ–9) criteria. After ruling out sinister causes, she was treated for depression using oral Duloxetine and counselling. This led to resolution of symptoms, and improved her mood and functional capability. This case highlights the use of psychological screening tools and diligent examination in scenarios as confusing as the one presented here. Addressing the psychological aspects of pain and adopting a holistic approach are as important as treatment of the primary pathology. PMID:27738505

  6. Effect of atrial pacing on phase analysis in patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magosaki, Nobuhisa; Hiroe, Michiaki; Kasanuki, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Etsuko; Horie, Toshinobu; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Kondo, Mizuka; Hirosawa, Koshichiro

    1984-01-01

    Phase analysis of ECG-gated radionuclide ventriculography was performed during sinus rhythm and atrial pacing for 11 patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. During sinus rhythm, phase analysis demonstrated abnormal early-emptying segments reflecting preexcitation in six of the 11 patients. In the remaining five patients, the precise site of abnormal early-emptying could not be detected. Atrial pacing increased the degree of pre-exicitation, and abnormal early-emptying segments became clear in all patients. Our study demonstrated the utility of atrial pacing in performing phase analysis for patients with the WPW syndrome. Seven patients had abnormal early-emptying segments; four of them with ECG type A, in the left ventricle, and three of them with ECG type B, in the right ventricle. These results were consistent with results of the body surface and electrophysiologic mapping. In patients with posterior septal accessory pathways, phase analysis suggested probable laterality of the accessory pathway. (author)

  7. Fabrication of white light-emitting diodes based on UV light-emitting diodes with conjugated polymers-(CdSe/ZnS) quantum dots as hybrid phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunchul; Chung, Wonkeun; Lee, Chang Hun; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2012-07-01

    White light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated using GaN-based 380-nm UV LEDs precoated with the composite of blue-emitting polymer (poly[(9,9-dihexylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-co-(2-methoxy-5-{2-ethylhexyloxy)-1 ,4-phenylene)]), yellow green-emitting polymer (poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(1,4-benzo-{2,1',3}-thiadiazole)]), and 605-nm red-emitting quantum dots (QDs). CdSe cores were obtained by solvothermal route using CdO, Se precursors and ZnS shells were synthesized by using diethylzinc, and hexamethyldisilathiane precursors. The optical properties of CdSe/ZnS QDs were characterized by UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The structural data and composition of the QDs were transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and EDX technique. The quantum yield and size of the QDs were 58.7% and about 6.7 nm, respectively. Three-band white light was generated by hybridizing blue (430 nm), green (535 nm), and red (605 nm) emission. The color-rendering index (CRI) of the device was extremely improved by introducing the QDs. The CIE-1931 chromaticity coordinate, color temperature, and CRI of a white LED at 20 mA were (0.379, 0.368), 3969 K, and 90, respectively.

  8. Microwave-assisted aqueous synthesis of transition metal ions doped ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots with tunable white-light emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438 (China); Chen, Qiuhang; Zhang, Wanlu; Mei, Shiliang; He, Liangjie; Zhu, Jiatao [Engineering Research Center of Advanced Lighting Technology, Ministry of Education, Institute for Electric Light Sources, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chen, Guoping [School of Information Science and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Guo, Ruiqian, E-mail: rqguo@fudan.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Advanced Lighting Technology, Ministry of Education, Institute for Electric Light Sources, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • ZnSe-based QDs were formed via a microwave-assisted aqueous approach. • The stabilizer, ZnS coats and UV irradiation played a role in the PL enhancement. • Tunable white-light-emitting Mn:ZnSe QDs and Cu,Mn:ZnSe/ZnS QDs were synthesized. • The formation mechanism of Cu,Mn:ZnSe QDs was clarified. • The corresponding CIE color coordinates of different PL spectra were obtained. - Abstract: Synthesis of bright white-light emitting Mn and Cu co-doped ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) (Cu,Mn:ZnSe/ZnS) was reported. Water-soluble ZnSe-based QDs with Mn and Cu doping were prepared using a versatile hot-injection method in aqueous solution with a microwave-assisted approach. Influence of the Se/S ratio, stabilizer, refluxing time and the concentration of Cu/Mn dopant ions on the particle size and photoluminescence (PL) were investigated. The as-prepared QDs in the different stages of growth were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV–visible (UV–vis) spectrophotometer, and fluorescence spectrophotometer. It is found that these ZnSe-based QDs synthesized under mild conditions exhibit emission in the range of 390–585 nm. The PL quantum yield (QY) of the as-prepared water-soluble ZnSe QDs can be up to 24.3% after the UV-irradiation treatment. The band-gap emission of ZnSe is effectively restrained through Mn and Cu doping. The refluxing time influences the doping of not only Mn, but also Cu, which leads to the best refluxing time of Mn:ZnSe and the red-shift of the emission of Cu:ZnSe d-dots. Co-doping induced white-light emission (WLE) from Cu,Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell QDs were obtained, which can offer the opportunity for future-generation white-light emitting diodes (LEDs)

  9. CNS involvement in primary Sjogren Syndrome: assessment of gray and white matter changes with MRI and voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzarouchi, Loukia C; Tsifetaki, Niki; Konitsiotis, Spyridon; Zikou, Anastasia; Astrakas, Loukas; Drosos, Alexandros; Argyropoulou, Maria I

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate with MRI the involvement of gray matter and white matter structures in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome. Fifty-three patients with primary Sjögren syndrome, 18 age- and disease duration-matched patients with systemic sclerosis, and 35 age-matched control subjects were examined for differences in white matter hyperintensities (WMHIs) detected on FLAIR MR images. Differences in brain volume between patients with primary Sjögren syndrome and controls were studied by application of voxel-based morphometry to a 3D T1-weighted sequence. WMHIs were observed in 38 of the 53 patients with primary Sjögren syndrome, six of 18 patients with systemic sclerosis, and 17 of 35 controls. The numbers of WMHIs 2 mm or larger and the number smaller than 2 mm were higher in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome than in controls (≥ 2 mm, p = 0.004; syndrome patients and that in systemic sclerosis patients. After control for age, a positive relation was found between disease duration and total number of WMHIs (p = 0.037) and number of WMHIs 2 mm or larger (p = 0.023) in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome. In comparison with the controls, patients with primary Sjögren syndrome had decreased gray matter volume in the cortex, deep gray matter, and cerebellum. Associated loss of white matter volume was observed in areas corresponding to gray matter atrophy and in the corpus callosum (p syndrome have WMHIs and gray and white matter atrophy, probably related to cerebral vasculitis.

  10. Accuracy of algorithms to predict accessory pathway location in children with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Christopher; Vogel, Melanie; Lord, Stephen; Abrams, Dominic; Bourke, John; Rees, Philip; Rosenthal, Eric

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the accuracy in predicting pathway location in children with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome for each of seven published algorithms. ECGs from 100 consecutive children with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome undergoing electrophysiological study were analysed by six investigators using seven published algorithms, six of which had been developed in adult patients. Accuracy and concordance of predictions were adjusted for the number of pathway locations. Accessory pathways were left-sided in 49, septal in 20 and right-sided in 31 children. Overall accuracy of prediction was 30-49% for the exact location and 61-68% including adjacent locations. Concordance between investigators varied between 41% and 86%. No algorithm was better at predicting septal pathways (accuracy 5-35%, improving to 40-78% including adjacent locations), but one was significantly worse. Predictive accuracy was 24-53% for the exact location of right-sided pathways (50-71% including adjacent locations) and 32-55% for the exact location of left-sided pathways (58-73% including adjacent locations). All algorithms were less accurate in our hands than in other authors' own assessment. None performed well in identifying midseptal or right anteroseptal accessory pathway locations.

  11. White-Nose Syndrome Disease Severity and a Comparison of Diagnostic Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Liam P; Turner, James M; Warnecke, Lisa; McGregor, Glenna; Bollinger, Trent K; Misra, Vikram; Foster, Jeffrey T; Frick, Winifred F; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Willis, Craig K R

    2016-03-01

    White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans and has killed millions of hibernating bats in North America but the pathophysiology of the disease remains poorly understood. Our objectives were to (1) assess non-destructive diagnostic methods for P. destructans infection compared to histopathology, the current gold-standard, and (2) to evaluate potential metrics of disease severity. We used data from three captive inoculation experiments involving 181 little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) to compare histopathology, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and ultraviolet fluorescence as diagnostic methods of P. destructans infection. To assess disease severity, we considered two histology metrics (wing area with fungal hyphae, area of dermal necrosis), P. destructans fungal load (qPCR), ultraviolet fluorescence, and blood chemistry (hematocrit, sodium, glucose, pCO2, and bicarbonate). Quantitative PCR was most effective for early detection of P. destructans, while all three methods were comparable in severe infections. Correlations among hyphae and necrosis scores, qPCR, ultraviolet fluorescence, blood chemistry, and hibernation duration indicate a multi-stage pattern of disease. Disruptions of homeostasis occurred rapidly in late hibernation. Our results provide valuable information about the use of non-destructive techniques for monitoring, and provide novel insight into the pathophysiology of white-nose syndrome, with implications for developing and implementing potential mitigation strategies.

  12. White syndrome on massive corals: A case study in Paiton power plant, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaki, Farid Kamal; Saptarini, Dian; Riznawati, Aida Efrini

    2017-06-01

    As a stenothermal organism, coral easily affected by high-temperature cooling water discharged by a power plant into surrounding waters; which may lead to a rapid spread and transmission of coral disease, including White Syndrome. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of WS on massive corals in Paiton Power Plant waters. Research was conductedduring May 2015 at three observation stations; west and east side of water discharge canal (DB and DT) and water intake canal (WI). Observed parameters including ambient environmental variables (sea surface and bottom temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen/DO, pH, and visibility); the cover of life corals (percent and genera composition) and prevalence of coral disease at 5 m depth. One-way ANOVA (analysis of variance, p=0.05) was performed to test the difference of coral disease prevalence from different observation stations. As the results, Coral coverage percentage in WI (85.75%), DB (60.75%), and DT (40.8%). Prevalence of WS in DB was highest (40.49±2.12% in DB, 13.53±11.5% in DT and 6.44±3.6 %, respectively). It can be assumed that prevalence of White Syndrome in those locations may be correlated to temperature which highest average temperature occurred in DB stations.

  13. Prevalence and distribution of White Spot Syndrome Virus in cultured shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, A; Nandi, S P; Siddique, M A; Sanyal, S K; Sultana, M; Hossain, M A

    2015-02-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a dsDNA virus causing White Spot Syndrome Disease (WSSD) in shrimp with almost 100% morality rate within 3-10 days. In Bangladesh, WSSD is one of the major impediments of shrimp farming. This study first investigated the prevalence and distribution of WSSV in cultured shrimps of the coastal regions in Bangladesh. A total of 60 shrimp samples, collected from the 25 shrimp farms of different coastal regions (Satkhira, Khulna, Bagerhat and Cox's Bazar), were analysed during 2013-2014 by conventional PCR using VP28 and VP664 gene-specific primers; 39 of 60 samples were found WSSV positive. SYBR green real-time PCR using 71-bp amplicon for VP664 gene correlated well with conventional PCR data. The prevalence rates of WSSV among the collected 60 samples were Satkhira 79%, Khulna 50%, Bagerhat 38% and Cox's Bazar 25%. Sequencing of WSSV-positive PCR amplicons of VP28 showed 99% similarity with WSSV NCBI Ref/Seq Sequences. Molecular analysis of the VP28 gene sequences of WSSV revealed that Bangladeshi strains phylogenetically affiliated to the strains belong to India. This work concluded that WSSV infections are widely distributed in the coastal regions cultured shrimp in Bangladesh. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. POLYMORPHISMS OF ENDOTHELIAL NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE GENE AS PREDICTORS OF WOLFF-PARKINSON-WHITE SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Matyushin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The discovery of new genetic predictors of cardiovascular diseases can be used in predicting and diagnosing latent forms of the disease. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW occurs in all age groups  and detected in 1-30 people per 10000, it manifests mainly in young age (on average 20 years, and the risk of sudden cardiac death is higher than in general population.Aim. To study the relationship of WPW syndrome with the polymorphism of endothelial nitric synthase gene (NOS3, and to identify genetic predictors of this syndrome.Material and methods. The study included 51 people with ECG proven WPW syndrome and 153 people with no cardiovascular disease. The patients were divided into subgroups according to sex: 21 women, 30 men. All patients underwent a standard cardiac examination (anamnesis, electrocardiography, echocardiography, bicycle ergometry, transesophageal electrical stimulation of the atria, Holter monitoring and blood was taken for molecular genetic testing of DNA.Results. The results showed a statistically significant prevalence of rare genotype 4b\\4b NOS3 gene in the control group of women (16.3%; р<0.05 compared with women from the main group, who did not have this genotype, while there was significant prevalence of genotype 4a\\4a in the main group of women (81.0%; р<0.05 compared with women from the control group.  In men this prevalence was not found.Conclusion. The presence of genotype 4b\\4b NOS3 gene reduces the likelihood of WPW syndrome and its symptoms in females. In men,  this prevalence is not found, presumably, in connection with some mechanisms of hormonal regulation. The results can be used in the genetic prediction of the course of the disease.

  15. Skin Lesions in European Hibernating Bats Associated with Geomyces destructans, the Etiologic Agent of White-Nose Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Puechmaille, S?bastien J.; Ohlendorf, Bernd; M?hldorfer, Kristin; Bosch, Thijs; G?rf?l, Tam?s; Passior, Karsten; Kurth, Andreas; Lacremans, Daniel; Forget, Fr?d?ric

    2013-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has claimed the lives of millions of hibernating insectivorous bats in North America. Its etiologic agent, the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, causes skin lesions that are the hallmark of the disease. The fungal infection is characterized by a white powdery growth on muzzle, ears and wing membranes. While WNS may threaten some species of North American bats with regional extinction, infection in hibernating bats in Europe seems not to be associated with si...

  16. Spinal Anaesthesia is Safe in a Patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Undergoing Evacuation of Molar Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviseti, Pravalika; Pujari, Vinayak S

    2016-02-01

    Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is an uncommon cardiac condition where there is an abnormal band of atrial tissue connecting atria and ventricles which can electrically bypass atrioventricular node. The anaesthetic management in these patients is challenging as life threatening complications can occur perioperatively like paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation. Also, regional anaesthetic technique like subarachnoid block is a safe and cost effective alternative to general anaesthesia as it avoids polypharmacy. We report the successful anaesthetic management of Wolff Parkinson White syndrome in a primi with hydatiform mole posted for suction and evacuation.

  17. Pathology in euthermic bats with white nose syndrome suggests a natural manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Carol U; Barber, Daniel; Mandl, Judith N

    2012-11-15

    White nose syndrome, caused by Geomyces destructans, has killed more than 5 million cave hibernating bats in eastern North America. During hibernation, the lack of inflammatory cell recruitment at the site of fungal infection and erosion is consistent with a temperature-induced inhibition of immune cell trafficking. This immune suppression allows G. destructans to colonize and erode the skin of wings, ears and muzzle of bat hosts unchecked. Yet, paradoxically, within weeks of emergence from hibernation an intense neutrophilic inflammatory response to G. destructans is generated, causing severe pathology that can contribute to death. We hypothesize that the sudden reversal of immune suppression in bats upon the return to euthermia leads to a form of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). IRIS was first described in HIV-infected humans with low helper T lymphocyte counts and bacterial or fungal opportunistic infections. IRIS is a paradoxical and rapid worsening of symptoms in immune compromised humans upon restoration of immunity in the face of an ongoing infectious process. In humans with HIV, the restoration of adaptive immunity following suppression of HIV replication with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) can trigger severe immune-mediated tissue damage that can result in death. We propose that the sudden restoration of immune responses in bats infected with G. destructans results in an IRIS-like dysregulated immune response that causes the post-emergent pathology.

  18. Pathology in euthermic bats with white nose syndrome suggests a natural manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Carol U.; Barber, Daniel; Mandl, Judith N.

    2012-01-01

    White nose syndrome, caused by Geomyces destructans, has killed more than 5 million cave hibernating bats in eastern North America. During hibernation, the lack of inflammatory cell recruitment at the site of fungal infection and erosion is consistent with a temperature-induced inhibition of immune cell trafficking. This immune suppression allows G. destructans to colonize and erode the skin of wings, ears and muzzle of bat hosts unchecked. Yet, paradoxically, within weeks of emergence from hibernation an intense neutrophilic inflammatory response to G. destructans is generated, causing severe pathology that can contribute to death. We hypothesize that the sudden reversal of immune suppression in bats upon the return to euthermia leads to a form of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), which was first described in HIV-infected humans with low helper T lymphocyte counts and bacterial or fungal opportunistic infections. IRIS is a paradoxical and rapid worsening of symptoms in immune compromised humans upon restoration of immunity in the face of an ongoing infectious process. In humans with HIV, the restoration of adaptive immunity following suppression of HIV replication with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) can trigger severe immune-mediated tissue damage that can result in death. We propose that the sudden restoration of immune responses in bats infected with G. destructans results in an IRIS-like dysregulated immune response that causes the post-emergent pathology.

  19. Exome analysis of a family with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome identifies a novel disease locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Neil E; Jou, Chuanchau J; Arrington, Cammon B; Kennedy, Brett J; Earl, Aubree; Matsunami, Norisada; Meyers, Lindsay L; Etheridge, Susan P; Saarel, Elizabeth V; Bleyl, Steven B; Yost, H Joseph; Yandell, Mark; Leppert, Mark F; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin; Gruber, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a common cause of supraventricular tachycardia that carries a risk of sudden cardiac death. To date, mutations in only one gene, PRKAG2, which encodes the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase subunit γ-2, have been identified as causative for WPW. DNA samples from five members of a family with WPW were analyzed by exome sequencing. We applied recently designed prioritization strategies (VAAST/pedigree VAAST) coupled with an ontology-based algorithm (Phevor) that reduced the number of potentially damaging variants to 10: a variant in KCNE2 previously associated with Long QT syndrome was also identified. Of these 11 variants, only MYH6 p.E1885K segregated with the WPW phenotype in all affected individuals and was absent in 10 unaffected family members. This variant was predicted to be damaging by in silico methods and is not present in the 1,000 genome and NHLBI exome sequencing project databases. Screening of a replication cohort of 47 unrelated WPW patients did not identify other likely causative variants in PRKAG2 or MYH6. MYH6 variants have been identified in patients with atrial septal defects, cardiomyopathies, and sick sinus syndrome. Our data highlight the pleiotropic nature of phenotypes associated with defects in this gene. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Exome Analysis of a Family with Wolff–Parkinson–White Syndrome Identifies a Novel Disease Locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Neil E.; Jou, Chuanchau J.; Arrington, Cammon B.; Kennedy, Brett J.; Earl, Aubree; Matsunami, Norisada; Meyers, Lindsay L.; Etheridge, Susan P.; Saarel, Elizabeth V.; Bleyl, Steven B.; Yost, H. Joseph; Yandell, Mark; Leppert, Mark F.; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin; Gruber, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Wolff–Parkinson–White (WPW) syndrome is a common cause of supraventricular tachycardia that carries a risk of sudden cardiac death. To date, mutations in only one gene, PRKAG2, which encodes the 5’ -AMP-activated protein kinase subunit γ-2, have been identified as causative for WPW. DNA samples from five members of a family with WPW were analyzed by exome sequencing. We applied recently designed prioritization strategies (VAAST/pedigree VAAST) coupled with an ontology-based algorithm (Phevor) that reduced the number of potentially damaging variants to 10: a variant in KCNE2 previously associated with Long QT syndrome was also identified. Of these 11 variants, only MYH6 p.E1885K segregated with the WPW phenotype in all affected individuals and was absent in 10 unaffected family members. This variant was predicted to be damaging by in silico methods and is not present in the 1,000 genome and NHLBI exome sequencing project databases. Screening of a replication cohort of 47 unrelated WPW patients did not identify other likely causative variants in PRKAG2 or MYH6. MYH6 variants have been identified in patients with atrial septal defects, cardiomyopathies, and sick sinus syndrome. Our data highlight the pleiotropic nature of phenotypes associated with defects in this gene. PMID:26284702

  1. Exercise testing in children with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: what is its value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalili, M; Vahidshahi, K; Aarabi-Moghaddam, M Y; Rao, J Y; Brugada, P

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of exercise testing for predicting accessory pathway characteristics in children with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. The study enrolled 37 children with WPW syndrome and candidates for invasive electrophysiologic study (EPS). Exercise testing was performed for all the study participants before the invasive study. Data from the invasive EPS were compared with findings from the exercise testing. The sudden disappearance of the delta (Δ) wave was seen in 10 cases (27 %). No significant correlation was found between the Δ wave disappearance and the antegrade effective refractory period of the accessory pathway (AERP-AP) or the shortest pre-excited RR interval (SPERRI). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of Δ wave disappearance, based on AERP-AP as gold standard, were respectively 29.4, 80, 71.4, and 40 %. The corresponding values with SPERRI as the gold standard were respectively 23.8, 71.4, 71.4 and 23.8 %. Exercise testing has a medium to low rate of accuracy in detecting low-risk WPW syndrome patients in the pediatric age group.

  2. Accessory pathway location affects brain natriuretic peptide level in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Yosuke; Kumagai, Koji; Naito, Shigeto; Nakamura, Kohki; Minami, Kentaro; Nakano, Masahiro; Sasaki, Takehito; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Oshima, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the accessory pathway location and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. We divided 102 WPW syndrome patients with normal left ventricular systolic function into four groups: those with manifest right (MR, n = 14), manifest septal (MS, n = 11), manifest left (ML, n = 30), and concealed (C, n = 47) accessory pathways. BNP level and electrophysiological properties, including difference in timing of the ventricular electrogram between the His bundle area and the distal coronary sinus area (His-CS delay), which indicate intraventricular dyssynchrony, were compared. BNP levels (pg/dl) were higher in the MR and MS groups than in the ML and C groups (MR, 64 ± 58; MS, 55 ± 45; ML, 17 ± 15; C, 25 ± 21; P syndrome patients with normal cardiac function.

  3. Utilization of solvothermally grown InP/ZnS quantum dots as wavelength converters for fabrication of white light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun-Pyo; Yang, Heesun

    2013-09-01

    This work reports on a simple solvothermal synthesis of InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) using a much safer and cheaper phosphorus precursor of tris(dimethylamino)phosphine than the most popularly chosen tris(trimethylsilyl)phosphine. The band gap of InP QDs is facilely controlled by varying the solvothermal core growth time (4 vs. 6 h) with a fixed temperature of 150 degrees C, and the successive solvothermal ZnS shelling at 220 degrees C for 6 h results in green- and yellow-emtting InP/ZnS QD with emission quantum yield of 41-42%. The broad size distribution of as-synthesized InP/ZnS QDs, which appears to be inherent in the current solvothermal approach, is improved by a size-selective sorting procedure, and the emission properties of the resulting size-sorted QD fractions are investigated. To produce white emission for general lighting source, a blue light-emitting diode (LED) is combined with non-size-soroted green or yellow QDs as wavelength converters. Furthermore, the QD-LED that includes a blend of green and yellow QDs is fabricated to generate a white lighting source with an enhanced color rendering performance, and its electroluminescent properties are characterized in detail.

  4. A Phosphine-Free Route to Size-Adjustable CdSe and CdSe/CdS Core-Shell Quantum Dots for White-Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yugang; Li, Guopeng; Zhang, Ting; Song, Zihang; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Zhongping; Jiang, Yang

    2018-03-01

    The selenium dioxide was used as the precursor to synthesize wide-size-ranged CdSe quantum dots (2.4-5.7 nm) via hot-injection route. The CdSe quantum dots are featured with high crystalline, monodisperse, zinc blende structure and wide emission region (530-635 nm). In order to improve the stability and quantum yield, a phosphine-free single-molecular precursor approach is used to obtain CdSe/CdS core/shell quantum dots. The CdSe/CdS quantum dots are highly fluorescent with quantum yield up to 65%, and persist the good monodispersity and high crystallinity. Moreover, the quantum dots white light-emitting-diodes are fabricated by using the resultant red emission core/shell quantum dots and Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ yellow phosphors as color-conversion layers on a blue InGaN chip. The prepared light-emitting-diodes show good performance with CIE-1931 coordinated of (0.3583, 0.3349), an Ra of 92.9, and a Tc of 4410 K at 20 mA, which indicate that the combination of red-emission QDs and yellow phophors as a promising approach to obtain warm WLEDs with good color rendering.

  5. Abnormal perfusion on myocardial perfusion SPECT in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Cha, Kwang Soo; Han, Seung Ho; Park, Tae Ho; Kim, Moo Hyun; Kim, Young Dae

    2005-01-01

    Abnormal myocardial perfusion may be caused by ventricular preexcitation, but its location, extent, severity and correlation with accessory pathway (AP) are not established. We evaluated perfusion patterns on myocardial perfusion SPECT and location of AP in patients with WPW (Wolff-Parkison-White) syndrome. Adenosine Tc-99m MIBI or Tl-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT was performed in 11 patients with WPW syndrome. Perfusion defects (PD) were compared to AP location based on ECT with Fitzpatrick's algorithm of electrophysiologic study and radiofrequency catheter ablation. Patients had atypical chest discomfort or no symptom. Risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) was below 0.1 in 11 patients using the nomogram to estimate the probability of CAD. Coronary angiography was performed in 4 patients(mid-LAD 50% in one, normal in others). In 4 patients, AP localization was done by electrophysiologic study and radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). Small to large extent (11.0 ± 8.5%, range:3 ∼ 35%) and mild to moderate severity (-71 ± 42.7%, range:-217 ∼ -39%) of reversible (n=9) or fixed (n=1) perfusion defects were noted. One patients with right free wall (right lateral) AP showed normal. PD locations were variable following the location of AP. One patient with left lateral wall AP was followed 6 weeks after RFCA and showed significantly decreased PD on SPECT with successful ablation. Myocardial perfusion defect showed variable extent, severity and location in patients with WPW syndrome. Abnormal perfusion defect showed in most of all patients, but if did not seem to be correlated specifically with location of accessory pathway and coronary artery disease. Therefore myocardial perfusion SPECT should be interpreted carefully in patients with WPW syndrome

  6. Early repolarization in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: prevalence and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumaki, Koichi; Nishida, Kunihiro; Iwamoto, Jotaro; Nakatani, Yosuke; Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Sakamoto, Tamotsu; Tsuneda, Takayuki; Inoue, Hiroshi; Sakabe, Masao; Fujiki, Akira

    2011-08-01

    Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF) with early repolarization (ER) has recently been reported; however, ER is a common finding in healthy subjects and is also found sporadically in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. The present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of ER in patients with WPW syndrome. One hundred and eleven patients with WPW syndrome were studied retrospectively. Early repolarization was defined as QRS slurring or notching with J-point elevation ≥ 1 mm. The prevalence of ER was determined before and after successful catheter ablation. Before ablation, ER was found in 35 of 75 patients with a left free wall, 6 of 23 with a right free wall, and 7 of 13 with a septal accessory pathway (48 of 111, 43% as a whole). Early repolarization was always observed in leads with positive deflection of the initial part of the delta wave. After successful ablation of accessory pathways, ER was preserved in 28 (25%), disappeared in 20 (18%), and newly developed in 8 (7%) patients. In the remaining 55 (50%) patients, ER was not observed either before or after ablation. In patients with persistent ER, the amplitude and width of ER were significantly decreased 3-7 days after the ablation (1.7 ± 0.7 vs. 1.4 ± 0.6 mm, P syndrome, ER could be partly related to early depolarization through the accessory pathway. However, persistent ER and new ER appearing after the ablation were frequently found. Therefore, in these patients, mechanisms other than early depolarization may be involved in the genesis of ER.

  7. Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome with Ventricular Hypertrophy in a Brazilian Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Steld, Lenises de Paula; Campuzano, Oscar; Pérez-Serra, Alexandra; Moura de Barros Zamorano, Mabel; Sousa Matos, Selma; Brugada, Ramon

    2017-07-10

    BACKGROUND PRKAG2 syndrome diagnosis is already well-defined as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW), ventricular hypertrophy (VH) due to glycogen accumulation, and conduction system disease (CSD). Because of its rarity, there is a lack of literature focused on the treatment. The present study aimed to describe appropriate strategies for the treatment of affected family members with PRKAG2 syndrome with a long follow-up period. CASE REPORT We studied 60 selected individuals from 84 family members (32 males, 53.3%) (mean age 27±16 years). Patients with WPW and/or VH were placed in a group of 18 individuals, in which 11 (61.1%) had VH and WPW, 6 (33.3%) had isolated WPW, and 1 (5.6%) had isolated VH. Palpitations occurred in 16 patients (88.9%), chest pain in 11 (61.1%), dizziness in 13 (72.2%), syncope in 15 (83.3%), and dyspnea in 13 (72%). Sudden cardiac death (SCD) occurred in 2 (11.1%), and 2 patients with cardiac arrest (CA) had asystole and pre-excited atrial flutter-fibrillation (AFL and AF) as the documented mechanism. Transient ischemic attack (TIA) and learning/language disabilities with delayed development were observed. Genetic analysis identified a new missense pathogenic variant (p.K290I) in the PRKAG2 gene. Cardiac histopathology demonstrated the predominance of vacuoles containing glycogen derivative and fibrosis. The treatment was based on hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) control, antiarrhythmic drugs (AD), anticoagulation, and radiofrequency catheter ablation (RCA). Six patients (33.3%) underwent pacemaker implantation (PM). CONCLUSIONS The present study describes the clinical treatment for a rare cardiac syndrome caused by a PRKAG2 mutation.

  8. Abnormal perfusion on myocardial perfusion SPECT in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Cha, Kwang Soo; Han, Seung Ho; Park, Tae Ho; Kim, Moo Hyun; Kim, Young Dae [Donga University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-02-15

    Abnormal myocardial perfusion may be caused by ventricular preexcitation, but its location, extent, severity and correlation with accessory pathway (AP) are not established. We evaluated perfusion patterns on myocardial perfusion SPECT and location of AP in patients with WPW (Wolff-Parkison-White) syndrome. Adenosine Tc-99m MIBI or Tl-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT was performed in 11 patients with WPW syndrome. Perfusion defects (PD) were compared to AP location based on ECT with Fitzpatrick's algorithm of electrophysiologic study and radiofrequency catheter ablation. Patients had atypical chest discomfort or no symptom. Risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) was below 0.1 in 11 patients using the nomogram to estimate the probability of CAD. Coronary angiography was performed in 4 patients(mid-LAD 50% in one, normal in others). In 4 patients, AP localization was done by electrophysiologic study and radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). Small to large extent (11.0 {+-} 8.5%, range:3 {approx} 35%) and mild to moderate severity (-71 {+-} 42.7%, range:-217 {approx} -39%) of reversible (n=9) or fixed (n=1) perfusion defects were noted. One patients with right free wall (right lateral) AP showed normal. PD locations were variable following the location of AP. One patient with left lateral wall AP was followed 6 weeks after RFCA and showed significantly decreased PD on SPECT with successful ablation. Myocardial perfusion defect showed variable extent, severity and location in patients with WPW syndrome. Abnormal perfusion defect showed in most of all patients, but if did not seem to be correlated specifically with location of accessory pathway and coronary artery disease. Therefore myocardial perfusion SPECT should be interpreted carefully in patients with WPW syndrome.

  9. Wax Ester Analysis of Bats Suffering from White Nose Syndrome in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Viden, Ivan; Nováková, Alena; Bandouchová, Hana; Sigler, Karel

    2015-07-01

    The composition of wax esters (WE) in the fur of adult greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis), either healthy or suffering from white nose syndrome (WNS) caused by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, was investigated by high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis in the positive ion mode. Profiling of lipid classes showed that WE are the most abundant lipid class, followed by cholesterol esters, and other lipid classes, e.g., triacylglycerols and phospholipids. WE abundance in non-polar lipids was gender-related, being higher in males than in females; in individuals suffering from WNS, both male and female, it was higher than in healthy counterparts. WE were dominated by species containing 18:1 fatty acids. Fatty alcohols were fully saturated, dominated by species containing 24, 25, or 26 carbon atoms. Two WE species, 18:1/18:0 and 18:1/20:0, were more abundant in healthy bats than in infected ones.

  10. Rapid polymerase chain reaction diagnosis of white-nose syndrome in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Gargas, Andrea; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M; Green, D Earl; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Thomas, Nancy J; Blehert, David S

    2010-03-01

    A newly developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to rapidly and specifically detect Geomyces destructans on the wings of infected bats from small quantities (1-2 mg) of tissue is described in the current study (methods for culturing and isolating G. destructans from bat skin are also described). The lower limits of detection for PCR were 5 fg of purified fungal DNA or 100 conidia per 2 mg of wing tissue. By using histology as the standard, the PCR had a diagnostic specificity of 100% and a diagnostic sensitivity of 96%, whereas the diagnostic sensitivity of culture techniques was only 54%. The accuracy and fast turnaround time of PCR provides field biologists with valuable information on infection status more rapidly than traditional methods, and the small amount of tissue required for the test would allow diagnosis of white-nose syndrome in live animals.

  11. Pathophysiology of white-nose syndrome in bats: a mechanistic model linking wing damage to mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M; Bollinger, Trent K; Misra, Vikram; Cryan, Paul M; Blehert, David S; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Willis, Craig K R

    2013-08-23

    White-nose syndrome is devastating North American bat populations but we lack basic information on disease mechanisms. Altered blood physiology owing to epidermal invasion by the fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans (Gd) has been hypothesized as a cause of disrupted torpor patterns of affected hibernating bats, leading to mortality. Here, we present data on blood electrolyte concentration, haematology and acid-base balance of hibernating little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus, following experimental inoculation with Gd. Compared with controls, infected bats showed electrolyte depletion (i.e. lower plasma sodium), changes in haematology (i.e. increased haematocrit and decreased glucose) and disrupted acid-base balance (i.e. lower CO2 partial pressure and bicarbonate). These findings indicate hypotonic dehydration, hypovolaemia and metabolic acidosis. We propose a mechanistic model linking tissue damage to altered homeostasis and morbidity/mortality.

  12. White-nose syndrome: is this emerging disease a threat to European bats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Frick, Winifred F; Kunz, Thomas H; Racey, Paul A; Voigt, Christian C; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Teeling, Emma C

    2011-11-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a newly emergent disease that potentially threatens all temperate bat species. A recently identified fungus, Geomyces destructans, is the most likely causative agent of this disease. Until 2009, WNS and G. destructans were exclusively known from North America, but recent studies have confirmed this fungus is also present in Europe. We assembled an international WNS consortium of 67 scientists from 29 countries and identified the most important research and conservation priorities to assess the risk of WNS to European bats. Here, we review what is known about WNS and G. destructans and detail the conservation and research recommendations aimed at understanding and containing this emerging infectious disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environment, host, and fungal traits predict continental-scale white-nose syndrome in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, David T.S.; Pulliam, Juliet R.C.; Marshall, Jonathan C.; Cryan, Paul M.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2016-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is a fungal disease killing bats in eastern North America, but disease is not seen in European bats and is less severe in some North American species. We show that how bats use energy during hibernation and fungal growth rates under different environmental conditions can explain how some bats are able to survive winter with infection and others are not. Our study shows how simple but nonlinear interactions between fungal growth and bat energetics result in decreased survival times at more humid hibernation sites; however, differences between species such as body size and metabolic rates determine the impact of fungal infection on bat survival, allowing European bat species to survive, whereas North American species can experience dramatic decline.

  14. Rapid polymerase chain reaction diagnosis of white-nose syndrome in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, J.M.; Gargas, A.; Meteyer, C.U.; Berlowski-Zier, B. M.; Green, D.E.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Thomas, N.J.; Blehert, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to rapidly and specifically detect Geomyces destructans on the wings of infected bats from small quantities (1-2 mg) of tissue is described in the current study (methods for culturing and isolating G. destructans from bat skin are also described). The lower limits of detection for PCR were 5 fg of purified fungal DNA or 100 conidia per 2 mg of wing tissue. By using histology as the standard, the PCR had a diagnostic specificity of 100% and a diagnostic sensitivity of 96%, whereas the diagnostic sensitivity of culture techniques was only 54%. The accuracy and fast turnaround time of PCR provides field biologists with valuable information on infection status more rapidly than traditional methods, and the small amount of tissue required for the test would allow diagnosis of white-nose syndrome in live animals.

  15. Characterization of ORF89 - A latency-related gene of white spot syndrome virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.S.; Khadijah, Siti; Kwang, Jimmy

    2004-01-01

    Open reading frame 89 (ORF89) is one of the three genes that are believed to be involved in the latent infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Here, we report the structure and functional characterization of ORF89. cDNA sequencing, 5' RLM-RACE, and 3' RLM-RACE showed that ORF89 gene is transcribed into an unspliced mRNA of 4436 nucleotides, which is predicted to encode a protein of 1437 amino acids. ORF89 expressed an approximately 165-kDa protein in Sf9 cells that localized in the nucleus. Amino acids 678-683 were found to be essential for nuclear localization. Cotransfection assays demonstrated that ORF89 protein repressed its own promoter as well as those of a protein kinase and the thymidine-thymidylate kinase genes of WSSV. SYBR Green real-time PCR indicated that the repression occurred at the transcriptional level

  16. Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus on wild and farm crustaceans from Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Galaviz José Reyes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome is a viral disease affecting wild and farm crustaceans that serve as reservoirs. Previous reports have demonstrated high genomic variation in WSS viruses (WSSV isolated from distinct geographical regions. In this study, we collected wild shrimps (Litopenaeus stylirostris, crabs (Callinectes arcuatus and farmed shrimp (L. vannamei in Sonora, Mexico, between 2008 and 2010. DNA was extracted, and the variable regions and transposase genes were subjected to PCR and sequencing. Compared to strains of WSSV from other sites, Mexican samples exhibited a distinct number of repeat units (RUs in ORF94, ORF75 and ORF125, which ranged between 1-11, 3-15, and 8-11 RUs respectively, and a unique single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 48 of ORF94. A total of six Mexican genotypes were found in organism from shrimp farm and natural environment.

  17. [Evaluation of the radiofrequency ablation effectiveness in patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, I B; Ardashev, A V; Ardashev, V N; Voronkov, Iu I; Sharoĭko, M V; Akimova, O S

    2012-01-01

    A one-year prospective study involved 22 patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) and 20 healthy people. Means age of patients was 34.3 +/- 16.3 years. All 22 patients were successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of additional pathways. RFA effectiveness was evaluated with the help of clinical questionnaire, data of ECG, EchoCG, heart rate variability (HRV), frequency response and nonlinear dynamics. Cardiac rhythm disturbances were verified using Holter monitoring applied to all patients. Positive clinical effect was achieved in all the WPW patients, as RFA arrested cardiac arrhythmias completely. Holter monitoring did not register cardiac disturbances which points to high RFA effectiveness in WPW patients. HRV, frequency response and nonlinear dynamics reassumed their normal patterns.

  18. Toxic adenoma of the thyroid gland and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naço, M; Çeliku, E; Llukaçaj, A; Shehaj, J; Kameniku, R

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 17-year-old girl with toxic adenoma scheduled for surgery right lobectomy and isthmectomy of thyroid gland. During the examination before surgery, patient was diagnosed for the first time as having with Wolff – Parkinson – White (WPW) syndrome. In the operating room, after the induction of anesthesia, the electrocardiogram showed wide QRS complex tachycardia with a rate of 180 beats/min, which was diagnosed as paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. The patient was treated immediately with antiarrhythmic drugs: adenosine iv three times (at doses of 6 mg, 12mg, 12mg bolus) and esmolol iv twice (at doses 28.5 mg). This approach resulted in disappearance of the delta wave and tachycardia for the whole surgery period. In this case report we discuss the role of induction of anesthesia and presence of toxic adenoma in a patient with WPW. PMID:19561784

  19. Is isoproterenol really required during electrophysiological study in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauriah, Maheshwar; Cismaru, Gabriel; Sellal, Jean-Marc; De Chillou, Christian; Brembilla-Perrot, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the results of electrophysiological study (EPS) in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) and spontaneous adverse clinical presentation and determined whether isoproterenol added incremental value. EPS was performed in 63 patients with WPW and adverse clinical presentation at baseline. EPS was repeated after infusion of isoproterenol in 37 patients, including 25 without criteria for a malignant form at baseline. Atrioventricular orthodromic tachycardia was induced 44%, antidromic tachycardia in 11%, atrial fibrillation (AF) in 68% at baseline. At baseline EPS, criteria for a malignant form (AF induction and shortest CL <250 ms) were noted in 60%; tachycardia was not inducible in 16%. All the patients met the criteria for a malignant form after isoproterenol. EPS at baseline missed 16% of patients at risk of life-threatening arrhythmias who had no inducible tachyarrhythmia and 40% without classical criteria for malignant form. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute tissue death (white syndrome) affects the microenvironment of tabular Acropora corals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Breum; Vestergaard, Maj; Ainsworth, Tracy D.

    2010-01-01

    White syndrome (WS) is a collective term for coral diseases that cause acute tissue loss, resulting in apparently healthy tissue bordering on exposed skeleton. In this study, the microenvironmental condition and tissue structure of WS-affected tabular acroporid corals were assessed by O2...... microelectrodes and histological techniques. The high spatial resolution of the microelectrode measurements enabled an evaluation of the extent of physiological changes at, and 2 cm away from, the WS border. Respiration of the coral host was decreased on the skeleton-tissue border but was comparable...... to that of healthy corals only 2 cm away from the border. Histological data, however, showed a decrease in mesogloea thickness on and 2 cm away from the WS border, which correlates with a previously observed allocation of photoassimilates away from the WS border. We suggest that there are colony-wide negative...

  1. Extreme sensitivity to ultraviolet light in the fungal pathogen causing white-nose syndrome of bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jonathan M; Drees, Kevin P; Foster, Jeffrey T; Lindner, Daniel L

    2018-01-02

    Bat white-nose syndrome (WNS), caused by the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has decimated North American hibernating bats since its emergence in 2006. Here, we utilize comparative genomics to examine the evolutionary history of this pathogen in comparison to six closely related nonpathogenic species. P. destructans displays a large reduction in carbohydrate-utilizing enzymes (CAZymes) and in the predicted secretome (~50%), and an increase in lineage-specific genes. The pathogen has lost a key enzyme, UVE1, in the alternate excision repair (AER) pathway, which is known to contribute to repair of DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet (UV) light. Consistent with a nonfunctional AER pathway, P. destructans is extremely sensitive to UV light, as well as the DNA alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The differential susceptibility of P. destructans to UV light in comparison to other hibernacula-inhabiting fungi represents a potential "Achilles' heel" of P. destructans that might be exploited for treatment of bats with WNS.

  2. Characterization of Microsatellites in Pseudogymnoascus destructans for White-nose Syndrome Genetic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, Kevin P; Parise, Katy L; Rivas, Stephanie M; Felton, Lindsey L; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Keim, Paul; Foster, Jeffrey T

    2017-10-01

    Despite only emerging in the past decade, white-nose syndrome has become among the most devastating wildlife diseases known. The pathogenic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans infects hibernating bats and typically leads to high rates of mortality at hibernacula during winter in North America. We developed a set of genetic markers to better differentiate P. destructans isolates. We designed and successfully characterized these 23 microsatellite markers of P. destructans for use in disease ecology and epidemiology research. We validated these loci with DNA extracted from a collection of P. destructans isolates from the US and Canada, as well as from Europe (the likely introduction source based on currently available data). Genetic diversity calculated for each locus and for the multilocus panel as a whole indicates sufficient allelic diversity to differentiate among and between samples from both Europe and North America. Indices of genetic diversity indicate a loss of allelic diversity that is consistent with the recent introduction and rapid spread of an emerging pathogen.

  3. Environment, host, and fungal traits predict continental-scale white-nose syndrome in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, David T S; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Marshall, Jonathan C; Cryan, Paul M; Webb, Colleen T

    2016-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is a fungal disease killing bats in eastern North America, but disease is not seen in European bats and is less severe in some North American species. We show that how bats use energy during hibernation and fungal growth rates under different environmental conditions can explain how some bats are able to survive winter with infection and others are not. Our study shows how simple but nonlinear interactions between fungal growth and bat energetics result in decreased survival times at more humid hibernation sites; however, differences between species such as body size and metabolic rates determine the impact of fungal infection on bat survival, allowing European bat species to survive, whereas North American species can experience dramatic decline.

  4. Pathology of tissue loss (white syndrome) in Acropora sp. corals from the Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.

    2011-01-01

    We performed histological examination of 69 samples of Acropora sp. manifesting different types of tissue loss (Acropora White Syndrome-AWS) from Hawaii, Johnston Atoll and American Samoa between 2002 and 2006. Gross lesions of tissue loss were observed and classified as diffuse acute, diffuse subacute, and focal to multifocal acute to subacute. Corals with acute tissue loss manifested microscopic evidence of necrosis sometimes associated with ciliates, helminths, fungi, algae, sponges, or cyanobacteria whereas those with subacute tissue loss manifested mainly wound repair. Gross lesions of AWS have multiple different changes at the microscopic level some of which involve various microorganisms and metazoa. Elucidating this disease will require, among other things, monitoring lesions over time to determine the pathogenesis of AWS and the potential role of tissue-associated microorganisms in the genesis of tissue loss. Attempts to experimentally induce AWS should include microscopic examination of tissues to ensure that potentially causative microorganisms associated with gross lesion are not overlooked.

  5. Functional identification of the non-specific nuclease from white spot syndrome virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Lin Shumei; Yanga Feng

    2005-01-01

    The product encoded by the wsv191 gene from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is homologous with non-specific nucleases (NSN) of other organisms. To functionally identify the protein, the wsv191 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with 6His-tag at C-terminal. The fusion protein (termed as rWSSV-NSN) was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography under denatured conditions, renatured and characterized by three methods. The results showed that rWSSV-NSN could hydrolyze both DNA and RNA. 5'-RACE result revealed that the transcription initiation site of the wsv191 gene was located at nucleotide residue G of the predicted ATG triplet. Therefore, we concluded that the next ATG should be the genuine translation initiation codon of the wsv191 gene. Western blot analysis revealed that the molecular mass of natural WSSV-NSN was 37 kDa

  6. The effects of a thermophile metabolite, tryptophol, upon protecting shrimp against white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Jin, Min

    2015-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a shrimp pathogen responsible for significant economic loss in commercial shrimp farms and until now, there has been no effective approach to control this disease. In this study, tryptophol (indole-3-ethanol) was identified as a metabolite involved in bacteriophage-thermophile interactions. The dietary addition of tryptophol reduced the mortality in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus when orally challenged with WSSV. Our results revealed that 50 mg/kg tryptophol has a better protective effect in shrimp than 10 or 100 mg/kg tryptophol. WSSV copies in shrimp were reduced significantly (P shrimp, and thus holds significant promise as a novel and efficient therapeutic approach to control WSSV in shrimp aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. U.S. Forest Service Research and Development (USFS R/D) national science strategy on White Nose Syndrome (WNS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybill Amelon; Robert T. Brooks; Jessie Glaeser; Megan Friggens; Daniel Lindner; Susan C. Loeb; Ann Lynch; Drew Minnis; Roger Perry; Mary M. Rowland; Monica Tomosy; Ted Weller

    2012-01-01

    The National Plan for Assisting States, Federal Agencies, and Tribes in Managing White-Nose Syndrome in Bats (National WNS Plan), is a document prepared jointly by the U.S. Departments of the Interior, Agriculture, and Defense, along with the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. This document provides a strategic framework for the investigation and management of...

  8. White-nose syndrome without borders: Pseudogymnoascus destructans infection tolerated in Europe and Palearctic Asia but not in North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukal, Jan; Banďouchová, H.; Brichta, J.; Cmoková, A.; Jaron, K. S.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Kováčová, V.; Kubátová, A.; Nováková, Alena; Orlov, O.; Pikula, J.; Presetnik, P.; Šuba, J.; Zahradníková Jr., A.; Martínková, Natália

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 19829 (2016), č. článku 19829. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : White-nose syndrome * zoonotic viruses * emerging disease Subject RIV: EG - Zoology; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  9. Molecular characterization of a heterothallic mating system in Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungus causing white-nose syndrome of bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan M. Palmer; Alena Kubatova; Alena. Novakova; Andrew M. Minnis; Miroslav Kolarik; Daniel L. Lindner

    2014-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) of bats has devastated bat populations in eastern North America since its discovery in 2006. WNS, caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has spread quickly in North America and has become one of the most severe wildlife epidemics of our time. While P. destructans is spreading rapidly in North...

  10. Heterogeneity in sex differences in the metabolic syndrome in Dutch white, Surinamese African and South Asian populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, C.; van Valkengoed, I. G.; van den Born, B. J.; Bhopal, R.; Stronks, K.

    2012-01-01

    Diabet. Med. 29, 1159-1164 (2012) Abstract Aim To determine whether sex differences in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components differ among different ethnic groups. Methods A random sample of non-institutionalized adults aged 3560 years in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (white Dutch

  11. Production of polyclonal antiserum specific to the 27.5 kDa envelope protein of white spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    You, Z.O.; Nadala, E.C.B.; Yang, J.S.; Hulten, van M.C.W.; Loh, P.C.

    2002-01-01

    A truncated version of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) 27.5 kDa envelope protein was expressed as a histidine tag fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The bacterial expression system allowed the production of up to 10 mg of purified recombinant protein per liter of bacterial culture. Antiserum

  12. Evaluation of white spot syndrome virus variable DNA loci as molecular markers of virus spread at intermediate spatiotemporal scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Thi Minh Dieu,; Marks, H.; Zwart, M.P.; Vlak, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Variable genomic loci have been employed in a number of molecular epidemiology studies of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), but it is unknown which loci are suitable molecular markers for determining WSSV spread on different spatiotemporal scales. Although previous work suggests that multiple

  13. Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis: an Uncommon Coincidence that can Cause Severe Hemodynamic Disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Taha Alper

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The combination of rheumatic mitral stenosis and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is a rare situation. In this case, we are reporting an 72-year-old man presenting with multi-organ failure due to the this combination and successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation during preexcitated atrial fibrillation.

  14. Digital 3D reconstruction of two parahissian accessory bundles in a case of Wolff-Parkinson White syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffen, C.; Schaepman, M.E.; Hardmeier, T.; Schweitzer, W.

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional reconstruction of digitized histological serial sections of the cardiac conduction system yielded two accessory pathways in a case of a 24-day-old male infant who died after a short period of illness with ECG findings of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. In infants, the differential

  15. Probable association of tachyarrhythmia with nebulized albuterol in a child with previously subclinical wolff Parkinson white syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.; Maseland, M.; Smal, J.; Reimer, A.; van Setten, P.

    2012-01-01

    We present the case of a 2-year-old asthmatic boy with atrioventricular (AV)-reentry tachycardia following albuterol inhalation, who was later diagnosed with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. The Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale score for this adverse event was 7, indicating that

  16. Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Rheumatic Mitral Stenosis: an Uncommon Coincidence that can Cause Severe Hemodynamic Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Ahmet Taha; Hasdemir, Hakan; Akyol, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    The combination of rheumatic mitral stenosis and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is a rare situation. In this case, we are reporting an 72-year-old man presenting with multi-organ failure due to the this combination and successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation during preexcitated atrial fibrillation. PMID:18982140

  17. Nightly and yearly bat activity before and after white-nose syndrome on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua B. Johnson; Jane L. Rodrigue; W. Mark. Ford

    2013-01-01

    In the central Appalachians, conservation concern about bat communities and their population status has become increasingly more significant with the advent and spread of white-nose syndrome (WNS). However, managers often are hampered in their response to WNS by the lack of information on pre-WNS local distribution, abundance, or activity patterns for most bat species...

  18. Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Xuan, T.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vlak, J.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood.

  19. Identification of Stressors that Affect White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Infection and Outbreak in Pond Cultured Penaeus monodon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendencia Alapide, E.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been a big problem to the worldwide shrimp industry. Exposure to stressors related to physicochemical water parameters affect WSSV infection but not all WSSV infections result in outbreaks. This paper describes a detailed monitoring of important physicochemical

  20. Mixed-genotype white spot syndrome virus infections of shrimp are inversely correlated with disease outbreaks in ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyet Hoa, T.T.; Zwart, M.P.; Phuong, N.T.; Oanh, D.T.H.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Outbreaks of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp culture and its relation to virus virulence are not well understood. Here we provide evidence that the presence of WSSV mixed-genotype infections correlate with lower outbreak incidence and that disease outbreaks correlate with single-genotype

  1. siRNA injection induces sequence-independent protection in Penaeus monodon against white spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenberg, M.; Heinhuis, B.; Zuidema, D.; Vlak, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major disease in crustaceans, particularly shrimp, due to the current intensity of aquaculture practices. Novel strategies including vaccination to control this virus would be highly desirable. However, invertebrates lack a true adaptive immune response system

  2. On the role of the polychaete Dendronereis spp. i the transmission of white spot syndrome virus in shrimp ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrina, Haryadi

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is by far the most devastating shrimp virus. Control measures have lowered the WSSV incidence to various degrees, but the pathogen remains plaguing shrimp culture worldwide. Continuous exposure may cause WSSV to adapt and infect non-crustacean benthic fauna in

  3. Nucleocapsid protein VP15 is the basic DNA binding protein of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveldt, J.; Vermeesch, A.M.G.; Langenhof, M.; Lang, de A.; Vlak, J.M.; Hulten, van M.C.W.

    2005-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is type species of the genus Whispovirus of the new family Nimaviridae. Despite the elucidation of its genomic sequence, very little is known about the virus as only 6% of its ORFs show homology to known genes. One of the structural virion proteins, VP15, is part of

  4. Using a Novel Partitivirus in Pseudogymnoascus destructans to Understand the Epidemiology of White-Nose Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaskar Thapa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome is one of the most lethal wildlife diseases, killing over 5 million North American bats since it was first reported in 2006. The causal agent of the disease is a psychrophilic filamentous fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans. The fungus is widely distributed in North America and Europe and has recently been found in some parts of Asia, but interestingly, no mass mortality is observed in European or Asian bats. Here we report a novel double-stranded RNA virus found in North American isolates of the fungus and show that the virus can be used as a tool to study the epidemiology of White-nose syndrome. The virus, termed Pseudogymnoascus destructans partitivirus-pa, contains 2 genomic segments, dsRNA 1 and dsRNA 2 of 1.76 kbp and 1.59 kbp respectively, each possessing a single open reading frame, and forms isometric particles approximately 30 nm in diameter, characteristic of the genus Gammapartitivirus in the family Partitiviridae. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus is closely related to Penicillium stoloniferum virus S. We were able to cure P. destructans of the virus by treating fungal cultures with polyethylene glycol. Examination of 62 isolates of P. destructans including 35 from United States, 10 from Canada and 17 from Europe showed virus infection only in North American isolates of the fungus. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis using nucleotide sequences of the viral coat protein geographically clustered North American isolates indicating fungal spread followed by local adaptation of P. destructans in different regions of the United States and Canada. This is the first demonstration that a mycovirus potentially can be used to study fungal disease epidemiology.

  5. Using a Novel Partitivirus in Pseudogymnoascus destructans to Understand the Epidemiology of White-Nose Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Vaskar; Turner, Gregory G; Hafenstein, Susan; Overton, Barrie E; Vanderwolf, Karen J; Roossinck, Marilyn J

    2016-12-01

    White-nose syndrome is one of the most lethal wildlife diseases, killing over 5 million North American bats since it was first reported in 2006. The causal agent of the disease is a psychrophilic filamentous fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans. The fungus is widely distributed in North America and Europe and has recently been found in some parts of Asia, but interestingly, no mass mortality is observed in European or Asian bats. Here we report a novel double-stranded RNA virus found in North American isolates of the fungus and show that the virus can be used as a tool to study the epidemiology of White-nose syndrome. The virus, termed Pseudogymnoascus destructans partitivirus-pa, contains 2 genomic segments, dsRNA 1 and dsRNA 2 of 1.76 kbp and 1.59 kbp respectively, each possessing a single open reading frame, and forms isometric particles approximately 30 nm in diameter, characteristic of the genus Gammapartitivirus in the family Partitiviridae. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus is closely related to Penicillium stoloniferum virus S. We were able to cure P. destructans of the virus by treating fungal cultures with polyethylene glycol. Examination of 62 isolates of P. destructans including 35 from United States, 10 from Canada and 17 from Europe showed virus infection only in North American isolates of the fungus. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis using nucleotide sequences of the viral coat protein geographically clustered North American isolates indicating fungal spread followed by local adaptation of P. destructans in different regions of the United States and Canada. This is the first demonstration that a mycovirus potentially can be used to study fungal disease epidemiology.

  6. Expression, purification and crystallization of two major envelope proteins from white spot syndrome virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xuhua; Hew, Choy Leong

    2007-01-01

    The crystallization of the N-terminal transmembrane region-truncated VP26 and VP28 of white spot syndrome virus is described. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major virulent pathogen known to infect penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. VP26 and VP28, two major envelope proteins from WSSV, have been identified and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In order to facilitate purification and crystallization, predicted N-terminal transmembrane regions of approximately 35 amino acids have been truncated from both VP26 and VP28. Truncated VP26 and VP28 and their corresponding SeMet-labelled proteins were purified and the SeMet proteins were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 were obtained using a reservoir consisting of 0.1 M citric acid pH 3.5, 3.0 M sodium chloride and 1%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350, whereas SeMet VP28 was crystallized using a reservoir solution consisting of 25% polyethylene glycol 8000, 0.2 M calcium acetate, 0.1 M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 1.5%(w/v) 1,2,3-heptanetriol. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 diffract to 2.2 Å resolution and belong to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.92, c = 199.31 Å. SeMet-labelled VP28 crystallizes in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 105.33, b = 106.71, c = 200.37 Å, and diffracts to 2.0 Å resolution

  7. Expression, purification and crystallization of two major envelope proteins from white spot syndrome virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xuhua; Hew, Choy Leong, E-mail: dbshewcl@nus.edu.sg [Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2007-07-01

    The crystallization of the N-terminal transmembrane region-truncated VP26 and VP28 of white spot syndrome virus is described. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major virulent pathogen known to infect penaeid shrimp and other crustaceans. VP26 and VP28, two major envelope proteins from WSSV, have been identified and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. In order to facilitate purification and crystallization, predicted N-terminal transmembrane regions of approximately 35 amino acids have been truncated from both VP26 and VP28. Truncated VP26 and VP28 and their corresponding SeMet-labelled proteins were purified and the SeMet proteins were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 were obtained using a reservoir consisting of 0.1 M citric acid pH 3.5, 3.0 M sodium chloride and 1%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350, whereas SeMet VP28 was crystallized using a reservoir solution consisting of 25% polyethylene glycol 8000, 0.2 M calcium acetate, 0.1 M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 1.5%(w/v) 1,2,3-heptanetriol. Crystals of SeMet-labelled VP26 diffract to 2.2 Å resolution and belong to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.92, c = 199.31 Å. SeMet-labelled VP28 crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 105.33, b = 106.71, c = 200.37 Å, and diffracts to 2.0 Å resolution.

  8. Molecular Mechanisms of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection and Perspectives on Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Verbruggen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its emergence in the 1990s, White Spot Disease (WSD has had major economic and societal impact in the crustacean aquaculture sector. Over the years shrimp farming alone has experienced billion dollar losses through WSD. The disease is caused by the White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV, a large dsDNA virus and the only member of the Nimaviridae family. Susceptibility to WSSV in a wide range of crustacean hosts makes it a major risk factor in the translocation of live animals and in commodity products. Currently there are no effective treatments for this disease. Understanding the molecular basis of disease processes has contributed significantly to the treatment of many human and animal pathogens, and with a similar aim considerable efforts have been directed towards understanding host–pathogen molecular interactions for WSD. Work on the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis in aquatic crustaceans has been restricted by a lack of sequenced and annotated genomes for host species. Nevertheless, some of the key host–pathogen interactions have been established: between viral envelope proteins and host cell receptors at initiation of infection, involvement of various immune system pathways in response to WSSV, and the roles of various host and virus miRNAs in mitigation or progression of disease. Despite these advances, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain; for example, the roles of the majority of WSSV proteins are still unknown. In this review we assess current knowledge of how WSSV infects and replicates in its host, and critique strategies for WSD treatment.

  9. Transient Global Amnesia with Reversible White Matter Lesions: A Variant of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Nakamizo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient global amnesia (TGA is a self-limited disease characterized by isolated amnesia, which resolves within 24 h. In contrast, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is a potentially life-threatening disease that usually presents with seizures, altered mental status, headache, and visual disturbances. It is characterized by reversible vasogenic edema that predominantly involves the parieto-occipital subcortical white matter as shown by neuroimaging studies. To date, there have been no reported cases of PRES with a clinical course resembling TGA. Here we report the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with isolated amnesia and headache. On admission, her blood pressure was 187/100 mmHg. She had complete anterograde amnesia and slight retrograde amnesia without other neurological findings. After the treatment of her hypertension, the amnesia resolved within 24 h. Although the initial magnetic resonance image (MRI was almost normal, the fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR images of the MRI on the next day revealed several small foci of high intensity areas in the fronto-parieto-occipital subcortical white matter, presumed to be vasogenic edema in PRES. The lesions disappeared one month later. This case suggests that PRES can mimic the clinical course of TGA. PRES should be considered in the differential diagnosis for TGA.

  10. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryadi, D; Verreth, J A J; Verdegem, M C J; Vlak, J M

    2015-05-01

    Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina et al. 2013); therefore, it is a potential propagative vector for virus transmission. The major aim of this study was to determine whether WSSV can be transmitted from naturally infected Dendronereis spp. to specific pathogen-free (SPF) Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) through feeding. WSSV was detected in naturally infected Dendronereis spp. and Penaeus monodon Fabricius from a traditional shrimp pond, and the positive animals were used in the current experiment. WSSV-infected Dendronereis spp. and P. monodon in a pond had a point prevalence of 90% and 80%, respectively, as measured by PCR. WSSV was detected in the head, gills, blood and mid-body of Dendronereis spp. WSSV from naturally infected Dendronereis spp was transmitted to SPF L. vannamei and subsequently from this shrimp to new naïve-SPF L. vannamei to cause transient infection. Our findings support the contention that Dendronereis spp, upon feeding, can be a source of WSSV infection of shrimp in ponds. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) exposed to low and high salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Carreño, Santiago; Valencia-Yáñez, Ricardo; Correa-Sandoval, Francisco; Ruíz-García, Noé; Díaz-Herrera, Fernando; Giffard-Mena, Ivone

    2014-09-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has a worldwide distribution and is considered one of the most pathogenic and devastating viruses to the shrimp industry. A few studies have explored the effect of WSSV on shrimp acclimated to low (5 practical salinity units [psu]) or high ([40 psu) salinity conditions. In this work, we analysed the physiological response of WSSV-infected Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles that were acclimated to different salinities (5, 15, 28, 34 and 54 psu). We evaluated the osmotic response and survival of the shrimp at different times after infection (0 to 48 hours), and we followed the expression levels of a viral gene (vp664) in shrimp haemolymph using real-time PCR. Our results indicate that the susceptibility of the shrimp to the virus increased at extreme salinities (5 and 54 psu), with higher survival rates at 15 and 28 psu, which were closer to the iso-osmotic point (24.7 psu, 727.5 mOsmol/kg). Acute exposure to the virus made the haemolymph less hyperosmotic at 5 and 15 psu and less hypo-osmotic at higher salinities ([28 psu). The capacity of white shrimp to osmoregulate, and thus survive, significantly decreased following WSSV infection. According to our results, extreme salinities (5 or 54 psu) are more harmful than seawater.

  12. Misdiagnosis of Bland-White-Garland Syndrome: Report of Two Cases with Different Presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Molaei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA or Bland-White-Garland syndrome is usually an isolated cardiac anomaly but, in rare incidences, has been described with patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect, and tetralogy of Fallot. This syndrome may cause sudden death in infants and young people but in this case report we present two different types of presentation. First case was a 3 year old girl diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy since her infancy. Her electrocardiography showed prominent Q wave in lateral leads. Dilated right coronary artery was revealed by echocardiography. The second case was a girl with prolapsed mitral valve and chest pain but similar to first case she had prominent Q wave in lateral leads at her electrocardiography and dilated right coronary artery but without heart failure. ALCAPA in children may present with ambiguous presentations differing from dilated cardiomyopathy and full blown heart failure to an atypical chest pain attributed to prolapsed mitral valve.

  13. Electrophysiological effects of desflurane in children with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, H; Oda, Y; Yoshida, Y; Suzuki, T; Shimada, M; Nishikawa, K

    2018-02-01

    We hypothesized that, compared with propofol, desflurane prolongs the antegrade accessory pathway effective refractory period (APERP) in children undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. In this randomized crossover study, children aged 4.1-16.1 years undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation for WPW syndrome were randomly divided into four groups according to the concentration of desflurane and anesthetics used in the first and the second electrophysiological studies (EPS). After induction of general anesthesia with propofol and tracheal intubation, they received one of the following regimens: 0.5 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) desflurane (first EPS) and propofol (second EPS) (Des0.5-Prop group, n = 8); propofol (first EPS) and 0.5 MAC desflurane (second EPS) (Prop-Des0.5 group, n = 9); 1 MAC desflurane (first EPS) and propofol (second EPS) (Des1.0-Prop group, n = 10); propofol (first EPS) and 1 MAC desflurane (second EPS) (Prop-Des1.0 group, n = 9). Radiofrequency catheter ablation was performed upon completion of EPS. Sample size was determined to detect a difference in the APERP. Desflurane at 1.0 MAC significantly prolonged the APERP compared with propofol, but did not affect the sinoatrial conduction time, atrio-His interval or atrioventricular node effective refractory period. Supraventricular tachycardia was induced in all children receiving propofol, but not induced in 1 and 4 children receiving 0.5 MAC and 1.0 MAC desflurane, respectively. Desflurane enhances the refractoriness and may block the electrical conduction of the atrioventricular accessory pathway, and is therefore not suitable for use in children undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation for WPW syndrome. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. High color rendering index of remote-type white LEDs with multi-layered quantum dot-phosphor films and short-wavelength pass dichroic filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hee Chang; Oh, Ji Hye; Do, Young Rag

    2014-09-01

    This paper introduces high color rendering index (CRI) white light-emitting diodes (W-LEDs) coated with red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors and yellowish-green emitting AgIn5S8/ZnS (AIS/ZS) quantum dots (QDs) on glass or a short-wavelength pass dichroic filter (SPDF), which transmit blue wavelength regions and reflect yellow wavelength regions. The red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphor film is coated on glass and a SPDF using a screen printing method, and then the yellowish-green emitting AIS/ZS QDs are coated on the red phosphor (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu film-coated glass and SPDF using the electrospray (e-spray) method.To fabricate the red phosphor film, the optimum amount of phosphor is dispersed in a silicon binder to form a red phosphor paste. The AIS/ZS QDs are mixed with dimethylformamide (DMF), toluene, and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for the e-spray coating. The substrates are spin-coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to fabricate a conductive surface. The CRI of the white LEDs is improved through inserting the red phosphor film between the QD layer and the glass substrate. Furthermore, the light intensities of the multi-layered phosphor films are enhanced through changing the glass substrate to the SPDF. The correlated color temperatures (CCTs) vary as a function of the phosphor concentration in the phosphor paste. The optical properties of the yellowish-green AIS/ZS QDs and red (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors are characterized using photoluminescence (PL), and the multi-layered QD-phosphor films are measured using electroluminescence (EL) with an InGaN blue LED (λmax = 450 nm) at 60 mA.

  15. White LED based on CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+ Mn2+ phosphor and CdS/ZnS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Changyu; Zhong, Chuan; Hou, Qianglong; Li, Ke

    2011-02-01

    Core/shell CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with the emission wavelength of 610nm, was synthesized by thermal deposition using cadmium oxide and selenium as precursors in a hot lauric acid and hexadecylamine trioctylphosphine oxide hybrid. CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+ Mn2+ phosphor was synthesized by high-temperature solid state reaction at 1290 °C for 2 hours under the H2 reducing atmosphere, and X-ray powder diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of it. It has two emission bands peaking at 420 nm and 580nm originated from the transition 5d to 4f of Eu2+ and 4T1-6A1 of Mn2+, respectively. Blends of CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor and CdS/ZnS QDs exhibited the prominent spectral evolution with an increasing content of QDs. A hybrid white LED, which combines a blue LED with the blend of CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+ Mn2+ phosphor and QDs with a weight ratio of 2:1, with the CIE coordinate of (0.3183, 0.3036) and CRI of 85 was obtained.

  16. Successive and large-scale synthesis of InP/ZnS quantum dots in a hybrid reactor and their application to white LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyungnam; Jeong, Sohee; Woo, Ju Yeon; Han, Chang-Soo

    2012-01-01

    We report successive and large-scale synthesis of InP/ZnS core/shell nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) using a customized hybrid flow reactor, which is based on serial combination of a batch-type mixer and a flow-type furnace. InP cores and InP/ZnS core/shell QDs were successively synthesized in the hybrid reactor in a simple one-step process. In this reactor, the flow rate of the solutions was typically 1 ml min −1 , 100 times larger than that of conventional microfluidic reactors. In order to synthesize high-quality InP/ZnS QDs, we controlled both the flow rate and the crystal growth temperature. Finally, we obtained high-quality InP/ZnS QDs in colors from bluish green to red, and we demonstrated that these core/shell QDs could be incorporated into white-light-emitting diode (LED) devices to improve color rendering performance. (paper)

  17. Successive and large-scale synthesis of InP/ZnS quantum dots in a hybrid reactor and their application to white LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungnam; Jeong, Sohee; Woo, Ju Yeon; Han, Chang-Soo

    2012-02-01

    We report successive and large-scale synthesis of InP/ZnS core/shell nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) using a customized hybrid flow reactor, which is based on serial combination of a batch-type mixer and a flow-type furnace. InP cores and InP/ZnS core/shell QDs were successively synthesized in the hybrid reactor in a simple one-step process. In this reactor, the flow rate of the solutions was typically 1 ml min-1, 100 times larger than that of conventional microfluidic reactors. In order to synthesize high-quality InP/ZnS QDs, we controlled both the flow rate and the crystal growth temperature. Finally, we obtained high-quality InP/ZnS QDs in colors from bluish green to red, and we demonstrated that these core/shell QDs could be incorporated into white-light-emitting diode (LED) devices to improve color rendering performance.

  18. Percutenous Catheter Ablation of the Accessory Pathway in a Patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Associated with Familial Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cay, Serkan; Topaloglu, Serkan; Aras, Dursun

    2008-01-01

    Percutenous catheter ablation of the accessory pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is a highly successful mode of therapy. Sudden cardiac arrest survivors associated with WPW syndrome should undergo radiofrequency catheter ablation. WPW syndrome associated with familial atrial fibrillation is a very rare condition. Herein, we describe a case who presented with sudden cardiac arrest secondary to WPW syndrome and familial atrial fibrillation and treated via radiofrequency catheter ablation. PMID:18379660

  19. Percutenous Catheter Ablation of the Accessory Pathway in a Patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Associated with Familial Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Cay

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Percutenous catheter ablation of the accessory pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is a highly successful mode of therapy. Sudden cardiac arrest survivors associated with WPW syndrome should undergo radiofrequency catheter ablation. WPW syndrome associated with familial atrial fibrillation is a very rare condition. Herein, we describe a case who presented with sudden cardiac arrest secondary to WPW syndrome and familial atrial fibrillation and treated via radiofrequency catheter ablation.

  20. White-nose syndrome in bats: U.S. Geological Survey updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogall, Gail Moede; Verant, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a devastating disease that has killed millions of hibernating bats since it first appeared in New York in 2007 and has spread at an alarming rate from the northeastern to the central United States and Canada. The disease is named for the white fungus Geomyces destructans that infects the skin of the muzzle, ears, and wings of hibernating bats. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), the USGS Fort Collins Science Center, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and other partners continue to play a primary role in WNS research. Studies conducted at the NWHC led to the discovery (Blehert and others, 2009), characterization, and naming (Gargas and others, 2009) of the cold-loving fungus G. destructans and to the development of standardized criteria for diagnosing the disease (Meteyer and others, 2009). Additionally, scientists at the NWHC have pioneered laboratory techniques for studying the effects of the fungus on hibernating bats (Lorch and others, 2011). To determine if bats are affected by white-nose syndrome, scientists look for a characteristic microscopic pattern of skin erosion caused by G. destructans (Meteyer and others, 2009). Field signs of WNS can include visible white fungal growth on the bat's muzzle, wings, or both, but these signs alone are not a reliable disease indicator - laboratory examination and testing are required for disease confirmation. Infected bats also arouse from hibernation more frequently than uninfected bats (Warnecke and others, 2012) and often display abnormal behaviors in their hibernation sites, such as congregating at or near cave openings and daytime flights during winter. These abnormal behaviors may contribute to the bat's accelerated consumption of stored fat reserves, causing emaciation, a characteristic documented in some of the bats that die with WNS. During hibernation, bats likely have lowered immunity (Bouma and others, 2010), which may facilitate the ability

  1. Experimental infection of bats with Geomyces destructans causes white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Meteyer, Carol U; Behr, Melissa J; Boyles, Justin G; Cryan, Paul M; Hicks, Alan C; Ballmann, Anne E; Coleman, Jeremy T H; Redell, David N; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Blehert, David S

    2011-10-26

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has caused recent catastrophic declines among multiple species of bats in eastern North America. The disease's name derives from a visually apparent white growth of the newly discovered fungus Geomyces destructans on the skin (including the muzzle) of hibernating bats. Colonization of skin by this fungus is associated with characteristic cutaneous lesions that are the only consistent pathological finding related to WNS. However, the role of G. destructans in WNS remains controversial because evidence to implicate the fungus as the primary cause of this disease is lacking. The debate is fuelled, in part, by the assumption that fungal infections in mammals are most commonly associated with immune system dysfunction. Additionally, the recent discovery that G. destructans commonly colonizes the skin of bats of Europe, where no unusual bat mortality events have been reported, has generated further speculation that the fungus is an opportunistic pathogen and that other unidentified factors are the primary cause of WNS. Here we demonstrate that exposure of healthy little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) to pure cultures of G. destructans causes WNS. Live G. destructans was subsequently cultured from diseased bats, successfully fulfilling established criteria for the determination of G. destructans as a primary pathogen. We also confirmed that WNS can be transmitted from infected bats to healthy bats through direct contact. Our results provide the first direct evidence that G. destructans is the causal agent of WNS and that the recent emergence of WNS in North America may represent translocation of the fungus to a region with a naive population of animals. Demonstration of causality is an instrumental step in elucidating the pathogenesis and epidemiology of WNS and in guiding management actions to preserve bat populations against the novel threat posed by this devastating infectious disease.

  2. Experimental infection of bats with Geomyces destructans causes white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, J.M.; Meteyer, C.U.; Behr, M.J.; Boyles, J.G.; Cryan, P.M.; Hicks, A.C.; Ballmann, A.E.; Coleman, J.T.H.; Redell, D.N.; Reeder, D.M.; Blehert, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has caused recent catastrophic declines among multiple species of bats in eastern North America. The disease's name derives from a visually apparent white growth of the newly discovered fungus Geomyces destructans on the skin (including the muzzle) of hibernating bats. Colonization of skin by this fungus is associated with characteristic cutaneous lesions that are the only consistent pathological finding related to WNS. However, the role of G. destructans in WNS remains controversial because evidence to implicate the fungus as the primary cause of this disease is lacking. The debate is fuelled, in part, by the assumption that fungal infections in mammals are most commonly associated with immune system dysfunction. Additionally, the recent discovery that G. destructans commonly colonizes the skin of bats of Europe, where no unusual bat mortality events have been reported, has generated further speculation that the fungus is an opportunistic pathogen and that other unidentified factors are the primary cause of WNS. Here we demonstrate that exposure of healthy little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) to pure cultures of G. destructans causes WNS. Live G. destructans was subsequently cultured from diseased bats, successfully fulfilling established criteria for the determination of G. destructans as a primary pathogen. We also confirmed that WNS can be transmitted from infected bats to healthy bats through direct contact. Our results provide the first direct evidence that G. destructans is the causal agent of WNS and that the recent emergence of WNS in North America may represent translocation of the fungus to a region with a naive population of animals. Demonstration of causality is an instrumental step in elucidating the pathogenesis and epidemiology of WNS and in guiding management actions to preserve bat populations against the novel threat posed by this devastating infectious disease. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  3. First Detection of Bat White-Nose Syndrome in Western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Palmer, Jonathan M; Lindner, Daniel L; Ballmann, Anne E; George, Kyle G; Griffin, Kathryn; Knowles, Susan; Huckabee, John R; Haman, Katherine H; Anderson, Christopher D; Becker, Penny A; Buchanan, Joseph B; Foster, Jeffrey T; Blehert, David S

    2016-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging fungal disease of bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Since it was first detected near Albany, NY, in 2006, the fungus has spread across eastern North America, killing unprecedented numbers of hibernating bats. The devastating impacts of WNS on Nearctic bat species are attributed to the likely introduction of P. destructans from Eurasia to naive host populations in eastern North America. Since 2006, the disease has spread in a gradual wavelike pattern consistent with introduction of the pathogen at a single location. Here, we describe the first detection of P. destructans in western North America in a little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) from near Seattle, WA, far from the previously recognized geographic distribution of the fungus. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the isolate of P. destructans from Washington grouped with other isolates of a presumed clonal lineage from the eastern United States. Thus, the occurrence of P. destructans in Washington does not likely represent a novel introduction of the fungus from Eurasia, and the lack of intensive surveillance in the western United States makes it difficult to interpret whether the occurrence of P. destructans in the Pacific Northwest is disjunct from that in eastern North America. Although there is uncertainty surrounding the impacts of WNS in the Pacific Northwest, the presence of the pathogen in western North America could have major consequences for bat conservation. IMPORTANCE White-nose syndrome (WNS) represents one of the most consequential wildlife diseases of modern times. Since it was first documented in New York in 2006, the disease has killed millions of bats and threatens several formerly abundant species with extirpation or extinction. The spread of WNS in eastern North America has been relatively gradual, inducing optimism that disease mitigation strategies could be established in time to conserve bats susceptible

  4. Phylogenetics of a Fungal Invasion: Origins and Widespread Dispersal of White-Nose Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, Kevin P; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Puechmaille, Sebastien J; Parise, Katy L; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Hoyt, Joseph R; Sun, Keping; Jargalsaikhan, Ariunbold; Dalannast, Munkhnast; Palmer, Jonathan M; Lindner, Daniel L; Marm Kilpatrick, A; Pearson, Talima; Keim, Paul S; Blehert, David S; Foster, Jeffrey T

    2017-12-12

    Globalization has facilitated the worldwide movement and introduction of pathogens, but epizoological reconstructions of these invasions are often hindered by limited sampling and insufficient genetic resolution among isolates. Pseudogymnoascus destructans , a fungal pathogen causing the epizootic of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, has exhibited few genetic polymorphisms in previous studies, presenting challenges for both epizoological tracking of the spread of this fungus and for determining its evolutionary history. We used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from whole-genome sequencing and microsatellites to construct high-resolution phylogenies of P. destructans Shallow genetic diversity and the lack of geographic structuring among North American isolates support a recent introduction followed by expansion via clonal reproduction across the epizootic zone. Moreover, the genetic relationships of isolates within North America suggest widespread mixing and long-distance movement of the fungus. Genetic diversity among isolates of P. destructans from Europe was substantially higher than in those from North America. However, genetic distance between the North American isolates and any given European isolate was similar to the distance between the individual European isolates. In contrast, the isolates we examined from Asia were highly divergent from both European and North American isolates. Although the definitive source for introduction of the North American population has not been conclusively identified, our data support the origin of the North American invasion by P. destructans from Europe rather than Asia. IMPORTANCE This phylogenetic study of the bat white-nose syndrome agent, P. destructans , uses genomics to elucidate evolutionary relationships among populations of the fungal pathogen to understand the epizoology of this biological invasion. We analyze hypervariable and abundant genetic characters (microsatellites and genomic SNPs

  5. Atrial fibrillation in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: role of pulmonary veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derejko, Paweł; Szumowski, Lukasz Jan; Sanders, Prashanthan; Krupa, Wojciech; Bodalski, Robert; Orczykowski, Michał; Urbanek, Piotr; Zakrzewska, Joanna; Lim, Han S; Lau, Dennis H; Kuśnierz, Jacek; Walczak, Franciszek

    2012-03-01

    We aimed to characterize electrophysiological properties of pulmonary veins (PVs) in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome and atrial fibrillation (AF), and to compare them to those in patients with WPW without AF. A total of 31 patients (mean age 40 ± 15 years, 23 males) with WPW were recruited: 16 patients with (AF group) and 15 without (controls) a history of AF. The basic electrophysiological (EPS) and echocardiographic data were not different between the 2 groups. Effective refractory periods (ERPs) of PVs were significantly shorter in the AF group compared to controls: left superior (LS) PV ERP 185±29 versus 230 ± 24 ms, P = 0.001; left inferior PV ERP 198 ± 25 versus 219 ± 26 ms, P = 0.04; right superior (RS) PV ERP 207 ± 25 versus 236 ± 19 ms, P = 0.001; right inferior PV ERP 208 ± 30 versus 240 ± 19 ms, P = 0.003. Maximal veno-atrial conduction delay (i.e., the maximal prolongation of interval from stimulus delivered at PV ostia to proximal coronary sinus after extrastimulus compared to the basic drive cycle) was longer in the AF group when pacing from LSPV (69.3 ± 37.9 vs 32.6 ± 16.1 ms, P = 0.01) and RSPV (74.1 ± 25.9 vs 50.2 ± 26.5 ms, P = 0.04). During EPS, AF was induced more often in the AF group (n = 7) compared to controls (n = 1; P = 0.04). Follow-up revealed that AF recurred in 3 patients in the AF group and none of the controls. Patients with WPW syndrome and AF have shorter ERPs of PVs and greater maximal veno-atrial conduction delay compared to patients with WPW without AF. These findings suggest a potential role of PVs in the development of AF in patients with WPW. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Spontaneous Transition of Double Tachycardias with Atrial Fusion in a Patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongmin; Lee, Myung-Yong

    2016-07-01

    Among patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia (AVRT) and atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) can coexist in a single patient. Direct transition of both tachycardias is rare; however, it can occur after premature atrial or ventricular activity if the cycle lengths of the two tachycardias are similar. Furthermore, persistent atrial activation by an accessory pathway (AP) located outside of the AV node during ongoing AVNRT is also rare. This article describes a case of uncommon atrial activation by an AP during AVNRT and gradual transition of the two supraventricular tachycardias without any preceding atrial or ventricular activity in a patient with preexcitation syndrome.

  7. Effect of Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation on Quality of Life in Patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokhrukh Erkaboev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome is one of several disorders of the conduction system of the heart that are commonly referred to as pre-excitation syndromes. As the syndrome significantly reduces the patients’ quality of life (QoL, the purpose of the current study was to compare QoL scores in patients with WPW syndrome before and after a radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA procedure. To assess the patients’ QoL, the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey was used. Immediate and long-term outcomes of radiofrequency catheter ablation were analyzed in 60 patients diagnosed with WPW syndrome, 41(68.3% men and 19(31.7% women. As compared with the controls (28 apparently healthy persons, patients with WPW syndrome before RFA experienced significant reduction in both physical and mental health components. RFA was found effective in 93.3% of patients with WPW syndrome. At 3 months after RFA, patients showed significant improvement in both physical (13.5% and mental (17.2% health components; at 12 months, QoL parameters reached those of the controls.

  8. Electroversion in treatment of arrhythmia in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and cervical spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Peng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】We report electroversion in treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF and atrioventricular nodal reentry ta-chycardia (AVNRT in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and cervical spinal cord injury. At first, the pa-tient sustained respiratory failure and weak cough reflex, thereafter repeated bronchoscopy was used to aspirate the sputum as well as control the pneumonia, which resulted in arrhythmia (AF and AVNRT. Two doses of intravenous amiodarone failed to correct the arrhythmia. After restora-tion of sinus rhythm by electroversion, he was successfully weaned from mechanical ventilation and discharged from the intensive care unit without recurrent arrhythmia. Key words: Arrhythmia, cardiac; Atrial fibrillation; Electric countershock; Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome; Spinal cord injuries

  9. White-nose syndrome without borders: Pseudogymnoascus destructans infection tolerated in Europe and Palearctic Asia but not in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukal, Jan; Bandouchova, Hana; Brichta, Jiri; Cmokova, Adela; Jaron, Kamil S; Kolarik, Miroslav; Kovacova, Veronika; Kubátová, Alena; Nováková, Alena; Orlov, Oleg; Pikula, Jiri; Presetnik, Primož; Šuba, Jurģis; Zahradníková, Alexandra; Martínková, Natália

    2016-01-29

    A striking feature of white-nose syndrome, a fungal infection of hibernating bats, is the difference in infection outcome between North America and Europe. Here we show high WNS prevalence both in Europe and on the West Siberian Plain in Asia. Palearctic bat communities tolerate similar fungal loads of Pseudogymnoascus destructans infection as their Nearctic counterparts and histopathology indicates equal focal skin tissue invasiveness pathognomonic for WNS lesions. Fungal load positively correlates with disease intensity and it reaches highest values at intermediate latitudes. Prevalence and fungal load dynamics in Palearctic bats remained persistent and high between 2012 and 2014. Dominant haplotypes of five genes are widespread in North America, Europe and Asia, expanding the source region of white-nose syndrome to non-European hibernacula. Our data provides evidence for both endemicity and tolerance to this persistent virulent fungus in the Palearctic, suggesting that host-pathogen interaction equilibrium has been established.

  10. Kearns-Sayre syndrome with facial and white matter extensive involvement: a (mitochondrial and nuclear gene related? neurocristopathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Berio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Authors report on a patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome, large mtDNA deletion (7/kb, facial abnormalities and severe central nervous system (CNS white matter radiological features, commonly attributed to spongy alterations. The common origin from neural crest cell (NCC of facial structures (cartilagineous, osseous, vascular and of the peripheral nervous system and of peripheral glia and partially of the CNS white matter are underlined and the facial and glial abnormalities are attributed to the abnormal reproduction/migration of NCC. In this view, the CNS spongy alterations in KSS may be not only a dystrophic process (leukodystrophy but also a dysplastic condition (leukodysplasia. The Authors hypothesize that the symptoms may be related to mtDNA mutations associated to NCC nuclear gene abnormality. SOX 10 gene may be a nuclear candidate gene, as reported in some case of Waardenburg IV syndrome.

  11. The potential impact of white-nose syndrome on the conservation status of north american bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi M C C Alves

    Full Text Available White-Nose syndrome (WNS is an emergent infectious disease that has already killed around six million bats in North America and has spread over two thousand kilometers from its epicenter. However, only a few studies on the possible impacts of the fungus on bat hosts were conducted, particularly concerning its implications for bat conservation. We predicted the consequences of WNS spread by generating a map with potential areas for its occurrence based on environmental conditions in sites where the disease already occurs, and overlaid it with the geographic distribution of all hibernating bats in North America. We assumed that all intersection localities would negatively affect local bat populations and reassessed their conservation status based on their potential population decline. Our results suggest that WNS will not spread widely throughout North America, being mostly restricted to the east and southeast regions. In contrast, our most pessimistic scenario of population decline indicated that the disease would threaten 32% of the bat species. Our results could help further conservation plans to preserve bat diversity in North America.

  12. Temperature-dependent growth of Geomyces destructans, the fungus that causes bat white-nose syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Verant

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS is an emergent disease estimated to have killed over five million North American bats. Caused by the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, WNS specifically affects bats during hibernation. We describe temperature-dependent growth performance and morphology for six independent isolates of G. destructans from North America and Europe. Thermal performance curves for all isolates displayed an intermediate peak with rapid decline in performance above the peak. Optimal temperatures for growth were between 12.5 and 15.8°C, and the upper critical temperature for growth was between 19.0 and 19.8°C. Growth rates varied across isolates, irrespective of geographic origin, and above 12°C all isolates displayed atypical morphology that may have implications for proliferation of the fungus. This study demonstrates that small variations in temperature, consistent with those inherent of bat hibernacula, affect growth performance and physiology of G. destructans, which may influence temperature-dependent progression and severity of WNS in wild bats.

  13. The potential impact of white-nose syndrome on the conservation status of north american bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Davi M C C; Terribile, Levi C; Brito, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    White-Nose syndrome (WNS) is an emergent infectious disease that has already killed around six million bats in North America and has spread over two thousand kilometers from its epicenter. However, only a few studies on the possible impacts of the fungus on bat hosts were conducted, particularly concerning its implications for bat conservation. We predicted the consequences of WNS spread by generating a map with potential areas for its occurrence based on environmental conditions in sites where the disease already occurs, and overlaid it with the geographic distribution of all hibernating bats in North America. We assumed that all intersection localities would negatively affect local bat populations and reassessed their conservation status based on their potential population decline. Our results suggest that WNS will not spread widely throughout North America, being mostly restricted to the east and southeast regions. In contrast, our most pessimistic scenario of population decline indicated that the disease would threaten 32% of the bat species. Our results could help further conservation plans to preserve bat diversity in North America.

  14. Temporal variation in bat wing damage in the absence of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Lisa E; Hofmann, Joyce E; Mengelkoch, Jean; Francis, B Magnus

    2013-10-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging infectious wildlife disease that has killed more than 5 million bats in the eastern United States since its discovery in winter 2006. The disease is associated with a cold-adapted fungus that infects bats during winter hibernation. Wing damage has been documented in bats with WNS and could become a useful screening tool for determining whether samples should be submitted for testing. However, because there are no historic records, to our knowledge, of wing damage before the emergence of WNS, it is unknown what types of grossly observable wing damage, if any, are specific to WNS. To address this knowledge gap, we inspected the wings of 1,327 bat carcasses collected in Illinois from 2005 and 2008-2010, then used Akaike information criterion to evaluate generalized linear models of the frequencies of different categories of wing damage using age, sex, year, and season as predictors in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Wing discoloration was best predicted by year and season. There were no clear predictors for other categories of wing damage. We found that about one-fourth of big brown bats surveyed from this presumptive WNS-negative sample had moderate or severe wing damage. We encourage further studies of the relationship between WNS and wing damage to better understand which categories of damage are to be expected in the absence of WNS in susceptible species.

  15. Management of the panzootic white-nose syndrome through culling of bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Thomas G; McCracken, Gary F

    2011-02-01

    The probability of persistence of many species of hibernating bats in the United States is greatly reduced by an emerging infectious disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS). In the United States WNS is rapidly spreading and is associated with a psychrophilic fungus, Geomyces destructans. WNS has caused massive mortality of bats that hibernate. Efforts to control the disease have been ineffective. The culling of bats in hibernacula has been proposed as a way to break the transmission cycle or slow the spread of WNS. We formulated a disease model to examine the efficacy of culling to abate WNS in bat populations. We based the model dynamics on disease transmission in maternity roosts, swarms, and hibernacula, which are the arenas of contact among bats. Our simulations indicated culling will not control WNS in bats primarily because contact rates are high among colonial bats, contact occurs in multiple arenas, and periodic movement between arenas occurs. In general, culling is ineffective in the control of animal diseases in the wild. ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Predicting bat colony survival under controls targeting multiple transmission routes of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A D; Stevens, D F; Blackwood, J C

    2016-11-21

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a lethal infection of bats caused by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). Since the first cases of WNS were documented in 2006, it is estimated that as many as 5.5million bats have succumbed in the United States-one of the fastest mammalian die-offs due to disease ever observed, and the first known sustained epizootic of bats. WNS is contagious between bats, and mounting evidence suggests that a persistent environmental reservoir of Pd plays a significant role in transmission as well. It is unclear, however, the relative contributions of bat-to-bat and environment-to-bat transmission to disease propagation within a colony. We analyze a mathematical model to investigate the consequences of both avenues of transmission on colony survival in addition to the efficacy of disease control strategies. Our model shows that selection of the most effective control strategies is highly dependent on the primary route of WNS transmission. Under all scenarios, however, generalized culling is ineffective and while targeted culling of infected bats may be effective under idealized conditions, it primarily has negative consequences. Thus, understanding the significance of environment-to-bat transmission is paramount to designing effective management plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Temperature-dependent growth of Geomyces destructans, the fungus that causes bat white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle L; Boyles, Justin G; Waldrep, William; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Blehert, David S

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emergent disease estimated to have killed over five million North American bats. Caused by the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, WNS specifically affects bats during hibernation. We describe temperature-dependent growth performance and morphology for six independent isolates of G. destructans from North America and Europe. Thermal performance curves for all isolates displayed an intermediate peak with rapid decline in performance above the peak. Optimal temperatures for growth were between 12.5 and 15.8°C, and the upper critical temperature for growth was between 19.0 and 19.8°C. Growth rates varied across isolates, irrespective of geographic origin, and above 12°C all isolates displayed atypical morphology that may have implications for proliferation of the fungus. This study demonstrates that small variations in temperature, consistent with those inherent of bat hibernacula, affect growth performance and physiology of G. destructans, which may influence temperature-dependent progression and severity of WNS in wild bats.

  18. Effect of passive acoustic sampling methodology on detecting bats after declines from white nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Laci S.; Ford, W. Mark; Dobony, Christopher A.; Britzke, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Concomitant with the emergence and spread of white-nose syndrome (WNS) and precipitous decline of many bat species in North America, natural resource managers need modified and/or new techniques for bat inventory and monitoring that provide robust occupancy estimates. We used Anabat acoustic detectors to determine the most efficient passive acoustic sampling design for optimizing detection probabilities of multiple bat species in a WNS-impacted environment in New York, USA. Our sampling protocol included: six acoustic stations deployed for the entire duration of monitoring as well as a 4 x 4 grid and five transects of 5-10 acoustic units that were deployed for 6-8 night sample durations surveyed during the summers of 2011-2012. We used Program PRESENCE to determine detection probability and site occupancy estimates. Overall, the grid produced the highest detection probabilities for most species because it contained the most detectors and intercepted the greatest spatial area. However, big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and species not impacted by WNS were detected easily regardless of sampling array. Endangered Indiana (Myotis sodalis) and little brown (Myotis lucifugus) and tri-colored bats (Perimyotis subflavus) showed declines in detection probabilities over our study, potentially indicative of continued WNS-associated declines. Identification of species presence through efficient methodologies is vital for future conservation efforts as bat populations decline further due to WNS and other factors.   

  19. Thyroid storm in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Syed Yaseen; Luebbert, Jeffrey J; Rosen, Stephen G

    2015-12-15

    A 44-year-old woman with no medical history presented to the emergency department with a 2 h history of sudden onset chest pressure, palpitations, diaphoresis and shortness of breath. She reported a 90-pound unintentional weight loss, increased appetite, irritability, night sweats and palpitations for 2 months. Physical examination revealed a heart rate (HR) of 269 bpm and a blood pressure of 116/94 mm Hg. Her ECG revealed a wide-complex tachycardia with right bundle branch morphology and an HR of 265 bpm. Intravenous adenosine was administered with resolution of the arrhythmia and symptoms. Her subsequent ECG revealed sinus tachycardia with δ waves, which was consistent with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Laboratory findings confirmed thyroid storm and treatment began with intravenous hydrocortisone, methimazole, metoprolol, amiodarone and iodine drops. Graves' disease was confirmed based on the presence of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody. The patient underwent successful WPW accessory tract ablation 6 weeks after initial presentation. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Phylogenetics of a fungal invasion: Origins and widespread dispersal of white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, Kevin P.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Puechmaille, Sebastein J.; Parise, Katy L.; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Hoyt, Joseph R.; Sun, Keping; Jargalsaikhan, Ariunbold; Dalannast, Munkhnast; Palmer, Jonathan M.; Linder, Daniel L.; Kilpatrick, Marm; Pearson, Talima; Keim, Paul S.; Blehert, David; Foster, Jeffrey T.

    2017-01-01

    Globalization has facilitated the worldwide movement and introduction of pathogens, but epizoological reconstructions of these invasions are often hindered by limited sampling and insufficient genetic resolution among isolates. Pseudogymnoascus destructans, a fungal pathogen causing the epizootic of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, has exhibited few genetic polymorphisms in previous studies, presenting challenges for both epizoological tracking of the spread of this fungus and for determining its evolutionary history. We used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from whole-genome sequencing and microsatellites to construct high-resolution phylogenies of P. destructans. Shallow genetic diversity and the lack of geographic structuring among North American isolates support a recent introduction followed by expansion via clonal reproduction across the epizootic zone. Moreover, the genetic relationships of isolates within North America suggest widespread mixing and long-distance movement of the fungus. Genetic diversity among isolates of P. destructans from Europe was substantially higher than in those from North America. However, genetic distance between the North American isolates and any given European isolate was similar to the distance between the individual European isolates. In contrast, the isolates we examined from Asia were highly divergent from both European and North American isolates. Although the definitive source for introduction of the North American population has not been conclusively identified, our data support the origin of the North American invasion by P. destructans from Europe rather than Asia.

  1. Characterization and interactome study of white spot syndrome virus envelope protein VP11.

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    Wang-Jing Liu

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is a large enveloped virus. The WSSV viral particle consists of three structural layers that surround its core DNA: an outer envelope, a tegument and a nucleocapsid. Here we characterize the WSSV structural protein VP11 (WSSV394, GenBank accession number AF440570, and use an interactome approach to analyze the possible associations between this protein and an array of other WSSV and host proteins. Temporal transcription analysis showed that vp11 is an early gene. Western blot hybridization of the intact viral particles and fractionation of the viral components, and immunoelectron microscopy showed that VP11 is an envelope protein. Membrane topology software predicted VP11 to be a type of transmembrane protein with a highly hydrophobic transmembrane domain at its N-terminal. Based on an immunofluorescence assay performed on VP11-transfected Sf9 cells and a trypsin digestion analysis of the virion, we conclude that, contrary to topology software prediction, the C-terminal of this protein is in fact inside the virion. Yeast two-hybrid screening combined with co-immunoprecipitation assays found that VP11 directly interacted with at least 12 other WSSV structural proteins as well as itself. An oligomerization assay further showed that VP11 could form dimers. VP11 is also the first reported WSSV structural protein to interact with the major nucleocapsid protein VP664.

  2. Neutralization of White Spot Syndrome Virus by Monoclonal Antibodies against Viral Envelope Proteins

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    Hsiu-Hui Shih

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs recognizing envelope proteins of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV, 6E1 against VP28 and 3E8 against VP19, were applied to demonstrate their neutralizing ability to this virus by using both in vitro and in vivo assays. Mixtures of MAb 6E1 with virus filtrate were inoculated into the primary explant monolayer culture derived from the lymphoid Oka organs of Penaeus monodon. Mab was likely to neutralize the infectivity of virus to monolayer since cytopathic effects were apparently blocked in experiment group. WSSV was titrated using Blue-Cell ELISA and the neutralizing index was calculated to be 6.90 for 6EI and 5.83 for 3E8. Neutralized virus fluids injected intramuscularly into post larvae of P. monodon. The shrimp in the positive control, which were injected with WSSV only showed an increasing mortality and a 100% mortality was reached at day 34, whereas no shrimp died in the negative control. The mortality for 6E1 was 6.7% and for 3E8 was 13.3%. These results suggest that Mabs recognizing the WSSV envelope proteins could neutralize viral infectivity to both cultured cells and shrimp.

  3. White-nose syndrome fungus: a generalist pathogen of hibernating bats.

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    Jan Zukal

    Full Text Available Host traits and phylogeny can determine infection risk by driving pathogen transmission and its ability to infect new hosts. Predicting such risks is critical when designing disease mitigation strategies, and especially as regards wildlife, where intensive management is often advocated or prevented by economic and/or practical reasons. We investigated Pseudogymnoascus [Geomyces] destructans infection, the cause of white-nose syndrome (WNS, in relation to chiropteran ecology, behaviour and phylogenetics. While this fungus has caused devastating declines in North American bat populations, there have been no apparent population changes attributable to the disease in Europe. We screened 276 bats of 15 species from hibernacula in the Czech Republic over 2012 and 2013, and provided histopathological evidence for 11 European species positive for WNS. With the exception of Myotis myotis, the other ten species are all new reports for WNS in Europe. Of these, M. emarginatus, Eptesicus nilssonii, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Barbastella barbastellus and Plecotus auritus are new to the list of P. destructans-infected bat species. While the infected species are all statistically phylogenetically related, WNS affects bats from two suborders. These are ecologically diverse and adopt a wide range of hibernating strategies. Occurrence of WNS in distantly related bat species with diverse ecology suggests that the pathogen may be a generalist and that all bats hibernating within the distribution range of P. destructans may be at risk of infection.

  4. Host and pathogen ecology drive the seasonal dynamics of a fungal disease, white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langwig, Kate E; Frick, Winifred F; Reynolds, Rick; Parise, Katy L; Drees, Kevin P; Hoyt, Joseph R; Cheng, Tina L; Kunz, Thomas H; Foster, Jeffrey T; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2015-01-22

    Seasonal patterns in pathogen transmission can influence the impact of disease on populations and the speed of spatial spread. Increases in host contact rates or births drive seasonal epidemics in some systems, but other factors may occasionally override these influences. White-nose syndrome, caused by the emerging fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, is spreading across North America and threatens several bat species with extinction. We examined patterns and drivers of seasonal transmission of P. destructans by measuring infection prevalence and pathogen loads in six bat species at 30 sites across the eastern United States. Bats became transiently infected in autumn, and transmission spiked in early winter when bats began hibernating. Nearly all bats in six species became infected by late winter when infection intensity peaked. In summer, despite high contact rates and a birth pulse, most bats cleared infections and prevalence dropped to zero. These data suggest the dominant driver of seasonal transmission dynamics was a change in host physiology, specifically hibernation. Our study is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to describe the seasonality of transmission in this emerging wildlife disease. The timing of infection and fungal growth resulted in maximal population impacts, but only moderate rates of spatial spread. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. White-nose syndrome fungus: a generalist pathogen of hibernating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukal, Jan; Bandouchova, Hana; Bartonicka, Tomas; Berkova, Hana; Brack, Virgil; Brichta, Jiri; Dolinay, Matej; Jaron, Kamil S; Kovacova, Veronika; Kovarik, Miroslav; Martínková, Natália; Ondracek, Karel; Rehak, Zdenek; Turner, Gregory G; Pikula, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Host traits and phylogeny can determine infection risk by driving pathogen transmission and its ability to infect new hosts. Predicting such risks is critical when designing disease mitigation strategies, and especially as regards wildlife, where intensive management is often advocated or prevented by economic and/or practical reasons. We investigated Pseudogymnoascus [Geomyces] destructans infection, the cause of white-nose syndrome (WNS), in relation to chiropteran ecology, behaviour and phylogenetics. While this fungus has caused devastating declines in North American bat populations, there have been no apparent population changes attributable to the disease in Europe. We screened 276 bats of 15 species from hibernacula in the Czech Republic over 2012 and 2013, and provided histopathological evidence for 11 European species positive for WNS. With the exception of Myotis myotis, the other ten species are all new reports for WNS in Europe. Of these, M. emarginatus, Eptesicus nilssonii, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Barbastella barbastellus and Plecotus auritus are new to the list of P. destructans-infected bat species. While the infected species are all statistically phylogenetically related, WNS affects bats from two suborders. These are ecologically diverse and adopt a wide range of hibernating strategies. Occurrence of WNS in distantly related bat species with diverse ecology suggests that the pathogen may be a generalist and that all bats hibernating within the distribution range of P. destructans may be at risk of infection.

  6. Resistance in persisting bat populations after white-nose syndrome invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langwig, Kate E; Hoyt, Joseph R; Parise, Katy L; Frick, Winifred F; Foster, Jeffrey T; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2017-01-19

    Increases in anthropogenic movement have led to a rise in pathogen introductions and the emergence of infectious diseases in naive host communities worldwide. We combined empirical data and mathematical models to examine changes in disease dynamics in little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) populations following the introduction of the emerging fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which causes the disease white-nose syndrome. We found that infection intensity was much lower in persisting populations than in declining populations where the fungus has recently invaded. Fitted models indicate that this is most consistent with a reduction in the growth rate of the pathogen when fungal loads become high. The data are inconsistent with the evolution of tolerance or an overall reduced pathogen growth rate that might be caused by environmental factors. The existence of resistance in some persisting populations of little brown bats offers a glimmer of hope that a precipitously declining species will persist in the face of this deadly pathogen.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. White-nose syndrome detected in bats over an extensive area of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacova, Veronika; Zukal, Jan; Bandouchova, Hana; Botvinkin, Alexander D; Harazim, Markéta; Martínková, Natália; Orlov, Oleg L; Piacek, Vladimir; Shumkina, Alexandra P; Tiunov, Mikhail P; Pikula, Jiri

    2018-06-18

    Spatiotemporal distribution patterns are important infectious disease epidemiological characteristics that improve our understanding of wild animal population health. The skin infection caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans emerged as a panzootic disease in bats of the northern hemisphere. However, the infection status of bats over an extensive geographic area of the Russian Federation has remained understudied. We examined bats at the geographic limits of bat hibernation in the Palearctic temperate zone and found bats with white-nose syndrome (WNS) on the European slopes of the Ural Mountains through the Western Siberian Plain, Central Siberia and on to the Far East. We identified the diagnostic symptoms of WNS based on histopathology in the Northern Ural region at 11° (about 1200 km) higher latitude than the current northern limit in the Nearctic. While body surface temperature differed between regions, bats at all study sites hibernated in very cold conditions averaging 3.6 °C. Each region also differed in P. destructans fungal load and the number of UV fluorescent skin lesions indicating skin damage intensity. Myotis bombinus, M. gracilis and Murina hilgendorfi were newly confirmed with histopathological symptoms of WNS. Prevalence of UV-documented WNS ranged between 16 and 76% in species of relevant sample size. To conclude, the bat pathogen P. destructans is widely present in Russian hibernacula but infection remains at low intensity, despite the high exposure rate.

  8. White-nose syndrome survivors do not exhibit frequent arousals associated with Pseudogymnoascus destructans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Thomas Mikael; Johnson, Joseph Samuel; Ruokolainen, Lasse; Rogers, Elisabeth Jeannine; Wilson, Cali Ann; Schell, Spencer Mead; Field, Kenneth Alan; Reeder, DeeAnn Marie

    2016-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has devastated bat populations in North America, with millions of bats dead. WNS is associated with physiological changes in hibernating bats, leading to increased arousals from hibernation and premature consumption of fat reserves. However, there is evidence of surviving populations of little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) close to where the fungus was first detected nearly ten years ago. We examined the hibernation patterns of a surviving population of little brown myotis and compared them to patterns in populations before the arrival of WNS and populations at the peak of WNS mortality. Despite infection with Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative fungal agent, the remnant population displayed less frequent arousals from torpor and lower torpid body temperatures than bats that died from WNS during the peak of mortality. The hibernation patterns of the remnant population resembled pre-WNS patterns with some modifications. These data show that remnant populations of little brown myotis do not experience the increase in periodic arousals from hibernation typified by bats dying from WNS, despite the presence of the fungal pathogen on their skin. These patterns may reflect the use of colder hibernacula microclimates by WNS survivors, and/or may reflect differences in how these bats respond to the disease.

  9. Immune responses in hibernating little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) with white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, T M; Prokkola, J M; Johnson, J S; Rogers, E J; Gronsky, S; Kurta, A; Reeder, D M; Field, K A

    2017-02-08

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fungal disease responsible for decimating many bat populations in North America. Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( Pd ), the psychrophilic fungus responsible for WNS, prospers in the winter habitat of many hibernating bat species. The immune response that Pd elicits in bats is not yet fully understood; antibodies are produced in response to infection by Pd , but they may not be protective and indeed may be harmful. To understand how bats respond to infection during hibernation, we studied the effect of Pd inoculation on the survival and gene expression of captive hibernating Myotis lucifugus with varying pre-hibernation antifungal antibody titres. We investigated gene expression through the transcription of selected cytokine genes ( Il6 , Il17a , Il1b , Il4 and Ifng ) associated with inflammatory, Th1, Th2 and Th17 immune responses in wing tissue and lymph nodes. We found no difference in survival between bats with low and high anti- Pd titres, although anti- Pd antibody production during hibernation differed significantly between infected and uninfected bats. Transcription of Il6 and Il17a was higher in the lymph nodes of infected bats compared with uninfected bats. Increased transcription of these cytokines in the lymph node suggests that a pro-inflammatory immune response to WNS is not restricted to infected tissues and occurs during hibernation. The resulting Th17 response may be protective in euthermic bats, but because it may disrupt torpor, it could be detrimental during hibernation. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. BATS RECOVERING FROM WHITE-NOSE SYNDROME ELEVATE METABOLIC RATE DURING WING HEALING IN SPRING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhofer, Melissa B; Johnson, Joseph S; Field, Kenneth A; Lumadue, Shayne S; Kurta, Allen; Kath, Joseph A; Reeder, DeeAnn M

    2018-04-04

      Host responses to infection with novel pathogens are costly and require trade-offs among physiologic systems. One such pathogen is the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) that causes white-nose syndrome (WNS) and has led to mass mortality of hibernating bats in eastern North America. Although infection with Pd does not always result in death, we hypothesized that bats that survive infection suffer significant consequences that negatively impact the ability of females to reproduce. To understand the physiologic consequences of surviving infection with Pd, we assessed differences in wing damage, mass-specific resting metabolic rate, and reproductive rate between little brown myotis ( Myotis lucifugus) that survived a winter in captivity after inoculation with Pd (WNS survivors) and comparable, uninfected bats. Survivors of WNS had significantly more damaged wing tissue and displayed elevated mass-specific metabolic rates compared with Pd-uninfected bats after emergence from hibernation. The WNS survivors and Pd-uninfected bats did not significantly differ in their reproductive capacity, at least in captivity. However, our metabolic data demonstrated greater energetic costs during spring in WNS survivors compared with uninfected bats, which may have led to other consequences for postpartum fitness. We suggest that, after surviving the energetic constraints of winter, temperate hibernating bats infected with Pd faced a second energetic bottleneck after emerging from hibernation.

  11. White-nose syndrome increases torpid metabolic rate and evaporative water loss in hibernating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Liam P; Mayberry, Heather W; Willis, Craig K R

    2017-12-01

    Fungal diseases of wildlife typically manifest as superficial skin infections but can have devastating consequences for host physiology and survival. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fungal skin disease that has killed millions of hibernating bats in North America since 2007. Infection with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans causes bats to rewarm too often during hibernation, but the cause of increased arousal rates remains unknown. On the basis of data from studies of captive and free-living bats, two mechanistic models have been proposed to explain disease processes in WNS. Key predictions of both models are that WNS-affected bats will show 1 ) higher metabolic rates during torpor (TMR) and 2 ) higher rates of evaporative water loss (EWL). We collected bats from a WNS-negative hibernaculum, inoculated one group with P. destructans , and sham-inoculated a second group as controls. After 4 mo of hibernation, TMR and EWL were measured using respirometry. Both predictions were supported, and our data suggest that infected bats were more affected by variation in ambient humidity than controls. Furthermore, disease severity, as indicated by the area of the wing with UV fluorescence, was positively correlated with EWL, but not TMR. Our results provide the first direct evidence that heightened energy expenditure during torpor and higher EWL independently contribute to WNS pathophysiology, with implications for the design of potential treatments for the disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Pathogen dynamics during invasion and establishment of white-nose syndrome explain mechanisms of host persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Winifred F; Cheng, Tina L; Langwig, Kate E; Hoyt, Joseph R; Janicki, Amanda F; Parise, Katy L; Foster, Jeffrey T; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2017-03-01

    Disease dynamics during pathogen invasion and establishment determine the impacts of disease on host populations and determine the mechanisms of host persistence. Temporal progression of prevalence and infection intensity illustrate whether tolerance, resistance, reduced transmission, or demographic compensation allow initially declining populations to persist. We measured infection dynamics of the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans that causes white-nose syndrome in bats by estimating pathogen prevalence and load in seven bat species at 167 hibernacula over a decade as the pathogen invaded, became established, and some host populations stabilized. Fungal loads increased rapidly and prevalence rose to nearly 100% at most sites within 2 yr of invasion in six of seven species. Prevalence and loads did not decline over time despite huge reductions in colony sizes, likely due to an extensive environmental reservoir. However, there was substantial variation in fungal load among sites with persisting colonies, suggesting that both tolerance and resistance developed at different sites in the same species. In contrast, one species disappeared from hibernacula within 3 yr of pathogen invasion. Variable host responses to pathogen invasion require different management strategies to prevent disease-induced extinction and to facilitate evolution of tolerance or resistance in persisting populations. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. Hematological changes in white spot syndrome virus-infected shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Osbeck)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shouming; Zhan, Wenbin; Xing, Jing; Li, Jun; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jing

    2008-08-01

    The pathological changes of hemocytes in the haemolymph and hepatopancreas were examined in experimentally and naturally WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infected Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The results showed that the pathological manifestations of hemocytes were similar among moribund shrimps infected via injection, feeding and by nature. Firstly, the total hemocyte counts (THCs) in WSSV-infected shrimp were significantly lower than those in healthy shrimp. Secondly, necrotic, broken and disintegrated cells were often observed, and a typical hematolysis was present in the haemolymph smear of WSSV-infected shrimp. Thirdly, necrosis and typical apoptosis of hemocytes were detected with TEM in the peripheral haemolymph of WSSV-infected shrimp. Hyalinocytes and semi-granulocytes with masses of WSSVs in their nuclei often appeared, whereas no granular hemocytes with WSSV were found in the hepatopancreas of moribund infected shrimps. All our results supported that hemocytes were the main target cells of WSSV, and hyalinocytes and semigranular hemocytes seemed to be more favorable for WSSV infection in F. chinensis.

  14. Recent insights into host-pathogen interaction in white spot syndrome virus infected penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, M S; Ponniah, A G

    2015-07-01

    Viral disease outbreaks are a major concern impeding the development of the shrimp aquaculture industry. The viral disease due to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) observed in early 1990s still continues unabated affecting the shrimp farms and cause huge economic loss to the shrimp aquaculture industry. In the absence of effective therapeutics to control WSSV, it is important to understand viral pathogenesis and shrimp response to WSSV at the molecular level. Identification and molecular characterization of WSSV proteins and receptors may facilitate in designing and development of novel therapeutics and antiviral drugs that may inhibit viral replication. Investigations into host-pathogen interactions might give new insights to viral infectivity, tissue tropism and defence mechanism elicited in response to WSSV infection. However, due to the limited information on WSSV gene function and host immune response, the signalling pathways which are associated in shrimp pathogen interaction have also not been elucidated completely. In the present review, the focus is on those shrimp proteins and receptors that are potentially involved in virus infection or in the defence mechanism against WSSV. In addition, the major signalling pathways involved in the innate immune response and the role of apoptosis in host-pathogen interaction is discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate protects Kuruma shrimp Marsupeneaus japonicus from white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Sun, Baozhen; Zhu, Fei

    2018-07-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin in green tea and exhibits potential antibacterial and anticancer activities. In this study, EGCG was used in pathogen-challenge experiments in shrimp to discover its effect on the innate immune system of an invertebrate. Kuruma shrimp Marsupeneaus japonicus was used as an experimental model and challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus. Pathogen-challenge experiments showed that EGCG pretreatment significantly delayed and reduced mortality upon WSSV and V. alginolyticus infection, with VP-28 copies of WSSV also reduced. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed the positive influence of EGCG on several innate immune-related genes, including IMD, proPO, QM, myosin, Rho, Rab7, p53, TNF-alpha, MAPK, and NOS, and we observed positive influences on three immune parameters, including total hemocyte count and phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, by EGCG treatment. Additionally, results showed that EGCG treatment significantly reduced apoptosis upon V. alginolyticus challenge. These results indicated the positive role of EGCG in the shrimp innate immune system as an enhancer of immune parameters and an inhibitor of apoptosis, thereby delaying and reducing mortality upon pathogen challenge. Our findings provide insight into potential therapeutic or preventive functions associated with EGCG to enhance shrimp immunity and protect shrimp from pathogen infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypoxia increases susceptibility of Pacific white shrimp to whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lehmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the mortality, reactive oxygen species production (ROS and total hemocyte counts (THC of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei infected with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV at three levels of oxygen saturation. For this, 360 shrimp (20±2g were distributed in 24 tanks (60L, divided in two groups (infected and non-infected, which were subjected to 30, 60 and 100% of dissolved oxygen saturation (in quadruplicate. During 96 hours after infection, daily hemolymph samples were collected for hemato-immunological parameter evaluation (THC and ROS and dead animals were removed and computed to assess cumulative mortality rates. In the infected group, animals subjected to 100% saturation showed higher ROS production (P<0.05 after 48 hours, while THC was significantly reduced (P<0.05, regardless of oxygen saturation. The hypoxia resulted in high mortality when compared to 100% saturation condition. In the uninfected group, no significant differences were observed in all evaluated parameters. Thus, the hypoxia condition increased the susceptibility of shrimp to the infection of WSSV, which may be partly related to the low ROS production showed by the animals subjected to 30% oxygen saturation.

  17. Surgical treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: epicardial approach without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, A; Pagani, F; Vigano, M

    1993-03-01

    Epicardial dissection without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was performed in 88 patients (56 males and 32 females, mean age 31.9 years). With intraoperative epicardial mapping, 101 accessory pathways were detected, with multiple pathways in 11 patients. CPB was avoided in all but one patient due to frequent onset of atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular rate. Surgical ablation was successful in 86 patients (97.6%). Three patients required multiple surgical procedures because of persistence of conduction along a component of the original pathway. All but two patients were discharged without antiarrhythmic medication; these two patients were given quinidine therapy because of atrial fibrillation, but had normal early and late electrophysiological studies. Surgical ablation of Kent bundles by the epicardial approach for the treatment of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome can be achieved without the use of CPB. Optimal and steady exposure of the area are mandatory for the procedure, and dissection is eased by avoidance of heparin required for CPB.

  18. Selection of shrimp breeders free of white spot syndrome and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cesar de Mello Junior

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to select surviving breeders of Litopenaeus vannamei from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV outbreak, adapted to local climatic conditions and negatively diagnosed for WSSV and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV, and to evaluate if this strategy is a viable alternative for production in Santa Catarina, Brazil. A total of 800 males and 800 females were phenotypically selected in a farm pond. Nested-PCR analyses of 487 sexually mature females and 231 sexually mature males showed that 63% of the females and 55% of the males were infected with IHHNV. Animals free of IHHNV were tested for WSSV, and those considered double negative were used for breeding. The post-larvae produced were stocked in nine nursery tanks for analysis. From the 45 samples, with 50 post-larvae each, only two were positive for IHHNV and none for WSSV. Batches of larvae diagnosed free of virus by nested-PCR were sent to six farms. A comparative analysis was carried out in growth ponds, between local post-larvae and post-larvae from Northeast Brazil. Crabs (Chasmagnathus granulata, blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus, and sea hares (Aplysia brasiliana, which are possible vectors of these viruses, were also evaluated. The mean survival was 55% for local post-larvae against 23.4% for post-larvae from the Northeast. Sea hares showed prevalence of 50% and crabs of 67% of WSSV.

  19. Phylogenetics of a Fungal Invasion: Origins and Widespread Dispersal of White-Nose Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin P. Drees

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has facilitated the worldwide movement and introduction of pathogens, but epizoological reconstructions of these invasions are often hindered by limited sampling and insufficient genetic resolution among isolates. Pseudogymnoascus destructans, a fungal pathogen causing the epizootic of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, has exhibited few genetic polymorphisms in previous studies, presenting challenges for both epizoological tracking of the spread of this fungus and for determining its evolutionary history. We used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from whole-genome sequencing and microsatellites to construct high-resolution phylogenies of P. destructans. Shallow genetic diversity and the lack of geographic structuring among North American isolates support a recent introduction followed by expansion via clonal reproduction across the epizootic zone. Moreover, the genetic relationships of isolates within North America suggest widespread mixing and long-distance movement of the fungus. Genetic diversity among isolates of P. destructans from Europe was substantially higher than in those from North America. However, genetic distance between the North American isolates and any given European isolate was similar to the distance between the individual European isolates. In contrast, the isolates we examined from Asia were highly divergent from both European and North American isolates. Although the definitive source for introduction of the North American population has not been conclusively identified, our data support the origin of the North American invasion by P. destructans from Europe rather than Asia.

  20. White-nose syndrome is likely to extirpate the endangered Indiana bat over large parts of its range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Sanders-Reed, Carol A.; Szymanski, Jennifer A.; McKann, Patrick C.; Pruitt, Lori; King, R. Andrew; Runge, Michael C.; Russell, Robin E.

    2013-01-01

    White-nose syndrome, a novel fungal pathogen spreading quickly through cave-hibernating bat species in east and central North America, is responsible for killing millions of bats. We developed a stochastic, stage-based population model to forecast the population dynamics of the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) subject to white-nose syndrome. Our population model explicitly incorporated environmentally imposed annual variability in survival and reproductive rates and demographic stochasticity in predictions of extinction. With observed rates of disease spread, >90% of wintering populations were predicted to experience white-nose syndrome within 20 years, causing the proportion of populations at the quasi-extinction threshold of less than 250 females to increase by 33.9% over 50 years. At the species’ lowest median population level, ca. year 2022, we predicted 13.7% of the initial population to remain, totaling 28,958 females (95% CI = 13,330; 92,335). By 2022, only 12 of the initial 52 wintering populations were expected to possess wintering populations of >250 females. If the species can acquire immunity to the disease, we predict 3.7% of wintering populations to be above 250 females after 50 years (year 2057) after a 69% decline in abundance (from 210,741 to 64,768 [95% CI = 49,386; 85,360] females). At the nadir of projections, we predicted regional quasi-extirpation of wintering populations in 2 of 4 Recovery Units while in a third region, where the species is currently most abundant, >95% of the wintering populations were predicted to be below 250 females. Our modeling suggests white-nose syndrome is capable of bringing about severe numerical reduction in population size and local and regional extirpation of the Indiana bat.

  1. Noninvasive Localization of Accessory Pathways in Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome by Three-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizu, Tomoko; Seo, Yoshihiro; Igarashi, Miyako; Sekiguchi, Yukio; Machino-Ohtsuka, Tomoko; Ogawa, Kojiro; Kuroki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nogami, Akihiko; Kawakami, Yasushi; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2016-06-01

    We have developed a noninvasive isochrone activation imaging (AI) system with 3-dimensional (3D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), which allows visualization of the wavefront image of mechanical propagation of the accessory pathway (ACP) in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Patients with manifest Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome were imaged in 3D-STE AI mode, which quantified the time from QRS onset to regional endocardial deformation. In 2 patients with left- and right-side ACP, we confirmed that intraoperative contact endocardial electric mapping and the 3D-STE AI system showed comparable images pre- and postablation. In normal heart assessment by 3D-echo AI, the earliest activation sites were found at the attachment of the papillary muscles in the left ventricle and midseptum in the right ventricle, and none showed earliest activation at the peri-atrioventricular valve annuli. An analyzer who was unaware of the clinical information assessed 39 ACP locations in 38 Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome patients using 3D-STE. All showed abnormal perimitral or tricuspid annular activations, and the location of 34 ACP (87%) showed agreement with the successful ablation sites within a 2-o'clock range. Especially for left free wall ACP, 17/18 (94%) showed consistency with the ablation site within a 2 o'clock range. Among 15 ACP at the ventricular septum, 9 (60%) showed early local activation in both right and left sides of the septum. Isochrone AI with 3D-STE may be a promising noninvasive imaging tool to assess cardiac synchronized activation in normal hearts and detect abnormal breakthrough of mechanical activation from both atrioventricular annuli in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Molecular Characterization of a Heterothallic Mating System in Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Fungus Causing White-Nose Syndrome of Bats

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Jonathan M.; Kubatova, Alena; Novakova, Alena; Minnis, Andrew M.; Kolarik, Miroslav; Lindner, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) of bats has devastated bat populations in eastern North America since its discovery in 2006. WNS, caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has spread quickly in North America and has become one of the most severe wildlife epidemics of our time. While P. destructans is spreading rapidly in North America, nothing is known about the sexual capacity of this fungus. To gain insight into the genes involved in sexual reproduction, we characterized the mating-type ...

  3. Comparison of the White-Nose Syndrome Agent Pseudogymnoascus destructans to Cave-Dwelling Relatives Suggests Reduced Saprotrophic Enzyme Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Hannah T.; Barton, Hazel A.

    2014-01-01

    White-nose Syndrome (WNS) is an emerging infectious mycosis that has impacted multiple species of North American bats since its initial discovery in 2006, yet the physiology of the causal agent, the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( = Geomyces destructans), is not well understood. We investigated the ability of P. destructans to secrete enzymes that could permit environmental growth or affect pathogenesis and compared enzyme activity across several Pseudogymnoascus species i...

  4. Pseudogymnoascus destructans: Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome in Bats Is Inhibited by Safe Volatile Organic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Padhi; Itamar Dias; Victoria L. Korn; Joan W. Bennett

    2018-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, a psychrophilic fungus that infects hibernating bats and has caused a serious decline in some species. Natural aroma compounds have been used to control growth of fungal food storage pathogens, so we hypothesized that a similar strategy could work for control of P. destructans. The effectiveness of exposure to low concentrations of the vapor phase of four of these compounds was tested on mycelial plugs and conidiospores at t...

  5. Evaluation of an immunodot test to manage white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) during cultivation of the giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patil, R.; Palaksha, K.J.; Anil, T.M.; Guruchannabasavanna; Patil, P.; Shankar, K.M.; Mohan, C.V.; Sreepada, R.A.

    A monoclonal antibody-based immunodot test was compared to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for managing white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) on shrimp farms at Kundapur and Kumta situated in Udupi and Uttar Kannada Districts, respectively...

  6. QTL for white spot syndrome virus resistance and the sex-determining locus in the Indian black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nicholas A; Gopikrishna, Gopalapillay; Baranski, Matthew; Katneni, Vinaya Kumar; Shekhar, Mudagandur S; Shanmugakarthik, Jayakani; Jothivel, Sarangapani; Gopal, Chavali; Ravichandran, Pitchaiyappan; Gitterle, Thomas; Ponniah, Alphis G

    2014-08-28

    Shrimp culture is a fast growing aquaculture sector, but in recent years there has been a shift away from tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon to other species. This is largely due to the susceptibility of P. monodon to white spot syndrome virus disease (Whispovirus sp.) which has impacted production around the world. As female penaeid shrimp grow more rapidly than males, mono-sex production would be advantageous, however little is known about genes controlling or markers associated with sex determination in shrimp. In this study, a mapped set of 3959 transcribed single nucleotide polymorphisms were used to scan the P. monodon genome for loci associated with resistance to white-spot syndrome virus and sex in seven full-sibling tiger shrimp families challenged with white spot syndrome virus. Linkage groups 2, 3, 5, 6, 17, 18, 19, 22, 27 and 43 were found to contain quantitative trait loci significantly associated with hours of survival after white spot syndrome virus infection (P shrimp.

  7. Microbial inhibitors of the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causal agent of white-nose syndrome in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micalizzi, Emma W; Mack, Jonathan N; White, George P; Avis, Tyler J; Smith, Myron L

    2017-01-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungus that causes white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats, has spread across eastern North America over the past decade and decimated bat populations. The saprotrophic growth of P. destructans may help to perpetuate the white-nose syndrome epidemic, and recent model predictions suggest that sufficiently reducing the environmental growth of P. destructans could help mitigate or prevent white-nose syndrome-associated bat colony collapse. In this study, we screened 301 microbes from diverse environmental samples for their ability to inhibit the growth of P. destructans. We identified 145 antagonistic isolates, 53 of which completely or nearly completely inhibited the growth of P. destructans in co-culture. Further analysis of our best antagonists indicated that these microbes have different modes of action and may have some specificity in inhibiting P. destructans. The results suggest that naturally-occurring microbes and/or their metabolites may be considered further as candidates to ameliorate bat colony collapse due to P. destructans.

  8. Microbial inhibitors of the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causal agent of white-nose syndrome in bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma W Micalizzi

    Full Text Available Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungus that causes white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats, has spread across eastern North America over the past decade and decimated bat populations. The saprotrophic growth of P. destructans may help to perpetuate the white-nose syndrome epidemic, and recent model predictions suggest that sufficiently reducing the environmental growth of P. destructans could help mitigate or prevent white-nose syndrome-associated bat colony collapse. In this study, we screened 301 microbes from diverse environmental samples for their ability to inhibit the growth of P. destructans. We identified 145 antagonistic isolates, 53 of which completely or nearly completely inhibited the growth of P. destructans in co-culture. Further analysis of our best antagonists indicated that these microbes have different modes of action and may have some specificity in inhibiting P. destructans. The results suggest that naturally-occurring microbes and/or their metabolites may be considered further as candidates to ameliorate bat colony collapse due to P. destructans.

  9. White matter alterations in the brains of patients with active, remitted, and cured cushing syndrome: a DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, P; Santos, A; Vives-Gilabert, Y; Webb, S M; Sainz-Ruiz, A; Resmini, E; Crespo, I; de Juan-Delago, M; Gómez-Anson, B

    2015-06-01

    Cushing syndrome appears after chronic exposure to elevated glucocorticoid levels. Cortisol excess may alter white matter microstructure. Our purpose was to study WM changes in patients with Cushing syndrome compared with controls by using DTI and the influence of hypercortisolism. Thirty-five patients with Cushing syndrome and 35 healthy controls, matched for age, education, and sex, were analyzed through DTI (tract-based spatial statistics) for fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity (general linear model, family-wise error, and threshold-free cluster enhancement corrections, P Cushing syndrome with active hypercortisolism, 7 with Cushing syndrome with medication-remitted cortisol, 20 surgically cured, and 35 controls. Cardiovascular risk factors were used as covariates. In addition, correlations were analyzed among DTI values, concomitant 24-hour urinary free cortisol levels, and disease duration. There were widespread alterations (reduced fractional anisotropy, and increased mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity values; P Cushing syndrome compared with controls, independent of the cardiovascular risk factors present. Both active and cured Cushing syndrome subgroups showed similar changes compared with controls. Patients with medically remitted Cushing syndrome also had reduced fractional anisotropy and increased mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity values, compared with controls. No correlations were found between DTI maps and 24-hour urinary free cortisol levels or with disease duration. Diffuse WM alterations in patients with Cushing syndrome suggest underlying loss of WM integrity and demyelination. Once present, they seem to be independent of concomitant hypercortisolism, persisting after remission/cure. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  10. Bacterial communities associated with Porites white patch syndrome (PWPS) on three western Indian Ocean (WIO) coral reefs.

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    Séré, Mathieu G; Tortosa, Pablo; Chabanet, Pascale; Turquet, Jean; Quod, Jean-Pascal; Schleyer, Michael H

    2013-01-01

    The scleractinian coral Porites lutea, an important reef-building coral on western Indian Ocean reefs (WIO), is affected by a newly-reported white syndrome (WS) the Porites white patch syndrome (PWPS). Histopathology and culture-independent molecular techniques were used to characterise the microbial communities associated with this emerging disease. Microscopy showed extensive tissue fragmentation generally associated with ovoid basophilic bodies resembling bacterial aggregates. Results of 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed a high variability between bacterial communities associated with PWPS-infected and healthy tissues in P. lutea, a pattern previously reported in other coral diseases such as black band disease (BBD), white band disease (WBD) and white plague diseases (WPD). Furthermore, substantial variations in bacterial communities were observed at the different sampling locations, suggesting that there is no strong bacterial association in Porites lutea on WIO reefs. Several sequences affiliated with potential pathogens belonging to the Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae were identified, mainly in PWPS-infected coral tissues. Among them, only two ribotypes affiliated to Shimia marina (NR043300.1) and Vibrio hepatarius (NR025575.1) were consistently found in diseased tissues from the three geographically distant sampling localities. The role of these bacterial species in PWPS needs to be tested experimentally.

  11. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome in ankylosing spondylitis: a large cohort observation study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Huei-Huang; Yeh, San-Jou; Tsai, Wen-Pin; Wang, Chin-Man; Chen, Ji Yih

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the associations of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) and Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We conducted a retrospective cohort study by reviewing the medical records of 1503 consecutive AS patients diagnosed at a tertiary medical center. The clinical and electrocardiographic (ECG) characteristics of 641 AS patients having 12-lead ECG available were further analyzed in a precise manner. Among the 641 AS patients with 12-lead ECG available for detecting cardiac abnormalities, 14 were identified as having PSVT, including 3 with WPW syndrome and 1 having a WPW (ventricular preexcitation) ECG pattern. A higher proportion of AS patients presented with PSVT (21.8/1000) compared with a general population-based study (2.25/1000). Also, AS patients demonstrated a higher prevalence of WPW syndrome or WPW pattern (6.24/1000) than found in general population-based studies (0.9 to 1.5/1000). Ankylosing spondylitis patients with PSVT or WPW syndrome had significantly higher rates of peripheral arthritis (78.6%; P = 0.002), acute anterior uveitis (64.3%; P = 0.003), bamboo spine (64.3%; P = 0.001), and other cardiovascular disorders (85.7%; P syndrome. Detailed ECG and electrophysiological examinations are required for early detection of PSVT and WPW syndrome for prompt resolution of potentially life-threatening complications in all AS patients, especially those presenting with the symptoms of palpitation, dizziness, dyspnea, or syncope. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Members of the emergency medical team may have difficulty diagnosing rapid atrial fibrillation in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koźluk, Edward; Timler, Dariusz; Zyśko, Dorota; Piątkowska, Agnieszka; Grzebieniak, Tomasz; Gajek, Jacek; Gałązkowski, Robert; Fedorowski, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is potentially life-threatening as it may deteriorate into ventricular fibrillation. The aim of this study was to assess whether the emergency medical team members are able to diagnose AF with a rapid ventricular response due to the presence of atrioventricular bypass tract in WPW syndrome. The study group consisted of 316 participants attending a national congress of emergency medicine. A total of 196 questionnaires regarding recognition and management of cardiac arrhythmias were distributed. The assessed part presented a clinical scenario with a young hemodynamically stable man who had a 12-lead electrocardiogram performed in the past with signs of pre-excitation, and who presented to the emergency team with an irregular broad QRS-complex tachycardia. A total of 71 questionnaires were filled in. Only one responder recognized AF due to WPW syndrome, while 5 other responders recognized WPW syndrome and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia or broad QRS-complex tachycardia. About 20% of participants did not select any diagnosis, pointing out a method of treatment only. The most common diagnosis found in the survey was ventricular tachycardia/broad QRS-complex tachycardia marked by approximately a half of the participants. Nearly 18% of participants recognized WPW syndrome, whereas AF was recognized by less than 10% of participants. Members of emergency medical teams have limited skills for recognizing WPW syndrome with rapid AF, and ventricular tachycardia is the most frequent incorrect diagnosis.

  13. Mud crab susceptibility to disease from white spot syndrome virus is species-dependent

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    Sritunyalucksana Kallaya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on a report for one species (Scylla serrata, it is widely believed that mud crabs are relatively resistant to disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. We tested this hypothesis by determining the degree of susceptibility in two species of mud crabs, Scylla olivacea and Scylla paramamosain, both of which were identified by mitochondrial 16 S ribosomal gene analysis. We compared single-dose and serial-dose WSSV challenges on S. olivacea and S. paramamosain. Findings In a preliminary test using S. olivacea alone, a dose of 1 × 106 WSSV copies/g gave 100% mortality within 7 days. In a subsequent test, 17 S. olivacea and 13 S. paramamosain were divided into test and control groups for challenge with WSSV at 5 incremental, biweekly doses starting from 1 × 104 and ending at 5 × 106 copies/g. For 11 S. olivacea challenged, 3 specimens died at doses between 1 × 105 and 5 × 105 copies/g and none died for 2 weeks after the subsequent dose (1 × 106 copies/g that was lethal within 7 days in the preliminary test. However, after the final challenge on day 56 (5 × 106 copies/g, the remaining 7 of 11 S. olivacea (63.64% died within 2 weeks. There was no mortality in the buffer-injected control crabs. For 9 S. paramamosain challenged in the same way, 5 (55.56% died after challenge doses between 1 × 104 and 5 × 105 copies/g, and none died for 2 weeks after the challenge dose of 1 × 106 copies/g. After the final challenge (5 × 106 copies/g on day 56, no S. paramamosain died during 2 weeks after the challenge, and 2 of 9 WSSV-infected S. paramamosain (22.22% remained alive together with the control crabs until the end of the test on day 106. Viral loads in these survivors were low when compared to those in the moribund crabs. Conclusions S. olivacea and S. paramamosain show wide variation in response to challenge with WSSV. S. olivacea and S. paramamosain are susceptible to white spot disease, and S. olivacea is more

  14. Phase analysis of regional and global ventricular contraction patterns in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Assessment by radionuclide ventriculography

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    Konishi, Tokuji; Koyama, Takao; Ichikawa, Takehiko and others

    1989-04-01

    Multigated blood pool scintigraphy was performed in 20 normal subjects and 39 patients with various intraventricular conduction abnormalities, including 25 patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Cardiac imaging was performed in the modified left anterior oblique, right anterior oblique, and left lateral projections. In WPW syndrome, early contraction sites which were not seen in normal subjects were detected at the ventricular base in phase images. These anomalous early contraction sites disappeared after successful suppression of conduction through an accessory pathway by intravenous procainamide. These sites are believed to correspond to the location of the bundle of Kent and were consistent with the electrocardiographic findings. Phase mapping is a suitable noninvasive method to locate the position of the bundle of Kent and evaluate the ventricular contraction pattern in WPW syndrome and other intraventricular conduction abnormalities. (author).

  15. Probable Association of Tachyarrhythmia With Nebulized Albuterol in a Child With Previously Subclinical Wolff Parkinson White Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroesen, Michiel; Maseland, Machiel; Smal, Jaime; Reimer, Annet; van Setten, Petra

    2012-01-01

    We present the case of a 2-year-old asthmatic boy with atrioventricular (AV)-reentry tachycardia following albuterol inhalation, who was later diagnosed with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. The Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale score for this adverse event was 7, indicating that the association between his AV-reentry tachycardia and inhalation of albuterol is probable. To our knowledge, this is the first case report that shows the potential arrhythmogenic effects of albuterol in a child with WPW syndrome. We urge clinicians to be aware of this potentially life-threatening adverse effect and to closely monitor these patients when they need beta-adrenergic drugs in case of emergency. Furthermore, this report highlights the dilemma regarding the safe treatment of pediatric patients with both asthma and WPW syndrome. PMID:23118663

  16. Global and Regional Left Ventricular Contractile Impairment In Patients With Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome

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    Sony Jacob

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess regional systolic function and global contractile function in patients with WPW Syndrome.Method: Eleven cases with manifest Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome in sinus rhythm were compared to 11 age matched controls. 2D strain analysis was performed and peak segmental radial strain (pRS values obtained from basal ventricular parasternal short-axis images (70 ± 5 frames/sec using a dedicated software package. Heterogeneity of radial strain pattern in six circumferential basal left ventricular segments was measured in terms of standard deviations of peak RS (SDpRS or range (difference between maximum and minimum peak RS i.e. RangepRS. Spectral Doppler (continuous wave measurements were acquired through the left ventricular outflow tract to determine Pre Ejection Period (PEP, Left Ventricular Ejection Time (LVET and measures of left ventricular systolic performance. Results: LV segmental radial strain was profoundly heterogeneous in WPW cases in contrast to fairly homogenous strain pattern in normal subjects. Wide SDpRS values 17.5 ± 8.9 vs 3.3 ± 1.4, p<0.001 and RangepRS 42.7 ± 20.8 vs.8.5 ± 3.6 , p<0.001 were observed among WPW and healthy subjects respectively. PEP (132.4 ± 14.7 vs 4.7 ± 0.5ms, p<0.001 and corrected PEP (76.1 ± 8.0 vs 2.7 ± 0.4ms, p<0.001 were significantly longer in WPW patients compared to controls. The PEP/LVET ratio was also significantly greater in WPW cohort (0.49 ± 0.04 vs. 0.28 ± 0.05, p <0.001 suggesting global systolic dysfunction. Conclusion: Patients with manifest preexcitation (predominantly those with right-sided pathways have regional and global contractile dysfunction resulting from aberrant impulse propagation inherent to the preexcited state.

  17. Conservation implications of ameliorating survival of little brown bats with white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslo, Brooke; Valent, Mick; Gumbs, John F; Frick, Winifred F

    2015-10-01

    Management of wildlife populations impacted by novel threats is often challenged by a lack of data on temporal changes in demographic response. Populations may suffer rapid declines from the introduction of new stressors, but how demography changes over time is critical to determining long-term outcomes for populations. White-nose syndrome (WNS), an infectious disease of hibernating bats, has caused massive and rapid population declines in several hibernating species of bats in North America since the disease was first observed on the continent in 2006. Estimating annual survival rates and demographic trends among remnant colonies of hibernating bats that experienced mass mortality from WNS is needed to determine long-term population viability of species impacted by this disease. Using mark-recapture data on infected little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), we estimated the first apparent annual survival rates for four years following WNS detection at a site. We found strong support for an increasing trend in annual survival, which improved from 0.68 (95% CI = 0.44-0.85) to 0.75 (95% CI = 0.51-0.89) for males and 0.65 (95% CI = 0.44-0.81) to 0.70 (95% CI = 0.50-0.84) for females. These results suggest that stabilization at remnant colonies after mass mortality from WNS may be due to improved survival and not from immigration from other areas. Despite ameliorating survival, our stochastic matrix projection model predicts continued declines for little brown bat populations (λ = 0.95), raising concern for the regional persistence of this species. We conducted a vital rate sensitivity analysis and determined that adult and juvenile survival, as opposed to fecundity, are the demographic parameters most important to target to maximize recovery potential of little brown bat populations in areas impacted by WNS.

  18. Hibernating little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) show variable immunological responses to white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Marianne S; Reichard, Jonathan D; Murtha, Timothy D; Nabhan, Morgan L; Pian, Rachel E; Ferreira, Jennifer S; Kunz, Thomas H

    2013-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging infectious disease devastating hibernating North American bat populations that is caused by the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans. Previous histopathological analysis demonstrated little evidence of inflammatory responses in infected bats, however few studies have compared other aspects of immune function between WNS-affected and unaffected bats. We collected bats from confirmed WNS-affected and unaffected sites during the winter of 2008-2009 and compared estimates of their circulating levels of total leukocytes, total immunoglobulins, cytokines and total antioxidants. Bats from affected and unaffected sites did not differ in their total circulating immunoglobulin levels, but significantly higher leukocyte counts were observed in bats from affected sites and particularly in affected bats with elevated body temperatures (above 20°C). Bats from WNS-affected sites exhibited significantly lower antioxidant activity and levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), a cytokine that induces T cell differentiation. Within affected sites only, bats exhibiting visible fungal infections had significantly lower antioxidant activity and levels of IL-4 compared to bats without visible fungal infections. Overall, bats hibernating in WNS-affected sites showed immunological changes that may be evident of attempted defense against G. destructans. Observed changes, specifically elevated circulating leukocytes, may also be related to the documented changes in thermoregulatory behaviors of affected bats (i.e. increased frequencies in arousal from torpor). Alterations in immune function may reflect expensive energetic costs associated with these processes and intrinsic qualities of the immunocapability of hibernating bats to clear fungal infections. Additionally, lowered antioxidant activity indicates a possible imbalance in the pro- versus antioxidant system, may reflect oxidative tissue damage, and should be investigated as a contributor to WNS

  19. Evaporative water loss is a plausible explanation for mortality of bats from white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Craig K R; Menzies, Allyson K; Boyles, Justin G; Wojciechowski, Michal S

    2011-09-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has caused alarming declines of North American bat populations in the 5 years since its discovery. Affected bats appear to starve during hibernation, possibly because of disruption of normal cycles of torpor and arousal. The importance of hydration state and evaporative water loss (EWL) for influencing the duration of torpor bouts in hibernating mammals recently led to "the dehydration hypothesis," that cutaneous infection of the wing membranes of bats with the fungus Geomyces destructans causes dehydration which in turn, increases arousal frequency during hibernation. This hypothesis predicts that uninfected individuals of species most susceptible to WNS, like little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), exhibit high rates of EWL compared to less susceptible species. We tested the feasibility of this prediction using data from the literature and new data quantifying EWL in Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri), a species that is, like other European bats, sympatric with G. destructans but does not appear to suffer significant mortality from WNS. We found that little brown bats exhibited significantly higher rates of normothermic EWL than did other bat species for which comparable EWL data are available. We also found that Natterer's bats exhibited significantly lower rates of EWL, in both wet and dry air, compared with values predicted for little brown bats exposed to identical relative humidity (RH). We used a population model to show that the increase in EWL required to cause the pattern of mortality observed for WNS-affected little brown bats was small, equivalent to a solitary bat hibernating exposed to RH of ∼95%, or clusters hibernating in ∼87% RH, as opposed to typical near-saturation conditions. Both of these results suggest the dehydration hypothesis is plausible and worth pursuing as a possible explanation for mortality of bats from WNS.

  20. Hibernating little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus show variable immunological responses to white-nose syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne S Moore

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS is an emerging infectious disease devastating hibernating North American bat populations that is caused by the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans. Previous histopathological analysis demonstrated little evidence of inflammatory responses in infected bats, however few studies have compared other aspects of immune function between WNS-affected and unaffected bats. We collected bats from confirmed WNS-affected and unaffected sites during the winter of 2008-2009 and compared estimates of their circulating levels of total leukocytes, total immunoglobulins, cytokines and total antioxidants. Bats from affected and unaffected sites did not differ in their total circulating immunoglobulin levels, but significantly higher leukocyte counts were observed in bats from affected sites and particularly in affected bats with elevated body temperatures (above 20°C. Bats from WNS-affected sites exhibited significantly lower antioxidant activity and levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4, a cytokine that induces T cell differentiation. Within affected sites only, bats exhibiting visible fungal infections had significantly lower antioxidant activity and levels of IL-4 compared to bats without visible fungal infections. Overall, bats hibernating in WNS-affected sites showed immunological changes that may be evident of attempted defense against G. destructans. Observed changes, specifically elevated circulating leukocytes, may also be related to the documented changes in thermoregulatory behaviors of affected bats (i.e. increased frequencies in arousal from torpor. Alterations in immune function may reflect expensive energetic costs associated with these processes and intrinsic qualities of the immunocapability of hibernating bats to clear fungal infections. Additionally, lowered antioxidant activity indicates a possible imbalance in the pro- versus antioxidant system, may reflect oxidative tissue damage, and should be investigated as a

  1. Bundle branch block after ablation for Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenmayor A, Abdel J; Rodríguez S, Yenny A

    2013-09-20

    Bundle branch block (BBB) is a difficult diagnosis in the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW). We investigated the clinical implications of BBB that appears after performing an accessory pathway (AP) ablation. We studied 199 patients with WPW who were submitted to AP ablation. Thirty (15%) exhibited BBB after the ablation. Twenty-two patients had right BBB and 8 had left BBB. Thirteen patients had right-sided AP and 17 had left-sided AP. They were compared with 82 similar patients without BBB after the AP ablation. Among the patients with BBB, 86.66% showed delays in the middle part of the QRS in the ECG recorded before ablation vs. 18.29% of the patients without BBB (p<0.05) (sensitivity 86%, specificity 81%, positive predictive value 67% and negative predictive value 93%). Forty-four percent of the patients with BBB had BBB morphology during orthodromic tachycardia vs. 10% of the patients without BBB (p<0.05) (sensitivity 44%, specificity 89%, positive predictive value 57% and negative predictive value 82%). No relationship was found between AP location and the site of the BBB. Ejection fraction was normal before (0.61 ± 0.03) and upon completion of follow-up (0.61 ± 0.07). BBB disappeared in 95.3% of the patients. Delays in the middle portion of the QRS may predict BBB after AP ablation. BBB after performing AP ablation is frequent, transient, benign, and not related to either the ablation lesion location or progression to structural heart disease. BBB after AP ablation may be related to cardiac memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intermittent versus Persistent Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome in Children: Electrophysiologic Properties and Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiger, Michelle E; McCanta, Anthony C; Tong, Suhong; Schaffer, Michael; Runciman, Martin; Collins, Kathryn K

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is considered to have a lower risk of sudden death. Fewer data exist regarding electrophysiologic (EP) characteristics and the natural history of intermittent WPW in children. All patients with WPW age 1-18 years at a single institution (1996-2013) were reviewed. Patients with intermittent preexcitation were compared to those with loss of preexcitation on Holter/exercise testing and those with persistent preexcitation. High-risk accessory pathway (AP) was defined as AP effective refractory period (APERP), block cycle length, or shortest preexcited RR interval during atrial fibrillation ≤250 ms. A total of 295 patients were included: 226 (76.6%) persistent, 39 (13.2%) intermittent, and 30 (10.2%) loss of preexcitation Holter/exercise. There were no differences in symptoms between groups. Median interquartile range APERP was significantly longer in intermittent WPW (380 [320, 488] ms vs 320 [300, 350] ms persistent, 310 [290, 330] ms loss of preexcitation Holter/exercise; P = 0.0008). At baseline, there was no difference between groups in frequency of high-risk pathways. However, when isoproterenol values were included, high-risk pathways were more frequent among patients with loss of preexcitation on Holter/exercise (54% vs 16% persistent, 11% intermittent; P = 0.005). There was one death in a patient with loss of preexcitation on exercise testing, no EP study, and prior drug use. A second patient with persistent WPW and APERP 270 ms required resuscitation following a methadone overdose. Intermittent preexcitation in children does not connote a lower risk AP by EP criteria or reduced symptoms. The low number of pediatric WPW patients who develop preexcited atrial fibrillation or sudden death warrants larger studies to investigate these outcomes. ©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Tachydysrhythmia treatment and adverse events in patients with wolff-Parkinson-white syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegelman, Jeffrey N; Marill, Keith A; Adler, Jonathan N

    2014-09-01

    Current guidelines recommend avoiding atrioventricular-nodal blocking agents (AVNB) when treating tachydysrhythmias in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) patients. We investigated medications selected and resulting outcomes for patients with tachydysrhythmias and WPW. In this single-center retrospective cohort study, we searched a hospital-wide database for the following inclusion criteria: WPW, tachycardia, and intravenous antidysrhythmics. The composite outcome of adverse events was acceleration of tachycardia, new hypotension, new malignant dysrhythmia, and cardioversion. The difference in binomial proportions of patients meeting the composite outcome after AVNB or non-AVNB (NAVNB) treatment was calculated after dividing the groups by QRS duration. A random-effects mixed linear analysis was performed to analyze the vital sign response. The initial database search yielded 1158 patient visits, with 60 meeting inclusion criteria. Patients' median age was 52.5 years; 53% were male, 43% presented in wide complex tachycardia (WCT), with 75% in atrial fibrillation (AF) or flutter. AVNBs were administered in 42 (70%) patient visits. For those patients with WCT in AF, the difference in proportions of patients meeting the composite outcome after AVNBs vs. NAVNBs treatment was an increase of 3% (95% confidence interval [CI] -39%-49%), and for those with narrow complex AF it was a decrease of 13% (95% CI -37%-81%). No instances of malignant dysrhythmia occurred. Mixed linear analysis showed no statistically significant effects on heart rate, though suggested a trend toward increasing heart rate after AVNB in wide complex AF. In this sample of WPW-associated tachydysrhythmia patients, many were treated with AVNBs. The composite outcome was similarly met after use of either AVNB or NAVNB, and no malignant dysrhythmias were observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The resistance of a North American bat species (Eptesicus fuscus) to White-nose Syndrome (WNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Craig L; Michalski, Andrew; McDonough, Anne A; Rahimian, Marjon; Rudd, Robert J; Herzog, Carl

    2014-01-01

    White-nose Syndrome (WNS) is the primary cause of over-winter mortality for little brown (Myotis lucifugus), northern (Myotis septentrionalis), and tricolored (Perimyotis subflavus) bats, and is due to cutaneous infection with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans (Pd). Cutaneous infection with P. destructans disrupts torpor patterns, which is thought to lead to a premature depletion of body fat reserve. Field studies were conducted at 3 WNS-affected hibernation sites to determine if big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) are resistant to Pd. Radio telemetry studies were conducted during 2 winters to determine the torpor patterns of 23 free-ranging E. fuscus hibernating at a site where Pd occurs. The body fat contents of free-ranging E. fuscus and M. lucifugus during hibernation at 2 different WNS-affected sites were also determined. The numbers of bats hibernating at the same site was determined during both: a) 4-7 years prior to the arrival of Pd, and, b) 2-3 years after it first appeared at this site. The torpor bouts of big brown bats hibernating at a WNS-affected site were not significantly different in length from those previously reported for this species. The mean body fat content of E. fuscus in February was nearly twice that of M. lucifugus hibernating at the same WNS-affected sites during this month. The number of M. lucifugus hibernating at one site decreased by 99.6% after P. destructans first appeared, whereas the number of E. fuscus hibernating there actually increased by 43% during the same period. None of the E. fuscus collected during this study had any visible fungal growth or lesions on their skin, whereas virtually all the M. lucifugus collected had visible fungal growth on their wings, muzzle, and ears. These findings indicate that big brown bats are resistant to WNS.

  5. Ectoparasites may serve as vectors for the white-nose syndrome fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lučan, Radek K; Bandouchova, Hana; Bartonička, Tomáš; Pikula, Jiri; Zahradníková, Alexandra; Zukal, Jan; Martínková, Natália

    2016-01-13

    Vertebrate ectoparasites frequently play a role in transmission of infectious agents. Pseudogymnoascus destructans is a psychrophilic fungus known to cause white-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging infectious disease of bats. It is transmitted with direct contact between bats or with contaminated environment. The aim of this study was to examine wing mites from the family Spinturnicidae parasitizing hibernating bats for the presence of P. destructans propagules as another possible transmission route. Wing mites collected from 33 bats at four hibernation sites in the Czech Republic were inspected for the presence and load of pathogen's DNA using quantitative PCR. Simultaneously, wing damage of inspected bats caused by WNS was quantified using ultraviolet light (UV) transillumination and the relationship between fungal load on wing mites and intensity of infection was subjected to correlation analysis. All samples of wing mites were positive for the presence of DNA of P. destructans, indicating a high probability of their role in the transmission of the pathogen's propagules between bats. Mechanical transport of adhesive P. destructans spores and mycelium fragments on the body of spinturnicid mites is highly feasible. The specialised lifestyle of mites, i.e., living on bat wing membranes, the sites most typically affected by fungal growth, enables pathogen transport. Moreover, P. destructans metabolic traits suggest an ability to grow and sporulate on a range of organic substrates, including insects, which supports the possibility of growth on bat ectoparasites, at least in periods when bats roost in cold environments and enter torpor. In addition to transport of fungal propagules, mites may facilitate entry of fungal hyphae into the epidermis through injuries caused by biting.

  6. The resistance of a North American bat species (Eptesicus fuscus to White-nose Syndrome (WNS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig L Frank

    Full Text Available White-nose Syndrome (WNS is the primary cause of over-winter mortality for little brown (Myotis lucifugus, northern (Myotis septentrionalis, and tricolored (Perimyotis subflavus bats, and is due to cutaneous infection with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus (Geomyces destructans (Pd. Cutaneous infection with P. destructans disrupts torpor patterns, which is thought to lead to a premature depletion of body fat reserve. Field studies were conducted at 3 WNS-affected hibernation sites to determine if big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus are resistant to Pd. Radio telemetry studies were conducted during 2 winters to determine the torpor patterns of 23 free-ranging E. fuscus hibernating at a site where Pd occurs. The body fat contents of free-ranging E. fuscus and M. lucifugus during hibernation at 2 different WNS-affected sites were also determined. The numbers of bats hibernating at the same site was determined during both: a 4-7 years prior to the arrival of Pd, and, b 2-3 years after it first appeared at this site. The torpor bouts of big brown bats hibernating at a WNS-affected site were not significantly different in length from those previously reported for this species. The mean body fat content of E. fuscus in February was nearly twice that of M. lucifugus hibernating at the same WNS-affected sites during this month. The number of M. lucifugus hibernating at one site decreased by 99.6% after P. destructans first appeared, whereas the number of E. fuscus hibernating there actually increased by 43% during the same period. None of the E. fuscus collected during this study had any visible fungal growth or lesions on their skin, whereas virtually all the M. lucifugus collected had visible fungal growth on their wings, muzzle, and ears. These findings indicate that big brown bats are resistant to WNS.

  7. Post-White-nose syndrome trends in Virginia’s cave bats, 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Karen E.; Reynolds, Richard J.; Orndorff, Wil; Ford, W. Mark; Hobson, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Since its 2009 detection in Virginia hibernacula, the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans causing White-nose Syndrome (WNS) has had a marked impact on cave bats locally. From 2008-2013, we documented numeric and physiologic changes in cave bats through fall swarm (FS), early hibernation (EH), and late hibernation (LH) capture and banding surveys at 18 hibernacula in western Virginia. We coupled active surveys with passive biennial winter counts in 2009, 2011, and 2013. We compared individual body mass index (BMI) across years for FS, EH, and LH hibernation to determine if WNS impacts on extant bats would be manifested by changes in body condition (as anecdotally observed elsewhere for WNS-impacted bats) as well as a population reduction. To estimate percent declines in bat presence or relative activity, we used FS capture per-unit-effort data, and the winter hibernacula absolute counts. We captured 4,524 bats of eight species, with species-specific capture success declining by 75-100% post-WNS. Little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) exhibited the greatest declines in winter hibernacula counts (AVG. = 99.0% decline), followed by tri-colored bats (Perimyotis subflavus; 89.5% decline) and Indiana bats (M. sodalis; 33.5% decline). Graphical analyses of captures-per-trap-hour in FS showed declines for little brown bats, tri-colored bats, and northern long-eared bats (M. septentrionalis), but suggest a modest rebound of Indiana bat numbers. Fall swarm trends in BMI suggested some drops post-WNS exposure, but these trends were not consistent across sexes or seasonal time blocks. Our inconclusive BMI metrics and little brown bat band recapture data suggest little competitive advantage or selection for surviving bats. Lesser (but apparent) declines in Indiana bat numbers mirrors trends seen elsewhere regionally, and band recoveries do show that some individuals are persisting. Additional surveys will determine if bats in Virginia will persist or face extirpation due

  8. Conservation implications of physiological carry-over effects in bats recovering from white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Christina M; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Riley, Julia L; Baxter-Gilbert, James H; Mayberry, Heather; Willis, Craig K R

    2017-06-01

    Although it is well documented that infectious diseases can pose threats to biodiversity, the potential long-term consequences of pathogen exposure on individual fitness and its effects on population viability have rarely been studied. We tested the hypothesis that pathogen exposure causes physiological carry-over effects with a pathogen that is uniquely suited to this question because the infection period is specific and time limited. The fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans causes white-nose syndrome (WNS) in hibernating bats, which either die due to the infection while hibernating or recover following emergence from hibernation. The fungus infects all exposed individuals in an overwintering site simultaneously, and bats that survive infection during hibernation clear the pathogen within a few weeks following emergence. We quantified chronic stress during the active season, when bats are not infected, by measuring cortisol in bat claws. Free-ranging Myotis lucifugus who survived previous exposure to P. destructans had significantly higher levels of claw cortisol than naïve individuals. Thus, cryptic physiological carry-over effects of pathogen exposure may persist in asymptomatic, recovered individuals. If these effects result in reduced survival or reproductive success, they could also affect population viability and even act as a third stream in the extinction vortex. For example, significant increases in chronic stress, such as those indicated here, are correlated with reduced reproductive success in a number of species. Future research should directly explore the link between pathogen exposure and the viability of apparently recovered populations to improve understanding of the true impacts of infectious diseases on threatened populations. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Antibodies to Pseudogymnoascus destructans are not sufficient for protection against white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph S; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Lilley, Thomas M; Czirják, Gábor Á; Voigt, Christian C; McMichael, James W; Meierhofer, Melissa B; Seery, Christopher W; Lumadue, Shayne S; Altmann, Alexander J; Toro, Michael O; Field, Kenneth A

    2015-06-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) that affects bats during hibernation. Although millions of bats have died from WNS in North America, mass mortality has not been observed among European bats infected by the fungus, leading to the suggestion that bats in Europe are immune. We tested the hypothesis that an antibody-mediated immune response can provide protection against WNS by quantifying antibodies reactive to Pd in blood samples from seven species of free-ranging bats in North America and two free-ranging species in Europe. We also quantified antibodies in blood samples from little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) that were part of a captive colony that we injected with live Pd spores mixed with adjuvant, as well as individuals surviving a captive Pd infection trial. Seroprevalence of antibodies against Pd, as well as antibody titers, was greater among little brown myotis than among four other species of cave-hibernating bats in North America, including species with markedly lower WNS mortality rates. Among little brown myotis, the greatest titers occurred in populations occupying regions with longer histories of WNS, where bats lacked secondary symptoms of WNS. We detected antibodies cross-reactive with Pd among little brown myotis naïve to the fungus. We observed high titers among captive little brown myotis injected with Pd. We did not detect antibodies against Pd in Pd-infected European bats during winter, and titers during the active season were lower than among little brown myotis. These results show that antibody-mediated immunity cannot explain survival of European bats infected with Pd and that little brown myotis respond differently to Pd than species with higher WNS survival rates. Although it appears that some species of bats in North America may be developing resistance to WNS, an antibody-mediated immune response does not provide an explanation for these remnant populations.

  10. White-nose syndrome pathology grading in Nearctic and Palearctic bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikula, Jiri; Amelon, Sybill K; Bandouchova, Hana; Bartonička, Tomáš; Berkova, Hana; Brichta, Jiri; Hooper, Sarah; Kokurewicz, Tomasz; Kolarik, Miroslav; Köllner, Bernd; Kovacova, Veronika; Linhart, Petr; Piacek, Vladimir; Turner, Gregory G; Zukal, Jan; Martínková, Natália

    2017-01-01

    While white-nose syndrome (WNS) has decimated hibernating bat populations in the Nearctic, species from the Palearctic appear to cope better with the fungal skin infection causing WNS. This has encouraged multiple hypotheses on the mechanisms leading to differential survival of species exposed to the same pathogen. To facilitate intercontinental comparisons, we proposed a novel pathogenesis-based grading scheme consistent with WNS diagnosis histopathology criteria. UV light-guided collection was used to obtain single biopsies from Nearctic and Palearctic bat wing membranes non-lethally. The proposed scheme scores eleven grades associated with WNS on histopathology. Given weights reflective of grade severity, the sum of findings from an individual results in weighted cumulative WNS pathology score. The probability of finding fungal skin colonisation and single, multiple or confluent cupping erosions increased with increase in Pseudogymnoascus destructans load. Increasing fungal load mimicked progression of skin infection from epidermal surface colonisation to deep dermal invasion. Similarly, the number of UV-fluorescent lesions increased with increasing weighted cumulative WNS pathology score, demonstrating congruence between WNS-associated tissue damage and extent of UV fluorescence. In a case report, we demonstrated that UV-fluorescence disappears within two weeks of euthermy. Change in fluorescence was coupled with a reduction in weighted cumulative WNS pathology score, whereby both methods lost diagnostic utility. While weighted cumulative WNS pathology scores were greater in the Nearctic than Palearctic, values for Nearctic bats were within the range of those for Palearctic species. Accumulation of wing damage probably influences mortality in affected bats, as demonstrated by a fatal case of Myotis daubentonii with natural WNS infection and healing in Myotis myotis. The proposed semi-quantitative pathology score provided good agreement between experienced

  11. White-nose syndrome initiates a cascade of physiologic disturbances in the hibernating bat host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle L; Meteyer, Carol U; Speakman, John R; Cryan, Paul M; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Blehert, David S

    2014-12-09

    The physiological effects of white-nose syndrome (WNS) in hibernating bats and ultimate causes of mortality from infection with Pseudogymnoascus (formerly Geomyces) destructans are not fully understood. Increased frequency of arousal from torpor described among hibernating bats with late-stage WNS is thought to accelerate depletion of fat reserves, but the physiological mechanisms that lead to these alterations in hibernation behavior have not been elucidated. We used the doubly labeled water (DLW) method and clinical chemistry to evaluate energy use, body composition changes, and blood chemistry perturbations in hibernating little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) experimentally infected with P. destructans to better understand the physiological processes that underlie mortality from WNS. These data indicated that fat energy utilization, as demonstrated by changes in body composition, was two-fold higher for bats with WNS compared to negative controls. These differences were apparent in early stages of infection when torpor-arousal patterns were equivalent between infected and non-infected animals, suggesting that P. destructans has complex physiological impacts on its host prior to onset of clinical signs indicative of late-stage infections. Additionally, bats with mild to moderate skin lesions associated with early-stage WNS demonstrated a chronic respiratory acidosis characterized by significantly elevated dissolved carbon dioxide, acidemia, and elevated bicarbonate. Potassium concentrations were also significantly higher among infected bats, but sodium, chloride, and other hydration parameters were equivalent to controls. Integrating these novel findings on the physiological changes that occur in early-stage WNS with those previously documented in late-stage infections, we propose a multi-stage disease progression model that mechanistically describes the pathologic and physiologic effects underlying mortality of WNS in hibernating bats. This model identifies

  12. The role of coral-associated bacterial communities in Australian Subtropical White Syndrome of Turbinaria mesenterina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Scott; Bent, Elizabeth; Borneman, James; Pereg, Lily

    2012-01-01

    Australian Subtropical White Syndrome (ASWS) is an infectious, temperature dependent disease of the subtropical coral Turbinaria mesenterina involving a hitherto unknown transmissible causative agent. This report describes significant changes in the coral associated bacterial community as the disease progresses from the apparently healthy tissue of ASWS affected coral colonies, to areas of the colony affected by ASWS lesions, to the dead coral skeleton exposed by ASWS. In an effort to better understand the potential roles of bacteria in the formation of disease lesions, the effect of antibacterials on the rate of lesion progression was tested, and both culture based and culture independent techniques were used to investigate the bacterial communities associated with colonies of T. mesenterina. Culture-independent analysis was performed using the Oligonucleotide Fingerprinting of Ribosomal Genes (OFRG) technique, which allowed a library of 8094 cloned bacterial 16S ribosomal genes to be analysed. Interestingly, the bacterial communities associated with both healthy and disease affected corals were very diverse and ASWS associated communities were not characterized by a single dominant organism. Treatment with antibacterials had a significant effect on the rate of progress of disease lesions (p = 0.006), suggesting that bacteria may play direct roles as the causative agents of ASWS. A number of potential aetiological agents of ASWS were identified in both the culture-based and culture-independent studies. In the culture-independent study an Alphaproteobacterium closely related to Roseovarius crassostreae, the apparent aetiological agent of juvenile oyster disease, was found to be significantly associated with disease lesions. In the culture-based study Vibrio harveyi was consistently associated with ASWS affected coral colonies and was not isolated from any healthy colonies. The differing results of the culture based and culture-independent studies highlight the

  13. Vibrio harveyi as a causative agent of the White Syndrome in tropical stony corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Gian Marco; Bongiorni, Lucia; Gili, Claudia; Biavasco, Francesca; Danovaro, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    We investigated bacterial assemblages associated with corals displaying symptoms of the 'White Syndrome' (WS), a general term used for indicating the appearance of bands, spots or patches of tissue loss, which is devastating wide areas of tropical ecosystems worldwide. We collected WS-diseased (n = 15) and healthy (n = 15) corals from the natural reef (Indonesia, Indian Ocean) and from four large public aquaria. By using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, we found that a large fraction (73%) of the investigated WS events was associated with the presence of a high bacterial abundance and, specifically, of Vibrio spp. Vibrio harveyi, a pathogen of many marine organisms and recently involved in coral Yellow Band disease, was the most represented species, being recovered from five out of 15 diseased corals. In experimental infection assays, two V. harveyi strains, isolated from diseased corals, were inoculated on a total of 62 healthy colonies of Pocillopora damicornis. WS signs appeared in 57 corals, confirming the ability of V. harveyi strains to induce the disease. We conclude that V. harveyi is one of the coral pathogens involved in the appearance of WS. However, not all of the investigated WSs were associated to V. harveyi detection, nor to other Vibrio species (such as V. coralliilyticus), which supports the hypothesis that WS is not caused exclusively by Vibrio spp., but rather can have a multifactorial aetiology, or can represent a group of diseases caused by a variety of agents. Further investigations to identify specific virulence traits will contribute to the understanding of the role of V. harveyi in WS pathogenesis. © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. The role of coral-associated bacterial communities in Australian Subtropical White Syndrome of Turbinaria mesenterina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Godwin

    Full Text Available Australian Subtropical White Syndrome (ASWS is an infectious, temperature dependent disease of the subtropical coral Turbinaria mesenterina involving a hitherto unknown transmissible causative agent. This report describes significant changes in the coral associated bacterial community as the disease progresses from the apparently healthy tissue of ASWS affected coral colonies, to areas of the colony affected by ASWS lesions, to the dead coral skeleton exposed by ASWS. In an effort to better understand the potential roles of bacteria in the formation of disease lesions, the effect of antibacterials on the rate of lesion progression was tested, and both culture based and culture independent techniques were used to investigate the bacterial communities associated with colonies of T. mesenterina. Culture-independent analysis was performed using the Oligonucleotide Fingerprinting of Ribosomal Genes (OFRG technique, which allowed a library of 8094 cloned bacterial 16S ribosomal genes to be analysed. Interestingly, the bacterial communities associated with both healthy and disease affected corals were very diverse and ASWS associated communities were not characterized by a single dominant organism. Treatment with antibacterials had a significant effect on the rate of progress of disease lesions (p = 0.006, suggesting that bacteria may play direct roles as the causative agents of ASWS. A number of potential aetiological agents of ASWS were identified in both the culture-based and culture-independent studies. In the culture-independent study an Alphaproteobacterium closely related to Roseovarius crassostreae, the apparent aetiological agent of juvenile oyster disease, was found to be significantly associated with disease lesions. In the culture-based study Vibrio harveyi was consistently associated with ASWS affected coral colonies and was not isolated from any healthy colonies. The differing results of the culture based and culture-independent studies

  15. First detection of bat white-nose syndrome in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Palmer, Jonathan M.; Lindner, Daniel L.; Ballmann, Anne; George, Kyle; Griffin, Kathryn M.; Knowles, Susan N.; Huckabee, John R.; Haman, Katherine H.; Anderson, Christopher D.; Becker, Penny A.; Buchanan, Joseph B.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Blehert, David

    2016-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging fungal disease of bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Since it was first detected near Albany, NY, in 2006, the fungus has spread across eastern North America, killing unprecedented numbers of hibernating bats. The devastating impacts of WNS on Nearctic bat species are attributed to the likely introduction of P. destructans from Eurasia to naive host populations in eastern North America. Since 2006, the disease has spread in a gradual wavelike pattern consistent with introduction of the pathogen at a single location. Here, we describe the first detection of P. destructans in western North America in a little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) from near Seattle, WA, far from the previously recognized geographic distribution of the fungus. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the isolate of P. destructans from Washington grouped with other isolates of a presumed clonal lineage from the eastern United States. Thus, the occurrence of P. destructans in Washington does not likely represent a novel introduction of the fungus from Eurasia, and the lack of intensive surveillance in the western United States makes it difficult to interpret whether the occurrence of P. destructans in the Pacific Northwest is disjunct from that in eastern North America. Although there is uncertainty surrounding the impacts of WNS in the Pacific Northwest, the presence of the pathogen in western North America could have major consequences for bat conservation.

  16. Evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-10-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) β-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tangential flow ultrafiltration for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp pond water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavandi, S V; Ananda Bharathi, R; Satheesh Kumar, S; Dineshkumar, N; Saravanakumar, C; Joseph Sahaya Rajan, J

    2015-06-15

    Water represents the most important component in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission pathway in aquaculture, yet there is very little information. Detection of viruses in water is a challenge, since their counts will often be too low to be detected by available methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In order to overcome this difficulty, viruses in water have to be concentrated from large volumes of water prior to detection. In this study, a total of 19 water samples from aquaculture ecosystem comprising 3 creeks, 10 shrimp culture ponds, 3 shrimp broodstock tanks and 2 larval rearing tanks of shrimp hatcheries and a sample from a hatchery effluent treatment tank were subjected to concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration (UF) using tangential flow filtration (TFF). Twenty to 100l of water from these sources was concentrated to a final volume of 100mL (200-1000 fold). The efficiency of recovery of WSSV by TFF ranged from 7.5 to 89.61%. WSSV could be successfully detected by PCR in the viral concentrates obtained from water samples of three shrimp culture ponds, one each of the shrimp broodstock tank, larval rearing tank, and the shrimp hatchery effluent treatment tank with WSSV copy numbers ranging from 6 to 157mL(-1) by quantitative real time PCR. The ultrafiltration virus concentration technique enables efficient detection of shrimp viral pathogens in water from aquaculture facilities. It could be used as an important tool to understand the efficacy of biosecurity protocols adopted in the aquaculture facility and to carry out epidemiological investigations of aquatic viral pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Shrimp miRNAs regulate innate immune response against white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkascholkul, Napol; Somboonviwat, Kulwadee; Asakawa, Shuichi; Hirono, Ikuo; Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs of RNA interference pathways that regulate gene expression through partial complementary base-pairing to target mRNAs. In this study, miRNAs that are expressed in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected Penaeus monodon, were identified using next generation sequencing. Forty-six miRNA homologs were identified from WSSV-infected shrimp hemocyte. Stem-loop real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that 11 out of 16 selected miRNAs were differentially expressed upon WSSV infection. Of those, pmo-miR-315 and pmo-miR-750 were highly responsive miRNAs. miRNA target prediction revealed that the miRNAs were targeted at 5'UTR, ORF, and 3'UTR of several immune-related genes such as genes encoding antimicrobial peptides, signaling transduction proteins, heat shock proteins, oxidative stress proteins, proteinases or proteinase inhibitors, proteins in blood clotting system, apoptosis-related proteins, proteins in prophenoloxidase system, pattern recognition proteins and other immune molecules. The highly conserved miRNA homolog, pmo-bantam, was characterized for its function in shrimp. The pmo-bantam was predicted to target the 3'UTR of Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (KuSPI). Binding of pmo-bantam to the target sequence of KuSPI gene was analyzed by luciferase reporter assay. Correlation of pmo-bantam and KuSPI expression was observed in lymphoid organ of WSSV-infected shrimp. These results implied that miRNAs might play roles as immune gene regulators in shrimp antiviral response. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Reprint of "evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2015-02-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) β-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Scavenger Receptor C Mediates Phagocytosis of White Spot Syndrome Virus and Restricts Virus Proliferation in Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Chong; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Yang, Hui-Ting; Sun, Jie-Jie; Xu, Ling; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2016-01-01

    Scavenger receptors are an important class of pattern recognition receptors that play several important roles in host defense against pathogens. The class C scavenger receptors (SRCs) have only been identified in a few invertebrates, and their role in the immune response against viruses is seldom studied. In this study, we firstly identified an SRC from kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus, designated MjSRC, which was significantly upregulated after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge at the mRNA and protein levels in hemocytes. The quantity of WSSV increased in shrimp after knockdown of MjSRC, compared with the controls. Furthermore, overexpression of MjSRC led to enhanced WSSV elimination via phagocytosis by hemocytes. Pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated the interaction between MjSRC and the WSSV envelope protein. Electron microscopy observation indicated that the colloidal gold-labeled extracellular domain of MjSRC was located on the outer surface of WSSV. MjSRC formed a trimer and was internalized into the cytoplasm after WSSV challenge, and the internalization was strongly inhibited after knockdown of Mjβ-arrestin2. Further studies found that Mjβ-arrestin2 interacted with the intracellular domain of MjSRC and induced the internalization of WSSV in a clathrin-dependent manner. WSSV were co-localized with lysosomes in hemocytes and the WSSV quantity in shrimp increased after injection of lysosome inhibitor, chloroquine. Collectively, this study demonstrated that MjSRC recognized WSSV via its extracellular domain and invoked hemocyte phagocytosis to restrict WSSV systemic infection. This is the first study to report an SRC as a pattern recognition receptor promoting phagocytosis of a virus. PMID:28027319

  1. Coral pathogens identified for White Syndrome (WS epizootics in the Indo-Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meir Sussman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: White Syndrome (WS, a general term for scleractinian coral diseases with acute signs of advancing tissue lesions often resulting in total colony mortality, has been reported from numerous locations throughout the Indo-Pacific, constituting a growing threat to coral reef ecosystems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bacterial isolates were obtained from corals displaying disease signs at three ws outbreak sites: Nikko Bay in the Republic of Palau, Nelly Bay in the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR and Majuro Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and used in laboratory-based infection trials to satisfy Henle-Koch's postulates, Evan's rules and Hill's criteria for establishing causality. Infected colonies produced similar signs to those observed in the field following exposure to bacterial concentrations of 1x10(6 cells ml(-1. Phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene analysis demonstrated that all six pathogens identified in this study were members of the gamma-Proteobacteria family Vibrionacae, each with greater than 98% sequence identity with the previously characterized coral bleaching pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus. Screening for proteolytic activity of more than 150 coral derived bacterial isolates by a biochemical assay and specific primers for a Vibrio family zinc-metalloprotease demonstrated a significant association between the presence of isolates capable of proteolytic activity and observed disease signs. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to provide evidence for the involvement of a unique taxonomic group of bacterial pathogens in the aetiology of Indo-Pacific coral diseases affecting multiple coral species at multiple locations. Results from this study strongly suggest the need for further investigation of bacterial proteolytic enzymes as possible virulence factors involved in Vibrio associated acute coral infections.

  2. White-nose syndrome pathology grading in Nearctic and Palearctic bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Pikula

    Full Text Available While white-nose syndrome (WNS has decimated hibernating bat populations in the Nearctic, species from the Palearctic appear to cope better with the fungal skin infection causing WNS. This has encouraged multiple hypotheses on the mechanisms leading to differential survival of species exposed to the same pathogen. To facilitate intercontinental comparisons, we proposed a novel pathogenesis-based grading scheme consistent with WNS diagnosis histopathology criteria. UV light-guided collection was used to obtain single biopsies from Nearctic and Palearctic bat wing membranes non-lethally. The proposed scheme scores eleven grades associated with WNS on histopathology. Given weights reflective of grade severity, the sum of findings from an individual results in weighted cumulative WNS pathology score. The probability of finding fungal skin colonisation and single, multiple or confluent cupping erosions increased with increase in Pseudogymnoascus destructans load. Increasing fungal load mimicked progression of skin infection from epidermal surface colonisation to deep dermal invasion. Similarly, the number of UV-fluorescent lesions increased with increasing weighted cumulative WNS pathology score, demonstrating congruence between WNS-associated tissue damage and extent of UV fluorescence. In a case report, we demonstrated that UV-fluorescence disappears within two weeks of euthermy. Change in fluorescence was coupled with a reduction in weighted cumulative WNS pathology score, whereby both methods lost diagnostic utility. While weighted cumulative WNS pathology scores were greater in the Nearctic than Palearctic, values for Nearctic bats were within the range of those for Palearctic species. Accumulation of wing damage probably influences mortality in affected bats, as demonstrated by a fatal case of Myotis daubentonii with natural WNS infection and healing in Myotis myotis. The proposed semi-quantitative pathology score provided good agreement

  3. Phase analysis in the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome with surgically proven accessory conduction pathways: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, K.; Bunko, H.; Tada, A.; Taki, J.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K.; Misaki, T.; Iwa, T.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-one patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome who underwent surgical division of the accessory conduction pathway (ACP) were studied by gated blood-pool scintigraphy. In each case, a functional image of the phase was generated, based on the fundamental frequency of the Fourier transform. The location of the ACP was confirmed by electrophysiologic study, epicardial mapping, and surgery. Phase analysis identified the side of preexcitation correctly in 16 out of 20 patients with WPW syndrome with a delta wave. All patients with right-cardiac type (N=9) had initial contraction in the right ventricle (RV). In patients with left-cardiac type (N=10), six had initial movement in the left ventricle (LV); but in the other four the ACPs in the anterior or lateral wall of the left ventricle (LV) could not be detected. In patients with multiple ACPs (N=2), one right-cardiac type had initial contraction in the RV, while in the other (with an intermittent WPW syndrome) the ACP was not detected. These observations indicate that abnormal wall motion is associated with the conduction anomalies of the WPW syndrome. We conclude that phase analysis can correctly identify the side of initial contraction in the WPW syndrome before and after surgery. However, as a method of preoperative study, it seems difficult to determine the precise site of the ACP by phase analysis alone

  4. Phase analysis in the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome with surgically proven accessory conduction pathways: concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, K.; Bunko, H.; Tada, A.; Taki, J.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K.; Misaki, T.; Iwa, T.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-one patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome who underwent surgical division of the accessory conduction pathway (ACP) were studied by gated blood-pool scintigraphy. In each case, a functional image of the phase was generated, based on the fundamental frequency of the Fourier transform. The location of the ACP was confirmed by electrophysiologic study, epicardial mapping, and surgery. Phase analysis identified the side of preexcitation correctly in 16 out of 20 patients with WPW syndrome with a delta wave. All patients with right-cardiac type (N=9) had initial contraction in the right ventricle (RV). In patients with left-cardiac type (N=10), six had initial movement in the left ventricle (LV); but in the other four the ACPs in the anterior or lateral wall of the left ventricle (LV) could not be detected. In patients with multiple ACPs (N=2), one right-cardiac type had initial contraction in the RV, while in the other (with an intermittent WPW syndrome) the ACP was not detected. These observations indicate that abnormal wall motion is associated with the conduction anomalies of the WPW syndrome. We conclude that phase analysis can correctly identify the side of initial contraction in the WPW syndrome before and after surgery. However, as a method of preoperative study, it seems difficult to determine the precise site of the ACP by phase analysis alone.

  5. Effect of multiple infections with white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio anguillarum on Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L.): mortality and viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, I K; Qiao, G; Kim, S-K

    2014-10-01

    Multiple infections are commonly found in practical shrimp culture and may cause more serious consequences than infections by one pathogen only. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of multiple infections with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio anguillarum on Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L.), mortality, WSSV replication in vivo and host immune response. In the WSSV single-infection group (WSSV load, 2 × 10(2) copies μL(-1)), mean cumulative mortality was 29.2%. In the V. anguillarum single-infection group, cumulative mortality was 12.5% when shrimp were challenged by 10(5) CFU mL(-1) of bacteria. In the co- and super-infection groups, 37.5% and 50% cumulative mortalities, respectively, were observed at a lower bacterial concentration of 10(3) CFU mL(-1), suggesting that shrimp with multiple infections died earlier and more frequently than singly infected shrimp. WSSV load after injection was tracked over time by TaqMan quantitative PCR. WSSV load increased more rapidly in the multiple-infection groups than in the single-infection group. Additionally, mRNA expression of the genes encoding prophenoloxidase 1 and 2, which are closely involved in innate immunity in shrimp, was down-regulated more extensively in multiple-infection groups than in single-infection groups, as indicated by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Identification of highly expressed host microRNAs that respond to white spot syndrome virus infection in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Penaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, D G; Chen, X L; Xie, D X; Zhao, Y Z; Yang, Q; Wang, H; Li, Y M; Chen, X H

    2015-05-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play an important role in regulating both adaptive and innate immunity. Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is the most widely farmed crustacean species in the world. However, little is known about the role miRNAs play in shrimp immunity. To understand the impact of viral infection on miRNA expression in shrimp, we used high-throughput sequencing technology to sequence two small RNA libraries prepared from L. vannamei under normal and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenged conditions. Approximately 19,312,189 and 39,763,551 raw reads corresponding to 17,414,787 and 28,633,379 high-quality mappable reads were obtained from the two libraries, respectively. Twelve conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNA that were highly expressed (>100 RPM) in L. vannamei were identified. Of the identified miRNAs, 8 were differentially expressed in response to the virus infection, of which 1 was upregulated and 7 were downregulated. The prediction of miRNA targets showed that the target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were related to immunity, apoptosis, and development functions. Our study provides the first characterization of L. vannamei miRNAs in response to WSSV infection, which will help to reveal the roles of miRNAs in the antiviral mechanisms of shrimp.

  7. Dietary administration of a Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract enhances the immune response and resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirustananun, Nuttarin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Liou, Chyng-Hwa; Chen, Li-Li; Sim, Su Sing; Chiew, Siau Li

    2011-12-01

    The haemogram, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, lysozyme activity, and the mitotic index of haematopoietic tissue (HPT) were examined after the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei had been fed diets containing the hot-water extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg(-1) for 7-35 days. Results indicated that these parameters directly increased with the amount of extract and time, but slightly decreased after 35 days. RBs, SOD activity, and GPx activity reached the highest levels after 14 days, whereas PO and lysozyme activities reached the highest levels after 28 days. In a separate experiment, white shrimp L. vannamei, which had been fed diets containing the extract for 14 days, were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 2 × 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 1 × 10(3) copies shrimp(-1), and then placed in seawater. The survival rate of shrimp fed the extract-containing diets was significantly higher than that of shrimp fed the control diet at 72-144 h post-challenge. We concluded that dietary administration of the G. tenuistipitata extract at ≤1.0 g kg(-1) could enhance the innate immunity within 14 days as evidenced by the increases in immune parameters and mitotic index of HPT in shrimp and their enhanced resistance against V. alginolyticus and WSSV infections. Shrimp fed the extract-containing diets showed a higher and continuous increase in the humoral response indicating its persistent role in innate immunity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Black women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have increased risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease compared with white women with PCOS [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Jennifer K; Johnson, Lauren N C; Limaye, Meghana; Feldman, Rebecca A; Sammel, Mary; Dokras, Anuja

    2014-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) and Framingham cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in white and black adolescents and adult women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared with controls. Retrospective cohort study. Center for PCOS. Subjects with PCOS with data on race and cardiometabolic risk (n = 519). Controls were age and race matched from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) population (1999-2006). None. MetSyn, coronary heart disease risk, and general CVD risk. Black adolescents and young adults with PCOS had an increased prevalence of MetSyn compared with their white counterparts (adolescents relative risk 2.65 [95% confidence interval 1.29-5.4], adults relative risk 1.44 [95% confidence interval 1.21-2.6]). In contrast, there was no difference in risk of MetSyn between black and white adolescents and adult women in the NHANES dataset. After controlling for age and body mass index, black women with PCOS had a significantly increased prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein and high glucose. The general CVD risk was significantly increased in black adults with PCOS. This is the first study to comprehensively demonstrate increased risk of MetSyn in both black adolescents and adult women with PCOS compared with white subjects with PCOS. This racial disparity was not present in the NHANES controls. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess the independent impact of PCOS and race on CVD risk in women. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Novel Detection Platform for Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus Using an ICP11-Dependent Immunomagnetic Reduction (IMR) Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing-Hsien; Lin, Yu-Chen; Ho, Chia-Shin; Yang, Che-Chuan; Chang, Yun-Tsui; Chang, Jui-Feng; Li, Chun-Yuan; Cheng, Cheng-Shun; Huang, Jiun-Yan; Lee, Yen-Fu; Hsu, Ming-Hung; Lin, Feng-Chun; Wang, Hao-Ching; Lo, Chu-Fang; Yang, Shieh-Yueh; Wang, Han-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Shrimp white spot disease (WSD), which is caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), is one of the world's most serious shrimp diseases. Our objective in this study was to use an immunomagnetic reduction (IMR) assay to develop a highly sensitive, automatic WSSV detection platform targeted against ICP11 (the most highly expressed WSSV protein). After characterizing the magnetic reagents (Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles coated with anti ICP11), the detection limit for ICP11 protein using IMR was approximately 2 x 10(-3) ng/ml, and the linear dynamic range of the assay was 0.1~1 x 10(6) ng/ml. In assays of ICP11 protein in pleopod protein lysates from healthy and WSSV-infected shrimp, IMR signals were successfully detected from shrimp with low WSSV genome copy numbers. We concluded that this IMR assay targeting ICP11 has potential for detecting the WSSV.

  10. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome in the era of catheter ablation: insights from a registry study of 2169 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappone, Carlo; Vicedomini, Gabriele; Manguso, Francesco; Saviano, Massimo; Baldi, Mario; Pappone, Alessia; Ciaccio, Cristiano; Giannelli, Luigi; Ionescu, Bogdan; Petretta, Andrea; Vitale, Raffaele; Cuko, Amarild; Calovic, Zarko; Fundaliotis, Angelica; Moscatiello, Mario; Tavazzi, Luigi; Santinelli, Vincenzo

    2014-09-02

    The management of Wolff-Parkinson-White is based on the distinction between asymptomatic and symptomatic presentations, but evidence is limited in the asymptomatic population. The Wolff-Parkinson-White registry was an 8-year prospective study of either symptomatic or asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White patients referred to our Arrhythmology Department for evaluation or ablation. Inclusion criteria were a baseline electrophysiological testing with or without radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA). Primary end points were the percentage of patients who experienced ventricular fibrillation (VF) or potentially malignant arrhythmias and risk factors. Among 2169 enrolled patients, 1001 (550 asymptomatic) did not undergo RFA (no-RFA group) and 1168 (206 asymptomatic) underwent ablation (RFA group). There were no differences in clinical and electrophysiological characteristics between the 2 groups except for symptoms. In the no-RFA group, VF occurred in 1.5% of patients, virtually exclusively (13 of 15) in children (median age, 11 years), and was associated with a short accessory pathway antegrade refractory period (PParkinson-White syndrome essentially depends on intrinsic electrophysiological properties of AP rather than on symptoms. RFA performed during the same procedure after electrophysiological testing is of benefit in improving the long-term outcomes. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors in Blacks and Whites: Dissecting Racial Paradox of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwame Osei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVD remain as the leading cause of mortality in the western world and have become a major health threat for developing countries. There are several risk factors that account for the CVD and the associated mortality. These include genetics, type 2 diabetes (T2DM, obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension, and abnormal lipids and lipoproteins. The constellation of these risk factors has been termed metabolic syndrome (MetS. MetS varies among racial and ethnic populations. Thus, race and ethnicity account for some of the differences in the MetS and the associated CVD and T2DM. Furthermore, the relationships among traditional metabolic parameters and CVD differ, especially when comparing Black and White populations. In this regard, the greater CVD in Blacks than Whites have been partly attributed to other non-traditional CVD risk factors, such as subclinical inflammation (C-reactive protein, homocysteine, increased low-density lipoprotein oxidation, lipoprotein a, adiponectin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, etc. Thus, to understand CVD and T2DM differences in Blacks and Whites with MetS, it is essential to explore the contributions of both traditional and non-traditional CVD and T2DM risk factors in Blacks of African ancestry and Whites of Europoid ancestry. Therefore, in this mini review, we propose that non-traditional risk factors should be integrated in defining MetS as a predictor of CVD and T2DM in Blacks in the African diaspora in future studies.

  12. Altered white matter microstructure is associated with social cognition and psychotic symptoms in 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eJalbrzikowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available 22q11.2 Microdeletion Syndrome (22q11DS is a highly penetrant genetic mutation associated with a significantly increased risk for psychosis. Aberrant neurodevelopment may lead to inappropriate neural circuit formation and cerebral dysconnectivity in 22q11DS, which may contribute to symptom development. Here we examined: 1 differences between 22q11DS participants and typically developing controls in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI measures within white matter tracts; 2 whether there is an altered age-related trajectory of white matter pathways in 22q11DS; and 3 relationships between DTI measures, social cognition task performance and positive symptoms of psychosis in 22q11DS and typically developing controls. Sixty-four direction diffusion weighted imaging data were acquired on 65 participants (36 22q11DS, 29 controls. We examined differences between 22q11DS vs. controls in measures of fractional anisotropy (FA, axial (AD and radial diffusivity (RD, using both a voxel-based and region of interest approach. Social cognition domains assessed were: Theory of Mind and emotion recognition. Positive symptoms were assessed using the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. Compared to typically developing controls, 22q11DS participants showed significantly lower AD and RD in multiple white matter tracts, with effects of greatest magnitude for AD in the superior longitudinal fasciculus. Additionally, 22q11DS participants failed to show typical age-associated changes in FA and RD in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Higher AD in the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and left uncinate fasciculus was associated with better social cognition in 22q11DS and controls. In contrast, greater severity of positive symptoms was associated with lower AD in bilateral regions of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus in 22q11DS. White matter microstructure in tracts relevant to social cognition is disrupted in 22q11DS, and may contribute to

  13. Conspecific disturbance contributes to altered hibernation patterns in bats with white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James M; Warnecke, Lisa; Wilcox, Alana; Baloun, Dylan; Bollinger, Trent K; Misra, Vikram; Willis, Craig K R

    2015-03-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome (WNS) affects both physiology and behaviour of hibernating bats. Infection with the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), the first pathogen known to target torpid animals, causes an increase in arousal frequency during hibernation, and therefore premature depletion of energy stores. Infected bats also show a dramatic decrease in clustering behaviour over the winter. To investigate the interaction between disease progression and torpor expression we quantified physiological (i.e., timing of arousal, rewarming rate) and behavioural (i.e., arousal synchronisation, clustering) aspects of rewarming events over four months in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) experimentally inoculated with Pd. We tested two competing hypotheses: 1) Bats adjust arousal physiology adaptively to help compensate for an increase in energetically expensive arousals. This hypothesis predicts that infected bats should increase synchronisation of arousals with colony mates to benefit from social thermoregulation and/or that solitary bats will exhibit faster rewarming rates than clustered individuals because rewarming costs fall as rewarming rate increases. 2) As for the increase in arousal frequency, changes in arousal physiology and clustering behaviour are maladaptive consequences of infection. This hypothesis predicts no effect of infection or clustering behaviour on rewarming rate and that disturbance by normothermic bats contributes to the overall increase in arousal frequency. We found that arousals of infected bats became more synchronised than those of controls as hibernation progressed but the pattern was not consistent with social thermoregulation. When a bat rewarmed from torpor, it was often followed in sequence by up to seven other bats in an arousal "cascade". Moreover, rewarming rate did not differ between infected and uninfected bats, was not affected by clustering and did not change over time. Our results support

  14. Patterns of acoustical activity of bats prior to and following White-nose Syndrome occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, W. Mark; Britzke, Eric R.; Dobony, Christopher A.; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Johnson, Joshua B.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose Syndrome (WNS), a wildlife health concern that has decimated cave-hibernating bat populations in eastern North America since 2006, began affecting source-caves for summer bat populations at Fort Drum, a U.S. Army installation in New York in the winter of 2007–2008. As regional die-offs of bats became evident, and Fort Drum's known populations began showing declines, we examined whether WNS-induced change in abundance patterns and seasonal timing of bat activity could be quantified using acoustical surveys, 2003–2010, at structurally uncluttered riparian–water habitats (i.e., streams, ponds, and wet meadows). As predicted, we observed significant declines in overall summer activity between pre-WNS and post-WNS years for little brown bats Myotis lucifugus, northern bats M. septentrionalis, and Indiana bats M. sodalis. We did not observe any significant change in activity patterns between pre-WNS and post-WNS years for big brown bats Eptesicus fuscus, eastern red bats Lasiurus borealis, or the small number of tri-colored bats Perimyotis subflavus. Activity of silver-haired bats Lasionycteris noctivagans increased from pre-WNS to post-WNS years. Activity levels of hoary bats Lasiurus cinereus significantly declined between pre- and post-WNS years. As a nonhibernating, migratory species, hoary bat declines might be correlated with wind-energy development impacts occurring in the same time frame rather than WNS. Intraseason activity patterns also were affected by WNS, though the results were highly variable among species. Little brown bats showed an overall increase in activity from early to late summer pre-WNS, presumably due to detections of newly volant young added to the local population. However, the opposite occurred post-WNS, indicating that reproduction among surviving little brown bats may be declining. Our data suggest that acoustical monitoring during the summer season can provide insights into species' relative abundance on the

  15. Efficacy of Visual Surveys for White-Nose Syndrome at Bat Hibernacula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda F Janicki

    Full Text Available White-Nose Syndrome (WNS is an epizootic disease in hibernating bats caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Surveillance for P. destructans at bat hibernacula consists primarily of visual surveys of bats, collection of potentially infected bats, and submission of these bats for laboratory testing. Cryptic infections (bats that are infected but display no visual signs of fungus could lead to the mischaracterization of the infection status of a site and the inadvertent spread of P. destructans. We determined the efficacy of visual detection of P. destructans by examining visual signs and molecular detection of P. destructans on 928 bats of six species at 27 sites during surveys conducted from January through March in 2012-2014 in the southeastern USA on the leading edge of the disease invasion. Cryptic infections were widespread with 77% of bats that tested positive by qPCR showing no visible signs of infection. The probability of exhibiting visual signs of infection increased with sampling date and pathogen load, the latter of which was substantially higher in three species (Myotis lucifugus, M. septentrionalis, and Perimyotis subflavus. In addition, M. lucifugus was more likely to show visual signs of infection than other species given the same pathogen load. Nearly all infections were cryptic in three species (Eptesicus fuscus, M. grisescens, and M. sodalis, which had much lower fungal loads. The presence of M. lucifugus or M. septentrionalis at a site increased the probability that P. destructans was visually detected on bats. Our results suggest that cryptic infections of P. destructans are common in all bat species, and visible infections rarely occur in some species. However, due to very high infection prevalence and loads in some species, we estimate that visual surveys examining at least 17 individuals of M. lucifugus and M. septentrionalis, or 29 individuals of P. subflavus are still effective to determine whether a site has

  16. Efficacy of Visual Surveys for White-Nose Syndrome at Bat Hibernacula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Amanda F; Frick, Winifred F; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Parise, Katy L; Foster, Jeffrey T; McCracken, Gary F

    2015-01-01

    White-Nose Syndrome (WNS) is an epizootic disease in hibernating bats caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Surveillance for P. destructans at bat hibernacula consists primarily of visual surveys of bats, collection of potentially infected bats, and submission of these bats for laboratory testing. Cryptic infections (bats that are infected but display no visual signs of fungus) could lead to the mischaracterization of the infection status of a site and the inadvertent spread of P. destructans. We determined the efficacy of visual detection of P. destructans by examining visual signs and molecular detection of P. destructans on 928 bats of six species at 27 sites during surveys conducted from January through March in 2012-2014 in the southeastern USA on the leading edge of the disease invasion. Cryptic infections were widespread with 77% of bats that tested positive by qPCR showing no visible signs of infection. The probability of exhibiting visual signs of infection increased with sampling date and pathogen load, the latter of which was substantially higher in three species (Myotis lucifugus, M. septentrionalis, and Perimyotis subflavus). In addition, M. lucifugus was more likely to show visual signs of infection than other species given the same pathogen load. Nearly all infections were cryptic in three species (Eptesicus fuscus, M. grisescens, and M. sodalis), which had much lower fungal loads. The presence of M. lucifugus or M. septentrionalis at a site increased the probability that P. destructans was visually detected on bats. Our results suggest that cryptic infections of P. destructans are common in all bat species, and visible infections rarely occur in some species. However, due to very high infection prevalence and loads in some species, we estimate that visual surveys examining at least 17 individuals of M. lucifugus and M. septentrionalis, or 29 individuals of P. subflavus are still effective to determine whether a site has bats infected

  17. Enrichment of beneficial bacteria in the skin microbiota of bats persisting with white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux-Labonté, Virginie; Simard, Anouk; Willis, Craig K R; Lapointe, François-Joseph

    2017-09-05

    Infectious diseases of wildlife are increasing worldwide with implications for conservation and human public health. The microbiota (i.e. microbial community living on or in a host) could influence wildlife disease resistance or tolerance. White-nose syndrome (WNS), caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), has killed millions of hibernating North American bats since 2007. We characterized the skin microbiota of naïve, pre-WNS little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from three WNS-negative hibernation sites and persisting, previously exposed bats from three WNS-positive sites to test the hypothesis that the skin microbiota of bats shifts following WNS invasion. Using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing on 66 bats and 11 environmental samples, we found that hibernation site strongly influenced the composition and diversity of the skin microbiota. Bats from WNS-positive and WNS-negative sites differed in alpha and beta diversity, as well as in microbiota composition. Alpha diversity was reduced in persisting, WNS-positive bats, and the microbiota profile was enriched with particular taxa such Janthinobacterium, Micrococcaceae, Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, and Rhodococcus. Some of these taxa are recognized for their antifungal activity, and specific strains of Rhodococcus and Pseudomonas are known to inhibit Pd growth. Composition of the microbial community in the hibernaculum environment and the community on bat skin was superficially similar but differed in relative abundance of some bacterial taxa. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that Pd invasion leads to a shift in the skin microbiota of surviving bats and suggest the possibility that the microbiota plays a protective role for bats facing WNS. The detection of what appears to be enrichment of beneficial bacteria in the skin microbiota of persisting bats is a promising discovery for species re-establishment. Our findings highlight not only the potential value of management actions that

  18. Ventricular fibrillation development following atrial fibrillation after the ingestion of sildenaphil in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inci, Sinan; Izgu, Ibrahim; Aktas, Halil; Dogan, Pinar; Dogan, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Complications in the accessory pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome could cause different clinical conditions by inducing different arrhythmias. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of these arrhythmias and is important as it causes life-threatening arrhythmias. It is known that some drugs, underlying cardiac diseases, and the number of accessory pathways, cause a predisposition to this condition. In the current report, we presented a patient with WPW who was admitted to the emergency department with AF, wide QRS and a rapid ventricular response that progressed to ventricular fibrillation.

  19. Malignant arrhythmia as the first manifestation of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: a case with minimal preexcitation on electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, B; Alper, A T

    2013-09-01

    Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is defined as the presence of an accessory atrioventricular pathway which is manifested as delta waves and short PR interval on electrocardiography (ECG). However, some WPW cases do not have typical findings on ECG and may remain undiagnosed unless palpitations occur. Sudden cardiac death may be the first manifestation of WPW and develops mostly secondary to degeneration of atrial fibrillation into ventricular fibrillation. In this report, we present a case of undiagnosed WPW with minimal preexcitation on ECG and who suffered an episode of malignant arrhythmia as the first manifestation of the disease.

  20. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome with an unroofed coronary sinus without persistent left superior vena cava treated with catheter cryoablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Catanchin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Coronary sinus anomalies are rare congenital defects which are usually coexistent with a persistent left superior vena cava and may be associated with cardiac arrhythmias. We report an unroofed coronary sinus without persistent left superior vena cava diagnosed during a catheter ablation procedure for Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Diagnostic and therapeutic options and outcomes are discussed. This condition is of relevance to electrophysiologists performing catheter-based procedures, as well as cardiologists implanting coronary sinus pacing leads, who may encounter this anomaly in their practice.

  1. Current strategy for treatment of patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and asymptomatic preexcitation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Dagres, Nikolaos; Dobreanu, Dan

    2013-01-01

    network, covering 20 countries answered the survey questions. All centres were high-volume ablation centres. A younger person with asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) pattern has a higher likelihood of being risk-stratified or receiving ablation therapy compared with an older subject. Two...... of responding centres (61-69%) report that their country lack national guidelines dealing with clinical strategies related to WPW. There is a need for national guidelines dealing with clinical strategy in patients with WPW syndrome. Older individuals with asymptomatic WPW pattern have a higher risk...

  2. Successful Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation for Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Within the Neck of a Coronary Sinus Diverticulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung-Won; Kim, Dong-Bin; Kwon, Bum-Jun; Cho, Eun-Joo; Shin, Woo-Seung; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Jin, Seung-Won; Oh, Yong-Seog; Lee, Man-Young; Kim, Jae-Hyung

    2009-01-01

    Posteroseptal accessory pathways are often associated with coronary sinus diverticula. These diverticula contain myocardial coats which serve as a bypass tract. We report a 54-year-old woman who underwent radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. The surface electrocardiography (ECG) demonstrated pre-excitation, indicating a posteroseptal accessory pathway. A catheter ablation via a transaortic approach failed to ablate the accessory pathway. Coronary sinus venography revealed the presence of a diverticulum near the ostium. An electrogram in the neck of the diverticulum showed the coronary sinus myocardial extension potential, which was successfully ablated by delivery of RF energy. PMID:19949625

  3. Crowding of white shrimp Litopenaeus vananmei depresses their immunity to and resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Chen, Li-Li; Huang, Chien-Lun; Hsieh, Jen-Fang; Li, Chang-Che

    2015-07-01

    Immunity parameters and the expression levels of several immune-related proteins, including lipopolysaccharide and β-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), intergin β (IB), prophenoloxidase (proPO) I, proPO II, α2-macroglobulin (α2-M), cytosolic mangangese superoxide dismutase (cytMnSOD), mitochondria manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), lysozyme, and penaeidin 3a were examined in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared at stocking densities of 2, 10, 20, 30, and 40 shrimp L(-1) after 3, 6, and 12 h. All immune parameters including haemocyte count, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and haemolymph protein were negatively related to density and time. The PO activity, SOD activity, and lysozyme activity of shrimp reared at 10 shrimp L(-1) after 12 h significantly decreased. The transcript levels of these immune-related proteins were down-regulated in shrimp reared at 20, 30, and 40 shrimp L(-1) after 12 h. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to Vibrio alginolyticus were significantly lower in shrimp reared at 30 and 40 shrimp L(-1) after 12 h. The mortality rates of shrimp reared at 20 and 40 shrimp L(-1) were significantly higher than shrimp reared at 2 shrimp L(-1) over 12-144 h and 12-48 h, respectively. Shrimp reared at high densities (>10 shrimp L(-1)) exhibited decreased resistance against pathogens as evidenced by reductions in immune parameters together with decreased expression levels of immune-related proteins, indicating perturbations of the immune system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Cardioversion for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia during lung surgery in a patient with concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoshiharu; Nagata, Hirofumi; Inoda, Ayako; Miura, Hiroko; Watanabe, Yoko; Suzuki, Kenji

    2014-10-01

    We report a case of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) that occurred during video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lobectomy in a patient with concealed Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. A 59-year-old man with lung cancer was scheduled for VATS lobectomy under general anesthesia. After inserting a thoracic epidural catheter, general anesthesia was induced with intravenous administration of propofol. Anesthesia was maintained with inhalation of desfurane in an air/oxygen mixture and intravenous infusion of remifentanil. Recurrent PSVT occurred three times, and the last episode of PSVT continued for 50 minutes regardless of administration of antiarrhythmic drugs. Synchronized electric shock via adhesive electrode pads on the patient's chest successfully converted PSVT back to normal sinus rhythm. The remaining course and postoperative period were uneventful. An electrophysiological study performed after hospital discharge detected concealed WPW syndrome, which had contributed to the development of atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia. Concealed WPW syndrome is a rare, but critical complication that could possibly cause lethal atrial tachyarrhythmias during the perioperative period. In the present case, cardioversion using adhesive electrode pads briefly terminated PSVT in a patient with concealed WPW syndrome.

  5. White fish reduces cardiovascular risk factors in patients with metabolic syndrome: the WISH-CARE study, a multicenter randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, C; Botella-Carretero, J I; Corella, D; Fiol, M; Lage, M; Lurbe, E; Richart, C; Fernández-Real, J M; Fuentes, F; Ordóñez, A; de Cos, A I; Salas-Salvadó, J; Burguera, B; Estruch, R; Ros, E; Pastor, O; Casanueva, F F

    2014-03-01

    Reduction of cardiovascular risk with high consumption of fish in diet is still a matter of debate, and concerns about heavy metal contamination have limited consumption of oily fish. We aimed to evaluate the effect of regular ingestion of white fish on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with metabolic syndrome. Multicenter randomized crossover clinical trial including 273 individuals with metabolic syndrome. An 8-week only-one dietary intervention: 100 g/d of white fish (Namibia hake) with advice on a healthy diet, compared with no fish or seafood with advice on a healthy diet. Outcomes were lipid profile, individual components of the metabolic syndrome, serum insulin concentrations, homeostasis model of insulin resistance, serum C-reactive protein and serum fatty acid levels. We found a significant lowering effect of the intervention with white fish on waist circumference (P rise (P syndrome, regular consumption of hake reduces LDL cholesterol concentrations, waist circumference and blood pressure components of the metabolic syndrome. White Fish for Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome Study, Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01758601. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. PRKAG3 polymorphisms associated with sporadic Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome among a Taiwanese population

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    Ken-Pen Weng

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that PRKAG3-230 may be associated with sporadic WPW syndrome among a Taiwanese population. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the role of mutations in AMPK subunit genes other than PRKAG3-230 in sporadic WPW syndrome.

  7. A long-term survivor of Bland-White-Garland syndrome with systemic collateral supply: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papagiannopoulou P

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background land-White-Garland syndrome (anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare disease which may result in myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure and sometimes death during the early infantile period. Case presentation: A succesfully treated case of a 45-year-old mother of 2 children with Bland-White-Garland syndrome and concomitant severe mitral regurgitation is presented. Subsequent therapy consisted of ligation of the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery, anastomosis of the left internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending branch and mitral valve replacement. Continuous blood flow from the left coronary artery ostium during extracorporeal circulation and aorta clamping suggested systemic collateral supply. Conclusions: Recognition and diagnosis of Bland-White-Garland syndrome is important due to its potentially life-threatening complications.

  8. Balancing the Costs of Wildlife Research with the Benefits of Understanding a Panzootic Disease, White-Nose Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, DeeAnn M; Field, Kenneth A; Slater, Matthew H

    2016-01-01

    Additional ethical issues surrounding wildlife research compared with biomedical research include consideration of the harm of research to the ecosystem as a whole and the benefits of conservation to the same species of animals under study. Research on white-nose syndrome in bats provides a case study to apply these considerations to determine whether research that harms ecosystems under crisis is justified. By expanding well-established guidelines for animal and human subjects research, we demonstrate that this research can be considered highly justified. Studies must minimize the amount of harm to the ecosystem while maximizing the knowledge gained. However, the likelihood of direct application of the results of the research for conservation should not necessarily take priority over other considerations, particularly when the entire context of the ecologic disaster is poorly understood. Since the emergence of white-nose syndrome, researchers have made great strides in understanding this panzootic disease and are now in a position to utilize this knowledge to mitigate this wildlife crisis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Acute paretic syndrome in juvenile White Leghorn chickens resembles late stages of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies in humans

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    Preisinger Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as being caused by inflammatory demyelination of peripheral nerve fibres. Here, we investigated in detail the immunopathology of this paretic syndrome and its possible resemblance to human neuropathies. Methods Neurologically affected chickens and control animals from one single flock underwent clinical and neuropathological examination. Peripheral nervous system (PNS alterations were characterised using standard morphological techniques, including nerve fibre teasing and transmission electron microscopy. Infiltrating cells were phenotyped immunohistologically and quantified by flow cytometry. The cytokine expression pattern was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. These investigations were accomplished by MHC genotyping and a PCR screen for Marek's disease virus (MDV. Results Spontaneous paresis of White Leghorns is caused by cell-mediated, inflammatory demyelination affecting multiple cranial and spinal nerves and nerve roots with a proximodistal tapering. Clinical manifestation coincides with the employment of humoral immune mechanisms, enrolling plasma cell recruitment, deposition of myelin-bound IgG and antibody-dependent macrophageal myelin-stripping. Disease development was significantly linked to a 539 bp microsatellite in MHC locus LEI0258. An aetiological role for MDV was excluded. Conclusions The paretic phase of avian inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis immunobiologically resembles the late-acute disease stages of human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and is characterised by a Th1-to-Th2 shift.

  10. Comparison of the white-nose syndrome agent Pseudogymnoascus destructans to cave-dwelling relatives suggests reduced saprotrophic enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Hannah T; Barton, Hazel A

    2014-01-01

    White-nose Syndrome (WNS) is an emerging infectious mycosis that has impacted multiple species of North American bats since its initial discovery in 2006, yet the physiology of the causal agent, the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( = Geomyces destructans), is not well understood. We investigated the ability of P. destructans to secrete enzymes that could permit environmental growth or affect pathogenesis and compared enzyme activity across several Pseudogymnoascus species isolated from both hibernating bats and cave sediments. We found that P. destructans produced enzymes that could be beneficial in either a pathogenic or saprotrophic context, such as lipases, hemolysins, and urease, as well as chitinase and cellulases, which could aid in saprotrophic growth. The WNS pathogen showed significantly lower activity for urease and endoglucanase compared to con-generic species (Pseudogymnoascus), which may indicate a shift in selective pressure to the detriment of P. destructans' saprotrophic ability. Based on the positive function of multiple saprotrophic enzymes, the causal agent of White-nose Syndrome shows potential for environmental growth on a variety of substrates found in caves, albeit at a reduced level compared to environmental strains. Our data suggest that if P. destructans emerged as an opportunistic infection from an environmental source, co-evolution with its host may have led to a reduced capacity for saprotrophic growth.

  11. Destructin-1 is a collagen-degrading endopeptidase secreted by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Anthony J; Knudsen, Giselle M; Beekman, Chapman; Perry, Jenna A; Johnson, Alexander D; DeRisi, Joseph L; Craik, Charles S; Bennett, Richard J

    2015-06-16

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, a disease that has caused the deaths of millions of bats in North America. This psychrophilic fungus proliferates at low temperatures and targets hibernating bats, resulting in their premature arousal from stupor with catastrophic consequences. Despite the impact of white-nose syndrome, little is known about the fungus itself or how it infects its mammalian host. P. destructans is not amenable to genetic manipulation, and therefore understanding the proteins involved in infection requires alternative approaches. Here, we identify hydrolytic enzymes secreted by P. destructans, and use a novel and unbiased substrate profiling technique to define active peptidases. These experiments revealed that endopeptidases are the major proteolytic activities secreted by P. destructans, and that collagen, the major structural protein in mammals, is actively degraded by the secretome. A serine endopeptidase, hereby-named Destructin-1, was subsequently identified, and a recombinant form overexpressed and purified. Biochemical analysis of Destructin-1 showed that it mediated collagen degradation, and a potent inhibitor of peptidase activity was identified. Treatment of P. destructans-conditioned media with this antagonist blocked collagen degradation and facilitated the detection of additional secreted proteolytic activities, including aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases. These results provide molecular insights into the secretome of P. destructans, and identify serine endopeptidases that have the clear potential to facilitate tissue invasion and pathogenesis in the mammalian host.

  12. Comparison of the white-nose syndrome agent Pseudogymnoascus destructans to cave-dwelling relatives suggests reduced saprotrophic enzyme activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah T Reynolds

    Full Text Available White-nose Syndrome (WNS is an emerging infectious mycosis that has impacted multiple species of North American bats since its initial discovery in 2006, yet the physiology of the causal agent, the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( = Geomyces destructans, is not well understood. We investigated the ability of P. destructans to secrete enzymes that could permit environmental growth or affect pathogenesis and compared enzyme activity across several Pseudogymnoascus species isolated from both hibernating bats and cave sediments. We found that P. destructans produced enzymes that could be beneficial in either a pathogenic or saprotrophic context, such as lipases, hemolysins, and urease, as well as chitinase and cellulases, which could aid in saprotrophic growth. The WNS pathogen showed significantly lower activity for urease and endoglucanase compared to con-generic species (Pseudogymnoascus, which may indicate a shift in selective pressure to the detriment of P. destructans' saprotrophic ability. Based on the positive function of multiple saprotrophic enzymes, the causal agent of White-nose Syndrome shows potential for environmental growth on a variety of substrates found in caves, albeit at a reduced level compared to environmental strains. Our data suggest that if P. destructans emerged as an opportunistic infection from an environmental source, co-evolution with its host may have led to a reduced capacity for saprotrophic growth.

  13. Bacteria isolated from bats inhibit the growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Joseph R; Cheng, Tina L; Langwig, Kate E; Hee, Mallory M; Frick, Winifred F; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2015-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to wildlife. Several fungal skin pathogens have recently emerged and caused widespread mortality in several vertebrate groups, including amphibians, bats, rattlesnakes and humans. White-nose syndrome, caused by the fungal skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, threatens several hibernating bat species with extinction and there are few effective treatment strategies. The skin microbiome is increasingly understood to play a large role in determining disease outcome. We isolated bacteria from the skin of four bat species, and co-cultured these isolates with P. destructans to identify bacteria that might inhibit or kill P. destructans. We then conducted two reciprocal challenge experiments in vitro with six bacterial isolates (all in the genus Pseudomonas) to quantify the effect of these bacteria on the growth of P. destructans. All six Pseudomonas isolates significantly inhibited growth of P. destructans compared to non-inhibitory control bacteria, and two isolates performed significantly better than others in suppressing P. destructans growth for at least 35 days. In both challenge experiments, the extent of suppression of P. destructans growth was dependent on the initial concentration of P. destructans and the initial concentration of the bacterial isolate. These results show that bacteria found naturally occurring on bats can inhibit the growth of P. destructans in vitro and should be studied further as a possible probiotic to protect bats from white-nose syndrome. In addition, the presence of these bacteria may influence disease outcomes among individuals, populations, and species.

  14. Effects of wind energy generation and white-nose syndrome on the viability of the Indiana bat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Erickson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy generation holds the potential to adversely affect wildlife populations. Species-wide effects are difficult to study and few, if any, studies examine effects of wind energy generation on any species across its entire range. One species that may be affected by wind energy generation is the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis, which is found in the eastern and midwestern United States. In addition to mortality from wind energy generation, the species also faces range-wide threats from the emerging infectious fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS. White-nose syndrome, caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, disturbs hibernating bats leading to high levels of mortality. We used a spatially explicit full-annual-cycle model to investigate how wind turbine mortality and WNS may singly and then together affect population dynamics of this species. In the simulation, wind turbine mortality impacted the metapopulation dynamics of the species by causing extirpation of some of the smaller winter colonies. In general, effects of wind turbines were localized and focused on specific spatial subpopulations. Conversely, WNS had a depressive effect on the species across its range. Wind turbine mortality interacted with WNS and together these stressors had a larger impact than would be expected from either alone, principally because these stressors together act to reduce species abundance across the spectrum of population sizes. Our findings illustrate the importance of not only prioritizing the protection of large winter colonies as is currently done, but also of protecting metapopulation dynamics and migratory connectivity.

  15. Effects of wind energy generation and white-nose syndrome on the viability of the Indiana bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Russell, Robin E.; Szymanski, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Wind energy generation holds the potential to adversely affect wildlife populations. Species-wide effects are difficult to study and few, if any, studies examine effects of wind energy generation on any species across its entire range. One species that may be affected by wind energy generation is the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis), which is found in the eastern and midwestern United States. In addition to mortality from wind energy generation, the species also faces range-wide threats from the emerging infectious fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS). White-nose syndrome, caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, disturbs hibernating bats leading to high levels of mortality. We used a spatially explicit full-annual-cycle model to investigate how wind turbine mortality and WNS may singly and then together affect population dynamics of this species. In the simulation, wind turbine mortality impacted the metapopulation dynamics of the species by causing extirpation of some of the smaller winter colonies. In general, effects of wind turbines were localized and focused on specific spatial subpopulations. Conversely, WNS had a depressive effect on the species across its range. Wind turbine mortality interacted with WNS and together these stressors had a larger impact than would be expected from either alone, principally because these stressors together act to reduce species abundance across the spectrum of population sizes. Our findings illustrate the importance of not only prioritizing the protection of large winter colonies as is currently done, but also of protecting metapopulation dynamics and migratory connectivity.

  16. Effects of wind energy generation and white-nose syndrome on the viability of the Indiana bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A; Thogmartin, Wayne E; Diffendorfer, Jay E; Russell, Robin E; Szymanski, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Wind energy generation holds the potential to adversely affect wildlife populations. Species-wide effects are difficult to study and few, if any, studies examine effects of wind energy generation on any species across its entire range. One species that may be affected by wind energy generation is the endangered Indiana bat ( Myotis sodalis ), which is found in the eastern and midwestern United States. In addition to mortality from wind energy generation, the species also faces range-wide threats from the emerging infectious fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS). White-nose syndrome, caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans , disturbs hibernating bats leading to high levels of mortality. We used a spatially explicit full-annual-cycle model to investigate how wind turbine mortality and WNS may singly and then together affect population dynamics of this species. In the simulation, wind turbine mortality impacted the metapopulation dynamics of the species by causing extirpation of some of the smaller winter colonies. In general, effects of wind turbines were localized and focused on specific spatial subpopulations. Conversely, WNS had a depressive effect on the species across its range. Wind turbine mortality interacted with WNS and together these stressors had a larger impact than would be expected from either alone, principally because these stressors together act to reduce species abundance across the spectrum of population sizes. Our findings illustrate the importance of not only prioritizing the protection of large winter colonies as is currently done, but also of protecting metapopulation dynamics and migratory connectivity.

  17. Bacteria isolated from bats inhibit the growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Hoyt

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to wildlife. Several fungal skin pathogens have recently emerged and caused widespread mortality in several vertebrate groups, including amphibians, bats, rattlesnakes and humans. White-nose syndrome, caused by the fungal skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, threatens several hibernating bat species with extinction and there are few effective treatment strategies. The skin microbiome is increasingly understood to play a large role in determining disease outcome. We isolated bacteria from the skin of four bat species, and co-cultured these isolates with P. destructans to identify bacteria that might inhibit or kill P. destructans. We then conducted two reciprocal challenge experiments in vitro with six bacterial isolates (all in the genus Pseudomonas to quantify the effect of these bacteria on the growth of P. destructans. All six Pseudomonas isolates significantly inhibited growth of P. destructans compared to non-inhibitory control bacteria, and two isolates performed significantly better than others in suppressing P. destructans growth for at least 35 days. In both challenge experiments, the extent of suppression of P. destructans growth was dependent on the initial concentration of P. destructans and the initial concentration of the bacterial isolate. These results show that bacteria found naturally occurring on bats can inhibit the growth of P. destructans in vitro and should be studied further as a possible probiotic to protect bats from white-nose syndrome. In addition, the presence of these bacteria may influence disease outcomes among individuals, populations, and species.

  18. Comparison of the accuracy of three algorithms in predicting accessory pathways among adult Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maden, Orhan; Balci, Kevser Gülcihan; Selcuk, Mehmet Timur; Balci, Mustafa Mücahit; Açar, Burak; Unal, Sefa; Kara, Meryem; Selcuk, Hatice

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of three algorithms in predicting accessory pathway locations in adult patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome in Turkish population. A total of 207 adult patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome were retrospectively analyzed. The most preexcited 12-lead electrocardiogram in sinus rhythm was used for analysis. Two investigators blinded to the patient data used three algorithms for prediction of accessory pathway location. Among all locations, 48.5% were left-sided, 44% were right-sided, and 7.5% were located in the midseptum or anteroseptum. When only exact locations were accepted as match, predictive accuracy for Chiang was 71.5%, 72.4% for d'Avila, and 71.5% for Arruda. The percentage of predictive accuracy of all algorithms did not differ between the algorithms (p = 1.000; p = 0.875; p = 0.885, respectively). The best algorithm for prediction of right-sided, left-sided, and anteroseptal and midseptal accessory pathways was Arruda (p algorithms were similar in predicting accessory pathway location and the predicted accuracy was lower than previously reported by their authors. However, according to the accessory pathway site, the algorithm designed by Arruda et al. showed better predictions than the other algorithms and using this algorithm may provide advantages before a planned ablation.

  19. Utility of Exercise Testing and Adenosine Response for Risk Assessment in Children with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergul, Yakup; Ozturk, Erkut; Ozyilmaz, Isa; Unsal, Serkan; Carus, Hayat; Tola, Hasan Tahsin; Tanidir, Ibrahim Cansaran; Guzeltas, Alper

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine the correlation between noninvasive testing (exercise stress testing [EST] and adenosine responsiveness of accessory pathway [AP] ) and invasive electrophysiology study (EPS) for assessment antegrade conduction of the AP in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. This prospective, observational study enrolled 40 children (58% male children, median age of 13 years, and median weight of 47.5 kg) with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Conduction through the AP to a cycle length of ≤250 ms was considered rapid or high-risk; otherwise, patients were nonrapid or low-risk. The sudden disappearance of the delta-wave was seen in 10 cases (25%) during EST. Accessory pathway was found to be high-risk in 13 cases (13/40, 32.5%) while the accessory path was identified as low-risk in 27 cases; however, six patients (15%) had blocked AP conduction with adenosine during EPS. Low-risk classification by EST alone to identify patients with nonrapid conduction in baseline EPS had a specificity of 93% and a positive predictive value of 90% (accuracy 54%). Blocked AP conduction with adenosine as a marker of nonrapid baseline AP conduction had a specificity of 93% and a positive predictive value of 84%. Finally, AP was adenosine nonresponsive in the majority of patients (28/30, 93%) with persistent delta-waves, 40% of those who had a sudden disappearance of delta-waves had an adenosine-responsive AP (P value: .028). Abrupt loss of preexcitation during EST and blocked AP conduction with adenosine had high specificity and positive predictive value for nonrapid and low-risk antegrade conduction during baseline invasive EPS. Successful risk stratification of pediatric patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White is possible through the use of EST and the adenosine responsiveness of AP. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Recovery of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from natural infection with Geomyces destructans, white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Valent, Mick; Kashmer, Jackie; Buckles, Elizabeth L; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Blehert, David S; Lollar, Amanda; Berndt, Douglas; Wheeler, Emily; White, C LeAnn; Ballmann, Anne E

    2011-07-01

    Geomyces destructans produces the white fungal growth on the muzzle and the tacky white discoloration on wings and ears that characterize white-nose syndrome (WNS) in cave-hibernating bats. To test the hypothesis that postemergent WNS-infected bats recover from infection with G. destructans, 30 little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) were collected in May 2009 from a WNS-affected hibernation site in New Jersey. All bats were confirmed to be infected with G. destructans using a noninvasive fungal tape method to identify the conidia of G. destructans and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The bats were then held in captivity and given supportive care for 70 days. Of the 26 bats that survived and were humanely killed after 70 days, 25 showed significant improvement in the external appearance of wing membranes, had no microscopic evidence of infection by G. destructans, and had wing tissue samples that were negative for G. destructans by PCR. A subset of the bats was treated topically at the beginning of the rehabilitation study with a dilute vinegar solution, but treatment with vinegar provided no added advantage to recovery. Provision of supportive care to homeothermic bats was sufficient for full recovery from WNS. One bat at day 70 still had both gross pathology and microscopic evidence of WNS in wing membranes and was PCR-positive for G. destructans. Dense aggregates of neutrophils surrounded the hyphae that remained in the wing membrane of this bat.

  1. Recovery of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from natural infection with Geomyces destructans, white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Valent, Mick; Kashmer, Jackie; Buckles, Elizabeth L.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Blehert, David S.; Lollar, Amanda; Berndt, Douglas; Wheeler, Emily; White, C. LeAnn; Ballmann, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    Geomyces destructans produces the white fungal growth on the muzzle and the tacky white discoloration on wings and ears that characterize white-nose syndrome (WNS) in cave-hibernating bats. To test the hypothesis that postemergent WNS-infected bats recover from infection with G. destructans, 30 little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) were collected in May 2009 from a WNS-affected hibernation site in New Jersey. All bats were confirmed to be infected with G. destructans using a noninvasive fungal tape method to identify the conidia of G. destructans and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The bats were then held in captivity and given supportive care for 70 days. Of the 26 bats that survived and were humanely killed after 70 days, 25 showed significant improvement in the external appearance of wing membranes, had no microscopic evidence of infection by G. destructans, and had wing tissue samples that were negative for G. destructans by PCR. A subset of the bats was treated topically at the beginning of the rehabilitation study with a dilute vinegar solution, but treatment with vinegar provided no added advantage to recovery. Provision of supportive care to homeothermic bats was sufficient for full recovery from WNS. One bat at day 70 still had both gross pathology and microscopic evidence of WNS in wing membranes and was PCR-positive for G. destructans. Dense aggregates of neutrophils surrounded the hyphae that remained in the wing membrane of this bat.

  2. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genome stability maintained over six passages through three different penaeid shrimp species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhupriya, M; Saravanan, P; Otta, S K; Amarnath, C Bala; Arulraj, R; Bhuvaneswari, T; Praveena, P Ezhil; Jithendran, K P; Ponniah, A G

    2014-08-21

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) replicates rapidly, can be extremely pathogenic and is a common cause of mass mortality in cultured shrimp. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences present in the open reading frame (ORF)94, ORF125 and ORF75 regions of the WSSV genome have been used widely as genetic markers in epidemiological studies. However, reports that VNTRs might evolve rapidly following even a single transmission through penaeid shrimp or other crustacean hosts have created confusion as to how VNTR data is interpreted. To examine VNTR stability again, 2 WSSV strains (PmTN4RU and LvAP11RU) with differing ORF94 tandem repeat numbers and slight differences in apparent virulence were passaged sequentially 6 times through black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, Indian white shrimp Feneropenaeus indicus or Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. PCR analyses to genotype the ORF94, ORF125 and ORF75 VNTRs did not identify any differences from either of the 2 parental WSSV strains after multiple passages through any of the shrimp species. These data were confirmed by sequence analysis and indicate that the stability of the genome regions containing these VNTRs is quite high at least for the WSSV strains, hosts and number of passages examined and that the VNTR sequences thus represent useful genetic markers for studying WSSV epidemiology.

  3. Fabrication of CuInS2/ZnS quantum dots-based white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chih-Chun; Su, Yu-Sheng; Chung, Shu-Ru

    2017-09-01

    Among solid-state lighting technology, phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (pc-WLEDs) are excellent candidates to replace incandescent lamps for their merit of high energy conservation, long lifetime, high luminous efficiency as well as polarized emissions. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are emerging color tunable emissive light converters. They have shown significant promise as light emitters, as solar cells, and in biological imaging. It has been demonstrated that the pc-WLED devices integrated with red emissive ZnCdSe QDs show improved color rendering index of device. However, cadmium-based QDs have limited future owing to the well-known toxicity. Recently, non-cadmium luminescence materials, i.e. CuInS2-based QDs, are investigated as desirable low toxic alternatives. Particularly, CuInS2-based QDs exhibit very broad emissions spectra with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 100-120 nm, large Stokes shifts of 200 300 meV and finely-tunable emissions. In order to adjust emission wavelengths and improved quantum yield (QY), CuInS2/ZnS (CIS/ZnS) core/shell structure was introduced. Therefore, CIS/ZnS QDs have been extensively investigated and be used as color converter in solid-state lighting. Synthesis and application of CuInS2/ZnS core/shell QDs are conducted using a hot injection route. CIS/ZnS core/shell QDs with molar ratio of Cu:In equal to 1:4 are prepared. For WLED fabrication, the CIS/ZnS QD is dispersed in toluene first, and then it is blended with transparent acrylic-based UV resin. Subsequently, the commercial green-emitting Lu3Al5O12: Ce3+ (LuAG) phosphors are mixed with QDs-resin mixture. After that, the QDs-phosphors-resin mixtures are put in the oven at 140 °C for 1 h to evaporate the toluene. Subsequently, the homogeneous QDs-phosphors-resin mixture is dropped on the top of a blue LED chip (InGaN). Then, the device is cured by 400 W UV light to form WLED. The emission wavelength of CIS/ZnS QD exhibits yellow region of 552 nm with QY

  4. Phase analysis in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Correlations to surgically confirmed accessory conduction pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Bunko, Hisashi; Tada, Akira; Taki, Junichi; Tonami, Norihisa

    1983-09-01

    Twenty-five patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome who underwent surgical division of the accessory conduction pathway (ACP) were studied by gated blood pool studies and phase analyses. All of 11 patients with right cardiac type (R-type) had abnormal initial phase in the right ventricle (RV), while 10 out of 14 patients with left cardiac type (L-type) had initial phase in the left ventricle (LV). However, in 4 L-type patients, there were no significant differences in the initiation of both ventricular contractions. In 10 patients who had radionuclide studies before and after surgical division of the ACP, the ventricular contraction patterns were apparently changed and the abnormal wall motions induced by the presence of ACPs disappeared. These observations indicate that the abnormal initial contraction is associated with pre-excitation of WPW syndrome. Sensitivities to identify the side of preexcitation were 100% (11/11) for R-type and 71% (10/14) for L-type. However, regarding the detection of the precise site of ACP, the agreement was 48% (12/25). Therefore, as a method of preoperative study, it seemed difficult to identify the precise localization of the ACP by phase analysis alone. Phase analysis provided interesting informations and was useful for evaluating patients with WPW syndrome before and after surgery. (author).

  5. Amiodarone and Catheter Ablation as Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy for Children with Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Jeong, Soo In; Kang, I-Seok; Lee, Heung Jae

    2013-01-01

    Preexcitation by accessory pathways (APs) is known to cause dyssynchrony of the ventricle, related to ventricular dysfunction. Correction of ventricular dyssynchrony can improve heart failure in cases of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP) with preexcitation. Here, we report the first case of a child with DCMP and Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome treated with amiodarone and radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) in Korea. A 7-year-old boy, who suffered from DCMP and WPW syndrome, showed improved left ventricular function and clinical functional class after treatment with amiodarone to eliminate preexcitation. QRS duration and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were inversely correlated with amiodarone dosage. After confirming the reduction of preexcitation effects in DCMP, successful RFCA of the right anterior AP resulted in LVEF improvement, along with the disappearance of preexcitation. Our findings suggest that ventricular dyssynchrony, caused by preexcitation in DCMP with WPW syndrome, can worsen ventricular function and amiodarone, as well as RFCA, which should be considered as a treatment option, even in young children. PMID:23407697

  6. A young patient with atypical type-B Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome accompanied by left ventricular dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Takahiro; Tomita, Takeshi; Kasai, Hiroki; Kashiwagi, Daisuke; Yoshie, Koji; Yaguchi, Tomonori; Oguchi, Yasutaka; Kozuka, Ayako; Gautam, Milan; Motoki, Hirohiko; Okada, Ayako; Shiba, Yuji; Aizawa, Kazunori; Izawa, Atsushi; Miyashita, Yusuke; Koyama, Jun; Hongo, Minoru; Ikeda, Uichi

    2014-01-01

    A 15-year-old asymptomatic male patient presented with an electrocardiographic abnormality and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (left ventricle ejection fraction of 40%) in a physical examination performed 2 years previously. LV dysfunction did not improve despite optimal medical therapy for dilated cardiomyopathy. Twelve-lead electrocardiography revealed a normal PR interval (138 ms) with a small delta-like wave in V2, but not a typical diagnostic wave that could be diagnosed as Wolff–Parkinson–White (WPW) syndrome by an electrocardiogram auto-analysis. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a remarkable asynchronous septal motion. An electrophysiological study was performed to exclude WPW syndrome. An accessory pathway (AP) was revealed on the lateral wall of the right ventricle, and radiofrequency catheter ablation was successfully performed to disconnect the AP. Thereafter, the dyssynchrony disappeared, and LV function improved. The intrinsic atrioventricular nodal conduction was very slow (A-H, 237 ms). The results of electrocardiogram auto-analysis could not be used to confirm the diagnosis of WPW syndrome because of the atypical delta wave. Conduction via the right lateral AP caused electrical dyssynchrony in the LV. This case suggests that atypical delta waves should be evaluated without depending on electrocardiographic auto-analyses in patients with LV dysfunction accompanied by dyssynchrony. PMID:26336525

  7. A young patient with atypical type-B Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome accompanied by left ventricular dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Takeuchi, MD

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old asymptomatic male patient presented with an electrocardiographic abnormality and left ventricular (LV dysfunction (left ventricle ejection fraction of 40% in a physical examination performed 2 years previously. LV dysfunction did not improve despite optimal medical therapy for dilated cardiomyopathy. Twelve-lead electrocardiography revealed a normal PR interval (138 ms with a small delta-like wave in V2, but not a typical diagnostic wave that could be diagnosed as Wolff–Parkinson–White (WPW syndrome by an electrocardiogram auto-analysis. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a remarkable asynchronous septal motion. An electrophysiological study was performed to exclude WPW syndrome. An accessory pathway (AP was revealed on the lateral wall of the right ventricle, and radiofrequency catheter ablation was successfully performed to disconnect the AP. Thereafter, the dyssynchrony disappeared, and LV function improved. The intrinsic atrioventricular nodal conduction was very slow (A-H, 237 ms. The results of electrocardiogram auto-analysis could not be used to confirm the diagnosis of WPW syndrome because of the atypical delta wave. Conduction via the right lateral AP caused electrical dyssynchrony in the LV. This case suggests that atypical delta waves should be evaluated without depending on electrocardiographic auto-analyses in patients with LV dysfunction accompanied by dyssynchrony.

  8. Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovskii, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by

  9. Advances in the processing of policromat images as diagnostic method to determine white spot syndrome virus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Sanchez, Cristina M.; Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Montoya-Rodriguez, L.; Garcia-Gasca, A.; Fajer Avila, Emma J.; Pacheco-Marges, R.

    2004-10-01

    White spot syndrome (WSSV) is a viral disease which affects many crustacean species including commercial shrimps. Adequate, precise and quick methods to diagnose on time the presence of the disease in order to apply different strategies to avoid the dispersion and to reduce mortalities is necessary. Histopathology is an important diagnostic method. However, histopathology has the problem that requires time to prepare the histological slides and time to arrive to some diagnosis because this depend on the nature of the tissues, the pathogen(s) to find, the number of organisms, number of slides to analyze and the skill of the technician. This paper try to demonstrate the sensibility of one digital system of processing and recognition of images using color correlation with phase filters, to identify inclusion bodies of WSSV. Infected tissues were processed to obtain histological slides and to verify that the inclusion bodies observed were of WSV, in situ hybridization were carried out. The sensibility results of the recognition of the inclusion bodies of WSSV with the color correlation program was 86.1%. The highest percentage of recognition was in nervous system and tegument glands with 100%. The values in the stomach epithelium and heart tissue was 78.45% of recognition. Tissues with the lowest recognition values were lymphoid organ and hematopoietic tissue. It is necessary further studies to increase the sensibility and to obtain the specificity.

  10. Dot gain compensation in the blue noise mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Meng; Parker, Kevin J.

    1995-04-01

    Frequency modulated (FM) halftoning or 'stochastic screening,' has attracted a great deal of attention in the printing industry in recent years. It has several advantages over conventional halftoning. But one serious problem that arises in FM halftoning is dot gain. One approach to stochastic screening uses a specially constructed halftone screen, the blue noise mask (BNM), to produce an unstructured and visually appealing pattern of halftone dots at any gray level. In this paper, we will present methods to correct dot gain with the BNM. Dot gain is related to the area-to-perimeter ration of printed spots. We can exploit this feature in different ways. At a medium level, a B>NM pattern will have 'connected' as well as 'isolated' dots. Normally, as we build down BNM patterns to lower levels, a specific number of white dots will be replace by black dots. Since connected white dots are more likely to be picked than isolated white dots, this will results in substantial dot gain because of the increasing number of isolated white dots. We show that it is possible to constrain the process of constructing a BNM such that isolated dots are preferentially removes, thus significantly reducing dot gain in a BNM.

  11. Physiological Expression of AMPKγ2RG Mutation Causes Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Induces Kidney Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaodong; Mudgett, John; Bou-About, Ghina; Champy, Marie-France; Jacobs, Hugues; Monassier, Laurent; Pavlovic, Guillaume; Sorg, Tania; Herault, Yann; Petit-Demoulière, Benoit; Lu, Ku; Feng, Wen; Wang, Hongwu; Ma, Li-Jun; Askew, Roger; Erion, Mark D; Kelley, David E; Myers, Robert W; Li, Cai; Guan, Hong-Ping

    2016-11-04

    Mutations of the AMP-activated kinase gamma 2 subunit (AMPKγ2), N488I (AMPKγ2 NI ) and R531G (AMPKγ2 RG ), are associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, a cardiac disorder characterized by ventricular pre-excitation in humans. Cardiac-specific transgenic overexpression of human AMPKγ2 NI or AMPKγ2 RG leads to constitutive AMPK activation and the WPW phenotype in mice. However, overexpression of these mutant proteins also caused profound, non-physiological increase in cardiac glycogen, which might abnormally alter the true phenotype. To investigate whether physiological levels of AMPKγ2 NI or AMPKγ2 RG mutation cause WPW syndrome and metabolic changes in other organs, we generated two knock-in mouse lines on the C57BL/6N background harboring mutations of human AMPKγ2 NI and AMPKγ2 RG , respectively. Similar to the reported phenotypes of mice overexpressing AMPKγ2 NI or AMPKγ2 RG in the heart, both lines developed WPW syndrome and cardiac hypertrophy; however, these effects were independent of cardiac glycogen accumulation. Compared with AMPKγ2 WT mice, AMPKγ2 NI and AMPKγ2 RG mice exhibited reduced body weight, fat mass, and liver steatosis when fed with a high fat diet (HFD). Surprisingly, AMPKγ2 RG but not AMPKγ2 NI mice fed with an HFD exhibited severe kidney injury characterized by glycogen accumulation, inflammation, apoptosis, cyst formation, and impaired renal function. These results demonstrate that expression of AMPKγ2 NI and AMPKγ2 RG mutations at physiological levels can induce beneficial metabolic effects but that this is accompanied by WPW syndrome. Our data also reveal an unexpected effect of AMPKγ2 RG in the kidney, linking lifelong constitutive activation of AMPK to a potential risk for kidney dysfunction in the context of an HFD. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Physiological Expression of AMPKγ2RG Mutation Causes Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and Induces Kidney Injury in Mice*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaodong; Mudgett, John; Bou-About, Ghina; Champy, Marie-France; Jacobs, Hugues; Monassier, Laurent; Pavlovic, Guillaume; Sorg, Tania; Herault, Yann; Petit-Demoulière, Benoit; Lu, Ku; Feng, Wen; Wang, Hongwu; Ma, Li-Jun; Askew, Roger; Erion, Mark D.; Kelley, David E.; Myers, Robert W.; Li, Cai

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the AMP-activated kinase gamma 2 subunit (AMPKγ2), N488I (AMPKγ2NI) and R531G (AMPKγ2RG), are associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, a cardiac disorder characterized by ventricular pre-excitation in humans. Cardiac-specific transgenic overexpression of human AMPKγ2NI or AMPKγ2RG leads to constitutive AMPK activation and the WPW phenotype in mice. However, overexpression of these mutant proteins also caused profound, non-physiological increase in cardiac glycogen, which might abnormally alter the true phenotype. To investigate whether physiological levels of AMPKγ2NI or AMPKγ2RG mutation cause WPW syndrome and metabolic changes in other organs, we generated two knock-in mouse lines on the C57BL/6N background harboring mutations of human AMPKγ2NI and AMPKγ2RG, respectively. Similar to the reported phenotypes of mice overexpressing AMPKγ2NI or AMPKγ2RG in the heart, both lines developed WPW syndrome and cardiac hypertrophy; however, these effects were independent of cardiac glycogen accumulation. Compared with AMPKγ2WT mice, AMPKγ2NI and AMPKγ2RG mice exhibited reduced body weight, fat mass, and liver steatosis when fed with a high fat diet (HFD). Surprisingly, AMPKγ2RG but not AMPKγ2NI mice fed with an HFD exhibited severe kidney injury characterized by glycogen accumulation, inflammation, apoptosis, cyst formation, and impaired renal function. These results demonstrate that expression of AMPKγ2NI and AMPKγ2RG mutations at physiological levels can induce beneficial metabolic effects but that this is accompanied by WPW syndrome. Our data also reveal an unexpected effect of AMPKγ2RG in the kidney, linking lifelong constitutive activation of AMPK to a potential risk for kidney dysfunction in the context of an HFD. PMID:27621313

  13. Quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouwenhoven, L.; Marcus, C.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum dots are man-made ''droplets'' of charge that can contain anything from a single electron to a collection of several thousand. Their typical dimensions range from nanometres to a few microns, and their size, shape and interactions can be precisely controlled through the use of advanced nanofabrication technology. The physics of quantum dots shows many parallels with the behaviour of naturally occurring quantum systems in atomic and nuclear physics. Indeed, quantum dots exemplify an important trend in condensed-matter physics in which researchers study man-made objects rather than real atoms or nuclei. As in an atom, the energy levels in a quantum dot become quantized due to the confinement of electrons. With quantum dots, however, an experimentalist can scan through the entire periodic table by simply changing a voltage. In this article the authors describe how quantum dots make it possible to explore new physics in regimes that cannot otherwise be accessed in the laboratory. (UK)

  14. Usefulness of severe cardiac sympathetic dysfunction to predict the occurrence of rapid atrial fibrillation in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Kaneko, Kyouichi; Kodama, Yusuke; Li, Hui-Ling; Asano, Taku; Suyama, Jumpei; Tanno, Kaoru; Namiki, Atsuo; Shinozuka, Akira; Gokan, Takehiko; Kobayashi, Youichi

    2013-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) can be a potentially life-threatening arrhythmia when it conducts rapidly through the accessory pathway, which was not predicted by the noninvasive method. We evaluated the cardiac sympathetic activity for predicting the occurrence of AF in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. Iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy was performed under stable sinus rhythm conditions at rest syndrome than in the normal control group, and in the 15 patients with AF induced during EPS than in the 30 patients without AF (p syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome: the detection of delta wave in an electrocardiogram (ECG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamat, Hassan Adam; Jacquir, Sabir; Khalil, Cliff; Laurent, Gabriel; Binczak, Stephane

    2016-08-01

    The delta wave remains an important indicator to diagnose the WPW syndrome. In this paper, a new method of detection of delta wave in an ECG signal is proposed. Firstly, using the continuous wavelet transform, the P wave, the QRS complex and the T wave are detected, then their durations are computed after determination of the boundary location (onsets and offsets of the P, QRS and T waves). Secondly, the PR duration, the QRS duration and the upstroke of the QRS complex are used to determine the presence or absence of the delta wave. This algorithm has been tested on the Physionel database (ptbdb) in order to evaluate its robustness. It has been applied to clinical signals from patients affected by WPW syndrome. This method can provide assistance to practitioners in order to detect the WPW syndrome.

  16. Relationships of three species of bats impacted by white-nose syndrome to forest condition and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvis, Alexander; Perry, Roger W.; Ford, W. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Forest management activities can have substantial effects on forest structure and community composition and response of wildlife therein. Bats can be highly influenced by these structural changes, and understanding how forest management affects day-roost and foraging ecology of bats is currently a paramount conservation issue. With populations of many cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America declining as a result of white-nose syndrome (WNS), it is increasingly critical to understand relationships among bats and forest-management activities. Herein, we provide a comprehensive literature review and synthesis of: (1) responses of northern long-eared (Myotis septentrionalis) and tri-colored (Perimyotis subflavus) bats—two species affected by WNS that use forests during summer—to forest management, and (2) an update to a previous review on the ecology of the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis).

  17. A national plan for assisting states, federal agencies, and tribes in managing white-nose syndrome in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a disease responsible for unprecedented mortality in hibernating bats in the northeastern U.S. This previously unrecognized disease has spread very rapidly since its discovery in January 2007, and poses a considerable threat to hibernating bats throughout North America. As WNS spreads, the challenges for understanding and managing the disease continue to increase. Given the escalating complexity of these challenges, a highly coordinated effort is required for State, Federal, and Tribal wildlife agencies, and private partners to respond effectively to WNS and conserve species of bats. The plan proposed herein details the elements that are critical to the investigation and management of WNS, identifies key action items to address stated goals, and outlines the role(s) of agencies and entities involved in this continental effort.

  18. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B and left bundle-branch block: electrophysiologic and radionuclide study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakovec, P.; Kranjec, I.; Fettich, J.J.; Jakopin, J.; Fidler, V.; Turk, J.

    1985-01-01

    Coinciding left bundle-branch block and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B, a very rare electrocardiographic occurrence, was found in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy. Electrophysiologic study revealed eccentric retrograde atrial activation during ventricular pacing, suggesting right-sided accessory pathway. At programmed atrial pacing, effective refractory period of the accessory pathway was 310 ms; at shorter pacing coupling intervals, normal atrioventricular conduction with left bundle-branch block was seen. Left bundle-branch block was seen also with His bundle pacing. Radionuclide phase imaging demonstrated right ventricular phase advance and left ventricular phase delay; both right and left ventricular phase images revealed broad phase distribution histograms. Combined electrophysiologic and radionuclide investigations are useful to disclose complex conduction abnormalities and their mechanical correlates.

  19. Successful ablation of a right atrium-axillary ventricular accessory pathway associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Long, Deyong; Dong, Jianzeng; Tao, Ling; Ma, Changsheng

    2017-12-01

    We report a case of a patient with right axillary ventricular. Similar congenital anomaly of the right atrium was reported as "right appendage diverticulum or right atrial diverticulum." However, this independent chamber has its own annulus, synchronizes with the right ventricular, and generates large ventricular potential. Under the guidance of the CARTO mapping system (Biosense Webster, Diamond Bar, CA, USA), a right atrioventricular accessory pathway associated with type B Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome was ablated successfully. This pathway was close to the annulus of the axillary ventricular. The patient remained free of arrhythmia at 1-year follow-up. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B and left bundle-branch block: electrophysiologic and radionuclide study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakovec, P.; Kranjec, I.; Fettich, J.J.; Jakopin, J.; Fidler, V.; Turk, J.

    1985-01-01

    Coinciding left bundle-branch block and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B, a very rare electrocardiographic occurrence, was found in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy. Electrophysiologic study revealed eccentric retrograde atrial activation during ventricular pacing, suggesting right-sided accessory pathway. At programmed atrial pacing, effective refractory period of the accessory pathway was 310 ms; at shorter pacing coupling intervals, normal atrioventricular conduction with left bundle-branch block was seen. Left bundle-branch block was seen also with His bundle pacing. Radionuclide phase imaging demonstrated right ventricular phase advance and left ventricular phase delay; both right and left ventricular phase images revealed broad phase distribution histograms. Combined electrophysiologic and radionuclide investigations are useful to disclose complex conduction abnormalities and their mechanical correlates

  1. Asymptomatic Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome: incidental ECG diagnosis and a review of literature regarding current treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Alexander; Pusalkar, Pawan

    2011-01-01

    A 19-year-old male presented with periorbital cellulitis responsive to intravenous antibiotics. A routine ECG on admission showed slurred upstroke of the QRS complexes consistent with Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome (WPW). He has never experienced any cardiac-related symptoms. Once the periorbital cellulitis resolved, he was referred to the specialist cardiology ablation clinic. He was counselled on the arrythmogenic risks of untreated WPW and the potential complications of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). He decided to go ahead with electrophysiological studies and RFCA, which took place successfully. This case highlights the importance of routine ECG in the diagnosis of asymptomatic WPW. The use of prophylactic ablation of asymptomatic WPW is controversial and should be considered on a case-specific basis. PMID:22693197

  2. Geomyces and Pseudogymnoascus: Emergence of a primary pathogen, the causative agent of bat white-nose syndrome: Chapter 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle L.; Minnis, Andrew M.; Lindner, Daniel L.; Blehert, David

    2017-01-01

    Geomyces and Pseudogymnoascus (Fungi, Ascomycota, Leotiomycetes, aff. Thelebolales) are closely related groups of globally occurring soil-associated fungi. Recently, these genera of fungi have received attention because a newly identified species, Pseudogymnoascus (initially classified as Geomyces) destructans, was discovered in association with significant and unusual mortality of hibernating bats in North America (Blehert et al. 2009; Gargas et al. 2009; Minnis and Linder 2013). This emergent disease called bat white-nose syndrome (WNS), has since caused drastic declines in populations of hibernating bats in the United States and Canada (Turner, Reeder, and Coleman 2011; Thogmartin et al. 2012) and threatens some species with regional extinction (Frick et al. 2010; Langwig et al. 2012; Thogmartin et al. 2013). As primary predators of insects and keystone species for cave ecosystems, the loss of bats due to WNS has important economic and ecological implications.

  3. Molecular characterization of a heterothallic mating system in .i.Pseudogymnoascus destructans./i., the fungus causing white-nose syndrome of bats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palmer, J.M.; Kubátová, A.; Nováková, Alena; Minnis, A.M.; Kolařík, M.; Lindner, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 9 (2014), s. 1755-1763 ISSN 2160-1836 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Genetics of Sex * geomyces * mating type * sexual reproduction * white-nose syndrome Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.198, year: 2014

  4. White matter microstructure in 22q11 deletion syndrome: a pilot diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study of children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundram, Frederick; Campbell, Linda E.; Azuma, Rayna; Daly, Eileen; Bloemen, Oswald J. N.; Barker, Gareth J.; Chitnis, Xavier; Jones, Derek K.; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Young people with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) are at substantial risk for developing psychosis and have significant differences in white matter (WM) volume. However, there are few in vivo studies of both WM microstructural integrity (as measured using Diffusion Tensor (DT)-MRI) and WM volume

  5. Use of phase images in radionuclide ventriculography for topical diagnosis of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and sources of abnormal rhythms in the ventricles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumov, E.N.; Sergienko, V.B.; Golitsin, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the mapping of various types of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and ventricular arrhythmias by using phase images of radionuclide ventriculograms as compared to 12 leads and electrophysiological studies. Phase images are a highly informative method that supplements an electrophysiological study in the topical diagnosis of abnormal tracts and ventricular arrhythmias

  6. Baseline capture rates and roosting habits of Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-Eared Bat) prior to white-nose syndrome  detection in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanessa G. Rojas; Joy M. O' Keefe; Susan C. Loeb

    2017-01-01

    Myotis septentrionalis (Northern Long-eared Bat) is a federally threatened insectivorous bat facing devastating population declines due to white-nose syndrome (WNS). Our study provides pre-WNS (2009) capture rates and roosting-behavior data for Northern Long-eared Bats in the southern Appalachians. We conducted mist-net surveys at 37 sites and...

  7. Use of Multiple Sequencing Technologies To Produce a High-Quality Genome of the Fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Causative Agent of Bat White-Nose Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, Kevin P; Palmer, Jonathan M; Sebra, Robert; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Chen, Cynthia; Wu, Cheng-Cang; Bok, Jin Woo; Keller, Nancy P; Blehert, David S; Cuomo, Christina A; Lindner, Daniel L; Foster, Jeffrey T

    2016-06-30

    White-nose syndrome has recently emerged as one of the most devastating wildlife diseases recorded, causing widespread mortality in numerous bat species throughout eastern North America. Here, we present an improved reference genome of the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans for use in comparative genomic studies. Copyright © 2016 Drees et al.

  8. Genetic structure of winter populations of the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) prior to the white nose syndrome epidemic: implications for the risk of disease spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarten J. Vonhof; Sybill K. Amelon; Robert R. Currie; Gary F. McCracken

    2016-01-01

    The spread of white nose syndrome raises serious concerns about the long-term viability of affected bat species. Here we examine the geographic distribution of genetic variation, levels of population connectivity that may influence the spatial spread of WNS, and the likelihood that recent population declines in regions affected by WNS have led to the loss of unique...

  9. Use of multiple sequencing technologies to produce a high-quality genome of the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of bat White-Nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, Kevin P.; Palmer, Jonathan M.; Sebra, Robert; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Chen, Cynthia; Wu, ChengCang; Bok, Jin Woo; Keller, Nancy F.; Blehert, David; Cuomo, Christina A.; Linder, Daniel L.; Foster, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    White-Nose syndrome has recently emerged as one of the most devastating wildlife diseases recorded, causing widespread mortality in numerous bat species throughout eastern North America. Here, we present an improvised reference genome of the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans for use in comparative genomic studies.

  10. Indel-II region deletion sizes in the white spot syndrome virus genome correlate with shrimp disease outbreaks in southern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Tuyet, H.; Zwart, M.P.; Phuong, N.T.; Oanh, D.T.H.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Sequence comparisons of the genomes of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) strains have identified regions containing variable-length insertions/deletions (i.e. indels). Indel-I and Indel-II, positioned between open reading frames (ORFs) 14/15 and 23/24, respectively, are the largest and the most

  11. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus in improved-extensive and semi-intensive shrimp production systems: A molecular epidemiology study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyet Hoa, T.T.; Zwart, M.P.; Phuong, N.T.; Vlak, J.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) can be transmitted horizontally through water, via carrier organisms and/or by cannibalism of infected shrimp, but also vertically through infected broodstock. However the mode(s) of WSSV transmission in shrimp farming systems and

  12. Low numbers of repeat units in variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) regions of white spot syndrome virus are correlated with disease outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Tuyet, H.; Zwart, M.P.; Phuong, N.T.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important pathogen in shrimp farming systems worldwide including the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The genome of WSSV is characterized by the presence of two major 'indel regions' found at ORF14/15 and ORF23/24 (WSSV-Thailand) and three regions with variable

  13. Nonlethal screening of bat-wing skin with the use of ultraviolet fluorescence to detect lesions indicative of white-nose syndrome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turner, G. G.; Meteyer, C. U.; Barton, H.; Gumbs, J. F.; Reeder, D. M.; Overton, B.; Banďouchová, H.; Bartonička, T.; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, J.; Zukal, Jan; Blehert, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2014), s. 566-573 ISSN 0090-3558 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bats * Chiroptera * dermatomycosis * fungal infection * ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence * white-nose syndrome Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.355, year: 2014

  14. Surveillance for White-Nose Syndrome in the bat community at El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Ernest W.

    2012-01-01

    From late winter to summer 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey Arid Lands Field Station conducted mist-netting efforts at El Malpais National Monument and on adjacent lands belonging to Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service to detect the occurrence of white-nose syndrome or causal fungal agent (Geomyces destructans). During this assessment, 421 bats belonging to 8 species were documented at El Malpais National Monument and adjacent lands. None of these captures showed evidence for the presence of white-nose syndrome or G. destructans, but it is possible that the subtle signs of some infections may not have been observed. Throughout the field efforts, Laguna de Juan Garcia was the only water source located on El Malpais National Monument and was netted on June 20 and 27, July 25, and August 2, 2011. During these dates, a total of 155 bats were captured, belonging to eight species including: Corynorhinus townsendii (Townsend's Big-Eared Bat), Eptesicus fuscus (Big Brown Bat), Lasionycterics noctivagans (Silver-Haired Bat), Myotis ciliolabrum (Small-Footed Myotis), M. evotis (Long-eared myotis), M. thysanodes (Fringed Myotis), M. volans (Long-Legged Myotis), and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian Free-Tailed Bat). Overall, Laguna de Juan Garcia had the greatest number of captures (79 bats) during one night compared to the other sites netted on adjacent lands and had the greatest species diversity of 8 species netted, not including Euderma maculatum (Spotted Bat) that was detected by its audible calls as it flew overhead. Laguna de Juan Garcia is an important site to bats because of its accessibility by all known occurring species, including the less-maneuverable T. brasiliensis that is known to form large colonies in the park. Laguna de Juan Garcia is also important as a more permanent water source during drought conditions in the earlier part of the spring and summer, as observed in 2011.

  15. First characterization of bacterial pathogen, Vibrio alginolyticus, for Porites andrewsi White syndrome in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenyu, Xie; Shaowen, Ke; Chaoqun, Hu; Zhixiong, Zhu; Shifeng, Wang; Yongcan, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    White syndrome, a term for scleractinian coral disease with progressive tissue loss, is known to cause depressed growth and increased morality of coral reefs in the major oceans around the world, and the occurrence of this disease has been frequently reported in the past few decades. Investigations during April to September in both 2010 and 2011 identified widespread Porites andrewsi White syndrome (PAWS) in Xisha Archipelago, South China Sea. However, the causes and etiology of PAWS have been unknown. A transmission experiment was performed on P. andrewsi in the Qilianyu Subgroup (QLY). The results showed that there was a significant (P ≤ 0.05) difference between test and control groups after 28 days if the invalid replicates were excluded. Rates of tissue loss ranged from 0.90-10.76 cm(2) d(-1) with a mean of 5.40 ± 3.34 cm(2) d(-1) (mean ± SD). Bacterial strains were isolated from the PAWS corals at the disease outbreak sites in QLY of the Xisha Archipelago, South China Sea, and included in laboratory-based infection trials to satisfy Koch's postulates for establishing causality. Following exposure to bacterial concentrations of 10(5) cells mL(-1), the infected colonies exhibited similar signs to those observed in the field. Using phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene analysis, classical phenotypic trait comparison, Biolog automatic identification system, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and MALDI Biotyper method, two pathogenic strains were identified as Vibrio alginolyticus . This is the first report of V. alginolyticus as a pathogenic agent of PAWS in the South China Sea. Our results point out an urgent need to develop sensitive detection methods for V. alginolyticus virulence strains and robust diagnostics for coral disease caused by this and Vibrio pathogenic bacterium in the South China Sea.

  16. Determinants of Pseudogymnoascus destructans within bat hibernacula: Implications for surveillance and management of white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle L.; Bohuski, Elizabeth A.; Richgels, Katherine L. D.; Olival, Kevin J.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Blehert, David

    2018-01-01

    Fungal diseases are an emerging global problem affecting human health, food security and biodiversity. Ability of many fungal pathogens to persist within environmental reservoirs can increase extinction risks for host species and presents challenges for disease control. Understanding factors that regulate pathogen spread and persistence in these reservoirs is critical for effective disease management.White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a disease of hibernating bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), a fungus that establishes persistent environmental reservoirs within bat hibernacula, which contribute to seasonal disease transmission dynamics in bats. However, host and environmental factors influencing distribution of Pdwithin these reservoirs are unknown.We used model selection on longitudinally collected field data to test multiple hypotheses describing presence–absence and abundance of Pd in environmental substrates and on bats within hibernacula at different stages of WNS.First detection of Pd in the environment lagged up to 1 year after first detection on bats within that hibernaculum. Once detected, the probability of detecting Pd within environmental samples from a hibernaculum increased over time and was higher in sediment compared to wall surfaces. Temperature had marginal effects on the distribution of Pd. For bats, prevalence and abundance of Pd were highest on Myotis lucifugus and on bats with visible signs of WNS.Synthesis and applications. Our results indicate that distribution of Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) within a hibernaculum is driven primarily by bats with delayed establishment of environmental reservoirs. Thus, collection of samples from Myotis lucifugus, or from sediment if bats cannot be sampled, should be prioritized to improve detection probabilities for Pd surveillance. Long-term persistence of Pd in sediment suggests that disease management for white-nose syndrome should address risks of sustained

  17. The other white-nose syndrome transcriptome: Tolerant and susceptible hosts respond differently to the pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Christina M; Donaldson, Michael E; Willis, Craig K R; Saville, Barry J; McGuire, Liam P; Mayberry, Heather; Wilcox, Alana; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Misra, Vikram; Bollinger, Trent; Kyle, Christopher J

    2017-09-01

    Mitigation of emerging infectious diseases that threaten global biodiversity requires an understanding of critical host and pathogen responses to infection. For multihost pathogens where pathogen virulence or host susceptibility is variable, host-pathogen interactions in tolerant species may identify potential avenues for adaptive evolution in recently exposed, susceptible hosts. For example, the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans causes white-nose syndrome (WNS) in hibernating bats and is responsible for catastrophic declines in some species in North America, where it was recently introduced. Bats in Europe and Asia, where the pathogen is endemic, are only mildly affected. Different environmental conditions among Nearctic and Palearctic hibernacula have been proposed as an explanation for variable disease outcomes, but this hypothesis has not been experimentally tested. We report the first controlled, experimental investigation of response to P. destructans in a tolerant, European species of bat (the greater mouse-eared bat, Myotis myotis ). We compared body condition, disease outcomes and gene expression in control (sham-exposed) and exposed M. myotis that hibernated under controlled environmental conditions following treatment. Tolerant M. myotis experienced extremely limited fungal growth and did not exhibit symptoms of WNS. However, we detected no differential expression of genes associated with immune response in exposed bats, indicating that immune response does not drive tolerance of P. destructans in late hibernation. Variable responses to P. destructans among bat species cannot be attributed solely to environmental or ecological factors. Instead, our results implicate coevolution with the pathogen, and highlight the dynamic nature of the "white-nose syndrome transcriptome." Interspecific variation in response to exposure by the host (and possibly pathogen) emphasizes the importance of context in studies of the bat-WNS system, and robust

  18. Determinants of Pseudogymnoascus destructans within bat hibernacula: implications for surveillance and management of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle L; Bohuski, Elizabeth A; Richgels, Katherine L D; Olival, Kevin J; Epstein, Jonathan H; Blehert, David S

    2018-01-01

    1. Fungal diseases are an emerging global problem affecting human health, food security and biodiversity. Ability of many fungal pathogens to persist within environmental reservoirs can increase extinction risks for host species and presents challenges for disease control. Understanding factors that regulate pathogen spread and persistence in these reservoirs is critical for effective disease management. 2. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a disease of hibernating bats caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( Pd ), a fungus that establishes persistent environmental reservoirs within bat hibernacula, which contribute to seasonal disease transmission dynamics in bats. However, host and environmental factors influencing distribution of Pd within these reservoirs are unknown. 3. We used model selection on longitudinally collected field data to test multiple hypotheses describing presence-absence and abundance of Pd in environmental substrates and on bats within hibernacula at different stages of WNS. 4. First detection of Pd in the environment lagged up to one year after first detection on bats within that hibernaculum. Once detected, the probability of detecting Pd within environmental samples from a hibernaculum increased over time and was higher in sediment compared to wall surfaces. Temperature had marginal effects on the distribution of Pd . For bats, prevalence and abundance of Pd were highest on Myotis lucifugus and on bats with visible signs of WNS. 5. Synthesis and applications . Our results indicate that distribution of Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( Pd ) within a hibernaculum is driven primarily by bats with delayed establishment of environmental reservoirs. Thus, collection of samples from Myotis lucifugus , or from sediment if bats cannot be sampled, should be prioritized to improve detection probabilities for Pd surveillance. Long-term persistence of Pd in sediment suggests that disease management for white-nose syndrome should address risks of sustained

  19. Fungus Causing White-Nose Syndrome in Bats Accumulates Genetic Variability in North America with No Sign of Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Jigar; Lachapelle, Josianne; Vanderwolf, Karen J; Misra, Vikram; Willis, Craig K R; Ratcliffe, John M; Ness, Rob W; Anderson, James B; Kohn, Linda M

    2017-01-01

    Emerging fungal diseases of wildlife are on the rise worldwide, and the white-nose syndrome (WNS) epidemic in North American bats is a catastrophic example. The causal agent of WNS is a single clone of the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans . Early evolutionary change in this clonal population has major implications for disease ecology and conservation. Accumulation of variation in the fungus through mutation, and shuffling of variation through recombination, could affect the virulence and transmissibility of the fungus and the durability of what appears to be resistance arising in some bat populations. Our genome-wide analysis shows that the clonal population of P. destructans has expanded in size from a single genotype, has begun to accumulate variation through mutation, and presents no evidence as yet of genetic exchange among individuals. IMPORTANCE Since its discovery in 2006, the emerging infectious disease known as white-nose syndrome has killed millions of bats in North America, making it one of the most devastating wildlife epidemics in recorded history. We demonstrate that there has been as yet only spontaneous mutation across the North American population of P. destructans , and we find no indication of recombination. Thus, selective forces, which might otherwise impact pathogenic virulence, have so far had essentially no genetic variation on which to act. Our study confirmed the time of origin for the first and, thus far, only introduction of P. destructans to North America. This system provides an unprecedented opportunity to follow the evolution of a host-pathogen interaction unfolding in real time.

  20. Two White Spot Syndrome Virus MicroRNAs Target the Dorsal Gene To Promote Virus Infection in Marsupenaeus japonicus Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Huang, Xin; Cui, Yalei; Sun, Jiejie; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2017-04-15

    In eukaryotes, microRNAs (miRNAs) serve as regulators of many biological processes, including virus infection. An miRNA can generally target diverse genes during virus-host interactions. However, the regulation of gene expression by multiple miRNAs has not yet been extensively explored during virus infection. This study found that the Spaztle (Spz)-Toll-Dorsal-antilipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) signaling pathway plays a very important role in antiviral immunity against invasion of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp ( Marsupenaeus japonicus ). Dorsal , the central gene in the Toll pathway, was targeted by two viral miRNAs (WSSV-miR-N13 and WSSV-miR-N23) during WSSV infection. The regulation of Dorsal expression by viral miRNAs suppressed the Spz-Toll-Dorsal-ALF signaling pathway in shrimp in vivo , leading to virus infection. Our study contributes novel insights into the viral miRNA-mediated Toll signaling pathway during the virus-host interaction. IMPORTANCE An miRNA can target diverse genes during virus-host interactions. However, the regulation of gene expression by multiple miRNAs during virus infection has not yet been extensively explored. The results of this study indicated that the shrimp Dorsal gene, the central gene in the Toll pathway, was targeted by two viral miRNAs during infection with white spot syndrome virus. Regulation of Dorsal expression by viral miRNAs suppressed the Spz-Toll-Dorsal-ALF signaling pathway in shrimp in vivo , leading to virus infection. Our study provides new insight into the viral miRNA-mediated Toll signaling pathway in virus-host interactions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. [Fragile X syndrome and white matter abnormalities: Case study of two brothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, E; Bieth, E; Sevely, A; Cances, C

    2017-03-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most usual cause of hereditary intellectual deficiency. Typical symptoms combine intellectual deficiency, social anxiety, intense emotional vigilance, and a characteristic facial dysmorphy. This is subsequent to a complete mutation of the FMR1 gene, considering a semidominant transmission linked to the unstable X. The expansion of the CGG triplet greater than 200 units combined with a high methylation pattern lead to a transcriptional silence of the FMR1 gene, and the protein product, the FMRP, is not synthesized. This protein is involved in synaptic plasticity. Brain MRI can show an increased volume of the caudate nucleus and hippocampus, combined with hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis. Fragile X Associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS) syndrome is a neurodegenerative disorder occurring in carriers of the premutation in FMR1. Brain MRI shows an increased T2 signal in the middle cerebellar peduncles. This syndrome is linked to a premutation in the FMR1 gene. We report here the case of two brothers presenting a typical fragile X symptomatology. Brain MRI showed hyperintensities of the middle cerebellar peduncles. Such MRI findings support the assumption of a genetic mosaicism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. White Matter Integrity in Asperger Syndrome: A Preliminary Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Oswald J. N.; Deeley, Quinton; Sundram, Fred; Daly, Eileen M.; Barker, Gareth J.; Jones, Derek K.; van Amelsvoort, Therese A. M. J.; Schmitz, Nicole; Robertson, Dene; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), including Asperger syndrome and autism, is a highly genetic neurodevelopmental disorder. There is a consensus that ASD has a biological basis, and it has been proposed that it is a "connectivity" disorder. Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging

  3. Attention bias for sleep-related stimuli in primary insomnia and delayed sleep phase syndrome using the dot-probe task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Kenneth M A; Broomfield, Niall M; Espie, Colin A

    2006-11-01

    Cognitive models of primary insomnia (PI) suggest attention bias as a maintaining process. This study used a hallmark measure of attention bias, the dot-probe task, to determine whether attention bias to sleep-related stimuli is present in individuals with PI. Control groups of good sleepers (GS) and individuals with delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS), a sleep disorder with no presumed cognitive pathway and, hence, no predicted association with attention bias, were included. A between-groups (PI, DSPS, GS) design was employed. Participants completed a dot-probe task with stimuli comprising sleep-related and neutral words, balanced for length and frequency of usage. It was predicted a priori that PI would show greater attention bias to sleep stimuli compared with GS and DSPS groups. No difference between GS and DSPS was predicted. Sixty-three individuals completed the study (PI = 21; DSPS = 22; GS = 20), with those in PI and DSPS classified by International Classification of Sleep Disorders criteria according to self-report sleep diaries and actigraphy. GS scored Sleep Quality Index, reported being good sleepers, and met no criteria for a current or previous sleep disorder. N/A. As predicted, PI showed increased vigilance for sleep-related stimuli relative to GS and DSPS. No differences between GS and those with DSPS were found. The PI group showed shorter response latencies relative to the GS and DSPS groups. Results support an association between attention bias and PI. Further work must determine whether or not attention bias is a causal factor. Speeded responses in the PI group suggest heightened arousal, indicating that physiologic factors may play a related role.

  4. Risk factors associated with white spot syndrome virus infection in a Vietnamese rice-shrimp farming system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsin, F; Turnbull, J F; Hao, N V; Mohan, C V; Phi, T T; Phuoc, L H; Tinh, N T; Morgan, K L

    2001-10-29

    White spot disease (WSD) is a pandemic disease caused by a virus commonly known as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Several risk factors for WSD outbreaks have been suggested. However, there have been very few studies to identify risk factors for WSD outbreaks in culture systems. This paper presents and discusses the risk factors for WSSV infection identified during a longitudinal observational study conducted in a Vietnamese rice-shrimp farming system. A total of 158 variables were measured comprising location, features of the pond, management practices, pond bottom quality, shrimp health and other animals in the pond. At the end of the study period WSSV was detected in 15 of the 24 ponds followed through the production cycle (62.5%). One hundred and thirty-nine variables were used in univariate analyses. All the variables with a p-value Hemigrapsus spp. crabs during the first month of production, feeding vitamin premix or legumes, presence of high numbers of shrimp with bacterial infection and the presence of larger mud crabs or gobies at harvest. No associations were detected with WSSV at harvest and stocking density, presence, or number or weight of wild shrimp in the pond. The multivariate model to identify outcomes associated with WSSV infection highlighted the presence of high mortality as the main variable explaining the data. The results obtained from this study are discussed in the context of WSD control and areas requiring further investigation are suggested.

  5. Bland-White-Garland syndrome of anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA): a historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowles, Robert A.; Berdon, Walter E.

    2007-01-01

    The landmark 1933 case report from Massachusetts General Hospital by Bland, White and Garland (Am Heart J 8:787-801) described a 3-month-old child with progressive feeding problems, cardiomegaly on chest radiography, and EKG evidence of left ventricular damage. Of interest was the fact that the vigilant father of the infant was Aubrey Hampton, a radiologist and future chairman of radiology at Massachusetts General Hospital. At autopsy, the left coronary artery originated from the pulmonary artery rather than from the aorta. Effective treatment for this condition was not available until 1960 when Sabiston, Neill and Taussig showed that the blood flowed from the left coronary artery toward the pulmonary artery. The anomalous left coronary artery was ligated at its junction with the pulmonary artery and the child survived. This historical review of Bland-White-Garland syndrome, now known as anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), stresses the continued diagnostic significance of cardiomegaly on chest radiography and EKG changes suggesting left ventricular damage in 2- to 3-month-old infants with feeding intolerance or irritability. With a high index of suspicion, an echocardiogram can be obtained to confirm the diagnosis. Modern surgical methods involve left coronary artery translocation and afford excellent outcomes. (orig.)

  6. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome with complete auriculoventricular block. A strange association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejo, Franco J; Montana, Paula A; Vesga, Carlos; Miranda Antonio; Citelli Jose E; Negrete Alberto; Gil, Efrain

    2007-01-01

    A 22 years old male patient is admitted for a syncope episode. An electrocardiogram shows a Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern and signs of auricular overload with left ventricular hypertrophy and complete auriculoventricular block. The transthoracic echocardiogram is compatible with non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. An electrophysiological study is carried out, finding pre-excitation through an accessory way and infra-His auriculoventricular block. An ablation is performed and a bicameral pacemaker is implanted

  7. Parametric imaging of experimentally simulated Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome conduction abnormalities in dogs: a concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weismueller, P.H.; Henze, E.; Adam, W.E.; Roth, J.; Bitter, F.; Stauch, M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to test the diagnostic potential of phase analysis of radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) for localizing accessory bundles in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, 24 experimental runs were performed in three open chest instrumented dogs. After a baseline study, WPW syndrome was simulated by stimulation at seven different sites around the base of the ventricles, and RNV's were obtained. Subsequent data processing including Fourier transformation allowed the localization of the site of the first inward motion of the ventricles by an isophasic wave display. In sinus rhythm, the septum contracted first. During ectopic premature ventricular stimulation by triggering the atrial signal, the phase scan was altered only when the stimulus was applied earlier than 20 ms before the expected QRS complex during sinus rhythm. During stimulation with fixed frequency, only the left lateral positions of the premature stimulation were detected by phase analysis with a sensitivity of 86%. Neither the antero- or posteroseptal nor the right ventricular premature contraction pattern could be exactly localized.

  8. Parametric imaging of experimentally simulated Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome conduction abnormalities in dogs: a concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weismueller, P.H.; Henze, E.; Adam, W.E.; Roth, J.; Bitter, F.; Stauch, M.

    1986-01-01

    In order to test the diagnostic potential of phase analysis of radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) for localizing accessory bundles in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, 24 experimental runs were performed in three open chest instrumented dogs. After a baseline study, WPW syndrome was simulated by stimulation at seven different sites around the base of the ventricles, and RNV's were obtained. Subsequent data processing including Fourier transformation allowed the localization of the site of the first inward motion of the ventricles by an isophasic wave display. In sinus rhythm, the septum contracted first. During ectopic premature ventricular stimulation by triggering the atrial signal, the phase scan was altered only when the stimulus was applied earlier than 20 ms before the expected QRS complex during sinus rhythm. During stimulation with fixed frequency, only the left lateral positions of the premature stimulation were detected by phase analysis with a sensitivity of 86%. Neither the antero- or posteroseptal nor the right ventricular premature contraction pattern could be exactly localized

  9. CLUSTER MODEL FOR EXTENSIVE GIANT TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon Fab. TO PREVENT TRANSMISSION OF WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Taslihan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV has become epidemic in Indonesia and affecting shrimp aquaculture interm of its production. White spot syndrome virus is transmitted from one to other ponds, through crustacean, included planktonic copepode as carrier for WSSV and through water from affected shrimp pond. A cluster model, consist of shrimp grow out ponds surrounded by non-shrimp pond as a role of biosecurity has been developed. The model aimed to prevent white spot virus transmission in extensive giant tiger shrimp pond. The study was conducted in two sites at Demak District, Central Java Province. As the treatment, a cluster consist of three shrimp ponds in site I, and two shrimp ponds in site II, each was surrounded by buffer ponds rearing only finfish. As the control, five extensive shrimp grow out ponds in site I and three shrimp grow out ponds in site II, with shrimp pond has neither applied biosecurity nor surrounded by non-shrimp pond as biosecurity as well considered as control ponds. The results found that treatment of cluster shrimp ponds surrounded by non-shrimp ponds could hold shrimp at duration of culture in the grow out pond (DOC 105.6±4.5 days significantly much longer than that of control that harvested at 60.9±16.0 days due to WSSV outbreak. Survival rate in trial ponds was 77.6±3.6%, significantly higher than that of control at 22.6±15.8%. Shrimp production in treatment ponds has total production of 425.1±146.6 kg/ha significantly higher than that of control that could only produced 54.5±47.6 kg/ha. Implementation of Better Management Practices (BMP by arranging shrimp ponds in cluster and surrounding by non-shrimp ponds proven effectively prevent WSSV transmission from traditional shrimp ponds in surrounding area.

  10. [Clinical demonstrations: Heart rupture in acute myocardial infarct. Infectious endocarditis. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nager, F

    1984-12-08

    This clinical demonstration includes three topics of clinical cardiology: myocardial rupture in acute myocardial infarction, infective endocarditis, and WPW-syndrome with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. In the first part three cases with septal perforation or papillary muscle rupture are demonstrated. Our experience with myocardial rupture (free wall, septum, papillary muscle) during the last six years is summarized with special reference to the significance and the differential diagnosis of systolic regurgitant murmurs after myocardial infarction. Special features of acute mitral incompetence (papillary muscle dysfunction) in myocardial infarction are outlined and diagnostic guidelines for differentiation between septal perforation and papillary muscle rupture are discussed. In the second part two patients with aortic (e.g. mitral) valve rupture in the course of infective endocarditis are presented. The synoptic comparison of these two patients is related to the results of our own clinical studies on the changing pattern of infective endocarditis (epidemiologically, clinically) during the last three decades. The clinical picture of acute aortic valve rupture is outlined and the bedside signs indicating catastrophic complications of infective endocarditis are summarized. In the third part the odyssey of a patient with WPW-syndrome and consecutive paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia is described. Progress in electrophysiological analysis of the re-entry circles in preexcitation syndromes is outlined.

  11. Coexistence of Wolff-Parkinson-white and Brugada syndrome: mere curiosity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Elisabeth; Sacilotto, Luciana; Darrieux, Francisco; Sosa, Eduardo

    2014-09-01

    The association between Brugada syndrome (BS) and ventricular preexcitation is a rare condition, with sporadic cases already reported. We report the case of a 29-year-old man, with palpitation unrelated to physical or emotional stress. The electrocardiogram of the first visit revealed a ventricular preexcitation pattern and an end-conduction delay, with negative T wave in V1 and intraventricular conduction disturbance in V2 (atypical for BS). The typical aspect of BS occurred after introduction of propafenone for the prevention of atrioventricular tachycardia. We discuss the recognition of this rare association, the proarrhythmic effects of some drugs, treatment options, and prognosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome in young people, from childhood to young adulthood: relationships between age and clinical and electrophysiological findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hae Jung; Ju, Hwang Young; Hyun, Myung Chul; Lee, Sang Bum

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to evaluate the characteristics of electrophysiologic studies (EPS) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) performed in subjects aged less than 30 years with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, particularly pediatric patients under 18 years of age, based on our experience. Methods Two hundred and one consecutive patients with WPW syndrome were recruited and divided to 3 groups according to age: group 1, 6 to 17 years; group 2, 18 to 29 years; and group 3, 30 to 60 years. The clinical, electrophysiological, and therapeutic data for these patients were evaluated by a retrospective medical record review. Results A total of 73 (36%) of these patients were syndrome. Therefore, when EPS and RFA are performed in children and adolescence with WPW syndrome, we recommend that these characteristics be considered. PMID:22323907

  13. Use of long-term stable CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots in phospho-silicate glass for highly efficient white LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xiaoxuan; Hu, Zemin; Jiang, Jutao; He, Meiling; Zhou, Lei; Xiang, Weidong; Liang, Xiaojuan

    2017-10-05

    We report the synthesis of CsPbBr 3 QDs with great stability and high quantum yield in phospho-silicate glass, which was fabricated by using a heat-treatment approach, for white light emitting devices. QD glasses exhibited excellent photo- and thermal stability, and significantly prolonged the lifetime of light emitters under ambient air conditions.

  14. Frequent arousal from hibernation linked to severity of infection and mortality in bats with white-nose syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeeAnn M Reeder

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS, an emerging infectious disease that has killed over 5.5 million hibernating bats, is named for the causative agent, a white fungus (Geomyces destructans (Gd that invades the skin of torpid bats. During hibernation, arousals to warm (euthermic body temperatures are normal but deplete fat stores. Temperature-sensitive dataloggers were attached to the backs of 504 free-ranging little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus in hibernacula located throughout the northeastern USA. Dataloggers were retrieved at the end of the hibernation season and complete profiles of skin temperature data were available from 83 bats, which were categorized as: (1 unaffected, (2 WNS-affected but alive at time of datalogger removal, or (3 WNS-affected but found dead at time of datalogger removal. Histological confirmation of WNS severity (as indexed by degree of fungal infection as well as confirmation of presence/absence of DNA from Gd by PCR was determined for 26 animals. We demonstrated that WNS-affected bats aroused to euthermic body temperatures more frequently than unaffected bats, likely contributing to subsequent mortality. Within the subset of WNS-affected bats that were found dead at the time of datalogger removal, the number of arousal bouts since datalogger attachment significantly predicted date of death. Additionally, the severity of cutaneous Gd infection correlated with the number of arousal episodes from torpor during hibernation. Thus, increased frequency of arousal from torpor likely contributes to WNS-associated mortality, but the question of how Gd infection induces increased arousals remains unanswered.

  15. Pan-European distribution of white-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans not associated with mass mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien J Puechmaille

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dramatic mass mortalities amongst hibernating bats in Northeastern America caused by "white nose-syndrome" (WNS continue to threaten populations of different bat species. The cold-loving fungus, Geomyces destructans, is the most likely causative agent leading to extensive destruction of the skin, particularly the wing membranes. Recent investigations in Europe confirmed the presence of the fungus G. destructans without associated mass mortality in hibernating bats in six countries but its distribution remains poorly known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected data on the presence of bats with white fungal growth in 12 countries in Europe between 2003 and 2010 and conducted morphological and genetic analysis to confirm the identity of the fungus as Geomyces destructans. Our results demonstrate the presence of the fungus in eight countries spanning over 2000 km from West to East and provide compelling photographic evidence for its presence in another four countries including Romania, and Turkey. Furthermore, matching prevalence data of a hibernaculum monitored over two consecutive years with data from across Europe show that the temporal occurrence of the fungus, which first becomes visible around February, peaks in March but can still be seen in some torpid bats in May or June, is strikingly similar throughout Europe. Finally, we isolated and cultured G. destructans from a cave wall adjacent to a bat with fungal growth. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: G. destructans is widely found over large areas of the European continent without associated mass mortalities in bats, suggesting that the fungus is native to Europe. The characterisation of the temporal variation in G. destructans growth on bats provides reference data for studying the spatio-temporal dynamic of the fungus. Finally, the presence of G. destructans spores on cave walls suggests that hibernacula could act as passive vectors and/or reservoirs for G. destructans and

  16. Morphological and molecular characterizations of psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans from New York bats with White Nose Syndrome (WNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Springer, Deborah J; Behr, Melissa J; Ramani, Rama; Li, Xiaojiang; Peck, Marcia K; Ren, Ping; Bopp, Dianna J; Wood, Britta; Samsonoff, William A; Butchkoski, Calvin M; Hicks, Alan C; Stone, Ward B; Rudd, Robert J; Chaturvedi, Sudha

    2010-05-24

    Massive die-offs of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) have been occurring since 2006 in hibernation sites around Albany, New York, and this problem has spread to other States in the Northeastern United States. White cottony fungal growth is seen on the snouts of affected animals, a prominent sign of White Nose Syndrome (WNS). A previous report described the involvement of the fungus Geomyces destructans in WNS, but an identical fungus was recently isolated in France from a bat that was evidently healthy. The fungus has been recovered sparsely despite plentiful availability of afflicted animals. We have investigated 100 bat and environmental samples from eight affected sites in 2008. Our findings provide strong evidence for an etiologic role of G. destructans in bat WNS. (i) Direct smears from bat snouts, Periodic Acid Schiff-stained tissue sections from infected tissues, and scanning electron micrographs of bat tissues all showed fungal structures similar to those of G. destructans. (ii) G. destructans DNA was directly amplified from infected bat tissues, (iii) Isolations of G. destructans in cultures from infected bat tissues showed 100% DNA match with the fungus present in positive tissue samples. (iv) RAPD patterns for all G. destructans cultures isolated from two sites were indistinguishable. (v) The fungal isolates showed psychrophilic growth. (vi) We identified in vitro proteolytic activities suggestive of known fungal pathogenic traits in G. destructans. Further studies are needed to understand whether G. destructans WNS is a symptom or a trigger for bat mass mortality. The availability of well-characterized G. destructans strains should promote an understanding of bat-fungus relationships, and should aid in the screening of biological and chemical control agents.

  17. Frequent arousal from hibernation linked to severity of infection and mortality in bats with white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, DeeAnn M; Frank, Craig L; Turner, Gregory G; Meteyer, Carol U; Kurta, Allen; Britzke, Eric R; Vodzak, Megan E; Darling, Scott R; Stihler, Craig W; Hicks, Alan C; Jacob, Roymon; Grieneisen, Laura E; Brownlee, Sarah A; Muller, Laura K; Blehert, David S

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging infectious disease that has killed over 5.5 million hibernating bats, is named for the causative agent, a white fungus (Geomyces destructans (Gd)) that invades the skin of torpid bats. During hibernation, arousals to warm (euthermic) body temperatures are normal but deplete fat stores. Temperature-sensitive dataloggers were attached to the backs of 504 free-ranging little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) in hibernacula located throughout the northeastern USA. Dataloggers were retrieved at the end of the hibernation season and complete profiles of skin temperature data were available from 83 bats, which were categorized as: (1) unaffected, (2) WNS-affected but alive at time of datalogger removal, or (3) WNS-affected but found dead at time of datalogger removal. Histological confirmation of WNS severity (as indexed by degree of fungal infection) as well as confirmation of presence/absence of DNA from Gd by PCR was determined for 26 animals. We demonstrated that WNS-affected bats aroused to euthermic body temperatures more frequently than unaffected bats, likely contributing to subsequent mortality. Within the subset of WNS-affected bats that were found dead at the time of datalogger removal, the number of arousal bouts since datalogger attachment significantly predicted date of death. Additionally, the severity of cutaneous Gd infection correlated with the number of arousal episodes from torpor during hibernation. Thus, increased frequency of arousal from torpor likely contributes to WNS-associated mortality, but the question of how Gd infection induces increased arousals remains unanswered.

  18. Skin lesions in European hibernating bats associated with Geomyces destructans, the etiologic agent of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Bosch, Thijs; Görföl, Tamás; Passior, Karsten; Kurth, Andreas; Lacremans, Daniel; Forget, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) has claimed the lives of millions of hibernating insectivorous bats in North America. Its etiologic agent, the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, causes skin lesions that are the hallmark of the disease. The fungal infection is characterized by a white powdery growth on muzzle, ears and wing membranes. While WNS may threaten some species of North American bats with regional extinction, infection in hibernating bats in Europe seems not to be associated with significant mortality. We performed histopathological investigations on biopsy samples of 11 hibernating European bats, originating from 4 different countries, colonized by G. destructans. One additional bat was euthanized to allow thorough examination of multiple strips of its wing membranes. Molecular analyses of touch imprints, swabs and skin samples confirmed that fungal structures were G. destructans. Additionally, archived field notes on hibernacula monitoring data in the Harz Mountains, Germany, over an 11-year period (2000-2011) revealed multiple capture-recapture events of 8 banded bats repeatedly displaying characteristic fungal colonization. Skin lesions of G. destructans-affected hibernating European bats are intriguingly similar to the epidermal lesions described in North American bats. Nevertheless, deep invasion of fungal hyphae into the dermal connective tissue with resulting ulceration like in North American bats was not observed in the biopsy samples of European bats; all lesions found were restricted to the layers of the epidermis and its adnexae. Two bats had mild epidermal cupping erosions as described for North American bats. The possible mechanisms for any difference in outcomes of G. destructans infection in European and North American bats still need to be elucidated.

  19. Morphological and molecular characterizations of psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans from New York bats with White Nose Syndrome (WNS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Massive die-offs of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus have been occurring since 2006 in hibernation sites around Albany, New York, and this problem has spread to other States in the Northeastern United States. White cottony fungal growth is seen on the snouts of affected animals, a prominent sign of White Nose Syndrome (WNS. A previous report described the involvement of the fungus Geomyces destructans in WNS, but an identical fungus was recently isolated in France from a bat that was evidently healthy. The fungus has been recovered sparsely despite plentiful availability of afflicted animals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated 100 bat and environmental samples from eight affected sites in 2008. Our findings provide strong evidence for an etiologic role of G. destructans in bat WNS. (i Direct smears from bat snouts, Periodic Acid Schiff-stained tissue sections from infected tissues, and scanning electron micrographs of bat tissues all showed fungal structures similar to those of G. destructans. (ii G. destructans DNA was directly amplified from infected bat tissues, (iii Isolations of G. destructans in cultures from infected bat tissues showed 100% DNA match with the fungus present in positive tissue samples. (iv RAPD patterns for all G. destructans cultures isolated from two sites were indistinguishable. (v The fungal isolates showed psychrophilic growth. (vi We identified in vitro proteolytic activities suggestive of known fungal pathogenic traits in G. destructans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Further studies are needed to understand whether G. destructans WNS is a symptom or a trigger for bat mass mortality. The availability of well-characterized G. destructans strains should promote an understanding of bat-fungus relationships, and should aid in the screening of biological and chemical control agents.

  20. Skin lesions in European hibernating bats associated with Geomyces destructans, the etiologic agent of white-nose syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Wibbelt

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS has claimed the lives of millions of hibernating insectivorous bats in North America. Its etiologic agent, the psychrophilic fungus Geomyces destructans, causes skin lesions that are the hallmark of the disease. The fungal infection is characterized by a white powdery growth on muzzle, ears and wing membranes. While WNS may threaten some species of North American bats with regional extinction, infection in hibernating bats in Europe seems not to be associated with significant mortality. We performed histopathological investigations on biopsy samples of 11 hibernating European bats, originating from 4 different countries, colonized by G. destructans. One additional bat was euthanized to allow thorough examination of multiple strips of its wing membranes. Molecular analyses of touch imprints, swabs and skin samples confirmed that fungal structures were G. destructans. Additionally, archived field notes on hibernacula monitoring data in the Harz Mountains, Germany, over an 11-year period (2000-2011 revealed multiple capture-recapture events of 8 banded bats repeatedly displaying characteristic fungal colonization. Skin lesions of G. destructans-affected hibernating European bats are intriguingly similar to the epidermal lesions described in North American bats. Nevertheless, deep invasion of fungal hyphae into the dermal connective tissue with resulting ulceration like in North American bats was not observed in the biopsy samples of European bats; all lesions found were restricted to the layers of the epidermis and its adnexae. Two bats had mild epidermal cupping erosions as described for North American bats. The possible mechanisms for any difference in outcomes of G. destructans infection in European and North American bats still need to be elucidated.

  1. Localization of VP28 on the baculovirus envelope and its immunogenicity against white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus monodon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Musthaq, S.; Madhan, Selvaraj; Sahul Hameed, A.S.; Kwang, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large dsDNA virus responsible for white spot disease in shrimp and other crustaceans. VP28 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV and plays a crucial role in viral infection. In an effort to develop a vaccine against WSSV, we have constructed a recombinant baculovirus with an immediate early promoter 1 which expresses VP28 at an early stage of infection in insect cells. Baculovirus expressed rVP28 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that rVP28 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired rVP28 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. Using this baculovirus displaying VP28 as a vaccine against WSSV, we observed a significantly higher survival rate of 86.3% and 73.5% of WSSV-infected shrimp at 3 and 15 days post vaccination respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR also indicated that the WSSV viral load in vaccinated shrimp was significantly reduced at 7 days post challenge. Furthermore, our RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the recombinant baculovirus was able to express VP28 in vivo in shrimp tissues. This study will be of considerable significance in elucidating the morphogenesis of WSSV and will pave the way for new generation vaccines against WSSV.

  2. Variable RNA expression from recently acquired, endogenous viral elements (EVE) of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utari, Heny Budi; Soowannayan, Chumporn; Flegel, Timothy W; Whityachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Kruatrachue, Maleeya

    2017-11-01

    The viral accommodation hypothesis proposes that endogenous viral elements (EVE) from both RNA and DNA viruses are being continually integrated into the shrimp genome by natural host processes and that they can result in tolerance to viral infection by fortuitous production of antisense, immunospecific RNA (imRNA). Thus, we hypothesized that previously reported microarray results for the presence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) open reading frames (ORFs) formerly called 151, 366 and 427 in a domesticated giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) breeding stock might have represented expression from EVE, since the stock had shown uninterrupted freedom from white spot disease (WSD) for many generations. To test this hypothesis, 128 specimens from a current stock generation were confirmed for freedom from WSSV infection using two nested PCR detection methods. Subsequent nested-PCR testing revealed 33/128 specimens (26%) positive for at least one of the ORF at very high sequence identity (95-99%) to extant WSSV. Positive results for ORF 366 (now known to be a fragment of the WSSV capsid protein gene) dominated (28/33 = 84.8%), so 9 arbitrarily selected 366-positive specimens were tested by strand-specific, nested RT-PCR using DNase-treated RNA templates. This revealed variable RNA expression in individual shrimp including no RNA transcripts (n = 1), sense transcripts only (n = 1), antisense transcripts only (n = 2) or transcripts of both sense (n = 5). The latter 7 expression products indicated specimens producing putative imRNA. The variable types and numbers of the EVE and the variable RNA expression (including potential imRNA) support predictions of the viral accommodation hypothesis that EVE are randomly produced and expressed. Positive nested PCR test results for EVE of ORF 366 using DNA templates derived from shrimp sperm (germ cells), indicated that they were heritable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. White Feces Syndrome of Shrimp Arises from Transformation, Sloughing and Aggregation of Hepatopancreatic Microvilli into Vermiform Bodies Superficially Resembling Gregarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriurairatana, Siriporn; Boonyawiwat, Visanu; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Laosutthipong, Chaowanee; Hiranchan, Jindanan; Flegel, Timothy W.

    2014-01-01

    Accompanying acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in cultivated Asian shrimp has been an increasing prevalence of vermiform, gregarine-like bodies within the shrimp hepatopancreas (HP) and midgut. In high quantity they result in white fecal strings and a phenomenon called white feces syndrome (WFS). Light microscopy (LM) of squash mounts and stained smears from fresh HP tissue revealed that the vermiform bodies are almost transparent with widths and diameters proportional to the HP tubule lumens in which they occur. Despite vermiform appearance, they show no cellular structure. At high magnification (LM with 40-100x objectives), they appear to consist of a thin, outer membrane enclosing a complex of thicker, inter-folded membranes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the outer non-laminar membrane of the vermiform bodies bore no resemblance to a plasma membrane or to the outer layer of any known gregarine, other protozoan or metazoan. Sub-cellular organelles such as mitochondria, nuclei, endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes were absent. The internal membranes had a tubular sub-structure and occasionally enclosed whole B-cells, sloughed from the HP tubule epithelium. These internal membranes were shown to arise from transformed microvilli that peeled away from HP tubule epithelial cells and then aggregated in the tubule lumen. Stripped of microvilli, the originating cells underwent lysis. By contrast, B-cells remained intact or were sloughed independently and whole from the tubule epithelium. When sometimes engulfed by the aggregated, transformed microvilli (ATM) they could be misinterpreted as cyst-like structures by light microscopy, contributing to gregarine-like appearance. The cause of ATM is currently unknown, but formation by loss of microvilli and subsequent cell lysis indicate that their formation is a pathological process. If sufficiently severe, they may retard shrimp growth and may predispose shrimp to opportunistic pathogens

  4. Specific alterations in complement protein activity of little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus hibernating in white-nose syndrome affected sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne S Moore

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS is the most devastating condition ever reported for hibernating bats, causing widespread mortality in the northeastern United States. The syndrome is characterized by cutaneous lesions caused by a recently identified psychrophilic and keratinophylic fungus (Geomyces destructans, depleted fat reserves, atypical behavior, and damage to wings; however, the proximate cause of mortality is still uncertain. To assess relative levels of immunocompetence in bats hibernating in WNS-affected sites compared with levels in unaffected bats, we describe blood plasma complement protein activity in hibernating little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus based on microbicidal competence assays using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Blood plasma from bats collected during mid-hibernation at WNS-affected sites had higher bactericidal ability against E. coli and S. aureus, but lower fungicidal ability against C. albicans when compared with blood plasma from bats collected at unaffected sites. Within affected sites during mid-hibernation, we observed no difference in microbicidal ability between bats displaying obvious fungal infections compared to those without. Bactericidal ability against E. coli decreased significantly as hibernation progressed in bats collected from an affected site. Bactericidal ability against E. coli and fungicidal ability against C. albicans were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI during late hibernation. We also compared complement activity against the three microbes within individuals and found that the ability of blood plasma from hibernating M. lucifugus to lyse microbial cells differed as follows: E. coli>S. aureus>C. albicans. Overall, bats affected by WNS experience both relatively elevated and reduced innate immune responses depending on the microbe tested, although the cause of observed immunological changes remains unknown. Additionally, considerable trade-offs may exist

  5. Specific alterations in complement protein activity of little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) hibernating in white-nose syndrome affected sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Marianne S; Reichard, Jonathan D; Murtha, Timothy D; Zahedi, Bita; Fallier, Renee M; Kunz, Thomas H

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is the most devastating condition ever reported for hibernating bats, causing widespread mortality in the northeastern United States. The syndrome is characterized by cutaneous lesions caused by a recently identified psychrophilic and keratinophylic fungus (Geomyces destructans), depleted fat reserves, atypical behavior, and damage to wings; however, the proximate cause of mortality is still uncertain. To assess relative levels of immunocompetence in bats hibernating in WNS-affected sites compared with levels in unaffected bats, we describe blood plasma complement protein activity in hibernating little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) based on microbicidal competence assays using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Blood plasma from bats collected during mid-hibernation at WNS-affected sites had higher bactericidal ability against E. coli and S. aureus, but lower fungicidal ability against C. albicans when compared with blood plasma from bats collected at unaffected sites. Within affected sites during mid-hibernation, we observed no difference in microbicidal ability between bats displaying obvious fungal infections compared to those without. Bactericidal ability against E. coli decreased significantly as hibernation progressed in bats collected from an affected site. Bactericidal ability against E. coli and fungicidal ability against C. albicans were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) during late hibernation. We also compared complement activity against the three microbes within individuals and found that the ability of blood plasma from hibernating M. lucifugus to lyse microbial cells differed as follows: E. coli>S. aureus>C. albicans. Overall, bats affected by WNS experience both relatively elevated and reduced innate immune responses depending on the microbe tested, although the cause of observed immunological changes remains unknown. Additionally, considerable trade-offs may exist between energy

  6. Rapid recovery from congestive heart failure following successful radiofrequency catheter ablation in a patient with late onset of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodogawa, Kenji; Ono, Norihiko; Seino, Yoshihiko

    2012-01-01

    A 56-year-old man was admitted because of palpitations and dyspnea. A 12-lead electrocardiogram showed irregular wide QRS complex tachycardia with a slur at the initial portion of the QRS complex. He had preexisting long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation, but early excitation syndrome had never been noted. Chest X-ray showed heart enlargement and pulmonary congestion. He was diagnosed with late onset of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and congestive heart failure was probably caused by rapid ventricular response of atrial fibrillation through the accessory pathway. Emergency catheter ablation for the accessory pathway was undertaken, and heart failure was dramatically improved.

  7. Relationship between white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) loads and characterizations of water quality in Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds during the tropical storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J S; Li, Z J; Wen, G L; Wang, Y L; Luo, L; Zhang, H J; Dong, H B

    2016-01-01

    An in-situ experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of tropical storm on the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) loads in Litopenaeus vannamei rearing ponds. White spot syndrome virus loads, heterotrophic bacteria, Vibrio and water quality (including temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, pH, NH 4 -N, and NO 2 -N) were continually monitored through one tropical storm. The WSSV loads decreased when tropical storm made landfall, and substantially increased when typhoon passed. The variation of WSSV loads was correlated with DO, temperature, heterotrophic bacteria count, and ammonia-N concentrations. These results suggested that maintaining high level DO and promoting heterotrophic bacteria growth in the shrimp ponds might prevent the diseases' outbreak after the landfall of tropical storm.

  8. Hormones and hibernation: possible links between hormone systems, winter energy balance and white-nose syndrome in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Craig K R; Wilcox, Alana

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Hibernation allows mammals to survive in cold climates and during times of reduced food availability. Drastic physiological changes are required to maintain the energy savings that characterize hibernation. These changes presumably enable adjustments in endocrine activity that control metabolism and body temperature, and ultimately influence expression of torpor and periodic arousals. Despite challenges that exist when examining hormonal pathways in small-bodied hibernators, bats represent a potential model taxon for comparative neuroendocrinological studies of hibernation due to their diversity of species and the reliance of many species on heterothermy. Understanding physiological mechanisms underlying hibernation in bats is also important from a conservation physiology perspective due to white-nose syndrome, an emerging infectious disease causing catastrophic mortality among hibernating bats in eastern North America. Here we review the potential influence of three key hormonal mechanisms--leptin, melatonin and glucocorticoids--on hibernation in mammals with an emphasis on bats. We propose testable hypotheses about potential effects of WNS on these systems and their evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic structure of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) corresponds with spread of white-nose syndrome among hibernacula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Butterworth, Cassandra M; Vonhof, Maarten J; Rosenstern, Joel; Turner, Greg G; Russell, Amy L

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) was one of the most common bat species in North America. However, this species currently faces a significant threat from the emerging fungal disease white-nose syndrome (WNS). The aims of this study were to examine the population genetic structure of M. lucifugus hibernating colonies in Pennsylvania (PA) and West Virginia (WV), and to determine whether that population structure may have influenced the pattern of spread of WNS. Samples were obtained from 198 individuals from both uninfected and recently infected colonies located at the crest of the disease front. Both mitochondrial (636bp of cytochrome oxidase I) and nuclear (8 microsatellites) loci were examined. Although no substructure was evident from nuclear DNA, female-mediated gene flow was restricted between hibernacula in western PA and the remaining colonies in eastern and central PA and WV. This mitochondrial genetic structure mirrors topographic variation across the region: 3 hibernating colonies located on the western Appalachian plateau were significantly differentiated from colonies located in the central mountainous and eastern lowland regions, suggesting reduced gene flow between these clusters of colonies. Consistent with the hypothesis that WNS is transmitted primarily through bat-to-bat contact, these same 3 hibernating colonies in westernmost PA remained WNS-free for 1-2 years after the disease had swept through the rest of the state, suggesting that female migration patterns may influence the spread of WNS across the landscape.

  10. Host, pathogen, and environmental characteristics predict white-nose syndrome mortality in captive little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph S; Reeder, DeeAnn M; McMichael, James W; Meierhofer, Melissa B; Stern, Daniel W F; Lumadue, Shayne S; Sigler, Lauren E; Winters, Harrison D; Vodzak, Megan E; Kurta, Allen; Kath, Joseph A; Field, Kenneth A

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 5.7 million or more bats died in North America between 2006 and 2012 due to infection with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd) that causes white-nose syndrome (WNS) during hibernation. The behavioral and physiological changes associated with hibernation leave bats vulnerable to WNS, but the persistence of bats within the contaminated regions of North America suggests that survival might vary predictably among individuals or in relation to environmental conditions. To investigate variables influencing WNS mortality, we conducted a captive study of 147 little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) inoculated with 0, 500, 5000, 50,000, or 500,000 Pd conidia and hibernated for five months at either 4 or 10°C. We found that female bats were significantly more likely to survive hibernation, as were bats hibernated at 4°C, and bats with greater body condition at the start of hibernation. Although all bats inoculated with Pd exhibited shorter torpor bouts compared to controls, a characteristic of WNS, only bats inoculated with 500 conidia had significantly lower survival odds compared to controls. These data show that host and environmental characteristics are significant predictors of WNS mortality, and that exposure to up to 500 conidia is sufficient to cause a fatal infection. These results also illustrate a need to quantify dynamics of Pd exposure in free-ranging bats, as dynamics of WNS produced in captive studies inoculating bats with several hundred thousand conidia may differ from those in the wild.

  11. Inoculation of bats with European Geomyces destructans supports the novel pathogen hypothesis for the origin of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M; Bollinger, Trent K; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Misra, Vikram; Cryan, Paul M; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Blehert, David S; Willis, Craig K R

    2012-05-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease of hibernating bats associated with cutaneous infection by the fungus Geomyces destructans (Gd), and responsible for devastating declines of bat populations in eastern North America. Affected bats appear emaciated and one hypothesis is that they spend too much time out of torpor during hibernation, depleting vital fat reserves required to survive the winter. The fungus has also been found at low levels on bats throughout Europe but without mass mortality. This finding suggests that Gd is either native to both continents but has been rendered more pathogenic in North America by mutation or environmental change, or that it recently arrived in North America as an invader from Europe. Thus, a causal link between Gd and mortality has not been established and the reason for its high pathogenicity in North America is unknown. Here we show that experimental inoculation with either North American or European isolates of Gd causes WNS and mortality in the North American bat, Myotis lucifugus. In contrast to control bats, individuals inoculated with either isolate of Gd developed cutaneous infections diagnostic of WNS, exhibited a progressive increase in the frequency of arousals from torpor during hibernation, and were emaciated after 3-4 mo. Our results demonstrate that altered torpor-arousal cycles underlie mortality from WNS and provide direct evidence that Gd is a novel pathogen to North America from Europe.

  12. Sex and hibernaculum temperature predict survivorship in white-nose syndrome affected little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieneisen, Laura E.; Brownlee-Bouboulis, Sarah A.; Johnson, Joseph S.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.

    2015-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging infectious disease caused by the novel fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has devastated North American bat populations since its discovery in 2006. The little brown myotis, Myotis lucifugus, has been especially affected. The goal of this 2-year captive study was to determine the impact of hibernacula temperature and sex on WNS survivorship in little brown myotis that displayed visible fungal infection when collected from affected hibernacula. In study 1, we found that WNS-affected male bats had increased survival over females and that bats housed at a colder temperature survived longer than those housed at warmer temperatures. In study 2, we found that WNS-affected bats housed at a colder temperature fared worse than unaffected bats. Our results demonstrate that WNS mortality varies among individuals, and that colder hibernacula are more favourable for survival. They also suggest that female bats may be more negatively affected by WNS than male bats, which has important implications for the long-term survival of the little brown myotis in eastern North America. PMID:26064604

  13. Investigating and managing the rapid emergence of white-nose syndrome, a novel, fatal, infectious disease of hibernating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet; Clifford, Deana; Castle, Kevin; Cryan, Paul; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2011-04-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fatal disease of bats that hibernate. The etiologic agent of WNS is the fungus Geomyces destructans, which infects the skin and wing membranes. Over 1 million bats in six species in eastern North America have died from WNS since 2006, and as a result several species of bats may become endangered or extinct. Information is lacking on the pathogenesis of G. destructans and WNS, WNS transmission and maintenance, individual and site factors that contribute to the probability of an outbreak of WNS, and spatial dynamics of WNS spread in North America. We considered how descriptive and analytical epidemiology could be used to fill these information gaps, including a four-step (modified) outbreak investigation, application of a set of criteria (Hill's) for assessing causation, compartment models of disease dynamics, and spatial modeling. We cataloged and critiqued adaptive-management options that have been either previously proposed for WNS or were helpful in addressing other emerging diseases of wild animals. These include an ongoing program of prospective surveillance of bats and hibernacula for WNS, treatment of individual bats, increasing population resistance to WNS (through vaccines, immunomodulators, or other methods), improving probability of survival from starvation and dehydration associated with WNS, modifying hibernacula environments to eliminate G. destructans, culling individuals or populations, controlling anthropogenic spread of WNS, conserving genetic diversity of bats, and educating the public about bats and bat conservation issues associated with WNS. Conservation Biology ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology. No claim to original US government works.

  14. Inoculation of bats with European Geomyces destructans supports the novel pathogen hypothesis for the origin of white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M.; Bollinger, Trent K.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Misra, Vikram; Cryan, Paul M.; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Blehert, David S.; Willis, Craig K.R.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease of hibernating bats associated with cutaneous infection by the fungus Geomyces destructans (Gd), and responsible for devastating declines of bat populations in eastern North America. Affected bats appear emaciated and one hypothesis is that they spend too much time out of torpor during hibernation, depleting vital fat reserves required to survive the winter. The fungus has also been found at low levels on bats throughout Europe but without mass mortality. This finding suggests that Gd is either native to both continents but has been rendered more pathogenic in North America by mutation or environmental change, or that it recently arrived in North America as an invader from Europe. Thus, a causal link between Gd and mortality has not been established and the reason for its high pathogenicity in North America is unknown. Here we show that experimental inoculation with either North American or European isolates of Gd causes WNS and mortality in the North American bat, Myotis lucifugus. In contrast to control bats, individuals inoculated with either isolate of Gd developed cutaneous infections diagnostic of WNS, exhibited a progressive increase in the frequency of arousals from torpor during hibernation, and were emaciated after 3–4 mo. Our results demonstrate that altered torpor-arousal cycles underlie mortality from WNS and provide direct evidence that Gd is a novel pathogen to North America from Europe.

  15. The fungus Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. causes skin infections that resemble white-nose syndrome of hibernating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Minnis, Andrew M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Redell, Jennifer A.; White, J. Paul; Kaarakka, Heather M.; Muller, Laura K.; Lindner, David L.; Verant, Michelle L.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Blehert, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, USA, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species ofTrichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, USA. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS.

  16. Dyssynchronous Ventricular Activation in Asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: A Risk Factor for Development of Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udink ten Cate, Floris EA; Wiesner, Nathalie; Trieschmann, Uwe; Khalil, Markus; Sreeram, Narayanswami

    2010-01-01

    A subset of children and adults with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome develop dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Although DCM may occur in symptomatic WPW patients with sustained tachyarrhythmias, emerging evidence suggests that significant left ventricular dysfunction may arise in WPW in the absence of incessant tachyarrhythmias. An invariable electrophysiological feature in this non-tachyarrhythmia type of DCM is the presence of a right-sided septal or paraseptal accessory pathway. It is thought that premature ventricular activation over these accessory pathways induces septal wall motion abnormalities and ventricular dyssynchrony. LV dyssynchrony induces cellular and structural ventricular remodelling, which may have detrimental effects on cardiac performance. This review summarizes recent evidence for development of DCM in asymptomatic patients with WPW, discusses its pathogenesis, clinical presentation, management and treatment. The prognosis of accessory pathway-induced DCM is excellent. LV dysfunction reverses following catheter ablation of the accessory pathway, suggesting an association between DCM and ventricular preexcitation. Accessory pathway-induced DCM should be suspected in all patients presenting with heart failure and overt ventricular preexcitation, in whom no cause for their DCM can be found. PMID:20552060

  17. Winter behavior of bats and the progression of white-nose syndrome in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Riley F; McCracken, Gary F

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the winter behavior of bats in temperate North America can provide insight into how bats react to perturbations caused by natural disturbances such as weather, human-induced disturbances, or the introduction of disease. This study measured the activity patterns of bats outside of their hibernaculum and asked how this winter activity varied by time, temperature, bat species, body condition, and WNS status. Over the course of three winters (2011-2013), we collected acoustic data and captured bats outside of five hibernacula in Tennessee, United States. During this time, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, became established in hibernacula throughout the region, allowing us to track disease-related changes in the winter behavior of ten bat species. We determined that bats in the southeastern United States were active during winter regardless of disease. We recorded activity outside of hibernacula at temperatures as low as -13°C. Although bat activity was best determined by a combination of variables, the strongest factor was mean daily temperature ( R 2  = .2879, F 1,1450  = 586.2, p  destructans positive ( F 3,17 808  = 124.48, p  destructans .

  18. Novel Trichoderma polysporum Strain for the Biocontrol of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Fungal Etiologic Agent of Bat White Nose Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Chaturvedi, Sudha

    2015-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging disease of hibernating bats, has rapidly spread across eastern North America killing millions of bats. Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), the sole etiologic agent of WNS, is widespread and persistent in bat hibernacula. Control of Pd in the affected sites is urgently needed to break the transmission cycle while minimizing any adverse impact on the native organisms. We isolated a novel strain of Trichoderma polysporum (Tp) from one of the caves at the epicenter of WNS zoonotic. Detailed experimental studies revealed: (1) Tp WPM 39143 was highly adapted to grow at temperatures simulating the cave environment (6°C-15°C), (2) Tp WPM 39143 restricted Pd colony growth in dual culture challenges, (3) Tp WPM 39143 caused four logs reduction of Pd colony forming units and genome copies in autoclaved soil samples from one of the WNS affected caves, (4) Tp WPM 39143 extract showed specific fungicidal activity against Pd in disk diffusion assay, but not against closely related fungus P. pannorum (Pp), (5) Tp WPM 39143 extract retained inhibitory activity after exposure to high temperatures, light and proteinase K, and (6) Inhibitory metabolites in Tp WPM 39143 extract comprised of water-soluble, high polarity compounds. These results suggest that Tp WPM 39143 is a promising candidate for further evaluation as a biocontrol agent of Pd in WNS affected sites.

  19. Host persistence or extinction from emerging infectious disease: insights from white-nose syndrome in endemic and invading regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Joseph R; Langwig, Kate E; Sun, Keping; Lu, Guanjun; Parise, Katy L; Jiang, Tinglei; Frick, Winifred F; Foster, Jeffrey T; Feng, Jiang; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2016-03-16

    Predicting species' fates following the introduction of a novel pathogen is a significant and growing problem in conservation. Comparing disease dynamics between introduced and endemic regions can offer insight into which naive hosts will persist or go extinct, with disease acting as a filter on host communities. We examined four hypothesized mechanisms for host-pathogen persistence by comparing host infection patterns and environmental reservoirs for Pseudogymnoascus destructans (the causative agent of white-nose syndrome) in Asia, an endemic region, and North America, where the pathogen has recently invaded. Although colony sizes of bats and hibernacula temperatures were very similar, both infection prevalence and fungal loads were much lower on bats and in the environment in Asia than North America. These results indicate that transmission intensity and pathogen growth are lower in Asia, likely due to higher host resistance to pathogen growth in this endemic region, and not due to host tolerance, lower transmission due to smaller populations, or lower environmentally driven pathogen growth rate. Disease filtering also appears to be favouring initially resistant species in North America. More broadly, determining the mechanisms allowing species persistence in endemic regions can help identify species at greater risk of extinction in introduced regions, and determine the consequences for disease dynamics and host-pathogen coevolution. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Novel Trichoderma polysporum Strain for the Biocontrol of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Fungal Etiologic Agent of Bat White Nose Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS, an emerging disease of hibernating bats, has rapidly spread across eastern North America killing millions of bats. Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd, the sole etiologic agent of WNS, is widespread and persistent in bat hibernacula. Control of Pd in the affected sites is urgently needed to break the transmission cycle while minimizing any adverse impact on the native organisms. We isolated a novel strain of Trichoderma polysporum (Tp from one of the caves at the epicenter of WNS zoonotic. Detailed experimental studies revealed: (1 Tp WPM 39143 was highly adapted to grow at temperatures simulating the cave environment (6°C-15°C, (2 Tp WPM 39143 restricted Pd colony growth in dual culture challenges, (3 Tp WPM 39143 caused four logs reduction of Pd colony forming units and genome copies in autoclaved soil samples from one of the WNS affected caves, (4 Tp WPM 39143 extract showed specific fungicidal activity against Pd in disk diffusion assay, but not against closely related fungus P. pannorum (Pp, (5 Tp WPM 39143 extract retained inhibitory activity after exposure to high temperatures, light and proteinase K, and (6 Inhibitory metabolites in Tp WPM 39143 extract comprised of water-soluble, high polarity compounds. These results suggest that Tp WPM 39143 is a promising candidate for further evaluation as a biocontrol agent of Pd in WNS affected sites.

  1. Sex and hibernaculum temperature predict survivorship in white-nose syndrome affected little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieneisen, Laura E; Brownlee-Bouboulis, Sarah A; Johnson, Joseph S; Reeder, DeeAnn M

    2015-02-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging infectious disease caused by the novel fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has devastated North American bat populations since its discovery in 2006. The little brown myotis, Myotis lucifugus, has been especially affected. The goal of this 2-year captive study was to determine the impact of hibernacula temperature and sex on WNS survivorship in little brown myotis that displayed visible fungal infection when collected from affected hibernacula. In study 1, we found that WNS-affected male bats had increased survival over females and that bats housed at a colder temperature survived longer than those housed at warmer temperatures. In study 2, we found that WNS-affected bats housed at a colder temperature fared worse than unaffected bats. Our results demonstrate that WNS mortality varies among individuals, and that colder hibernacula are more favourable for survival. They also suggest that female bats may be more negatively affected by WNS than male bats, which has important implications for the long-term survival of the little brown myotis in eastern North America.

  2. Long-Term Persistence of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome, in the Absence of Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Joseph R; Langwig, Kate E; Okoniewski, Joseph; Frick, Winifred F; Stone, Ward B; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2015-06-01

    Wildlife diseases have been implicated in the declines and extinctions of several species. The ability of a pathogen to persist outside its host, existing as an "environmental reservoir", can exacerbate the impact of a disease and increase the likelihood of host extinction. Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungal pathogen that causes white-nose syndrome in bats, has been found in cave soil during the summer when hibernating bats had likely been absent for several months. However, whether the pathogen can persist over multiple years in the absence of bats is unknown, and long-term persistence of the pathogen can influence whether hibernacula where bats have been locally extirpated due to disease can be subsequently recolonized. Here, we show that P. destructans is capable of long-term persistence in the laboratory in the absence of bats. We cultured P. destructans from dried agar plates that had been kept at 5°C and low humidity conditions (30-40% RH) for more than 5 years. This suggests that P. destructans can persist in the absence of bats for long periods which may prevent the recolonization of hibernation, sites where bat populations were extirpated. This increases the extinction risk of bats affected by this disease.

  3. Pseudogymnoascus destructans: Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome in Bats Is Inhibited by Safe Volatile Organic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Sally; Dias, Itamar; Korn, Victoria L; Bennett, Joan W

    2018-04-10

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans , a psychrophilic fungus that infects hibernating bats and has caused a serious decline in some species. Natural aroma compounds have been used to control growth of fungal food storage pathogens, so we hypothesized that a similar strategy could work for control of P. destructans . The effectiveness of exposure to low concentrations of the vapor phase of four of these compounds was tested on mycelial plugs and conidiospores at temperatures of 5, 10 and 15 °C. Here we report the efficacy of vapor phase mushroom alcohol (1-octen-3-ol) for inhibiting mycelial and conidiospore growth of P. destructans at 0.4 and 0.8 µmol/mL and demonstrate that the R enantiomer of this compound is more effective than the S enantiomer, supporting the finding that biological systems can be sensitive to stereochemistry. Further, we report that vapor phase leaf aldehyde ( trans -2-hexenal), a common aroma compound associated with cut grass odors and also the major volatile compound in extra virgin olive oil, is more effective than mushroom alcohol. At 0.05 µmol/mL, trans -2-hexenal is fungicidal to both conidiospores and mycelia of P. destructans .

  4. The fungus Trichophyton redellii sp. Nov. Causes skin infections that resemble white-nose syndrome of hibernating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Minnis, Andrew M; Meteyer, Carol U; Redell, Jennifer A; White, J Paul; Kaarakka, Heather M; Muller, Laura K; Lindner, Daniel L; Verant, Michelle L; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Blehert, David S

    2015-01-01

    Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, US, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species of Trichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, US. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS.

  5. Host, pathogen, and environmental characteristics predict white-nose syndrome mortality in captive little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S Johnson

    Full Text Available An estimated 5.7 million or more bats died in North America between 2006 and 2012 due to infection with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd that causes white-nose syndrome (WNS during hibernation. The behavioral and physiological changes associated with hibernation leave bats vulnerable to WNS, but the persistence of bats within the contaminated regions of North America suggests that survival might vary predictably among individuals or in relation to environmental conditions. To investigate variables influencing WNS mortality, we conducted a captive study of 147 little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus inoculated with 0, 500, 5000, 50,000, or 500,000 Pd conidia and hibernated for five months at either 4 or 10°C. We found that female bats were significantly more likely to survive hibernation, as were bats hibernated at 4°C, and bats with greater body condition at the start of hibernation. Although all bats inoculated with Pd exhibited shorter torpor bouts compared to controls, a characteristic of WNS, only bats inoculated with 500 conidia had significantly lower survival odds compared to controls. These data show that host and environmental characteristics are significant predictors of WNS mortality, and that exposure to up to 500 conidia is sufficient to cause a fatal infection. These results also illustrate a need to quantify dynamics of Pd exposure in free-ranging bats, as dynamics of WNS produced in captive studies inoculating bats with several hundred thousand conidia may differ from those in the wild.

  6. Energy conserving thermoregulatory patterns and lower disease severity in a bat resistant to the impacts of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Marianne S; Field, Kenneth A; Behr, Melissa J; Turner, Gregory G; Furze, Morgan E; Stern, Daniel W F; Allegra, Paul R; Bouboulis, Sarah A; Musante, Chelsey D; Vodzak, Megan E; Biron, Matthew E; Meierhofer, Melissa B; Frick, Winifred F; Foster, Jeffrey T; Howell, Daryl; Kath, Joseph A; Kurta, Allen; Nordquist, Gerda; Johnson, Joseph S; Lilley, Thomas M; Barrett, Benjamin W; Reeder, DeeAnn M

    2018-01-01

    The devastating bat fungal disease, white-nose syndrome (WNS), does not appear to affect all species equally. To experimentally determine susceptibility differences between species, we exposed hibernating naïve little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) and big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to the fungus that causes WNS, Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). After hibernating under identical conditions, Pd lesions were significantly more prevalent and more severe in little brown myotis. This species difference in pathology correlates with susceptibility to WNS in the wild and suggests that survival is related to different host physiological responses. We observed another fungal infection, associated with neutrophilic inflammation, that was equally present in all bats. This suggests that both species are capable of generating a response to cold tolerant fungi and that Pd may have evolved mechanisms for evading host responses that are effective in at least some bat species. These host-pathogen interactions are likely mediated not just by host physiological responses, but also by host behavior. Pd-exposed big brown bats, the less affected species, spent more time in torpor than did control animals, while little brown myotis did not exhibit this change. This differential thermoregulatory response to Pd infection by big brown bat hosts may allow for a more effective (or less pathological) immune response to tissue invasion.

  7. Graphene oxide based fluorescence resonance energy transfer and loop-mediated isothermal amplification for white spot syndrome virus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiwijit, U; Phokaratkul, D; Kampeera, J; Lomas, T; Wisitsoraat, A; Kiatpathomchai, W; Tuantranont, A

    2015-10-20

    Graphene oxide (GO) is attractived for biological or medical applications due to its unique electrical, physical, optical and biological properties. In particular, GO can adsorb DNA via π-π stacking or non-covalent interactions, leading to fluorescence quenching phenomenon applicable for bio-molecular detection. In this work, a new method for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-DNA detection is developed based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between GO and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled probe (FITC-probe). The fluorescence quenching efficiency of FITC-probe was found to increase with increasing GO concentration and reached 98.7% at a GO concentration of 50 μg/ml. The fluorescence intensity of FITC-probe was recovered after hybridization with WSSV LAMP product with an optimal hybridization time of 10 min and increased accordingly with increasing amount of LAMP products. The detection limit was estimated to be as low as 10 copies of WSSV plasmid DNA or 0.6 fg of the total DNA extracted from shrimp infected with WSSV. In addition, no cross reaction was observed with other common shrimp viral pathogens. Therefore, the GO-FRET-LAMP technique is promising for fast, sensitive and specific detection of DNAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV Interact with Litopenaeus vannamei Peritrophin-Like Protein (LvPT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Xie

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is a major pathogen in shrimp cultures. The interactions between viral proteins and their receptors on the surface of cells in a frontier target tissue are crucial for triggering an infection. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H library was constructed using cDNA obtained from the stomach and gut of Litopenaeus vannamei, to ascertain the role of envelope proteins in WSSV infection. For this purpose, VP37 was used as the bait in the Y2H library screening. Forty positive clones were detected after screening. The positive clones were analyzed and discriminated, and two clones belonging to the peritrophin family were subsequently confirmed as genuine positive clones. Sequence analysis revealed that both clones could be considered as the same gene, LV-peritrophin (LvPT. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction between LvPT and VP37. Further studies in the Y2H system revealed that LvPT could also interact with other WSSV envelope proteins such as VP32, VP38A, VP39B, and VP41A. The distribution of LvPT in tissues revealed that LvPT was mainly expressed in the stomach than in other tissues. In addition, LvPT was found to be a secretory protein, and its chitin-binding ability was also confirmed.

  9. Assessing Virulence and Transmission Rates of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Two Ecologically Important Palaemonid Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C.; Keesee, B.; Philippoff, C.; Curran, S.; Lotz, J.; Powell, E.

    2016-02-01

    Investigators, including three REU interns, conducted an experiment to quantify parameters for an epidemiological model designed to estimate disease transmission in marine invertebrates. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a highly pathogenic disease affecting commercially important penaeid shrimp fisheries worldwide. The virus devastates penaeid shrimp but other varieties of decapods may serve as reservoirs for disease by being less susceptible to WSSV or refractory to disease. Non-penaeid crustaceans are less susceptible to WSSV, and different species have variable resistance to the disease leading to different potential to serve as reservoirs for transmission of the disease to coastal penaeid fisheries. This study investigates virulence and transmission rates of WSSV in two palaemonid shrimp which are keystone members of coastal food webs, and effects of species interactions on transmission rates of WSSV are estimated in a laboratory setting as a proxy for natural habitats. Two species of grass shrimp were exposed to a Chinese strain of WSSV through feeding the test individuals with previously prepared, inoculated penaeid shrimp. Replicated tanks containing 30 animals were exposed to the virus in arenas containing one or both species for 24 hours, then isolated in 1 liter tanks and monitored. During the isolation period moribund individuals were preserved for later analysis. After 7 days all test individuals were analyzed using qPCR to determine WSSV presence and load in DNA. From these data transmission rates, mortality, and viral concentration were quantified and used as parameters in a simple epidemiological model.

  10. Microarray and RT-PCR screening for white spot syndrome virus immediate-early genes in cycloheximide-treated shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wangjing; Chang Yunshiang; Wang Chunghsiung; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Lo Chufang

    2005-01-01

    Here, we report for the first time the successful use of cycloheximide (CHX) as an inhibitor to block de novo viral protein synthesis during WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infection. Sixty candidate IE (immediate-early) genes were identified using a global analysis microarray technique. RT-PCR showed that the genes corresponding to ORF126, ORF242 and ORF418 in the Taiwan isolate were consistently CHX-insensitive, and these genes were designated ie1, ie2 and ie3, respectively. The sequences for these IE genes also appear in the two other WSSV isolates that have been sequenced. Three corresponding ORFs were identified in the China WSSV isolate, but only an ORF corresponding to ie1 was predicted in the Thailand isolate. In a promoter activity assay in Sf9 insect cells using EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) as a reporter, ie1 showed very strong promoter activity, producing higher EGFP signals than the insect Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (OpMNPV) ie2 promoter

  11. Shrimp miR-12 Suppresses White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection by Synchronously Triggering Antiviral Phagocytosis and Apoptosis Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Le; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence has indicated that the innate immune system can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). However, the mechanism underlying miRNA-mediated simultaneous activation of multiple immune pathways remains unknown. To address this issue, the role of host miR-12 in shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) antiviral immune responses was characterized in the present study. The results indicated that miR-12 participated in virus infection, host phagocytosis, and apoptosis in defense against white spot syndrome virus invasion. miR-12 could simultaneously trigger phagocytosis, apoptosis, and antiviral immunity through the synchronous downregulation of the expression of shrimp genes [PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) and BI-1(transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 6)] and the viral gene (wsv024). Further analysis showed that miR-12 could synchronously mediate the 5′–3′ exonucleolytic degradation of its target mRNAs, and this degradation terminated in the vicinity of the 3′ untranslated region sequence complementary to the seed sequence of miR-12. Therefore, the present study showed novel aspects of the miRNA-mediated simultaneous regulation of multiple immune pathways. PMID:28824612

  12. Application of a Label-Free Immunosensor for White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Shrimp Cultivation Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waiyapoka, Thanyaporn; Deachamag, Panchalika; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Bunsanong, Nittaya; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote; Loyprasert-Thananimit, Suchera

    2015-10-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen affecting the shrimp industry worldwide. In a preliminary study, WSSV binding protein (WBP) was specifically bound to the VP26 protein of WSSV. Therefore, we have developed the label-free affinity immunosensor using the WBP together with anti-GST-VP26 for quantitative detection of WSSV in shrimp pond water. When the biological molecules were immobilized on a gold electrode to form a self-assembled monolayer, it was then used to detect WSSV using a flow injection system with optimized conditions. Binding between the different copies of WSSV and the immobilized biological molecules was detected by an impedance change (ΔZ″) in real time. The sensitivity of the developed immunosensor was in the linear range of 1.6 × 10(1)-1.6 × 10(6) copies/μl. The system was highly sensitive for the analysis of WSSV as shown by the lack of impedance change when using yellow head virus (YHV). The developed immunosensor could be reused up to 37 times (relative standard deviation (RSD), 3.24 %) with a good reproducibility of residual activity (80-110 %). The immunosensor was simple to operate, reliable, reproducible, and could be applied for the detection and quantification of WSSV in water during shrimp cultivation.

  13. Conservation Physiology and Conservation Pathogens: White-Nose Syndrome and Integrative Biology for Host-Pathogen Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Craig K R

    2015-10-01

    Conservation physiology aims to apply an understanding of physiological mechanisms to management of imperiled species, populations, or ecosystems. One challenge for physiologists hoping to apply their expertise to conservation is connecting the mechanisms we study, often in the laboratory, with the vital rates of populations in the wild. There is growing appreciation that infectious pathogens can threaten populations and species, and represent an important issue for conservation. Conservation physiology has much to offer in terms of addressing the threat posed to some host species by infectious pathogens. At the same time, the well-developed theoretical framework of disease ecology could provide a model to help advance the application of physiology to a range of other conservation issues. Here, I use white-nose syndrome (WNS) in hibernating North American bats as an example of a conservation problem for which integrative physiological research has been a critical part of research and management. The response to WNS highlights the importance of a well-developed theoretical framework for the application of conservation physiology to a particular threat. I review what is known about physiological mechanisms associated with mortality from WNS and emphasize the value of combining a strong theoretical background with integrative physiological studies in order to connect physiological mechanisms with population processes and thereby maximize the potential benefits of conservation physiology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Pseudogymnoascus destructans: Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome in Bats Is Inhibited by Safe Volatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Padhi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS is caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, a psychrophilic fungus that infects hibernating bats and has caused a serious decline in some species. Natural aroma compounds have been used to control growth of fungal food storage pathogens, so we hypothesized that a similar strategy could work for control of P. destructans. The effectiveness of exposure to low concentrations of the vapor phase of four of these compounds was tested on mycelial plugs and conidiospores at temperatures of 5, 10 and 15 °C. Here we report the efficacy of vapor phase mushroom alcohol (1-octen-3-ol for inhibiting mycelial and conidiospore growth of P. destructans at 0.4 and 0.8 µmol/mL and demonstrate that the R enantiomer of this compound is more effective than the S enantiomer, supporting the finding that biological systems can be sensitive to stereochemistry. Further, we report that vapor phase leaf aldehyde (trans-2-hexenal, a common aroma compound associated with cut grass odors and also the major volatile compound in extra virgin olive oil, is more effective than mushroom alcohol. At 0.05 µmol/mL, trans-2-hexenal is fungicidal to both conidiospores and mycelia of P. destructans.

  15. An Elegant Analysis of White Spot Syndrome Virus Using a Graphene Oxide/Methylene Blue based Electrochemical Immunosensor Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Anusha; Devi, K. S. Shalini; Raja, Sudhakaran; Senthil Kumar, Annamalai

    2017-04-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major devastating virus in aquaculture industry. A sensitive and selective diagnostic method for WSSV is a pressing need for the early detection and protection of the aquaculture farms. Herein, we first report, a simple electrochemical immunosensor based on methylene blue dye (MB) immobilized graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE/GO@MB) for selective, quick (35 ± 5 mins) and raw sample analysis of WSSV. The immunosensor was prepared by sequential modification of primary antibody, blocking agent (bovine serum album), antigen (as vp28 protein), secondary antibody coupled with horseradish peroxidase (Ab2-HRP) on the GCE/GO@MB. The modified electrode showed a well-defined redox peak at an equilibrium potential (E1/2), -0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl and mediated H2O2 reduction reaction without any false positive result and dissolved oxygen interferences in pH 7 phosphate buffer solution. Under an optimal condition, constructed calibration plot was linear in a range of 1.36 × 10-3 to 1.36 × 107 copies μL-1 of vp28. It is about four orders higher sensitive than that of the values observed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot based WSSV detection techniques. Direct electrochemical immunosensing of WSSV in raw tissue samples were successfully demonstrated as a real sample system.

  16. Novel Insights into Antiviral Gene Regulation of Red Swamp Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, Infected with White Spot Syndrome Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaokui Yi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV, one of the major pathogens of Procambarus clarkii, has caused severe disruption to the aquaculture industry of P. clarkii in China. To reveal the gene regulatory mechanisms underlying WSSV infection, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed among WSSV-infected susceptible individuals (GS, viral resistant individuals (GR, and a non-infected control group (GC. A total of 61,349 unigenes were assembled from nine libraries. Subsequently, 515 and 1033 unigenes exhibited significant differential expression in sensitive and resistant crayfish individuals compared to the control group (GC. Many differentially expressed genes (e.g., C-type lectin 4, Peroxinectin, Prophenoloxidase, and Serine/threonine-protein kinase observed in GR and GS play critical roles in pathogen recognition and viral defense reactions after WSSV infection. Importantly, the glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate pathway was identified to play critical roles in defense to WSSV infection for resistant crayfish individuals by upregulating the chondroitin sulfate related genes for the synthesis of WSSV-sensitive, functional chondroitin sulfate chains containing E units. Numerous genes and the key pathways identified between resistant and susceptible P. clarkii individuals provide valuable insights regarding antiviral response mechanisms of decapoda species and may help to improve the selective breeding of P. clarkii WSSV-resistance.

  17. The cerebro-morphological fingerprint of a progeroid syndrome: white matter changes correlate with neurological symptoms in xeroderma pigmentosum.

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    Jan Kassubek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is a rare autosomal recessive progeroid syndrome. It has recently been shown that the underlying DNA repair defect plays a central role in the aging process. In addition to skin symptoms, various premature neurological abnormalities have been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present the clinical neurological phenotype in 14 XP patients (seven subtypes, in seven of these patients together with conventional and multiparametric advanced MRI data to assess the macrostructural and microstructural cerebral morphology in comparison to controls, including volumetric measurements, MR spectroscopy ((1H MRS, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Clinical hallmarks were spinocerebellar ataxia, pyramidal tract signs, and mild cognitive deficits. DTI demonstrated significantly reduced WM directionality in all regions investigated, i.e. the thalamus, the corticospinal tracts and the dorsal corpus callosum. Single patients showed a marked relative hippocampal volume reduction, but the patients were not different from controls in the volumetric measurements of hippocampal and whole brain volumes at group level. However, (1H MRS demonstrated that the hippocampal formation was metabolically altered. CONCLUSIONS: The most prominent feature was the white matter affectation, as assessed by DTI, with volume and directionality reductions of the fiber projections involving both the craniocaudal fibers and the interhemispheric connections. These findings, although heterogeneous among the study sample, could be correlated with the clinico-neurological symptoms. The imaging findings support the position that myelin structures degrade prematurely in the brain of XP patients.

  18. Coronary heart disease risk factors in adult premenopausal white women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared with a healthy female population.

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    Glueck, Charles J; Morrison, John A; Goldenberg, Naila; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    Our specific aim was to determine whether coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients were independent of their higher body mass index (BMI) and centripetal obesity. In adult, premenopausal, white women, CHD risk factors were compared between 488 patients with well-defined PCOS and 351 healthy free-living population controls from the Princeton Follow-up Study (PFS). After excluding women with irregular menses (putative PCOS phenotypes), comparisons were also made between the 261 PFS women with a history of regular menses and the 488 women with PCOS. Fasting lipids, insulin, glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA insulin secretion, blood pressure, BMI, and waist circumference were measured. Compared with both the full cohort of 351 PFS women and the subgroup of 261 PFS women with regular menses, women with PCOS had higher BMI, waist circumference, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, insulin, glucose, and HOMA-IR (all Ps PCOS, compared with the 351 and 261 PFS women, had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P PCOS women with normal BMI (PCOS cannot be exclusively attributed to their preponderant centripetal obesity. Identification of women with clinical features of PCOS should alert the clinician to potentially increased risk for CHD and prompt CHD risk factor testing.

  19. Investigating and managing the rapid emergence of white-nose syndrome, a novel, fatal, infectious disease of hibernating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet; Clifford, Deana; Castle, Kevin; Cryan, Paul M.; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fatal disease of bats that hibernate. The etiologic agent of WNS is the fungus Geomyces destructans, which infects the skin and wing membranes. Over 1 million bats in six species in eastern North America have died from WNS since 2006, and as a result several species of bats may become endangered or extinct. Information is lacking on the pathogenesis of G. destructans and WNS, WNS transmission and maintenance, individual and site factors that contribute to the probability of an outbreak of WNS, and spatial dynamics of WNS spread in North America. We considered how descriptive and analytical epidemiology could be used to fill these information gaps, including a four-step (modified) outbreak investigation, application of a set of criteria (Hill's) for assessing causation, compartment models of disease dynamics, and spatial modeling. We cataloged and critiqued adaptive-management options that have been either previously proposed for WNS or were helpful in addressing other emerging diseases of wild animals. These include an ongoing program of prospective surveillance of bats and hibernacula for WNS, treatment of individual bats, increasing population resistance to WNS (through vaccines, immunomodulators, or other methods), improving probability of survival from starvation and dehydration associated with WNS, modifying hibernacula environments to eliminate G. destructans, culling individuals or populations, controlling anthropogenic spread of WNS, conserving genetic diversity of bats, and educating the public about bats and bat conservation issues associated with WNS.

  20. Bat white-nose syndrome: A real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction test targeting the intergenic spacer region of Geomyces destructans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura K Muller; Jeffrey M. Lorch; Daniel L. Lindner; Michael O' Connor; Andrea Gargas; David S. Blehert

    2013-01-01

    The fungus Geomyces destructans is the causative agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a disease that has killed millions of North American hibernating bats. We describe a real-time TaqMan PCR test that detects DNA from G. destructans by targeting a portion of the multicopy intergenic spacer region of the rRNA gene complex. The...