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Sample records for wheat-rye substitution lines

  1. Alterations and abnormal mitosis of wheat chromosomes induced by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines.

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    Shulan Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wheat-rye addition lines are an old topic. However, the alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes caused by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines are seldom reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Octoploid triticale was derived from common wheat T. aestivum L. 'Mianyang11'×rye S. cereale L. 'Kustro' and some progeny were obtained by the controlled backcrossing of triticale with 'Mianyang11' followed by self-fertilization. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH using rye genomic DNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes were used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Strong pSc119.2 FISH signals could be observed at the telomeric regions of 3DS arms in 'Mianyang11'. However, the pSc119.2 FISH signals were disappeared from the selfed progeny of 4R monosomic addition line and the changed 3D chromosomes could be transmitted to next generation stably. In one of the selfed progeny of 7R monosomic addition line, one 2D chromosome was broken and three 4A chromosomes were observed. In the selfed progeny of 6R monosomic addition line, structural variation and abnormal mitotic behaviour of 3D chromosome were detected. Additionally, 1A and 4B chromosomes were eliminated from some of the progeny of 6R monosomic addition line. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicated that single rye chromosome added to wheat might cause alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes and it is possible that the stress caused by single alien chromosome might be one of the factors that induced karyotype alteration of wheat.

  2. Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of Novel Wheat-rye T1RS.1BL Translocation Lines with High Resistance to Diseases and Great Agronomic Traits

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    Tianheng Ren

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rye has been used worldwide as a source for the genetic improvement of wheat. In this study, two stable wheat-rye primary T1RS.1BL translocation lines were selected from the progeny of the crossing of the wheat cultivar Mianyang11-1 and a Chinese local rye variety, Weining. These two novel translocation lines were identified by molecular cytogenetic analysis. PCR results, multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (MC-FISH, and acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE indicated that both new translocation lines harbor a pair of T1RS.1BL translocation chromosomes, and have been named RT828-10 and RT828-11, respectively. The cytogenetic results also indicated that the pSc119.2 signals of 5AL were absent in both lines along with the pSc119.2 signals of 4AL of RT828-11. When inoculated with different stripe rust and powdery mildew isolates, both lines expressed high resistance to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici pathotypes, which are prevalent in China and are virulent on Yr9 and Pm8. The line RT828-11 also exhibited excellent agronomic traits in the field. The present study indicates that this rye variety may carry untapped variations that could potentially be used for wheat improvement.

  3. Divergent Development of Hexaploid Triticale by a Wheat - Rye -Psathyrostachys huashanica Trigeneric Hybrid Method.

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    Houyang Kang

    Full Text Available Hexaploid triticale is an important forage crop and a promising energy plant. Some forms were previously reported for developing the hexaploid triticale, such as crossing tetraploid wheat or hexaploid wheat with rye, crossing hexaploid triticale and/or hexaploid wheat with octoploid triticale, and spontaneously appearing in the selfed progenies of octoploid triticale. In the present study, we developed an effective method for production of diverse types of hexaploid triticale via wheat-rye-Psathyrostachys huashanica trigeneric hybrid. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH karyotyping revealed that D genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A, B, and R genome chromosomes were retained in three lines. More interestingly, the composite genome of the line K14-489-2 consisted of complete A and B genomes and chromosomes 1D, 2R, 3R, 4R, 5R, 6R, and 7R, that of line K14-491-2 was 12 A-genome (1A-6A, 14 B-genome (1B-7B, 12 R-genome (1R-3R, 5R-7R, and chromosomes 1D and 3D, and that of the line K14-547-1 had 26A/B and 14R chromosomes, plus one pair of centric 6BL/2DS translocations. This finding implies that some of D genome chromosomes can be spontaneously and stably incorporated into the hexaploid triticale. Additionally, a variety of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS compositions were detected in the six hexaploid triticale lines, respectively. Besides, compared with its recurrent triticale parent Zhongsi828, these lines showed high level of resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst pathogens prevalent in China, including V26/Gui 22. These new hexaploid triticales not only enhanced diversification of triticale but also could be utilized as valuable germplasm for wheat improvement.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE WHIPPED BREAD WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT, RYE AND WHEAT BRAN

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    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of whipped bakery products enriched with dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins retinol, tocopherol, group, polyunsaturated fatty acids through the use of rye and wheat bran and flour of wholegrain wheat. The main raw material for enrichment whipped bakery products used wheat bran and rye. Choice of rye and wheat bran as supplementation prepared whipped bread is explained not only from the point of view of the rationality of the use of this secondary raw materials, but also its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Wheat bran contain the necessary man of b vitamins, including B1, B2, B6, PP and others. Found provitamin a (carotene and vitamin E (tocopherol. Bran is rich in mineral substances. Among them potassium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper, selenium and other trace elements. Thanks to this composition bran are essential dietary product. They are rich in insoluble fiber and can be useful to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. Rye bran contain dietary fiber, tocopherol E, thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Pantothenic acid B5, B4 (choline, nicotinic acid B3, etc. In the bran rich set of microelements and macroelements such as iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iodine, selenium, chromium, etc. the Introduction in the diet, bran rye contribute to the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes and anemia. They restore blood pressure, reduce blood sugar levels and improve the cardiovascular system. Flour from wholegrain wheat is the main supplier of bread protein and starch, while preserving the maximum of the original nutritional value of the grain, enriched whipped bread macro - and micronutrients. The analysis of the chemical composition of flour from wholegrain wheat, rye and wheat bran leads to the conclusion that the choice of these types of materials suitable for making the recipe whipped bakery products, because their use can increase the content in bread is not only the

  5. DOP-PCR-based chromosome painting of rye (Secale cereale) and wheat-rye hybrid 1R and 1RS chromosomes

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    The chromosome painting is an efficient tool for chromosome research. In oeder to determine whether the chromosome painting techniques can be used to identify rye genome in wheat genetic background, 1R and 1RS chromosomes were microdissected from rye (Secale cereale L. var. King ll) and wheat-rye a...

  6. Prospects of whole grain crops of wheat, rye and triticale under different fertilizer regimes for energy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Cereal grain yield and biomass production are affected by fertilizer application strategies. In order to quantify the performance of wheat, rye and triticale cultivars for use as energy crops, field experiments with either modified phosphorus-potassium or potassium applications were designed at two...... for biomass, ash and contents of nitrogen (N), K, Cl, sulphur (S) and Na. Dry matter yields varied between 11.5 and 15.9 t ha-1 at the two locations. Triticale and rye had a higher total dry matter yield than wheat, even at lower inputs of N fertilizer. Thus, the constant high yield of rye and triticale...... is an advantage for biomass for energy purposes. The mineral content of the grain fraction changed only little between years and locations. By contrast, large variations in the analysed ions in the straw fraction between years and locations were observed. The use of K fertilizers resulted in a significantly...

  7. Isolation and characterization of gluten protein types from wheat, rye, barley and oats for use as reference materials.

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    Schalk, Kathrin; Lexhaller, Barbara; Koehler, Peter; Scherf, Katharina Anne

    2017-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat, rye, barley and, in rare cases, oats, are responsible for triggering hypersensitivity reactions such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy. Well-defined reference materials (RM) are essential for clinical studies, diagnostics, elucidation of disease mechanisms and food analyses to ensure the safety of gluten-free foods. Various RM are currently used, but a thorough characterization of the gluten source, content and composition is often missing. However, this characterization is essential due to the complexity and heterogeneity of gluten to avoid ambiguous results caused by differences in the RM used. A comprehensive strategy to isolate gluten protein fractions and gluten protein types (GPT) from wheat, rye, barley and oat flours was developed to obtain well-defined RM for clinical assays and gluten-free compliance testing. All isolated GPT (ω5-gliadins, ω1,2-gliadins, α-gliadins, γ-gliadins and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from wheat, ω-secalins, γ-75k-secalins, γ-40k-secalins and high-molecular-weight secalins from rye, C-hordeins, γ-hordeins, B-hordeins and D-hordeins from barley and avenins from oats) were fully characterized using analytical reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), N-terminal sequencing, electrospray-ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and untargeted LC-MS/MS of chymotryptic hydrolyzates of the single GPT. Taken together, the analytical methods confirmed that all GPT were reproducibly isolated in high purity from the flours and were suitable to be used as RM, e.g., for calibration of LC-MS/MS methods or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).

  8. substitution line for resistance to stripe rust

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-08-19

    2D) substitution line for resistance to stripe rust. MENGPING LEI, GUANGRONG LI, SUFEN ZHANG, CHENG LIU and ZUJUN YANG. ∗. School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology ...

  9. Mitotic illegitimate recombination is a mechanism for novel changes in high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits in wheat-rye hybrids.

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    Zhongwei Yuan

    Full Text Available Wide hybrids can have novel traits or changed expression of a quantitative trait that their parents do not have. These phenomena have long been noticed, yet the mechanisms are poorly understood. High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS are seed storage proteins encoded by Glu-1 genes that only express in endosperm in wheat and its related species. Novel HMW-GS compositions have been observed in their hybrids. This research elucidated the molecular mechanisms by investigating the causative factors of novel HMW-GS changes in wheat-rye hybrids. HMW-GS compositions in the endosperm and their coding sequences in the leaves of F(1 and F(2 hybrids between wheat landrace Shinchunaga and rye landrace Qinling were investigated. Missing and/or additional novel HMW-GSs were observed in the endosperm of 0.5% of the 2078 F(1 and 22% of 36 F(2 hybrid seeds. The wildtype Glu-1Ax null allele was found to have 42 types of short repeat sequences of 3-60 bp long that appeared 2 to 100 times. It also has an in-frame stop codon in the central repetitive region. Analyzing cloned allele sequences of HMW-GS coding gene Glu-1 revealed that deletions involving the in-frame stop codon had happened, resulting in novel ∼1.8-kb Glu-1Ax alleles in some F(1 and F(2 plants. The cloned mutant Glu-1Ax alleles were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the HMW-GSs produced matched the novel HMW-GSs found in the hybrids. The differential changes between the endosperm and the plant of the same hybrids and the data of E. coli expression of the cloned deletion alleles both suggested that mitotic illegitimate recombination between two copies of a short repeat sequence had resulted in the deletions and thus the changed HMW-GS compositions. Our experiments have provided the first direct evidence to show that mitotic illegitimate recombination is a mechanism that produces novel phenotypes in wide hybrids.

  10. Exploring the power of rice (O. sativa x O. rufipogon) chromosome segment substitution line libraries

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    Transgressive variation was reported as an increase in grain yield for several rice (Oryza sativa x O. rufipogon) advanced backcross mapping populations. The objective of this study was to develop chromosome segment substitution line (CSSL) libraries to further dissect the reported transgressive var...

  11. Molecular-cytogenetic characterization of C-genome chromosome substitution lines in Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss.

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    Gupta, Mehak; Mason, Annaliese S; Batley, Jacqueline; Bharti, Sakshi; Banga, Shashi; Banga, Surinder S

    2016-06-01

    C genome chromosome substitution lines of B. juncea constitute a key genetic resource for increased genetic diversity and hybrid performance. C genome chromosome substitution lines were found in the progenies of derived B. juncea (2n = 36; AABB), synthesized through hybridization between B. napus and B. carinata. These were originally recognized based on the morphology and genomic in situ hybridization. Genotyping using the Brassica Illumina 60K Infinium SNP array confirmed the presence of C genome chromosomes in a large number of derived B. juncea genotypes. Three whole chromosome substitutions and 13 major C genome fragment substitutions were identified. Fragment substitutions were primarily terminal, but intercalary substitution(s) involving chromosome C1 and C2 were identified in three genotypes. The size of substituted C genome fragments varied from 0.04 Mbp (C1) to 64.85 Mbp (C3). In terms of proportions, these ranged from 0.10 % (C1) to 100 % (C1, C3 and C7) of the substituted chromosome. SSR genotyping with B genome specific primers suggested that substituting C genome chromosome(s) are likely to have replaced B genome chromosome(s). C1 was the most common substituting chromosome while substituted B chromosome seemed random. Study of the phenotypic traits underlined the importance of the substitution lines (especially of chromosome C1) for conferring superior trait performance (main shoot length and pods on the main shoot). High heterosis was also indicated in hybrid combinations of substitution lines with natural B. juncea. These substitution genotypes constituted a valuable resource for targeted gene transfer and QTL identification.

  12. 49 CFR 1242.76 - Administration; pickup and delivery, marine line haul, and rail substitute service; loading...

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    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration; pickup and delivery, marine line haul, and rail substitute service; loading, unloading and local marine; protective services; freight... substitute service; loading, unloading and local marine; protective services; freight lost or damaged—solely...

  13. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a wheat - Thinopyrum ponticum substitution line with stripe rust resistance.

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    Zhu, Chen; Wang, Yanzhen; Chen, Chunhuan; Wang, Changyou; Zhang, Aicen; Peng, Nana; Wang, Yajuan; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Xinlun; Ji, Wanquan

    2017-10-01

    Thinopyrum ponticum (Th. ponticum) (2n = 10x = 70) is an important breeding material with excellent resistance and stress tolerance. In this study, we characterized the derivative line CH1113-B13-1-1-2-1 (CH1113-B13) through cytological, morphological, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), expressed sequence tag (EST), and PCR-based landmark unique gene (PLUG) marker analysis. The GISH analysis revealed that CH1113-B13 contained 20 pairs of common wheat chromosomes and one pair of JSt genomic chromosomes. Linkage analysis of Th. ponticum using seven EST and seven PLUG markers indicated that the pair of alien chromosomes belonged to the seventh homeologous group. Nulli-tetrasomic and FISH analysis revealed that wheat 7B chromosomes were absent in CH1113-B13; thus, CH1113-B13 was identified as a 7JSt (7B) substitution line. Finally, adult-stage CH1113-B13 exhibited immunity to wheat stripe rust. This substitution line is therefore a promising germplasm resource for wheat breeding.

  14. Density-independent population projection trajectories of chromosome-substituted lines resistant and susceptible to organophosphate insecticides in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Miyo Takahiro

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seasonal fluctuations in susceptibility to organophosphate insecticides were observed in the Katsunuma population of Drosophila melanogaster for two consecutive years; susceptibility to three organophosphates tended to increase in the fall. To examine the hypothesis that variation in fitness among resistant and susceptible genotypes could trigger the change of genetic constitution within the fall population, we investigated density-independent population projection trajectories starting from single adult females with characteristics of chromosome-substituted lines resistant and susceptible to the three organophosphates. Results Density-independent population projection trajectories, expressed as the ratios of the number of each chromosome-substituted line to that of line SSS, for which all chromosomes were derived from the susceptible line, showed significant declines in numbers with time for all the resistant chromosome-substituted lines. Conclusion The declining tendency in the density-independent population projection trajectories of the resistant chromosome-substituted lines could explain the simultaneous decline in the levels of resistance to the three organophosphates, observed in the Katsunuma population in the fall.

  15. Molecular characterization of a wheat -Thinopyrum ponticum partial amphiploid and its derived substitution line for resistance to stripe rust.

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    Hu, Li-Jun; Li, Guang-Rong; Zeng, Zi-Xian; Chang, Zhi-Jian; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Zu-Jun

    2011-08-01

    Stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis) occurs annually in most wheat-growing areas of the world. Thinopyrum ponticum has provided novel rust resistance genes to protect wheat from this fungal disease. Wheat - Th. ponticum partial amphiploid line 7430 and a substitution line X005 developed from crosses between wheat and 7430 were resistant to stripe rust isolates from China. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis using Pseudoroegneria spicata genomic DNA as a probe demonstrated that the partial amphiploid line 7430 contained ten J(s) and six J genome chromosomes, and line X005 had a pair of J(s)-chromosomes. Giemsa-C banding further revealed that both lines 7430 and X005 were absent of wheat chromosomes 6B. The EST based PCR confirmed that the introduced J(s) chromosomes belonging to linkage group 6, indicating that line X005 was a 6J(s)/6B substitution line. Both resistance observation and sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers displayed that the introduced chromosomes 6J(s) were responsible for the stripe rust resistances. Therefore, lines 7430 and X005 can be used as a donor in wheat breeding for stripe rust resistance.

  16. Supply chain network downsizing with product line pruning using a new demand substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Ma, N.; Sotirov, R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization model for downsizing a multi-product supply chain facing bankruptcy risk, where multi-functional production facilities are shared for producing a group of substitutable products. In order to determine the potential demand after discontinuation of certain product

  17. Analysis of root-knot nematode and fusarium wilt disease resistance in cotton (Gossypium spp.) using chromosome substitution lines from two alien species

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    To Identify a new germplasm resource, and to validate chromosomal regions and favorable alleles associated with nematode and fungal disease resistance traits, a series of interspecific cotton (Gossypium spp.) chromosome substitution (CS) lines were used in this study. The CS lines were developed in ...

  18. Construction of chromosome segment substitution lines enables QTL mapping for flowering and morphological traits in Brassica rapa

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    Xiaonan eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs represent a powerful method for precise quantitative trait loci (QTL detection of complex agronomical traits in plants. In this study, we used a marker-assisted backcrossing strategy to develop a population consisting of 63 CSSLs, derived from backcrossing of the F1 generated from a cross between two Brassica rapa subspecies: ‘Chiifu’ (ssp. pekinensis, the Brassica A genome-represented line used as the donor, and ‘49caixin’ (ssp. parachinensis, a non-heading cultivar used as the recipient. The 63 CSSLs covered 87.95% of the B. rapa genome. Among them, 39 lines carried a single segment; 15 lines, two segments; and nine lines, three or more segments of the donor parent chromosomes. To verify the potential advantage of these CSSL lines, we used them to locate QTL for six morphology-related traits. A total of 58 QTL were located on eight chromosomes for all six traits: 17 for flowering time, 14 each for bolting time and plant height, 6 for plant diameter, 2 for leaf width, and 5 for flowering stalk diameter. Co-localized QTL were mainly distributed on eight genomic regions in A01, A02, A05, A06, A08, A09, and A10, present in the corresponding CSSLs. Moreover, new chromosomal fragments that harbored QTL were identified using the findings of previous studies. The CSSL population constructed in our study paves the way for fine mapping and cloning of candidate genes involved in late bolting, flowering, and plant architecture-related traits in B. rapa. Furthermore, it has great potential for future marker-aided gene/QTL pyramiding of other interesting traits in B. rapa breeding.

  19. Identification and genetic characterization by high-throughput SNP analysis of intervarietal substitution lines of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) with enhanced embryogenic potential.

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    Ecke, Wolfgang; Kampouridis, Anthimos; Ziese-Kubon, Katharina; Hirsch, Ann-Catrin

    2015-04-01

    Seven intervarietal substitution lines were identified with embryogenic potentials up to 40.4 times that of the recurrent parent, providing an ideal material for further in depth studies of this trait. To identify genomic regions that carry genetic factors controlling embryogenic potential of isolated microspores of rapeseed, marker segregations were analysed in a segregating population of haploid microspore-derived embryos and a BC1 population from a cross between 'Express 617' and 'RS239'. After map construction 15 intervarietal substitution lines from the same cross with 'Express 617' as recurrent parent were selected with donor segments covering five genomic regions that had shown skewed segregations in the population of microspore-derived embryos but not in the BC1 population. By comparing the embryogenic potential of microspores of the 15 substitution lines and 'Express 617', seven lines were identified with significantly enhanced embryogenic potential ranging from 4.1 to 40.4 times that of 'Express 617'. To improve the genetic characterization of the selected lines, they were subjected to a high-throughput SNP analysis using the Illumina Infinium 60K chip for rapeseed. Based on 7,960 mapped SNP markers, one to eight donor segments per line, which cover 0.64-6.79% of the 2,126.1 cM of the SNP map, were found. The SNP analysis also gave evidence that homoeologous exchanges had occurred during the development of the substitution line population, increasing the genetic diversity within this population. By comparing donor segments between lines with significantly enhanced embryogenic potential and non-significant lines, 12 genomic regions were identified that may contain genetic factors controlling embryogenic potential in rapeseed. These regions range in size from 0 (represented by just one marker) to 26.8 cM and cover together just 5.42% of the SNP map.

  20. A single L288I substitution in the fusion protein of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 enhances virus growth in semi-suitable cell lines.

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    Matsuura, Ryosuke; Takada, Marina; Kokuho, Takehiro; Tsuboi, Takamitsu; Kameyama, Ken-Ichiro; Takeuchi, Kaoru

    2017-08-01

    The bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 BN-CE vaccine strain was obtained by serial passage of the BN-1 strain in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF). We previously identified a substitution (L288I) in the fusion (F) protein between the two strains. To examine the effect of the substitution on CEF adaptation and attenuation, we generated a recombinant BN-1 strain with the L288I substitution in the F protein (F L288I -EGFP). F L288I -EGFP replicated more efficiently than a recombinant BN-1 strain (wt-EGFP) in semi-suitable cell lines, suggesting that the L288I substitution was established in the BN-1 strain during the process of adaptation in CEF.

  1. QTL Mapping for Rice RVA Properties Using High-Throughput Re-sequenced Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines

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    Chang-quan ZHANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid visco analyser (RVA profile is an important factor for evaluation of the cooking and eating quality of rice. To improve rice quality, the identification of new quantitative trait loci (QTLs for RVA profiling is of great significance. We used a japonica rice cultivar Nipponbare as the recipient and indica rice 9311 as the donor to develop a population containing 38 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs genotyped by a high-throughput re-sequencing strategy. In this study, the population and the parent lines, which contained similar apparent amylose contents, were used to map the QTLs of RVA properties including peak paste viscosity (PKV, hot paste viscosity (HPV, cool paste viscosity (CPV, breakdown viscosity (BKV, setback viscosity (SBV, consistency viscosity (CSV, peak time (PeT and pasting temperature (PaT. QTL analysis was carried out using one-way analysis of variance and Dunnett's test, and stable QTLs were identified over two years and under two environments. We identified 10 stable QTLs: qPKV2-1, qSBV2-1; qPKV5-1, qHPV5-1, qCPV5-1; qPKV7-1, qHPV7-1, qCPV7-1, qSBV7-1; and qPKV8-1 on chromosomes 2, 5, 7 and 8, respectively, with contributions ranging from −95.6% to 47.1%. Besides, there was pleiotropy in the QTLs on chromosomes 2, 5 and 7.

  2. Chromosome segment detection for seed size and shape traits using an improved population of wild soybean chromosome segment substitution lines.

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    Yang, Hongyan; Wang, Wubin; He, Qingyuan; Xiang, Shihua; Tian, Dong; Zhao, Tuanjie; Gai, Junyi

    2017-10-01

    Size and shape of soybean seeds are closely related to seed yield and market value. Annual wild soybeans have the potential to improve cultivated soybeans, but their inferior seed characteristics should be excluded. To detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/segments of seed size and shape traits in annual wild soybean, its chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) derived from NN1138-2 (recurrent parent, Glycine max) and N24852 (donor parent, Glycine soja) and then modified 2 iterations (coded SojaCSSLP3) were improved further to contain more lines (diagonal segments) and less heterozygous and missing portions. The new population (SojaCSSLP4) composed of 195 CSSLs was evaluated under four environments, and 11, 13, 7, 15 and 14 QTLs/segments were detected for seed length (SL), seed width (SW), seed roundness (SR), seed perimeter (SP) and seed cross section area (SA), respectively, with all 60 wild allele effects negative. Among them, 16 QTLs/segments were shared by 2-5 traits, respectively, but 0-3 segments for each of the 5 traits were independent. The non-shared Satt274 and shared Satt305, Satt540 and Satt239 were major segments, along with other segments composed of two different but related sets of genetic systems for SR and the other 4 traits, respectively. Compared with the literature, 7 SL, 5 SW and 2 SR QTLs/segments were also detected in cultivated soybeans; allele distinction took place between cultivated and wild soybeans, and also among cultivated parents. The present mapping is understood as macro-segment mapping, the segments may be further dissected into smaller segments as well as corresponding QTLs/genes.

  3. Grain quality characteristics and dough rheological properties in Langdon durum-wild emmer wheat chromosome substitution lines under nitrogen and water deficits.

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    Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Langner, Monika; Mrugalska, Beata; Ratajczak, Dominika; Górny, Andrzej G

    2017-05-01

    Wild emmer wheat could serve as a source of novel variation in grain quality and stress resistance for wheat breeding. A set of Triticum durum-T. dicoccoides chromosome substitution lines [LDN(DIC)] and the parental recipient cv. Langdon grown under contrasting water and nitrogen availability in the soil was examined in this study to identify differences in grain quality traits and dough rheological properties. Significant genotypic variation was found among the materials for studied traits. This variation was also considerably affected by soil treatments and G × E interactions. The substitutions LDN(DIC-1A) and LDN(DIC-1B) showed separate differentiation in the composition of glutenin sub-units. The results indicated that primarily chromosome DIC-6B is stable source of an enhanced grain protein content and advantageous dough rheological properties. Similar features seem to be shown by the substitutions with the DIC-1A, DIC-2A and DIC-6A, but not under nitrogen shortage, when generally a considerable decrease was noticed in the range of genotypic variation in grain quality. The substitution lines, particularly those with DIC-6B and DIC-6A and to a lesser extent DIC-1A and DIC-2A, were distinguished by advantageous grain quality traits, mixing properties and dough functionality and appear to be the most promising sources of innovative genes for wheat breeding. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Alien introgression in the grasses Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) and Festuca pratensis (meadow fescue): the development of seven monosomic substitution lines and their molecular and cytological characterization.

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    Harper, John; Armstead, Ian; Thomas, Ann; James, Caron; Gasior, Dagmara; Bisaga, Maciej; Roberts, Luned; King, Ian; King, Julie

    2011-06-01

    To address the issues associated with food security, environmental change and bioenergy in the context of crop plants, the production, identification and evaluation of novel plant phenotypes is fundamental. One of the major routes to this end will be wide hybridization and introgression breeding. The transfer of chromosomes and chromosome segments between related species (chromosome engineering or alien introgression) also provides an important resource for determining the genetic control of target traits. However, the realization of the full potential of chromosome engineering has previously been hampered by the inability to identify and characterize interspecific introgressions accurately. Seven monosomic substitution lines have been generated comprising Festuca pratensis as the donor species and Lolium perenne as the recipient. Each of the seven lines has a different L. perenne chromosome replaced by the homoeologous F. pratensis chromosome (13 L. perenne + 1 F. pratensis chromosome). Molecular markers and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) were used to assign the F. pratensis chromosomes introgressed in each of the monosomic substitutions to a specific linkage group. Cytological observations were also carried out on metaphase I of meiosis in each of the substitution lines. A significant level of synteny was found at the macro-level between L. perenne and F. pratensis. The observations at metaphase I revealed the presence of a low level of interspecific chromosomal translocations between these species. The isolation of the seven monosomic substitution lines provides a resource for dissecting the genetic control of important traits and for gene isolation. Parallels between the L. perenne/F. pratensis system and the Pooideae cereals such as wheat, barley, rye, oats and the model grass Brachypodium distachyon present opportunities for a comparison across the species in terms of genotype and phenotype.

  5. In vitro microleakage of Biodentine as a dentin substitute compared to Fuji II LC in cervical lining restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Anne; Eschrich, Geoffroy; Dejou, Jacques; About, Imad

    2012-12-01

    1) To evaluate the marginal sealing efficacy of Biodentine at the cervical margins of approximal cavities placed in molars; 2) to evaluate and compare the use of Biodentine in combination with resin-based adhesives and a resin composite, compared with a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (Fuji II LC). Sixty approximal cavities were prepared on mesial and distal surfaces of 30 extracted human third molars. The teeth were randomly assigned into 6 groups of 10 cavities each: (G1) Biodentine, (G2) Fuji II LC as a filling material, (G3) Biodentine as a base + Optibond Solo Plus + silane + Filtek Z250, (G4) as in G3 without silane, (G5) Biodentine as a base + Septobond SE + Filtek Z250, (G6) Fuji II LC as a base + Optibond Solo Plus + Filtek Z250. The materials were applied according to the manufacturers' instructions. Biodentine required no dentin or enamel surface conditioning treatment. The teeth were thermocycled 2500x (5°C to 55°C). The specimens were then sealed with a 1-mm window around the marginal interface. Samples were immersed in a 50% w/v silver nitrate solution and exposed to a photo developing solution. The teeth were embedded in resin (Sody 33) and sectioned through the restorations. The silver penetration was directly measured using a light microscope. The results were expressed as ordinal scores from 0 to 3 at cervical, interfacial, and enamel margins. The data were analyzed with the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis, Games Howell, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests (p Biodentine or Fuji II LC)/resin composite interfaces. Statistically significant differences were observed between G5 (median score = 2.0) and the other groups (median score = 1.0) for the enamel margins. Statistically significant differences were found between enamel and dentin cervical margins in G2 (enamel median score = 1.0; dentin median score = 1.5) and G5 (enamel median score = 2.0; dentin median score = 1.0). Within the limits of this in vitro study, Biodentine as dentin substitute in

  6. Analysis of root-knot nematode and fusarium wilt disease resistance in cotton (Gossypium spp.) using chromosome substitution lines from two alien species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, M; Wang, C; Saha, S; Hutmacher, R B; Stelly, D M; Jenkins, J N; Burke, J; Roberts, P A

    2016-04-01

    Chromosome substitution (CS) lines in plants are a powerful genetic resource for analyzing the contribution of chromosome segments to phenotypic variance. In this study, a series of interspecific cotton (Gossypium spp.) CS lines were used to identify a new germplasm resource, and to validate chromosomal regions and favorable alleles associated with nematode or fungal disease resistance traits. The CS lines were developed in the G. hirsutum L. TM-1 background with chromosome or chromosome segment substitutions from G. barbadense L. Pima 3-79 or G. tomentosum. Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) (races 1 and 4) resistance alleles and quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously placed on cotton chromosomes using SSR markers in two interspecific recombinant inbred line populations were chosen for testing. Phenotypic responses of increased resistance or susceptibility in controlled inoculation and infested field assays confirmed the resistance QTLs, based on substitution with the positive or negative allele for resistance. Lines CS-B22Lo, CS-B04, and CS-B18 showed high resistance to nematode root-galling, confirming QTLs on chromosomes 4 and 22 (long arm) with resistance alleles from Pima 3-79. Line CS-B16 had less fusarium race 1-induced vascular root staining and higher percent survival than the TM-1 parent, confirming a major resistance QTL on chromosome 16. Lines CS-B(17-11) and CS-B17 had high fusarium race 4 vascular symptoms and low survival due to susceptible alleles introgressed from Pima 3-79, confirming the localization on chromosome 17 of an identified QTL with resistance alleles from TM1 and other resistant lines. Analyses validated regions on chromosomes 11, 16, and 17 harboring nematode and fusarium wilt resistance genes and demonstrated the value of CS lines as both a germplasm resource for breeding programs and as a powerful genetic analysis tool for determining QTL effects for disease

  7. Adoption of new HIV treatment guidelines and drug substitutions within first-line as a measure of quality of care in rural Lesotho: health centers and hospitals compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhardt, Niklaus D; Sello, Motlalepula; Lejone, Thabo; Ehmer, Jochen; Mokhantso, Mohlaba; Lynen, Lutgarde; Pfeiffer, Karolin

    2012-10-01

    In 2007, Lesotho launched new national antiretroviral treatment (ART) guidelines, prioritising tenofovir and zidovudine over stavudine as a backbone together with lamivudine. We compared the rate of adoption of these new guidelines and substitution of first-line drugs by health centers (HC) and hospitals in two catchment areas in rural Lesotho. Retrospective cohort analysis. Patients aged ≥16 years were stratified into a HC- and a hospital-group. Type of backbone at ART-initiation (i), substitutions within first line (ii) and type of backbone among patients retained by December 2010 (iii). A multiple logistic regression model including HC vs. hospital, patient characteristics (sex, age, WHO-stage, baseline CD4-count, concurrent pregnancy, concurrent tuberculosis treatment) and year of ART-start, was used. Of 3936 adult patients initiated on ART between 2007 and 2010, 1971 started at hospitals and 1965 at HCs. Hospitals were more likely to follow the new guidelines as measured by prescription of backbones without stavudine (Odds-ratio 1.55; 95%CI: 1.32-1.81) and had a higher rate of drug substitutions while on first-line ART (2.39; 1.83-3.13). By December 2010, patients followed at health centres were more likely to still receive stavudine (2.28; 1.83-2.84). Health centers took longer to adopt the new guidelines and substituted drugs less frequently. Decentralised ART-programmes need close support, supervision and mentoring to absorb new guidelines and to adhere to them. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Different type of DNA damage caused by three aziridinyl substituted cyclophosphazenes in a human small cell lung carcinoma cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, J G; de Jong, Steven; van de Grampel, J C; de Vries, Liesbeth; Mulder, N H

    Aziridinyl substituted cyclophosphazenes are a new group of inorganic chemical agents with in vitro and in vivo cytotoxic activity. We investigated the mode of action on DNA of three different compounds, 1,3,3,5,5-pentakis (1-aziridinyl)-1 lambda 6,2,4,6,3 lambda 5,5 lambda 5-thiatriazadiphosphorine

  9. Genome Sequencing of Chromosome 1 Substitution Lines Derived from Chinese Wild Mice Revealed a Unique Resource for Genetic Studies of Complex Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyi Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mouse resources such as Collaborative Cross, outbred stocks, Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel, and chromosome substitution strains have been instrumental to many progresses in the studies of complex traits genetics. We have established a population of chromosome 1 (Chr 1 substitution lines (C1SLs in which donor chromosomes were derived from Chinese wild mice. Genome sequencing of 18 lines of this population showed that Chr 1 had been replaced by the donor chromosome. About 4.5 million unique single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels were discovered on Chr 1, of which 1.3 million were novel. Compared with sequenced classical inbred strains, Chr 1 of each C1SL had fivefold more variants, and more loss of function and potentially regulatory variants. Further haplotype analysis showed that the donor chromosome accumulated more historical recombination events, with the largest haplotype block being only 100 kb, and about 57% of the blocks were <1 kb. Subspecies origin analysis showed that these chromosomes had a mosaic genome structure that dominantly originated from Mus musculus musculus and M. m. castaneus subspecies, except for the C57BL/6J-Chr1KM line from M. m. domesticus. In addition, phenotyping four of these lines on blood biochemistry suggested that there were substantial phenotypic variations among our lines, especially line C57BL/6J-Chr1HZ and donor strain C57BL/6J. Further gene ontology enrichment revealed that the differentially expressed genes among liver-expressed genes between C57BL/6J and C57BL/6J-Chr1HZ were enriched in lipid metabolism biological processes. All these characteristics enable C1SLs to be a unique resource for identifying and fine mapping quantitative trait loci on mouse Chr 1, and carrying out systems genetics studies of complex traits.

  10. Novel CMS lines in pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millspaugh] derived from cytoplasmic substitutions, and their effective restoration and deployment in hybrid breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Bohra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The availability of stable cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS or A lines coupled with a robust restoration system (R lines is an essential prerequisite for efficient hybrid breeding. CMS-enabled hybrid technology holds immense potential to enhance the long-stagnant productivity of pigeonpea. In the present investigation, cytoplasmic substitutions were made in the nuclear backgrounds of early-maturing pigeonpea varieties or lines. Three new CMS lines (ICPL 88039A, Pusa 992A, and DPP 3-2A resulted from genetic crosses involving cytoplasmic donors from A2 (GT 288A and A4 (ICPA 2089 categories. In addition to visual inspection of anthers, pollen-staining techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis were used to confirm pollen sterility. Further, given the relevance of the plant mitochondrial genome to CMS manifestation, 25 mitochondrion-specific DNA markers were assayed on these newly developed A lines and isogenic maintainer (B lines. DNA polymorphism between Pusa 992A and Pusa 992B as revealed by the nad7a_del marker confirmed the successful combination of sterilizing cytoplasm (A4 and nonrestoring nuclear background (Pusa 992. Such cytoplasm-specific DNA markers are required for A2-CMS as well. Further, to assess restoration ability, potential restorers were crossed with these CMS lines, and as a consequence, promising A × R combinations exhibiting 100% pollen fertility could be identified. In parallel, we also analyzed the inheritance patterns underlying fertility restoration using ICPL 88039A-derived F2 and BC1F1 populations, and established a monogenic dominant model to explain the phenomenon of A2-CMS restoration. In summary, we report the successful development of new CMS lines and describe their effective deployment in hybrid breeding of pigeonpea.

  11. Development and Molecular Cytogenetic Identification of a Novel Wheat-Leymus mollis Lm#7Ns (7D Disomic Substitution Line with Stripe Rust Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Yang

    Full Text Available Leymus mollis (2n = 4x = 28, NsNsXmXm possesses novel and important genes for resistance against multi-fungal diseases. The development of new wheat-L. mollis introgression lines is of great significance for wheat disease resistance breeding. M11003-3-1-15-8, a novel disomic substitution line of common wheat cv. 7182 -L. mollis, developed and selected from the BC1F5 progeny between wheat cv. 7182 and octoploid Tritileymus M47 (2n = 8x = 56, AABBDDNsNs, was characterized by morphological and cytogenetic identification, analysis of functional molecular markers, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH, sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and disease resistance evaluation. Cytological observations suggested that M11003-3-1-15-8 contained 42 chromosomes and formed 21 bivalents at meiotic metaphase I. The GISH investigations showed that line contained 40 wheat chromosomes and a pair of L. mollis chromosomes. EST-STS multiple loci markers and PLUG (PCR-based Landmark Unique Gene markers confirmed that the introduced L. mollis chromosomes belonged to homoeologous group 7, it was designated as Lm#7Ns. While nulli-tetrasomic and sequential FISH-GISH analysis using the oligonucleotide Oligo-pSc119.2 and Oligo-pTa535 as probes revealed that the wheat 7D chromosomes were absent in M11003-3-1-15-8. Therefore, it was deduced that M11003-3-1-15-8 was a wheat-L. mollis Lm#7Ns (7D disomic substitution line. Field disease resistance demonstrated that the introduced L. mollis chromosomes Lm#7Ns were responsible for the stripe rust resistance at the adult stage. Moreover, M11003-3-1-15-8 had a superior numbers of florets. The novel disomic substitution line M11003-3-1-15-8, could be exploited as an important genetic material in wheat resistance breeding programs and genetic resources.

  12. Facile synthesis of novel substituted aryl-thiazole (SAT) analogs via one-pot multi-component reaction as potent cytotoxic agents against cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Salma; Asma Naqvi, Syeda; Mohammed Khan, Khalid; Salar, Uzma; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2017-02-01

    In this study, twenty-five (25) substituted aryl thiazoles (SAT) 1-25 were synthesized, and their in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated against four cancer cell lines, MCF-7 (ER+ve breast), MDA-MB-231 (ER-ve breast), HCT116 (colorectal) and HeLa (cervical). The activity was compared with the standard anticancer drug doxorubicin (IC50=1.56±0.05μM). Among them, compounds 1, 4-8, and 19 were found to be toxic to all four cancer cell lines (IC50 values 5.37±0.56-46.72±1.80μM). Compound 20 was selectively active against MCF7 breast cancer cells with IC50 of 40.21±4.15μM, whereas compound 19 was active against MCF7 and HeLa cells with IC50 of 46.72±1.8, and 19.86±0.11μM, respectively. These results suggest that substituted aryl thiazoles 1 and 4 deserve to be further investigated in vivo as anticancer leads. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. QTL Location and Epistatic Effect Analysis of 100-Seed Weight Using Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Dawei; Qi, Zhaoming; Jiang, Hongwei; Hu, Zhenbang; Zhu, Rongsheng; Hu, Jiahui; Han, Heyu; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Chunyan; Chen, Qingshan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the yield of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) is a main aim of soybean breeding. The 100-seed weight is a critical factor for soybean yield. To facilitate genetic analysis of quantitative traits and to improve the accuracy of marker-assisted breeding in soybean, a valuable mapping population consisting of 194 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) was developed. In these lines, different chromosomal segments of the Chinese cultivar Suinong 14 were substituted into the genetic background of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc.) ZYD00006. Based on these CSSLs, a genetic map covering the full genome was generated using 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In the quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, twelve main effect QTLs (qSW-B1-1/2/3, qSW-D1b-1/2, qSW-D2-1/2, qSW-G-1/2/3, qSW-M-2 and qSW-N-2) underlying 100-seed weight were identified in 2011 and 2012. The epistatic effects of pairwise interactions between markers were analyzed in 2011 and 2012. The results clearly demonstrated that these CSSLs could be used to identify QTLs, and that an epistatic analysis was able to detect several sites with important epistatic effects on 100-seed weight. Thus, we identified loci that will be valuable for improving soybean 100-seed weight. These results provide a valuable foundation for identifying the precise location of genes of interest, and for designing cloning and marker-assisted selection breeding strategies targeting the 100-seed weight of soybean.

  14. Developing high throughput genotyped chromosome segment substitution lines based on population whole-genome re-sequencing in rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Minghong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic populations provide the basis for a wide range of genetic and genomic studies and have been widely used in genetic mapping, gene discovery and genomics-assisted breeding. Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs are the most powerful tools for the detection and precise mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs, for the analysis of complex traits in plant molecular genetics. Results In this study, a wide population consisting of 128 CSSLs was developed, derived from the crossing and back-crossing of two sequenced rice cultivars: 9311, an elite indica cultivar as the recipient and Nipponbare, a japonica cultivar as the donor. First, a physical map of the 128 CSSLs was constructed on the basis of estimates of the lengths and locations of the substituted chromosome segments using 254 PCR-based molecular markers. From this map, the total size of the 142 substituted segments in the population was 882.2 Mb, was 2.37 times that of the rice genome. Second, every CSSL underwent high-throughput genotyping by whole-genome re-sequencing with a 0.13× genome sequence, and an ultrahigh-quality physical map was constructed. This sequencing-based physical map indicated that 117 new segments were detected; almost all were shorter than 3 Mb and were not apparent in the molecular marker map. Furthermore, relative to the molecular marker-based map, the sequencing-based map yielded more precise recombination breakpoint determination and greater accuracy of the lengths of the substituted segments, and provided more accurate background information. Third, using the 128 CSSLs combined with the bin-map converted from the sequencing-based physical map, a multiple linear regression QTL analysis mapped nine QTLs, which explained 89.50% of the phenotypic variance for culm length. A large-effect QTL was located in a 791,655 bp region that contained the rice 'green revolution' gene. Conclusions The present results demonstrated that high

  15. Developing high throughput genotyped chromosome segment substitution lines based on population whole-genome re-sequencing in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianjun; Zhao, Qiang; Du, Peina; Xu, Chenwu; Wang, Baohe; Feng, Qi; Liu, Qiaoquan; Tang, Shuzhu; Gu, Minghong; Han, Bin; Liang, Guohua

    2010-11-24

    Genetic populations provide the basis for a wide range of genetic and genomic studies and have been widely used in genetic mapping, gene discovery and genomics-assisted breeding. Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) are the most powerful tools for the detection and precise mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), for the analysis of complex traits in plant molecular genetics. In this study, a wide population consisting of 128 CSSLs was developed, derived from the crossing and back-crossing of two sequenced rice cultivars: 9311, an elite indica cultivar as the recipient and Nipponbare, a japonica cultivar as the donor. First, a physical map of the 128 CSSLs was constructed on the basis of estimates of the lengths and locations of the substituted chromosome segments using 254 PCR-based molecular markers. From this map, the total size of the 142 substituted segments in the population was 882.2 Mb, was 2.37 times that of the rice genome. Second, every CSSL underwent high-throughput genotyping by whole-genome re-sequencing with a 0.13× genome sequence, and an ultrahigh-quality physical map was constructed. This sequencing-based physical map indicated that 117 new segments were detected; almost all were shorter than 3 Mb and were not apparent in the molecular marker map. Furthermore, relative to the molecular marker-based map, the sequencing-based map yielded more precise recombination breakpoint determination and greater accuracy of the lengths of the substituted segments, and provided more accurate background information. Third, using the 128 CSSLs combined with the bin-map converted from the sequencing-based physical map, a multiple linear regression QTL analysis mapped nine QTLs, which explained 89.50% of the phenotypic variance for culm length. A large-effect QTL was located in a 791,655 bp region that contained the rice 'green revolution' gene. The present results demonstrated that high throughput genotyped CSSLs combine the advantages of an ultrahigh

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis of cotton fiber development of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines from G. hirsutum × G. barbadense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng-Tao; Wang, Mi; Lu, Quan-Wei; Ge, Qun; Rashid, Md Harun Or; Liu, Ai-Ying; Gong, Ju-Wu; Shang, Hai-Hong; Gong, Wan-Kui; Li, Jun-Wen; Song, Wei-Wu; Guo, Li-Xue; Su, Wei; Li, Shao-Qi; Guo, Xiao-Ping; Shi, Yu-Zhen; Yuan, You-Lu

    2017-09-08

    How to develop new cotton varieties possessing high yield traits of Upland cotton and superior fiber quality traits of Sea Island cotton remains a key task for cotton breeders and researchers. While multiple attempts bring in little significant progresses, the development of Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines (CSSLs) from Gossypium barbadense in G. hirsutum background provided ideal materials for aforementioned breeding purposes in upland cotton improvement. Based on the excellent fiber performance and relatively clear chromosome substitution segments information identified by Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers, two CSSLs, MBI9915 and MBI9749, together with the recurrent parent CCRI36 were chosen to conduct transcriptome sequencing during the development stages of fiber elongation and Secondary Cell Wall (SCW) synthesis (from 10DPA and 28DPA), aiming at revealing the mechanism of fiber development and the potential contribution of chromosome substitution segments from Sea Island cotton to fiber development of Upland cotton. In total, 15 RNA-seq libraries were constructed and sequenced separately, generating 705.433 million clean reads with mean GC content of 45.13% and average Q30 of 90.26%. Through multiple comparisons between libraries, 1801 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, of which the 902 up-regulated DEGs were mainly involved in cell wall organization and response to oxidative stress and auxin, while the 898 down-regulated ones participated in translation, regulation of transcription, DNA-templated and cytoplasmic translation based on GO annotation and KEGG enrichment analysis. Subsequently, STEM software was performed to explicate the temporal expression pattern of DEGs. Two peroxidases and four flavonoid pathway-related genes were identified in the "oxidation-reduction process", which could play a role in fiber development and quality formation. Finally, the reliability of RNA-seq data was validated by quantitative real-time PCR

  17. Exome-wide single-base substitutions in tissues and derived cell lines of the constitutive Fhit knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisie, Carolyn A; Schrock, Morgan S; Karras, Jenna R; Zhang, Jie; Miuma, Satoshi; Ouda, Iman M; Waters, Catherine E; Saldivar, Joshua C; Druck, Teresa; Huebner, Kay

    2016-04-01

    Loss of expression of Fhit, a tumor suppressor and genome caretaker, occurs in preneoplastic lesions during development of many human cancers. Furthermore, Fhit-deficient mouse models are exquisitely susceptible to carcinogen induction of cancers of the lung and forestomach. Due to absence of Fhit genome caretaker function, cultured cells and tissues of the constitutive Fhit knockout strain develop chromosome aneuploidy and allele copy number gains and losses and we hypothesized that Fhit-deficient cells would also develop point mutations. On analysis of whole exome sequences of Fhit-deficient tissues and cultured cells, we found 300 to >1000 single-base substitutions associated with Fhit loss in the 2% of the genome included in exomes, relative to the C57Bl6 reference genome. The mutation signature is characterized by increased C>T and T>C mutations, similar to the "age at diagnosis" signature identified in human cancers. The Fhit-deficiency mutation signature also resembles a C>T and T>C mutation signature reported for human papillary kidney cancers and a similar signature recently reported for esophageal and bladder cancers, cancers that are frequently Fhit deficient. The increase in T>C mutations in -/- exomes may be due to dNTP imbalance, particularly in thymidine triphosphate, resulting from decreased expression of thymidine kinase 1 in Fhit-deficient cells. Fhit-deficient kidney cells that survived in vitro dimethylbenz(a)anthracene treatment additionally showed increased T>A mutations, a signature generated by treatment with this carcinogen, suggesting that these T>A transversions may be evidence of carcinogen-induced preneoplastic changes. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  18. 'Dancing on a thin line': evaluation of an infant feeding information team to implement the WHO code of marketing of breast-milk substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Fiona; Richardson-Foster, Helen; Crossland, Nicola; Thomson, Gill

    2012-12-01

    to conduct an in-depth evaluation of the Infant Feeding Information Team (IFIT) to implement the WHO Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes in North West England. The evaluation included consultations with inter-disciplinary professionals to explore their perceptions of the IFIT and related contextual issues. a qualitative, descriptive study involving seven focus groups (n=34) and semi-structured, in-depth interviews (face to face or via telephone; n=68) with a total of 102 participants. Thematic networks analysis was conducted to generate global, organising and basic themes. two maternity/primary health-care facilities located in the North-West of England. six global themes were generated; this paper focuses upon one of these themes: 'Dancing on a thin line'. This reflects the difficulties health-care staff face in negotiating political, professional and socio-cultural influences on infant feeding practices and how they struggle to implement best available evidence, guidance and practice when they experience incomplete, conflicting and competing messages around infant feeding. IFIT offers an innovative means to sustain contact with the formula industry without their unprecedented access to health facilities or personnel. Focused training opportunities should be provided to enable health-care staff to appreciate the constituent limitations of artificial milks and provide consistent, sensitive and comprehensive infant feeding information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  20. Substitutional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Daniel Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Classic monograph, suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Topics include calculus of permutations and tableaux, semi-normal representation, orthogonal and natural representations, group characters, and substitutional equations. 1968 edition.

  1. Solvent substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  2. A hybrid of B and T lymphoblastic cell line could potentially substitute dendritic cells to efficiently expand out Her-2/neu-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes from advanced breast cancer patients in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adoptive transfer of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs holds promises to cure cancer. However, this treatment is hindered by lacking a robust way to specifically expand out CTLs. Here, we developed a hybrid of B lymphoblastic cell line and T lymphoblastic cell line (T2 cells as a substitute of dendritic cells, together with irradiated autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC as feeder cells and rhIL-2, to activate and expand Her-2/neu-specific CD8+ T cells from human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her-2/neu and human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A2 double positive advanced breast cancer patients in vitro. These Her-2/neu-loaded T2 cells reproducibly activated and expanded out Her-2/neu-specific CD8+ T cells to 107 in 8 weeks. Furthermore, these Her-2/neu-specific CD8+ T cells had good sensitivity of recognition and killing Her-2/neu-overexpressed breast cancer cell line SK.BR.3. This technique gives us another insight on how to rapidly obtain sufficient CTLs for adoptive cancer immunotherapy.

  3. Automatic extraction of ingredient's substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boscarino, C.; Koenderink, N.J.J.P.; Nedovic, V; Top, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Expert advice on how ingredients can be replaced in recipes is widely available on-line. However, these are general substitution rules, which do not take into account contextual factors such as culture, sensory perception, season, etc. We aim at tuning general rules to particular recipes. From an

  4. Artificial skin--culturing of different skin cell lines for generating an artificial skin substitute on cross-weaved spider silk fibres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Wendt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the field of Plastic Reconstructive Surgery the development of new innovative matrices for skin repair is in urgent need. The ideal biomaterial should promote attachment, proliferation and growth of cells. Additionally, it should degrade in an appropriate time period without releasing harmful substances, but not exert a pathological immune response. Spider dragline silk from Nephila spp meets these demands to a large extent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Native spider dragline silk, harvested directly out of Nephila spp spiders, was woven on steel frames. Constructs were sterilized and seeded with fibroblasts. After two weeks of cultivating single fibroblasts, keratinocytes were added to generate a bilayered skin model, consisting of dermis and epidermis equivalents. For the next three weeks, constructs in co-culture were lifted on an originally designed setup for air/liquid interface cultivation. After the culturing period, constructs were embedded in paraffin with an especially developed program for spidersilk to avoid supercontraction. Paraffin cross-sections were stained in Haematoxylin & Eosin (H&E for microscopic analyses. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Native spider dragline silk woven on steel frames provides a suitable matrix for 3 dimensional skin cell culturing. Both fibroblasts and keratinocytes cell lines adhere to the spider silk fibres and proliferate. Guided by the spider silk fibres, they sprout into the meshes and reach confluence in at most one week. A well-balanced, bilayered cocultivation in two continuously separated strata can be achieved by serum reduction, changing the medium conditions and the cultivation period at the air/liquid interphase. Therefore spider silk appears to be a promising biomaterial for the enhancement of skin regeneration.

  5. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  6. Etude des facteurs de variation des prix d'intérêt des matières ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aims to study the factors influencing the minimum price of some substituting raw materials, such as fodder wheat, rye, sorghum, triticale, oat, manioc, sunflower grains, colza grains, colza meal, peanut meal, palm meal, fababean, pea, corn distillers (DDGS), corn gluten feed (CGF), white and blue lupin, soya hulls, ...

  7. A Mutant with Expression Deletion of Gene Sec-1 in a 1RS.1BL Line and Its Effect on Production Quality of Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Li

    Full Text Available The chromosome arm 1RS of rye (Secale cereal L. has been used worldwide as a source of genes for agronomic and resistant improvement. However, the 1RS arm in wheat has end-use quality defects that are partially attributable to the presence of ω-secalins, which are encoded by genes at the Sec-1 locus. Various attempts in removing the Sec-1 genes from the 1RS.1BL translocation chromosome have been made. In the present study, two new primary 1RS.1BL translocation lines, T917-26 and T917-15, were developed from a cross between wheat variety "A42912" and Chinese local rye "Weining." The lines T917-15 and T917-26 carried a pair of intact and homogeneous 1RS.1BL chromosomes. The line T917-26 also harbored an expression deletion of some genes at the Sec-1 locus, which originated from a mutation that occurred simultaneously with wheat-rye chromosome translocations. These results suggest that the accompanying mutations of the evolutionarily significant translocations are remarkable resources for plant improvement. Comparison of translocation lines with its wheat parent showed improvements in the end-use quality parameters, which included protein content (PC, water absorption (WA, sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation (SDSS, wet gluten (WG, dry gluten (DG and dough stickiness (DS, whereas significant reduction in gluten index (GI and stability time (ST were observed. These findings indicate that 1RS in wheat has produced a higher amount of protein, although these comprised worse compositions. However, in the T917-26 line that harbored an expression deletion mutation in the Sec-1 genes, the quality parameters were markedly improved relative to its sister line, T917-15, especially for GI and DS (P < 0.05. These results indicated that expression deletion of Sec-1 genes significantly improves the end-use quality of wheat cultivars harboring the 1RS.1BL translocation. Strategies to remove the Sec-1 genes from the 1RS.1BL translocation in wheat improvement are

  8. Substitute family care

    OpenAIRE

    Petrů, Jaroslava

    2015-01-01

    The bachelor thesis focuses on substitute family care in the Czech Republic and its importance for the child. The theoretical part defines the basic terms, describes history and the forms of substitute family care. It also deals with the process of placing a child in substitute family care, the preparation of foster parents and the legislation regulating substitute family care. The practical part is based on qualitative research in families with children in foster and tutelary care, in famili...

  9. Medicineringsfejl ved generisk substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rölfing, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Generic substitution is a major cause of medical mistakes in the general population. Danish legislation obligates pharmacies to substitute prescribed medicine with the cheapest equivalent formulation, despite variations in product name, packaging, shape and colour. Consequently, medical mistakes...... occur. Scientific evidence on the consequences of generic substitution is sparse. Call upon fellow health workers to report medical mistakes to the national entities and scientific peers, in order to increase awareness and scientific evidence about the problem....

  10. Focus on Inclusive Education: The Educational and Social Challenges of Children with Celiac Disease: What Educators Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, Kay A.

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease is a genetic autoimmune disease in which gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, barley, and contaminated oats, attacks the lining of the small intestine. Children with this disease must eliminate gluten from their diet. This article provides educators with essential information on celiac disease and the federal laws that protect the…

  11. Synthesis and anti-proliferative activity of aromatic substituted 5-((1-benzyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-1,3-dimethylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione analogs against human tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadi, Nikhil Reddy; Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Janganati, Venumadhav; Crooks, Peter A

    2014-01-15

    Based on previous SAR studies on N-benzylindole and barbituric acid hybrid molecules, we have synthesized a series of aromatic substituted 5-((1-benzyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methylene)-1,3-dimethylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione analogs (3a-i) and evaluated them for their in vitro growth inhibition and cytotoxicity against a panel of 60 human tumor cell lines. Compounds 3c, 3d, 3f and 3g were identified as highly potent anti-proliferative compounds against ovarian, renal and breast cancer cell lines with GI50 values in low the nanomolar range. The 4-methoxy-N-benzyl analog (3d) was the most active compound with GI50 values of 20 nM and 40 nM against OVCAR-5 ovarian cancer cells and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells, respectively. Two other analogs, 3c (the 4-methyl-N-benzyl analog) and 3g (the 4-fluoro-N-benzyl analog) exhibited equimolar potency against MDA-MB-468 cells GI50=30 nM). Analog 3f (the 4-chloro-N-benzyl analog) exhibited a GI50 value of 40 nM against renal cancer cell line A498. These results suggest that aromatic substituted N-benzylindole dimethylbarbituric acid hybrids may have potential for development as clinical candidates to treat a variety of solid tumors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid.

  13. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid and aminobenzamide ...

  14. Sustainability and substitutability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Eli P; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-02-01

    Developing a quantitative science of sustainability requires bridging mathematical concepts from fields contributing to sustainability science. The concept of substitutability is central to sustainability but is defined differently by different fields. Specifically, economics tends to define substitutability as a marginal concept while fields such as ecology tend to focus on limiting behaviors. We explain how to reconcile these different views. We develop a model where investments can be made in knowledge to increase the elasticity of substitution. We explore the set of sustainable and optimal trajectories for natural capital extraction and built and knowledge capital accumulation. Investments in substitutability through knowledge stock accumulation affect the value of natural capital. Results suggest that investing in the knowledge stock, which can enhance substitutability, is critical to desirable sustainable outcomes. This result is robust even when natural capital is not managed optimally. This leads us to conclude that investments in the knowledge stock are of first order importance for sustainability.

  15. n'-(substituted phenyl)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    cyano-3-methyl thioacrylyl)-N'-(substituted phenyl)urea (5). Benzylamine attacked double bond to form a transition state in which the orientation of benzylamino and ester carbonyl is cis because of the formation of an intramolecular hydrogen.

  16. Synthesis of substituted pyrazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoria, Philip F.; Zhang, Mao Xi

    2016-10-04

    A method for synthesizing a pyrazine-containing material according to one embodiment includes contacting an iminodiacetonitrile derivative with a base and a reagent selected from a group consisting of hydroxylamine, a hydroxylamine salt, an aliphatic primary amine, a secondary amine, an aryl-substituted alkylamine a heteroaryl-substituted alkyl amine, an alcohol, an alkanolamine and an aryl alcoholamine. Additional methods and several reaction products are presented. ##STR00001##

  17. Bone substitute biomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K

    2014-01-01

    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  18. [Delegation yes, substitution no!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, A

    2014-08-01

    The aging of society leads on the one hand to increasing case numbers and on the other hand to a reduction in the number of physicians available for patient treatment. The delegation and substitution of medical duties as a tried and tested method is increasingly being recommended in order to compensate for the lack of physicians. The Berufsverband der Deutschen Urologen (BDU, Professional Association of German Urologists) supports the guiding principle of the Bundesärztekammer (Federal Medical Council) of "delegation yes, substitution no" and rejects a substitution of medical duties by non-medical academic health personnel. Against the background of the demographic changes, the increasing need for treatment and the current deficiency of junior physicians, a more extensive inclusion of well-qualified and experienced non-medical personnel by the delegation of medically responsible duties (medical scope of practice) can be an appropriate measure to maintain a good medical service in practices, hospitals and nursing homes.

  19. Linear lower bounds and simulations in Frege systems with substitutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bonet Carbonell, M. Luisa; Galesi, Nicola

    1996-01-01

    Our work concerns Frege systems, substitution Frege systems (sF), renaming Frege systems, top/bottom-Frege systems and extended Frege systems (eF). Urquhart shows that tautologies associated to a binary strings require Omega(n/log n) lines to be proved in sF. Here we prove, by giving a sF proof of O(n/log n) lines in substitution Frege, that his lower bound is optimal and we show that in the tree-like case Omega(n) lines are required for a p...

  20. Performing Substitute Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletzer, Keith V.

    2010-01-01

    Formal education is both a right and an obligation bestowed on young people in most all nations of the world. Teachers (adults) and students (youth) form a co-present dyadic contract that must be maintained within the classroom. Substitute teachers fill a role in sustaining the integrity of this teacher-student link, whenever teachers are absent.…

  1. n'-(substituted phenyl)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    5h),. 4-F (5i), 2, 4-F (5j), 4-F-3-Cl (5k). Scheme 1. Schematic representation of the preparation of N-(3-benzylamino-2-cyano-3-methyl thioacrylyl)-N'-(substituted phenyl)urea (5). Benzylamine attacked double bond to form a transition state in ...

  2. The Anticancer Activity of the Substituted Pyridone-Annelated Isoindigo (5'-Cl Involves G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest and Inactivation of CDKs in the Promyelocytic Leukemia Cell Line HL-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Saleh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The antileukemic potential of isoindigos make them desired candidates for understanding their mechanism of action. We have recently synthesized a novel group of pyridone-annelated isoindigos and identified the derivative 5'-Cl that is cytotoxic to various cancer cell lines. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of this compound on cell cycle of the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60. Methods: HL-60 cells were treated with 5'-Cl and its effect on cell cycle stages were determined by flow cytometry. Expression of cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs and cyclin kinase inhibitors (CKIs were determined by Western blotting, and activation of CDKs was studied using kinase assays. Results: 5'-Cl remarkably arrested cell cycle in HL-60 cells at the G0/G1 phase in a dose and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, 5'-Cl treatment significantly inhibited expression of D-cyclins, CDK2 and CDK4 and suppressed phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein Rb, whereas it increased the level of CKI p21. Molecular modelling experiments show that 5'-Cl may compete with ATP for binding to the catalytic subunit of CDK2 and CDK4 that could lead to inhibition of these enzymes. Indeed, 5'-Cl inhibited the kinase activity of CDK2 and CDK4 both in cell free systems and in treated cells. 5'-Cl also inhibited cell cycle progression in several other tumor cell lines. Conclusion: We demonstrate the potent inhibitory effects of 5'-Cl on HL-60 cells could be mediated by arresting cells in the G0/G1 phase.

  3. Confidence in generic drug substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionberger, R; Jiang, W; Huang, S-M; Geba, G

    2013-10-01

    Patients should have confidence that the generic drugs they are prescribed in the United States can be effectively substituted for the brand product or another generic product. Through new bioequivalence study designs for narrow therapeutic index (NTI) drugs and postapproval studies of generic substitution, the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) ongoing generic drug regulatory science activities are designed to ensure successful generic substitution for all drug products.

  4. Separation and purification of soluble polymers and cell wall fractions from wheat, rye and hull less barley endosperm flours for structure-nutrition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino, Penny; Shelat, Kinnari; Collins, Helen; Lahnstein, Jelle; Gidley, Michael J

    2013-12-11

    The nutritional values associated with the cell walls of cereal endosperm flours are due to a combination of solubilized arabinoxylan and (1-3,1-4)-β-d-glucan as well as residual nonsolubilized cell wall material. In order to investigate structure-nutrition relationships, an appropriate method for the complete functional and structural characterization of cell wall polysaccharides in various cereal endosperm flours is described. This involves the separation of soluble polymers and the residual cell wall fraction without using organic solvents, and the fractionation of soluble polymers into arabinoxylan- and (1-3,1-4)-β-d-glucan-rich fractions for subsequent analysis. This methodology is applied to endosperm flours from wheat, hull-less barley and rye, and could be extended to include studies on the effects of food processing with respect to yield and characteristics of the three fractions in order to better understand the structural basis for nutritional functionality.

  5. Acrylamide reduction in mixed wheat-rye bread by using lactic acid fermentation and wheat baking quality improvement by using deactivated yeast RS 190

    OpenAIRE

    Rekštytė, Toma

    2013-01-01

    Darbo tikslas – įvertinti pienarūgščių bakterijų įtaką akrilamido formavimuisi pusruginės duonos gaminiuose, kurių gamybai naudotos skirtingos PRB (Lactobacillus delbruecki, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus ir Lactobacillus sakei), bei įvertinti RS 190 deaktyvuotų mielių įtaką kvietinių miltų technologinėms savybėms ir kvietinių kepinių kokybei. Nustatyta, kad akrilamido kiekis kepiniuose kito nuo 37,87 ± 0,55 iki 74,64 ± 0,36 µg/kg. Pusruginės duonos kepiniuose, ferment...

  6. Currency substitution in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, B.; Budina, N.

    1995-01-01

    Monetary instability during the transition process from a command economy to a market economy has induced a considerable increase in currency substitution in Eastern Europe. Currency substitution itself affects monetary stability since it reduces the stability of velocity. This paper investigates

  7. How Do Substitute Teachers Substitute? An Empirical Study of Substitute-Teacher Labor Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenson, Seth

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the daily labor supply of a potentially important, but often overlooked, source of instruction in U.S. public schools: substitute teachers. I estimate a sequential binary-choice model of substitute teachers' job-offer acceptance decisions using data on job offers made by a randomized automated calling system. Importantly, this…

  8. Vitreous substitutes: challenges and directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qian-Ying; Fu, Yue; Hui, Yan-Nian

    2015-01-01

    The natural vitreous body has a fine structure and complex functions. The imitation of the natural vitreous body by vitreous substitutes is a challenging work for both researchers and ophthalmologists. Gases, silicone oil, heavy silicone oil and hydrogels, particularly the former two vitreous substitutes are clinically widely used with certain complications. Those, however, are not real artificial vitreous due to lack of structure and function like the natural vitreous body. This article reviews the situations, challenges, and future directions in the development of vitreous substitutes, particularly the experimental and clinical use of a new artificial foldable capsular vitreous body.

  9. Dyscravia: voicing substitution dysgraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvion, Aviah; Friedmann, Naama

    2010-06-01

    We report a new type of dysgraphia, which we term dyscravia. The main error type in dyscravia is substitution of the target letter with a letter that differs only with respect to the voicing feature, such as writing "coat" for "goat", and "vagd" for "fact". Two Hebrew-speaking individuals with acquired dyscravia are reported, TG, a man aged 31, and BG, a woman aged 66. Both had surface dysgraphia in addition to their dyscravia. To describe dyscravia in detail, and to explore the rate and types of errors made in spelling, we administered tests of writing to dictation, written naming, and oral spelling. In writing to dictation, TG made voicing errors on 38% of the words, and BG made 17% voicing errors. Voicing errors also occurred in nonword writing (43% for TG, 56% for BG). The writing performance and the variables that influenced the participants' spelling, as well as the results of the auditory discrimination and repetition tasks indicated that their dyscravia did not result from a deficit in auditory processing, the graphemic buffer, the phonological output lexicon, the phonological output buffer, or the allographic stage. The locus of the deficit is the phoneme-to-grapheme conversion, in a function specialized in the conversion of phonemes' voicing feature into graphemes. Because these participants had surface dysgraphia and were forced to write via the sublexical route, the deficit in voicing was evident in their writing of both words and nonwords. We further examined whether the participants also evinced parallel errors in reading. TG had a selective voicing deficit in writing, and did not show any voicing errors in reading, whereas BG had voicing errors also in the reading of nonwords (i.e., she had dyslegzia in addition to dyscravia). The dissociation TG demonstrated indicated that the voicing feature conversion is separate for reading and writing, and can be impaired selectively in writing. BG's dyslegzia indicates that the grapheme-to-phoneme conversion

  10. Commercial formalin substitutes for histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, P; Lyon, H

    1997-01-01

    We compared the performance of six commercial fixatives proposed to be formalin substitutes with the performance of buffered formalin, Clarke's ethanol-acetic acid, and ethanol, using rat liver, small intestine, and kidney. We investigated the rate of penetration, mode of fixation, extent of prot...... was obtained by combining formalin fixation with antigen retrieval. We conclude that none of the proposed commercial substitutes for buffered formalin are adequate for critical histology or histopathology....

  11. Approaches in Substitution of Organic Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    In substitution of harmful chemicals or products with less harmful or harmless ones, there are different approaches according to the different situations, the technical requirements to the substitutes, and the goals for the substitution. Three different cases are presented. The substitution proce...

  12. Degenerate nucleophilic substitution in phosphonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Elizabeth V; Nikitin, Kirill; Ortin, Yannick; Gilheany, Declan G

    2014-11-19

    Rates and energy barriers of degenerate halide substitution on tetracoordinate halophosphonium cations have been measured by NMR techniques (VT and EXSY) using a novel experimental design whereby a chiral substituent ((s)Bu) lifts the degeneracy of the resultant salts. Concomitantly, a viable computational approach to the system was developed to gain mechanistic insights into the structure and relative stabilities of the species involved. Both approaches strongly suggest a two-step mechanism of formation of a pentacoordinate dihalophosphorane via backside attack followed by dissociation, resulting in inversion of configuration at phosphorus. The experimentally determined barriers range from salts. Calculations determined that this was due to the easier accessibility in solution of pentacoordinate dichlorophosphoranes when compared to analogous dibromophosphoranes. In line with the proposed associative mechanism, bulky substituents slow the reaction in the order Me < Et < (i)Pr < (t)Bu. Bulky substituents affect the shape of the reaction energy profile so that the pentacoordinate intermediate is destabilized eventually becoming a transition state. The magnitude of the steric effects is comparable to that of the same substituents on substitution at primary alkyl halides, which can be rationalized by the relatively longer P-C bonds. The reaction displays first-order kinetics due to the prevalence of tight- or solvent-separated ion pairs in solution. Three-dimensional reaction potential energy profiles (More O'Ferrall-Jencks plots) indicated a relatively shallow potential well corresponding to the trigonal bipyramid intermediate flanked by two transition states.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10040 - Substituted acridine naphtha substituted benzamide (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted acridine naphtha... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10040 Substituted acridine naphtha substituted... substance identified generically as a substituted acridine naphtha substituted benzamide (PMN P-02-522) is...

  14. Substitution determination of Fmoc‐substituted resins at different wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kley, Markus; Bächle, Dirk; Loidl, Günther; Meier, Thomas; Samson, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In solid‐phase peptide synthesis, the nominal batch size is calculated using the starting resin substitution and the mass of the starting resin. The starting resin substitution constitutes the basis for the calculation of a whole set of important process parameters, such as the number of amino acid derivative equivalents. For Fmoc‐substituted resins, substitution determination is often performed by suspending the Fmoc‐protected starting resin in 20% (v/v) piperidine in DMF to generate the dibenzofulvene–piperidine adduct that is quantified by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. The spectrometric measurement is performed at the maximum absorption wavelength of the dibenzofulvene–piperidine adduct, that is, at 301.0 nm. The recorded absorption value, the resin weight and the volume are entered into an equation derived from Lambert–Beer's law, together with the substance‐specific molar absorption coefficient at 301.0 nm, in order to calculate the nominal substitution. To our knowledge, molar absorption coefficients between 7100 l mol−1 cm−1 and 8100 l mol−1 cm−1 have been reported for the dibenzofulvene–piperidine adduct at 301.0 nm. Depending on the applied value, the nominal batch size may differ up to 14%. In this publication, a determination of the molar absorption coefficients at 301.0 and 289.8 nm is reported. Furthermore, proof is given that by measuring the absorption at 289.8 nm the impact of wavelength accuracy is reduced. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Peptide Science published by European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:28635051

  15. Smart Phones and their Substitutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Gimpel, Gregory; Hedman, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    our understanding of the role of substitutes, device content fit issues, and implications for business models by asking the question: What is an effective business model to address the relationship between user preference and the fit of the smart phone and everyday task? The field study data suggest...

  16. Sensory Substitution for Wounded Servicemembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-28

    Rehabilitation The IHMC Mobility Assist Exoskeleton (Figure 12) has great potential for gait rehabilitation because of its high fidelity impedance control...mobility assist exoskeleton technologies. Through sensory substitution device demonstrations, we solicited subjective situation awareness feedback...with TBI also evaluated the passive mobility assist exoskeleton , which enabled him to walk at a normal gait, unassisted, for the first time since

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Mandatory substitution successful

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet private health care is the dominant vehicle for both the financing and provision of health care in the country.1 Generic substitution in this sector, therefore, has the potential to cut medication costs significantly. The Medicines and Related Substances Control Amendment. Act No. 90 of 1997 (hereinafter referred to as 'The ...

  18. No Substitute Teacher Left behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Schools and districts routinely recruit, retain, and support highly qualified teachers to ensure that students receive the best learning opportunities. However, even if one's school employs highly qualified full-time teachers, it is important to acknowledge that substitute teachers also have a significant impact on the education of students. One…

  19. Efficient synthesis of substituted dihydrotetraazapentacenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seillan, Claire; Brisset, Hugues; Siri, Olivier

    2008-09-18

    We describe a versatile and very efficient synthesis of previously unknown substituted 5,14-dihydro-5,7,12,14-tetraazapentacenes (DHTAPs). A structural study by NMR spectroscopy showed that the conjugated pi-system of the pentacyclic skeleton rearranges depending on the electronic effect of the substituent(s).

  20. Tax rates as strategic substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Vrijburg (Hendrik); R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analytically derives conditions under which the slope of the tax-reaction function is negative in a classical tax competition model. If countries maximize welfare, a negative slope (reflecting strategic substitutability) occurs under relatively mild conditions. The strategic

  1. Potential for structural lumber substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore L. Laufenberg

    1985-01-01

    The potential for substitution of structural wood composites into solid-sawn lumber markets is presented from the technological viewpoint. Technological limitations of existing composite processes and products are reviewed in the context of the present laminated veneer lumber (LVL), flakeboard, and fiber/ paper industries. The limits of mechanical property potential...

  2. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL... uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted... subpart A of this part apply to this section except as modified by this paragraph. (1) Recordkeeping...

  3. Currency Substitution and Financial Innovation.

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo E. Guidotti

    1993-01-01

    This paper explores the domestic effects as well as the international transmission of financial innovation. The analysis is carried out in a cash-in-advance model with two currencies and tw o goods in which income velocity is variable because of inventory-type considerations in the determination of the demand for money. The discussion emphasizes the role of currency substitution, which occur s through the interaction between the two monies in affecting the tota l amount of time devoted to tra...

  4. (nitro substituted-phenyl)-hydrazonomethyl

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    5c. Et. CH3 NO2. NO2. 5d. Me H. NO2. NO2. 5e. Et. Br. H. NO2. Scheme 1. Synthesis of receptors 5a–5e. Reagents and conditions: (i) TFA, H2O, room temperature, 15 min;. (ii) DMF-POCl3, 0. ◦. C, 2.5–3 h; (iii) substituted phenyl hydrazine derivative, ethanol, reflux, 1–2 h. The anion binding characteristics of receptors 5a– ...

  5. Substituted Indoleacetic Acids Tested in Tissue Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1978-01-01

    Monochloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot induction in tobacco tissue cultures about as much as IAA. Dichloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot formation less. Other substituted IAA except 5-fluoro- and 5-bromoindole-3-acetic acid were less active than IAA. Callus growth was quite variable...

  6. 24 CFR 234.256 - Substitute mortgagors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 234.256... Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The requirements for the selling mortgagor are set forth in... Commissioner's approval of a substitute mortgagor only if the mortgage executed by the original mortgagor met...

  7. 21 CFR 882.5910 - Dura substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dura substitute. 882.5910 Section 882.5910 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5910 Dura substitute. (a) Identification. A dura substitute is a sheet or material that is used to repair the dura mater (the membrane...

  8. 24 CFR 235.206 - Substitute mortgagors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 235.206... and Obligations-Homes for Lower Income Families § 235.206 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor... if it obtains the Commissioner's approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided under this section...

  9. 37 CFR 1.125 - Substitute specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substitute specification. 1... § 1.125 Substitute specification. (a) If the number or nature of the amendments or the legibility of... thereof, be rewritten. (b) Subject to § 1.312, a substitute specification, excluding the claims, may be...

  10. 24 CFR 203.258 - Substitute mortgagors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 203.258... § 203.258 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this..., only if it obtains the Commissioner's approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section...

  11. 24 CFR 220.253 - Substitute mortgagors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 220.253... Contract Rights and Obligations-Homes § 220.253 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The mortgagee... the Commissioner's approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section. (b) Purchasing...

  12. 24 CFR 221.252 - Substitute mortgagors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 221.252... Cost Homes § 221.252 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The mortgagee may effect the release... approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section. (b) Purchasing mortgagor. The Commissioner...

  13. 40 CFR 192.42 - Substitute provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substitute provisions. 192.42 Section 192.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION... § 192.42 Substitute provisions. The regulatory agency may, with the concurrence of EPA, substitute for...

  14. 40 CFR 721.323 - Substituted acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted acrylamide. 721.323... Substances § 721.323 Substituted acrylamide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted acrylamide (PMN P-90-1687) is...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane...

  16. What happened to blood substitutes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, C P

    2005-11-01

    Concerns about the safety and adequacy of the blood supply have fostered twenty years of research into the so-called "blood substitutes" among them the oxygen carriers based on modified hemoglobin. Although none of these materials has yet been licensed for use in North America or Europe, the results of research and clinical trials have increased our understanding of oxygen delivery and its regulation. In particular, the examination of the basis for the vasoactivity observed with some of the hemoglobin based oxygen carriers has led to the insight that several colligative properties of hemoglobin solutions, such as their diffusion coefficient for oxygen, viscosity and colloid oncotic pressure, are important determinants of efficacy.

  17. Current status of erythrocyte substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    During the last two decades the search for alternatives to whole blood transfusions has led to promising developments in the field of erythrocyte substitutes. Hemoglobin solutions free of fragments of erythrocyte stroma and fluorocarbon emulsions are not blood-type-specific and appear likely to satisfy some proportion of our blood requirements. Both must be modified before becoming clinically useful. The oxygen affinity of the hemoglobin solution must be reduced and its intravascular persistence improved. Fluorocarbons cannot yet contribute significantly to the oxygen supply unless the patient breathes hyperbaric oxygen. Recent advances are leading to solutions for these problems. PMID:6344974

  18. High Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2015-01-01

    factories and warehouses on Gansevoort Street. Today the High Line is a beautiful park covered with new tiles, viewing platforms and smaller recreational areas. The park bridge has simple, uniform, urban fittings and features a variety of flowering plants, grasses, shrubs and trees from around the world......, and galleries. With the High Line, a new urban architectural typology has been created that is aesthetically enriching and sets new standards for urban transformation and urban life. “The park accommodates the wild, the cultivated, the intimate and the social. Access points are durational experiences designed...

  19. Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Ahmad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substitutes can be divided into two main classes, namely, biological and synthetic substitutes. The biological skin substitutes have a more intact extracellular matrix structure, while the synthetic skin substitutes can be synthesised on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Each class has its advantages and disadvantages. The biological skin substitutes may allow the construction of a more natural new dermis and allow excellent re-epithelialisation characteristics due to the presence of a basement membrane. Synthetic skin substitutes demonstrate the advantages of increase control over scaffold composition. The ultimate goal is to achieve an ideal skin substitute that provides an effective and scar-free wound healing.

  20. Information Technology and Transportation: Substitutes or Complements?

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Atara Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The increased availability and prevalence of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) provides opportunities to use such products as substitutes for transportation. Common examples of this substitution are telecommuting, video conferences, and online classes. However, despite the intuitive appeal of a substitution relationship existing between ICT and transportation, prior research has indicated that the relationship between ICT and transportation is quite complex; at times ICT substit...

  1. Substitutions in Calcium Aluminates and Calcium Aluminoferrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS, *CEMENTS, * CALCIUM COMPOUNDS, * FERRITES , *SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY, X RAY DIFFRACTION, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, SUBSTITUTES, CHEMICAL ANALYSIS, ALKALI METAL COMPOUNDS.

  2. Controversial issues of maternity substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Pușcă

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Substitute maternity consists in a woman carrying a pregnancy (the implant of an embryo, at therequest of a sterile couple, most of the times in exchange of a sum of money, with her commitment tounconditionally give away the newborn after birth to the couple she concluded the agreement with. Manycontroversies emerged in what concerns the contract between the sterile couple and the carrying mother,especially when this contract is by onerous title, which happens in most of the cases. In that a civil contract? Is ita sales contract for the child? Is it a contract to provide services? Is it body marketing? Between total prohibitionand excessive liberalism, the middle way, which is the regulation according to ethical religious, cultural andsocial norms of each community, represents a realistic solution.

  3. Preparation, characterization and biological activity of C8-substituted cytokinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahajská, Lenka; Nisler, Jaroslav; Voller, Jiří; Gucký, Tomáš; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Spíchal, Lukáš; Strnad, Miroslav

    2017-03-01

    Naturally occurring cytokinins are adenine-based plant hormones. Although, the effect of various substituents at positions N1, C2, N3, N6, N7, or N9 on the biological activity of cytokinins has been studied, the C8-substituted compounds have received little attention. Here, we report the synthesis and in vitro biological testing of thirty-one cytokinin derivatives substituted at the C8 position of the adenine skeleton and twenty-seven compounds which served as their N9-tetrahydropyranyl protected precursors. The cytokinin activity of all the compounds was determined in classical cytokinin biotests (wheat leaf senescence, Amaranthus and tobacco callus assays). With some exceptions, the compounds with a N9-tetrahydropyranyl group were generally less active than their de-protected analogs. The latter were further tested for their ability to activate the Arabidopsis cytokinin receptors AHK3 and CRE1/AHK4 in bacterial receptor activation assays. Using this approach, we identified derivatives bearing short aliphatic chains and retaining high cytokinin activity. Such compounds are suitable candidates for fluorescence labeling or as protein-affinity ligands. We further found that some C8-substituted cytokinins exhibited no or lower cytotoxicity toward tobacco cells when compared to their parent compound. Therefore, we also present and discuss the cytotoxicity of all the compounds against three normal human cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, serial production lines with finished goods buffers operating in the pull regime are considered. The machines are assumed to obey Bernoulli reliability model. The problem of satisfying customers demand is addressed. The level of demand satisfaction is quantified by the due-time performance (DTP, which is defined as the probability to ship to the customer a required number of parts during a fixed time interval. Within this scenario, the definitions of DTP bottlenecks are introduced and a method for their identification is developed.

  5. Type Substitution for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1990-01-01

    Genericity allows the substitution of types in a class. This is usually obtained through parameterized classes, although they are inflexible since any class can be inherited but is not in itself parameterized. We suggest a new genericity mechanism, type substitution, which is a subclassing concep...

  6. Educators Take Another Look at Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    The mythology surrounding the substitute teacher is not a pretty one: Paper airplanes, lost learning, bullying. But as schools collect more information about teacher absenteeism and its consequences, districts and schools are exploring ways to professionalize substitute teaching--or experiment with alternative ways of coping with teacher absences.…

  7. 5 CFR 1201.35 - Substituting parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substituting parties. 1201.35 Section... AND PROCEDURES Procedures for Appellate Cases Parties, Representatives, and Witnesses § 1201.35 Substituting parties. (a) If an appellant dies or is otherwise unable to pursue the appeal, the processing of...

  8. 25 CFR 522.9 - Substitute approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute approval. 522.9 Section 522.9 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.9 Substitute approval. If the Chairman fails to...

  9. Strategic Resource Extraction And Substitute Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, T.O.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We analyze a dynamic game between a buyer and a seller of an exhaustible resource. The seller chooses resource supply; the buyer can pay a fixed cost to invent a perfect substitute for the resource at any time. In closed-loop equilibrium, the buyer adopts the substitute when the resource is

  10. Substitute Your Way to a Real Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    For some, substitute teaching is a career choice. However, for the majority of new teachers, it is often a necessary gateway to landing a first job. Either way, it is a great way to sharpen one's skills. This article presents tips from principals, teachers, and human resource directors to make the most of the substitute teaching experience…

  11. Substitute Teachers: Making Lost Days Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, Charlene; Butler, Kyle; Sefton, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    As K-12 teachers and administrators grow increasingly concerned with issues of accountability, research-based methods, and intervention strategies, little discussion exists on the impact of substitute teachers in the classroom. In the rush to analyze test scores, are the days covered by substitute teachers even considered? Though districts are…

  12. Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proulx, Michael J; Ptito, Maurice; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Sensory substitution has advanced remarkably over the past 35 years since first introduced to the scientific literature by Paul Bach-y-Rita. In this issue dedicated to his memory, we describe a collection of reviews that assess the current state of neuroscience research on sensory substitution......, visual rehabilitation, and multisensory processes....

  13. Development of inter-specific chromosomes segment substitution libraries (CSSL) in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six libraries of inter-specific Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines (CSSLs) of rice are being developed as pre-breeding materials and genetic stocks. Three accessions of O. rufipogon were selected as donors, based on phylogenetic, geographical and morphological divergence, and crossed with two rec...

  14. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    .98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect......In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0...

  15. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars......, respectively. When we do take into account the substitution effect, these figures reduce to, respectively, -0.32 and -0.45. We further estimate an alternative version of the model to test the hypothesis that substitution in response to higher fuel prices will be predominantly from the least to the most fuel...

  16. Substituted Hydroxyapatites with Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kolmas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency.

  17. Uproar over Milk Substitutes Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-15

    Health policy activists lobbied 7 years for the Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Food Bill. Proponents of the bill say that it basically curtails unethical marketing practices, not the sales of baby foods, and argue that it was conceived to reduce the trend of mothers over-diluting commercial milk in order to reduce household expenses as well as stem the potential erosion of knowledge on locally available weaning foods. Even though the bill will become an Act only after its rules and regulations have been finalized, the government has already banned baby food advertisements on television and in other electronic media under its control. Women's groups now argue that the bill tends to focus almost exclusively upon the welfare of children and compromises the position of women who can not lactate adequately. Moreover, they hold that the bill may be used to compel wives to stay out of the formal workforce so that they may feed their babies. The intention of the bill may be meaningless without complementary legislation addressing the problems of working mothers. Specifically, amendments to the Maternity Benefits Act of 1961 would extend maternity leave to 4 months after delivery and lengthen the duration of nursing breaks. It is, however, feared that these changes may reduce employment prospects for women.

  18. Parallel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Worner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available James Worner is an Australian-based writer and scholar currently pursuing a PhD at the University of Technology Sydney. His research seeks to expose masculinities lost in the shadow of Australia’s Anzac hegemony while exploring new opportunities for contemporary historiography. He is the recipient of the Doctoral Scholarship in Historical Consciousness at the university’s Australian Centre of Public History and will be hosted by the University of Bologna during 2017 on a doctoral research writing scholarship.   ‘Parallel Lines’ is one of a collection of stories, The Shapes of Us, exploring liminal spaces of modern life: class, gender, sexuality, race, religion and education. It looks at lives, like lines, that do not meet but which travel in proximity, simultaneously attracted and repelled. James’ short stories have been published in various journals and anthologies.

  19. Moessbauer Study of Multiple Substitutions in YBCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, M.; Patel, N. V.; Mehta, P. K.; Somayajulu, D. R. S. [M.S. University, Physics Department (India)

    2001-11-15

    Moessbauer studies of multiple substitutions in YBCO with general formula (Y{sub 1-Z}Ca{sub Z})Ba{sub 2}(Cu{sub 1-X-Y}Fe{sub Y}M{sub X}){sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} are reported. XRD has been used to find out the lattice parameters. All the samples show a single tetragonal phase formation. Iodometric titration is done to estimate the oxygen content. The present study discusses the effect of multiple substitutions of 3d-ions like Ni, Zn, Co, Mn, Cr in YBCO and the effect of various substitutions on charge balancing, oxygen content and site occupancy.

  20. Elasticity of Substitution and Antidumping Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drud Hansen, Jørgen; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    therefore also vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution at least for countries which have a strong focus on prices in the determination of their anti-dumping measures. We test this for ten countries from 1990 to 2009 using data on anti-dumping from Chad Bown (2010) and US-data at 8-digit level......Abstract This paper analyzes the role of the elasticity of substitution for anti-dumping decisions across countries. In monopolistic competition models with cost heterogeneous firms across countries, price differences vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution. Anti-dumping duties should...

  1. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

  2. Transnationalism and integration : complements or Substitutes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, B.; Siegel, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between transnational practices and integration by testing whether they are substitutes or complements. For this purpose, we use a multidimensional transnationalism index. The index includes three dimensions of transnational practices, including migrants'

  3. Questioning nuclear waste substitution: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan

    2007-03-01

    This article looks at the ethical quandaries, and their social and political context, which emerge as a result of international nuclear waste substitution. In particular it addresses the dilemmas inherent within the proposed return of nuclear waste owned by Japanese nuclear companies and currently stored in the United Kingdom. The UK company responsible for this waste, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), wish to substitute this high volume intermediate-level Japanese-owned radioactive waste for a much lower volume of much more highly radioactive waste. Special focus is given to ethical problems that they, and the UK government, have not wished to address as they move forward with waste substitution. The conclusion is that waste substitution can only be considered an ethical practice if a set of moderating conditions are observed by all parties. These conditions are listed and, as of yet, they are not being observed.

  4. DOES CURRENCY SUBSTITUTION AFFECT EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Kumamoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impacts of the degree of currency substitution on nominal exchange rate volatility in seven countries (Indonesia, the Philippines, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Argentina, and Peru. We use the Threshold ARCH model to consider the ratchet effect of currency substitution and sample periods in the 2000s, during which time the economies of the sample countries stabilized, while the U.S. dollar and euro depreciated against other major currencies following the recent global financial crisis. The presented empirical analyses show that the degree of currency substitution has significant positive effects on the conditional variance of the depreciation rate of the nominal exchange rate in most sample countries. Moreover, a shock to the depreciation rate of the nominal exchange rate has asymmetric effects on the conditional variance, depending on the sign. One possible explanation for these differential effects is the existence of the ratchet effect of currency substitution.

  5. Synthesis of substituted 2-cyanoarylboronic esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysén, Morten; Hansen, Henriette M; Begtrup, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of substituted 2-cyanoarylboronic esters is described via lithiation/in situ trapping of the corresponding methoxy-, trifluoromethyl-, fluoro-, chloro-, and bromobenzonitriles. The crude arylboronic esters were obtained in high yields and purities and with good regioselectivities....

  6. Approximate substitutions and the normal ordering problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheballah, H; Duchamp, G H E [Universite Paris 13 Laboratoire d' Informatique Paris Nord, CNRS UMR 7030 99 Av. J-B. Clement, F 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Penson, K A [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de la Matiere Condensee Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 7600 Tour 24 - 2e et., 4 pl. Jussieu, F 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: hayat.cheballah@lipn-univ.paris13.fr, E-mail: ghed@lipn-univ.paris13.fr, E-mail: penson@lptl.jussieu.fr

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we show that the infinite generalised Stirling matrices associated with boson strings with one annihilation operator are projective limits of approximate substitutions, the latter being characterised by a finite set of algebraic equations.

  7. NOVEL PHOSPHAZENE-SUBSTITUTED SILOXANES AND SILANES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDEGRAMPEL, JC; JEKEL, AP; PUYENBROEK, R; ARLING, TJ; FRANSEN, W; MEETSMA, A; WUBBELS, JH

    1993-01-01

    Cyclophosphazene-substituted siloxanes and silanes are prepared by the method of hydrosilylation, starting from allyl-derivatized cyclophosphazenes and hydrosiloxanes or hydrosilanes in the presence of a platinum catalyst. Steric and electronic effects govern the course of the reaction.

  8. Substitution within the Danish printing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Bøg, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of the EU REACH regulation will most probably promote substitution within sectors handling a lot of different chemicals like the printing industry. With the aim of being at the cutting edge of this development the Danish EPA together with the Danish printing industry and IPU...... are running a substitution project. A major part of the work has been mapping the presence of chemicals which are potential candidates for substitution (e.g. PBT, CMR, vPvB, EDS) within the Danish printing industry and this work was recently finished. The mapping comprises a combination of a literature study...... and an investigation of the actual (2007) presence of candidate substances at 15 Danish printing houses including the examination of almost 900 MSDS’s (i.e. products). Furthermore, a focused search in the Danish Product Register has been included. More than 150 of the mapped substances are candidates for substitution...

  9. YL-SUBSTITUTED PHENOLS AND THEIR POTENTIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nb

    en)yl-substituted phenolic moiety. Alongside this compilation, a diagnostic discussion is presented aiming at pinpointing CNSL phenols as prospective precursors for the semisyntheses of some selected natural products as illustrative examples.

  10. CHROMIC TRANSITIONS IN PHENYL-SUBSTITUTED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    substituted polythiophenes were studied. The pristine polymers, upon dissolution in chloroform, exhibited blue-shifted absorption. The solid films of the polymers showed significant blue-shifted as well as red-shifted absorptions when heated.

  11. Forbidden Synonymous Substitutions in Coding Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Roy J. Britten

    1993-01-01

    In the evolution of highly conserved genes, a few "synonymous" substitutions at third bases that would not alter the protein sequence are forbidden or very rare, presumably as a result of functional requirements of the gene or the messenger RNA. Another 10% or 20% of codons are significantly less variable by synonymous substitution than are the majority of codons. The changes that occur at the majority of third bases are subject to codon usage restrictions. These usage restrictions control se...

  12. Hyperfine magnetic fields in substituted Finemet alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brzózka, K., E-mail: k.brzozka@uthrad.pl [University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Department of Physics (Poland); Sovák, P. [P.J. Šafárik University, Institute of Physics (Slovakia); Szumiata, T.; Gawroński, M.; Górka, B. [University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Department of Physics (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    Transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the hyperfine fields of Finemet-type alloys in form of ribbons, substituted alternatively by Mn, Ni, Co, Al, Zn, V or Ge of various concentration. The comparative analysis of magnetic hyperfine fields was carried out which enabled to understand the role of added elements in as-quenched as well as annealed samples. Moreover, the influence of the substitution on the mean direction of the local hyperfine magnetic field was examined.

  13. Enantiospecific Synthesis of β-Substituted Tryptamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Heather N; Van Hecke, Kinney; Mills, Jonathan J; Cockrell, Jennifer; Morgan, Jeremy B

    2017-09-15

    Functionalized tryptamines are targets of interest for development as small molecule therapeutics. The ring opening of aziridines with indoles is a powerful method for tryptamine synthesis where isomer formation can be controlled. 3,5-Dinitrobenzoyl (DNB)-protected aziridines undergo regioselective, enantiospecific ring opening to produce β-substituted tryptamines for a series of indoles. Attack at the more substituted aziridine carbon occurs in an SN2-like fashion to generate DNB-tryptamine products as synthetic precursors.

  14. Substituting missing data in compositional analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.real@usc.es [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Ecologia, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Angel Fernandez, J.; Aboal, Jesus R.; Carballeira, Alejo [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Multivariate analysis of environmental data sets requires the absence of missing values or their substitution by small values. However, if the data is transformed logarithmically prior to the analysis, this solution cannot be applied because the logarithm of a small value might become an outlier. Several methods for substituting the missing values can be found in the literature although none of them guarantees that no distortion of the structure of the data set is produced. We propose a method for the assessment of these distortions which can be used for deciding whether to retain or not the samples or variables containing missing values and for the investigation of the performance of different substitution techniques. The method analyzes the structure of the distances among samples using Mantel tests. We present an application of the method to PCDD/F data measured in samples of terrestrial moss as part of a biomonitoring study. - Highlights: > Missing values in multivariate data sets must be substituted prior to analysis. > The substituted values can modify the structure of the data set. > We developed a method to estimate the magnitude of the alterations. > The method is simple and based on the Mantel test. > The method allowed the identification of problematic variables in a sample data set. - A method is presented for the assessment of the possible distortions in multivariate analysis caused by the substitution of missing values.

  15. [Guidelines for substitution treatments in prison populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, L; Maguet, O

    2005-01-01

    Care access for the drug addict patients in prison (in particular for the treatments of substitution) in France is very unequal from one establishment to another. This reflects the great variability of the practices of substitution and especially the absence of consensus on the methods of adaptation of these practices to the prison environment. Because of difficulties expressed by prisoners and medical staff on this subject and of stakes (let us recall that approximately 30% of the prisoners are dependent or abusers of one or more psychoactive substances), the formulation of recommendations or of a good practices guide of substitution in prison appeared necessary. Work that we detail here answers a ordering of the Advisory Commission of the Treatments of Substitution (September 2001) whose authors are members. It was presented at the session April 2003. It results from the confrontation of a review of the literature (including legal texts and official reports concerning substitution, the organization of the care in prison environment and the lawful framework), with a vast investigation. The latter was carried out near medical staff (22 prisons), penitentiary staff (3 prisons, 27 people met including directors of these establishments) and prisoners (7 establishments, 28 prisoners met) in the form of individual talks (semi-directing interviews with evaluation of the type of existing device and its knowledge by the penitentiary staff and the prisoners; statement of the suggestions, needs and requests of the medical, penitentiary staffs and of the prisoners). In the whole visited prisons, 7.8% (870) of the prisoners received substitution treatments (6.35% by buprenorphine, 1.44% by methadone), representing a proportion of substituted drug addicts (870 substituted for an evaluation of 3,350 prisoners drug addicts among the 11,168 prisoners of the 22 visited prisons) notably lower than that in free environment (56%, ie 96,000 substituted for an evaluated population of

  16. Electric energy saving potential by substitution of domestic refrigerators in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo-Cabanas, F.G. [Posgrado en Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 20-364, Mexico, Distrito Federal, C.P. 05500 (Mexico); Programa de Energia, Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, San Lorenzo 290, Col. Del Valle, Del. Benito Juarez, Mexico, Distrito Federal, C.P. 03100 (Mexico); Aguillon-Martinez, J.E. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 20-364, Mexico, Distrito Federal, C.P. 05500 (Mexico); Ambriz-Garcia, J.J. [Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, C.P. 09340, Iztapalapa, Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico); Canizal, G. [Programa de Energia, Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, San Lorenzo 290, Col. Del Valle, Del. Benito Juarez, Mexico, Distrito Federal, C.P. 03100 (Mexico)

    2009-11-15

    We evaluate the potential for electric power saving in Mexico that would follow the substitution of old, low efficiency domestic refrigerators with modern, high efficiency ones. Our results indicate that a total substitution of domestic refrigerators would save 4.7 TWh/year, which represents 33% of the annual total consumption of 14.1 TWh. Assuming an average daily use of 14 h for domestic refrigeration, 900 MW of electricity would be saved. An annual substitution of 20% over 5 years would save approximately 1 TWh a year and almost 180 MW would be released. It is recommended that this program of replacement should be supported by the Federal and State governments, beginning with the States (which have more direct influence), and with the oldest, least efficient refrigerators along the lines followed in programs that introduced fluorescent compact lamps. (author)

  17. A Sequential and Comprehensive Method for Effective Substitute Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, John L.

    2008-01-01

    This article dealt with methods for making substitute teaching more effective. The purpose was to articulate a sequential method for maximizing the effectiveness of substitute teaching while providing substitutes with a comprehensive method for diligently and flexibly earning respect and using reflection to continually improve substitute teaching.…

  18. 12 CFR 229.52 - Substitute check warranties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substitute check warranties. 229.52 Section 229... SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Substitute Checks § 229.52 Substitute check warranties. (a) Content and provision of substitute check warranties. A bank that transfers...

  19. 12 CFR 229.51 - General provisions governing substitute checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions governing substitute checks... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Substitute Checks § 229.51 General provisions governing substitute checks. (a) Legal equivalence. A substitute check for...

  20. 12 CFR 229.53 - Substitute check indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substitute check indemnity. 229.53 Section 229... SYSTEM AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Substitute Checks § 229.53 Substitute check indemnity. (a) Scope of indemnity. A bank that transfers, presents, or returns a substitute...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1555 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... benzenediazonium salt. 721.1555 Section 721.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt (PMN P-92-652) is subject to... this part apply to this section except as modified by this paragraph. (1) Recordkeeping. Recordkeeping...

  2. 40 CFR 721.8825 - Substituted methylpyridine and substituted 2-phenoxypyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... respirator fit tests for each person required to wear a respirator. (iii) The names and addresses of persons... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted methylpyridine and substituted 2-phenoxypyridine. 721.8825 Section 721.8825 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  3. Chemical characterization of some substituted hydroxyapatites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Doreya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Synthetic multi-substituted hydroxyapatite nano powders containing silicon and or carbonate prepared by a wet chemical method. The process parameters are set up to allow the simultaneous substitution of carbonate and silicon ions in the place of phosphorus. The chemical and structural characterizations of the prepared powders are determined with the aid of; XRF, ICP, XRD and FTIR. The results show that, the ion substitution in the crystal lattice of HA caused a change in the unit cell dimensions and affected the degree of crystallization of the produced powders. The apatite formation abilityy of the prepared discs from the synthesized powders is determined by immersing in SBF solution for different periods. The degree of ion release was determined in the obtained solutions. The examined surface of the immersed discs under SEM and analyzed by CDS showed a more dense HA layer than those of un-substituted ones. The HA with the substituted silicon and carbonate ions, showed the highest solubility with greater rate of ion release, compared with carbonate-free powder. All prepared powders took sodium ion from the SBF solution during immersion, which was not recorded before.

  4. Chemical characterization of some substituted hydroxyapatites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Doreya Mohamed; Mostafa, Amany A; Korowash, Sara Ibrahim

    2011-11-28

    Synthetic multi-substituted hydroxyapatite nano powders containing silicon and or carbonate prepared by a wet chemical method. The process parameters are set up to allow the simultaneous substitution of carbonate and silicon ions in the place of phosphorus. The chemical and structural characterizations of the prepared powders are determined with the aid of; XRF, ICP, XRD and FTIR. The results show that, the ion substitution in the crystal lattice of HA caused a change in the unit cell dimensions and affected the degree of crystallization of the produced powders. The apatite formation abilityy of the prepared discs from the synthesized powders is determined by immersing in SBF solution for different periods. The degree of ion release was determined in the obtained solutions. The examined surface of the immersed discs under SEM and analyzed by CDS showed a more dense HA layer than those of un-substituted ones. The HA with the substituted silicon and carbonate ions, showed the highest solubility with greater rate of ion release, compared with carbonate-free powder. All prepared powders took sodium ion from the SBF solution during immersion, which was not recorded before.

  5. Dissolution of Al-substituted goethites by an aerobic Pseudomonas mendocina var. bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, P. A.; Lee, Y.-J.; Hersman, L. E.

    2000-04-01

    Goethite particles in soil environments often contain Al 3+ substituted for Fe 3+ in octahedrally coordinated sites. Al substitution has been shown to alter mineral stability and abiotic dissolution rates. This study focused on the effects of Al substitution (to 8.8 mol%) on synthetic goethite dissolution by an aerobic Pseudomonas mendocina var. bacteria. In contrast to dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (DIRB), this bacteria is not capable of using Fe as a terminal electron acceptor for oxidative phosphorylation, and hence only requires μM concentrations of Fe for metabolism. Pure and substituted goethites were reacted with microorganisms in Fe-limited growth media wherein the only source of Fe was the solid phase, so that microbial populations could only grow by obtaining Fe through mineral dissolution. Because at least some Fe was taken up by the bacteria, we could not measure Fe release rates directly from dissolved Fe concentrations. Rather, we relied upon microbial growth measurements as indirect indicators of mineral dissolution. Increasing Al substitution resulted in particles with progressively decreasing mean particle length and aspect ratios, as well as fewer domains, as measured by atomic-force microscopy (AFM); but with increasing structural order as determined by XRD line widths. Experiments conducted in the dark at 22°C, exposed to the atmosphere, showed that maximum microbial population did not correlate with particle specific surface area, which is in contrast with previous studies using DIRB. Maximum microbial population increased a small amount with increasing Al content of the goethites, in contrast with several previous investigations of abiotic dissolution. Because dense biofilms formed, we were unable to use AFM to observe mineral dissolution features. AFM imaging suggested that more highly substituted goethites formed denser aggregates, and previous investigations have shown that aggregate structure is important for microbial attachment

  6. Vitreous Substitutes: The Present and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprani, Simona Maria; Airaghi, Giulia; Bartalena, Luigi; Testa, Francesco; Mariotti, Cesare; Porta, Giovanni; Simonelli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Vitreoretinal surgery has advanced in numerous directions during recent years. The removal of the vitreous body is one of the main characteristics of this surgical procedure. Several molecules have been tested in the past to fill the vitreous cavity and to mimic its functions. We here review the currently available vitreous substitutes, focusing on their molecular properties and functions, together with their adverse effects. Afterwards we describe the characteristics of the ideal vitreous substitute. The challenges facing every ophthalmology researcher are to reach a long-term intraocular permanence of vitreous substitute with total inertness of the molecule injected and the control of inflammatory reactions. We report new polymers with gelification characteristics and smart hydrogels representing the future of vitreoretinal surgery. Finally, we describe the current studies on vitreous regeneration and cell cultures to create new intraocular gels with optimal biocompatibility and rheological properties. PMID:24877085

  7. Biomaterials in search of a meniscus substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongen, Jan J; van Tienen, Tony G; van Bochove, Bas; Grijpma, Dirk W; Buma, Pieter

    2014-04-01

    The menisci fulfill key biomechanical functions in the tibiofemoral (knee) joint. Unfortunately meniscal injuries are quite common and most often treated by (partial) meniscectomy. However, some patients experience enduring symptoms, and, more importantly, it leads to an increased risk for symptomatic osteoarthritis. Over the past decades, researchers have put effort in developing a meniscal substitute able to prevent osteoarthritis and treat enduring clinical symptoms. Grossly, two categories of substitutes are observed: First, a resorbable scaffold mimicking biomechanical function which slowly degrades while tissue regeneration and organization is promoted. Second, a non resorbable, permanent implant which mimics the biomechanical function of the native meniscus. Numerous biomaterials with different (material) properties have been used in order to provide such a substitute. Nevertheless, a clinically applicable cartilage protecting material is not yet emerged. In the current review we provide an overview, and discuss, these different materials and extract recommendations regarding material properties for future developmental research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. New transfusion strategies: red cell substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, R M

    1999-01-01

    Red cell substitutes are solutions that can potentially be used in emergencies or during surgery when rapid expansion of the blood volume with an oxygen carrier is needed. The three main types of products in development are based on cell-free hemoglobin, perfluorocarbon emulsions, or liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin. None is currently approved for clinical use, but several are in advanced clinical trials. Outside the red blood cell, hemoglobin is subject to degradation and heme loss. It readily diffuses in the plasma space and effectively scavenges nitric oxide. These properties must be understood and controlled if hemoglobin-based products are to fulfill their promise. The development of red cell substitutes affords us a deeper insight into how oxygen is delivered to tissues in the microcirculation and how blood-flow distribution is regulated within and between organs. As red cell substitutes become available to clinicians and scientists, clinical applications are expected to expand.

  9. Bone substitute materials supplemented with prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors decrease osteoclastogenesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinzenz, Philipp; Schröckmair, Stefan; Gruber, Reinhard; Agis, Hermann

    2015-08-01

    Inhibition of prolyl hydroxylases stimulates bone regeneration. Consequently, bone substitute materials were developed that release prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors. However, the impact of prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors released from these carriers on osteoclastogenesis is not clear. We therefore assessed the effect of bone substitute materials that release prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors on osteoclastogenesis. Dimethyloxalylglycine, desferrioxamine, and l-mimosine were lyophilized onto bovine bone mineral and hydroxyapatite, and supernatants were generated. Osteoclastogenesis was induced in murine bone marrow cultures in the presence of the supernatants from bone substitute materials. The formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells and TRAP activity were determined. To test for possible effects on osteoclast progenitor cells, we measured the effect of the supernatants on proliferation and viability. In addition, experiments were performed where prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors were directly added to the bone marrow cultures. We found that prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors released within the first hours from bone substitute materials reduce the number and activity of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells. In line with this, addition of prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors directly to the bone marrow cultures dose-dependently reduced the number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and the overall resorption activity. Moreover, the released prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors decreased proliferation but not viability of osteoclast progenitor cells. Our results show that prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors released from bone substitute materials decrease osteoclastogenesis in murine bone marrow cultures. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A New Substitution Cipher - Random-X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falguni Patel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ciphers are the encryption methods to prepare the algorithm for encryption and decryption. The currently known ciphers are not strong enough to protect the data. A new substitution cipher Random-X that we introduce in this paper can be used for password encryption and data encryption. Random-X cipher is a unique substitution cipher which replaces the units of plaintext with triplets of letters. The beauty of this cipher is that the encrypted string of the same plain text is not always same. This makes it strong and difficult to crack. This paper covers the principle the implementation ideas and testing of Random-X cipher.

  11. Intramolecular homolytic substitution of sulfinates and sulfinamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulomb, Julien; Certal, Victor; Larraufie, Marie-Hélène; Ollivier, Cyril; Corbet, Jean-Pierre; Mignani, Gérard; Fensterbank, Louis; Lacôte, Emmanuel; Malacria, Max

    2009-10-05

    A general and efficient method for the synthesis of cyclic sulfinates and sulfinamides based on intramolecular homolytic substitution (S(H)i) at the sulfur atom by aryl or alkyl radicals is described. Both alkyl and benzofused compounds can be accessed directly from easily prepared acyclic precursors. Enantiomerically enriched sulfur-based heterocycles were formed through an S(H)i process with inversion of configuration at the sulfur atom. Cyclization of prochiral radicals proceeded with varying stereochemical outcomes, depending on the size of the incoming radical. 2-Pyridyl and 2-quinolyl radicals led to biaryl compounds, which result from attack onto the ortho position of the arylsulfinate rather than a thiophilic substitution.

  12. Substituting freshwater: Can ocean desalination and water recycling capacities substitute for groundwater depletion in California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiuzzaman, Pierre; McLaughlin, Eoin; McCauley, Darren

    2017-12-01

    While the sustainability of resource depletion is a longstanding environmental concern, wider attention has recently been given to growing water scarcity and groundwater depletion. This study seeks to test the substitutability assumption embedded in weak sustainability indicators using a case study of Californian water supply. The volume of groundwater depletion is used as a proxy for unsustainable water consumption, and defined by synthesising existing research estimates into low, medium and high depletion baselines. These are compared against projected water supply increases from ocean desalination and water recycling by 2035, to determine whether new, drought-proof water sources can substitute for currently unsustainable groundwater consumption. Results show that the maximum projected supply of new water, 2.47 million acre-feet per year (MAF/yr), is sufficient to meet low depletion estimates of 2.02 MAF/yr, but fails to come near the high depletion estimate of 3.44 MAF/yr. This does not necessarily indicate physical limitations of substitutability, but more so socio-economic limitations influenced by high comparative costs. By including capacities in demand-substitutability via urban water conservation, maximum predicted capacities reach 5.57 MAF/yr, indicating wide room for substitution. Based on these results, investment in social and institutional capital is an important factor to enhance demand-side substitutability of water and other natural resources, which has been somewhat neglected by the literature on the substitutability of natural resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tri- and tetra-substituted naphthalene diimides as potent G-quadruplex ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Francisco; Greciano, Olga; Gunaratnam, Mekala; Haider, Shozeb; Munnur, Deeksha; Nanjunda, Rupesh; Wilson, W David; Neidle, Stephen

    2008-03-01

    A series of tri- and tetra-substituted naphthalene diimides have been designed and synthesized. Several compounds show exceptional affinity for telomeric G-quadruplex DNA in classical and competition FRET assays and SPR studies. They inhibit telomerase in the TRAP assay, and show potent senescence-based short-term anti-proliferative effects on MCF7 and A549 cancer cell lines, and localize in the nucleus and particularly the nucleolus of MCF7 cells.

  14. Pornography is No Substitute for Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Shane

    1998-01-01

    Presents one educator's opinions on the use of computers in foreign-language instruction, as well as in other areas of life in general. He suggests that computers, and particularly CD-ROMs, can be very useful in helping to instruct students, but they are no substitute for one-on-one interactions between students and teachers and should be kept in…

  15. Synthesis of enantiopure 3-substituted morpholines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornholdt, Jan; Felding, Jakob; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard

    2010-01-01

    Enantiopure 3-substituted morpholines were assembled through ring-opening of a N-2-benzothiazolesulfonyl (Bts) activated aziridine with organocuprates followed by a ring annulation reaction with a vinylsulfonium salt under microwave conditions. Deprotection of the N-Bts group proceeds under very...

  16. Facile Synthesis of N -Substituted Benzimidazoles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurhade, Santosh; Rossetti, Arianna; Dömling, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A particularly mild and efficient one-pot synthesis of N-substituted benzimidazole derivatives was developed. 2-Fluoro-5-nitrophenylisocyanide reacts with a diverse set of primary amines to afford the respective products in moderate to very good yield (35-95%; 20 examples).

  17. Synthesis and electrochemical studies of phenylazo substituted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 112; Issue 6. Synthesis and electrochemical studies of phenylazo substituted tetraaza macrocyclic complexes of Ni(II). Randhir Singh Suresh Kumar Amarendra Bhattacharya. Inorganic and Analytical Volume 112 Issue 6 December 2000 pp 601-605 ...

  18. Electromagnetic properties of nanocrystalline Al substituted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    substituted MgCuMn ferrites make them find applications in microwave devices, such as circulators and isolators etc. The applicability of ... sis [3], gas sensors [4], drug delivery [5] and hyperthermia. [6]. The general formula for spinel .... dependence, thus obeying the Vegard's law [15], as given in table 1. The above variation ...

  19. Transparency, Prices and Welfare with Imperfect Substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Potters, J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Markets that are not completely transparent feature complex comparative statics with respect to the effect of number of firms, elasticity of substitution between goods and degree of transparency on equilibrium prices.The main result is that the following 'common wisdom' is incorrect: more

  20. Electrical characterization of zirconium substituted barium titanate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    multilayer capacitors, thermistors and other devices owing to their high dielectric constant. The substitution of ... ionic or mixed electronic–ionic materials and even insula- tors (Macdonald 1987). The resultant ..... Buchanan R C 1991 Principles of electronic ceramics (New York: Marcel Dekker) p. 250. Clarke R and Burfoot ...

  1. Preclinical evaluation of injectable bone substitute materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongio, M.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Jansen, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Injectable bone substitutes (IBSs) represent an attractive class of ready-to-use biomaterials, both ceramic- and polymer-based, as they offer the potential benefit of minimally invasive surgery and optimal defect filling. Although in vitro assessments are the first step in the process of

  2. Electrochemical oxidation of substituted benzylamines in aquo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrochemical oxidation of nine para- and meta-substituted benzylamines in varying mole fractions of acetic acid in water has been investigated in the presence of 0.1 M sulphuric acid as supporting electrolyte. The oxidation potentials correlate well with Hammett's substituent constants affording negative reaction ...

  3. Synthesis and biological activities of substituted N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... The present study describes the synthesis, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of substituted N'- benzoylhydrazone ... these derivatives possess promising antioxidant and antibacterial activities, which can be explored for generating new ...... triazole and their divalent nickel complexes. Synth. React. Inorg ...

  4. Photodimerization in pyrimidine-substituted dipeptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Brian; Ramanujam, P.S.; Hvilsted, Søren

    2005-01-01

    was compared in aqueous solution: it was dependent on the substitution of the pyrimidine ring. N-alpha,N-alpha'-bis-(uracil-1-ylacetyl)-(N-epsilon-glycylomithineamide) and N-alpha,N-alpha'-bis-(5-bromouracil-1-ylacetyl)-(N-epsilon-glycylomithineamide) were identified as possible candidates for optical data...

  5. Five Strategies to Enhance Your Substitute Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, Jeanie; Donihoo, John; Cox, Tanisha

    2008-01-01

    Skillful substitute teachers are critical to student achievement, especially in today's high-stakes accountability environment. Because teachers are absent from duty, some for short periods of time and others for lengthy time frames, schools may find it difficult to meet high academic and accountability standards without prepared substitute…

  6. 40 CFR 721.1805 - Substituted bisaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 721.1805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted bisaniline (PMN P-96-1410) is... part apply to this section except as modified by this paragraph. (1) Recordkeeping. Recordkeeping...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1568 - Substituted benzenediazonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 721.1568 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted benzenediazonium... subpart A of this part apply to this section except as modified by this paragraph. (1) Recordkeeping...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1900 - Substituted bromothiophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 721.1900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted bromothiophene (P-83-769) is... this section except as modified by this paragraph. (1) Recordkeeping. The following recordkeeping...

  9. Cadmium substituted high permeability lithium ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    action becomes weaker than the B–B interaction. This disturbs the parallel arrangement of spin magnetic moments on B-site paving way for canted spins. Zn2+ and Cd2+ substituted ferrites have showed similar type of canting behaviour above a certain limit of their contents. The compositional variation of initial permeability.

  10. Substitution of academically trained by other manpower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractSubstitution von Akademikern durch andere ArbeitskrÄfte. — Dieser Aufsatz berichtet über SchÄtzungen von verschiedenen Autoren über die SubstitutionselastizitÄt zwischen hochqualifizierten (meist akademisch ausgebildeten) und anderen ArbeitskrÄften und befaβt sich mit den möglichen

  11. Substitution between cars within the household

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borger, B.; Mulalic, I.; Rouwendal, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate - for each car owned by the household

  12. Economic implications on management earnings of substituting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic implications on management earnings of substituting traditional for improved cassava varieties in mix cropping farms in Cross River State. ... A sample of one thousand heads of farms family household across the State were interviewed and their records obtained were analysed following the residual claimant ...

  13. 19 CFR 4.99 - Forms; substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... forms so printed: (1) Conform to the official Customs forms in wording arrangement, style, size of type... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forms; substitution. 4.99 Section 4.99 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  14. Additive and Substitutive Borrowing against Semantic Broadening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thrust of this paper lies on semantic changes associated with additive and substitutive borrowing in Bantu-speaking communities in Tanzania. Due to contact of languages, semantic differences of the terms related to architectural structures emanate. Apart from data from a few elderly native speakers, research was ...

  15. Scientific Letter: Homemade heroin substitute causing hallucinations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: Homemade heroin substitute causing hallucinations. TI Lemon. Abstract. No Abstracts. African Journal of Psychiatry • November 2013, 16(6). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajpsy.v16i6.51.

  16. 3-Substituted 2-phenyl-indoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Karl Henrik; Jørgensen, T.B.; Gloriam, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    -indoles with a variety of substituents at the indole 3-position. Herein we describe the development of optimised and efficient synthetic routes to a series of new 2-phenyl-indole building blocks 3 to 9 and show that these can be used to generate a broad variety of 3-substituted 2-phenyl-indoles of interest to medicinal...

  17. Towards hemerythrin-based blood substitutes: Comparative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 36; Issue 2. Towards hemerythrin-based blood substitutes: Comparative performance to hemoglobin on human leukocytes and umbilical vein endothelial cells. Eva Fischer-Fodor Augustin Mot Florina Deac Mariann Arkosi Radu Silaghi-Dumitrescu. Brief communication ...

  18. Gd-substituted Bi-2223 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Various researchers, who have studied the effect of doping in Bi-based high-Tc superconductors, seem to ... mum temperature for the sintering of the complete series of gadolinium-substituted. (BiPb)-2223 specimens. ..... support (senior research fellowship) and facilities for the work to be carried out. References. [1] V P S ...

  19. Fossil Fuels, Backstop Technologies, and Imperfect Substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meijden, G.C.; Pittel, Karen; van der Ploeg, Frederick; Withagen, Cees

    2014-01-01

    This chapter studies the transition from fossil fuels to backstop technologies in a general equilibrium model in which growth is driven by research and development. The analysis generalizes the existing literature by allowing for imperfect substitution between fossil fuels and the new energy

  20. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Kevin; Riedel, Marco; Eichert, Helmut

    For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  1. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrader Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  2. Consumers' perception of generic substitution in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Nazila; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Peiravian, Farzad; NourMohammadi, Samaneh

    2015-06-01

    The growth of pharmaceutical expenditure and patients' out of pocket has motivated policy makers to encourage patients to substitution of brands medicines with their generic alternatives called generic substitution. As the patients are final decision makers to accept generic substitution, the aim of this study is to evaluate the patient perception about generic medicines and underlying factors which can promote the generic acceptance. The study was done in community pharmacies in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. A cross-sectional descriptive study inviting people purchasing their drug at community pharmacies were per-formed using a self-administrated anonymous questionnaire (N=1309). Besides the demographic section, 16 items of developed questionnaire were categorized to five main factors including: patients' perception about efficiency, safety and cost of generic medicines, patient trust on physicians and pharmacists' advice. Findings of completed questionnaires showed among the aforementioned factors the physician has the first priority to encourage patients to use of generics medicines which followed respectively by pharmacist's role, cost of medicines, efficacy, and safety concerns. In conclusion, the trust of Iranian's society on the physicians and pharmacists advice would create a credible opportunity to reduce pharmaceutical expenditures as well as patients' out of pocket by promotion of generic substitution.

  3. Dodecatungstocobaltate and Sn (IV)-Substituted Polyoxometalate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    because of their unique reactivity, which depends on the compo- sition and structure of the active sites.9 Substituted ... molybdate and sodium tungstate were obtained from Merck and Co(OAc)2.4H2O and potassium persulfate ... The sodium salt was then converted to the potassium salt by treatment with potassium chloride.

  4. chromic transitions in phenyl-substituted polythiophenes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The solvatochromic and thermochromic behaviours of phenyl-substituted polythiophenes were studied. The pristine polymers, upon dissolution in chloroform, exhibited blue-shifted absorption. The solid films of the polymers showed significant blue-shifted as well as red-shifted absorptions when heated. While the addition of ...

  5. Regioselective synthesis and preliminary cytotoxic activity properties of tetrazole appendage N-substituted piperazine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommula Dileep

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1-(4-substituted-4-(3-((1-(substituted-1H-tetrazol-5-ylthiopropylpiperazine derivatives were ( 6a-t synthesized by KF-Al2O3 mediated S-alkylation of 5-thio-substituted tetrazole with 1-(3-chloropropyl-4-(4-substitutedpiperazine. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by NMR and MS spectral data. Further, the regioselective formation of C-S bond was unambiguously confirmed by single crystal X- ray diffraction. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro cytotoxic activities against two cancer cell lines: DU-145 (prostate cancer and HeLa (cervical cancer. These cell lines were utilized in MTT assays and the obtained results were compared to doxorubicin, and their IC 50 values were determined. Among the compounds tested, 6f, 6j, 6m, 6n, 6o, 6q, 6r and 6t showed considerable potent activity, while the compound 6p exhibited significant potent activity against DU-145 and HeLa cancer cell lines compare to standard Doxorubicin.

  6. Peripheral intravenous line - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIV - infants; Peripheral IV - infants; Peripheral line - infants; Peripheral line - neonatal ... A peripheral intravenous line (PIV) is a small, short, plastic tube, called a catheter. A health care provider puts the PIV through the ...

  7. Sewer Main Pipe Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a line feature dataset with lines across the island of Guam. These lines represent the sewer mains that carry refuse to the sewer plants for processing and...

  8. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Ralf

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP, who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a

  9. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Ingo Ilja; Stöver, Heino; Gerlach, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP), who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years) and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a history of substitution

  10. [The substitution effect of leadership substitutes for transformational leadership in nursing organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hee

    2006-04-01

    This paper was conducted to examine the effects of transformational leadership behaviors, within the substitutes for leadership model (Kerr & Jermier, 1978). Data was collected from 181 staff nurses in 3 general hospitals, with self-reporting questionnaires (MLQ developed by Bass, rd-SLS developed by Podsakoff, et al., and MSQ developed by Weiss, et al.). Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha and moderated regression analysis were used. 1) The transformational leader behaviors and substitutes for leadership each had correlations with job satisfaction. 2) The total amount of variance accounted for by the substitutes for leadership was substantially greater than by the transformational leadership behaviors. 3) Few of the substitutes variables moderated the relationships between the transformational leader behaviors and job satisfaction in a manner consistent with that specified by Howell, Dorfman, and Kerr (1986). The finding of this study suggest that leaders need to have a better understanding of those contextual variables that influence job satisfaction. Thus future research should focus attention on the moderating effects of substitutes, as well as the things that leaders can do to influence them. In addition, it may be good to examine the effects of substitutes on other criterion variables.

  11. Hockey lines for simulation-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topps, David; Ellaway, Rachel; Kupsh, Christine

    2015-06-01

    Simulation-based health professional education is often limited in accommodating large numbers of students. Most organisations do not have enough simulation suites or staff to support growing demands. We needed to find ways to make simulation sessions more accommodating for larger groups of learners, so that more than a few individuals could be active in a simulation scenario at any one time. Moreover, we needed to make the experience meaningful for all participating learners. We used the metaphor of (ice) hockey lines and substitution 'on the fly' to effectively double the numbers of learners that can be actively engaged at once. Team players must communicate clearly, and observe keenly, so that currently playing members understand what is happening from moment to moment and incoming substitutes can take over their roles seamlessly. Most organisations do not have enough simulation suites or staff to support growing demands We found that this hockey lines approach to simulation-based team scenarios will raise learners' levels of engagement, reinforce good crew resource management (CRM) practices, enhance closed-loop communication, and help learners to understand their cognitive biases and limitations when working in high-pressure situations. During our continuing refinement of the hockey-lines approach, we developed a number of variations on the basic activity model, with various benefits and applications. Both students and teachers have been enthusiastically positive about this approach when it was introduced at our various courses and participating institutions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Pervasive adaptive protein evolution apparent in diversity patterns around amino acid substitutions in Drosophila simulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Sattath

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, multiple lines of evidence converge in suggesting that beneficial substitutions to the genome may be common. All suffer from confounding factors, however, such that the interpretation of the evidence-in particular, conclusions about the rate and strength of beneficial substitutions-remains tentative. Here, we use genome-wide polymorphism data in D. simulans and sequenced genomes of its close relatives to construct a readily interpretable characterization of the effects of positive selection: the shape of average neutral diversity around amino acid substitutions. As expected under recurrent selective sweeps, we find a trough in diversity levels around amino acid but not around synonymous substitutions, a distinctive pattern that is not expected under alternative models. This characterization is richer than previous approaches, which relied on limited summaries of the data (e.g., the slope of a scatter plot, and relates to underlying selection parameters in a straightforward way, allowing us to make more reliable inferences about the prevalence and strength of adaptation. Specifically, we develop a coalescent-based model for the shape of the entire curve and use it to infer adaptive parameters by maximum likelihood. Our inference suggests that ∼13% of amino acid substitutions cause selective sweeps. Interestingly, it reveals two classes of beneficial fixations: a minority (approximately 3% that appears to have had large selective effects and accounts for most of the reduction in diversity, and the remaining 10%, which seem to have had very weak selective effects. These estimates therefore help to reconcile the apparent conflict among previously published estimates of the strength of selection. More generally, our findings provide unequivocal evidence for strongly beneficial substitutions in Drosophila and illustrate how the rapidly accumulating genome-wide data can be leveraged to address enduring questions about the genetic basis

  13. 19 CFR 351.521 - Import substitution subsidies. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Import substitution subsidies. 351.521 Section 351... COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.521 Import substitution subsidies. ...

  14. Reductive Heck Reactions of N-Methyl-substituted Tricyclic Imides

    OpenAIRE

    Gokce Goksu; Nuket Ocal; Dieter E. Kaufmann

    2010-01-01

    The palladium-catalyzed hydroarylation of N-methyl-substituted tricyclic imides was studied in order to find a new stereoselective access to a series of new exo-aryl(hetaryl)-substituted tricyclic N-methylimides.

  15. An Exploration of Substitutes for Leadership: Problems and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Yu-Chi

    2010-01-01

    Despite the conceptual premise of Kerr and Jermier's (1978) substitutes for leadership model, there has been little evidence of empirical support when substitutes for leadership are modeled as interactions with leader behaviors...

  16. The Synthesis of Substituted Piperazine-cholesterol Conjugates for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    , a set of cholesteryl derivatives, containing piperazines substituted with additional aromatic groups, were synthesized. (Table 2). These included the pyridine substituted piperazines. (6k) and (6l), as well as the 2-pyrimidine (6m). Of note is that.

  17. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  18. Abstract Line Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevinskas, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a unit on the exploration of line. The unit was composed of two individual line lessons. In the first lesson, students were introduced to line as an element of design. They were asked to describe different types of lines, and look for them in art reproductions. The second lesson in the unit involved painting…

  19. Buffer substitution in malaria rapid diagnostic tests causes false-positive results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Ende Jef

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are kits that generally include 20 to 25 test strips or cassettes, but only a single buffer vial. In field settings, laboratory staff occasionally uses saline, distilled water (liquids for parenteral drugs dilution or tap water as substitutes for the RDT kit's buffer to compensate for the loss of a diluent bottle. The present study assessed the effect of buffer substitution on the RDT results. Methods Twenty-seven RDT brands were run with EDTA-blood samples of five malaria-free subjects, who were negative for rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibodies. Saline, distilled water and tap water were used as substitute liquids. RDTs were also run with distilled water, without adding blood. Results were compared to those obtained with the RDT kit's buffer and Plasmodium positive samples. Results Only eight cassettes (in four RDT brands showed no control line and were considered invalid. Visible test lines occurred for at least one malaria-free sample and one of the substitutes in 20/27 (74% RDT brands (saline: n = 16; distilled water: n = 17; and tap water: n = 20, and in 15 RDTs which were run with distilled water only. They occurred for all Plasmodium antigens and RDT formats (two-, three- and four-band RDTs. Clearance of the background of the strip was excellent except for saline. The aspects (colour, intensity and crispness of the control and the false-positive test lines were similar to those obtained with the RDT kits' buffer and Plasmodium positive samples. Conclusion Replacement of the RDT kit's dedicated buffer by saline, distilled water and tap water can cause false-positive test results.

  20. Preparation and characterization of selenite substituted hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Yanhua; Zhou, Lei [Advance Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Shengmin, E-mail: caltary@gmail.com [Advance Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); China-Korea Center for Biomaterials and Nano-biotechnology, Life Science Building, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-01-01

    Selenite-substituted hydroxyapatite (Se-HA) with different Se/P ratios was synthesized by a co-precipitation method, using sodium selenite (Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 3}) as a Se source. Selenium has been incorporated into the hydroxyapatite lattice by partially replacing phosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) groups with selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques reveal that substitutions of phosphate groups by selenite groups cause lower carbonate groups occupying at phosphate sites and change the lattice parameters of hydroxyapatite. The powders obtained are nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite when the Se/P ratios are not more than 0.1. The particle shape of Se-HA has not been altered compared with selenite-free hydroxyapatite but Se-incorporation reduces the crystallite size. The crystallinity was reduced as the Se/P ratios increased until amorphous phase (Se/P = 0.3) appeared in the Se-HA powder obtained, and then another crystal phase presented as calcium selenite hydrate (Se/P = 10). In addition, the sintering tests show that the Se-HA powders with the Se/P ratio of 0.1 have thermal stability at 900 Degree-Sign C for 2 h; hence they have great potential in the fabrication of bone repair scaffolds. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the Se/P ratio for the synthesis of selenium substituted HA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-crystalline HA structure is remained when Se/P ratio is below 0.1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcium selenite hydrate forms when Se/P ratio is beyond 10. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Selenite substituted HA powders (Se/P < 0.1) are stable at 900 Degree-Sign C for 2 h.

  1. Synthesis of 2-azetidinones substituted quinoline derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashelkar Uday C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetanilide is converted into 2-chloro-3-formyl quinoline by reacting with DMF-POCl3 at 80-90ºC and then condensed with aromatic primary amines to give Schiff bases (3a-3c. These Schiff bases are then reacted with acid chlorides in the presence of base in toluene to give 1, 3, 4-substituted 2-azetidinones.

  2. GROUNDNUT SUBSTITUTE MEDIA FOR BACTERIOLOGICAL CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Saroj; Hemina; Praveg

    2014-01-01

    : BACKGROUND: In the developing countries manual methods are still used for the cultivation of the bacteria and many a times difficulties are involved in procuring suitable components for preparation of various nutrient media. The need has therefore arisen, to investigate the problem of exploitation of indigenous material such as groundnuts to substitute commercial preparations used in the various nutrient media for bacteriological culture. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: In the presen...

  3. Cell seeding chamber for bone graft substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Hennig, J.; Schieker, Matthias; Seitz, H.

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for bone graft substitutes that are used as osteoconductive scaffolds in the treatment of bone defects and fractures. Achieving optimal bone regeneration requires initial cell seeding of the scaffolds prior to implantation. The cell seeding chamber is a closed assembly. It works like a sandglass. The position of the scaffold is between two reservoirs containing the fluid (e. g. blood). The fluid at the upper reservoir flows through the scaffold driven by gravity....

  4. Synthesis of 2-azetidinones substituted coumarin derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha Mukesh S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Naphthol is converted into 4-methylbenzo[h]chromen-2-one by reacting with ethyl acetoacetate in the presence of bismuth trichloride which is then oxidized to 2-oxo-2H-benzo[h]chromene-4-carbaldehyde and then condensed with aromatic primary amines to give Schiff bases (3a-3d. These Schiff bases are then reacted with acid chlorides in the presence of base in toluene to give 1, 3, 4-substituted 2-azetidinones.

  5. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86... Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The residue cargo procedure applies when an airline must substitute aircraft to reach a destination due to weather conditions or operational factors which prevent an aircraft...

  6. (N-Substituted-Anilino)-8-Hydroxyquinolines via Hartwig-Buchwald ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Three novel 5-(N-substituted-anilino)-8-benzyloxyquinoline derivatives were efficiently synthe- sized via Hartwig–Buchwald amination reaction. The new 5-(N-substituted-anilino)-8-benzyloxyquinolines were reduced for 1–3 h to give the corresponding 5-(N-substituted-anilino)-8-hydroxyquinolines. Extending the.

  7. 17 CFR 10.32 - Substitution of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of parties. 10.32... Parties and Limited Participation § 10.32 Substitution of parties. Upon motion and for good cause shown the Administrative Law Judge may order a substitution of parties. ...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1925 - Substituted carboheterocyclic butane tetracarboxylate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted carboheterocyclic butane... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1925 Substituted carboheterocyclic butane tetracarboxylate (generic). (a... generically as substituted carboheterocyclic butane tetracarboxylate (PMNs P-90-440 and P-95-4) is subject to...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3435 - Butoxy-substituted ether alkane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butoxy-substituted ether alkane. 721... Substances § 721.3435 Butoxy-substituted ether alkane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as butoxy-substituted ether alkane...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4365 - Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4365 Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical... as Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (PMN P-99-0313) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. Substitute Addiction: A Concern for Researchers and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.

    2008-01-01

    An understanding of the role of substitute addictions remains unclear. This article examines the range and possible reward functions of substitute addictions. We suggest that prevention education and treatment need to take into account substitute addictions as an influential aspect of recovery. Research is needed to better understand the…

  12. 40 CFR 203.5 - Suitable substitute decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suitable substitute decision. 203.5... PROGRAMS LOW-NOISE-EMISSION PRODUCTS § 203.5 Suitable substitute decision. (a) If the Administrator... decide whether such product is a suitable substitute for any class or model or product being purchased by...

  13. 34 CFR 361.14 - Substitute State agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substitute State agency. 361.14 Section 361.14... Substitute State agency. (a) General provisions. (1) If the Secretary has withheld all funding from a State under § 361.11, the State may designate another agency to substitute for the designated State agency in...

  14. 12 CFR 27.6 - Substitute monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substitute monitoring program. 27.6 Section 27... DATA SYSTEM § 27.6 Substitute monitoring program. The recordkeeping provisions of § 27.3 constitute a substitute monitoring program as authorized under § 202.13(d) of Regulation B of the Federal Reserve Board...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2527 - Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2527 Substituted diphenylazo dye (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... substituted diphenylazo dye (PMN P-95-514) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  16. 40 CFR 721.320 - Acrylamide-substituted epoxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylamide-substituted epoxy. 721.320... Substances § 721.320 Acrylamide-substituted epoxy. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylamide-substituted epoxy (PMN P-92-660...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721... Substances § 721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted azo metal complex...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10118 - Substituted aryl acetonitrile (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted aryl acetonitrile (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10118 Substituted aryl acetonitrile (generic). (a) Chemical substance... substituted aryl acetonitrile (PMN P-05-35) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3565 - Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3565 Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance... ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt (PMN P-97-328) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1259 - Cocoa butter substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute. 184.1259 Section 184.1259... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1259 Cocoa butter substitute. (a) The common or usual name for the triglyceride 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-stearin is “cocoa butter substitute primarily...

  1. Interfuel substitution in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos; Vasetsky, Olexandr [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Timilsina, Govinda R. [Development Research Group, The World Bank, 1818 H Street N.W., Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we use the locally flexible translog functional form to investigate the demand for energy and interfuel substitution in the United States and to provide a comparison of our results with most of the existing empirical energy demand literature. Motivated by the widespread practice of ignoring theoretical regularity, we follow Barnett's (2002) suggestions and estimate the model subject to theoretical regularity, using methods developed by Diewert and Wales (1987) and Ryan and Wales (2000), in an attempt to produce inference consistent with neoclassical microeconomic theory. Moreover, we use the most recent data, published by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), and in addition to investigating interfuel substitution possibilities in total U.S. energy demand, we follow Serletis et al. (2009) and also examine interfuel substitution possibilities in energy demand by sector. Moreover, we test for weak separability, with the objective of discovering the structure of the functional form in total energy demand as well as energy demand by sector. (author)

  2. Intersection Type Systems and Explicit Substitutions Calculi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Daniel Lima; Ayala-Rincón, Mauricio; Kamareddine, Fairouz

    The λ-calculus with de Bruijn indices, called λ dB , assembles each α-class of λ-terms into a unique term, using indices instead of variable names. Intersection types provide finitary type polymorphism satisfying important properties like principal typing, which allows the type system to include features such as data abstraction (modularity) and separate compilation. To be closer to computation and to simplify the formalisation of the atomic operations involved in β-contractions, several explicit substitution calculi were developed most of which are written with de Bruijn indices. Although untyped and simply types versions of explicit substitution calculi are well investigated, versions with more elaborate type systems (e.g., with intersection types) are not. In previous work, we presented a version for λ dB of an intersection type system originally introduced to characterise principal typings for β-normal forms and provided the characterisation for this version. In this work we introduce intersection type systems for two explicit substitution calculi: the λσ and the λs e . These type system are based on a type system for λ dB and satisfy the basic property of subject reduction, which guarantees the preservation of types during computations.

  3. Community LINE Source Model (C-LINE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides an introduction for the live demo and explains the purpose of C-LINE and its key features. C-LINE is a web-based model designed to inform the community user of local air quality impacts due to mobile-sources in their region of interest using a simplifie...

  4. The impact of generic substitution on price competition in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto-Setälä, Ville

    2008-05-01

    Generic substitution by pharmacists was introduced in April 2003 in Finnish pharmaceutical markets. This article examines the impact of generic substitution on price development. This study examined all of the 2,100 substitutable drugs in Finland. The impact of generic substitution on price competition was significant. The average price of substitutable drugs decreased by more than 10%. However, the price development was uneven; some prices increased whereas others decreased by more than 50%. The most important factors that influenced the price development were the number of competitors, whether the drug was originator or generic and the width of the price band.

  5. Nuclear reactor overflow line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, Wayne J.

    1976-01-01

    The overflow line for the reactor vessel of a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor includes means for establishing and maintaining a continuous bleed flow of coolant amounting to 5 to 10% of the total coolant flow through the overflow line to prevent thermal shock to the overflow line when the reactor is restarted following a trip. Preferably a tube is disposed concentrically just inside the overflow line extending from a point just inside the reactor vessel to an overflow tank and a suction line is provided opening into the body of liquid metal in the reactor vessel and into the annulus between the overflow line and the inner tube.

  6. Differences in the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine by human lymphoblastoid cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, E.E.; Strauss, B.

    1975-08-01

    Long term human lymphoblastoid lines differ in their ability to grow in medium containing bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and to incorporate analog into their DNA. Eight Burkitts' lymphoma cell lines divided at least twice in BrdU-containing medium and made DNA in which over 90 percent of the thymidine residues were substituted with analog in both strands. Three infectious mononucleosis-derived lines and 24 lines transformed in vitro were inhibited by BrdU after one cell division and made only hybrid DNA in which one strand was substituted with analog. One out of eight normal individuals from whom long term lines were prepared gave cell lines which divided at least twice in BrdU and gave DNA in which both strands were substituted with analog. It would appear that intrinsic cellular factors regulate the response to BrdU and that Burkitt's tumor lines are characterized by their ability to make stable doubly substituted DNA containing a high proportion of halogenated analog.

  7. Genomics and blood substitutes for 21st century Europe ("EuroBloodSubstitutes").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Kenneth C

    2006-01-01

    Blood transfusion is a medical intervention practised throughout the world. Blood is a biologically active material that can transmit diseases (e.g., HIV/AIDS and, perhaps, vCJD). People are becoming increasingly concerned about blood safety, despite improved screening and processing. Consequently, they are reluctant to donate blood or receive transfusions. Such problems can be solved by the development and incorporation into transfusion practices of so-called "blood substitutes" to replace some blood uses. The EuroBloodSubstitutes Project is funded by the European Union Framework 6 Programme to develop a technological platform for producing novel haem proteins and blood substitute components using micro-organisms (bacteria, fungi, yeast) as "cell factories." The Project will focus on bacteria (Escherichia coli), yeast (Pichia pastoris) and, longer-term, filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger), all organisms used to synthesize commercially important products. The multi-centre Consortium consists of the Universities of (1) Nottingham (UK), (2) Essex (UK), (3) Denmark Technical (Denmark), (4) Lund (Sweden), (5) Milan (Italy), (6) Nancy (France), (7) Parma (Italy), (8) Rome "La Sapienza" (Italy), (9) Semmelweis (Hungary), together with (10) Alligator Bioscience, AB (Sweden), (11) LCC Engineering & Trading GmbH (Switzerland), (12) Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service (UK), and (13) Sanquin Bloodbank (The Netherlands). The EuroBloodSubstitutes Project will be informed by lay and professional stakeholders (e.g., clinicians, blood donors, patient groups, prescribers and policy makers). Outcomes of the Project are (1) the production of an information pack, decision aids and physician training aids, giving balanced overviews of the benefits and risks of transfusion of blood or potential substitutes, and (2) an interactive web site (http//:www.eurobloodsubstitutes.com) for information dissemination. This will improve knowledge and address misunderstandings about

  8. VT Electric Transmission Line Corridors - corridor lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The ELTRN layer depicts electric transmission line corridors in Vermont. Various methods have been used to digitize features. The data layer...

  9. Lined canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    This work evaluates the lining history of the Danish Golden Age collection of canvas paintings from the nineteenths century at SMK, The National Gallery of Denmark, and seeks to understand the moisture sensitivity of the paintings before and after lining. This is done by chemical analysis...... and tensile testing samples from the tacking edges as well as lined mock-up samples. The ability of the different lining techniques to support canvas paintings is evaluated in terms of their initial stretching and during fluctuations of relative humidity. Six different combinations of lining adhesives...... and textiles were examined. These included the adhesives Beva 371, Plextol D360, wax-resin, and glue-paste. The lining textiles were linen and polyester sailcloth. A naturally aged canvas painting and a modern painting were lined using these materials and methods. Testing of the lined paintings included uni...

  10. Peripheral arterial line (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A peripheral arterial line is a small, short plastic catheter placed through the skin into an artery of the arm or leg. The purpose of a peripheral arterial line is to allow continuous monitoring of blood pressure ...

  11. Annonaceae substitution rates: a codon model perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Willem Chatrou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Annonaceae includes cultivated species of economic interest and represents an important source of information for better understanding the evolution of tropical rainforests. In phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data that are used to address evolutionary questions, it is imperative to use appropriate statistical models. Annonaceae are cases in point: Two sister clades, the subfamilies Annonoideae and Malmeoideae, contain the majority of Annonaceae species diversity. The Annonoideae generally show a greater degree of sequence divergence compared to the Malmeoideae, resulting in stark differences in branch lengths in phylogenetic trees. Uncertainty in how to interpret and analyse these differences has led to inconsistent results when estimating the ages of clades in Annonaceae using molecular dating techniques. We ask whether these differences may be attributed to inappropriate modelling assumptions in the phylogenetic analyses. Specifically, we test for (clade-specific differences in rates of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions. A high ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions may lead to similarity of DNA sequences due to convergence instead of common ancestry, and as a result confound phylogenetic analyses. We use a dataset of three chloroplast genes (rbcL, matK, ndhF for 129 species representative of the family. We find that differences in branch lengths between major clades are not attributable to different rates of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions. The differences in evolutionary rate between the major clades of Annonaceae pose a challenge for current molecular dating techniques that should be seen as a warning for the interpretation of such results in other organisms.

  12. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of novel limonene derivatives with a substituted thiourea moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Isis M.; Santos, Luciane V. dos; Costa, Willian F. da; Silva, Cleuza C. da; Sarragiotto, Maria H. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mhsarragiotto@uem.br; Carvalho, Joao E. de; Sacoman, Juliana L.; Kohn, Luciana K. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas

    2006-09-15

    A series of R-(+)-limonene derivatives bearing a substituted thiourea moiety (3-13) and five S-methyl analogs (14-18) were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines. Compounds bearing aromatic substituents (3-6) exhibit cytostatic activity in the full panel of cell lines tested, with GI{sub 50} values in the range of 2.5 to 24 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. Compounds 3, 10, 12 and 16 were the most active with GI{sub 5})0 values in the range of 0.41 to 3.0 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, against different cell lines. (author)

  13. Proapoptotic modification of substituted isoindolinones as MDM2-p53 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoreva, Tatyana A; Novikova, Daria S; Petukhov, Alexey V; Gureev, Maxim A; Garabadzhiu, Alexander V; Melino, Gerry; Barlev, Nickolai A; Tribulovich, Vyacheslav G

    2017-12-01

    A series of novel amino acid ester derivatives of 2,3-substituted isoindolinones was synthesized and evaluated for p53-mediated apoptotic activity. The rationale for augmentation of the target activity of 2,3-substituted isoindolinones was based on the introduction of new fragments in the structure of the inhibitor that would provide additional binding sites in the hydrophobic cavity of MDM2. To select for the anticipated modifications we employed molecular docking. Synthesized molecules were evaluated for their ability to induce apoptosis in two cancer cell lines and their derivatives with different status of p53 (colorectal HCT116 and osteosarcoma U2OS cells) by Annexin V staining. The target activity was estimated using high-content imaging system Operetta. Valine and phenylglycine ester derivatives were identified as potentially active MDM2-p53 inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An electrical stimulator for sensory substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mauro C; Kassab, Fuad

    2006-01-01

    This work presents an electrical stimulator system for use in sensory substitution (SS), as a mobility aid for visually handicapped people. The whole system passes visual information via cutaneous stimulation, and consists of a webcam, a PC, dedicated hardware to generate stimuli and a 15 x 20 electrode matrix. The same system can also be used in psycophysical and somesthesic research, or even for SS of deaf people, by changing the input signal from a camera to a microphone, and adapting its control software. Circuits for pixel addressing, for signal generation and for switching are described, as well as the software involved in generating a pulse train, which configures the stimuli patterns.

  15. CMP substitutions preferentially inhibit polysialic acid synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Tatsuo; Angata, Kiyohiko; Seeberger, Peter H.; Hindsgaul, Ole; Fukuda, Minoru

    2007-01-01

    It is widely reported that derivatives of sugar moieties can be used to metabolically label cell surface carbohydrates or inhibit a particular glycosylation. However, few studies address the effect of substitution of the cytidylmonophosphate (CMP) portion on sialyltransferase activities. Here we first synthesized 2′-O-methyl CMP and 5-methyl CMP and then asked if these CMP derivatives are recognized by α2,3-sialyltransferases (ST3Gal-III and ST3Gal-IV), α2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal-I), and ...

  16. Synthesis of Substituted 2-Pyridyl-4-phenylquinolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cam Tat

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The acid-catalyzed condensation of o-aminobenzophenones with aromatic acetyl derivatives, in a basic methanol/tetrahydrofuran medium, has been used to prepare a series of substituted 2-pyridyl-4-phenylquinolines. Derivatives having two aza binding sites can act as asymmetric bidendate ligands to complex transition metals such as ruthenium, osmium or iridium. All the compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, Ei or FAB (+ MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopies. Complete assignments of the 1H spectra were accomplished by using a combination of one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques.

  17. Fluid vitreous substitutes in vitreo retinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxena Sandeep

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the surgical instrumentation and vitreoretinal techniques have allowed intraoperative reapproximation of retina to a more normal position. The use of intravitreally injected liquid materials (viscoelastic liquids, liquid perfluorocarbons and silicone oil, as adjunctive agents to vitreo-retinal surgery play an important role in facilitating retinal reattachment. These materials are used as intraoperative instruments to re-establish intraocular volume, assist in separating membranes adherent to the retina, manipulate retinal detachments and mechanically flatten detached retina. Over the longer term, silicone oil maintains intraocular tamponade. One should be cognizant of the potential uses, benefits and risks of each of these vitreous substitutes.

  18. Electrophilic phenoxy-substituted phosphonium cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFortune, James H W; Johnstone, Timothy C; Pérez, Manuel; Winkelhaus, Daniel; Podgorny, Vitali; Stephan, Douglas W

    2016-11-15

    A family of electrophilic phenoxy-substituted phosphonium salts [(RO)P(C6F5)3][B(C6F5)4] (R = C6H5, 4-FC6H4, 2,4-F2C6H3, C6F5) have been synthesized and their air stability was evaluated. Computations of the fluoride ion affinity and global electrophilicity index have been used to compare the electrophilicity of these phosphonium salts. The Lewis acidity of these phosphonium salts was probed computationally and experimentally in a Friedel-Crafts-type dimerization, hydrodefluorination, hydrosilylation, hydrodeoxygenation, and dehydrocoupling reactions.

  19. Tracking of wild allele introgressions in a peanut chromosome segment substitution line population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated peanut arose from the hybridization of the diploids Arachis duranensis (A genome progenitor) and Arachis ipaensis (B genome progenitor), followed by spontaneous chromosome doubling to yield the current allotetraploid state (AABB; 2n=4x=40). This genetic heritage, short period since polyp...

  20. From Here to Obscurity?: Media Substitution Theory and Traditional Media in an On-Line World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Barbara K.; Johnson, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an online survey targeted to politically interested users to assess whether traditional media use is decreasing, increasing, or remaining the same since users first started using the Web. Discusses media use gratifications, political attitudes, and demographics, and compares results with a similar study conducted in 1996. (Author/LRW)

  1. Construction of six Oryza sativa x O. rufipogon Chromosome Segment Substitution Line (CSSL) Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgressive variation has been observed in rice (Oryza sativa) as an increase in grain yield and attributed to the ancestral parent, O. rufipogon, in mapping populations developed from several adapted rice varieties crossed with a single O. rufipogon accession. To explore this phenomenon of transg...

  2. Why develop O. sativa x O. rufipogon chromosome segment substitution line libraries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgressive variation has been observed in rice (Oryza sativa) as an increase in grain yield in advanced backcross mapping populations derived from crosses between several adapted O. sativa varieties and a single accession (IRGC105491) of the ancestral parent, O. rufipogon. The phenomena of hybrid...

  3. Homotopic Polygonal Line Simplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lasse Kosetski

    This thesis presents three contributions to the area of polygonal line simplification, or simply line simplification. A polygonal path, or simply a path is a list of points with line segments between the points. A path can be simplified by morphing it in order to minimize some objective function...

  4. Pervasive Adaptive Protein Evolution Apparent in Diversity Patterns around Amino Acid Substitutions in Drosophila simulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattath, Shmuel; Elyashiv, Eyal; Kolodny, Oren; Rinott, Yosef; Sella, Guy

    2011-01-01

    In Drosophila, multiple lines of evidence converge in suggesting that beneficial substitutions to the genome may be common. All suffer from confounding factors, however, such that the interpretation of the evidence—in particular, conclusions about the rate and strength of beneficial substitutions—remains tentative. Here, we use genome-wide polymorphism data in D. simulans and sequenced genomes of its close relatives to construct a readily interpretable characterization of the effects of positive selection: the shape of average neutral diversity around amino acid substitutions. As expected under recurrent selective sweeps, we find a trough in diversity levels around amino acid but not around synonymous substitutions, a distinctive pattern that is not expected under alternative models. This characterization is richer than previous approaches, which relied on limited summaries of the data (e.g., the slope of a scatter plot), and relates to underlying selection parameters in a straightforward way, allowing us to make more reliable inferences about the prevalence and strength of adaptation. Specifically, we develop a coalescent-based model for the shape of the entire curve and use it to infer adaptive parameters by maximum likelihood. Our inference suggests that ∼13% of amino acid substitutions cause selective sweeps. Interestingly, it reveals two classes of beneficial fixations: a minority (approximately 3%) that appears to have had large selective effects and accounts for most of the reduction in diversity, and the remaining 10%, which seem to have had very weak selective effects. These estimates therefore help to reconcile the apparent conflict among previously published estimates of the strength of selection. More generally, our findings provide unequivocal evidence for strongly beneficial substitutions in Drosophila and illustrate how the rapidly accumulating genome-wide data can be leveraged to address enduring questions about the genetic basis of adaptation

  5. Coal to gas substitution using coal?!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; Schlüter, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Substitution of carbon-intensive coal with less carbon-intensive natural gas for energy production is discussed as one main pillar targeting reduction of antrophogenic greenhouse gas emissions by means of climate change mitigation. Other pillars are energy efficiency, renewable energies, carbon capture and storage as well as further development of nuclear energy. Taking into account innovative clean coal technologies such as UCG-CCS (underground coal gasification with carbon capture and storage), in which coal deposits are developed using directional drilling technologies and subsequently converted into a synthesis gas of high calorific value, the coupled conceptual approach can provide a synergetic technology for coal utilization and mitigation of carbon emissions. This study aims at the evaluation of UCǴ s carbon mitigation potentials and the review of the economical boundary conditions. The analytical models applied within this study are based on data available from world-wide UCG projects and extensive laboratory studies. In summary, scenarios considering costs and carbon storage potentials are economically feasible and thus competitive with less carbon-intensive energy generation technologies such as natural gas. Thus, coal to gas substitution can be one of the coal based options.

  6. Pressure-induced polymerization in substituted acetylenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa, Raja S.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Sheffield, Stephen; Robbins, David (LANL)

    2012-04-10

    A fundamental understanding of shock-induced chemical reactions in organics is still lacking and there are limited studies devoted to determining reaction mechanisms, evolution of bonding, and effect of functional group substitutions. The fast timescale of reactions occurring during shock compression create significant experimental challenges (diagnostics) to fully quantify the mechanisms involved. Static compression combined with temperature provides a complementary route to investigate the equilibrium phase space and metastable intermediates under extreme P-T conditions. In this study, we present our results from our ongoing high pressure in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments on substituted acetylenes: tert-butyl acetylene [TBA: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-C=CH] and ethynyl trimethylsilane [ETMS: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-SiC=CH]. We observed that the onset pressure of chemical reactions (at room temperature) in these compounds is higher under static compression (TBA: 12 GPa and ETMS: 17.6 GPa) when compared to shock input pressures (TBA: 6.1 GPa and ETMS: 6.6 GPa). At elevated temperatures, reactivity was observed to occur at pressures comparable to shock conditions. The products were polymeric in nature, recovered to ambient conditions with little degradation.

  7. Challenges in drug discovery for thiazolidinedione substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ping Ye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Thiazolidinedione (TZD is a powerful insulin sensitizer in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. It acts as a ligand to the nuclear receptor PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and induces transcription of PPARγ-responsive genes. TZD controls lipid synthesis and storage in adipose tissue, liver and many other tissues through PPARγ. Derivatives of TZD, such as rosiglitazone (Avandia and pioglitazone (Actos, are more powerful than metformin or berberine in insulin sensitization. Although they have common side effects such as weight gain and edema, these did not influence their clinical application in general. However, recent findings of risk for congestive heart failure and bladder cancer have significantly impaired their future in many countries. European countries have prohibited those drugs, and US will terminate application of rosiglitazone in clinics and hospitals. The multiple country actions may mark the end of TZD era. As a result, there is a strong demand for identification of TZD substitute in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this regard, literature about PPARγ ligands and potential TZD substitute are reviewed in this article. Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor is emphasized as a new class of insulin sensitizer here. Regulators of SIRT1, CREB, NO, p38, ERK and Cdk5 are discussed in the activation of PPARγ.

  8. Bioresorbable scaffold as a dermal substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Lenon; Cleto, Marília Colturato; Barbo, Maria Lourdes Peris; Esposito, Andréa Rodrigues; Orgaes, Flavio Stillitano; Duek, Eliana Aparecida de Rezende

    2017-01-01

    Bioresorbable polymers are often used in medical procedures. Since they are biocompatible, this class of materials is a viable alternative for cases in which tissue regeneration is strongly compromised. Bioresorbable synthetic polymers may be used as membranes to support and guide cell growth through the process of tissue repair. To assess the efficiency of a porous bioresorbable membrane Poly (L-co-DL lactic acid)-co-trimethylene carbonate, PL-co-DLA-co-TMC, as a dermal substitute associated with partial skin graft in rats. A 1.5×1.5 cm defect was created on the backs of 40 Wistar rats. The rats were divided into a control group, in which the defects were filled with partial skin graft, and a treated group, in which a membrane associated with the graft was implemented. The animals were sacrificed 7 days or 60 days after the procedure and the results were evaluated by macroscopic and microscopic analysis. The polymer was biocompatible and allowed better regeneration of the dermis with less shrinkage, unlike what occurs in second intention healing. Compared to the control group, the treated group showed a thicker and wider dermis with the presence of skin appendages, suggesting partial graft integration and better healing. The skin graft acted as a biological protection of the wound. The study material was shown to act as a biocompatible dermal substitute and promoted less scarring of the dermis. Further studies should be conducted to improve the methodology of the surgical procedure.

  9. Engineering blood: synthetic substitutes from fluorinated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Kenneth C

    2003-06-01

    Concerns about blood safety and the logistical problems associated with conventional transfusion have fuelled the search for effective alternatives (so-called blood substitutes). Such materials include hemoglobin derivatives and those based on synthetic, highly fluorinated, inert organic compounds called perfluorochemicals (PFCs). PFCs dissolve large volumes of oxygen and other gases, are unreactive in the body, and are excreted primarily as a vapor by exhalation. Liquid PFCs are immiscible with blood and other body fluids, but can be injected safely into the bloodstream as submicron emulsions. Emulsified PFCs have been evaluated in clinical trials as temporary, intravascular tissue-oxygenating fluids. One such emulsion, a commercial perflubron-based, phospholipid-stabilized formulation, is in advanced clinical trials as an alternative to transfusing donated (allogeneic) blood during surgery. Basic and clinical studies have shown that this emulsion can adequately maintain tissue oxygenation during acute blood loss with no abnormal hemodynamic changes. The use of PFC emulsions as an efficacious, short-term transfusion alternative underpins the longer term objective of producing a totally synthetic, bioengineered blood substitute.

  10. Alloplastic bladder substitution: are we making progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Marco; Gaya, Josep M; Breda, Alberto; Palou, Joan; Villavicencio, Humberto

    2012-10-01

    Radical cystectomy with lymphadenectomy and urinary diversion is the gold standard treatment for bladder cancer in organ-confined muscle-invasive disease and selected patients who have high-grade non-muscle-invasive disease or are non-responders to BCG. The main and most morbid complications of this challenging surgery are related to the use of bowel for urinary tract reconstruction. For this reason, many past projects were devoted to finding an alternative to the use of bowel. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the evolution of alloplastic bladder substitution. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed using the Medline National Library of Medicine database and Google Scholar. Keywords used were cystectomy and intestine/bowel, replacement, bladder substitution, organ replacement, artificial bladder, alloplastic material, biomaterial, and tissue engineering. Various prostheses have been proposed for replacement of the urinary bladder, silicone being the most frequently used material. The first published model of an alloplastic bladder was described by Bogash et al. in late 1959, while the last, in 1996, was suggested by Rohrmann. Interprofessional collaboration, recent advances in technology, and tissue engineering may help in developing suitable bladder prostheses. Urologists as well as engineers and the industry need to give this matter serious attention.

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... effects are for practical purposes irreversible. Users must observe this limitation on PFC acceptability... effects are for practical purposes irreversible. Users must observe this limitation on PFC acceptability...-use Substitute Decision Comments CFC-11 centrifugal chillers (retrofit) HCFC-141b Unacceptable Has a...

  12. Require safer substitutes and solutions: making the substitution principle the cornerstone of sustainable chemical policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Beverley; Rossi, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Currently, chemical regulations in the United States do not prioritize the production and use of inherently safe chemicals. At present, when regulations get passed to target a chemical for control, safer substitutes are not the goal nor are there specific guidelines or tools used to achieve Green Chemistry, Clean Production, or sustainable product design. In most cases, the replacement is often just as hazardous or simply a reduction of the quantity or concentration of the toxic substance that has been targeted. In contrast, by placing the Substitution Principle at the heart of new chemical policies and regulations, hazardous chemicals would be replaced with less hazardous alternatives or preferably alternatives for which no hazards can be identified. This would hasten the uptake of Green Chemistry, or environmentally benign chemical synthesis. Substituting hazardous chemicals goes beyond finding a drop-in chemical alternative and can include systems, materials or process changes. Regulatory drivers include a clear timeline for phase out of priority chemicals based on their inherent hazard, mandatory substitution planning for hazardous chemicals, financial and technical support for companies to find safer materials, and increased funding for green chemistry development and uptake by companies.

  13. Living skin substitutes: survival and function of fibroblasts seeded in a dermal substitute in experimental wounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, E. N.; van Leeuwen, R. T.; Jonker, A.; van Marle, J.; Middelkoop, E.

    1998-01-01

    The healing of full-thickness skin defects requires extensive synthesis and remodeling of dermal and epidermal components. Fibroblasts play an important role in this process and are being incorporated in the latest generation of artificial dermal substitutes. We studied the fate of fibroblasts

  14. Spectroscopic study and astronomical detection of doubly 13C-substituted ethyl cyanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulès, L.; Belloche, A.; Müller, H. S. P.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Garrod, R. T.; Menten, K. M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. We have performed a spectral line survey called Exploring Molecular Complexity with ALMA (EMoCA) toward Sagittarius B2(N) between 84.1 and 114.4 GHz with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in its Cycles 0 and 1. Line intensities of the main isotopic species of ethyl cyanide and its singly 13C-substituted isotopomers observed toward the hot molecular core Sagittarius B2(N2) suggest that the doubly 13C-substituted isotopomers should also be detectable. Aims: We want to determine the spectroscopic parameters of all three doubly 13C-substituted isotopologues of ethyl cyanide to search for them in our ALMA data. Methods: We investigated the laboratory rotational spectra of the three species between 150 GHz and 990 GHz. We searched for emission lines produced by these species in the ALMA spectrum of Sagittarius B2(N2). We modeled their emission and the emission of the 12C and singly 13C-substituted isotopologues assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium. Results: We identified more than 5000 rotational transitions, pertaining to more than 3500 different transition frequencies, in the laboratory for each of the three doubly 13C-substituted isotopomers. The quantum numbers reach J ≈ 115 and Ka ≈ 35, resulting in accurate spectroscopic parameters and accurate rest frequency calculations beyond 1000 GHz for strong to moderately weak transitions of either isotopomer. All three species are unambiguously detected in our ALMA data. The 12C/13C column density ratio of the isotopomers with one 13C atom to those with two 13C atoms is about 25. Conclusions: Ethyl cyanide is the second molecule after methyl cyanide for which isotopologues containing two 13C atoms have been securely detected in the interstellar medium. The model of our ethyl cyanide data suggests that we should be able to detect vibrational satellites of the main species up to at least ν19 = 1 at ~1130 K and up to ν13 + ν21 = 2 at ~600 K for the isotopologues with one 13C atom in

  15. M184I/V substitutions and E138K/M184I/V double substitutions in HIV reverse transcriptase do not significantly affect the antiviral activity of EFdA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maureen; Brenner, Bluma G; Xu, Hongtao; Ibanescu, Ruxandra-Ilinca; Mesplède, Thibault; Wainberg, Mark A

    2017-11-01

    4'-Ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) is a potent nucleoside analogue inhibitor of HIV that has an unusually long half-life. Cell culture selections with either EFdA or lamivudine using both subtype B and non-B clinical isolates selected the M184I/V substitutions in reverse transcriptase (RT). Unlike lamivudine, however, EFdA retained significant activity against viruses containing the M184I/V substitutions. In other clinical trials that evaluated rilpivirine together with emtricitabine in first-line therapy, the emergence of both the M184I/V and E138K mutations in RT was demonstrated. Moreover, the M184I/V and E138K substitutions were shown to be compensatory for each other with regard to both efficiency of RT activity and viral replicative capacity. This creates concern that E138K might emerge as a compensatory mutation for M184I/V in the aftermath of the use of EFdA. We wished to determine whether the E138K mutation in HIV RT together with M184I/V would compromise the activity of EFdA. Recombinant viruses containing the M184I/V and/or E138K substitutions were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and evaluated in tissue culture for susceptibility to various nucleoside compounds, including EFdA. Susceptibility to EFdA was retained in M184I/V viruses that also contained the E138K substitution. Moreover, the E138K substitution was not generated in these studies under selection pressure with EFdA. These findings help to alleviate concern that EFdA may not be active against viruses that contain both the M184I/V and E138K substitutions in RT.

  16. 11-Substituted Benzo[c]phenanthridines: New Structures and Insight into Their Mode of Antiproliferative Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Bernd; Girreser, Ulrich; Steinhauer, Tamara N; Meier, Christopher; Marko, Doris; Aichinger, Georg; Kaltefleiter, Ilka; Stenzel, Lars; Heber, Dieter; Weide, Matthias; Wolschendorf, Ulrich; Zebothsen, Inga; Zur Nieden, Dana

    2016-10-06

    The synthesis of various new structures of a library of 11-substituted 6-amino-11,12-dihydrobenzo[c]phenanthridines (BP) and 11-substituted 6-aminobenzo[c]phenanthridines (BP-D) is presented. These structures, further synthetic modifications, and the preparation of follow-up products which delivered about 40 new derivatives are described. Their potential as antiproliferative drug candidates was investigated by comparison of NCI 60 developmental therapeutics program (DTP) human tumor cell line screening data based on the results of in vitro tumor cell growth inhibition, including about 40 hitherto unpublished compound test results with up to 60 cancer cell lines. NCI-COMPARE studies helped to suggest the modes of action of the highly active antiproliferative drugs. These findings are supported by in vitro biological investigations showing either inhibition of tubulin polymerization and depolymerization or topoisomerase inhibition. Together with physicochemical parameters of the drug candidates, structure-activity relationships are critically discussed. Tubulin interaction or inhibition of topoisomerase I and IIα/β activity are two rationales that can explain the antiproliferative activity observed in the NCI 60 DTP human tumor cell line screen. However, it can also be reasonably assumed that these compounds address several targets, thus prohibiting the identification of simple structure-activity relationships. The new structures described herein are thought to act as so-called multitarget drugs, thus being of special interest in the area of multidrug resistance. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Competition Derived from Innovation as a Substitution Threat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a review of the role of innovation as substitution threat. The interesting strategy for those facing what in retrospect proves to be full substitution is the strategy of 'switch' to the substituting technology. the context-dependent uncedrtainty involved in the switch decision is ex...... transistor. The case material is used to introduce the problem competition policy has when faced with competition derived from innovation....

  18. Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Reiman Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit) instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution among medical cann...

  19. State generic substitution laws can lower drug outlays under medicaid

    OpenAIRE

    Shrank, William H.; Choudhry, Niteesh K.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Federman, Alex D.; Liberman, Joshua N.; Liu, Jun; Kesselheim, Aaron S.; Brookhart, M. Alan; Fischer, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    To stem the rising costs of medications, states have implemented varying generic substitution policies. These policies differ in the extent to which pharmacists or patients can influence medication choice. Using national Medicaid data, we evaluated the relationship between different generic substitution policies and generic simvastatin use after patent expiration of branded Zocor. States implementing policies that require patient consent prior to generic substitution experienced 25% lower rat...

  20. Convergent synthesis of 6-substituted phenanthridines via anionic ring closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysén, M.; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard; Vedsø, P.

    2002-01-01

    Chemical equation presented The addition of organometallic derivatives to the cyano group of 2-(2-fluorophenyl)benzonitrile followed by intramolecular nucleophilic substitution produces 6-substituted phenanthridines. Alkyllithiums, aryllithiums, and sterically nondemanding lithium amides reacted...... at -78 °C to produce the 6-substituted phenanthridines in 82-98% yield upon warming to room temperature. The addition of the corresponding Grignard reagents requires an excess of the organometallic reagent and extented reaction times at elevated temperature....

  1. Substitutions between Water and other Agricultural Inputs - An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; You, J.

    2005-12-01

    Increasing concerns about water availability, environmental water requirement and water quality have led to an increased importance of quantitative assessments of the substitution between water and other agricultural inputs at the margin for agricultural and environmental policy analysis. This paper explores the potential substitutions between water and other agricultural inputs in irrigated agriculture through an empirical study. The study include (1) an analysis based on a crop production function for net substitution at the crop field and farm levels; and (2) a numerical study for gross substitution in the context of water allocation in river basins thorough an integrated hydrologic-economic river basin model. Along with the empirical analysis and numerical illustrations, we discuss several theoretical issues relevant to substitutions between water and other inputs, such as (1) selection of indicators of elasticity of substitution, depending on farmers' concerns on yield, production, or profit; (2) appropriateness of net or gross substitution analysis, which is relevant to the spatial scale of the analysis (field, district or region), as well as farmers' concerns; and (3) output impact of substitutions. Water is both a natural resource and an economic input, and the constraints on water include those from both physical and socio-economic aspects. Therefore, the output impact of the substitution between water and other inputs should be extended from a pure economic concept to the context of integrated hydrologic-economic systems.

  2. Import Substitution in Regional Industrial Production: Theoretical and Practical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Georgievich Animitsa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the important role of import substitution in the economic security protection of state and its regions, especially in times of crisis, geopolitical and economical instability. The authors argue that the problem of import substitution is not modern, trendy scientific stream. The issue of displacement of import goods by domestic ones was brought up in famous classic theories of mercantilists. The particular emphasis is placed on the analysis and systematization of different scientific approaches, which are utilized by native and foreign scientists to bring out the matter of “import substitution,” to determine its essential characteristics. The authors suggest their own interpretation of the import substitution notion. In the article, the most significant pro and contra arguments in import substitution policy are defined. The regional aspects in the import substitution are approved: case study — organization of industrial import substitution in the Sverdlovsk region. In the article, the authors analyze the subject matter of the Program “Development of Intraregional Industrial Cooperation and Implementation of an Import Substitution in Branches of Industry in the Sverdlovsk Region.” It is resumed, that active policy of import substitution in the industry may become the driver of regional economic development.

  3. Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Dehydrogenation of Substituted Cyclohexanones to Phenols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yusuke Izawa; Doris Pun; Shannon S. Stahl

    2011-01-01

    .... Here, we report a palladium(II) catalyst system, incorporating an unconventional ortho-dimethylaminopyridine ligand, for the conversion of substituted cyclohexanones to the corresponding phenols...

  4. ARE THE PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING SERVICES THREATENED BY SUBSTITUTES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Sorin STROE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Substitutes pose a permanent threat on firms’ products or services in any industry. As the extant literature on strategic analysis is abundant in examples of substitutes for goods and traditional services, the paper aims at analyzing in-depth the concept of substitutes in the case of engineering services industry which is a knowledge-based, project-based, and professional type one. The assessment of the threat of substitutes for these services has been supported by an empirical study among a number of managers of Romanian engineering companies. The paper ends up with a set of conclusions and an invitation to further debate and research.

  5. Synthesis of Fluoroalkoxy Substituted Arylboronic Esters by Iridium-Catalyzed Aromatic C–H Borylation

    KAUST Repository

    Batool, Farhat

    2015-08-17

    The preparation of fluoroalkoxy arylboronic esters by iridium-catalyzed aromatic C–H borylation is described. The fluoroalkoxy groups employed include trifluoromethoxy, difluoromethoxy, 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethoxy, and 2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxole. The borylation reactions were carried out neat without the use of a glovebox or Schlenk line. The regioselectivities available through the iridium-catalyzed C–H borylation are complementary to those obtained by the electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions of fluoroalkoxy arenes. Fluoroalkoxy arylboronic esters can serve as versatile building blocks.

  6. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twitchell, K.E.; Skinner, N.L.

    1993-07-01

    This manual is the tutorial for the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS), an online, comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects. The HSSDS data base contains product information, material safety data sheets, toxicity reports, usage reports, biodegradable data, product chemical element lists, and background information on solvents. HSSDS use TOPIC{reg_sign} to search for information based on a query defined by the user. TOPIC provides a full text retrieval of unstructured source documents. In this tutorial, a series of lessons is provided that guides the user through basic steps common to most queries performed with HSSDS. Instructions are provided for both window-based and character-based applications.

  7. Preparation of 7-substituted ginkgolide derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogensen, Stine Byskov; Strømgaard, Kristian; Shindou, Hideo

    2003-01-01

    Ginkgolides are structurally unique constituents of Ginkgo biloba extracts and are known antagonists of the platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor. Ginkgolide C is 25-fold less potent than ginkgolide B as a PAF receptor antagonist, due to the presence of the 7beta-OH. Recently, we found that 7...... of these derivatives as assayed by cloned PAF receptors. In two cases nucleophilic attack on a 7beta-O-triflate ginkgolide B did not lead to the expected products, but gave rise to two unprecedented ginkgolide derivatives, one with a novel rearranged skeleton. Furthermore, standard reduction of 7alpha-azido ginkgolide...... B did not give the expected primary amine, but instead yielded alkylated amines depending on the solvent employed. Pharmacological testing with cloned PAF receptors showed that ginkgolides with 7alpha-substitutents had increased affinity compared to 7beta-substituents, in particular 7alpha...

  8. Tertiary fatty amides as diesel fuel substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdari, Aikaterini; Lois, Euripides; Stournas, Stamoulis [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Athens (Greece)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents experimental results regarding the impact of adding different tertiary amides of fatty acids to mineral diesel fuel; an assessment of the behaviour of these compounds as possible diesel fuel extenders is also included. Measurements of cetane number, cold flow properties (cloud point, pour point and CFPP), density, kinematic viscosity, flash point and distillation temperatures are reported, while initial experiments concerning the effects on particulate emissions are also described. Most of the examined tertiary fatty amides esters have very good performance and they can be easily prepared from fatty acids (biomass). Such compounds or their blends could be used as mineral diesel fuel or even fatty acid methylesters (FAME, biodiesel) substitutes or extenders. (Author)

  9. High pressure chemistry of substituted acetylenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa, Raja [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dattelbaum, Dana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheffield, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Robbins, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-25

    High pressure in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments were performed on substituted polyacetylenes: tert-butyl acetylene [TBA: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-C{triple_bond}CH] and ethynyl trimethylsilane [ETMS: (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}-Si{triple_bond}CH] to investigate pressure-induced chemical reactions. The starting samples were the low temperature crystalline phases which persisted metastably at room temperature and polymerized beyond 11 GPa and 26 GPa for TBA and ETMS respectively. These reaction onset pressures are considerably higher than what we observed in the shockwave studies (6.1 GPa for TBA and 6.6 GPa for ETMS). Interestingly, in the case of ETMS, it was observed with fluid ETMS as starting sample, reacts to form a semi-crystalline polymer (crystalline domains corresponding to the low-T phase) at pressures less than {approx}2 GPa. Further characterization using vibrational spectroscopy is in progress.

  10. Time and Money - Are they Substitutes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    In this paper, we analyse the distribution of time and money for Danish wage earner couples, where time is defined as leisure time and money as extended income, i.e. the sum of disposable income and the value of housework. The hypothesis is that individuals being rich in one dimension are more...... likely to be poor in the other dimension, such that individuals can be classified as either money-poor/time-rich or money-rich/time-poor. We analyse two different distributions of income, where the first assumes no sharing and the second complete sharing of income between spouses. The data are from...... the Danish Time-Use Survey 2001, merged with register data. Results show that the substitution of money for time is more prominent for women than for men, because they have a larger income share of time-intensive value of housework, while men have the larger share of disposable income. Furthermore, when...

  11. Crossmodal Perceptual Learning and Sensory Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Proulx

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A sensory substitution device for blind persons aims to provide the missing visual input by converting images into a form that another modality can perceive, such as sound. Here I will discuss the perceptual learning and attentional mechanisms necessary for interpreting sounds produced by a device (The vOICe in a visuospatial manner. Although some aspects of the conversion, such as relating vertical location to pitch, rely on natural crossmodal mappings, the extensive training required suggests that synthetic mappings are required to generalize perceptual learning to new objects and environments, and ultimately to experience visual qualia. Here I will discuss the effects of the conversion and training on perception and attention that demonstrate the synthetic nature of learning the crossmodal mapping. Sensorimotor experience may be required to facilitate learning, develop expertise, and to develop a form of synthetic synaesthesia.

  12. Development of a piezoelectric bone substitute material

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Bader, Y A

    2000-01-01

    The thesis deals with the preparation and testing of ceramic compositions to be used as bone substitute. The proposed composition consisted of calcium enriched calcium phosphate, kaolin and barium titanate in different ratios. The homogeneous powder mixture was dry pressed at different pressures and fired at temperatures up to 1350 degC for different soaking times. The physical properties of the fired compacts that were tested are bulk density and porosity. These were determined as function of pressing pressure, firing temperature and soaking time for different compositions. The mechanical properties investigated were the ultimate compressive strength and Young's modulus, which were determined for different compositions and forming pressures. The electrical properties investigated were D.C. characteristics (resistivity) and A.C. characteristics (A.C. resistivity, dielectric constant, dielectric loss and loss tangent). The piezoelectric behaviour of the fired compacts was investigated and the piezoelectric coe...

  13. Packing and Disorder in Substituted Fullerenes

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh

    2016-07-15

    Fullerenes are ubiquitous as electron-acceptor and electron-transport materials in organic solar cells. Recent synthetic strategies to improve the solubility and electronic characteristics of these molecules have translated into a tremendous increase in the variety of derivatives employed in these applications. Here, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the impact of going from mono-adducts to bis- and tris-adducts on the structural, cohesive, and packing characteristics of [6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and indene-C60. The packing configurations obtained at the MD level then serve as input for density functional theory calculations that examine the solid-state energetic disorder (distribution of site energies) as a function of chemical substitution. The variations in structural and site-energy disorders reflect the fundamental materials differences among the derivatives and impact the performance of these materials in thin-film electronic devices.

  14. Calcium phosphate: a substitute for aluminum adjuvants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Jean-Daniel; Thibaudon, Michel; Bélec, Laurent; Crépeaux, Guillemette

    2017-03-01

    Calcium phosphate was used as an adjuvant in France in diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccines. It was later completely substituted by alum salts in the late 80's, but it still remains as an approved adjuvant for the World Health Organization for human vaccination. Area covered: Thus, calcium phosphate is now considered as one of the substances that could replace alum salts in vaccines. The aim of this paper is to draw a review of existing data on calcium phosphate as an adjuvant in order to bring out the strengths and weaknesses for its use on a large scale. Expert commentary: Calcium phosphate is a compound naturally present in the organism, safe and already used in human vaccination. Beyond comparisons with the other adjuvants, calcium phosphate represents a good candidate to replace or to complete alum salts as a vaccine adjuvant.

  15. Semiconducting behavior of substitutionally doped bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Hamze; Khodadadi, Jabbar; Grabowski, Marek

    2018-02-01

    In the framework of the Green's functions approach, random tight-binding model and using the coherent potential approximation, electronic characteristics of the bilayer graphene are investigated by exploring various forms of substitutional doping of a single or both layers of the system by either boron and (or) nitrogen atoms. The results for displacement of the Fermi level resemble the behavior of acceptor or donor doping in a conventional semiconductor, dependent on the impurity type and concentration. The particular pattern of doping of just one layer with one impurity type is most efficient for opening a gap within the energy bands which could be tuned directly by impurity concentration. Doping both layers at the same time, each with one impurity type, leads to an anomaly whereby the gap decreases with increasing impurity concentration.

  16. Toxicological evaluation of substituted dicyclopentadienyliron (ferrocene) compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, H W; Hallesy, D W; Shott, L D; Murray, F J; Paustenbach, D J

    1987-09-01

    The acute toxicity of 3 substituted ferrocenes: acetylferrocene, ethylferrocene, and 2,2-bis(ethylferrocenyl)propane (Catocene) were studied in rats, rabbits and monkeys. Acetylferrocene was found to be the most toxic. The oral lethal dose was less than 5 mg/kg for female rats, between 5 and 50 mg/kg for male rats, and between 10 and 100 mg/kg for monkeys. The toxicity of acetylferrocene appeared to be delayed, with most mortality occurring on the third day after dosing. Acetylferrocene was also highly toxic by skin or eye exposure. Gross pathological examination revealed signs of pneumonopathy in both the rats and monkeys. The mechanism by which monkeys are less susceptible than rats to the toxicity of acetylferrocene is not clear.

  17. Computational study of vicarious nucleophilic substitution reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Lorena; Morocho, Shirley; Castellanos, Alejandra; Cuesta, Sebastián

    2017-10-02

    Vicarious nucleophilic substitution reactions are a versatile way of introducing substituents into aromatic and heteroaromatic electron-deficient compounds. In this project, a kinetic study of these reactions by applying quantum mechanics concepts, such as reaction force, force constant, and electronic reaction flow was proposed. Furthermore, absolute theoretical scales of electrophilicity by applying density functional theory electronic indices were established to classify a series of five and six-membered nitroheteroarenes, and nitrobenzenes with substituents in ortho, meta and para positions. The theoretical model was validated by comparison with experimental kinetic results. Calculations using B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory allowed analysis of the reactivity patterns and the mechanisms of these chemical reactions. The theoretical scale properly accounts for the activating/deactivating effects promoted by the substituents and agrees with the ability of these substituents to accept or donate electrons, electron acceptor substituents are those that increase electrophilicity, and electron donors those that reduce it.

  18. Substitutions in dynamics, arithmetics and combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Berthé, Valéré; Ferenczi, Sébastien; Mauduit, Christian; Siegel, Anne

    2002-01-01

    A certain category of infinite strings of letters on a finite alphabet is presented here, chosen among the 'simplest' possible one may build, both because they are very deterministic and because they are built by simple rules (a letter is replaced by a word, a sequence is produced by iteration). These substitutive sequences have a surprisingly rich structure. The authors describe the concepts of quantity of natural interactions, with combinatorics on words, ergodic theory, linear algebra, spectral theory, geometry of tilings, theoretical computer science, diophantine approximation, trancendence, graph theory. This volume fulfils the need for a reference on the basic definitions and theorems, as well as for a state-of-the-art survey of the more difficult and unsolved problems.

  19. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  20. Substituted Pyrazinecarboxamides: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Kralova

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of the corresponding chlorides of some substituted pyrazine-2-carboxylic acids (pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid, 6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid, 5-tert-butylpyrazine-2-carboxylic acid or 5-tert-butyl-6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid withvarious ring-substituted aminothiazoles or anilines yielded a series of amides. Thesyntheses, analytical and spectroscopic data of thirty newly prepared compounds arepresented. Structure-activity relationships between the chemical structures and the anti-mycobacterial, antifungal and photosynthesis-inhibiting activity of the evaluatedcompounds are discussed. 3,5-Bromo-4-hydroxyphenyl derivatives of substitutedpyrazinecarboxylic acid, 16-18, have shown the highest activity against Mycobacteriumtuberculosis H37Rv (54-72% inhibition. The highest antifungal effect againstTrichophyton mentagrophytes, the most susceptible fungal strain tested, was found for5-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N-(4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-ylpyrazine-2-carboxamide (8, MIC =31.25 μmol·mL-1. The most active inhibitors of oxygen evolution rate in spinachMolecules 2006, 11 243 chloroplasts were the compounds 5-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N-(5-bromo-2-hydroxyphenyl- pyrazine-2-carboxamide (27, IC50 = 41.9 μmol·L-1 and 5-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N-(1,3- thiazol-2-yl-pyrazine-2-carboxamide (4, IC50 = 49.5 μmol·L-1.

  1. Substitution effects in magnetic and superconducting materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña, O.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical substitutions at very low level have been proved to be a very effective tool to change important physical parameters in many kinds of materials. These modifications may be the result of, for instance, subtle variations of the position of the Fermi level with respect to the density of states, presence of additional electrons which may change the hole carrier concentration, steric effects which impose contraints in the crystallographic lattice, mixed-valence states resultating from the dismutation of chemical components, etc. We review herein three systems in which the substitution effects are at the origin of new physical states : the high-Tc superconductor bismuth cuprate of the 2212 family, the mixed-valence manganese perovskites representative of giant magneto-resistive compounds, and the Chevrel phase materials in which a structural transition may inhibit the superconducting state.

    Las substituciones químicas a un nivel muy pequeño se han probado como una importante herramienta para cambiar los parámetros físicos en una gran variedad de materiales. Estas modificaciones pueden ser el resultado de, por ejemplo, muy ligeras variaciones de la posición del nivel de Fermi con respecto a la densidad de estados, presencia de electrones adicionales que pueden cambiar la concentración de portadores tipo huecos, efectos estéricos que imponen restricciones en la red cristalográfica, estados de valencia mixtos resultantes de la dismutación de los componentes químicos, etc. Aquí se revisan tres sistemas donde los efectos de substitución son el origen de nuevos estados físicos: los superconductores de alta temperatura basados en cupratos de bismuto de la familia 2212, las perovskitas de manganeso de valencia mixta representantes de compuestos con magnetorresistencia gigante, y los materiales con fases de Chevrelt cuya transición estructural puede inhibir el estado superconductor.

  2. Estimating Intertemporal and Intratemporal Substitutions When Both Income and Substitution Effects are Present: The Role of Durable Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Pakos, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Homotheticity induces a dramatic statistical bias in the estimates of the intratemporal and intertemporal substitutions. I find potent support in favor of nonhomotheticity in aggregate consumption data, with nondurable goods being necessities and durable goods luxuries. I obtain the intertemporal substitutability negligible (0.04), a magnitude close to Hall’s (1988) original estimate, and the intratemporal substitutability between nondurable goods and service flow from the stock of durable go...

  3. CFC substitutes for refrigeration engineering. FCKW-Substitute fuer die Kaeltetechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrici, R. (Hoechst AG, Forschung und Entwicklung Chemikalien, Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    1993-12-01

    The international attempts ot protect the earth atmosphere have accelerated the world-wide search for CFC substitutes. Enormous efforts have been undertaken in the last few years to solve the problems occurring with new refrigerants and to find suitable lubricants. The article discusses the following subjects: Requirements on future refrigerants, effects on the ''greenhouse problem'', toxicological properties, problems in practical application, trends of development, refrigerant mixtures, conversion of older plants, recycling of refrigerants. (SR)

  4. Substitution rates of organelle and nuclear genes in sharks: implicating metabolic rate (again).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A P

    1999-07-01

    Rates of nucleotide substitution for nuclear genes are thought to be governed primarily by the number of germ line replication events (the so-called "generation time" hypothesis). In contrast, rates of mitochondrial DNA evolution appear to be set primarily by DNA damage pathways of mutation mediated by mutagenic by-products of oxidative phosphorylation (the so-called "metabolic-rate" hypothesis). Comparison of synonymous substitution rates estimated for the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and nuclear-encoded dlx, hsp70, and RAG-1 genes in mammals and sharks shows that rates of molecular evolution for sharks are approximately an order of magnitude slower than those for mammals for both nuclear and mitochondrial genes. In addition, there is significant positive covariation of substitution rate for mitochondrial and nuclear genes within sharks. These results, interpreted in light of the pervasiveness of DNA damage by mutagenic by-products of oxygen metabolism to both nuclear and mitochondrial genes and coupled with increasing evidence for cross-genome activity of DNA repair enzymes, suggest that molecular clocks for mitochondrial and nuclear genes may be set primarily by common mutational mechanisms.

  5. Antimycobacterial and Photosynthetic Electron Transport Inhibiting Activity of Ring-Substituted 4-Arylamino-7-Chloroquinolinium Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alois Cizek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a series of twenty-five ring-substituted 4-arylamino-7-chloroquinolinium chlorides were prepared and characterized. The compounds were tested for their activity related to inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts and also primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was performed against mycobacterial species. 4-[(2-Bromophenylamino]-7-chloroquinolinium chloride showed high biological activity against M. marinum, M. kansasii, M. smegmatis and 7-chloro-4-[(2-methylphenylamino]quinolinium chloride demonstrated noteworthy biological activity against M. smegmatis and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The most effective compounds demonstrated quite low toxicity (LD50 > 20 μmol/L against the human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line within preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity screening. The tested compounds were found to inhibit PET in photosystem II. The PET-inhibiting activity expressed by IC50 value of the most active compound 7-chloro-4-[(3-trifluoromethylphenylamino]quinolinium chloride was 27 μmol/L and PET-inhibiting activity of ortho-substituted compounds was significantly lower than this of meta- and para-substituted ones. The structure-activity relationships are discussed for all compounds.

  6. Minnesota County Boundaries - lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Minnesota county boundaries derived from a combination of 1:24,000 scale PLS lines, 1:100,000 scale TIGER, 1:100,000 scale DLG, and 1:24,000 scale hydrography lines....

  7. Database of emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.

    1998-11-01

    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  8. Iron deficiency intravenous substitution in a Swiss academic primary care division: analysis of practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varcher M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Monica Varcher,1 Sofia Zisimopoulou,1 Olivia Braillard,1 Bernard Favrat,2 Noëlle Junod Perron1 1Department of Community, Primary and Emergency Care, Division of Primary Care, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, 2Department of Ambulatory Care and Community Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland Background: Iron deficiency is a common problem in primary care and is usually treated with oral iron substitution. With the recent simplification of intravenous (IV iron administration (ferric carboxymaltose and its approval in many countries for iron deficiency, physicians may be inclined to overutilize it as a first-line substitution.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate iron deficiency management and substitution practices in an academic primary care division 5 years after ferric carboxymaltose was approved for treatment of iron deficiency in Switzerland.Methods: All patients treated for iron deficiency during March and April 2012 at the Geneva University Division of Primary Care were identified. Their medical files were analyzed for information, including initial ferritin value, reasons for the investigation of iron levels, suspected etiology, type of treatment initiated, and clinical and biological follow-up. Findings were assessed using an algorithm for iron deficiency management based on a literature review.Results: Out of 1,671 patients, 93 were treated for iron deficiency. Median patients’ age was 40 years and 92.5% (n=86 were female. The average ferritin value was 17.2 μg/L (standard deviation 13.3 μg/L. The reasons for the investigation of iron levels were documented in 82% and the suspected etiology for iron deficiency was reported in 67%. Seventy percent of the patients received oral treatment, 14% IV treatment, and 16% both. The reasons for IV treatment as first- and second-line treatment were reported in 57% and 95%, respectively. Clinical and biological follow-up was planned in less than two-thirds of the

  9. Placebo substitution for tnethyldopa in geriatric hypertensive patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MAY 1993. Placebo substitution for tnethyldopa in geriatric hypertensive patients. M. w. BLOM, DE K. SOMMERS. 335 i. Abstract The aim of this study was to obtain an objective evaluation of the possibly inappropriate anti- hypertensive therapy of elderly patients; this was done by means ofplacebo substitution for methyl-.

  10. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons. 721.840 Section 721.840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this section...

  11. 46 CFR 502.43 - Substitution of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substitution of parties. 502.43 Section 502.43 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Parties § 502.43 Substitution of parties. In appropriate circumstances, the Commission or presiding officer may...

  12. Enzymatic activities as potential stress biomarkers of two substituted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chironomids are a globally distributed family of insects that can serve as biological indicators of environmental pollution. Substituted benzenes are a group of serious environmental pollutants and severely threaten biological and human health. In order to investigate potential stress biomarkers of substituted benzenes, the ...

  13. Exploring meat substitutes: consumer experiences and contextual factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzerman, J.E.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Meat substitutes can be environmentally more sustainable alternatives to meat. However, the image of these products in The Netherlands is still low. The purpose of this paper is to explore consumers' experiences and sensory expectations of meat substitutes and the appropriateness of the

  14. Effects of Dietary Substitution of Rubber Seed Cake for Groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred (300) five weeks old, Anak broilers were used in a 4-week experiment to determine the effect of dietary substitution of rubber seed cake for groundnut cake on the performance of broilers at the finisher phase. Graded levels of rubber seed cake (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) substituted corresponding levels of ...

  15. Sublattice imbalance of substitutionally doped nitrogen in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, James A.; Gorman, Paul D.; Power, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the recently observed sublattice asymmetry of substitutional nitrogen impurities in CVD grown graphene, we show, in a mathematically transparent manner, that oscillations in the local density of states driven by the presence of substitutional impurities are responsible for breaking...

  16. Exchange Rate Volatility, Currency Substitution and Monetary Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the implications of currency substitution and exchange rate volatility for monetary policy in Nigeria. It adopts the unrestricted portfolio balance model of currency substitution, incorporating exchange rate volatility within the framework of the Vector Error Correction (VEC) technique. Results from both ...

  17. Generic substitution - comparing the clinical efficacy of a generic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-03-03

    Mar 3, 1998 ... There are currently numerous generic psychopharmacological agents available in South Africa, among them two generic substitutes for fluphenazine decanoate.' These products are both cheaper than the innovator product. Substitution of a generic drug product for an innovator product requires that the ...

  18. Generic substitution of antihypertensive drugs : does it affect adherence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, Boris L G; Klungel, Olaf H; Heerdink, Eibert R; de Boer, Anthonius

    BACKGROUND: Generic substitution is an important opportunity to reduce the costs of pharmaceutical care. However, pharmacists and physicians often find that patients and brand-name manufacturers have doubt about the equivalence of the substituted drug. This may be reflected by decreased adherence to

  19. Loan collaterals and collateral substitutes in rural finance: a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The limited availability of conventional collaterals in rural financial markets has led to the acceptance of non-traditional methods of loan security referred to as collateral substitutes. This paper reviews loan collaterals and collateral substitutes in the rural financial markets of developing countries. Keywords:: Collaterals ...

  20. 49 CFR 380.111 - Substitute for driver training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substitute for driver training. 380.111 Section 380.111 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...-General § 380.111 Substitute for driver training. (a) Grandfather clause. The LCV driver-training...

  1. 49 CFR 380.303 - Substitute for instructor requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substitute for instructor requirements. 380.303 Section 380.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR... SPECIAL TRAINING REQUIREMENTS LCV Driver-Instructor Requirements § 380.303 Substitute for instructor...

  2. 49 CFR 383.77 - Substitute for driving skills tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substitute for driving skills tests. 383.77 Section 383.77 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR... Substitute for driving skills tests. At the discretion of a State, the driving skill test as specified in...

  3. [Sugar substitute products impact on oral fluid biochemical properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapok, P I; Imbriakov, K V; Chuchkova, M R

    2012-01-01

    Sugar substitute products impact on oral fluid protein and carbohydrate content, as well as oxidative balance were studied in 60 medical school students in compare with conventional sugar. Sugar intake proved to cause cariesogenic carbohydrate metabolism disorders in oral fluid, intensification of lipoperoxidation and decrease in antioxidation activity. Sugar substitute products help to prevent dental decay.

  4. 40 CFR 721.757 - Polyoxyalkylene substituted aromatic azo colorant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... azo colorant. 721.757 Section 721.757 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.757 Polyoxyalkylene substituted aromatic azo colorant. (a) Chemical... as polyoxyalkylene substituted aromatic azo colorant (PMN P-92-1131) is subject to reporting under...

  5. Evaluation of wetting ability of five new saliva substitutes on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate & compare the wetting ability of five saliva substitutes & distilled water on heat-polymerized acrylic resin. Contact angle of the saliva substitute on denture base can be taken as an indicator of wettability. Good wetting of heat-polymerized acrylic resin is critical for optimum ...

  6. Effect of Honey as Partial Sugar Substitute on Pasting Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of partial substitution of sugar with liquid honey on the pasting properties of cooked dough made from cassava-wheat composite (10:90) flour as well as the sensory preference and shelf stability of its bread was investigated. Sucrose (S) in the bread recipe formulation was substituted with honey (H) at levels 0, 10, ...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4596 - Diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... metal complex. 721.4596 Section 721.4596 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4596 Diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex. (a) Chemical... as a diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex (PMN P-94-1039) is subject to reporting under...

  8. RHEOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MUCIN-CONTAINING SOLUTIONS AND SALIVA SUBSTITUTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOLTERMAN, HJ; WATERMAN, HA; BLOM, C; SGRAVENMADE, FJ; Mellema, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this study rheological properties of aqueous solutions of mucin, albumin and mucin-albumin have been investigated in search for saliva substitutes. They were compared with commercially available saliva substitutes on the one hand and natural human saliva on the other hand. For the latter a few

  9. 37 CFR 2.59 - Filing substitute specimen(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing substitute specimen(s). 2.59 Section 2.59 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.59 Filing substitute specimen(s). (a...

  10. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Some 2-Substituted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study the synthesis of new 2-substituted tinidazole analogues containing (a) an α-keto group IVa-IVc (b) oxime group in side chains which enhances antibacterial profile, Va and Vb, and (c) an electron withdrawing cyano function in place of a CH3 group at position 2, VIII, is reported. The 2-substituted ...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2025 - Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... derivative. 721.2025 Section 721.2025 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2025 Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. (a) Chemical... as a substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative (PMN P-91-487) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. Substitution as a Device of Grammatical Cohesion in English Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hasannejad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study set out to investigate the effect of teaching substitution as a kind of grammatical cohesion on the true identification of confusing substitution elements with cohesive or non-cohesive roles in different contexts and also the production of modal, reporting and conditional contexts through clausal substitution acquaintance. To this end, the following procedures were taken. First 120 male and female EFL students were selected from Iranshahr Azad University. Having administered the language proficiency test, researchers selected 80 students as intermediate subjects according to their TOEFL band scores. First, pretests of cohesion identification (substitution and production of modal, reporting and conditional environments were administered to both control and experimental groups. Then, the experimental group was exposed to the teaching of the above-said above-mentioned cohesive device. Finally, post-tests of substitution elements’ identification and modal, reporting and conditional contexts’ production through clausal substitution familiarity were administered. The results showed that cohesive device treatment helped students on the true identification of substitution elements. Another finding proved that EFL students might have no difficulty in learning certain rules or classification of rules and application of their clausal substitution knowledge in creating modal, reporting and conditional contexts. Our findings can have implications for the field of language learning and teaching.

  13. Page 1 y-SUBSTITUTION IN RESORCINOL NUCLEUS Part Will ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ORDINARILY, resorcinol and its derivatives are known to react in the 8-posi- tion. Orcinol which is 5-methyl-resorcinol, however, manifests a marked tendency for substitution in the y-position.” Thus, while 8-substitution occurs on bromination,” Gattermann reaction” or Pechmann condensation with malic acid”; on ...

  14. MOLECULAR THERMODYNAMICS IN THE DESIGN OF SUBSTITUTE SOLVENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of physical properties and fluid behavior from molecular thermodynamics can lead to better decision making in the design of substitute solvents and can greatly reduce the expense and time required to find substitutes compared to designing solvents by experiment. this pape...

  15. Control of Chemical Risks by Substitution of Harmful Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Substitution of volatile, organic solvents with non-volatile, low-toxic esters of fatty acids for cleaning purposes in offset printing has successfully been implemented in several European countries. Similar substitutions in other industrial cleaning processes seem possible, especially regarding...

  16. Thermal characteristics of pure and substituted gel grown Gd ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    greater detail as IR spectroscopy results suggest water of hydration present in the pure Gd-heptamolybdate only but not the ones substituted by barium. This paper reports the results of thermal characteristics of the pure Gd- heptamolybdate and substituted Gd–Ba-molybdate crys- tals grown by gel encapsulation technique.

  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel C6-cyclo secondary amine substituted purine steroid-nucleosides analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Hua; Li, Yang; Xu, Hong-De; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Liu, Hong-Min

    2014-07-01

    Novel C6-cyclo secondary amine substituted purine steroid-nucleoside analogues (2-9) were efficiently synthesized through displacement of the C6 chloro on the purine ring of series 1 with versatile cyclic secondary amines, including pyrrolidines, piperidine, morpholine, and piperazines. All the newly-synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anticancer activity in vitro against Hela, PC-3 and MCF-7 cell lines. Among them, compounds 5c and 6b exhibited significant cytotoxicity on PC-3 cell lines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis and In Vitro Cytotoxic Properties of Polycarbo-Substituted 4-(Arylaminoquinazolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Kamdem Paumo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we describe the synthesis of novel unsymmetrical polycarbo-substituted 4-anilinoquinazolines derived from the 2-aryl-6-bromo-8-iodoquinazolines via one-pot three-step reaction sequences involving initial amination and subsequent double cross-coupling (bis-Suzuki, Sonogashira/Stille or Sonogashira/Suzuki-Miyaura reactions with different cross coupling partners for the two carbon–carbon bond formation steps. The 4-anilinoquinazolines were evaluated for potential cytotoxicity against three cancer cell lines, namely, human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7 cells, human cervical cancer (HeLa and human lung cancer (A549 cells. The most active compounds, 2b, 2c, 3c, 4a, 4c and 5a, were found to be more selective against the MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines than the human lung carcinoma (A549 cells. We selected compounds 2c, 3c and 7a as representatives for further evaluation for potential to induce apoptosis and/or necrotic properties in the three cancer cell lines. Compound 2c induced apoptosis of MCF-7 cells through cell membrane alteration. Treatment of Hela and A549 cell lines with compounds 3c and 7a, respectively, led to caspase-3 activation in both cell lines. Compound 3c, on the other hand, caused more necrosis than apoptosis induction in the membrane alteration assay.

  19. Effect of structural transition on magnetic and optical properties of Ca and Ti co-substituted BiFeO{sub 3} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pawan; Kar, Manoranjan, E-mail: mano@iitp.ac.in

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • Secondary phase formation has been controlled for Bi{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}Fe{sub 0.9}Ti{sub 0.1}O{sub 3} • Co-substitution of Ca and Ti at Bi and Fe sites significantly increases M{sub S} and H{sub C} • Compositional driven structural transition from rhombohedral to orthorhombic symmetry. • The leakage current has reduced significantly for Ca{sup 2+} and Ti{sup 4+} co-substituted BiFeO{sub 3}. • Small band gap of co-substituted BiFeO{sub 3} may be useful for optoelectronic devices. -- Abstract: Bi{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}Fe{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} ceramics with x = 0.0, 0.05, 0.075, 0.10, 0.125, 0.15 and 0.2 nanoparticles were prepared by the tartaric acid modified sol–gel technique. The co-substitution of Ca and Ti in certain proportion controls the formation of secondary phases. Structural phase analysis by XRD suggested that pure bismuth ferrite stabilized in rhombohedral crystal symmetry (space group R3c) and orthorhombic (Pbnm) phase fraction was observed in co-substituted samples which increase with the increase in substitution percentage. The changes in the phonon frequencies (A{sub 1}) and line widths in Raman spectra reveal the lattice distortion in co-substituted samples which are in agreement with our XRD analysis. The improved magnetization and coercive field in co-substituted samples occurs due to the suppression of cycloid spin structure which could be explained in terms of field induced spin reorientation and weak ferromagnetism. The Ti{sup 4+} substitution at Fe site in BiFeO{sub 3} significantly reduced the oxygen vacancies and hence the associated leakage current, which leads to the increase of dielectric constant as well as frequency independent region for ∊{sub r} and tan δ (maximum in Bi{sub 0.85}Ca{sub 0.15}Fe{sub 0.85}Ti{sub 0.15}O{sub 3}). The significant decrease in dielectric loss with the increase in substitution percentage leads to the decrease in the room temperature bulk conductivity and thus enhanced

  20. A Group Action Method for Construction of Strong Substitution Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Sajjad Shaukat; Shah, Tariq; Attaullah, Atta

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the method to develop cryptographically strong substitution box is presented which can be used in multimedia security and data hiding techniques. The algorithm of construction depends on the action of a projective general linear group over the set of units of the finite commutative ring. The strength of substitution box and ability to create confusion is assessed with different available analyses. Moreover, the ability of resistance against malicious attacks is also evaluated. The substitution box is examined by bit independent criterion, strict avalanche criterion, nonlinearity test, linear approximation probability test and differential approximation probability test. This substitution box is equated with well-recognized substitution boxes such as AES, Gray, APA, S8, prime of residue, Xyi and Skipjack. The comparison shows encouraging results about the strength of the proposed box. The majority logic criterion is also calculated to analyze the strength and its practical implementation.

  1. Vitreous Substitutes: Old and New Materials in Vitreoretinal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Alovisi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in vitreoretinal surgery have increased the need for suitable vitreous substitutes. A successful substitute should maintain all the physical and biochemical properties of the original vitreous, be easy to manipulate, and be long lasting. Substitutes can be gaseous or liquid, both of which have associated advantages and disadvantages related to their physical properties and use. Furthermore, new surgical techniques with smaller vitreoretinal instruments have driven the use of more viscous substitutes. In this review, we analyze and discuss the most frequently used vitreous substitutes and look ahead to future alternatives. We classify these compounds based on their composition and structure, discuss their clinical use with respect to their associated advantages and disadvantages, and analyze how new vitreoretinal surgical techniques have modified their use.

  2. Vitreous Substitutes: Old and New Materials in Vitreoretinal Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Claudio; Eandi, Chiara M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments in vitreoretinal surgery have increased the need for suitable vitreous substitutes. A successful substitute should maintain all the physical and biochemical properties of the original vitreous, be easy to manipulate, and be long lasting. Substitutes can be gaseous or liquid, both of which have associated advantages and disadvantages related to their physical properties and use. Furthermore, new surgical techniques with smaller vitreoretinal instruments have driven the use of more viscous substitutes. In this review, we analyze and discuss the most frequently used vitreous substitutes and look ahead to future alternatives. We classify these compounds based on their composition and structure, discuss their clinical use with respect to their associated advantages and disadvantages, and analyze how new vitreoretinal surgical techniques have modified their use. PMID:28785482

  3. Rates of nucleotide substitution in sexual and anciently asexual rotifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, David B. Mark; Meselson, Matthew S.

    2001-01-01

    The class Bdelloidea of the phylum Rotifera is the largest well studied eukaryotic taxon in which males and meiosis are unknown, and the only one for which these indications of ancient asexuality are supported by cytological and molecular genetic evidence. We estimated the rates of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions in the hsp82 heat shock gene in bdelloids and in facultatively sexual rotifers of the class Monogononta, employing distance based and maximum likelihood methods. Relative-rate tests, using acanthocephalan rotifers as an outgroup, showed slightly higher rates of nonsynonymous substitution and slightly lower rates of synonymous substitution in bdelloids as compared with monogononts. The opposite trend, however, was seen in intraclass pairwise comparisons. If, as it seems, bdelloids have evolved asexually, an equality of bdelloid and monogonont substitution rates would suggest that the maintenance of sexual reproduction in monogononts is not attributable to an effect of sexual reproduction in limiting the load of deleterious nucleotide substitutions. PMID:11381112

  4. H.264/AVC substitution watermarking: a CAVLC example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dekun; Bloom, Jeffrey A.

    2009-02-01

    This work addresses the watermarking of an entropy coded H.264/AVC video stream. The phrase Substitution Watermarking is used to imply that the application of the watermark to the stream is accomplished by substituting an original block of bits in the entropy-encoded stream with an alternative block of bits. This substitution is done for many different blocks of bits to embed the watermark. This can be a particularly powerful technique for applications in which the embedder must be very simple (substitution is a very light operation) and a computationally complex, pre-embedding analysis is practical. The pre-embedding analysis can generate a substitution table and the embedder can simply select entries from the table based on the payload. This paper presents the framework along with an example for H.264/AVC streams that use CAVLC for entropy coding. A separate paper addresses the CABAC entropy coding case.

  5. Eco-Friendly Synthesis and Antiproliferative Evaluation of Some Oxygen Substituted Diaryl Ketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Valderrama

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A broad variety of oxygen-substituted diaryl ketones has been synthesized by solar energy-induced Friedel Crafts acylations of 1,4-benzo- and 1,4-naphthoquinones with benzaldehydes. The in vitro antiproliferative properties of the photoproducts were assessed on prostate (DU-145, bladder (T24 and breast (MCF7 human-derived tumor cell lines and compared to non-tumor mouse fibroblasts (Balb/3T3. Among the tested compounds, it was found that those containing a 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl A-ring, such as 12 and 22 are more active on DU-145, with EC50 values of 1.2 and 5.9 μM, respectively. By comparing their effects on the three cancer cell lines, the analogue 22 has the best mean selective index (2.4.

  6. Impact of generic substitution practice on care of diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetunde, Olubukola O; Aina, Bolajoko A; Tayo, Fola

    2014-06-01

    Patients with chronic diseases like type II diabetes mellitus often have their prescriptions substituted with generic medicines in the course of care to save costs of medicines and to improve access. There is need to assess impact of this practice on patient care. To assess patient's knowledge of generic substitution practice and its impact on patient care. An outpatient diabetic clinic of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. The study is a cross sectional survey of patients attending a diabetic clinic. A structured questionnaire was used to interview willing patients. A total of 120 patients were enrolled for the study, but only 102 responded (85 % overall response rate). Patients' knowledge of generic substitution practice, patients' report of abstaining from drug use, experiences of more side effects and patients' confusion. Over half (57.8 %) of surveyed patients (n = 59) had noticed brand switches, out of which, 30.5 % experienced brand switches more than 3 times within a year. More than a third of the respondents (38.6 %) did not know when pharmacists actually substituted their medicines. About one in five (19.6 %) patients did not use their medicines after substitution because they were not sure of the brand supplied but 35.6 % have rejected substitution at one time and insisted on doctors' prescription. Respondents (14.9 %) agreed that brand substitution resulted in confusion while 24 % reported receiving brands that resulted in more side effects. More respondents (58.6 %) indicated that they never had a discussion with their pharmacists about the reasons for generic substitution and switches. Generic substitution without adequate information resulted in confusion and subsequent lack of adherence. There is the vital need for appropriate policy and guidelines for generic substitution in Nigeria.

  7. FRAGS: estimation of coding sequence substitution rates from fragmentary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoighe Cathal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of substitution in protein-coding sequences can provide important insights into evolutionary processes that are of biomedical and theoretical interest. Increased availability of coding sequence data has enabled researchers to estimate more accurately the coding sequence divergence of pairs of organisms. However the use of different data sources, alignment protocols and methods to estimate substitution rates leads to widely varying estimates of key parameters that define the coding sequence divergence of orthologous genes. Although complete genome sequence data are not available for all organisms, fragmentary sequence data can provide accurate estimates of substitution rates provided that an appropriate and consistent methodology is used and that differences in the estimates obtainable from different data sources are taken into account. Results We have developed FRAGS, an application framework that uses existing, freely available software components to construct in-frame alignments and estimate coding substitution rates from fragmentary sequence data. Coding sequence substitution estimates for human and chimpanzee sequences, generated by FRAGS, reveal that methodological differences can give rise to significantly different estimates of important substitution parameters. The estimated substitution rates were also used to infer upper-bounds on the amount of sequencing error in the datasets that we have analysed. Conclusion We have developed a system that performs robust estimation of substitution rates for orthologous sequences from a pair of organisms. Our system can be used when fragmentary genomic or transcript data is available from one of the organisms and the other is a completely sequenced genome within the Ensembl database. As well as estimating substitution statistics our system enables the user to manage and query alignment and substitution data.

  8. Nucleotide substitutions revealing specific functions of Polycomb group genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajusz, Izabella; Sipos, László; Pirity, Melinda K

    2015-04-01

    POLYCOMB group (PCG) proteins belong to the family of epigenetic regulators of genes playing important roles in differentiation and development. Mutants of PcG genes were isolated first in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, resulting in spectacular segmental transformations due to the ectopic expression of homeotic genes. Homologs of Drosophila PcG genes were also identified in plants and in vertebrates and subsequent experiments revealed the general role of PCG proteins in the maintenance of the repressed state of chromatin through cell divisions. The past decades of gene targeting experiments have allowed us to make significant strides towards understanding how the network of PCG proteins influences multiple aspects of cellular fate determination during development. Being involved in the transmission of specific expression profiles of different cell lineages, PCG proteins were found to control wide spectra of unrelated epigenetic processes in vertebrates, such as stem cell plasticity and renewal, genomic imprinting and inactivation of X-chromosome. PCG proteins also affect regulation of metabolic genes being important for switching programs between pluripotency and differentiation. Insight into the precise roles of PCG proteins in normal physiological processes has emerged from studies employing cell culture-based systems and genetically modified animals. Here we summarize the findings obtained from PcG mutant fruit flies and mice generated to date with a focus on PRC1 and PRC2 members altered by nucleotide substitutions resulting in specific alleles. We also include a compilation of lessons learned from these models about the in vivo functions of this complex protein family. With multiple knockout lines, sophisticated approaches to study the consequences of peculiar missense point mutations, and insights from complementary gain-of-function systems in hand, we are now in a unique position to significantly advance our understanding of the molecular basis of

  9. Some comments on the substituted judgement standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egonsson, Dan

    2010-02-01

    On a traditional interpretation of the substituted judgement standard (SJS) a person who makes treatment decisions on behalf of a non-competent patient (e.g. concerning euthanasia) ought to decide as the patient would have decided had she been competent. I propose an alternative interpretation of SJS in which the surrogate is required to infer what the patient actually thought about these end-of-life decisions. In clarifying SJS it is also important to differentiate the patient's consent and preference. If SJS is part of an autonomy ideal of the sort found in Kantian ethics, consent seems more important than preference. From a utilitarian perspective a preference-based reading of SJS seems natural. I argue that the justification of SJS within a utilitarian framework will boil down to the question whether a non-competent patient can be said to have any surviving preferences. If we give a virtue-ethical justification of SJS the relative importance of consent and preferences depends on which virtue one stresses--respect or care. I argue that SJS might be an independent normative method for extending the patient's autonomy, both from a Kantian and a virtue ethical perspective.

  10. Energy conservation and substitution: refining the objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, G.

    1981-06-01

    Energy conservation is not a precisely defined concept; consequently, there is a considerable confusion about how to implement it or predict its effects. Reducing dependence on oil should be the central objective of energy policy, but this may not be furthered by generalized conservation strategies. Achieving a reduction in oil dependence requires a balanced policy of conservation and substitution. As governments have reacted against oil price rises and the subsequent inflationary effects with a swing towards monetarism and a harsher reliance upon market forces, the role of oil has become even more important. Reliance upon these policies has not eased the oil blockage upon economic activity; it has made it worse and made the task of providing alternatives to oil more difficult. Market forces have had a wedging, rather than a freeing, effect upon the pattern of energy supply. But the point is that conservation, on its own, does not create the momentum away from oil which is essential. The immediate objective is not to achieve a reduction in the consumption of energy as an end in itself, but as part of a liberation from dependence upon oil. Energy conservation needs to be seen as a servant of this wider objective. 21 references.

  11. Glue-paste linings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuster-López, Laura; Andersen, Cecil Krarup; Bouillon, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Glue-paste linings of (Western) canvas paintings have been performed with a variety of materials throughout history and are present in a very significant amount of artworks in collections in Europe and elsewhere. Cereal flours and animal glues were usually the main ingredients because they were...... processes of lined canvas paintings. The impact of cyclic relative humidity on the biological and physical stability of the laminate structure is reported. Carefully constructed mock-ups, simulating lined canvas paintings, were used to examine the effect of pest infestation, mould growth, mechanical damage...

  12. Transnationaliseringen af Maersk Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Maersk Line er verdens førende containerrederi og blandt de mest betydningsfulde virksomheder i Danmark. Den globale førerposition blev opnået på relativt kort tid og var et resultat af rederiets beslutning i 1973 om at gå helhjertet ind i containerskibsfarten. Beslutningen blev startskuddet til...... Maersk Lines dybe internationalisering, hvor rederiet ændrede sig fra at være en overvejende danske virksomhed, der betjente internationale markeder, til at være en genuin transnational virksomhed. Med fokus på opbygningen af Maersk Lines globale organisation og særligt etableringen af egne kontorer i...

  13. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  14. Veterans Crisis Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The caring responders at the Veterans Crisis Line are specially trained and experienced in helping Veterans of all ages and circumstances. Some of the responders are...

  15. MODIFIED METHOD OF LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankevich Anatoliy Nikolaevich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of the method of solving multidimensional boundary problems is reduction of initial differential equations in partial derivatives to the system of ordinary differential equations. One-dimensional resolving equations allow extending the potential of the method of lines. Although efficient and highly-precise numerical methods have been developed for solution of one-dimensional and initial-boundary value problems their use is impossible in the method of lines. The author considers a new method of lines which is used in order to reduce the dimensionality of multidimensional problems of structural mechanics. The method is used for calculation of thick plates, plates of variable thickness, heterogeneous and multilayered plates. It is proposed to replace finite-difference relations by projection relations which will extend the potential of the method of lines and will allow using the method in the dynamic problems.

  16. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  17. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  18. Superconducting metamaterial transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouxinol, Francisco; Wang, Haozhi; Plourde, B. L. T.

    2014-03-01

    Left-handed metamaterials are artificial composite structures with unusual properties. Such systems have a wide range of potential applications in photonics. We are developing transmission lines composed of superconducting metamaterials using thin-film lumped circuit elements. Such structures allow for the possibility of generating novel transmission spectra with a high density of modes in some frequency ranges and stop-bands in others. We discuss possible couplings of these lines to superconducting qubits in circuit QED architectures.

  19. Creating product line architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, J.; Flege, O.; Gacek, C.

    2000-01-01

    The creation and validation of product line software architectures are inherently more complex than those of software architectures for single systems. This paper compares a process for creating and evaluating a traditional, one-of-a- kind software architecture with one for a reference software architecture. The comparison is done in the context of PuLSE-DSSA, a customizable process that integrates both product line architecture creation and evaluation.

  20. NLC Extraction Line Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Nosochkov, Y. M.; Raubenheimer, T. O.

    2001-01-01

    In this note, we briefly review the current lattice of the NLC extraction line which was designed for the nominal NLC beam parameters. Then we describe the beam parameters for the high luminosity option with larger beam disruption parameter and discuss its effect on beam loss in the extraction line. Finally, we present a summary of the optics study aimed at minimizing the beam loss with high disruption beams.

  1. 'Generic substitution' in New Jersey, 1979-87.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culkin, T T; Mendell, S

    1989-02-01

    A total of 76,385 prescription orders from 543 randomly selected New Jersey community pharmacies were reviewed from 1979 to 1987 to ascertain the overall extent of drug product selection, or generic substitution. Also assessed were factors affecting generic substitution such as extent of ordering generically, prescribers' and patients' disapproval of generic substitution, the limitations of a formulary, and pharmacists' compliance with the generic substitution law. Over the study period generic substitution more than doubled, from an average of 6.6% to an average of 14.2% of all new prescription orders. Prescribers disallowed generics on 32% of all eligible prescription orders in 1979 and on 42% in 1987. Patients disallowed generics on 3.7% of all eligible prescription orders in 1979 and on 5.7% in 1987. Pharmacists' compliance with state law mandating generic substitution rose from 47% in 1979 to 74% in 1987. A companion analysis of 4.64 million prescription payment records (2 million of which were for generics) from two state prescription reimbursement programs demonstrated an average savings of $5.73 and $8.74 per generic prescription order when compared to their branded counterparts. Prescribers and pharmacists were found to be the major impediments to more extensive generic substitution.

  2. On-Line and Off-Line Assessment of Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraç, Seda; Karakelle, Sema

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates the interrelationships between different on-line and off-line measures for assessing metacognition. The participants were 47 fifth grade elementary students. Metacognition was assessed through two off-line and two on-line measures. The off-line measures consisted of a teacher rating scale and a self-report questionnaire. The…

  3. Enhanced osteoconductivity of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite by system instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang Cho, Jung; Um, Seung-Hoon; Su Yoo, Dong; Chung, Yong-Chae; Hye Chung, Shin; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The effect of substituting sodium for calcium on enhanced osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite was newly investigated. Sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was synthesized by reacting calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid with sodium nitrate followed by sintering. As a control, pure hydroxyapatite was prepared under identical conditions, but without the addition of sodium nitrate. Substitution of calcium with sodium in hydroxyapatite produced the structural vacancies for carbonate ion from phosphate site and hydrogen ion from hydroxide site of hydroxyapatite after sintering. The total system energy of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects calculated by ab initio methods based on quantum mechanics was much higher than that of hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was energetically less stable compared with hydroxyapatite. Indeed, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited higher dissolution behavior of constituent elements of hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-buffered deionized water compared with hydroxyapatite, which directly affected low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity by increasing the degree of apatite supersaturation in SBF. Actually, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited markedly improved low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity in SBF and noticeably higher osteoconductivity 4 weeks after implantation in calvarial defects of New Zealand white rabbits compared with hydroxyapatite. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between hydroxyapatite and sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite on cytotoxicity as determined by BCA assay. Taken together, these results indicate that sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects has promising potential for use as a bone grafting material due to its enhanced osteoconductivity compared with hydroxyapatite. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. CMP substitutions preferentially inhibit polysialic acid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Tatsuo; Angata, Kiyohiko; Seeberger, Peter H; Hindsgaul, Ole; Fukuda, Minoru

    2008-02-01

    It is widely reported that derivatives of sugar moieties can be used to metabolically label cell surface carbohydrates or inhibit a particular glycosylation. However, few studies address the effect of substitution of the cytidylmonophosphate (CMP) portion on sialyltransferase activities. Here we first synthesized 2'-O-methyl CMP and 5-methyl CMP and then asked if these CMP derivatives are recognized by alpha2,3-sialyltransferases (ST3Gal-III and ST3Gal-IV), alpha2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal-I), and alpha2,8-sialyltransferase (ST8Sia-II, ST8Sia-III, and ST8Sia-IV). We found that ST3Gal-III and ST3Gal-IV but not ST6Gal-I was inhibited by 2'-O-methyl CMP as potently as by CMP, while ST3Gal-III, ST3Gal-IV, and ST6Gal-I were moderately inhibited by 5-methyl CMP. Previously, it was reported that polysialyltransferase ST8Sia-II but not ST8Sia-IV was inhibited by CMP N-butylneuraminic acid. We found that ST8Sia-IV as well as ST8Sia-II and ST8Sia-III are inhibited by 2'-O-methyl CMP as robustly as by CMP and moderately by 5-methyl CMP. Moreover, the addition of CMP, 2'-O-methyl CMP, and 5-methyl CMP to the culture medium resulted in the decrease of polysialic acid expression on the cell surface and NCAM of Chinese hamster ovary cells. These results suggest that 2'-O-methyl CMP and 5-methyl CMP can be used to preferentially inhibit sialyltransferases, in particular, polysialyltransferases in vitro and in vivo. Such inhibition may be useful to determine the function of a carbohydrate synthesized by a specific sialyltransferase such as polysialyltransferase.

  5. Substitute natural gas from biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunaa, Per (Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (SE))

    2008-03-15

    Biomass is by many considered as the only alternative to phase-out the usage of fossil fuels such as natural gas and oil especially for the transportation sector where alternative solutions, such as hydrogen fuel cells and batteries, are not yet fully developed. Thermal gasification or other methods such as pyrolysis of the biomass must be applied in order to produce an intermediate product suitable for further upgrading to either gaseous or liquid products. This thesis will evaluate the possibilities of producing, substitute natural gas, (SNG) from biomass gasification by using computer simulation. Three different gasification techniques were evaluated; entrained-flow, fluidized-bed and indirect gasification coupled with two different desulphurisation systems and two methanation processes. The desulphurisation systems were a zinc oxide bed and a Rectisol wash system. Methanation were performed by a series of adiabatic reactors with gas recycling and by an isothermal reactor. The impact on SNG efficiency from system pressure, isothermal methanation temperature and PSA methane recovery were evaluated as well. The results show that the fluidized-bed and the indirect gasifier have the highest SNG efficiency. Furthermore there are little to no difference between the methanation processes and small differences for the gas cleanup systems. SNG efficiencies in excess of 50 % were possible for all gasifiers. SNG efficiency is defined as the energy in the SNG product divided by the total input to the system from biomass, drying and oxygen. Increasing system pressure has a negative impact on SNG efficiency as well as increasing operating costs due to increased power for compression. Isothermal methanation temperature has no significant impact on SNG efficiency. Recovering as much methane as possible in the PSA is the most important parameter. Recovering methane that has been dissolved in condensed process water increases the SNG efficiency by 2-10% depending on system.

  6. Strontium Substitution for Calcium in Lithogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschko, Sarah D.; Chi, Thomas; Miller, Joe; Flechner, Lawrence; Fakra, Sirine; Kapahi, Pankaj; Kahn, Arnold; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Strontium has chemical similarity to calcium, which enables the replacement of calcium by strontium in biomineralization processes. Incorporating strontium into human bone and teeth has been studied extensively but little research has been performed of the incorporation of strontium into urinary calculi. We used synchrotron based x-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption techniques to examine the presence of strontium in different types of human kidney stones. Materials and Methods Multiple unique human stone samples were obtained via consecutive percutaneous nephrolithotomies/ureteroscopies. A portion of each stone was sent for standard laboratory analysis and a portion was retained for x-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption measurements. X-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption measurements determined the presence, spatial distribution and speciation of strontium in each stone sample. Results Traditional kidney stone analyses identified calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, uric acid and cystine stones. X-ray fluorescence measurements identified strontium in all stone types except pure cystine. X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping of the samples revealed co-localization of calcium and strontium. X-ray absorption measurements of the calcium phosphate stone showed strontium predominately present as strontium apatite. Conclusions Advanced x-ray fluorescence imaging identified strontium in all calcium based stones, present as strontium apatite. This finding may be critical since apatite is thought to be the initial nidus for calcium stone formation. Strontium is not identified by standard laboratory stone analyses. Its substitution for calcium can be reliably identified in stones from multiple calcium based stone formers, which may offer opportunities to gain insight into early events in lithogenesis. PMID:23260568

  7. Prioritizing substitution of organic solvents in industrial cleaning processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Pia Brunn; Jacobsen, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A method for prioritizing the substitution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) used in industrial cleaning processes is developed. The result is a matrix, which, if all information can be obtained, gives a comprehensive description of the effects, exposure and emission of VOC, as well...... as the prospects for performing the substitution with a vegetable ester. It can be a tool for companies to decide which cleaning process has the highest demand for substitution, if there is a choice between several processes, but it may also be a tool to convince companies to use non-volatile, low-toxic cleaning...

  8. The impact of single substitutions on multiple sequence alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaere, Steffen; Gesell, Tanja; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2008-12-27

    We introduce another view of sequence evolution. Contrary to other approaches, we model the substitution process in two steps. First we assume (arbitrary) scaled branch lengths on a given phylogenetic tree. Second we allocate a Poisson distributed number of substitutions on the branches. The probability to place a mutation on a branch is proportional to its relative branch length. More importantly, the action of a single mutation on an alignment column is described by a doubly stochastic matrix, the so-called one-step mutation matrix. This matrix leads to analytical formulae for the posterior probability distribution of the number of substitutions for an alignment column.

  9. Chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute contribute to accelerated full-thickness wound healing in irradiated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Hilmi, Abu Bakar; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Jaafar, Hasnan; Asiah, Abu Bakar; Hassan, Asma

    2013-01-01

    Wounds with full-thickness skin loss are commonly managed by skin grafting. In the absence of a graft, reepithelialization is imperfect and leads to increased scar formation. Biomaterials can alter wound healing so that it produces more regenerative tissue and fewer scars. This current study use the new chitosan based biomaterial in full-thickness wound with impaired healing on rat model. Wounds were evaluated after being treated with a chitosan dermal substitute, a chitosan skin substitute, or duoderm CGF. Wounds treated with the chitosan skin substitute showed the most re-epithelialization (33.2 ± 2.8%), longest epithelial tongue (1.62 ± 0.13 mm), and shortest migratory tongue distance (7.11 ± 0.25 mm). The scar size of wounds treated with the chitosan dermal substitute (0.13 ± 0.02 cm) and chitosan skin substitute (0.16 ± 0.05 cm) were significantly decreased (P substitute and chitosan skin substitute are suitable for wound healing in full-thickness wounds that are impaired due to radiation.

  10. Chitosan Dermal Substitute and Chitosan Skin Substitute Contribute to Accelerated Full-Thickness Wound Healing in Irradiated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Mohd Hilmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wounds with full-thickness skin loss are commonly managed by skin grafting. In the absence of a graft, reepithelialization is imperfect and leads to increased scar formation. Biomaterials can alter wound healing so that it produces more regenerative tissue and fewer scars. This current study use the new chitosan based biomaterial in full-thickness wound with impaired healing on rat model. Wounds were evaluated after being treated with a chitosan dermal substitute, a chitosan skin substitute, or duoderm CGF. Wounds treated with the chitosan skin substitute showed the most re-epithelialization (33.2 ± 2.8%, longest epithelial tongue (1.62 ± 0.13 mm, and shortest migratory tongue distance (7.11 ± 0.25 mm. The scar size of wounds treated with the chitosan dermal substitute (0.13 ± 0.02 cm and chitosan skin substitute (0.16 ± 0.05 cm were significantly decreased (P<0.05 compared with duoderm (0.45 ± 0.11 cm. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA expression on days 7, 14, and 21 revealed the presence of human hair follicle stem cells and fibroblasts that were incorporated into and surviving in the irradiated wound. We have proven that a chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute are suitable for wound healing in full-thickness wounds that are impaired due to radiation.

  11. Substitution with Alternative Anti-TNFα Therapy (SAVANT)-Outcomes of a Crohn's Disease Cohort Undergoing Substitution Therapy with Certolizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boktor, Moheb; Motlis, Andrew; Aravantagi, Avinash; Sheth, Ankur; Jordan, Paul; Morris, James; Manas, Kenneth; Hussain, Nazneen; Cvek, Urska; Trutschl, Marjan; Becker, Felix; Alexander, J Steven

    2016-06-01

    Biological therapy targeting tumor necrosis factor-alfa has revolutionized the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD). Our study retrospectively reviewed clinical outcomes of 60 patients administratively substituted from Infliximab or Adalimumab to Certolizumab. Maintenance of disease and failure rates after substitution of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alfa agents in CD patients were monitored over 1 year, and this is the first outcomes study of patients maintained on Infliximab or Adalimumab substituted to Certolizumab. A hospital pharmacy directive required all patients on biological therapy to be administratively substituted to Certolizumab therapy. This single-center retrospective analysis initially included 68 CD patients presenting at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-Shreveport. Clinical, endoscopic, and serologic data were compared at baseline and at 4 intervals over 1 year. Of 60 enrolled CD patients, 45 (75%) successfully transitioned to Certolizumab and had stable disease at 1 year. Of the 15 (25%) patients who "failed" substitution at 1 year, 5 were returned to Adalimumab and 7 to Infliximab; 3 were maintained on steroids awaiting subsequent therapy. Importantly, when patients were segregated on the basis of initial disease control, it was found that 3 (12.5%) previously well-controlled patients failed therapy, whereas 12 (33.3%) who initially had active disease failed Certolizumab substitution. Our study found that 25% of CD patients substituted to Cimzia failed substitution, whereas 75% still exhibited a good clinical response with stable disease at 1 year. Our findings indicate that disease status and behavior at the time of biological substitution may predict therapeutic responsiveness.

  12. Osseointegration of subperiosteal implants using bovine bone substitute and various membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Merete; Schou, S.; Hjørting-Hansen, E.

    2000-01-01

    Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits......Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits...

  13. Synthesis and Bioactivity of N-Benzoyl-N'-[5-(2'-substituted phenyl-2-furoyl] Semicarbazide Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zining Cui

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to find novel chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs with good activity, benzoylphenylurea, a typical kind of CSIs, was chosen as the lead compound and 15 novel derivatives containing furan moieties were designed by converting the urea linkage of benzoylphenylureas into a semicarbazide and changing the aniline part into furoyl groups. The title compounds were synthesized by the reaction of substituted benzoyl isocyanates with 5-(substituted phenyl-2-furoyl hydrazine, and the structures were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses (compound E2. The bioassay results indicated that the title compounds exhibit good insecticidal activity, especially towards Plutella xylostella L., but had lower fungicidal activity. Inspiringly, the title compounds possessed obvious anticancer activity against human promyelocytic leukemic cell line (HL-60, and some of the title compounds also had activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Bel-7402, human gastric carcinoma cell line (BGC-823, and human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line (KB. The results indicated that the linkage in the lead compounds was important to the bioactivity and spectra. The modification on the urea linkage is an effective strategy to discover new pesticide and drug candidates.

  14. Efficient and Versatile Synthesis of 3-substituted Glutaric Acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subsitituted glutaric acids from the corresponding aldehydes is described by converting the aldehydes to the 2-substituted tetraethyl propane tetracarboxylates through a Knoevenegel condensation followed by Michael addition. The resultant ...

  15. Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Chrenková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the system of care for endangered children has changed from the institutional as well as legislative point of view. In one of the partial areas of ongoing changes, research activities realised within the Students’ Grant Competition called The Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care are being focused. We deal with this topic because various forms of substitute family care are distinguished in the Czech Republic, where children are placed for various reasons, but we do not know the correct context of such placements. The main aim of the realised research was to find out the frequency of choosing a given form of placing children in substitute family care according to followed variables. The research sample of the quantitative research was consisted of children placed in one of the forms of substitute family care in the Moravian-Silesian region.

  16. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  17. Suitability of various plant derived gelling agents as agar substitute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suitability of various plant derived gelling agents as agar substitute in microbiological growth media. Abdul Mateen, Shaukat Hussain, Shams Ur Rehman, Basharat Mahmood, Muhammad Aslam Khan, Abdul Rashid, Majid Sohail, Muhammad Farooq, S Jawad Ahmed Shah ...

  18. Synthesis of library from amino-hydroxy substituted cyclopentanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjstrup, Marie; Lundt, Inge; Andrews, Robert

    Based on radical induced carbocyclisation of unsaturated aldonolactones our group has elaborated procedures for the preparation of several amino-hydroxy substituted cyclopentane derivatives [1]. These highly functionalized molecules are suitable for attachment to solid phase and subsequent parall...

  19. Associations between generic substitution and patients' attitudes, beliefs and experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Andersen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Generic substitution has been implemented in many countries, but knowledge about patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences is still sparse. Aim To assess associations between generic switching and patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences with previous generic switching...

  20. Supramolecular metal complex systems based on crown-substituted tetrapyrroles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsivadze, Aslan Yu [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-01-31

    The characteristic features of the structures and properties of crown-substituted porphyrinates and phthalocyaninates are considered. Interactions of these compounds with alkali metal salts yield supramolecular ensembles. The factors determining the architecture of such ensembles are described.

  1. Iron-substituted AB5-type MH electrode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metal hydride cell; iron substitution; electrochemical properties; structural characterization; pulverization characteristics. ... To study their electrochemical properties viameasurements of discharge capacity, activation process, rate capability and cyclic stability, electrodes are fabricated using as-synthesized and annealed ...

  2. Effects of yttrium and zinc substitutions in Bi-2212

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignon, Bruno [Laboratoire d' Electrodynamique des Materiaux Avances, UMR 6157, CNRS-CEA, Universite Francois Rabelais, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)], E-mail: bruno.pignon@univ-tours.fr; Autret-Lambert, Cecile; Ruyter, Antoine; Monot-Laffez, Isabelle; Ammor, Larbi [Laboratoire d' Electrodynamique des Materiaux Avances, UMR 6157, CNRS-CEA, Universite Francois Rabelais, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2007-09-01

    In this work, resistivity measurements of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}Cu{sub 2-y}Zn{sub y}O{sub 8+d} were analyzed. The yttrium substitution on calcium site modifies the charge concentration and the zinc substitution on cupper site leads to a depression of the superconducting transition temperature T{sub C}. Beyond the superconducting transition, the resistivity curves show the compounds evolve from a metallic state to a semi-conducting state upon the yttrium and zinc substitutions. The semi-conductive behavior is explained by a random distribution of the substituted element. The evolution of the linear resistivity upon doping confirms the presence of heterogeneities. Moreover, the results suggest that zinc lead to a more effective states localization and stripes pinning.

  3. REACH-related substitution within the Danish printing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Bøg, Carsten; Markussen, Helene

    The accomplishment of the EU REACH regulation will most probably promote substitution within sectors handling a lot of different chemicals like the printing industry. With the aim of being at the cutting edge of this development the Danish EPA together with the Danish printing industry and IPU...... are running a substitution project. A major part of the work has been mapping the presence of chemicals which are potential candidates for substitution (e.g. PBT, CMR, vPvB, EDS) within the Danish printing industry. The mapping comprises a combination of a literature study and an investigation of the actual...... (2007) presence of candidate substances at 15 Danish printing houses including the examination of more than 1000 MSDS’s (i.e. products). About 90 of the mapped substances are candidates for substitution according to Danish legislation (List of Undesirable Substances) and more that 20 of these substances...

  4. Hydrophobic core substitutions in calbindin D9k

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, B B; Jönsson, M; Bifulco, G

    1998-01-01

    +-binding constants measured from Ca2+ titrations in the presence of chromophoric chelators. The Ca2+-dissociation rate constants were estimated from Ca2+ titrations followed by 1H NMR1 and were measured more accurately using stopped-flow fluorescence. The parameters were measured at four KCl concentrations...... that the mutation causes only very minimal perturbations in the immediate vicinity of residue 61. Substitutions of alanines or glycines for bulky residues in the center of the core were found to have significant effects on both Ca2+ affinity and dissociation rates. These substitutions caused a reduction in affinity...... and an increase in off-rate. Small effects, both increases and decreases, were observed for substitutions involving residues far from the Ca2+ sites and toward the outer part of the hydrophobic core. The mutant with the substitution Phe66 --> Trp behaved differently from all other mutants, and displayed a 25-fold...

  5. Long term substitution treatment (maintenance treatment of opioid dependent persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirl, Charlotte

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: Methadone substitution treatment in Germany is introduced in 1988 in the framework of a scientific pilot study in North Rhein Westphalia. Recent statistics show that by now a broad offer of substitution treatment exists. From 1 June 2002 to 31 December 2003 113,000 substitution treatments have been recorded as being started of which around 56,000 have been recorded as ongoing treatments by 1 December 2003. Scientific background: Substitution treatment (treatment of opioid-dependent persons using substitution substances is one part of addiction treatment. Its goals are harm reduction and the stabilisation of opioid dependent persons. Integration of opioid-dependent persons in a treatment-setting, reduction of consumption of psychoactive substances, reduction of risk behaviour (primarily related to infectious diseases, decrease of mortality and improvements concerning the social, psychic and physic situation are seen as a success of substitution treatment as maintenance therapy. Research questions: The aim of this HTA report is to investigate which indicators can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of substitution treatment. Based on these indicators an evaluation of the medical, social and economical benefit of substitution treatment - also in relation to abstinence oriented treatment - is carried out. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in 31 international databases which yielded 2451 articles with publication date between 1995 and February 2005. Results: After a twofold selection process 32 publications were included for assessment and 276 publications were used as background literature. Despite serious restrictions due to selection bias and dropout in most studies focusing on substitution treatment, reduction of consumption of illegal opioids, reduction of risk behaviour, criminal behaviour, mortality and incidence of HIV can be seen as an empirically proven success of substitution treatment

  6. Determination of Sodium in Salt Substitute by Flame Emission Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodney, David E.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental procedures and typical student data/results are provided for an experiment determining the sodium (parts per million) in salt substitute with an error of a few percent. Problems encountered with the technique are addressed. (Author/JN)

  7. Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution, A Guided Inquiry Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Leyte L

    2010-01-01

    Inquiry-based learning is a unique student-centered alternative to traditional instruction. This form of active learning is ideal for the organic chemistry laboratory as it encourages critical thinking and hands on problem solving to complete an experiment. Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution is immediately associated with the undergraduate organic chemistry course. However, nucleophilic aromatic substitution is not. The N-arylation of aniline derivatives is a useful reaction for implementing nucleophilic aromatic substitution into the undergraduate curriculum. Under the framework of inquiry-based learning, a straightforward procedure has been developed for the undergraduate laboratory. This experiment explores the reaction rate of the nucleophilic aromatic substitution using various electrophiles. The reaction is conducted under microwave irradiation and the experiment is completed in one laboratory setting.

  8. Synthesis and reactivity of aliphatic sulfur pentafluorides from substituted (pentafluorosulfanylbenzenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Vida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of 3- and 4-pentafluorosulfanyl-substituted anisoles and phenols with hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid provided a mixture of SF5-substituted muconolactone, maleic, and succinic acids. A plausible mechanism for the formation of the aliphatic SF5 compounds was presented and their chemical reactivity was investigated. SF5-substituted para-benzoquinone was synthesized; its oxidation led to an improved yield of 2-(pentafluorosulfanylmaleic acid. The reaction of SF5-substituted maleic anhydride and para-benzoquinone with cyclopentadiene afforded the Diels–Alder adducts. Decomposition of 3-(pentafluorosulfanylmuconolactone in acidic, neutral and basic aqueous media was investigated and the decarboxylation of 2-(pentafluorosulfanylmaleic acid provided 3-(pentafluorosulfanylacrylic acid.

  9. Docking Studies, Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of Their Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Some Novel Isoxazole-Substituted 9-Anilinoacridine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kalirajan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A convenient synthesis of novel isoxazole-substituted 9-anilinoacridine derivatives 5a–j was reported. The compounds were confirmed by physical and analytical data and screened for in vitro antioxidant activity by DPPH method, reducing power assay and total antioxidant capacity method. The cytotoxic activity of the compounds was also studied in HEp-2 cell line. The docking studies of the synthesized compounds were performed towards the key nucleoside dsDNA by using AutoDock vina 4.0 programme. All the isoxazole-substituted compounds have significant activities.

  10. Patterns of nucleotides that flank substitutions in human orthologous genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhuoran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence context is an important aspect of base mutagenesis, and three-base periodicity is an intrinsic property of coding sequences. However, how three-base periodicity is influenced in the vicinity of substitutions is still unclear. The effect of context on mutagenesis should be revealed in the usage of nucleotides that flank substitutions. Relative entropy (also known as Kullback-Leibler divergence is useful for finding unusual patterns in biological sequences. Results Using relative entropy, we visualized the periodic patterns in the context of substitutions in human orthologous genes. Neighbouring patterns differed both among substitution categories and within a category that occurred at three codon positions. Transition tended to occur in periodic sequences relative to transversion. Periodic signals were stronger in a set of flanking sequences of substitutions that occurred at the third-codon positions than in those that occurred at the first- or second-codon positions. To determine how the three-base periodicity was affected near the substitution sites, we fitted a sine model to the values of the relative entropy. A sine of period equal to 3 is a good approximation for the three-base periodicity at sites not in close vicinity to some substitutions. These periods were interrupted near the substitution site and then reappeared away from substitutions. A comparative analysis between the native and codon-shuffled datasets suggested that the codon usage frequency was not the sole origin of the three-base periodicity, implying that the native order of codons also played an important role in this periodicity. Synonymous codon shuffling revealed that synonymous codon usage bias was one of the factors responsible for the observed three-base periodicity. Conclusions Our results offer an efficient way to illustrate unusual periodic patterns in the context of substitutions and provide further insight into the origin of three

  11. Weak preservation of local neutral substitution rates across mammalian genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karro John E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate at which neutral (non-functional bases undergo substitution is highly dependent on their location within a genome. However, it is not clear how fast these location-dependent rates change, or to what extent the substitution rate patterns are conserved between lineages. To address this question, which is critical not only for understanding the substitution process but also for evaluating phylogenetic footprinting algorithms, we examine ancestral repeats: a predominantly neutral dataset with a significantly higher genomic density than other datasets commonly used to study substitution rate variation. Using this repeat data, we measure the extent to which orthologous ancestral repeat sequences exhibit similar substitution patterns in separate mammalian lineages, allowing us to ascertain how well local substitution rates have been preserved across species. Results We calculated substitution rates for each ancestral repeat in each of three independent mammalian lineages (primate – from human/macaque alignments, rodent – from mouse/rat alignments, and laurasiatheria – from dog/cow alignments. We then measured the correlation of local substitution rates among these lineages. Overall we found the correlations between lineages to be statistically significant, but too weak to have much predictive power (r2 5%. These correlations were found to be primarily driven by regional effects at the scale of several hundred kb or larger. A few repeat classes (e.g. 7SK, Charlie8, and MER121 also exhibited stronger conservation of rate patterns, likely due to the effect of repeat-specific purifying selection. These classes should be excluded when estimating local neutral substitution rates. Conclusion Although local neutral substitution rates have some correlations among mammalian species, these correlations have little predictive power on the scale of individual repeats. This indicates that local substitution rates have changed

  12. Protein substitute for children and adults with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sarah H L; Singh, Rani H

    2015-02-27

    Phenylketonuria is an inherited metabolic disorder characterised by an absence or deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. The aim of treatment is to lower blood phenylalanine concentrations to the recommended therapeutic range to prevent developmental delay and support normal growth. Current treatment consists of a low-phenylalanine diet in combination with a protein substitute which is free from or low in phenylalanine. Guidance regarding the use, dosage, and distribution of dosage of the protein substitute over a 24-hour period is unclear, and there is variation in recommendations among treatment centres. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2005, and previously updated in 2008. To assess the benefits and adverse effects of protein substitute, its dosage, and distribution of dose in children and adults with phenylketonuria who are adhering to a low-phenylalanine diet. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which consists of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and hand searches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We also contacted manufacturers of the phenylalanine-free and low-phenylalanine protein substitutes for any data from published and unpublished randomised controlled trials.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Inborn Errors of Metabolism Trials Register: 03 April 2014. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing: any dose of protein substitute with no protein substitute; an alternative dosage; or the same dose, but given as frequent small doses throughout the day compared with the same total daily dose given as larger boluses less frequently. Both authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Three trials (69 participants) are included in this review. One trial investigated the use of protein substitute in 16 participants, while a further two trials investigated the

  13. Synthesis and characterizations of Ni{sup 2+} substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Mohd., E-mail: md.hashim09@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Alimuddin [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Kumar, Shalendra [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Shirsath, Sagar E. [Spin Device Technology Center, Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Kotnala, R.K.; Shah, Jyoti [National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Kumar, Ravi [Centre for Material Science Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur 177005, HP (India)

    2013-05-15

    Nanocrystalline Co–Ni ferrites bearing chemical formula Co{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2−x}Ni{sub 0.5+1.0x}O{sub 4} for x ranging from 0.0 to 0.4 with the step increment of 0.1 were successfully synthesized by sol gel auto-combustion method. The energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) results give relevant information for the homogenous mixing of the Co, Fe, and Ni atoms as expected from the synthesis. The phase identification of the materials by XRD reveals single phase with cubic symmetry. The presence of functional group was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies. The dielectric parameters such as dielectric constant ((ε′), dielectric loss (ε″) and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) have been studied at room temperature in the frequency range 42 Hz−5MHz and is explained in the light of interfacial polarization, arising from the heterogeneous nature of ferrite structure. The decrease in DC resistivity with increasing Ni concentration is attributed to the Verwey mechanism between Fe{sup 2+} ↔ Fe{sup 3+}, Co{sup 2+} ↔ Co{sup 3+} and Ni{sup 2+} ↔ Ni{sup 3+}. Ni-doped nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite samples exhibit a very large value for dielectric constant of the order of 10{sup 13}. Complex impedance analysis has been used to separate grain and grain boundary in the studied samples. It is observed that saturation magnetization (Ms) decreases with increase in nickel contents which is attributed to the substitution of magnetic Fe{sup 3+} ions of 5 μ{sub B} by less magnetic Ni{sup 2+} ions of 2 μ{sub B}. The analysis of the Mössbauer spectra shows the hyperfine field, relative % area and isomer shift decreases whereas quadruple splitting and line width increases at A- and B-sites on increasing the substitution of Ni{sup 2+} ions. - Highlights: ► Crystallite size decreases with increasing Ni{sup 2+} substitution. ► IR spectra reveal the bands corresponding to spinel structure. ► Resistivity increases initially followed by decreasing

  14. Vibrational energy flow in substituted benzenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pein, Brandt C.

    Using ultrafast infrared (IR) Raman spectroscopy, vibrational energy flow was monitored in several liquid-state substituted benzenes at ambient temperature. In a series of mono-halogenated benzenes, X-C6H 5 (X = F, Cl, Br, I), a similar CH-stretch at 3068 cm-1 was excited using picosecond IR pulses and the resulting vibrational relaxation and overall vibrational cooling processes were monitored with anti-Stokes spectroscopy. In the molecules with a heavier halide substituent the CH-stretch decayed slower while midrange vibrations decayed faster. This result was logical if the density of states (DOS) in the first few tiers, which is the DOS composed of vibrations with smaller quantum number, is what primarily determines energy flow. For tiers 1-4, the DOS was nearly identical in the CH-stretch region while it increased in the midrange region for heavier halide mass. Excitation spectroscopy, an extension of 3D IR-Raman spectroscopy, was developed and used to selectively pump vibrations localized to the substituent or the phenyl group in nitrobenzene (NB), o-fluoronitrobenzene (OFNB) and o-nitrotoluene (ONT) and in the alkylbenzene series toluene, isopropylbenzene (IPB), and t-butylbenzene (TBB). Using quantum chemical calculations, each Raman active vibration was sorted, according to their atomic displacements, into three classifications: substituent, phenyl, or global. Using IR pump wavenumbers that initially excited substituent or phenyl vibrations, IR-Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor energy flowing from the substituent to phenyl vibrations and vice versa. In NB nitro-to-phenyl and nitro-to-global energy flow was almost nonexistent while phenyl-to-nitro and phenyl-to-global was weak. When ortho substituents (-CH3, -F) were introduced, energy flow from nitro-to-phenyl and nitro-to-global was activated. In ONT, phenyl-to-nitro energy flow ceased possibly due to the added methyl group diverting energy from entering the nitro vibrations. Energy flow is therefore

  15. influence of the substitution on the electronic properties of perylene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. Geometries of the substituted perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximides) (PDI) and their radical anions have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G** level of theory. The adiabatic and vertical electron affinities have been computed at the B3LYP/6-31+G*//B3LYP/6-31G** level. Substitution of the PDI with COOCF3.

  16. Generic substitution: additional challenge for adherence in hypertensive patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkonsen, Helle; Eilertsen, Marlene; Borge, Hilde; Toverud, Else-Lydia

    2009-10-01

    This study aims to investigate whether, and in what way, generic substitution affects drug adherence in hypertensive patients. Personal interviews with 174 Norwegian patients (50-80 years) who had had their brand-name antihypertensive drug generically substituted were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. On average, 4.4 (1-14) prescription drugs were used by the participants. Of these, 2.0 (1-4) drugs were antihypertensives. More than 50% of the patients had been using antihypertensive drugs for more than 10 years. One in four found it difficult to remember to take their medication every day. One in three said generic substitution made keeping track of their medications more demanding. Twenty-nine percent were anxious when they started to use a generically substituted drug. Eight percent felt that the effect of the drug had changed, and 15% reported having new or more side-effects. A negative attitude towards generics was significantly associated with low educational attainment, increasing number of drugs, having general concerns about medicine use, and having received insufficient information regarding generic substitution. Five percent of the patients had been using more than one equivalent generic drug at the same time. These were among those who used several different drugs and also among those who got their medications from more than one pharmacy. Five percent is a too small number to draw general conclusions; however, there is no reason to suspect that these mistakes do not occur from time to time. This study shows that generic substitution can be an additional factor in poor drug adherence in hypertensive patients and contributes to concerns and confusion among the patients. Although generic substitution is an important measure of cost containment, health personnel should approach each patient individually. Clearly, many patients feel insecure about substituting their medication and demand more information.

  17. Structural and spectroscopic investigation of lanthanum-substituted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Lanthanum-substituted strontium-oxybritholites, Sr10–xLax(PO4)6–x(SiO4)xO with x = 0, 2 and. 4, prepared by ... 4–6 anionic,. 7,8 or both cationic and anionic. 9–12 substi- tutions may occur in the apatite structure. These substitutions lead to substantial changes in the .... 300 spectrometer equipped with a cylindrical rotor.

  18. Bundling revisited: substitute products and inter-firm discounts

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the standard model of bundling to allow products to be substitutes and for products to be supplied by separate sellers. Whether integrated or separate, firms have an incentive to introduce bundling discounts when demand for the bundle is elastic relative to demand for stand-alone products. When products are partial substitutes, this typically gives an integrated firm a greater incentive to offer a bundle discount (relative to the standard model with additive preferences), w...

  19. Production of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite using various precipitation routes

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, David; Best, Serena M.

    2013-01-01

    Substituted hydroxyapatites have been investigated for use as bone grafts have been investigated for many years. Zinc is of interest due to it’s potential to reduce bone resorption and antibacterial properties. However, it has proven problematic to substitute biologically significant levels of zinc into the crystal structure through wet chemical routes, whilst retaining the high temperature phase stability required for processing. The aim of this study is to investigate two different precipit...

  20. Production of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite using various precipitation routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, David; Best, Serena M

    2013-04-01

    Substituted hydroxyapatites have been investigated for use as bone grafts and have been investigated for many years. Zinc is of interest due to its potential to reduce bone resorption and antibacterial properties. However, it has proven problematic to substitute biologically significant levels of zinc into the crystal structure through wet chemical routes, whilst retaining the high temperature phase stability required for processing. The aim of this study is to investigate two different precipitation routes used to synthesize zinc substituted hydroxyapatite and to explore the effects of ammonia used in the reactions on the levels of zinc substituted into the crystal lattice. It was found that considerable amounts of ammonia are required to maintain a pH sufficiently high for the production of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite using a reaction between calcium nitrate, zinc nitrate and ammonium phosphate. X-ray fluorescence analysis showed that a significant proportion of the zinc added did not substitute into the hydroxyapatite lattice. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the existence of a zinc-ammonia complex that, it is proposed, inhibits zinc substitution for calcium. It was found that by reacting orthophosphoric acid with calcium nitrate and zinc nitrate, the volume of ammonia required in the reaction was reduced and higher levels of zinc substitution were achieved, with up to 0.58 wt% incorporated into the hydroxyapatite lattice. The resulting products were found to be stoichiometric hydroxyapatite and did not appear to contain any extraneous calcium phosphate phases after heat treatment up to 1100 °C. X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis revealed that the effect of substituting zinc into the HA lattice was to decrease the a-lattice parameter whilst increasing the c-lattice. Transmission electron microscopy also showed that the incorporation of zinc reduced both the length and width of the precipitated crystals.

  1. Along the line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross

    2011-01-01

    Embarking on a work of art constitutes a reduction of information – because we grasp the diversity and plurality of the manifestations we encounter by abstracting them and transforming them into manageable concepts; as we do when we draw contour lines on the landscape – they are imaginary...... and invisible but an abstraction essential for noting a difference or marking a place on a map. In the same way, a stroke in a sketch or a line in the sand is a manifestation of our ability to draw a boundary that both includes and excludes information. Where the line makes the birth of an idea visible......, it expresses through movement our tendency to mark a difference by drawing attention to and enclosing a whole series of relations that confront our preconceived notions. It is in the process of transformation in which we reduce the complexity of how we work, and rethink our ideas anew by refining the very same...

  2. Draw the Line!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draw the Line! International Conference, Copenhagen 2008 Papers, proceedings and recommendations is the second publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM), which is financed by the European Commission. In this publication we...... present proceedings from the UPGEM conference "Draw the Line!" in Copenhagen May 2008. The proceedings include contributions by UPGEM researchers, conference speeches by other researchers, politicians and gender equality officers in which they relate their work and research with the research done in UPGEM...... in the national contexts (see Draw the Line! Universities as workplaces for male and female researchers in Europe and http://www.upgem.dk/ ). We have also identified and discussed three scientific cultures in physics across the national borders. We call these scientific cultures: Hercules, Caretakers and Worker...

  3. VT Digital Line Graph Railroads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of major railroad lines for the state of Vermont. These railroad lines line up well along quadrangle boundaries, but...

  4. Generation of a Fibrin Based Three-Layered Skin Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Kober

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of skin substitutes that restore epidermal and dermal structures are currently available on the market. However, the main focus in research and clinical application lies on dermal and epidermal substitutes whereas the development of a subcutaneous replacement (hypodermis is often disregarded. In this study we used fibrin sealant as hydrogel scaffold to generate a three-layered skin substitute. For the hypodermal layer adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs and mature adipocytes were embedded in the fibrin hydrogel and were combined with another fibrin clot with fibroblasts for the construction of the dermal layer. Keratinocytes were added on top of the two-layered construct to form the epidermal layer. The three-layered construct was cultivated for up to 3 weeks. Our results show that ASCs and fibroblasts were viable, proliferated normally, and showed physiological morphology in the skin substitute. ASCs were able to differentiate into mature adipocytes during the course of four weeks and showed morphological resemblance to native adipose tissue. On the surface keratinocytes formed an epithelial-like layer. For the first time we were able to generate a three-layered skin substitute based on a fibrin hydrogel not only serving as a dermal and epidermal substitute but also including the hypodermis.

  5. Can Cannabis be Considered a Substitute Medication for Alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Substituting cannabis for alcohol may reduce drinking and related problems among alcohol-dependent individuals. Some even recommend prescribing medical cannabis to individuals attempting to reduce drinking. The primary aim of this review is to assess whether cannabis satisfies the seven previously published criteria for substitute medications for alcohol [e.g. ‘reduces alcohol-related harms’; ‘is safer in overdose than alcohol’; ‘should offer significant health economic benefits’; see Chick and Nutt ((2012) Substitution therapy for alcoholism: time for a reappraisal? J Psychopharmacol 26:205–12)]. Methods: Literature review. Results: All criteria appear either satisfied or partially satisfied, though studies relying on medical cannabis patients may be limited by selection bias and/or retrospective designs. Individual-level factors, such as severity of alcohol problems, may also moderate substitution. Conclusions: There is no clear pattern of outcomes related to cannabis substitution. Most importantly, the recommendation to prescribe alcohol-dependent individuals cannabis to help reduce drinking is premature. Future studies should use longitudinal data to better understand the consequences of cannabis substitution. PMID:24402247

  6. Generation of a Fibrin Based Three-Layered Skin Substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, Johanna; Gugerell, Alfred; Schmid, Melanie; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Keck, Maike

    2015-01-01

    A variety of skin substitutes that restore epidermal and dermal structures are currently available on the market. However, the main focus in research and clinical application lies on dermal and epidermal substitutes whereas the development of a subcutaneous replacement (hypodermis) is often disregarded. In this study we used fibrin sealant as hydrogel scaffold to generate a three-layered skin substitute. For the hypodermal layer adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and mature adipocytes were embedded in the fibrin hydrogel and were combined with another fibrin clot with fibroblasts for the construction of the dermal layer. Keratinocytes were added on top of the two-layered construct to form the epidermal layer. The three-layered construct was cultivated for up to 3 weeks. Our results show that ASCs and fibroblasts were viable, proliferated normally, and showed physiological morphology in the skin substitute. ASCs were able to differentiate into mature adipocytes during the course of four weeks and showed morphological resemblance to native adipose tissue. On the surface keratinocytes formed an epithelial-like layer. For the first time we were able to generate a three-layered skin substitute based on a fibrin hydrogel not only serving as a dermal and epidermal substitute but also including the hypodermis.

  7. Anthropogenic areas as incidental substitutes for original habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro; Jiménez, Juan

    2016-06-01

    One speaks of ecological substitutes when an introduced species performs, to some extent, the ecosystem function of an extirpated native species. We suggest that a similar case exists for habitats. Species evolve within ecosystems, but habitats can be destroyed or modified by natural and human-made causes. Sometimes habitat alteration forces animals to move to or remain in a suboptimal habitat type. In that case, the habitat is considered a refuge, and the species is called a refugee. Typically refugee species have lower population growth rates than in their original habitats. Human action may lead to the unintended generation of artificial or semiartificial habitat types that functionally resemble the essential features of the original habitat and thus allow a population growth rate of the same magnitude or higher than in the original habitat. We call such areas substitution habitats and define them as human-made habitats within the focal species range that by chance are partial substitutes for the species' original habitat. We call species occupying a substitution habitat adopted species. These are 2 new terms in conservation biology. Examples of substitution habitats are dams for European otters, wheat and rice fields for many steppeland and aquatic birds, and urban areas for storks, falcons, and swifts. Although substitution habitats can bring about increased resilience against the agents of global change, the conservation of original habitat types remains a conservation priority. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Neutron kerma factors, and water equivalence of some tissue substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, V. P.; Badiger, N. M. [Karnatak University, Department of Physics, Dharwad, 580003 (India); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: kudphyvps@rediffmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    The kerma factors and kerma relative to air and water of 24 compounds used as tissue substitutes were calculated for neutron energy from 2.53 x 10{sup -8} up to 29 MeV. The kerma ratio of the tissue substitutes relative to air and water were calculated by the ratio of kerma factors of the tissue substitute to air and water respectively. The water equivalence of the selected tissue substitutes was observed above neutron energies 100 eV. Kerma ratio relative to the air for Poly-vinylidene fluoride and Teflon are found to be nearest to unity in very low energy (up to 1 eV) and above 63 eV respectively. It was found that the natural rubber as a water equivalent tissue substitute compound. The results of the kerma factors in our investigation shows a very good agreement with those published in ICRU-44. We found that at higher neutron energies, the kerma factors and kerma ratios of the selected tissue substitute compounds are approximately same, but differences are large for energies below 100 eV. (Author)

  9. Software product lines

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés Verdín, María Karen

    2005-01-01

    A Software Product Line is a “set of software-intensive systems sharing a common, managed set of features that satisfy the specific needs of a particular market segment or mission and that are developed from a common set of core assets in a prescribed way”1. A software product line (or software product family) approach promotes planned and proactive reuse of core assets and architecture-centric development, achieving a substantial increment in product quality and a reduced time to market. Bec...

  10. BPL (Broadband Power Line)

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    El mundo actual requiere cada vez más el estar conectados con la sociedad de la Información y el Conocimiento, esto demanda que en los hogares, lugares de turismo, trabajos, universidades, etcétera, se cuente con una conexión a Internet de Alta Velocidad, que además sea segura y confiable. En este documento se presenta las características más importantes de la tecnología BPL (Broadband Power Line) o PLC (Power Line Comunication), la cual permite brindar el servicio de Internet ...

  11. Noval 1-substituted-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazole derivatives: Synthesis and pharmacological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabir Hussain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several-1-carbothioamide-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 2a–d, 1-(pyridine-4-ylcarbonyl-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 3a–d, 1-(5-chloro-6-fluoro-1,3-benzothiazole-2-ylthiocarbamoyl-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 4a–d and 1-[(1,2,4-triazole-4-yl carbothioamide]-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 5a–d were synthesized. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were supported by IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral data. These compounds were investigated for their, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, ulcerogenic, lipid peroxidation, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Some of the synthesized compounds showed potent anti-inflammatory activity along with minimal ulcerogenic effect and lipid peroxidation, compared to ibuprofen and flurbiprofen. Some of the tested compounds also showed moderate antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial and fungal strains.

  12. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and...-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and polyethylenepolyamines (generic). (a) Chemical... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

  13. Synthesis of Novel Benzimidazolyl-substituted Acrylonitriles and Amidino-substituted Benzimidazo[1,2-a]Quinolines

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Karminski-Zamola; Marijana Hranjec

    2007-01-01

    A series of novel benzimidazole derivatives 3-10 were synthesized. Benzimidazolyl-substituted acrylonitriles 3 and 4 underwent a photochemical dehydrocyclization reaction to give the corresponding mono- and dicyano-substituted benzimidazo[1,2-a] quinolines 5 and 6. Pinner reaction of these compounds did not give the expected mono- and diamidines, but rather only compounds 7-10, with amido groups at 6-position were isolated. A mechanism for the reaction is proposed. Acyclic compounds 3 and 4, ...

  14. Absolute Poverty Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Mahrt, Kristi; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    ’ approach, employing multiple methods, is the best available mode for addressing these limitations. A first fundamental choice is whether to estimate an absolute poverty line at all. Consumption-based poverty metrics provide only a partial view into the welfare of individuals or households, which may or may...

  15. Bike Map Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Chapel Hill Bike Map Lines from KMZ file.This data came from the wiki comment board for the public, not an “official map” showing the Town of Chapel Hill's plans or...

  16. Clamp Restrains Pressure Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliberti, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Safety restraint protects people and property if a high-pressure fitting fails. As long as pressure line remains attached at the fitting, clamp exerts essentially no force on hose. If fitting fails, force of fluid leaving free end of hose causes the cam on the clamp to compress hose with a positive locking action.

  17. Analysis of () Line Shape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The line shape is also simulated by the Monte–Carlo method, the molecular dissociation contributes to 57% neutral atoms and 53% emission intensity in front of the limiter, and 85% neutral atoms and 82% emission intensity in front of the wall. The processes of atoms and molecules influence on the energy balance is ...

  18. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  19. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    CERN Document Server

    Photographic Service

    1992-01-01

    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.

  20. Automatic transmission line monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, W. E.; Richards, L. O.

    1971-01-01

    Monitor improves complex network reliability in computer data links and command transmission lines. System evaluates circuit performance against preselected criteria, identifies and stores data indicating out-of-tolerance conditions, conducts closed loop testing, and provides for operation under command of digital computer that determines restoration priorities.

  1. Drawing the Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Isak Winkel

    2016-01-01

    of judgement that distinguishes between the inside and outside of a political community, between citizens and zombies. Second, the chapter focuses on the rhetorics applied to draw the line between rights-bearers and the rightless. ‘Prophetic’ speech, echoing the language of the Old Testament prophets, is vital...

  2. Developing Green Line Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Marin, Ana Maria; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2011-01-01

    This publication is based on the Master thesis “User-driven ecoinnovation process: Towards the implementation of the Green product line at JELD-WEN” written by Ana Maria Muñoz-Marin as her Graduation Project for the MSc. Global Innovation Management degree. The company-based experiment was carried...

  3. America's Assembly Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin

    A social history of the assembly line, invented in 1913. Both praised as a boon to consumers and as a curse for workers, it has been satirized, imitated, and celebrated for 100 years. It has inspired fiction, comedy, cafeteria layouts, and suburban housing. It transformed industrial labor...

  4. Synthesis and anticancer activity of new 1-substituted-6H-pyrido[4,3-b]carbazole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylińska, Beata; Jasztold-Howorko, Ryszard; Mastalarz, Henryk; Szczaurska-Nowak, Katarzyna; Wietrzyk, Joanna

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the synthesis and cytostatic activity of new 5,6-dimethyl-1-substituted-6H-pyrido[4,3-b]carbazole derivatives. Their structures were confirmed by (1)H-NMR and elemental analysis. Seven of the new compounds were tested by the SRB method in vitro against human lung cancer (A549) and human kidney cancer (A498) cell lines. Biological tests indicated remarkable cytostatic effects of four compounds tested in comparison with ellipticine and cisplatin as reference drugs. One particular compound 3c was about four times more active on A498 than ellipticine with similar activity on the A549 cell line, and outperformed cisplatin activity on both tumor cell lines.

  5. Design, synthesis and histamine H1-receptor antagonistic activity of some novel 4-amino-2-(substituted)-5-(substituted) aryl-6-[(substituted aryl) amino] pyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabria, Mahesh T; Patel, Vimal T; Rajan, Kombu S; Brahmkshatriya, Pathik S

    2009-01-01

    A series of 4-amino-2-(substituted)-5-(substituted)aryl-6-[(substituted)aryl)-amino]pyrimidines was designed based on the triangular pharmacophoric requirements for histamine H1-receptor antagonists. The designed molecules were synthesized by condensation of arylacetonitriles with respective arylisothiocyanates to form corresponding acrylonitriles followed by cyclocondensation with carboxamidines to afford substituted pyrimidines. All compounds were screened for their histamine H1-receptor antagonistic activity using the model "Inhibition of the isotonic contraction induced by histamine on isolated guinea pig ileum". Target compounds were also evaluated for their sedative potential as well as their anticholinergic activities as these two are known to be the common adverse effects of histamine H1-receptor antagonists. Compounds 2h, 2i, 2j and 2k exhibited potent histamine H1-receptor antagonistic activity, which was found to be comparable with the standard drug, cetirizine (CAS 83881-51-0) and more potent than the conventional drug mepyramine (CAS 91-84-9). Some of the compounds have displayed very low sedative potential compared to diphenhydramine (CAS 58-73-1), but was found higher than cetirizine. None of them showed anticholinergic activity indicating potentialities of this series to be developed as second-generation histamine H1-receptor antagonists.

  6. Materials research and beam line operation utilizing NSLS. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liedl, G.L.

    1993-06-01

    MATRIX, a participating research team of Midwest x-ray scattering specialists, continues to operate beam line X-18A at NSLS. Operations of this line now provides state-of-the-art capabilities to a wide range of people in the Materials Science and Engineering research community. Improvements of the beam line continue to be a focus of MATRIX. Throughout this past year the emphasis has been shifting towards improvement in ``user friendly`` aspects. Simplified control operations and a shift to single-user personal computer has been a major part of the effort. Over the past year all 232 operational days were fully utilized. Beam line tests coupled with MATRIX members combined to use 284 days. General user demand for use of the beam line continues to be strong and four groups were provided 48 operating days. Research production has been growing as NSLS and the beam line become a more stable type of operation. For 1992 the MATRIX group published six articles. To date, for 1993 the same group has published, submitted, or has in preparation nine articles. Recent research milestones include: the first quantitative structural information on the as-quenched and early stages of decomposition of supersaturated Al-Li alloys; the first quantitative diffuse scattering measurements on a complex system (Co substitute for Cu YBCO superconductor); demonstration of capabilities of a new UHV surface diffraction chamber with in-situ characterization and temperature control (30-1300K); feasibility of phasing structure factors in a quasicrystal using multiple Bragg scattering.

  7. Bioequivalence and other unresolved issues in generic drug substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Peter

    2003-11-01

    Substitution of generic drugs for brand-name products is highly controversial and often is met with suspicion by health care providers and patients. Historically, the debate has focused on the issue of bioequivalence, and clinical practice has identified a number of drug classes for which generic substitution should be approached with caution. Current bioequivalence requirements are based on a measure of average bioequivalence; however, there are fears that use of this measure may be inappropriate in the case of a drug with a narrow or wide therapeutic range or high intrasubject or intersubject variability. Under these circumstances, measures of individual and population bioequivalence are proposed to be more accurate than measures of average bioequivalence. This paper addresses issues of bioequivalence and other concerns with generic drug substitution. I conducted a MEDLINE search of the English-language literature containing the key terms generic, multisource, quality, and brand and published between 1973 and 2003. The names of branded pharmaceuticals whose patents had recently expired (eg, Ventolin HFA, Adalat, Capoten, Tagamet HB 200, and Valium) also were used to search for articles on generic substitution. Reference lists of relevant articles also were searched. Bioequivalence issues are presented together with more general concerns over generic drug substitution, such as consumer perception of risk, differences in product and packaging appearance, and differences in excipients. The literature reviewed act to highlight a number of different drug categories and patient subpopulations for which generic substitution can still prove to be problematic. I recommend that health care providers continue to exercise caution in the consideration of generic drug substitution under certain circumstances.

  8. Substitution of the wall of the trachea by absorbable synthetic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, H

    1988-02-01

    Synthetic, absorbable tissue proved to supply a valuable "interim support" for an orderly reconstruction of the wall of the trachea during the first three months following surgery. This is in general the result of experiments in which the use of implanted Polyglactin 910 as a substitute material for the tracheal wall of rats and rabbits was tested. Additionally the possibilities for satisfactory stabilization of the tracheal wall by means of Polydioxanon, another synthetic substance, which is absorbed more slowly, were investigated. The experiments were performed in a total of 30 rats and 70 rabbits. Initial attempts to substitute the entire circumference of the tracheal wall in the area of the neck by synthetics resulted in excessive difficulties post-surgically. Frequently substantial stenoses, obstructing respiration, developed. Consequently, patches of substitute material, covering more than half of the circumference of the trachea, were applied. The periods of survival of the animals ranged from one to 23 weeks. Following autopsy and macroscopical inspection, selected specimens were examined histologically by means of light microscopes and scanning electron microscopes. Evaluation of the samples showed progressive lining of the inner surface of the prosthetic patches with connective tissue and subsequent covering with squamous cell epithelium. On the average, approximately six weeks after surgery, ciliated columnar epithelium resembling normal respiratory mucosa developed. Gradually the synthetic fabric was replaced by dense connective tissue, which finally contained newly generated hyaline cartilage also. The very slow rate of dissolution of the polydioxanone material provided sufficient time for the formation of a new, stratified wall of the trachea, maintaining sufficient clearance in the tracheal lumen.

  9. Directed Line Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamien, Randall David

    This thesis is devoted to the study of ensembles of dense directed lines. These lines are principally to be thought of as polymers, though they also have the morphology of flux lines in high temperature superconductors, strings of colloidal spheres in electrorheological fluids and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons. We first study nematic polymers dissolved in a nematic solvent. We show that in the dense phase nematic polymers interacting directly through excluded volume and indirectly through nematic solvent fluctuations are, at long wavelengths, identical to nematic polymers in an isotropic solvent, interacting through, again, excluded volume as well as their nematic degrees of freedom. By including the effects of free ends we study ferro- and electrorheological fluids and finite chain length polymers. In the dilute phase, near the transition to the semi-dilute phase, a renormalization group treatment is performed, in the physical and critical dimension 3. For sufficiently dilute systems we find logarithmic corrections to polymer wandering, predicted by de Gennes. However, at higher densities, the logarithmic enhancement is suppressed, and the polymers execute conventional random walks along the preferred axis. We then study the isotropic to nematic transition in this same system of liquid-crystalline polymers. Using the replica technique introduced by de Gennes to study isotropic polymers, we formulate a fully isotropic theory of liquid-crystalline polymers dissolved in a liquid crystal matrix. The first order transition from isotropic to nematic ordering occurs, and leads to the original directed polymer theory previously studied. In agreement with physical expectations, the nematic ordering temperature is depressed by polymerization. Finally, we go back to directed systems, in this case directed by an explicit symmetry violation instead of spontaneously. We discuss how directed polymer melts, string-like formations in electrorheological and ferro

  10. Multiple Lines of Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Venzin, Alexander M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-03

    This paper discusses the process of identifying factors that influence the contamination level of a given decision area and then determining the likelihood that the area remains unacceptable. This process is referred to as lines of evidence. These lines of evidence then serve as inputs for the stratified compliance sampling (SCS) method, which requires a decision area to be divided into strata based upon contamination expectations. This is done in order to focus sampling efforts more within stratum where contamination is more likely and to use the domain knowledge about these likelihoods of the stratum remaining unacceptable to buy down the number of samples necessary, if possible. Two different building scenarios were considered as an example (see Table 3.1). SME expertise was elicited concerning four lines of evidence factors (see Table 3.2): 1) amount of contamination that was seen before decontamination, 2) post-decontamination air sampling information, 3) the applied decontaminant information, and 4) the surface material. Statistical experimental design and logistic regression modelling were used to help determine the likelihood that example stratum remained unacceptable for a given example scenario. The number of samples necessary for clearance was calculated by applying the SCS method to the example scenario, using the estimated likelihood of each stratum remaining unacceptable as was determined using the lines of evidence approach. The commonly used simple random sampling (SRS) method was also used to calculate the number of samples necessary for clearance for comparison purposes. The lines of evidence with SCS approach resulted in a 19% to 43% reduction in total number of samples necessary for clearance (see Table 3.6). The reduction depended upon the building scenario, as well as the level of percent clean criteria. A sensitivity analysis was also performed showing how changing the estimated likelihoods of stratum remaining unacceptable affect the number

  11. The histone variant H3.3 G34W substitution in giant cell tumor of the bone link chromatin and RNA processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jinyeong; Park, Joo Hyun; Baude, Annika; Yoo, Yeongran; Lee, Yeon Kyu; Schmidt, Christopher R; Park, Jong Bae; Fellenberg, Jörg; Zustin, Josef; Haller, Florian; Krücken, Irene; Kang, Hyun Guy; Park, Yoon Jung; Plass, Christoph; Lindroth, Anders M

    2017-10-18

    While transcription as regulated by histones and their post-translational modifications has been well described, the function of histone variants in this process remains poorly characterized. Potentially important insight into this process pertain to the frequently occurring mutations of H3.3, leading to G34 substitutions in childhood glioblastoma and giant cell tumor of the bone (GCTB). In this study, we have established primary cell lines from GCTB patients and used them to uncover the influence of H3.3 G34W substitutions on cellular growth behavior, gene expression, and chromatin compaction. Primary cell lines with H3.3 G34W showed increased colony formation, infiltration and proliferation, known hallmarks of tumor development. Isogenic cell lines with H3.3 G34W recapitulated the increased proliferation observed in primary cells. Transcriptomic analysis of primary cells and tumor biopsies revealed slightly more downregulated gene expression, perhaps by increased chromatin compaction. We identified components related to splicing, most prominently hnRNPs, by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry that specifically interact with H3.3 G34W in the isogenic cell lines. RNA-sequencing analysis and hybridization-based validations further enforced splicing aberrations. Our data uncover a role for H3.3 in RNA processing and chromatin modulation that is blocked by the G34W substitution, potentially driving the tumorigenic process in GCTB.

  12. A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

    1969-01-01

    Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

  13. The Bicycle Assembly Line Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    "The Bicycle Assembly Line Game" is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7-10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the…

  14. 19 CFR 171.54 - Substitute res in an administrative forfeiture action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute res in an administrative forfeiture... Procedures § 171.54 Substitute res in an administrative forfeiture action. (a) Substitute res. Where property... will be released to the owner or interested party subsequent to tender of the substitute res. (b...

  15. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; DeGrassie, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  16. Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Amanda

    2009-12-03

    Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit) instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution among medical cannabis patients. Anonymous survey data were collected at the Berkeley Patient's Group (BPG), a medical cannabis dispensary in Berkeley, CA. (N = 350) The sample was 68% male, 54% single, 66% White, mean age was 39; 74% have health insurance (including MediCal), 41% work full time, 81% have completed at least some college, 55% make less than $40,000 a year. Seventy one percent report having a chronic medical condition, 52% use cannabis for a pain related condition, 75% use cannabis for a mental health issue. Fifty three percent of the sample currently drinks alcohol, 2.6 was the average number of drinking days per week, 2.9 was the average number of drinks on a drinking occasion. One quarter currently uses tobacco, 9.5 is the average number of cigarettes smoked daily. Eleven percent have used a non-prescribed, non OTC drug in the past 30 days with cocaine, MDMA and Vicodin reported most frequently. Twenty five percent reported growing up in an abusive or addictive household. Sixteen percent reported previous alcohol and/or drug treatment, and 2% are currently in a 12-step or other recovery program. Forty percent have used cannabis as a substitute for alcohol, 26% as a substitute for illicit drugs and 66% as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common reasons given for substituting were: less adverse side effects (65%), better symptom management (57%), and less withdrawal potential (34%) with cannabis. The substitution of one psychoactive substance for another with the goal of reducing

  17. Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit) instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution among medical cannabis patients. Methods Anonymous survey data were collected at the Berkeley Patient's Group (BPG), a medical cannabis dispensary in Berkeley, CA. (N = 350) The sample was 68% male, 54% single, 66% White, mean age was 39; 74% have health insurance (including MediCal), 41% work full time, 81% have completed at least some college, 55% make less than $40,000 a year. Seventy one percent report having a chronic medical condition, 52% use cannabis for a pain related condition, 75% use cannabis for a mental health issue. Results Fifty three percent of the sample currently drinks alcohol, 2.6 was the average number of drinking days per week, 2.9 was the average number of drinks on a drinking occasion. One quarter currently uses tobacco, 9.5 is the average number of cigarettes smoked daily. Eleven percent have used a non-prescribed, non OTC drug in the past 30 days with cocaine, MDMA and Vicodin reported most frequently. Twenty five percent reported growing up in an abusive or addictive household. Sixteen percent reported previous alcohol and/or drug treatment, and 2% are currently in a 12-step or other recovery program. Forty percent have used cannabis as a substitute for alcohol, 26% as a substitute for illicit drugs and 66% as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common reasons given for substituting were: less adverse side effects (65%), better symptom management (57%), and less withdrawal potential (34%) with cannabis. Conclusion The substitution of one psychoactive substance for

  18. Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiman Amanda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution among medical cannabis patients. Methods Anonymous survey data were collected at the Berkeley Patient's Group (BPG, a medical cannabis dispensary in Berkeley, CA. (N = 350 The sample was 68% male, 54% single, 66% White, mean age was 39; 74% have health insurance (including MediCal, 41% work full time, 81% have completed at least some college, 55% make less than $40,000 a year. Seventy one percent report having a chronic medical condition, 52% use cannabis for a pain related condition, 75% use cannabis for a mental health issue. Results Fifty three percent of the sample currently drinks alcohol, 2.6 was the average number of drinking days per week, 2.9 was the average number of drinks on a drinking occasion. One quarter currently uses tobacco, 9.5 is the average number of cigarettes smoked daily. Eleven percent have used a non-prescribed, non OTC drug in the past 30 days with cocaine, MDMA and Vicodin reported most frequently. Twenty five percent reported growing up in an abusive or addictive household. Sixteen percent reported previous alcohol and/or drug treatment, and 2% are currently in a 12-step or other recovery program. Forty percent have used cannabis as a substitute for alcohol, 26% as a substitute for illicit drugs and 66% as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common reasons given for substituting were: less adverse side effects (65%, better symptom management (57%, and less withdrawal potential (34% with cannabis. Conclusion The substitution of one

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Human Tissue-Engineered Adipose Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Maryse; Aubin, Kim; Lagueux, Jean; Audet, Pierre; Auger, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) substitutes are being developed to answer the strong demand in reconstructive surgery. To facilitate the validation of their functional performance in vivo, and to avoid resorting to excessive number of animals, it is crucial at this stage to develop biomedical imaging methodologies, enabling the follow-up of reconstructed AT substitutes. Until now, biomedical imaging of AT substitutes has scarcely been reported in the literature. Therefore, the optimal parameters enabling good resolution, appropriate contrast, and graft delineation, as well as blood perfusion validation, must be studied and reported. In this study, human adipose substitutes produced from adipose-derived stem/stromal cells using the self-assembly approach of tissue engineering were implanted into athymic mice. The fate of the reconstructed AT substitutes implanted in vivo was successfully followed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is the imaging modality of choice for visualizing soft ATs. T1-weighted images allowed clear delineation of the grafts, followed by volume integration. The magnetic resonance (MR) signal of reconstructed AT was studied in vitro by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). This confirmed the presence of a strong triglyceride peak of short longitudinal proton relaxation time (T1) values (200±53 ms) in reconstructed AT substitutes (total T1=813±76 ms), which establishes a clear signal difference between adjacent muscle, connective tissue, and native fat (total T1 ∼300 ms). Graft volume retention was followed up to 6 weeks after implantation, revealing a gradual resorption rate averaging at 44% of initial substitute's volume. In addition, vascular perfusion measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI confirmed the graft's vascularization postimplantation (14 and 21 days after grafting). Histological analysis of the grafted tissues revealed the persistence of numerous adipocytes without evidence of cysts or tissue necrosis. This study

  20. Fuel line purging device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensel, R.J.

    1988-03-22

    In a fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine having a fuel pump communicating with a fuel tank and delivering pressurized fuel through a pressure line to a fuel injector, the improvement is described comprising purging means for purging gas, including air and vapor, from the system, comprising: a housing having an inlet communicating with the pressure line, and having an outlet; pressure responsive valve means in the housing movable between an open position permitting flow from the inlet to the outlet, and a closed position blocking flow from the inlet to the outlet; a first branch passage in the housing communicating between the inlet and one side of the valve means; a second branch passage in the housing communicating between the inlet and the other side of the valve means; restriction means in the second branch passage selected to provide a fuel pressure drop thereacross but not substantially dropping gas pressure thereacross.

  1. Adaptive method of lines

    CERN Document Server

    Saucez, Ph

    2001-01-01

    The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...

  2. Draw the Line!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    present proceedings from the UPGEM conference "Draw the Line!" in Copenhagen May 2008. The proceedings include contributions by UPGEM researchers, conference speeches by other researchers, politicians and gender equality officers in which they relate their work and research with the research done in UPGEM......Draw the Line! International Conference, Copenhagen 2008 Papers, proceedings and recommendations is the second publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM), which is financed by the European Commission. In this publication we....... The UPGEM research has previously been published in national reports from each of the partner countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Italy and Poland). In these individual national reports of universities as workplaces for male and female researchers we discuss scientific cultures in physics embedded...

  3. Drill string transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Bradford, Kline; Fox, Joe

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  4. Correlated electron state in CeCu2Si2 controlled through Si to P substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Y.; Saunders, S. M.; Graf, D.; Gallagher, A.; Chen, K.-W.; Kametani, F.; Besara, T.; Siegrist, T.; Shekhter, A.; Baumbach, R. E.

    2017-08-01

    CeCu2Si2 is an exemplary correlated electron metal that features two domes of unconventional superconductivity in its temperature-pressure phase diagram. The first dome surrounds an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point, whereas the more exotic second dome may span the termination point of a line of f -electron valence transitions. This behavior has received intense interest, but what has been missing are ways to access the high pressure behavior under milder conditions. Here we study Si → P chemical substitution, which compresses the unit cell volume but simultaneously weakens the hybridization between the f - and conduction electron states and encourages complex magnetism. At concentrations that show magnetism, applied pressure suppresses the magnetic ordering temperature and superconductivity is recovered for samples with low disorder. These results reveal that the electronic behavior in this system is controlled by a nontrivial combination of effects from unit cell volume and electronic shell filling. Guided by this topography, we discuss prospects for uncovering a valence fluctuation quantum phase transition in the broader family of Ce-based ThCr2Si2 -type materials through chemical substitution.

  5. Investigating the Spectrum of Biological Activity of Substituted Quinoline-2-Carboxamides and Their Isosteres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Imramovsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a series of thirty-five substituted quinoline-2-carboxamides and thirty-three substituted naphthalene-2-carboxamides were prepared and characterized. They were tested for their activity related to the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. Primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was also performed against four mycobacterial species. N-Cycloheptylquinoline-2-carboxamide, N-cyclohexylquinoline-2-carboxamide and N-(2-phenylethylquinoline-2-carboxamide showed higher activity against M. tuberculosis than the standards isoniazid or pyrazinamide and 2-(pyrrolidin-1-ylcarbonylquinoline and 1-(2-naphthoylpyrrolidine expressed higher activity against M. kansasii and M. avium paratuberculosis than the standards isoniazid or pyrazinamide. The most effective antimycobacterial compounds demonstrated insignificant toxicity against the human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line. The PET-inhibiting activity expressed by IC50 value of the most active compound N-benzyl-2-naphthamide was 7.5 μmol/L. For all compounds, the structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  6. Design, Synthesis and Anti-fibrosis Activity Study of N1-Substituted Phenylhydroquinolinone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pirfenidone (5-methyl-1-phenyl-2(1H-pyridone, PFD is a small-molecule compound acting on multiple targets involved in pathological fibrogenesis and is effective to increase the survival of patients with fibrosis, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, PFD is not active enough, requiring a high daily dose. In this study, to keep the multiple target profiles, N1-substituted phenylhydroquinolinone derivatives, which retain the 1-phenyl-2(1H-pyridone scaffold were designed and synthesized. The preliminary anti-fibrosis activities for all target compounds were evaluated on a NIH3T3 fibroblast cell line using MTT assay methods. Most compounds showed significant inhibition on NIH3T3 cell proliferation with a IC50 range of 0.09–26 mM, among which 5-hydroxy-1-(4'-bromophenyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolin-2(1H-one (6j displayed 13 times higher potency (IC50 = 0.3 mM than that of AKF-PD (IC50 = 4.2 mM. These results suggest that N1-substituted phenylhydroquinolinone is a promising scaffold which can be applied for further investigation and for developing novel anti-fibrosis agents.

  7. [APDI and ODI estimated from substitute palate plane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen-qi; Qian, Yu-fen; Shen, Gang; Wang, Guo-ming

    2004-02-01

    The substitute palate plane was defined at the cephalometrics of noncleft patients. APDI and ODI were estimated from substitute PP. It is expected that the APDI and ODI estimated from PP (APDI',ODI')can be extended to the cleft patients to illustrate the anteroposterior and vertical relationship between maxilla and mandible. The cephalometrics of 30 patients of C-I,C-II and C-III were traced and so were in 30 patients of normal overbite,deep overbite and open bite. The substitute palate plane(PP') was defined. The inclination of the PP to the FH, APDI and ODI, the inclination of the substitute PP to the FH,APDI' and ODI' were measured. The APDI and APDI' of C-I, C-II and C-III patients were compared,The ODI and ODI' of normal overbite, deep overbite and open bite patients were also compared by group t test. There was no significant difference between APDI and APDI' in C-I, C-II and C-III patients and also no significant difference between ODI and ODI' in normal overbite,deep overbite and open bite patients. It is showed the higher the ODI',the deeper the overbite. And the higher the APDI', the more mesial the molar relationship. The APDI and ODI estimated from substitute PP can be used as an important criterion to judge the vertical and anteroposterior development of the the maxilla, especially in palate clefts patients.

  8. Characteristics of Magnetic Properties of Substituted Hexagonal Ferrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Jancarik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The samples of barium hexaferrite BaFe12-2x(Me1Me2xO19 with x from 0.0 to 0.6 were prepared by variousmethods. The cationic preference of mainly divalent Me1 = Zn, Co, Ni, Sn ions and tetravalent Me2 = Ti, Zr, Ir, Sn, Ru ionsand their combinations in substituted Ba ferrites was investigated. The substitutions were performed to reduce the grain sizeand high magnetic uniaxial anisotropy field of the M-type Ba ferrite without affecting the magnetic polarisation. The goal isto reach the properties of ferrite proper for high-density magnetic recording and microwave absorption devices. Magneticproperties were determined as a function of the substitution level x. The specific saturation magnetic polarisation Js–m andremanence Js–rincreased with small x due to the substitution of non-magnetic and less magnetic ions in 4f1 and 4f2 sites. Thesteep decrease of coercivity Hc with increasing x may be caused by the Co2+ preference of 4f2 site and Ti4+or Zr4+ions preference of 2b and slightly in 4f1 sites. The temperature coefficient of the coercivity TKHc was very low (0.01kA.m-1.°C-1for the Co-Zr substitutions and positive for the rest of samples.

  9. Factors affecting the demarketing of breastmilk substitutes in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohammad Zedan Yehia

    2013-06-01

    Although medical research has proven that breastfeeding is unparalleled in providing the ideal nutrition for infants, "the demarketing of breastmilk substitutes" is a little-known concept. This empirical study tackled the origin and definition of demarketing, examined the different factors affecting the demarketing of breastmilk substitutes in Palestine from the breastfeeding woman's point of view, and developed an appropriate model for the demarketing of breastmilk substitutes. The article subsequently concludes with recommendations for areas of further academic research in the World Health Assembly, for policy makers in Palestine, and for the breastfeeding women themselves. An empirical study was conducted to collect the primary data using a questionnaire as a tool in order to test the hypotheses. The questionnaire was distributed to 400 breastfeeding women who were randomly selected from the population. The findings proved that there is a relationship between independent variables (i.e., product, price, place, and promotion) and the dependent variable (i.e., demarketing of breastmilk substitutes) based on several reasons discussed thoroughly in this article. Product, price, place, and promotion affect the demarketing of breastmilk substitutes in Palestine.

  10. A test of the substitution-habitat hypothesis in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro; Galán, Pedro

    2017-12-08

    Most examples that support the substitution-habitat hypothesis (human-made habitats act as substitutes of original habitat) deal with birds and mammals. We tested this hypothesis in 14 amphibians by using percentage occupancy as a proxy of habitat quality (i.e., higher occupancy percentages indicate higher quality). We classified water body types as original habitat (no or little human influence) depending on anatomical, behavioral, or physiological adaptations of each amphibian species. Ten species had relatively high probabilities (0.16-0.28) of occurrence in original habitat, moderate probability of occurrence in substitution habitats (0.11-0.14), and low probability of occurrence in refuge habitats (0.05-0.08). Thus, the substitution-habitat hypothesis only partially applies to amphibians because the low occupancy of refuges could be due to the negligible human persecution of this group (indicating good conservation status). However, low occupancy of refuges could also be due to low tolerance of refuge conditions, which could have led to selective extinction or colonization problems due to poor dispersal capabilities. That original habitats had the highest probabilities of occupancy suggests amphibians have a good conservation status in the region. They also appeared highly adaptable to anthropogenic substitution habitats. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Evolution of a Biosynthetic Temporary Skin Substitute: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroof, Aubrey; Phipps, Richard; Woeller, Collynn; Rodeheaver, George; Naughton, Gail K; Piney, Emmett; Hickerson, William; Branski, Ludwik; Holmes, James H

    2015-01-01

    To compare PermeaDerm to first temporary biosynthetic skin substitute (Biobrane, cleared by the Food and Drug Administration in 1979). Different temporary skin substitutes (Biobrane, PermeaDerm, and PermeaDerm derivatives) were tested for physical differences, impact on healing wounds, inflammatory response, and ability to allow adequate growth of dermal fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells without accumulation of excessive scar-forming myofibroblasts. Proliferation of fibroblasts and stem cells on various skin substitutes was measured, and myofibroblast marker accumulation was evaluated by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin. Fibroblast migration was measured by tracking viable cells with MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] dye. In vivo testing shows PermeaDerm works well as a temporary skin substitute, performing better than Biobrane with respect to inflammation and fluid accumulation. Tissue culture techniques revealed that cells on PermeaDerm grow in a more uniform fashion and migrated to a greater extent than cells on Biobrane. Furthermore, cells grown in the presence of PermeaDerm expressed lower levels of the myofibroblast markers α-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin than cells grown on Biobrane. PermeaDerm with variable porosity possesses all attributes and properties known to be important for a successful temporary skin substitute and enables the clinician to control porosity from essentially zero to what the wound requires. The ability of the clinician to minimize wound desiccation without fluid accumulation is related to the reduction of punctate scarring.

  12. Fine structure study on low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wei [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ma, Jun, E-mail: caltary@gmail.com [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Jianglin [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Shengmin, E-mail: smzhang@mail.hust.edu.cn [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); China-Korea Center for Biomaterials and Nano-biotechnology, Life Science Building, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-12-01

    The fine structure of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite was studied using experimental analysis and first-principles calculations. The synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles containing low Zn concentration show rod-like morphology. The crystallite sizes and unit-cell volumes tended to decrease with the increased Zn concentration according to X-ray diffraction patterns. The Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectra and fitting results suggest that the hydroxyapatite doped with 0.1 mole% zinc is different in the zinc coordination environments compared with that containing more zinc. The density function theory calculations were performed on zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Two mechanisms included replacing calcium by zinc and inserting zinc along the hydroxyl column and were investigated, and the related substitution energies were calculated separately. It is found that the substitution energies are negative and lowest for inserting zinc between the two oxygen atoms along the hydroxyl column (c-axis). Combined with the spectral analysis, it is suggested that the inserting mechanism is favored for low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the fine structure of hydroxyapatite with low content of Zn. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XANES spectra are similar but a little different at low zinc content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc ions influence hydroxyapatite crystal formation and lattice parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation energies are calculated according to plane-wave density function theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low content of zinc prefers to locate at hydroxyl column in hydroxyapatite lattice.

  13. Repression and substitutive formation: the relationship between Freud's concepts reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, Siegfried

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines Freud's concept of repression and the relationship between repression and substitutive formation as it presents itself in Freud's writings. The author shows that Freud gives at least four different meanings to the term "repression": Freud uses it interchangeably with defense, as a consciously intended forgetting, as a specific unconscious mechanism of defense, and to describe the consequence of defense mechanisms leading to substitutive formations. The inconsistencies in this relationship are discussed and clarified, and Freud's economic and linguistic attempts at founding repression are subjected to critique; the need of a primal repression as a necessary condition for repression proper is pointed out. In developing Freud's linguistic foundation of repression further, the author presents defense as a semantic displacement. Ideas are excluded from the realm of the concepts that belong to them historically. These presentations become unconscious, that is, repressed, in that they can no longer be identified as "cases" of these conceptual internal contents. At the same time they are displaced into the extensions of concepts whose internal contents do not belong to them originally. It is by virtue of the internal contents of these concepts that the displaced elements as substitutive formations once again attain consciousness, albeit a false one. The author suggests dismissing repression as a specific defense mechanism of its own; to reversing Freud's thesis that repression, as a rule, creates a substitutive formation into its opposite; and recognizing that the mechanisms used to build substitutes, as a rule, create repression.

  14. Import Substitution as a Factor of Regional Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanova Irina Fedorovna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The current state of import substitution in Russia is considered. The authors’ definition is given to the concept of import substitution. The features of short-term and longterm strategies of import substitution are opened. The authors prove the need of diversification of the directions of foreign economic activity by reorientation of the foreign trade communications of Russia to the markets of the countries of CIS, the customs union and CES as well as the countries of the Asia Pacific region. The reasons of growth of import deliveries of foodstuff are opened. The comparative analysis of food consumption level in Russia is conducted. The food coefficients dependence on the most important food are calculated. The comparative analysis of productive indicators of domestic agricultural production with similar indicators of the foreign states is made. The strategies of import substitution for domestic agriculture taking into account its specifics and production potential, is offered. The assessment of potential of import substitution of Saratov region is presented. The priority actions on ensuring food security and growth of economy of the region are offered.

  15. Hydrogen Stark Broadened Brackett lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stehlé

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stark-broadened lines of the hydrogen Brackett series are computed for the conditions of stellar atmospheres and circumstellar envelopes. The computation is performed within the Model Microfield Method, which includes the ion dynamic effects and makes the bridge between the impact limit at low density and the static limit at high density and in the line wings. The computation gives the area normalized line shape, from the line core up to the static line wings.

  16. Line managers as marketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynne, T J

    1986-09-01

    Many hospital administrators and boards of directors, having overcome their initial opposition to advertising and hired a marketing professional, are wondering why their marketing programs have not accomplished all that they had hoped. The answer lies in their perception of who is responsible for marketing. Marketing is not a specialty separate from the disciplines of management--it is a basic management skill. Its goal is to satisfy the customer by providing products and services that meet the customer's needs, wants, and preferences. Line managers must understand the hospital's customers and make the critical day-to-day differences in satisfying them. They are the hospital's front-line marketers, and the marketing department's role is to support them in this function. The marketing department should develop the line managers' marketing skills by furnishing them with the appropriate tools: formats, models, examples, and instructions. In addition, the marketing staff should provide such specialized services as marketing research, ad agency management, and development of communications.

  17. Synthesis and anti-proliferative activity of fluoro-substituted chalcones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmaoglu, Serdar; Algul, Oztekin; Anıl, Derya Aktas; Gobek, Arzu; Duran, Gulay Gulbol; Ersan, Ronak Haj; Duran, Nizami

    2016-07-01

    A series of novel fluoro-substituted chalcone derivatives have been synthesized. All synthesized compounds were characterized by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C NMR, and elemental analysis. Their anti-proliferative activities were evaluated against five cancer cells lines, namely, A549, A498, HeLa, A375, and HepG2 using the MTT method. Most of the compounds showed moderate to high activity with IC50 values in the range of 0.029-0.729μM. Of all the synthesized compounds, 10 and 19 exhibited the most potent anti-proliferative activities against cancer cells, and 10 was identified as the most promising compound. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis and Bioactivity of 5-Substituted-2-furoyl Diacylhydazide Derivatives with Aliphatic Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zining Cui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of 5-substituted-2-furoyl diacylhydazide derivatives with aliphatic chain were designed and synthesized. Their structures were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis, and X-ray single crystal diffraction. The anti-tumor bioassay revealed that some title compounds exhibited promising activity against the selected cancer cell lines, especially against the human promyelocytic leukemic cells (HL-60. Their fungicidal tests indicated that most of the title compounds showed significant anti-fungal activity. The preliminary structure-activity relationship showed that the aliphatic chain length and differences in the R2 group had obvious effects on the anti-tumor and anti-fungal activities. The bioassay results demonstrated that the title compounds hold great promise as novel lead compounds for further drug discovery.

  19. Substitution rate variation at human CpG sites correlates with non-CpG divergence, methylation level and GC content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugal, Carina F; Ellegren, Hans

    2011-06-22

    A major goal in the study of molecular evolution is to unravel the mechanisms that induce variation in the germ line mutation rate and in the genome-wide mutation profile. The rate of germ line mutation is considerably higher for cytosines at CpG sites than for any other nucleotide in the human genome, an increase commonly attributed to cytosine methylation at CpG sites. The CpG mutation rate, however, is not uniform across the genome and, as methylation levels have recently been shown to vary throughout the genome, it has been hypothesized that methylation status may govern variation in the rate of CpG mutation. Here, we use genome-wide methylation data from human sperm cells to investigate the impact of DNA methylation on the CpG substitution rate in introns of human genes. We find that there is a significant correlation between the extent of methylation and the substitution rate at CpG sites. Further, we show that the CpG substitution rate is positively correlated with non-CpG divergence, suggesting susceptibility to factors responsible for the general mutation rate in the genome, and negatively correlated with GC content. We only observe a minor contribution of gene expression level, while recombination rate appears to have no significant effect. Our study provides the first direct empirical support for the hypothesis that variation in the level of germ line methylation contributes to substitution rate variation at CpG sites. Moreover, we show that other genomic features also impact on CpG substitution rate variation.

  20. Persistent enhancement of ethanol drinking following a monosodium glutamate-substitution procedure in C57BL6/J and DBA/2J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Brian A; Chappell, Ann M

    2014-02-01

    Inbred mouse strains such as C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) and related strains have been used extensively to help identify genetic controls for a number of ethanol-related behaviors, including acute intoxication and sensitivity to repeated exposures. The disparate ethanol drinking behaviors of B6 mice expressing high-drinking/preference and D2 mice expressing low-drinking/preference have yielded considerable insight into the heritable control of alcohol drinking. However, the B6-high and D2-low drinking phenotypes are contrasted with ethanol-conditioned reward-like behaviors, which are robustly expressed by D2 mice and considerably less expressed by B6 mice. This suggests that peripheral factors, chiefly ethanol taste, may help drive ethanol drinking by these and related strains, which complicates mouse genetic studies designed to understand the relationships between reward-related behaviors and ethanol drinking. Traditional approaches such as the sucrose/saccharin-substitution procedure that normally accentuate ethanol drinking in rodents have had limited success in low drinking/preferring mice such as the D2 line. This may be due to allelic variations of the sweet taste receptor subunit, expressed by many ethanol low-drinking/preferring strains, which would limit the utility of these types of substitution approaches. We have recently shown (McCool & Chappell, 2012) that monosodium glutamate (MSG), the primary component of umami taste, can be used in a substitution procedure to initiate ethanol drinking in both B6 and D2 mice that greatly surpasses that initiated by a more traditional sucrose-substitution procedure. In this study, we show that ethanol drinking initiated by MSG substitution in D2 mice, but not sucrose substitution, can persist for several weeks following removal of the flavor. These findings further illustrate the utility of MSG substitution to initiate ethanol drinking in distinct mouse strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tissue reaction and material characteristics of four bone substitutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S S; Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the tissue reactions around four different bone substitutes used in orthopedic and craniofacial surgery. Cylinders of two bovine bone substitutes (Endobon and Bio-Oss) and two coral-derived bone substitutes (Pro Osteon 5......-Oss was osseointegrated to a higher degree than the other biomaterials. Material characteristics obtained by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometry analysis and energy-dispersive spectrometry did not explain the differences in biologic behavior....... and Interpore 500 HA/CC) were implanted into 5-mm bur holes in rabbit tibiae. There was no difference in the amount of newly formed bone around the four biomaterials. Interpore 500 HA/CC resorbed completely, whereas the other three biomaterials did not undergo any detectable biodegradation. Bio...

  2. Synthesis and application of trifluoroethoxy-substituted phthalocyanines and subphthalocyanines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Mori

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Phthalocyanines and subphthalocyanines are attracting attention as functional dyes that are applicable to organic solar cells, photodynamic therapy, organic electronic devices, and other applications. However, phthalocyanines are generally difficult to handle due to their strong ability to aggregate, so this property must be controlled for further applications of phthalocyanines. On the other hand, trifluoroethoxy-substituted phthalocyanines are known to suppress aggregation due to repulsion of the trifluoroethoxy group. Furthermore, the electronic characteristics of phthalocyanines are significantly changed by the strong electronegativity of fluorine. Therefore, it is expected that trifluoroethoxy-substituted phthalocyanines can be applied to new industrial fields. This review summarizes the synthesis and application of trifluoroethoxy-substituted phthalocyanine and subphthalocyanine derivatives.

  3. Fibrous growth of strontium substituted hydroxyapatite and its drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suganthi, R.V.; Elayaraja, K.; Joshy, M.I. Ahymah; Chandra, V. Sarath [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Girija, E.K. [Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011 (India); Kalkura, S. Narayana, E-mail: kalkura@yahoo.com [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2011-04-08

    The effect of strontium on the crystallization of helical ribbon of hydroxyapatite (HAp) was investigated by single diffusion technique in silica gel matrix at 27 deg. C and physiological pH. Fibers of HAp were obtained on addition of strontium. The length of the HAp fibers, were found to decrease as the strontium substitution increases. The presence of strontium ion increased the crystallinity as well as crystallite size of HAp. The strontium substituted HAp (Sr-HAp) has similar stoichiometry to that of biological apatite. Sr-HAp was found to have increased surface area (35%) compared to control. Further, strontium substitution leads to an enhancement of in vitro bioactivity. The cumulative in-vitro amoxicillin drug release in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.2) showed a prolonged release profile for Sr-HAp.

  4. Substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages with other beverage alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has become an intractable public health concern worldwide, making investigation of healthy beverage alternatives for SSBs imperative. AIM: To summarize the available evidence on the effects of replacing SSBs with beverage...... alternatives on long-term health outcomes. METHOD: We systematically retrieved studies from six electronic databases from inception to November 2013. Prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effects of substituting beverage alternatives for SSBs on long-term health...... to high. Evidence from both cohort studies and RCTs showed substitution of SSBs by various beverage alternatives was associated with long-term lower energy intake and lower weight gain. However, evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions regarding the effect of beverage substitution on other health...

  5. Comparison between three different saliva substitutes in patients with hyposalivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrinjar, Ivana; Vucicevic Boras, Vanja; Bakale, Iva; Andabak Rogulj, Ana; Brailo, Vlaho; Vidovic Juras, Danica; Alajbeg, Ivan; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the efficiency of oral spray based on thermal spring water (Buccotherm®) versus commercial saliva substitute (Xeros®) and marshmallow root on the quality of life in patients with hyposalivation. A total of 60 patients with unstimulated salivary flow rate hyposalivation. Intensity of dry mouth was lower after the applied therapy whatever substitute patients used. We recommend the use of all three saliva substitutes for decreasing the intensity of dry mouth symptoms as well as improvement in the quality of life. Although all tested agents showed beneficial effect in alleviating hyposalivation symptoms, it seems that Buccotherm® was superior to Xeros® and marshmallow root.

  6. Application of queuing theory in inventory systems with substitution flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedhoseini, S. M.; Rashid, Reza; Kamalpour, Iman; Zangeneh, Erfan

    2015-01-01

    Considering the competition in today's business environment, tactical planning of a supply chain becomes more complex than before. In many multi-product inventory systems, substitution flexibility can improve profits. This paper aims to prepare a comprehensive substitution inventory model, where an inventory system with two substitute products with ignorable lead time has been considered, and effects of simultaneous ordering have been examined. In this paper, demands of customers for both of the products have been regarded as stochastic parameters, and queuing theory has been used to construct a mathematical model. The model has been coded by C++, and it has been analyzed due to a real example, where the results indicate efficiency of proposed model.

  7. How Firms Substitute for Authority in Strategic Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Becker, Markus C.

    takes place in response to changes in decision characteristics, including decision complexity, decision importance, CEO proximity, and the degree to which a decision is routine. We show various manifestations of the substitution mechanism and discuss implications for strategic decision-making.......Strategic decisions are often made by multiple organizational members who form decision-making structures specialized for a given strategic decision. We study a series of strategic decisions in a business unit of a global Fortune 500 firm, identifying for each decision the hierarchical...... and departmental positions of all participating organizational members. We find that firms substitute between different structural components in decision-making structures to combine hierarchical authority with cross-departmental coordination and redundant knowledge. This substitution between structural components...

  8. Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette

    for Pharmacoepidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medicine Solna, Stockholm, Sweden 3. Danish Quality Unit of General Practice, Odense, Denmark Background Generic substitution means that chemically equivalent but less expensive drugs are dispensed in place of a brand name product. Although generic medicines...... by definition are bioequivalent to their brand name counterparts there are concerns about whether generic substitution is always accompanied by clinical equivalence in terms of effectiveness and that it may cause concerns and thereby causing some skepticism towards generic substitution. There is, however......, a lack of knowledge about whether some groups of patients may be influenced by drug-switching. Research questions We want to identify the characteristics that distinguish the two patient groups: One group that has experienced a generic switch and one that has not. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire...

  9. Episodic Statistics of Evolutionary Substitutions in DNA Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bruce J.

    1998-03-01

    The number of molecular substitutions occurring in a DNA sequence in a given time interval is described by a fractional-difference equation whose statistics are described by a truncated Levy distribution and which has an inverse power law correlation function. This is an empirically motivated stochastic model of molecular evolution and does not address the evolutionary mechanisms that lead to substitutions. The Levy stable process yields a Fano Factor, the ratio of the variance to the mean in the number of molecular substitutions, that increases as a power law in time. This prediction agrees with the observed statistics across 49 different genes in mammals. This model of molecular evolution is episodic and is consistent with the punctuated equilibrium model of macroevolution without making additional statistical assumptions.

  10. Effective non-viral delivery of siRNA to acute myeloid leukemia cells with lipid-substituted polyethylenimines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breanne Landry

    Full Text Available Use of small interfering RNA (siRNA is a promising approach for AML treatment as the siRNA molecule can be designed to specifically target proteins that contribute to aberrant cell proliferation in this disease. However, a clinical-relevant means of delivering siRNA molecules must be developed, as the cellular delivery of siRNA is problematic. Here, we report amphiphilic carriers combining a cationic polymer (2 kDa polyethyleneimine, PEI2 with lipophilic moieties to facilitate intracellular delivery of siRNA to AML cell lines. Complete binding of siRNA by the designed carriers was achieved at a polymer:siRNA ratio of ≈ 0.5 and led to siRNA/polymer complexes of ≈ 100 nm size. While the native PEI2 did not display cytotoxicity on AML cell lines THP-1, KG-1 and HL-60, lipid-modification on PEI2 slightly increased the cytotoxicity, which was consistent with increased interaction of polymers with cell membranes. Cellular delivery of siRNA was dependent on the nature of lipid substituent and the extent of lipid substitution, and varied among the three AML cell lines used. Linoleic acid-substituted polymers performed best among the prepared polymers and gave a siRNA delivery equivalent to better performing commercial reagents. Using THP-1 cells and a reporter (GFP and an endogenous (CXCR4 target, effective silencing of the chosen targets was achieved with 25 to 50 nM of siRNA concentrations, and without adversely affecting subsequent cell growth. We conclude that lipid-substituted PEI2 can serve as an effective delivery of siRNA to leukemic cells and could be employed in molecular therapy of leukemia.

  11. In Vitro Investigation of Self-Assembled Nanoparticles Based on Hyaluronic Acid-Deoxycholic Acid Conjugates for Controlled Release Doxorubicin: Effect of Degree of Substitution of Deoxycholic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hao Wei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembled nanoparticles based on a hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid (HD chemical conjugate with different degree of substitution (DS of deoxycholic acid (DOCA were prepared. The degree of substitution (DS was determined by titration method. The nanoparticles were loaded with doxorubicin (DOX as the model drug. The human cervical cancer (HeLa cell line was utilized for in vitro studies and cell cytotoxicity of DOX incorporated in the HD nanoparticles was accessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. In addition, cellular uptake of fluorescently labeled nanoparticles was also investigated. An increase in the degree of deoxycholic acid substitution reduced the size of the nanoparticles and also enhanced their drug encapsulation efficiency (EE, which increased with the increase of DS. A higher degree of deoxycholic acid substitution also lead to a lower release rate and an initial burst release of doxorubicin from the nanoparticles. In summary, the degree of substitution allows the modulation of the particle size, drug encapsulation efficiency, drug release rate, and cell uptake efficiency of the nanoparticles. The herein developed hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid conjugates are a good candidate for drug delivery and could potentiate therapeutic formulations for doxorubicin–mediated cancer therapy.

  12. Fish mislabelling in France: substitution rates and retail types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Bénard-Capelle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Market policies have profound implications for consumers as well as for the management of resources. One of the major concerns in fish trading is species mislabelling: the commercial name used does not correspond to the product, most often because the product is in fact a cheaper or a more easily available species. Substitution rates depend heavily on species, some often being sold mislabelled while others rarely or never mislabelled. Rates also vary largely depending on countries. In this study, we analyse the first market-wide dataset collected for France, the largest sea food market in Europe, for fish species substitution. We sequenced and analysed 371 samples bearing 55 commercial species names, collected in fishmonger shops, supermarkets and restaurants; the largest dataset assembled to date in an European country. Sampling included fish fillets, both fresh and frozen, and prepared meals. We found a total of 14 cases of mislabelling in five species: bluefin tuna, cod, yellowfin tuna, sole and seabream, setting the overall substitution rate at 3.7% CI [2.2–6.4], one of the lowest observed for comparable surveys with large sampling. We detected no case of species mislabelling among the frozen fillets or in industrially prepared meals, and all the substitutions were observed in products sold in fishmongers shops or restaurants. The rate of mislabelling does not differ between species, except for bluefin tuna. Despite a very small sample size (n = 6, the rate observed for this species (83.3% CI [36–99] stands in sharp contrast with the low substitution rate observed for the other substituted species. In agreement with studies from other countries, this work shows that fish mislabelling can vary greatly within a country depending on the species. It further suggests that more efforts should be directed to the control of high value species like bluefin tuna.

  13. Mapping the Trajectory of Nucleophilic Substitution at Silicon Using a peri-Substituted Acenaphthyl Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupf, Emanuel; Olaru, Marian; Raţ, Ciprian I; Fugel, Malte; Hübschle, Christian B; Lork, Enno; Grabowsky, Simon; Mebs, Stefan; Beckmann, Jens

    2017-08-04

    The second-order nucleophilic substitution (S N 2) reaction at a silicon atom is scrutinized by means of snapshots along a pseudoreaction coordinate. Phosphine and fluoride represent both attacking and leaving groups in the modeled S N 2 reaction. In the experimentally obtained 5-diphenylphosphinoacenaphth-6-yl-dimethylfluorosilane, 1, the phosphine and fluorosilane moieties are forced into immediate proximity through an acenaphthyl scaffold, that is, they exhibit peri interactions that serve as the model of the reactant ion-molecule complex and starting point for a theoretical potential-energy surface (PES) scan. Upon dissociation of fluoride, the experimentally obtained silylphosphonium cation 2 serves as a model of the product and end point of the PES scan. The pseudoreaction pathway is studied using geometric, energetic, spectroscopic, molecular-orbital, and topological real-space bonding indicators. It becomes evident that it is crucial to combine such methods to understand the pseudoreaction because they reveal different aspects based on different sensitivity to dispersive, electrostatic, and polar-covalent contributions to bonding, as shown by the reduced density gradient analysis. For example, atoms-in-molecules theory describes a late topological catastrophe, whereas the electron localizability indicator describes an early concerted reaction and natural resonance theory describes a more gradual change of properties. This case study encourages the use of a well-balanced toolbox equipped with complementary methods to emphasize different aspects of bonding. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Syntheses and Anticonvulsant Activity of N4-Substituted Triazolylthiazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bineshmarvasti

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the good anticonvulsant activity of various 1,2,4-triazoles, several new N4-substituted triazolylthiazoles were prepared by the general method for 1,2,4-triazole ring closure. Anticonvulsant activity of compounds was measured against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice by intraperitoneal injections of different doses of the test compounds. Pretreatment of animals with flumazenil (10 mg/kg, i.p. as a benzodiazepine receptors antagonist did not have any significant effect on anticonvulsant activity of the test compounds. These results demonstrate that the anticonvulsant activity of N4-substituted triazolylthiazole agents is not probably mediated by direct interaction with benzodiazepine receptor complex.

  15. Researcher’s Perspective of Substitution Method on Text Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir Mansor, Fawwaz; Mustapha, Aida; Azah Samsudin, Noor

    2017-08-01

    The linguistic steganography studies are still in the stage of development and empowerment practices. This paper will present several text steganography on substitution methods based on the researcher’s perspective, all scholar paper will analyse and compared. The objective of this paper is to give basic information in the substitution method of text domain steganography that has been applied by previous researchers. The typical ways of this method also will be identified in this paper to reveal the most effective method in text domain steganography. Finally, the advantage of the characteristic and drawback on these techniques in generally also presented in this paper.

  16. Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, H.; Sjåstad, Anja O.; Fjellvåg, Helmer

    2011-01-01

    Single-layer Nb-substituted titanate nanosheets of ca. 1 nm thickness were obtained by exfoliating tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-intercalated Nb-substituted titanates in water. AFM images and turbidity measurements reveal that the exfoliated nanosheets crack and corrugate when sonicated. Upon heating,...... factors for increasing the transformation temperatures for conversion of the nanosheets to anatase and finally into rutile. It is further tempting to link the delay in crystallization to morphology limitations originating from the nanosheets. The present work shows that layered Nb...

  17. Vacancy Mediated Mechanism of Nitrogen Substitution in Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Menon, Madhu; Sadanadan, Bindu; Rao, Apparao M.

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen substitution reaction in a graphene sheet and carbon nanotubes of different diameter are investigated using the generalized tight-binding molecular dynamics method. The formation of a vacancy in curved graphene sheet or a carbon nanotube is found to cause a curvature dependent local reconstruction of the surface. Our simulations and analysis show that vacancy mediated N substitution (rather than N chemisorption) is favored on the surface of nanotubes with diameter larger than 8 nm. This predicted value of the critical minimum diameter for N incorporation is confirmed by experimental results presented.

  18. Low substitution rates in mitochondrial DNA in Mediterranean carabid beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prüser, F; Mossakowski, D

    1998-05-01

    The estimation of DNA substitution rates requires calibration with the geological events which caused the separation of populations. We used the disintegration of the landbridges between Morocco and Gibraltar as well as the Balearics and Spain at the end of the Messinian event (5.3 myr) in order to calibrate the DNA sequence data of the NADH-dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) in West Mediterranean Carabus species. The rates of molecular evolution we found are much lower than those reported in the literature and also vary from species to species. Therefore, in insects the calculation of divergence periods using a constant 2% substitution rate per myr is questionable.

  19. EPR study on copper- and vanadium complexes with substituted phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shklyaev, A.A.; Selyutin, G.E.; Shakot' ko, N.I.; Mikhalenko, S.A. (Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Organicheskikh Poluproduktov i Krasitelej, Moscow (USSR))

    1984-06-01

    The structure of binuclear associates of substituted vanadyl- and copper-phthalocyanines is investigated. The EPR study has shown that metal phthalocyanine protonation in acid media (CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/, Py, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, toluence, etc) is accompanied by destabilization of bonds of the central ion with a polycyclic ligand. Substituted copper- and vanadyl phthalocyanines form dimerized associates where M-M interatmic distance varies in a wide range from 4.1 to 12 A.

  20. Elasticity of substitution and anti-dumping decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by a monopolistic competition model with market segmentation and international price discrimination, this paper analyzes whether there is an inverse relation between the elasticity of substitution and final ad valorem anti-dumping duties across products. We test this for 19 countries...... using data on anti-dumping from the Global Antidumping Database and US data at the 6-digit HS product level for the elasticity of substitution from Broda and Weinstein (Q J Econ 121(2):541–585, 2006). The results in our empirical investigation support a negative relation between the elasticity...

  1. Bioactivity And Bone Formation In Silicon-Substituted Hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulvan Ozad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity and successful bone formation in silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite bone grafts were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy and electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Areas of bone formation have been detected in scanning electron microscopy; and, arranged lamellar collagen has been observed. 20.8% average carbon content rise has been detected between bone graft and the produced bone; and, this has been confirmed to be a gradual increase throughout the interphase. Obvious bone formation and maturation were observed in the samples. Carbon content gradually increased from bone graft to the bone formed, confirming formation of new bone and dissociation of silicon-substituted bone graft.

  2. Substituted judgment in principle and practice: a national physician survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Michael P; Rasinski, Kenneth A; Yoon, John D; Curlin, Farr A

    2013-07-01

    To describe the extent to which US physicians endorse substituted judgments in principle or accommodate them in practice. We surveyed a stratified, random sample of 2016 physicians by mail from June 25, 2010, to September 3, 2010. Primary outcome measures were agreement with 2 in-principle statements about substituted judgment and, after an experimental vignette that varied the basis used by a patient's surrogate to refuse life-saving treatment, responses indicating how appropriate it would be to overrule the surrogate's decision. Our response rate was 62% (1156 of 1875 respondents). When there is a conflict between what a surrogate believes a patient would have wanted (substituted judgment) and what the surrogate believes is in the patient's best interest, 4 of 5 physicians (78%) agreed that the surrogate should base their decision on substituted judgment. Yet we also found that 2 of 5 physicians (40%) agree that surrogates should make decisions they believe are in the patient's best interest, even if those seem to contradict the patient's prior wishes. In the experimental vignette, physicians were much more likely to oppose overruling a surrogate's refusal of life-sustaining medical treatment when that refusal was made on the basis of substituted judgment compared with when the refusal was made on the basis of the patient's best interest (50% vs 20%; odds ratio, 4.2; 95% CI, 2.7-6.3). Responses to the in-principle items about substituted judgment were not consistently associated with responses to the experimental vignette. US physicians largely agree, in principle, that surrogates should prioritize what the patient would have wanted over what they believe is in the patient's best interest, although many physicians are ambivalent in cases in which the 2 norms conflict. Even physicians who reject the principle of substituted judgment tend to treat substituted judgment as the preferred norm for surrogate decision making when responding to a clinical vignette

  3. UV action spectroscopy of protonated PAH derivatives. Methyl substituted quinolines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klærke, Benedikte; Holm, Anne; Andersen, Lars Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Aims. We investigate the production of molecular photofragments upon UV excitation of PAH derivatives, relevant for the interstellar medium. Methods. The action absorption spectra of protonated gas-phase methyl-substituted quinolines (CH3−C9H7NH+) have been recorded in the 215–338 nm spectral range...... the estimated IR relaxation time. Photophysical properties of both nitrogen containing and methyl-substituted PAHs are interesting in an astrophysical context in connection with identifying the aromatic component of the interstellar medium....

  4. The electronic configuration of substitutional Fe in silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Weyer, G; Fanciulli, M; Fedosseev, V; Gunnlaugsson, H P; Mishin, V I; Sielemann, R

    1999-01-01

    Ion implantations of radioactive /sup 57/Mn/sup +/ into differently doped silicon single crystals held at 300-600 K have been utilized for /sup 57/Fe Mossbauer studies of interstitial and substitutional Fe. Site and charge state assignments have been made on the basis of the determined hyperfine interaction parameters and Debye temperatures. Substantial fractions of substitutional /sup 57/Mn probe atoms are proposed to occur due to annealing reactions. This site is maintained in the subsequent decay to /sup 57/Fe by

  5. Theoretical studies on substituent effects of meta-substituted pyridines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gab Yong [Catholic University of Taegu-Hyosung, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Young Dae [Yeungnam Univ., Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    ab initio molecular orbital calculation is performed to estimate the substituent effects for meta-substituted pyridines. Electrostatic potentials are obtained from ab initio wavefunctions of the optimized structures for the meta-substituted pyridines. Electrostatic potentials are shown to be minimum at nitrogen atom of pyridines. The potential minima are good correlated with the substituent constants, {sigma}{sub m} and with the {delta}pK{sub a}, respectively. It is found that the electrostatic potential minima can be used as a useful measure of substituent effects.

  6. Minority anion substitution by Ni in ZnO

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Lino Miguel da Costa; Correia, João Guilherme; Amorim, Lígia Marina; Silva, Daniel José; David-Bosne, Eric; Decoster, Stefan; da Silva, Manuel Ribeiro; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André

    2013-01-01

    We report on the lattice location of implanted Ni in ZnO using the $\\beta$− emission channeling technique. In addition to the majority substituting for the cation (Zn), a significant fraction of the Ni atoms occupy anion (O) sites. Since Ni is chemically more similar to Zn than it is to O, the observed O substitution is rather puzzling. We discuss these findings with respect to the general understanding of lattice location of dopants in compound semiconductors. In particular, we discuss potential implications on the magnetic behavior of transition metal doped dilute magnetic semiconductors.

  7. Selective synthesis of N-substituted 1,2-dihydropyridines from furans by copper-induced concurrent tandem catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructos, Manuel R; Alvarez, Eleuterio; Díaz-Requejo, M Mar; Pérez, Pedro J

    2010-04-07

    A novel transformation in which mono- or dialkyl-substituted furans are converted into 1,2-dihydropyridines upon reaction with PhI horizontal lineNTs at room temperature is reported. The reaction is catalyzed by complexes of general formula Tp(x)M (M = Cu, Ag) and consists of a one-pot procedure with four consecutive catalytic cycles. Furan aziridination is followed by aziridine ring-opening, transimination reaction, inverse-electronic-demand aza-Diels-Alder reaction, and a final hydrogen elimination reaction. The mechanism of the overall transformation is proposed where the metal complex displays a crucial role along the reaction pathway.

  8. LINE BALANCING IN SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi GÖKÇEN

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how the Assembly Line Balancing (ALB methods known for the production systems can be applied in service systems. For this purpose, an application study is done in a Physical therapy and rehabilitation clinic. Each standart service provided to patients is taken into consideration as a product, and problem is solved as a mixed model ALB problem. In conclusion, it is seen that the ALB methods developed for the production systems are also applicable in service systems. So, it is possible to do similar studies at hospitals, tax offices, driving licence and passport offices, fast food restaurants, etc.

  9. America's Assembly Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin

    A social history of the assembly line, invented in 1913. Both praised as a boon to consumers and as a curse for workers, it has been satirized, imitated, and celebrated for 100 years. It has inspired fiction, comedy, cafeteria layouts, and suburban housing. It transformed industrial labor...... and provoked strikes and union drives in the 1930s, but became a symbol of victory in the Second World War and Cold War. Reinvented by Japan as "lean production" and then increasingly automated after 1990, it remains a cornerstone of production but no longer employs many workers, even as it evolves toward...

  10. A tetra-substituted chrysene: orientation of multiple electrophilic substitution and use of a tetra-substituted chrysene as a blue emitter for OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionkin, Alex S; Marshall, William J; Fish, Brian M; Bryman, Lois M; Wang, Ying

    2008-05-28

    The first tetra-substituted non-fused chrysene, 3,6,9,12-tetrakis(4-tert-butylphenyl)chrysene with blue electroluminescence at 450 nm, and with a radiance of 500 cd m(-2), was synthesized by a two-step procedure: direct bromination of chrysene in trimethyl phosphate, followed by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of tetrabromochrysene and tert-butylphenylboronic acid .

  11. Total dura substitute in the spine: double layer dural substitute made from polylactide layer and bovine pericardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, T; Hohaus, C; Huschak, G; Beier, A; Meisel, H-J

    2007-12-01

    When there is significant loss of spinal dura mater, dural substitution with synthetic or allogenic materials is essential. In the case of laminectomy, mechanical protection and reformation of the dorsal spinal canal may be useful. This is a report on a patient with total dura loss through tumour atrophy of the dura and laminae. In order to reconstruct the dorsal face of the spinal canal a polylactide sheet was cut and shaped to fit the physiological contour. A bovine dura substitute was firmly attached and sutured to the inner surface of the polylactide shield. The implant was wedged in between the pedicles and the facet joints and resulted in a water-tight dura substitute maintaining the shape of the spinal canal and protecting it against mechanical forces and intradural scar formation.

  12. Structure/Reactivity Relationships in the Benzo[c]phenanthrene Skeleton: Stable Ion and Electrophilic Substitution (Nitration, Bromination) Study of Substituted Analogs; Novel Carbocations and Substituted Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulé, Cédric; Laali, Kenneth K.; Okazaki, Takao; Lakshman, Mahesh K.

    2008-01-01

    A series of novel carbocations were generated by low temperature protonation of substituted benzo[c]phenanthrenes B[c]Phs and their charge delocalization pathways were elucidated by NMR based on the magnitude of Δδ13C values. It has been shown that the protonation regioselectivity is strongly controlled by methoxy and hydroxyl substituents, whose directive effects override methyl substitution effects. Regiocontrol by –OMe and –OH substituents, and its stronger influence relative to methyl groups, was also observed in the nitration and bromination reactions. Charge distribution modes in the regioisomeric protonated carbocations via parent B[c]Ph as well as in the benzylic carbocation formed via fjord-region epoxide ring opening were deduced by GIAO-DFT, and from the NPA-derived changes in charges over CHs. These patterns were compared with those derived from NMR experiments in the substituted derivatives. NMR-based charge delocalization mapping provided insight into structure/activity relationships in the methylated and fluorinated B[c]Phs. Regioselectivities observed in the nitration and bromination reactions in representative cases are the same as those via protonations. Among a group of novel nitro and bromo derivatives synthesized in this study are examples where nitro group is introduced into the fjord-region, for which X-ray structure could be obtained in one case. PMID:17394355

  13. From Off-line to On-line Handwriting Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lallican, P.; Viard-Gaudin, C.; Knerr, S.

    2004-01-01

    On-line handwriting includes more information on time order of the writing signal and on the dynamics of the writing process than off-line handwriting. Therefore, on-line recognition systems achieve higher recognition rates. This can be concluded from results reported in the literature, and has been

  14. Strategic production line synchronisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hattingh, Teresa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted at the sole global producer of suspension struts for a particular vehicle manufacturer. This supplier is currently able to meet customer demand. However, it does so because of a large finished goods and work-in-progress (WIP inventory. The plant operates two production processes that are separated by a large buffer of WIP, which essentially decouples the production processes. This study aimed to reduce this WIP buffer; this would require the processes to become synchronised, bearing in mind that the reliability of delivery should not decrease. A tool that considers time, quality, and machine capacity was developed to assess the impact of line synchronisation on company performance figures. It was found that line synchronisation produced several benefits for the supplier, including batch size reduction, lower inventory levels, and associated shorter lead times. This further allowed the supplier to improve flow in the plant by introducing a pull system. Improved visual oversight could lead to further improved problem-solving and innovation.

  15. Thermal, creep-recovery and viscoelastic behavior of high density polyethylene/hydroxyapatite nano particles for bone substitutes: effects of gamma radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Alothman, Othman Y; Fouad, H; Al-Zahrani, S M; Eshra, Ayman; Al Rez, Mohammed Fayez; Ansari, S G

    2014-01-01

    Background High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is one of the most often used polymers in biomedical applications. The limitations of HDPE are its visco-elastic behavior, low modulus and poor bioactivity. To improve HDPE properties, HA nanoparticles can be added to form polymer composite that can be used as alternatives to metals for bone substitutes and orthopaedic implant applications. Method In our previous work (BioMedical Engineering OnLine 2013), different ratios of HDPE/HA nanocomposites w...

  16. Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Testing of New Amido-Substituted Triazolopyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBDT Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Ying Bao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of amido-substituted triazolopyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBDT derivatives was synthesized from isatoic anhydride, and their cytotoxicity against the MRC-5 and Mahlavu cell lines was evaluated. The results suggest that compound PBDT-7i with the meta-trifluoromethylbenzoyl substituent can selectively inhibit the growth of Mahlavu cells and has low toxicity towards MRC-5 cells.

  17. Synthesis of novel benzimidazolyl-substituted acrylonitriles and amidino-substituted benzimidazo[1,2-a]quinolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hranjec, Marijana; Karminski-Zamola, Grace

    2006-08-13

    A series of novel benzimidazole derivatives 3-10 were synthesized. Benzimidazolyl-substituted acrylonitriles 3 and 4 underwent a photochemical dehydrocyclization reaction to give the corresponding mono- and dicyano-substituted benzimidazo[1,2-a] quinolines 5 and 6. Pinner reaction of these compounds did not give the expected mono- and diamidines, but rather only compounds 7-10, with amido groups at 6-position were isolated. A mechanism for the reaction is proposed. Acyclic compounds 3 and 4, as well as cyclic benzimidazo[1,2-a]quinolines 5-8, exhibit interesting spectroscopic properties and are potential biologically active compounds.

  18. Synthesis of Novel Benzimidazolyl-substituted Acrylonitriles and Amidino-substituted Benzimidazo[1,2-a]Quinolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Karminski-Zamola

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel benzimidazole derivatives 3-10 were synthesized. Benzimidazolyl-substituted acrylonitriles 3 and 4 underwent a photochemical dehydrocyclization reaction to give the corresponding mono- and dicyano-substituted benzimidazo[1,2-a] quinolines 5 and 6. Pinner reaction of these compounds did not give the expected mono- and diamidines, but rather only compounds 7-10, with amido groups at 6-position were isolated. A mechanism for the reaction is proposed. Acyclic compounds 3 and 4, as well as cyclic benzimidazo[1,2-a]quinolines 5-8, exhibit interesting spectroscopic properties and are potential biologically active compounds.

  19. Central Venous Catheter (Central Line)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... venous catheter (KATHeter), also known as a central line or CVC, is long, soft, thin, hollow tube ... into a large vein (blood vessel). A central line is much like an intravenous (IV) catheter that ...

  20. Induction of discrete apoptotic pathways by bromo-substituted indirubin derivatives in invasive breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolaou, Katerina A. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus); Liapis, Vasilis; Evdokiou, Andreas [Department of Surgery, Basil Hetzel Institute, Adelaide University, Adelaide (Australia); Constantinou, Constantina [St. George' s University of London Medical School at the University of Nicosia, Nicosia (Cyprus); Magiatis, Prokopios; Skaltsounis, Alex L. [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Koumas, Laura; Costeas, Paul A. [Center for Study of Hematological Malignancies, Nicosia (Cyprus); Constantinou, Andreas I., E-mail: andreasc@ucy.ac.cy [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of 6BIO and 7BIO are evaluated against five breast cancer cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 6BIO induces a caspase dependent apoptotic effect via the intrinsic pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO promotes G{sub 2}/M cells cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO triggers a caspase-8 mediated apoptotic pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO triggers and a caspase independent pathway. -- Abstract: Indirubin derivatives gained interest in recent years for their anticancer and antimetastatic properties. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the anticancer properties of the two novel bromo-substituted derivatives 6-bromoindirubin-3 Prime -oxime (6BIO) and 7-bromoindirubin-3 Prime -oxime (7BIO) in five different breast cancer cell lines. Cell viability assays identified that 6BIO and 7BIO are most effective in preventing the proliferation of the MDA-MB-231-TXSA breast cancer cell line from a total of five breast cancer cell lined examined. In addition it was found that the two compounds induce apoptosis via different mechanisms. 6BIO induces caspase-dependent programmed cell death through the intrinsic (mitochondrial) caspase-9 pathway. 7BIO up-regulates p21 and promotes G{sub 2}/M cell cycle arrest which is subsequently followed by the activation of two different apoptotic pathways: (a) a pathway that involves the upregulation of DR4/DR5 and activation of caspase-8 and (b) a caspase independent pathway. In conclusion, this study provides important insights regarding the molecular pathways leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by two indirubin derivatives that can find clinical applications in targeted cancer therapeutics.

  1. Placebo substitution for methyldopa in geriatric hypertensive patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to obtain an objective evaluation of the possibly inappropriate antihypertensive therapy of elderly patients; this was done by means of placebo substitution for methyldopa, one of the drugs taken by all the participating patients. Forty patients were recruited from a hospital outpatient clinic and ...

  2. Synthesis of meta-substituted monodentate phosphinite ligands and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis of meta-substituted phosphinite ligands 3,3' (methoxyphosphanediyl) bis (N,Ndiethylaniline) (4a) and methoxybis(3-methoxyphenyl)phosphane (4b), in high yields, has been demonstrated. Typical phosphorus chemical shift between 110–120 ppm, appearance of methoxy protons and corresponding carbon, ...

  3. Synthesis of 1-Substituted-4-(Pyridin-4-yl)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To synthesize a new series of 1-substituted-4-(pyridin-4-yl) [1,2,4] triazolo [4,3-a]quinazolin- 5(4H)-ones and evaluate them for H1-antihistaminic activity with negligible side effects in guinea pigs. Methods: The synthesized compounds were characterized by Infrared spectroscopy (IR), proton nuclear magnetic ...

  4. Pregnancy Outcomes in Women With Aortic Valve Substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelman, Helena J.; Arabkhani, Bardia; Cornette, Jerome M. J.; Pieper, Petronella G.; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; Takkenberg, Johanna J. M.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.

    2013-01-01

    Young women who require aortic valve replacement need information on the potential cardiac and obstetric complications of pregnancy for the different valve substitutes available. We, therefore, assessed the pregnancy outcomes in women who had received an autograft, homograft, or mechanical valve in

  5. Aligning protein sequence and analysing substitution pattern using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    beta and alpha/beta) were constructed based on the structure alignment of low identity proteins of the corresponding structural classes. .... datasets of BETASUM (an all-beta protein- specific matrix), AFBETASUM (an alpha/beta protein- ...... F J 2004 Fold-specific substitution matrices for protein classification; Bioinformatics ...

  6. Synthesis of substituted guanidines using Zn-Al hydrotalcite catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Substituted guanidines were synthesized by the guanylation of amines with carbodiimides using Zn-Al hydrotalcite (Zn-Al HT) catalyst. Zn-Al HT was prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman and ...

  7. Substitution Value of toasted Pigeon pea ( Cajanus cajan ) seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and eighty 7-day old broilers were used in a 28-day feeding trial to determine the substitution value of toasted pigeon pea seeds meal (TPSM) for soybean meal and maize in boiler starter diet. The brown coat coloured pigeon pea seeds were toasted at 100oC for 15minutes and milled. The inclusion levels of ...

  8. Effect of dietary substitution with solvent extracted neem seed cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... nitrogen excretion. Nutritional indices (true nitrogen digestibility, biological value and protein utilization) for all the processed neem seed cakes were ... Key words: Neem seed, processed cake, substitution, solvent extraction, nitrogen metabolism, albino rats. .... Urine out put was measured and the.

  9. Microwave surface resistance of under doped Co substituted YBCO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugesan, M.; Obara, H.; Sawa, A.; Kosaka, S.; Nakagawa, Y.; Nie, J.C.; Yamasaki, H

    2003-12-15

    Laser ablated under doped YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub z} (YBCO) films grown on LaAlO{sub 3} substrates have been studied for its crystal structure and microwave surface resistance (R{sub s}). The carrier content of YBCO film was varied by site selective substitution for Cu at chain site by Co atom. It is inferred that the low laser repetition rate facilitates the alignment of grains along c-axis, while deteriorates the in-plane alignment of grains in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 2.97}Co{sub 0.03}O{sub z} (YBCCO) films. The deterioration in in-plane alignment with laser repetition rate is attributed to the changes in Co content or the uneven distribution of Co in YBCCO films. The temperature dependent R{sub s} of YBCO film is increased with Co substitution. The observed high R{sub s} value combined with broad transition in R{sub s}(T) curves for the Co substituted samples is thought to be primarily due to the increase in penetration depth caused by the reduced carrier (hole) concentration in the Co substituted samples.

  10. Crystal structures of unsymmetrically mixed β-pyrrole substituted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Normal-coordinate structural decomposition (NSD) analysis of the heme in various heme proteins feature interesting trend in distortion of the macrocycle.30. Numerous crystal structure reports are available on variety of substituted porphyrins and metallopor- phyrins.31–38 Systematic analyses of the change in con-.

  11. 76 FR 8666 - Substitution in Case of Death of Claimant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... complete the processing of the deceased claimant's claim. The intended effect of these amendments is to... evidence in the file at date of death. However, the types of benefits payable to a survivor--periodic... substitute is generally considered to ``stand in the shoes'' of the deceased claimant. Under proposed Sec. 3...

  12. Bioefficacy And Economics Of Ronozyme™ P As A Substitute For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biological and economic efficiencies of Ronozyme ™ p as a substitute for bone meal in female Turkey poults was investigated. A total of eighty local female poults were brooded and fed commercial broiler starter diet containing 23% CP and 2800kcal/kg ME from day-old to four weeks of age. Sixty (60) female poults ...

  13. A Field Test of Festinger's Substitute Locomotion Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lea P.; Gudykunst, William B.

    1986-01-01

    Provides evidence for rejecting Festinger's Substitute Locomotion Theory of organizational communication. Demonstrates a clear difference between formal and informal channels of upward communication. Indicates that high mobility individuals communicate significantly more with their supervisors than low mobility individuals and that males…

  14. A Qualitative Analysis of the Coping Strategies of Substitute Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorell, Matthew S.

    2011-01-01

    This study distinguishes whether substitute teachers enact coping strategies that mitigate the source of work-related stress (problem-centered) or coping strategies that enable them to adapt to stress created by work-related stressors (avoidance-centered). The author gathered data for this analysis by conducting 37 in-depth interviews with…

  15. 76 FR 41685 - Electronic Substitutions for Form SSA-538

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 416 RIN 0960-AH02 Electronic Substitutions for Form SSA-538 AGENCY: Social Security... under title XVI of the Social Security Act (Act). However, we developed and now use a Web-based tool... to indicate their findings. The web-based tool does not include an exact copy of our paper Form SSA...

  16. Effects of substituting fishmeal with immobilized urea periodate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digitaria exilis (Staph) and Rice (Oryza sativa (L.) straws for substituting fishmeal from the reference diet (crude protein, 32.6%) at 15, 30, 45 and 60% test materials inclusion levels. Ten fish were stocked in triplicate replication in circular plastic tanks ...

  17. The Effects of Substituting Soyabean Meal for Breadfruit Meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of substituting soyabean meal for breadfruit (Tricuria africana) meal in diets fed to Heterobranchus bidorsalis (♂) x Clarias gariepinus (♀) hybrid fingerlings on diet acceptability, growth responses and cost benefit of fed catfishes were studied. The acceptability of breadfruit based diets by Heterobranchus ...

  18. 31 CFR 240.3 - Electronic checks and substitute checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electronic checks and substitute checks. 240.3 Section 240.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... OF CHECKS DRAWN ON THE UNITED STATES TREASURY General Provisions § 240.3 Electronic checks and...

  19. Substituting maize grain with barley grain in concentrates fed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of substituting maize grain with barley grain in the diet of lactating Jersey cows grazing kikuyu-ryegrass pasture. Sixty Jersey cows were blocked in terms of number of days in milk, lactation number, milk yield and live weight and randomly assigned to one of five treatments (n ...

  20. Kinetics and mechanism for the substitution reactions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For the substitution with thiourea, a third reaction step, the displacement of the labilized amine, ... The activation parameters for all reactions studied suggest an ..... Its acid– base chemistry was characterized by fitting the poten- tiometric data to various acid–base models. The best fit model was found to be consistent with ...