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Sample records for wheat grain improves

  1. Grain weight improvement in wheat through irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasal, P.N.; Gadekar, D.A.; Gavhane, V.N.; Bhoite, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    T. aestivum wheat variety NIAW 34 was developed by Agricultural Research Station, Niphad, and was released by Central Varietal Release Committee, for cultivation under irrigated late sown conditions of Peninsular Zone. The grains of NIAW 34 are medium sized with 40g 1000 grain weight. However, in market the bold sized grains (above 40g 1000 grain weight) are preferred by the traders and consumers. To overcome this lacuna, grains of wheat variety NIAW 34 were irradiated to exploit the possibilities of improvement in test weight. The material was irradiated with 15 and 20 kr dose of gamma rays. In M2 generation, mutants for various morphological characters were observed. The plants showing vigorous growth habit and desirable morphological characters were selected. These selected plants were studied for grain characters after harvest. On the basis of improved test weight as compared to parental line, selections were effected. The material was advanced to M6 generation and found stable for character of interest. The material selected comprised of total 10 lines showing improved test weight having range of 42-46 g i.e. increase of 4-6 g over the parental line NIAW 34. The lines selected are being evaluated in yield evaluation trials during Rabi 2006-07. Amongst the doses used, frequency of desired mutants was higher in treatment, of 15 kr

  2. Wheat ferritins: Improving the iron content of the wheat grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of the full complement of wheat ferritins show that the modern hexaploid wheat genome contains two ferritin genes, TaFer1 and TaFer2, each represented by three homeoalleles and placed on chromosome 5 and 4, respectively. The two genes are differentially regulated and expresse...

  3. Ammonium as sole N source improves grain quality in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes-Mendizábal, Teresa; González-Torralba, Jon; Arregui, Luis M; González-Murua, Carmen; González-Moro, M Begoña; Estavillo, José M

    2013-07-01

    The skilful handling of N fertilizer, including N source type and its timing, is necessary to obtain maximum profitability in wheat crops in terms of production and quality. Studies on grain yield and quality with ammonium as sole N source have not yet been conducted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of N source management (nitrate vs. ammonium), and splitting it into two or three amendments during the wheat life cycle, on grain yield and quality under irrigated conditions. This experiment demonstrates that Cezanne wheat plants growing with ammonium as exclusive N source are able to achieve the same yield as plants growing with nitrate and that individual wheat plants grown in irrigated pots can efficiently use late N applied in GS37. Ammonium nutrition increased both types of grain reserve proteins (gliadins and glutenins) and also increased the ratio gli/glu with respect to nitrate nutrition. The splitting of the N rate enhanced the ammonium effect on grain protein composition. The application of ammonium N source, especially when split into three amendments, has an analogous effect on grain protein content and composition to applications at a higher N rate, leading to higher N use efficiency. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Engineering high α-amylase levels in wheat grain lowers Falling Number but improves baking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ral, Jean-Philippe; Whan, Alex; Larroque, Oscar; Leyne, Emmett; Pritchard, Jeni; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Howitt, Crispin A; Morell, Matthew K; Newberry, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Late maturity α-amylase (LMA) and preharvest sprouting (PHS) are genetic defects in wheat. They are both characterized by the expression of specific isoforms of α-amylase in particular genotypes in the grain prior to harvest. The enhanced expression of α-amylase in both LMA and PHS results in a reduction in Falling Number (FN), a test of gel viscosity, and subsequent downgrading of the grain, along with a reduced price for growers. The FN test is unable to distinguish between LMA and PHS; thus, both defects are treated similarly when grain is traded. However, in PHS-affected grains, proteases and other degradative process are activated, and this has been shown to have a negative impact on end product quality. No studies have been conducted to determine whether LMA is detrimental to end product quality. This work demonstrated that wheat in which an isoform α-amylase (TaAmy3) was overexpressed in the endosperm of developing grain to levels of up to 100-fold higher than the wild-type resulted in low FN similar to those seen in LMA- or PHS-affected grains. This increase had no detrimental effect on starch structure, flour composition and enhanced baking quality, in small-scale 10-g baking tests. In these small-scale tests, overexpression of TaAmy3 led to increased loaf volume and Maillard-related browning to levels higher than those in control flours when baking improver was added. These findings raise questions as to the validity of the assumption that (i) LMA is detrimental to end product quality and (ii) a low FN is always indicative of a reduction in quality. This work suggests the need for a better understanding of the impact of elevated expression of specific α-amylase on end product quality. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  6. Drought priming at vegetative growth stages improves tolerance to drought and heat stresses occurring during grain filling in spring wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Vignjevic, Marija; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    Plants of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) were exposed to moderate water deficit at the vegetative growth stages six-leaf and/or stem elongation to investigate drought priming effects on tolerance to drought and heat stress events occurring during the grain filling stage. Compared......Plants of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) were exposed to moderate water deficit at the vegetative growth stages six-leaf and/or stem elongation to investigate drought priming effects on tolerance to drought and heat stress events occurring during the grain filling stage...... of abscisic acid in primed plants under drought stress could contribute to higher grain yield compared to the non-primed plants. Taken together, the results indicate that drought priming during vegetative stages improved tolerance to both drought and heat stress events occurring during grain filling in wheat....

  7. Simultaneous improvement of grain yield and protein content in durum wheat by different phenotypic indices and genomic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, M; Lein, V; Lacoudre, F; Lafferty, J; Müller, E; Vida, G; Bozhanova, V; Ibraliu, A; Thorwarth, P; Piepho, H P; Leiser, W L; Würschum, T; Longin, C F H

    2018-06-01

    Simultaneous improvement of protein content and grain yield by index selection is possible but its efficiency largely depends on the weighting of the single traits. The genetic architecture of these indices is similar to that of the primary traits. Grain yield and protein content are of major importance in durum wheat breeding, but their negative correlation has hampered their simultaneous improvement. To account for this in wheat breeding, the grain protein deviation (GPD) and the protein yield were proposed as targets for selection. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of different indices to simultaneously improve grain yield and protein content in durum wheat and to evaluate their genetic architecture towards genomics-assisted breeding. To this end, we investigated two different durum wheat panels comprising 159 and 189 genotypes, which were tested in multiple field locations across Europe and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach. The phenotypic analyses revealed significant genetic variances for all traits and heritabilities of the phenotypic indices that were in a similar range as those of grain yield and protein content. The GPD showed a high and positive correlation with protein content, whereas protein yield was highly and positively correlated with grain yield. Thus, selecting for a high GPD would mainly increase the protein content whereas a selection based on protein yield would mainly improve grain yield, but a combination of both indices allows to balance this selection. The genome-wide association mapping revealed a complex genetic architecture for all traits with most QTL having small effects and being detected only in one germplasm set, thus limiting the potential of marker-assisted selection for trait improvement. By contrast, genome-wide prediction appeared promising but its performance strongly depends on the relatedness between training and prediction sets.

  8. Increased SBPase activity improves photosynthesis and grain yield in wheat grown in greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driever, Steven M; Simkin, Andrew J; Alotaibi, Saqer; Fisk, Stuart J; Madgwick, Pippa J; Sparks, Caroline A; Jones, Huw D; Lawson, Tracy; Parry, Martin A J; Raines, Christine A

    2017-09-26

    To meet the growing demand for food, substantial improvements in yields are needed. This is particularly the case for wheat, where global yield has stagnated in recent years. Increasing photosynthesis has been identified as a primary target to achieve yield improvements. To increase leaf photosynthesis in wheat, the level of the Calvin-Benson cycle enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7-biphosphatase (SBPase) has been increased through transformation and expression of a Brachypodium distachyon SBPase gene construct. Transgenic lines with increased SBPase protein levels and activity were grown under greenhouse conditions and showed enhanced leaf photosynthesis and increased total biomass and dry seed yield. This showed the potential of improving yield potential by increasing leaf photosynthesis in a crop species such as wheat. The results are discussed with regard to future strategies for further improvement of photosynthesis in wheat.This article is part of the themed issue 'Enhancing photosynthesis in crop plants: targets for improvement'. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. Increased sbpase activity improves photosynthesis and grain yield in wheat grown in greenhouse conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driever, Steven M.; Simkin, Andrew J.; Alotaibi, Saqer; Fisk, Stuart J.; Madgwick, Pippa J.; Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.; Lawson, Tracy; Parry, Martin A.J.; Raines, Christine A.

    2017-01-01

    To meet the growing demand for food, substantial improvements in yields are needed. This is particularly the case for wheat, where global yield has stagnated in recent years. Increasing photosynthesis has been identified as a primary target to achieve yield improvements. To increase leaf

  10. Multitrait, Random Regression, or Simple Repeatability Model in High-Throughput Phenotyping Data Improve Genomic Prediction for Wheat Grain Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jin; Rutkoski, Jessica E; Poland, Jesse A; Crossa, José; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Sorrells, Mark E

    2017-07-01

    High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) platforms can be used to measure traits that are genetically correlated with wheat ( L.) grain yield across time. Incorporating such secondary traits in the multivariate pedigree and genomic prediction models would be desirable to improve indirect selection for grain yield. In this study, we evaluated three statistical models, simple repeatability (SR), multitrait (MT), and random regression (RR), for the longitudinal data of secondary traits and compared the impact of the proposed models for secondary traits on their predictive abilities for grain yield. Grain yield and secondary traits, canopy temperature (CT) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), were collected in five diverse environments for 557 wheat lines with available pedigree and genomic information. A two-stage analysis was applied for pedigree and genomic selection (GS). First, secondary traits were fitted by SR, MT, or RR models, separately, within each environment. Then, best linear unbiased predictions (BLUPs) of secondary traits from the above models were used in the multivariate prediction models to compare predictive abilities for grain yield. Predictive ability was substantially improved by 70%, on average, from multivariate pedigree and genomic models when including secondary traits in both training and test populations. Additionally, (i) predictive abilities slightly varied for MT, RR, or SR models in this data set, (ii) results indicated that including BLUPs of secondary traits from the MT model was the best in severe drought, and (iii) the RR model was slightly better than SR and MT models under drought environment. Copyright © 2017 Crop Science Society of America.

  11. Rational Application of Fertilizer Nitrogen to Soil in Combination With Foliar Zn Spraying Improved Zn Nutritional Quality of Wheat Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyong Xia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate human zinc (Zn deficiency, it is worthy to develop rational agronomic managements to achieve high yielding and high resource-use efficiency wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grains biofortified with Zn. Effects of application of three rates of nitrogen (N fertilizer (75,200 and 275 kg·ha−1 to soil in combination with three foliar applications (deionized water, Zn alone, and a combination of Zn and sucrose on grain yield, yield components, grain Zn concentration, protein, phytic acid (PA, phosphorus (P, calcium (Ca, and carbon (C, as well as on Zn bioavailability, were investigated in four wheat cultivars (“Jinan 17,” “Jimai 20,” “Jimai 22,” and “Luyuan 502” under field conditions. Enhanced N increased Zn and protein concentrations as well as bioavailability; excessive N input did not result in further improvements. Zinc spraying was more effective than soil fertilizer N application, the spray of Zn (with or without sucrose increased grain Zn concentrations by 11.1–15.6 mg·kg−1 (27.1–38.1%, and increased grain Zn bioavailability, estimated using total daily absorbed Zn (TAZ and molar ratios of PA/Zn and PA × Ca/Zn, by 0.4–0.6 mg d−1 (28.6–42.9%, 23.1–27.4% and 24.0–28.0%, respectively. Remarkably, increases caused by ‘Zn + sucrose’ were higher than spraying Zn alone. Grain Zn bioavailability was more sensitive to the selection of cultivar than Zn concentrations. Among cultivars, the higher the grain yields and concentrations of antinutritional compounds, the lower the grain Zn nutritional quality would be. 200 kg N ha−1 application rate in combination with foliar spraying of “Zn + sucrose” maximized grain Zn concentrations of “Jinan 17,” “Jimai 20,” “Jimai 22,” and “Luyuan 502” to be 59.4, 56.9, 55.8, and 60.9 mg kg−1, respectively, achieving the target value for biofortification. Additionally, PA/Zn and PA × Ca/Zn of “Jinan 17,” “Jimai 20,” and “Luyuan 502” were

  12. Exogenous abscisic acid application during grain filling in winter wheat improves cold tolerance of offspring's seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, X.; Cai, J.; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Low temperature seriously depresses seed germination and seedling growth in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In this study, wheat plants were sprayed with abscisic acid (ABA) and fluridone (inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) at 19 days after anthesis (DAA) and repeated at 26 DAA. The seeds of those...

  13. Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain…

  14. TaGS5-3A, a grain size gene selected during wheat improvement for larger kernel and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Li, Tian; Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Yuquan; Chen, Xinhong; Zhang, Xueyong

    2016-05-01

    Grain size is a dominant component of grain weight in cereals. Earlier studies have shown that OsGS5 plays a major role in regulating both grain size and weight in rice via promotion of cell division. In this study, we isolated TaGS5 homoeologues in wheat and mapped them on chromosomes 3A, 3B and 3D. Temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that TaGS5 homoeologues were preferentially expressed in young spikes and developing grains. Two alleles of TaGS5-3A, TaGS5-3A-T and TaGS5-3A-G were identified in wheat accessions, and a functional marker was developed to discriminate them. Association analysis revealed that TaGS5-3A-T was significantly correlated with larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight. Biochemical assays showed that TaGS5-3A-T possesses a higher enzymatic activity than TaGS5-3A-G. Transgenic rice lines overexpressing TaGS5-3A-T also exhibited larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight than TaGS5-3A-G lines, and the transcript levels of cell cycle-related genes in TaGS5-3A-T lines were higher than those in TaGS5-3A-G lines. Furthermore, systematic evolution analysis in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat showed that TaGS5-3A underwent strong artificial selection during wheat polyploidization events and the frequency changes of two alleles demonstrated that TaGS5-3A-T was favoured in global modern wheat cultivars. These results suggest that TaGS5-3A is a positive regulator of grain size and its favoured allele TaGS5-3A-T exhibits a larger potential application in wheat high-yield breeding. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Drying watery wheat grains by far infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, K.; Murata, K.; Hara, M.

    2004-01-01

    Summary A far infrared dryer was experimented to dry wheat grains for high performance and cost reduction. It is more efficient than a circulating dryer reducing drying time by 20% and fuel consumption by 20 - 30%. Whereas it takes more time and more fuel, when the drying rate is set at 1%/h. Moreover, on condition that the average drying rate is lower, it could decrease the rate of green wheat grains up to 3%. But green wheat grains did not disappear at all on the condition

  16. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much

  17. Exogenous Cytokinins Increase Grain Yield of Winter Wheat Cultivars by Improving Stay-Green Characteristics under Heat Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Yang

    Full Text Available Stay-green, a key trait of wheat, can not only increase the yield of wheat but also its resistance to heat stress during active photosynthesis. Cytokinins are the most potent general coordinator between the stay-green trait and senescence. The objectives of the present study were to identify and assess the effects of cytokinins on the photosynthetic organ and heat resistance in wheat. Two winter wheat cultivars, Wennong 6 (a stay-green cultivar and Jimai 20 (a control cultivar, were subjected to heat stress treatment from 1 to 5 days after anthesis (DAA. The two cultivars were sprayed daily with 10 mg L-1 of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA between 1 and 3 DAA under ambient and elevated temperature conditions. We found that the heat stress significantly decreased the number of kernels per spike and the grain yield (P < 0.05. Heat stress also decreased the zeatin riboside (ZR content, but increased the gibberellin (GA3, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, and abscisic acid (ABA contents at 3 to 15 DAA. Application of 6-BA significantly (P < 0.05 increased the grain-filling rate, endosperm cell division rate, endosperm cell number, and 1,000-grain weight under heated condition. 6-BA application increased ZR and IAA contents at 3 to 28 DAA, but decreased GA3 and ABA contents. The contents of ZR, ABA, and IAA in kernels were positively and significantly correlated with the grain-filling rate (P < 0.05, whereas GA3 was counter-productive at 3 to 15 DAA. These results suggest that the decrease in grain yield under heat stress was due to a lower ZR content and a higher GA3 content compared to that at elevated temperature during the early development of the kernels, which resulted in less kernel number and lower grain-filling rate. The results also provide essential information for further utilization of the cytokinin substances in the cultivation of heat-resistant wheat.

  18. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L

    2015-11-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)×spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulation, and grain dimensions interacted strongly with each other. Furthermore, larger carpels, a faster grain filling rate, earlier and longer grain filling, more grain water, faster grain water absorption and loss rates, and larger grain dimensions were associated with higher grain weight. Frequent quantitative trait locus (QTL) coincidences between these traits were observed, particularly those on chromosomes 2A, 3B, 4A, 5A, 5DL, and 7B, each of which harboured 16-49 QTLs associated with >12 traits. Analysis of the allelic effects of coincident QTLs confirmed their physiological relationships, indicating that the complex but orderly grain filling processes result mainly from pleiotropy or the tight linkages of functionally related genes. After grain filling, distal grains within spikelets were smaller than basal grains, primarily due to later grain filling and a slower initial grain filling rate, followed by synchronous maturation among different grains. Distal grain weight was improved by increased assimilate availability from anthesis. These findings provide deeper insight into grain weight determination in wheat, and the high level of QTL coincidences allows simultaneous improvement of multiple grain filling traits in breeding. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Supplementary material from "Increased SBPase activity improves photosynthesis and grain yield in wheat grown in greenhouse conditions"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driever, S.M.; Simkin, Andrew J.; Alotaibi, Saqer; Fisk, Stuart J.; Madgwick, Pippa J.; Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.; Lawson, Tracy; Parry, Martin A.J.; Raines, Christine A.

    2017-01-01

    To meet the growing demand for food, substantial improvements in yields are needed. This is particularly the case for wheat, where global yield has stagnated in recent years. Increasing photosynthesis has been identified as a primary target to achieve yield improvements. To increase leaf

  20. Integration of first and second generation biofuels: Fermentative hydrogen production from wheat grain and straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating of lignocellulose-based and starch-rich biomass-based hydrogen production was investigated by mixing wheat straw hydrolysate with a wheat grain hydrolysate for improved fermentation. Enzymatic pretreatment and hydrolysis of wheat grains led to a hydrolysate with a sugar concentration of

  1. Consortium Application of Endophytic Bacteria and Fungi Improves Grain Yield and Physiological Attributes in Advanced Lines of Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Muhae-Ud-Din

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing human population places pressure on agriculture. To feed this population, two time increase in the current wheat production is needed. Today agriculture is becoming input intensive with more reliance on synthetic fertilizers and agrochemicals to fulfil the feed demand of the growing numbers. Use of synthetic fertilizer since last few years is impacting the soil quality. In this scenario, the use of beneficial endophytic microbes is an attractive strategy to overcome the use of synthetic products. To investigate the effect of consortium application of endophytic bacteria and fungus on plant growth, grain yield moisture status, a pot experiment was conducted in different wheat lines. It comprised four treatments like control, application of bacterial strain Bacillus sp. MN54, fungal strain Trichoderma sp. MN6, and their consortium (Bacillus sp. MN54 + Trichoderma sp. MN6. The effect of consortium application was more prominent and significantly different from the sole application of bacteria and fungus. The results showed that with a consortium application of endophytic bacteria and fungus, there was 28.6, 4.3, -6.3 and -3.7% increases in flag leaf area, chlorophyll content, relative membrane permeability and water content respectively. Consortia of endophytic microbes also resulted in the yield enhancement through the betterment of various yield attributes like number of spikelet’s, grains per spike and grain yield per plant (32.2, 25.8 and 30.8%, respectively. So, consortia of endophytic microbes can greatly promote the progress of plants in dry land agriculture and increase the yield in an environmentally sustainable way.

  2. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dinesh; Shavrukov, Yuri; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Ismagul, Ainur; Parent, Boris; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2015-11-01

    Heterotrimeric nuclear factors Y (NF-Ys) are involved in regulation of various vital functions in all eukaryotic organisms. Although a number of NF-Y subunits have been characterized in model plants, only a few have been functionally evaluated in crops. In this work, a number of genes encoding NF-YB and NF-YC subunits were isolated from drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. RAC875), and the impact of the overexpression of TaNF-YB4 in the Australian wheat cultivar Gladius was investigated. TaNF-YB4 was isolated as a result of two consecutive yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens, where ZmNF-YB2a was used as a starting bait. A new NF-YC subunit, designated TaNF-YC15, was isolated in the first Y2H screen and used as bait in a second screen, which identified two wheat NF-YB subunits, TaNF-YB2 and TaNF-YB4. Three-dimensional modelling of a TaNF-YB2/TaNF-YC15 dimer revealed structural determinants that may underlie interaction selectivity. The TaNF-YB4 gene was placed under the control of the strong constitutive polyubiquitin promoter from maize and introduced into wheat by biolistic bombardment. The growth and yield components of several independent transgenic lines with up-regulated levels of TaNF-YB4 were evaluated under well-watered conditions (T1-T3 generations) and under mild drought (T2 generation). Analysis of T2 plants was performed in large deep containers in conditions close to field trials. Under optimal watering conditions, transgenic wheat plants produced significantly more spikes but other yield components did not change. This resulted in a 20-30% increased grain yield compared with untransformed control plants. Under water-limited conditions transgenic lines maintained parity in yield performance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. Classification system for rain fed wheat grain cultivars using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificial neural network (ANN) models have found wide applications, including ... of grains is essential for various applications as wheat grain industry and cultivation. In order to classify the rain fed wheat cultivars using artificial neural network ...

  4. Proteomics of Durum Wheat Grain during Transition to Conservation Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galieni, Angelica; Stagnari, Fabio; Bonas, Urbana; Speca, Stefano; Faccini, Andrea; Pisante, Michele; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen management in combination with sustainable agronomic techniques can have a great impact on the wheat grain proteome influencing its technological quality. In this study, proteomic analyses were used to document changes in the proportion of prolamins in mature grains of the newly released Italian durum wheat cv Achille. Such an approach was applied to wheat fertilized with urea (UREA) and calcium nitrate (NITRATE), during the transition to no-till Conservation Agriculture (CA) practice in a Mediterranean environment. Results obtained in a two-years field experiment study suggest low molecular weight glutenins (LMW-GS) as the fraction particularly inducible regardless of the N-form. Quantitative analyses of LMW-GS by 2D-GE followed by protein identification by LC-ESI-MS/MS showed that the stable increase was principally due to C-type LMW-GS. The highest accumulation resulted from a physiologically healthier state of plants treated with UREA and NITRATE. Proteomic analysis on the total protein fraction during the active phase of grain filling was also performed. For both N treatments, but at different extent, an up-regulation of different classes of proteins was observed: i) enzymes involved in glycolysis and citric acid cycles which contribute to an enhanced source of energy and carbohydrates, ii) stress proteins like heat shock proteins (HSPs) and antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidases and superoxide dismutase which protect the grain from abiotic stress during starch and storage protein synthesis. In conclusion N inputs, which combined rate with N form gave high yield and improved quality traits in the selected durum wheat cultivar. The specific up-regulation of some HSPs, antioxidant enzymes and defense proteins in the early stages of grain development and physiological indicators related to fitness traits, could be useful bio-indicators, for wheat genotype screening under more sustainable agronomic conditions, like transition phase to no-till CA in

  5. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L.

    2015-01-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)?spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulat...

  6. Use of a post-production fractionation process improves the nutritional value of wheat distillers grains with solubles for young broiler chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Thacker, Philip; Deep, Aman; Beltranena, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-production fractionation of wheat distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases their crude protein content and reduces their fiber content. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of fractionation of wheat DDGS on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and performance when fed to broiler chicks (0?21 d). Methods A total of 150, day-old, male broiler chicks (Ross-308 line; Lilydale Hatchery, Wynyard, Saskatchewan) weighing an average of 49.6 ? 0.8 g were a...

  7. Grain filling parameters and yield components in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Brdar Milka; Kobiljski Borislav; Balalić-Kraljević Marija

    2006-01-01

    Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is influenced by number of grains per unit area and grain weight, which is result of grain filling duration and rate. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between grain filling parameters in 4 wheat genotypes of different earliness and yield components. Nonlinear regression estimated and observed parameters were analyzed. Rang of estimated parameters corresponds to rang of observed parameters. Stepwise MANOVA indicated that the ...

  8. The effects of irradiation on grain coat color and grain texture in winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Bingliang; Liu Xueyu

    1989-01-01

    Dry seeds of the variety ''Yangmai 5'' with red grain coat, semihard grain texture, and the variety ''Ningmai 3'' with red grain coat, soft grain texture were irradiated with Y-rays at various doses.The effect on M1 grain coat color was different between two varieties, the higher doses made grain coat color of ''Yangmai 5'' redder, but had hardly effect on ''Ningmai 3''.The effect on M1 grain texture showed that the grain texture became softer with doses increased.It was found that there were 0.6% of positive ( red to white ) grain coat color mutants and 2.0% of negative(hard to soft) grain texture mutants in M2 of ''Yangmai 5'', and there were 0.7% of negative ( white to red ) grain coat color mutants and 3.6% of positive ( soft to hard ) grain texture mutants in M2 of ''Ningmai 3''. It seemed that the positive mutants selected in M3 were stable in M4. The results showed that γ-rays can be used to improve the grain coat color andgrain texture of wheat varieties

  9. Grain-filling duration and grain yield relationships in wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larik, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Nine stable mutants of bread wheat along with their mother cultivars were investigated for grain-filling characteristics in relation to grain yield. Significant differences among mutants for grain-filling duration and grain-filling index were observed. Inspite of the consistent differences in grain-filling duration there was no significant association between grain-filling duration and grain yield in C-591 and Nayab mutants. Failure to detect an yield advantage due to differences in grain-filling duration in these genotypes suggests that any advantage derived from alteration of grain-filling period may have been outweighed by the coincident changes in length of the vegetative period. Other factors such as synchrony of anthesis may have limited out ability to find an association between grainfilling duration and grain yield. On the contrary, significant association between grain-filling duration and grain yield displayed by indus-66 indus-66 mutants derived from gamma rays, shows the ability of gamma rays to induce functional alternations in the pattern of gene arrangements controlling these traits. Thus, the vaability observed in these physiological traits suggests that selection for these traits could be useful in improving grain yield. (author)

  10. Oxylipins discriminate between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone intake: a metabolomics study on pig plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    were also found in the flour and the bread consumed by pigs. Since the germ is part of the whole grain flour, the germ is most likely responsible for the elevated level of oxylipins in plasma after whole grain wheat consumption. This finding may also point towards bioactive compounds, which can be used......A pig model was used to investigate the difference in metabolic response of plasma between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone. Six pigs were fed in a cross-over design iso dietary fiber (DF) breads prepared from whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone and with a wash-out diet based on bread produced...

  11. Testing the responses of four wheat crop models to heat stress at anthesis and grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Asseng, Senthold; Liu, Leilei; Tang, Liang; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Higher temperatures caused by future climate change will bring more frequent heat stress events and pose an increasing risk to global wheat production. Crop models have been widely used to simulate future crop productivity but are rarely tested with observed heat stress experimental datasets. Four wheat models (DSSAT-CERES-Wheat, DSSAT-Nwheat, APSIM-Wheat, and WheatGrow) were evaluated with 4 years of environment-controlled phytotron experimental datasets with two wheat cultivars under heat stress at anthesis and grain filling stages. Heat stress at anthesis reduced observed grain numbers per unit area and individual grain size, while heat stress during grain filling mainly decreased the size of the individual grains. The observed impact of heat stress on grain filling duration, total aboveground biomass, grain yield, and grain protein concentration (GPC) varied depending on cultivar and accumulated heat stress. For every unit increase of heat degree days (HDD, degree days over 30 °C), grain filling duration was reduced by 0.30-0.60%, total aboveground biomass was reduced by 0.37-0.43%, and grain yield was reduced by 1.0-1.6%, but GPC was increased by 0.50% for cv Yangmai16 and 0.80% for cv Xumai30. The tested crop simulation models could reproduce some of the observed reductions in grain filling duration, final total aboveground biomass, and grain yield, as well as the observed increase in GPC due to heat stress. Most of the crop models tended to reproduce heat stress impacts better during grain filling than at anthesis. Some of the tested models require improvements in the response to heat stress during grain filling, but all models need improvements in simulating heat stress effects on grain set during anthesis. The observed significant genetic variability in the response of wheat to heat stress needs to be considered through cultivar parameters in future simulation studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Genetic analysis for grain quality traits in pakistani wheat varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minhas, N.M.; Ajmal, S.U.; Iqbal, Z.; Munir, M.

    2014-01-01

    A set of eight parental diallel involving seven commercial wheat cultivars and one breeding line was made to investigate the nature of gene action determining inheritance pattern of grain quality characters. Highly significant differences were observed among the genotypes for 1000 grain weight, protein content, wet gluten and lysine content. Adequacy tests were employed to estimate the fitness of data sets to additive dominance model. Both the tests i.e. analysis of uniformity of Wr, Vr and joint regression analysis validated the data of these traits for genetic analysis. Gene actions for grain quality traits were ascertained following Hayman's analysis of variance. Results of the genetic analysis revealed that both additive and dominance genetic components were involved in the manifestation of characters under study. However, additive gene effects were more pronounced in the genetic control of these traits. Non significance of b1, b2 and b3 values revealed the absence of directional dominance, symmetrical distribution of genes among the parental lines and absence of specific genes action respectively in all the traits. Maternal effects were also noted in 1000 grain weight, protein content and wet gluten percentage. It is concluded that additive effects are crucial in the expression of grain quality characters of wheat in germplasm under study and single plant selection may be recommended in segregating generations for effective improvement in these characters. (author)

  13. Dietary black-grained wheat intake improves glycemic control and inflammatory profile in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Y

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Yanping Liu,1,* Ju Qiu,2,* Yanfen Yue,3 Kang Li,3 Guixing Ren41Department of Nutrition, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, 2Institute of Food and Nutrition Development, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, 3Department of Nutrition, Pinggu Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing, 4Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China *These authors contributed equally to this workIntroduction: Although black-grained wheat (BGW is recognized as a nutritional food for humans in China, it has yet to be utilized well for industrial applications, which can be attributed to the limited research data available on its health benefits. Thus, the hypothesis was tested that a daily substitution of BGW for a partial staple food would improve glycemia and inflammatory profile of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients by a randomized controlled trial. Materials and methods: A total of 120 patients were randomly divided between control group (diet control and nutritional education and BGW group (daily substitution of BGW for a partial staple food. Results: Based on the significant difference between BGW and control groups (P<0.05, the primary outcomes were that BGW treatment in diet resulted in a significant lowering of glycated albumin (GA, 18.05 to 16.06 mmol/L level in T2DM patients after a 5-week intervention, and this treatment regimen was much more efficient than the strategy of diet control alone. In addition, BGW supplementation prevented the increase in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-6 induced by T2DM. There were no significant differences in blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin or insulin levels between the 2 groups. The subgroup analyses of the BGW daily intake showed that, except the TNF-α, significant improvements in GA and IL-6 were observed when the BGW intake dose was >69 g/day.Conclusion: These findings support the hypothesis that BGW may improve glycemia and the

  14. Improved wheat for baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, H; Finley, J W

    1989-01-01

    To bakers, wheat quality means the performance characteristics of the flour milled from the wheat when used in specific wheat products. The tremendous increase in the number of wheat cultivars grown in the U.S. in recent years, along with the unusual climate, new advances in milling technology, and increased automation of baking lines, have resulted in bakery production problems partly attributed to wheat flour quality. In this review various factors affecting wheat quality are explained. Concerns of bread and cookie/cracker manufacturers on deterioration of the wheat quality are discussed, and, finally, some solutions are proposed.

  15. Breeding value of primary synthetic wheat genotypes for grain yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    To introduce new genetic diversity into the bread wheat gene pool from its progenitor, Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmalh, 33 primary synthetic hexaploid wheat genotypes (SYN) were crossed to 20 spring bread wheat (BW) cultivars at the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Center. Modified single...

  16. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of Romanian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Wheat is adapted to diverse environments, between the ... international collaborative studies many new varieties ... Stability of grain yield and quality characteristics over locations ... grain yield capacity and yield components of twelve .... Analysis of variance for grain yield and yield-related traits over two ...

  17. What influences the composition of fungi in wheat grains?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruta Bankina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grains are inhabited by different fungi, including plant pathogens and fungi – mycotoxin producers. The composition of seed mycobiota can be influenced by different factors, including agronomic practices, but the results are still contradictory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mycobiota of wheat grains depending on agroecological conditions. Wheat grains were obtained from a two-factorial field trial: A – tillage system (A1 – ploughing at a depth of 22–24 cm; A2 – harrowing at a depth of up to 10 cm; B – crop rotation (B1 – continuous wheat; B2 – oilseed rape and wheat; B3 – crop rotation. The mycobiota of grain were determined by mycological and molecular methods. The most abundant and widespread of the mycobiota were Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, Alternaria spp., Arthrinium spp., and Fusarium avenaceum. Higher amounts of precipitation increased the infection of grains with Fusarium fungi. Seven species of Fusarium were identified in the grain samples: F. avenaceum, F. poae, F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. acuminatum, F. sporotrichioides, and F. tricinctum. The soil tillage method and crop rotation did not influence the total incidence of Fusarium spp., but the abundance of a particular species differed depending on agronomic practice. The research suggests that continuous wheat sowing under conditions of reduced soil tillage can increase the level of risk of grain infection with F. graminearum and, consequently, the accumulation of mycotoxins.

  18. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yong; Cui, Zhengyong; Ni, Yingli; Zheng, Mengjing; Yang, Dongqing; Jin, Min; Chen, Jin; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, 'Wennong6' and 'Jimai20', were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The resul...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE WHIPPED BREAD WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT, RYE AND WHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of whipped bakery products enriched with dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins retinol, tocopherol, group, polyunsaturated fatty acids through the use of rye and wheat bran and flour of wholegrain wheat. The main raw material for enrichment whipped bakery products used wheat bran and rye. Choice of rye and wheat bran as supplementation prepared whipped bread is explained not only from the point of view of the rationality of the use of this secondary raw materials, but also its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Wheat bran contain the necessary man of b vitamins, including B1, B2, B6, PP and others. Found provitamin a (carotene and vitamin E (tocopherol. Bran is rich in mineral substances. Among them potassium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper, selenium and other trace elements. Thanks to this composition bran are essential dietary product. They are rich in insoluble fiber and can be useful to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. Rye bran contain dietary fiber, tocopherol E, thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Pantothenic acid B5, B4 (choline, nicotinic acid B3, etc. In the bran rich set of microelements and macroelements such as iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iodine, selenium, chromium, etc. the Introduction in the diet, bran rye contribute to the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes and anemia. They restore blood pressure, reduce blood sugar levels and improve the cardiovascular system. Flour from wholegrain wheat is the main supplier of bread protein and starch, while preserving the maximum of the original nutritional value of the grain, enriched whipped bread macro - and micronutrients. The analysis of the chemical composition of flour from wholegrain wheat, rye and wheat bran leads to the conclusion that the choice of these types of materials suitable for making the recipe whipped bakery products, because their use can increase the content in bread is not only the

  20. Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-09-04

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered.

  1. Fusariotoxins in Wheat Grain in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Stepanić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of wheat grain (41, collected during the 2010 harvest from seven localities inSerbia, were analysed for the presence of zearalenone (ZEA, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol (DONand fumonisine B1 (FB1. Results of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA showedthat all analysed samples were positive for the presence of at least one of four observedfusariotoxins. The most distributed mycotoxins were ZEA (90.2%, with the average concentrationof 442.6μg kg–1 and T-2 (90.2%, with the average concentration of 24.2 μg kg–1.DON (73.2% and FB1 (84.4% were detected in a somewhat smaller number of samples, buttheir average concentrations were higher (1988.1 μg DON kg–1 and 882.7 μg FB1 kg–1. Theestablished correlations between concentrations of DON and FB1 (r = 0.32 or DON and ZEA(r = 0.22 were not statistically significant. A negative correlation was established betweenconcentrations of T-2 and FB1 (r= -0.24, as well as, between T-2 and DON (r = -0.36. Detectedconcentrations of ZEA and T-2 were bellow the level prescribed by the World Health Organisation(WHO, while concentrations of FB1 and DON detected in five that is, 17 samples,respectively, were above the permissible limit for human consumption

  2. Natural Variation in Grain Composition of Wheat and Related Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica AM; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-01-01

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23−26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. P...

  3. Reduced Height (Rht Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Casebow

    Full Text Available The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall, Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12. Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (P<0.05 reduced grain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there

  4. Genome interplay in the grain transcriptome of hexaploid bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Matthias; Kugler, Karl G; Sandve, Simen R; Zhan, Bujie; Rudi, Heidi; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Mayer, Klaus F X; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    2014-07-18

    Allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) provides approximately 20% of calories consumed by humans. Lack of genome sequence for the three homeologous and highly similar bread wheat genomes (A, B, and D) has impeded expression analysis of the grain transcriptome. We used previously unknown genome information to analyze the cell type-specific expression of homeologous genes in the developing wheat grain and identified distinct co-expression clusters reflecting the spatiotemporal progression during endosperm development. We observed no global but cell type- and stage-dependent genome dominance, organization of the wheat genome into transcriptionally active chromosomal regions, and asymmetric expression in gene families related to baking quality. Our findings give insight into the transcriptional dynamics and genome interplay among individual grain cell types in a polyploid cereal genome. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Colour characteristics of winter wheat grits of different grain size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Zs. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wheat has spread all over the world due to its extensive usability. The colour of wheat grits is very important for the milling and baking industry because it determines the colour of the products made from it. The instrumental colour measuring is used, first of all, for durum wheat. We investigated the relationship between colour characteristics and grain size in the case of different hard aestivum wheats. We determined the colour using the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage 1976 L*, a*, b* colour system measured by MINOLTA CR-300 tristimulus colorimeter. After screening the colour of the wheat fractions of different grain size, grits was measured wet and dry. We determined the L*, a*, b* colour co-ordinates and the whiteness index, too. To evaluate the values we had obtained, we used analysis of variance and regression analysis. We pointed out that the colour of wheat grits of different grain size is dependent on the hardness index of wheat. The lightness co-ordinate (L* of grits of the harder wheat is smaller, while a* and b* co-ordinates are higher. We also found that while grain size rises, the L* co-ordinate decreases and a*, b* values increase in the case of every type of wheat. The colour of grits is determined by the colour of fractions of 250-400 μm in size, independently from the average grain size. The whiteness index and the L* colour co-ordinate have a linear relation (R2 = 0.9151; so, the determination of whiteness index is not necessary. The L* value right characterizes the whiteness of grits.

  6. Dryland Winter Wheat Yield, Grain Protein, and Soil Nitrogen Responses to Fertilizer and Biosolids Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T. Koenig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Applications of biosolids were compared to inorganic nitrogen (N fertilizer for two years at three locations in eastern Washington State, USA, with diverse rainfall and soft white, hard red, and hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars. High rates of inorganic N tended to reduce yields, while grain protein responses to N rate were positive and linear for all wheat market classes. Biosolids produced 0 to 1400 kg ha−1 (0 to 47% higher grain yields than inorganic N. Wheat may have responded positively to nutrients other than N in the biosolids or to a metered N supply that limited vegetative growth and the potential for moisture stress-induced reductions in grain yield in these dryland production systems. Grain protein content with biosolids was either equal to or below grain protein with inorganic N, likely due to dilution of grain N from the higher yields achieved with biosolids. Results indicate the potential to improve dryland winter wheat yields with biosolids compared to inorganic N alone, but perhaps not to increase grain protein concentration of hard wheat when biosolids are applied immediately before planting.

  7. Mycopopulations of grain and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavšić Dragana V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the nutritive characteristics, whole grain flour is a high quality product, due to its high vitamin, mineral, and dietary fiber content. However, the cereal grains are susceptible to the series of contamination during the ripening, harvesting, processing and storage. The aim of this work was to determine mold presence in grains and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat. The determination of total number and identification of isolated genera and species of molds were the subject of this research. All samples were contaminated with the molds. The total number of molds per 100 cereal grains was between 60 cfu (wheat and 120 cfu (buckwheat. The total number of molds in the samples of flour ranged from 6.0x101 cfu/g in white wheat flour to 5.0 x102 cfu/g in buckwheat whole grain flour (DG18 medium. Eight fungal genera (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Chrysonilia, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Scopulariopsis and fifteen species were isolated. The largest number of species of molds was isolated from the genus Aspergillus. About 66.7% of isolated fungi belonged to potentially toxigenic species. The results pointed out the necessity of grain surface treatment, preceding the milling of grains in wheat, corn and whole grain buckwheat flour production.

  8. Reduced Height (Rht) Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebow, Richard; Hadley, Caroline; Uppal, Rajneet; Addisu, Molla; Loddo, Stefano; Kowalski, Ania; Griffiths, Simon; Gooding, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht) in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c) as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall), Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12). Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (Pgrain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN) was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there was the strongest evidence for

  9. Dynamic metabolome profiling reveals significant metabolic changes during grain development of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Shoumin; Dong, Kun; Deng, Xiong; Zhou, Jiaxing; Xu, Xuexin; Han, Caixia; Zhang, Wenying; Xu, Yanhao; Wang, Zhimin; Yan, Yueming

    2016-08-01

    Metabolites in wheat grains greatly influence nutritional values. Wheat provides proteins, minerals, B-group vitamins and dietary fiber to humans. These metabolites are important to human health. However, the metabolome of the grain during the development of bread wheat has not been studied so far. In this work the first dynamic metabolome of the developing grain of the elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 was analyzed, using non-targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for metabolite profiling. In total, 74 metabolites were identified over the grain developmental stages. Metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed that the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, amines and lipids was interrelated. An integrated metabolic map revealed a distinct regulatory profile. The results provide information that can be used by metabolic engineers and molecular breeders to improve wheat grain quality. The present metabolome approach identified dynamic changes in metabolite levels, and correlations among such levels, in developing seeds. The comprehensive metabolic map may be useful when breeding programs seek to improve grain quality. The work highlights the utility of GC/MS-based metabolomics, in conjunction with univariate and multivariate data analysis, when it is sought to understand metabolic changes in developing seeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Characterizing bread wheat genotypes of Pakistani origin for grain zinc biofortification potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Abdul; Farooq, Muhammad; Nawaz, Ahmad; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M; Al-Hashmi, Khalid S; Nadeem, Faisal; Ullah, Aman

    2018-03-15

    Zinc (Zn) is essential for all life forms and its deficiency is a major issue of malnutrition in humans. This study was carried out to characterize 28 wheat genotypes of Pakistani origin for grain zinc biofortification potential, genetic diversity and relatedness. There was low genetic differentiation among the tested genotypes. However, they differed greatly in yield-related traits, grain mineral (Zn, calcium (Ca) and protein) concentrations and Zn bioavailability. Zinc application increased the concentration of Zn in wheat grain (32.1%), embryo (19.8%), aleurone (47%) and endosperm (23.7%), with an increase in bioavailable Zn (22.2%) and a reduction in phytate concentration (6.8%). Application of Zn also enhanced grain protein and Ca concentrations. Among wheat genotypes, Blue Silver had the highest concentration of Zn in grain, embryo, aleurone and endosperm, with high bioavailable Zn, while Kohinoor-83 had low phytate concentration. Wheat genotypes of Pakistan are genetically less diverse owing to continuous focus on the development of high-yielding varieties only. Therefore genetically diverse wheat genotypes with high endospermic Zn concentration and better grain yield should be used in breeding programs approaches, aiming at improving Zn bioavailability. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Relationships between the climate change and the grain filling of winter wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Z.; Jiang, D.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is based on the material in a grain filling rate experiment of winter wheat and hourly weather data organised by Xinghua city of Jiangsu Province. The aims are to objectively evaluate the possible influences of the temperature, precipitation, sunshine at the different time of the same day on the grain filling rate of winter wheat. The grain filling rate evaluation model of climate change is firstly developed, and then, the model calculation results are compared with the observed data. The along the changes of the microclimate, changes of the grain filling rate of winter wheat, which is not same in the gradual, rapid and slow increase stages. The changes in grain filling rate of winter wheat, which were caused by variations of temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration, showed periodic fluctuation. Variation in temperature resulted in 1.36 g d/sup -1/(10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change; variation in precipitation resulted in -1.35 g d/sup -1/. (10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change; and variation in sunshine duration resulted in 0.07 g d/sup -1/ (10a)/sup -1/ of grain filling rate change. Three samples showed a grain filling rate change of 0.08 g d/sup -1/(10a)/sup -1/. These findings indicate that the increase in temperature and sunshine duration caused the elevation of grain filling rate, whereas the increase in precipitation decreased the grain filling rate. Therefore, monitoring and predication capability of Meteorological disasters, such as drought caused by high temperature, should be strengthened to ensure the favourable weather condition and improve the grain filling rate through scientific methods such as artificial precipitation. (author)

  12. Comparative characteristics of grain classifications of soft wheat of Kazakhstan and major grain-producing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Shaimerdenova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft wheat is one of the most important crops, grown in more than 130 countries. To date, one-fifth of the world's wheat, or about 150 million tons a year, is sold on international markets. In the world trade traditionally dominated by the US, Australia, Canada and Argentina. Kazakhstan, being on the 15th place in the production of wheat grain, is among the first ten exporters - in 2017 the country exported about 8 million tons to the amount of 1.5 billion dollars. USA, then, as potential export opportunities are much higher, as evidenced by annual carryover stocks at 3 million tons. According to experts, considerable differences in the classification of wheat grain used in Kazakhstan and in other countries participating in the grain market and the methods for assessing the technological dignity indicators (TDs laid down in the classifications are a significant obstacle to increasing the export potential of wheat grains. In view of this, an analysis was made of grain classifications of wheat grains used in the most important grain producing countries, TD indicators were determined, methods for their evaluation, and differences were revealed. It is established that in countries that are stable in the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grain, an insignificant list of TD indicators is adopted, while they characterize the physical quality and state of the grain, which may indicate a general suitability for grinding. It is determined that in Russia and Kazakhstan, in determining the contamination, such an indicator as dockage is not taken into account. Comparative tests of different methods of sampling and determination of contamination have been carried out, and correlation coefficients have been established between indicators of contamination determined by different methods.

  13. Aminoacid composition of wheat grain gluten under microbe impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolova М. G.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was focused on characteristics of gluten, protein and aminoacids content in wheat grain under the impact of microbe preparations including bacteria of Azotobacter and Bacillus geni, which inhabit plant rhizosphere. The increase of aminoacids leveland particularly the level of essential aminoacids in wheat grain under bacterization was demonstrated, this fact accounting for the quality of grain as an important protein source. Increase of aminoacids content with the use of biopreparations on low-fertile soil ensures acquisition of biologically valuable grain with the decrease of mineral fertilizers dosage and emphasizes the role of biopreparations in the production of ecologically pure high quality products. The latter is due to introdcution of environmentally safe agricultural methods.

  14. Effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield from grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buresova, Iva [Agrotest Fyto, Ltd., Havlickova 2787/121, 767 01 Kromeriz (Czech Republic); Hrivna, Ludek [Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-04-15

    Bioethanol can be used as motor fuel and/or as a gasoline enhancer. A high yield feedstock for bioethanol production is cereal grain. Cereal grains containing less gluten proteins (glutenin and gliadin), but high starch, are favoured by distillers because they increase the bioethanol conversion. The direct effect of wheat gluten proteins on bioethanol yield was studied on triticale grain. Examined triticale Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2 and Presto Valdy were developed by introducing selected segments of wheat chromosome 1D into triticale chromosome 1R. Even if the samples analysed in this study do not afford to make definitive assumptions, it can be noticed that in analysed cases the presence of gliadin had more significant effect on investigated parameters than the presence of glutenin. Despite the presence of glutenin subunits did not significantly decrease the investigated parameters - specific weight, Hagberg falling number and starch content in grain met the requirements for grain for bioethanol production - protein content was higher than is optimal. The fermentation experiments demonstrated good bioethanol yields but depression in grain yields caused by the presence of wheat gliadin and glutenin decreased the energy balance of Presto Valdy and Presto 1R.1D{sub 5+10}-2. (author)

  15. Improving the precision of genotype selection in wheat performance trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Benin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify whether using the Papadakis method improves model assumptions and experimental accuracy in field trials used to determine grain yield for wheat lineages indifferent Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU regions. Grain yield data from 572 field trials at 31 locations in the VCU Regions 1, 2, 3 and 4 in 2007-2011 were used. Each trial was run with and without the use of the Papadakis method. The Papadakis method improved the indices of experimental precision measures and reduced the number of experimental repetitions required to predict grain yield performance among the wheat genotypes. There were differences among the wheat adaptation regions in terms of the efficiency of the Papadakis method, the adjustment coefficient of the genotype averages and the increases in the selective accuracy of grain yield.

  16. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of Romanian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, fourteen bread wheat varieties, twelve of which were introduced into Turkey from Romania, were evaluated for grain yield and seven agronomic properties in Biga, Çanakkale in northwest part of Turkey in 2005 - 2006 and 2006 - 2007 growing seasons. The objectives of the research, carried out in a completely ...

  17. Effect of salinity on grain yield and grain quality of wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, G.; Saqib, M.; Rafique, Q.; Rahman, A.U.; Akhtar, J.; Haq, M.A.U.

    2013-01-01

    Salinity is one of the important stresses resulting in the reduction of growth and yield of different crops including wheat. In saline soils the concentration of Na/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/ is higher accompanied with the decreased K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio thus severely affecting the growth and yield of crops. The effect of salinity on the growth and yield of wheat is well documented, whereas there is very little information about salinity tolerance and grain quality of wheat. Present study was conducted to assess the effect of salinity on yield components, ionic relations and grain quality and to understand the relationship among these parameters. A pot experiment was conducted using wheat genotype Pasban-90. There were two treatments i.e. non-saline (0.33 dS m/sup -1/) and saline (15 dS m/sup -1/) with five replications. Salinity resulted in a significant reduction of the grain protein, fat and fiber contents. Similarly yield components were significantly reduced. Maximum reduction was noted in case of number of tillers plant/sup -1/, followed by grain weight plant/sup -1/. High Na/sup +/ and low K/sup +/, P concentration and K/sup +/: Na/sup +/ ratio was observed in the shoot, root and grain. This disturbed ionic composition seems to be apparent cause of yield reduction and deterioration of wheat quality under salinity. (author)

  18. Canopy temperature depression at grain filling correlates to winter wheat yield in the U.S. southern high plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat breeding has improved drought tolerance over the years. However, our knowledge on drought tolerance in relation to the canopy temperature (CT) and grain yield is limited. A three-season wheat field study ending 2012, 2015, and 2016 was conducted at Bushland, Texas to investigate the relationsh...

  19. Evaluation of Grain Quality in Bread Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines Under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shahbazi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To study drought stress effect on grain quality properties of wheat, an experiment was conductedusing 169 recombinant inbreed lines (RILS under water stress and non-stress condition and with two separated lattice designs. Grain yield, protein yield, protein content, volume of Zeleny sediment, grain hardness, water absorption, grain moisture content and grain dry matter were evaluated. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among the lines for all traits. Moreover, comparison between two lines in two environmental conditions showed, the quality in bread wheat under drought stress conditions due to increment of protein yield is improved. Protein yield in both irrigation regimes has a significant and negative correlation with grain moisture and in the other hand, significant and positive correlation with the grain hardiness dry matter, Zeleny sedimentation and water intake in both conditions. The results showed that the identification of favorable quality characteristics in optimum and stressed conditions were possible and the lines with high grain quality can be used in breeding programs for improving of baking quality. Although some drought sensitive genotypes possessed a favorable baking quality but their grain yield was low.

  20. Rheological studies during the storage on irradiated wheat grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbagoury, O.H.; Rizk, T.Y.; Sharabash, M.T.M.; Hammad, A.H.A.

    1995-01-01

    Wheat grains T. aestivum cv. Giza 157 were irradiated with different doses starting from O up to 320 krad at room temperature and good ventilation. It was declared that specific density of grains, as well as the contents of flour, pollards and oil were not affected significantly. On the other side. bran was increased by extending the shelf-life of grains, whilst it was decreased as the dosage increased. Meanwhile, the interaction between gamma rays and storage had suppression effects on the total protein in grains. Farinograph test on wheat dough showed that both water absorption and dough weaking were increased, whilst the time needed for dough development, dough stability and Valorimeter number were decreased as affected by the increase in both the magnitude of gamma ray dosage and the time of storage. Also, the extensograph test on wheat dough showed that its resistance tended to be higher, whereas, both dough extensibility and its strength were decreased. Meanwhile, the proportional number was increased as the dosage and the time of storage increased. 2 tabs

  1. Rheological studies during the storage on irradiated wheat grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbagoury, O H; Rizk, T Y [Agron Dept., Fac. of Agric., Ain shams University, Cairo, (Egypt); Sharabash, M T.M.; Hammad, A H.A. [National Center for Research and Radiation Tech. Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Wheat grains T. aestivum cv. Giza 157 were irradiated with different doses starting from O up to 320 krad at room temperature and good ventilation. It was declared that specific density of grains, as well as the contents of flour, pollards and oil were not affected significantly. On the other side. bran was increased by extending the shelf-life of grains, whilst it was decreased as the dosage increased. Meanwhile, the interaction between gamma rays and storage had suppression effects on the total protein in grains. Farinograph test on wheat dough showed that both water absorption and dough weaking were increased, whilst the time needed for dough development, dough stability and Valorimeter number were decreased as affected by the increase in both the magnitude of gamma ray dosage and the time of storage. Also, the extensograph test on wheat dough showed that its resistance tended to be higher, whereas, both dough extensibility and its strength were decreased. Meanwhile, the proportional number was increased as the dosage and the time of storage increased. 2 tabs.

  2. Genetic analysis of amino acid content in wheat grain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-22

    Aug 22, 2014 ... High general heritability of tyrosine (36.3%), arginine. (45.8%), lysine ... especially improving the amino acid composition of protein. Contents of wheat ...... or Triticale, low-protein diets for growing-finishing swine. Anim. Sci.

  3. Plant Density Effect on Grain Number and Weight of Two Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Spikelet and Grain Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yingli; Zheng, Mengjing; Yang, Dongqing; Jin, Min; Chen, Jin; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2016-01-01

    In winter wheat, grain development is asynchronous. The grain number and grain weight vary significantly at different spikelet and grain positions among wheat cultivars grown at different plant densities. In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ‘Wennong6’ and ‘Jimai20’, were grown under four different plant densities for two seasons, in order to study the effect of plant density on the grain number and grain weight at different spikelet and grain positions. The results showed that the effects of spikelet and grain positions on grain weight varied with the grain number of spikelets. In both cultivars, the single-grain weight of the basal and middle two-grain spikelets was higher at the 2nd grain position than that at the 1st grain position, while the opposite occurred in the top two-grain spikelets. In the three-grain spikelets, the distribution of the single-grain weight was different between cultivars. In the four-grain spikelets of Wennong6, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 2nd grain position, followed by the 1st, 3rd, and 4th grain positions. Regardless of the spikelet and grain positions, the single-grain weight was the highest at the 1st and 2nd grain positions and the lowest at the 3rd and 4th grain positions. Overall, plant density affected the yield by controlling the seed-setting characteristics of the tiller spike. Therefore, wheat yield can be increased by decreasing the sterile basal and top spikelets and enhancing the grain weight at the 3rd and 4th grain positions, while maintaining it at the 1st and 2nd grain positions on the spikelet. PMID:27171343

  4. Brewing with 100 % unmalted grains: barley, wheat, oat and rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Shetty, Radhakrishna; Hansen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    of fermentable wort carbohydrates were observed in the worts (all at ca. 12°P), and in particular oat wort had lower concentration of maltose compared to the others, resulting in the lowest concentration of alcohol in final beer. Moreover, wort made from unmalted grains also showed lower free amino nitrogen......Whilst beers have been produced using various levels of unmalted grains as adjuncts along with malt, brewing with 100 % unmalted grains in combination with added mashing enzymes remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the brewing potential of 100 % unmalted barley, wheat......, oat and rye in comparison with 100 % malt. To address this, identical brewing methods were adopted at 10-L scale for each grain type by applying a commercial mashing enzyme blend (Ondea® Pro), and selected quality attributes were assessed for respective worts and beers. Different compositions...

  5. Cellulase production using different streams of wheat grain- and wheat straw-based ethanol processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyalai-Korpos, Miklós; Mangel, Réka; Alvira, Pablo; Dienes, Dóra; Ballesteros, Mercedes; Réczey, Kati

    2011-07-01

    Pretreatment is a necessary step in the biomass-to-ethanol conversion process. The side stream of the pretreatment step is the liquid fraction, also referred to as the hydrolyzate, which arises after the separation of the pretreated solid and is composed of valuable carbohydrates along with compounds that are potentially toxic to microbes (mainly furfural, acetic acid, and formic acid). The aim of our study was to utilize the liquid fraction from steam-exploded wheat straw as a carbon source for cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei RUT C30. Results showed that without detoxification, the fungus failed to utilize any dilution of the hydrolyzate; however, after a two-step detoxification process, it was able to grow on a fourfold dilution of the treated liquid fraction. Supplementation of the fourfold-diluted, treated liquid fraction with washed pretreated wheat straw or ground wheat grain led to enhanced cellulase (filter paper) activity. Produced enzymes were tested in hydrolysis of washed pretreated wheat straw. Supplementation with ground wheat grain provided a more efficient enzyme mixture for the hydrolysis by means of the near-doubled β-glucosidase activity obtained.

  6. Transport rates and concentration gradients during grain filling in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.B.; Gifford, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Short-term mass transport rates into wheat ears were calculated at mid grain fill from 32 PO 4 translocation velocities and sieve tube sap concentrations in the peduncle. Over a wide range of velocities (8.5 to 170 cm/hr), sieve tube sap concentrations (514 to 1050 milliosmolal) and grains per ear (20 to 54 in intact ears, as few as 7 in partially degrained ears), there were no evident differences in the rate of mass transport per grain through the peduncle. Increased sieve tube sap concentration was accompanied in the endosperm cavity sap by increased sucrose concentration, but amino acid concentration and total osmolality remained essentially constant. Thus the rate of transport into the grains appeared to remain constant in spite of altered concentration gradients across the crease tissues of the grain and changing sucrose concentration in the endosperm cavity. The constancy of endosperm cavity sap osmolality suggests that osmoregulatory processes in the grain may play a role in regulating transport rate into the grain

  7. Genetic controls on starch amylose content in wheat and rice grains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-07

    Apr 7, 2014 ... cuboid in appearance and smaller than wheat or maize. (figure 3; Kaur et al. 2007). ..... gaps in our knowledge. Due to the hexaploid ...... Makino A 2011 Photosynthesis, grain yield, and nitrogen utilization in rice and wheat.

  8. Ancestral QTL alleles from wild emmer wheat improve drought resistance and productivity in modern wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne eMerchuk-Ovnat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum and bread (T. aestivum wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4 were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm and water-limited (290–320 mm conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS, and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS. In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass - specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background, under both treatments (2BS QTL, and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL. The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSED PRODUCTS OF WHEAT GERM ON GRAIN BREAD QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and introduction of new types of bakery products with increased nutritional value is one of the basic and urgent problems in the bakery industry. The solution of it is the use of whole grains, as well as secondary products of their processing. The use of by-products of wheat germ (oil, oilcake, oilcake flour, which are rich in proteins and enhances the nutritional value of products is considered to be a promising area in the bakery industry. At the same time the program objectives products, developed in the framework of the "Strategy of development of the food processing industry of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020"products, are expanding the production of cereal-based foods , and involving of secondary resources in the economy. These technologies are re-source efficient. They allow efficient use of by-products raw materials of the milling industry. The process for the preparation of grain bread on the basis of a thick sourdough from bioactivated wheat grain is known. However, despite all the advantages of grain breads with high amounts of dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins, they exhibit low levels of protein and lysine deficiency. At present larger preference is given to the raw materials of natural origin (millet, buckwheat and oatmeal flours, fruit puree, whole grains, oil, flour and wheat germ flakes, and etc. for foods enrichment in modern food science. Products of processing of wheat germ: oil, flakes, oilcake and oil-cake flour are widely used in bakery technology. To improve the nutritional value flour from wheat germ oilcake was used in the work. In the course of the research its positive effect on the quality of semi-finished and finished products was found. They differed from the control sample in a high content of antioxidants and better digestibility of proteins bread crumb.

  10. Relationship between grain colour and preharvest sprouting-resistance in wheat.

    OpenAIRE

    BASSOI, M.C.; FLINTHAM, J.

    2006-01-01

    Since red alleles (R) of the genes that control grain colour are important for the improvement of preharvest sprouting resistance in wheat and there are three independently inherited loci, on chromosomes 3A, 3B and 3D of hexaploid wheat, it is possible to vary the dosage of dominant alleles in a breeding program. The objective of this work was to evaluate the dosage effect of R genes on preharvest sprouting, in a single seed descent population, named TRL, derived from the cross between Timgal...

  11. Dry land Winter Wheat Yield, Grain Protein, and Soil Nitrogen Responses to Fertilizer and Bio solids Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.T.; Cogger, C.G.; Bary, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    Applications of bio solids were compared to inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizer for two years at three locations in eastern Washington State, USA, with diverse rainfall and soft white, hard red, and hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. High rates of inorganic N tended to reduce yields, while grain protein responses to N rate were positive and linear for all wheat market classes. Bio solids produced 0 to 1400 kg ha -1 (0 to 47%) higher grain yields than inorganic N. Wheat may have responded positively to nutrients other than N in the bio solids or to a metered N supply that limited vegetative growth and the potential for moisture stress-induced reductions in grain yield in these dry land production systems. Grain protein content with bio solids was either equal to or below grain protein with inorganic N, likely due to dilution of grain N from the higher yields achieved with bio solids. Results indicate the potential to improve dry land winter wheat yields with bio solids compared to inorganic N alone, but perhaps not to increase grain protein concentration of hard wheat when bio solids are applied immediately before planting.

  12. Correlation of concentration of fumonisins and yield grain of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protić Nada M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat from different locations was served for the isolation of Fusarium spp. Isolates were precisely identified and multiplied for artificial inoculation. Three sorts of winter wheat were chosen: PKB Lepoklasa Jugoslavija and Francuska. To these sorts three different treatments were applied: artificial inoculation with the isolates of Fusarium spp. protection of wheat with fungicide Impact-C and follow-up of a spontaneous infection in different phenophasis of wheat development. The control was done with the same sort, of the same location, not covered by an experiment. The research lasted for three years. Phytopathological evaluation was done twice during vegetation. The sort of Jugoslavija had an average of 85% of infected plants, Francuska 65%, but PKB Lepoklasa during each of three years had 100% of infection by Fusarium spp. fungi. Presence of fungi Fusarium spp. causes production of numerous mycotoxins and we determined presence of fumonisins. The mentioned mycotoxin was found only in the treatment of artificial inoculation for each sort. Presence of fumonisins was proved by fluorometric method and concentration was by sorts as follows: Jugoslavija 0.30 mg/kg, Francuska 0.62 mg/kg, and PKB Lepoklasa 0.56mg/kg. In grains 100% infected by fungus, the concentration of mentioned toxins is of a greater quantity.

  13. Characterization of vegetative and grain filling periods of winter wheat by stepwise regression procedure. II. Grain filling period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In wheat, rate and duration of dry matter accumulation and remobilization depend on genotype and growing conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the most appropriate polynomial regression of stepwise regression procedure for describing grain filling period in three winter wheat cultivars. The stepwise regression procedure showed that grain filling is a complex biological process and that it is difficult to offer a simple and appropriate polynomial equation that fits the pattern of changes in dry matter accumulation during the grain filling period, i.e., from anthesis to maximum grain weight, in winter wheat. If grain filling is to be represented with a high power polynomial, quartic and quintic equations showed to be most appropriate. In spite of certain disadvantages, a cubic equation of stepwise regression could be used for describing the pattern of winter wheat grain filling.

  14. Effect of seeding rate on grain quality of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinka Zecevic

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Planting density is important factor which influence yield and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. For this reason, in scientific investigations is constantly investigated optimization of plant number per unit area. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of seeding rate in grain quality of winter wheat cultivars. The experiment was conducted with four winter wheat genotypes ('Ana Morava', 'Vizija', 'L-3027', and 'Perla' at the Small Grains Research Centre of Kragujevac, Serbia, in 3 yr at two seeding rates (SR1 = 500 and SR2 = 650 germinating seeds m-2. The 1000-kernel weight, Zeleny sedimentation, and wet gluten content in divergent wheat genotypes were investigated depending on the seeding rate and ecological factors. Significant differences in quality components were established between investigated seeding rates. The highest values of all investigated quality traits were established in SR2 variant when applied 650 seeds m-2. Genotypes reacted differently to seeding rate. 'Perla' in average had the highest mean sedimentation value (42.2 mL and wet gluten content (33.76% in SR2 variant and this cultivar responded the best to seeding rate. Significant differences for sedimentation value and wet gluten content were found among cultivars, years, seeding rate, and for all their interactions. Also, ANOVA for 1000-kernel weight showed highly significant differences among investigated varieties, seeding rate and growing seasons, but all their interactions were not significant. In all investigated genotypes, better quality was established in SR2 variant when applied 650 seeds m-2.

  15. Biofortification of wheat grain with iron and zinc: integrating novel genomic resources and knowledge from model crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa eBorrill

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat, like many other staple cereals, contains low levels of the essential micronutrients iron and zinc. Up to two billion people worldwide suffer from iron and zinc deficiencies, particularly in regions with predominantly cereal-based diets. Although wheat flour is commonly fortified during processing, an attractive and more sustainable solution is biofortification, which requires developing new varieties of wheat with inherently higher iron and zinc content in their grains. Until now most studies aimed at increasing iron and zinc content in wheat grains have focused on discovering natural variation in progenitor or related species. However, recent developments in genomics and transformation have led to a step change in targeted research on wheat at a molecular level. We discuss promising approaches to improve iron and zinc content in wheat using knowledge gained in model grasses. We explore how the latest resources developed in wheat, including sequenced genomes and mutant populations, can be exploited for biofortification. We also highlight the key research and practical challenges that remain in improving iron and zinc content in wheat.

  16. Iron transport, deposition and bioavailability in the wheat and barley grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    will briefly review existing knowledge on the distribution and transport pathways of iron in the two small grained cereals, barley and wheat, and focus on the efforts made to increase the iron content in cereals in general. However, mineral content is not the only factor of relevance for improving......). The nutritional impact of increasing mineral content accordingly has to be seen in the context of mineral bioavailability. Finally, we will briefly report on recent data from barley, where laser capture microdissection of the different grain tissues combined with gene expression profiling has provided some...

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal strategy for zinc mycoremediation and diminished translocation to shoots and grains in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Mycoremediation is an on-site remediation strategy, which employs fungi to degrade or sequester contaminants from the environment. The present work focused on the bioremediation of soils contaminated with zinc by the use of a native mycorrhizal fungi (AM) called Funneliformis geosporum (Nicol. & Gerd.) Walker & Schüßler. Experiments were performed using Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gemmeza-10 at different concentrations of Zn (50, 100, 200 mg kg-1) and inoculated with or without F. geosporum. The results showed that the dry weight of mycorrhizal wheat increased at Zn stressed plants as compared to the non-Zn-stressed control plants. The concentrations of Zn also had an inhibitory effect on the yield of dry root and shoot of non-mycorrhizal wheat. The photosynthetic pigment fractions were significantly affected by Zn treatments and mycorrhizal inoculation, where in all treatments, the content of the photosynthetic pigment fractions decreased as the Zn concentration increased in the soil. However, the level of minerals of shoots, roots, and grains was greatly influenced by Zn-treatment and by inoculation with F. geosporum. Treatment with Zn in the soil increased Cu and Zn concentrations in the root, shoot and grains, however, other minerals (P, S, K, Ca and Fe) concentration was decreased. Inoculation of wheat with AM fungi significantly reduced the accumulation of Zn and depressed its translocation in shoots and grains of wheat. In conclusion, inoculation with a native F. geosporum-improves yields of wheat under higher levels of Zn and is possible to be applied for the improvement of zinc contaminated soil. PMID:29145471

  18. Characterization of the Wheat Leaf Metabolome during Grain Filling and under Varied N-Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmien Heyneke

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Progress in improving crop growth is an absolute goal despite the influence multifactorial components have on crop yield and quality. An Avalon × Cadenza doubled-haploid wheat mapping population was used to study the leaf metabolome of field grown wheat at weekly intervals during the time in which the canopy contributes to grain filling, i.e., from anthesis to 5 weeks post-anthesis. Wheat was grown under four different nitrogen supplies reaching from residual soil N to a luxury over-fertilization (0, 100, 200, and 350 kg N ha−1. Four lines from a segregating doubled haploid population derived of a cross of the wheat elite cvs. Avalon and Cadenza were chosen as they showed pairwise differences in either N utilization efficiency (NUtE or senescence timing. 108 annotated metabolites of primary metabolism and ions were determined. The analysis did not provide genotype specific markers because of a remarkable stability of the metabolome between lines. We speculate that the reason for failing to identify genotypic markers might be due to insufficient genetic diversity of the wheat parents and/or the known tendency of plants to keep metabolome homeostasis even under adverse conditions through multiple adaptations and rescue mechanism. The data, however, provided a consistent catalogue of metabolites and their respective responses to environmental and developmental factors and may bode well for future systems biology approaches, and support plant breeding and crop improvement.

  19. Enhanced Temperature During Grain Filling Reduces Protein Concentration of Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Miglietta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat is cultivated over more than 13 millions of hectares (ha world wide and Italy is the main European producer with 3.5 millions tons per year. The protein concentration of durum wheat is very important, it ensures high nutritional value and is highly appreciated by the pasta production industries. The protein concentration of wheat is determined during the grain filling period when carbon and nitrogen compounds are translocated into the grains. Air temperature affects translocation rates and contributes to final protein concentration of wheat grains. Two common commercial varieties of durum and bread wheat were exposed from anthesis to harvest, to a source of infrared radiation in the field. This allowed to investigate the relative effect of temperature on translocation of carbon and nitrogen compound during grain filling. The heat treatment imposed affected marginally dry mass accumulation of the grains in bread wheat and didn’t affect dry mass in durum wheat. Grain protein was affected by heat treatment in durum but not in bread wheat. Carbon accumulation rate was higher for durum than for bread wheat. The protein concentration was greater in durum than in bread wheat and we can assume that the absolute nitrogen accumulation rates were higher for the former species. Such difference may be either caused by a faster nitrogen uptake rate and translocation or a more efficient relocation of nitrogen accumulated in reserve organs.

  20. Relationships between early spring wheat streak mosaic severity levels and grain yield: Implications for management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) caused by Wheat streak mosaic virus, which is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella), is a major yield-limiting disease in the Texas High Plains. In addition to its impact on grain production, the disease reduces water-use efficiency by affecting root develo...

  1. Increasing Sucrose Uptake Capacity of Wheat Grains Stimulates Storage Protein Synthesis1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichert, Nicola; Saalbach, Isolde; Weichert, Heiko; Kohl, Stefan; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hause, Bettina; Varshney, Alok; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Strickert, Marc; Kumlehn, Jochen; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Increasing grain sink strength by improving assimilate uptake capacity could be a promising approach toward getting higher yield. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) sucrose transporter HvSUT1 (SUT) was expressed under control of the endosperm-specific Hordein B1 promoter (HO). Compared with the wild type, transgenic HOSUT grains take up more sucrose (Suc) in vitro, showing that the transgene is functional. Grain Suc levels are not altered, indicating that Suc fluxes are influenced rather than steady-state levels. HOSUT grains have increased percentages of total nitrogen and prolamins, which is reflected in increased levels of phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, isoleucine, and leucine at late grain development. Transcript profiling indicates specific stimulation of prolamin gene expression at the onset of storage phase. Changes in gene expression and metabolite levels related to carbon metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis suggest deregulated carbon-nitrogen balance, which together indicate carbon sufficiency and relative depletion of nitrogen. Genes, deregulated together with prolamin genes, might represent candidates, which respond positively to assimilate supply and are related to sugar-starch metabolism, cytokinin and brassinosteroid functions, cell proliferation, and sugar/abscisic acid signaling. Genes showing inverse expression patterns represent potential negative regulators. It is concluded that HvSUT1 overexpression increases grain protein content but also deregulates the metabolic status of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grains, accompanied by up-regulated gene expression of positive and negative regulators related to sugar signaling and assimilate supply. In HOSUT grains, alternating stimulation of positive and negative regulators causes oscillatory patterns of gene expression and highlights the capacity and great flexibility to adjust wheat grain storage metabolism in response to metabolic alterations. PMID:20018590

  2. The relationship between polyamines and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available The grain weight of wheat is strongly influenced by filling. Polyamines (PA are involved in regulating plant growth. However, the effects of PA on wheat grain filling and its mechanism of action are unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between PAs and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling. Three PAs, spermidine (Spd, spermine (Spm, and putrescine (Put, were exogenously applied, and the grain filling characteristics and changes in endogenous PA and hormones, i.e., indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, zeatin (Z + zeatin riboside (ZR, abscisic acid (ABA, ethylene (ETH and gibberellin 1+4 (GAs, were quantified during wheat grain filling. Exogenous applications of Spd and Spm significantly increased the grain filling rate and weight, but exogenous Put had no significant effects on these measures. Exogenous Spd and Spm significantly increased the endogenous Spd, Spm, Z+ZR, ABA, and IAA contents and significantly decreased ETH evolution in grains. The endogenous Spd, Spm and Z+ZR contents were positively and significantly correlated with the grain filling rate and weight of wheat, and the endogenous ETH evolution was negatively and significantly correlated with the wheat grain filling rate and weight. Based upon these results, we concluded that PAs were involved in the balance of hormones that regulated the grain filling of wheat.

  3. The Relationship between Polyamines and Hormones in the Regulation of Wheat Grain Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Gu, Dandan; Wu, Wei; Wen, Xiaoxia; Liao, Yuncheng

    2013-01-01

    The grain weight of wheat is strongly influenced by filling. Polyamines (PA) are involved in regulating plant growth. However, the effects of PA on wheat grain filling and its mechanism of action are unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between PAs and hormones in the regulation of wheat grain filling. Three PAs, spermidine (Spd), spermine (Spm), and putrescine (Put), were exogenously applied, and the grain filling characteristics and changes in endogenous PA and hormones, i.e., indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z) + zeatin riboside (ZR), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ETH) and gibberellin 1+4 (GAs), were quantified during wheat grain filling. Exogenous applications of Spd and Spm significantly increased the grain filling rate and weight, but exogenous Put had no significant effects on these measures. Exogenous Spd and Spm significantly increased the endogenous Spd, Spm, Z+ZR, ABA, and IAA contents and significantly decreased ETH evolution in grains. The endogenous Spd, Spm and Z+ZR contents were positively and significantly correlated with the grain filling rate and weight of wheat, and the endogenous ETH evolution was negatively and significantly correlated with the wheat grain filling rate and weight. Based upon these results, we concluded that PAs were involved in the balance of hormones that regulated the grain filling of wheat. PMID:24205154

  4. Distribution of gluten proteins in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Paola; Gritsch, Cristina Sanchis; He, Jibin; Shewry, Peter R

    2011-07-01

    Gluten proteins are the major storage protein fraction in the mature wheat grain. They are restricted to the starchy endosperm, which forms white flour on milling, and interact during grain development to form large polymers which form a continuous proteinaceous network when flour is mixed with water to give dough. This network confers viscosity and elasticity to the dough, enabling the production of leavened products. The starchy endosperm is not a homogeneous tissue and quantitative and qualitative gradients exist for the major components: protein, starch and cell wall polysaccharides. Gradients in protein content and composition are the most evident and are of particular interest because of the major role played by the gluten proteins in determining grain processing quality. Protein gradients in the starchy endosperm were investigated using antibodies for specific gluten protein types for immunolocalization in developing grains and for western blot analysis of protein extracts from flour fractions obtained by sequential abrasion (pearling) to prepare tissue layers. Differential patterns of distribution were found for the high-molecular-weight subunits of glutenin (HMW-GS) and γ-gliadins when compared with the low-molecular-weight subunits of glutenin (LMW-GS), ω- and α-gliadins. The first two types of gluten protein are more abundant in the inner endosperm layers and the latter more abundant in the subaleurone. Immunolocalization also showed that segregation of gluten proteins occurs both between and within protein bodies during protein deposition and may still be retained in the mature grain. Quantitative and qualitative gradients in gluten protein composition are established during grain development. These gradients may be due to the origin of subaleurone cells, which unlike other starchy endosperm cells derive from the re-differentiation of aleurone cells, but could also result from the action of specific regulatory signals produced by the maternal tissue

  5. A Comparative Classification of Wheat Grains for Artificial Neural Network and Extreme Learning Machine

    OpenAIRE

    ASLAN, Muhammet Fatih; SABANCI, Kadir; YİĞİT, Enes; KAYABAŞI, Ahmet; TOKTAŞ, Abdurrahim; DUYSAK, Hüseyin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, classification of two types of wheat grainsinto bread and durum was carried out. The species of wheat grains in thisdataset are bread and durum and these species have equal samples in the datasetas 100 instances. Seven features, including width, height, area, perimeter,roundness, width and perimeter/area were extracted from each wheat grains. Classificationwas separately conducted by Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM)artificial intelligence techn...

  6. A prototype sensor system for the early detection of microbially linked spoilage in stored wheat grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacy Costello, B. P. J.; Ewen, R. J.; Gunson, H.; Ratcliffe, N. M.; Sivanand, P. S.; Spencer-Phillips, P. T. N.

    2003-04-01

    Sensors based on composites of metal oxides were fabricated and tested extensively under high-humidity and high-flow conditions with exposure to vapours reported to increase in the headspace of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum cv Hereward) colonized by fungi. The sensors that exhibited high sensitivity to target vapours combined with high stability were selected for inclusion into a four-sensor array prototype system. A sampling protocol aligned to parallel gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and human olfactory assessment studies was established for use with the sensor system. The sensor system was utilized to assess irradiated wheat samples that had been conditioned to 25% moisture content and inoculated with pathogens known to cause spoilage of grain in storage. These included the fungi Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium vulpinum, Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium culmorum, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus and the actinomycete, Streptomyces griseus. The sensor system successfully tracked the progress of the infections from a very early stage and the results were compared with human olfactory assessment panels run concurrently. A series of dilution studies were undertaken using previously infected grain mixed with sound grain, to improve the sensitivity and maximize the differentiation of the sensor system. An optimum set of conditions including incubation temperature, incubation time, sampling time, and flow rate were ascertained utilizing this method. The sensor system differentiated samples of sound grain from samples of sound grain with 1% (w/w) fungus infected grain added. Following laboratory trials, the prototype sensor system was evaluated in a commercial wheat grain intake facility. Thresholds calculated from laboratory tests were used to differentiate between sound and infected samples (classified by intake laboratory technicians) collected routinely from trucks delivering grain for use in food manufacture. All samples identified as having

  7. Raising yield potential of wheat. III. Optimizing partitioning to grain while maintaining lodging resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, M John; Slafer, Gustavo A; Davies, William J; Berry, Pete M; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Martre, Pierre; Calderini, Daniel F; Griffiths, Simon; Reynolds, Matthew P

    2011-01-01

    A substantial increase in grain yield potential is required, along with better use of water and fertilizer, to ensure food security and environmental protection in future decades. For improvements in photosynthetic capacity to result in additional wheat yield, extra assimilates must be partitioned to developing spikes and grains and/or potential grain weight increased to accommodate the extra assimilates. At the same time, improvement in dry matter partitioning to spikes should ensure that it does not increase stem or root lodging. It is therefore crucial that improvements in structural and reproductive aspects of growth accompany increases in photosynthesis to enhance the net agronomic benefits of genetic modifications. In this article, six complementary approaches are proposed, namely: (i) optimizing developmental pattern to maximize spike fertility and grain number, (ii) optimizing spike growth to maximize grain number and dry matter harvest index, (iii) improving spike fertility through desensitizing floret abortion to environmental cues, (iv) improving potential grain size and grain filling, and (v) improving lodging resistance. Since many of the traits tackled in these approaches interact strongly, an integrative modelling approach is also proposed, to (vi) identify any trade-offs between key traits, hence to define target ideotypes in quantitative terms. The potential for genetic dissection of key traits via quantitative trait loci analysis is discussed for the efficient deployment of existing variation in breeding programmes. These proposals should maximize returns in food production from investments in increased crop biomass by increasing spike fertility, grain number per unit area and harvest index whilst optimizing the trade-offs with potential grain weight and lodging resistance.

  8. Genetic dissection of grain size and grain number trade-offs in CIMMYT wheat germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Simon; Wingen, Luzie; Pietragalla, Julian; Garcia, Guillermo; Hasan, Ahmed; Miralles, Daniel; Calderini, Daniel F; Ankleshwaria, Jignaben Bipinchandra; Waite, Michelle Leverington; Simmonds, James; Snape, John; Reynolds, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Grain weight (GW) and number per unit area of land (GN) are the primary components of grain yield in wheat. In segregating populations both yield components often show a negative correlation among themselves. Here we use a recombinant doubled haploid population of 105 individuals developed from the CIMMYT varieties Weebill and Bacanora to understand the relative contribution of these components to grain yield and their interaction with each other. Weebill was chosen for its high GW and Bacanora for high GN. The population was phenotyped in Mexico, Argentina, Chile and the UK. Two loci influencing grain yield were indicated on 1B and 7B after QTL analysis. Weebill contributed the increasing alleles. The 1B effect, which is probably caused by to the 1BL.1RS rye introgression in Bacanora, was a result of increased GN, whereas, the 7B QTL controls GW. We concluded that increased in GW from Weebill 7B allele is not accompanied by a significant reduction in grain number. The extent of the GW and GN trade-off is reduced. This makes this locus an attractive target for marker assisted selection to develop high yielding bold grain varieties like Weebill. AMMI analysis was used to show that the 7B Weebill allele appears to contribute to yield stability.

  9. Plant Extract Control of the Fungi Associated with Different Egyptian Wheat Cultivars Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Baka Zakaria Awad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Grain samples of 14 Egyptian wheat cultivars were tested for seed-borne fungi. The deep freezing method was used. Five seed-borne fungi viz., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium moniliforme and Penicillium chrysogenum were isolated from the wheat cultivars viz., Bani Suef 4, Bani Suef 5, Gemmiza 7, Gemmiza 9, Gemmiza 10, Giza 168, Misr 1, Misr 2, Sakha 93, Sakha 94, Shandaweel 1, Sids 1, Sids 2 and Sids 3. A. flavus, A. niger and F. moniliforme were the most prevalent fungal species. Their incidence ranged from 21.0-53.5%, 16.0-37.5%, and 12.0-31.0%, respectively. The antifungal potential of water extracts from aerial parts of five wild medicinal plants (Asclepias sinaica, Farsetia aegyptia, Hypericum sinaicum, Phagnalon sinaicum, and Salvia aegyptiaca were collected from the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The antifungal potential of water extracts from the aerial parts of these five plants were tested in the laboratory against the dominant fungi isolated from the wheat cultivars. All the aqueous plant extracts significantly (p ≤ 0.05 reduced the incidence of the tested seed-borne fungi. But the extract of Asclepias sinaica exhibited the most antifungal activity on tested fungi at all concentrations used when compared with other plant extracts. Maximum infested grain germination was observed in Giza 168 and minimum in Bani Suef 5. Treating grains with plant extract of A. sinaica (10% enhanced the percentage of grain germination of all cultivars in both laboratory and pot experiments. Maximum root and shoot length of seedlings was recorded in Bani Suef 4 during fungal infestation or treatment by plant extract. For one hour before sowing or storage, the aqueous extract of A. sinaica can be used to treat wheat grains, to reduce the fungal incidence. Aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of selected medicinal plants, particularly A. sinaica, are promising for protecting Egyptian wheat grain cultivars against major seed-borne fungi

  10. Wheat grain mechanical vulnerability to mechanical damage in light of the recent agrophysical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundas, S.

    1995-01-01

    The paper contains basic information on mechanical damage to wheat grains. The most important causes of mechanical damage and some of its effects in manufacturing are discussed. Grain material included 5 varieties of winter wheat and 2 varieties of spring wheat. Internal mechanical damage was examined by X-ray technique; external damage was examined with the colorimeter method. The results obtained were compared with the estimation results of more important processing features of the grain: gluten quantity and quality and grain hardness. (author)

  11. Improving farming practices reduces the carbon footprint of spring wheat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yantai; Liang, Chang; Chai, Qiang; Lemke, Reynald L; Campbell, Con A; Zentner, Robert P

    2014-11-18

    Wheat is one of the world's most favoured food sources, reaching millions of people on a daily basis. However, its production has climatic consequences. Fuel, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides used in wheat production emit greenhouse gases that can contribute negatively to climate change. It is unknown whether adopting alternative farming practices will increase crop yield while reducing carbon emissions. Here we quantify the carbon footprint of alternative wheat production systems suited to semiarid environments. We find that integrating improved farming practices (that is, fertilizing crops based on soil tests, reducing summerfallow frequencies and rotating cereals with grain legumes) lowers wheat carbon footprint effectively, averaging -256 kg CO2 eq ha(-1) per year. For each kg of wheat grain produced, a net 0.027-0.377 kg CO2 eq is sequestered into the soil. With the suite of improved farming practices, wheat takes up more CO2 from the atmosphere than is actually emitted during its production.

  12. Viability and vigour of ageing winter wheat grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Grzesiuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The viability and vigour of ageing winter wheat caryopses of the cvs. Grana and Jana were tested. Viability was determined on the basis of germination capacity and rate, and vigour on the basis of the over-all activity of hydrogenases in the sprouts, exudate conductometry, analysis of sprout growth, oxygen uptake and mitochondrial protein content in the sprouts. What is called energy (or rate of germination and over-all dehydrogenase activity in embryos and sprouts and the electroconductivity of exudates were found to be very good measures of the vigour of ageing caryopses. The latter two indices of vigour should be determined at a strictly defined moment of swelling and germination. Good measures of caryopse vigour are also respiration during swelling and at the beginning of germination and mitochondrial protein content in the sprouts or seedlings. There is a high correlation between the vigour of ageing grain and its bioenergetic indices.

  13. Inheritance of culm height and grain yield in durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filev, K.

    1984-01-01

    Results from a study of GA sensitive and GA insensitive durum wheat mutants and cultivars in relation with their culm height and 1000 grain weight are presented. With increasing culm height, the GA response also increased. A positive correlation between plant height and GA response was found. Crosses were made between durum wheats and the F 1 and F 2 progenies were analysed. A different inheritance in F 1 and segregation in F 2 was obtained in crosses of a semi-dwarf, GA insensitive [1] line with GA sensitive (S) lines differing in height, medium (93.2cm) and tall (133.5cm). In a reciprocal cross, semi-dwarf - I with medium - S, the semi-dwarf type was dominant in F 1 , suggesting that their semi-dwarfing genes were not allelic. When the semi-dwarf - I and tall - S were crossed an intermediate inheritance in F 1 was observed. In the F 2 generation from crosses semi-dwarf - I with medium - S with semi-dwarf - I, a phenotypic dihybred segregation 9:3:3:1 was observed. In crosses semi-dwarf - I with tall - S different variation curves were obtained. Semi-dwarfs with high productivity were observed in F 2 , a fact indicating that lodging resistant lines with high yields could be selected. (author)

  14. Improving wheat productivity through source and timing of nitrogen fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.T.; Khan, A.; Afridi, M.Z.; Arif, M.; Khan, M.J.; Farhatullah; Jan, D.; Saeed, M.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient nitrogen (N) fertilizer management is critical for the improved production of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and can be achieved through source and timing of N application. Thus, an experiment was carried out at the Research Farm of KPK Agricultural University Peshawar during 2005-06 to test the effects of sources and timing of N application on yield and yield components of wheat. Nitrogen sources were ammonium (NH/sub 4/) and nitrate (NO/sub 3/) applied at the rate of 100 kg ha/sup -1/ at three different stages i.e., at sowing (S1), tillering (S2) and boot stage (S3). Ammonium N increased yield component but did not affect the final grain yield. Split N application at sowing, tillering and boot stages had increased productive tillers m-2, and thousand grains weight, whereas grain yield was higher when N was applied at tillering and boot stages. Nitrogen fertilization increased 20% grain yield compared to control regardless of N application time. It was concluded from the experiment that split application of NH/sub 4/-N performed better than full dose application and/or NO/sub 3/-N for improved wheat productivity and thus, is recommended for general practice in agro-climatic conditions of Peshawar. (author)

  15. Effects of Favorable Alleles for Water-Soluble Carbohydrates at Grain Filling on Grain Weight under Drought and Heat Stresses in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoping; Li, Runzhi; Jing, Ruilian

    2014-01-01

    Drought, heat and other abiotic stresses during grain filling can result in reductions in grain weight. Conserved water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) at early grain filling play an important role in partial compensation of reduced carbon supply. A diverse population of 262 historical winter wheat accessions was used in the present study. There were significant correlations between 1000-grain weight (TGW) and four types of WSC, viz. (1) total WSC at the mid-grain filling stage (14 days after flowering) produced by leaves and non-leaf organs; (2) WSC contributed by current leaf assimilation during the mid-grain filling; (3) WSC in non-leaf organs at the mid-grain filling, excluding the current leaf assimilation; and (4) WSC used for respiration and remobilization during the mid-grain filling. Association and favorable allele analyses of 209 genome-wide SSR markers and the four types of WSC were conducted using a mixed linear model. Seven novel favorable WSC alleles exhibited positive individual contributions to TGW, which were verified under 16 environments. Dosage effects of pyramided favorable WSC alleles and significantly linear correlations between the number of favorable WSC alleles and TGW were observed. Our results suggested that pyramiding more favorable WSC alleles was effective for improving both WSC and grain weight in future wheat breeding programs. PMID:25036550

  16. Assessment of annual effective dose from natural radioactivity intake through wheat grain produced in Faisalabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufail, M.; Sabiha-Javied; Akhtar, N.; Akhter, J.

    2010-01-01

    Wheat is staple food of the people of Pakistan. Phosphate fertilizers, used to increase the yield of wheat, enhance the natural radioactivity in the agricultural fields from where radionuclides are transferred to wheat grain. A study was, therefore, carried out to investigate the uptake of radioactivity by wheat grain and to determine radiation doses received by human beings from the intake of foodstuffs made of wheat grain. Wheat was grown in a highly fertilized agricultural research farm at the Nuclear Institute of Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan. The activity concentration of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th was measured in soil, single superphosphate (SSP) fertilizer, and wheat grain using an HPGe-based gamma-ray spectrometer. Soil to wheat grain transfer factors determined for 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th were 0.118 ± 0.021, 0.022 ± 0.004 and 0.036 ± 0.007, respectively, and the annual effective dose received by an adult person from the intake of wheat products was estimated to be 217 μSv. (author)

  17. The Effect of Different Zinc Application Methods on Yield and Grain Zinc Concentration of Bread Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatun Barut

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the impacts of zinc (Zn treatments on growth, development, quality and yield of commonly sown bread wheat cultivars under field conditions of Çukurova Region. Three different bread wheat cultivars (Adana-99, Ceyhan-99 and Pandas were experimented in randomized complete blocks-split plots experimental design with 3 replications. Field experiments were performed by two different Zn application methods; via soil and via soil+foliage. In the both trials, 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 kg ha-1 pure Zn doses were applied to the soil. 0.4% ZnSO4.7H2O solution was used for foliar Zn applications. Current findings revealed that Zn treatments had significant effects on grain yield, grain Zn concentration, grain phosphorus (P concentration and thousand grain weight of bread wheat cultivars, but significant effects were not observed on grain protein concentrations. Soil+foliar Zn treatments were more effective in improving grain Zn concentrations. It was concluded that 10- 20 kg ha-1 Zn treatment was quite effective on grain Zn concentrations.

  18. Implicitly defined criteria for vector optimization in technological process of hydroponic germination of wheat grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneva, M. S.; Rudenko, O. V.; Usatikov, S. V.; Bugaets, N. A.; Tereshchenko, I. V.

    2018-05-01

    To reduce the duration of the process and to ensure the microbiological purity of the germinated material, an improved method of germination has been developed based on the complex use of physical factors: electrochemically activated water (ECHA-water), electromagnetic field of extremely low frequencies (EMF ELF) with round-the-clock artificial illumination by LED lamps. The increase in the efficiency of the "numerical" technology for solving computational problems of parametric optimization of the technological process of hydroponic germination of wheat grains is considered. In this situation, the quality criteria are contradictory and part of them is given by implicit functions of many variables. A solution algorithm is offered without the construction of a Pareto set in which a relatively small number of elements of a set of alternatives is used to obtain a linear convolution of the criteria with given weights, normalized to their "ideal" values from the solution of the problems of single-criterion private optimizations. The use of the proposed mathematical models describing the processes of hydroponic germination of wheat grains made it possible to intensify the germination process and to shorten the time of obtaining wheat sprouts "Altayskaya 105" for 27 hours.

  19. Novel Field Data on Phytoextraction: Pre-Cultivation With Salix Reduces Cadmium in Wheat Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, Maria; Landberg, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a health hazard, and up to 43% of human Cd intake comes from wheat products, since Cd accumulates in wheat grains. Salix spp. are high-accumulators of Cd and is suggested for Cd phytoextraction from agricultural soils. We demonstrate, in field, that Salix viminalis can remove Cd from agricultural soils and thereby reduce Cd accumulation in grains of wheat subsequently grown in a Salix-treated field. Four years of Salix cultivation reduce Cd concentration in the soil by up to 27% and in grains of the post-cultivated wheat by up to 33%. The higher the plant density of the Salix, the greater the Cd removal from the soil and the lower the Cd concentration in the grains of post-cultivated wheat, the Cd reduction remaining stable several years after Salix cultivation. The effect occurred in both sandy and clayey soil and in winter and spring bread wheat cultivars. Already one year of Salix cultivation significantly decrease Cd in post grown wheat grains. With this field experiment we have demonstrated that phytoextraction can reduce accumulation of a pollutant in post-cultivated wheat and that phytoextraction has no other observed effect on post-cultivated crops than reduced uptake of the removed pollutant.

  20. Impact of integrated nutrient management on growth and grain yield of wheat under irrigated cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawab, K.; Amanullah, A.; Shah, P.; Arif, M.; Khan, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Field study was conducted during 2001-02 and 2002-03 to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on the grain yield of wheat. Trials were conducted at Agricultural Research Farm, KPK Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Two factors cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers were studied in the experiment. Randomized complete block design was used with split plot arrangements and four replications having net plot size of 12 m/sup 2/. Wheat variety Ghaznavi-98 was sown in November soon after ploughing the soil at proper moisture level suitable for wheat seed germination. Five cropping patterns were allotted to main plots and the eight combinations of FYM, K and Zn to the sub-plots. Same plots were used for next year sowing. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., rice-wheat, maize-wheat, sunflower-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Highest grain yield was obtained when wheat was planted after pigeon pea. Manures/fertilizer application (Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc) produced significantly higher grain yield than the control plots. The findings of the present study revealed that leguminous crops can significantly increase the yield of succeeding crops. Thus use of Farmyard Manure, Potassium and Zinc should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable agriculture. (author)

  1. Relationship between fungal contamination and ergosterol content and control of wheat grain spoilage by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, A.M.; Mahrous, S.R.; Aziz, N.H.; El-Zeany, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The fungal flora and the ergosterol content of wheat grains were determined and the effect of gamma-irradiation on some important grain fungi to control mould spoilage of wheat grains was also investigated. At the start of storage, the ergosterol content and the number of moulds of wheat grains were 3.3μg/g and 3x10 3 /g, respectively and the technological values as germinative capacity and fat acidity were wholly satisfactory. After 50 days of storage, the ergosterol content and the number of moulds of the grains were 45.5 μg/g and 80x10 5 /g, respectively and all the germinative capacity and fat acidity values were not satisfactory. The ergosterol content of wheat grains irradiated at a dose level 3 kGy was 0.5 μg/g and the number of moulds were 8x10 2 /g. After 50 days of storage, the ergosterol content of the 3 kGy irradiated grains was 0.90 μg/g and the number of moulds were 15x10 2 /g and all the technological values were satisfactory. The fungal biomass and the ergosterol content of some grains fungi were decreased by increasing the irradiation dose levels. At irradiation dose level 4 kGy, there was no ergosterol in wheat grains and the moulds were completely inhibited and the technological values are wholly satisfactory over 50 days of storage

  2. Production of aflatexin B1 in wheat grains under different environmental storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrous, S.R.; Shahin, A.A.M.; Bothaina, M.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Fungal flora of stored wheat grains and the production of aflatoxin B 1 by Aflavus in wheat grains under different environmental conditions were examined. Aspergillus, Penicillium,. Fusarium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Epicouccum, Verticilium, Rhizopus, Mucor and Altenaria were the predominant fungi isolated from the collected non-disinfected grains. Aspergillus spp, were only isolated from surface disinfected grains. Of 223 aspergillus spp, isolates only 128 found to aflatoxin producing and all aflatoxin producing-fungi belonged to the Aflavus group. Results demonstrate that Aflavus could produce maximum concentration of aflatoxin B 1 in grains at 20% moisture (163.5 MOU g/kg). The highest concentration of aflatoxin B 1 was produced by Aflavus (10 5 spores/g) in wheat grains with 20% moisture after 20 days at 30 degree and 92.40 % R.H. The aflatoxin production did not increase monotonously as a function of inoculum density

  3. Calibration of Soil Available Nitrogen and Water Content with Grain Yield of Dry land Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Feiziasl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nitrogen (N is one of the most important growth-limiting nutrients for dryland wheat. Mineral nitrogen or ammonium (NH4+ and nitrate (NO3− are two common forms of inorganic nitrogen that can serve as limiting factors for plant growth. Nitrogen fertilization in dryland area can increase the use of soil moisture, and improve wheat yields to some extent. Many researchers have been confirmed interactions between water stress and nitrogen fertilizers on wheat, especially under field conditions. Because of water stress affects forms of nitrogen uptake that leads to disorder in plant metabolism, reduction in grain yield and crop quality in dryland condition. On the other hand, use of suitable methods for determining nitrogen requirement can increase dryland wheat production. However, nitrogen recommendations should be based on soil profile content or precipitation. An efficient method for nitrogen fertilizer recommendation involves choosing an effective soil extractant and calibrating soil nitrogen (Total N, NO3− andNH4+ tests against yield responses to applied nitrogen in field experiments. Soil testing enables initial N supply to be measured and N supply throughout the season due to mineralization to be estimated. This study was carried out to establish relationship between nitrogen forms (Total N, NO3− andNH4+ in soil and soil profile water content with plant response for recommendation of nitrogen fertilizer. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in split-split plot in a RCBD in Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI, Maragheh, Iranwhere N application times (fall, 2/3 in fall and 1/3 in spring were assigned to the main plots, N rates to sub plot (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg/ha, and 7 dryland wheat genotypes to sub-sub plots (Azar2, Ohadi, Rasad and 1-4 other genotypes in three replications in 2010-2011. Soil samples were collected from 0-20, 20-40, 40-60 and 60-80 cm in sub-sub plots in shooting stage (ZGS32. Ammonium

  4. The Mathematical Modeling Effective Viscosity of Whole Minced Wheat Grain Dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study on the change of rheological properties of whole minced wheat grain dough during fermentation with additives. Retrieving dependencies to predict and manage effective viscosity of dough fermentation.

  5. Bran characteristics and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varietal variations in physical and compositional characteristics of bran and their associations with bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF) were investigated using bran obtained from roller milling of 18 wheat varieties. Bran was characterized for composition including protein, fat, ...

  6. Seed priming with iron and zinc in bread wheat: effects in germination, mitosis and grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Sara; Pavia, Ivo; Carvalho, Ana; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Correia, Carlos; Lima-Brito, José

    2018-07-01

    Currently, the biofortification of crops like wheat with micronutrients such as iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) is extremely important due to the deficiencies of these micronutrients in the human diet and in soils. Agronomic biofortification with Fe and Zn can be done through different exogenous strategies such as soil application, foliar spraying, and seed priming. However, the excess of these micronutrients can be detrimental to the plants. Therefore, in the last decade, a high number of studies focused on the evaluation of their phytotoxic effects to define the best strategies for biofortification of bread wheat. In this study, we investigated the effects of seed priming with different dosages (1 mg L -1 to 8 mg L -1 ) of Fe and/or Zn in germination, mitosis and yield of bread wheat cv. 'Jordão' when compared with control. Overall, our results showed that: micronutrient dosages higher than 4 mg L -1 negatively affect the germination; Fe and/or Zn concentrations higher than 2 mg L -1 significantly decrease the mitotic index and increase the percentage of dividing cells with anomalies; treatments performed with 8 mg L -1 of Fe and/or 8 mg L -1 Zn caused negative effects in germination, mitosis and grain yield. Moreover, seed priming with 2 mg L -1 Fe + 2 mg L -1 Zn has been shown to be non-cytotoxic, ensuring a high rate of germination (80%) and normal dividing cells (90%) as well as improving tillering and grain yield. This work revealed that seed priming with Fe and Zn micronutrients constitutes a useful and alternative approach for the agronomic biofortification of bread wheat.

  7. Assessing the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junfang; Pu, Feiyu; Li, Yunpeng; Xu, Jingwen; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Jianping; Pan, Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the regional relationships between climate change and crop production will benefit strategic decisions for future agricultural adaptation in China. In this study, the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield over the past three decades in Inner Mongolia, China, were explored based on the daily climate variables from 1981-2014 and detailed observed data of spring wheat from 1981-2014. Inner Mongolia was divided into three different climate type regions, the eastern, central and western regions. The data were gathered from 10 representative agricultural meteorological experimental stations in Inner Mongolia and analysed with the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model. First, the performance of the APSIM model in the spring wheat planting areas of Inner Mongolia was tested. Then, the key climatic factors limiting the phenophases and yield of spring wheat were identified. Finally, the responses of spring wheat phenophases and yield to climate change were further explored regionally. Our results revealed a general yield reduction of spring wheat in response to the pronounced climate warming from 1981 to 2014, with an average of 3564 kg·ha-1. The regional differences in yields were significant. The maximum potential yield of spring wheat was found in the western region. However, the minimum potential yield was found in the middle region. The air temperature and soil surface temperature were the optimum climatic factors that affected the key phenophases of spring wheat in Inner Mongolia. The influence of the average maximum temperature on the key phenophases of spring wheat was greater than the average minimum temperature, followed by the relative humidity and solar radiation. The most insensitive climatic factors were precipitation, wind speed and reference crop evapotranspiration. As for the yield of spring wheat, temperature, solar radiation and air relative humidity were major meteorological

  8. Assessing the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Zhao

    Full Text Available Understanding the regional relationships between climate change and crop production will benefit strategic decisions for future agricultural adaptation in China. In this study, the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield over the past three decades in Inner Mongolia, China, were explored based on the daily climate variables from 1981-2014 and detailed observed data of spring wheat from 1981-2014. Inner Mongolia was divided into three different climate type regions, the eastern, central and western regions. The data were gathered from 10 representative agricultural meteorological experimental stations in Inner Mongolia and analysed with the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM model. First, the performance of the APSIM model in the spring wheat planting areas of Inner Mongolia was tested. Then, the key climatic factors limiting the phenophases and yield of spring wheat were identified. Finally, the responses of spring wheat phenophases and yield to climate change were further explored regionally. Our results revealed a general yield reduction of spring wheat in response to the pronounced climate warming from 1981 to 2014, with an average of 3564 kg·ha-1. The regional differences in yields were significant. The maximum potential yield of spring wheat was found in the western region. However, the minimum potential yield was found in the middle region. The air temperature and soil surface temperature were the optimum climatic factors that affected the key phenophases of spring wheat in Inner Mongolia. The influence of the average maximum temperature on the key phenophases of spring wheat was greater than the average minimum temperature, followed by the relative humidity and solar radiation. The most insensitive climatic factors were precipitation, wind speed and reference crop evapotranspiration. As for the yield of spring wheat, temperature, solar radiation and air relative humidity were major

  9. Mining centuries old in-situ conserved Turkish wheat landraces for grain yield and stripe rust resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepmala Sehgal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wheat landraces in Turkey are an important genetic resource for wheat improvement. An exhaustive five-year (2009-2014 effort made by the International Winter Wheat Improvement Programme (IWWIP a cooperative program between the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock of Turkey, the International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT and the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA, led to the collection and documentation of around 2,000 landrace populations from 55 provinces throughout Turkey. This study reports the genetic characterization of a subset of bread wheat landraces collected in 2010 from 11 diverse provinces using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS technology. The potential of this collection to identify loci determining grain yield and stripe rust resistance via genome-wide association (GWA analysis was explored. A high genetic diversity (diversity index = 0.260 and a moderate population structure based on highly inherited spike traits was revealed in the panel. The linkage disequilibrium decayed at 10 cM across the whole genome and was slower as compared to other landrace collections. In addition to previously reported QTL, GWA analysis also identified new candidate genomic regions for stripe rust resistance, grain yield and spike productivity components. New candidate genomic regions reflect the potential of this landrace collection to further increase genetic diversity in elite germplasm.

  10. Application of calibrations to hyperspectral images of food grains: example for wheat falling number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Caporaso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a few kernels with sprouting problems in a batch of wheat can result in enzymatic activity sufficient to compromise flour functionality and bread quality. This is commonly assessed using the Hagberg Falling Number (HFN method, which is a batch analysis. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI can provide analysis at the single grain level with potential for improved performance. The present paper deals with the development and application of calibrations obtained using an HSI system working in the near infrared (NIR region (~900–2500 nm and reference measurements of HFN. A partial least squares regression calibration has been built using 425 wheat samples with a HFN range of 62–318 s, including field and laboratory pre-germinated samples placed under wet conditions. Two different approaches were tested to apply calibrations: i application of the calibration to each pixel, followed by calculation of the average of the resulting values for each object (kernel; ii calculation of the average spectrum for each object, followed by application of the calibration to the mean spectrum. The calibration performance achieved for HFN (R2 = 0.6; RMSEC ~ 50 s; RMSEP ~ 63 s compares favourably with other studies using NIR spectroscopy. Linear spectral pre-treatments lead to similar results when applying the two methods, while non-linear treatments such as standard normal variate showed obvious differences between these approaches. A classification model based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA was also applied to segregate wheat kernels into low (250 s HFN groups. LDA correctly classified 86.4% of the samples, with a classification accuracy of 97.9% when using an HFN threshold of 150 s. These results are promising in terms of wheat quality assessment using a rapid and non-destructive technique which is able to analyse wheat properties on a single-kernel basis, and to classify samples as acceptable or unacceptable for flour production.

  11. Early prediction of wheat quality: analysis during grain development using mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghirardo, A.; Sørensen, Helle Aagaard; Petersen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis have been used for the determination of wheat quality at different stages of grain development. Wheat varieties with one of two different end-use qualities (i.e. suitable or not suitable...... data analysis, offers a method that can replace the traditional rather time-consuming ones such as gel electrophoresis. This study focused on the determination of wheat quality at 15 dpa, when the grain is due for harvest 1 month later....

  12. Agronomic Characteristics Related to Grain Yield and Nutrient Use Efficiency for Wheat Production in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limin Chuan

    Full Text Available In order to make clear the recent status and trend of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production in China, datasets from multiple field experiments and published literature were collected to study the agronomic characteristics related to grain yield, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency from the year 2000 to 2011. The results showed that the mean grain yield of wheat in 2000-2011 was 5950 kg/ha, while the N, P2O5 and K2O application rates were 172, 102 and 91 kg/ha on average, respectively. The decrease in N and P2O5 and increase in K2O balanced the nutrient supply and was the main reason for yield increase. The partial factor productivity (PFP, kg grain yield produced per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied values of N (PFP-N, P (PFP-P and K (PFP-K were in the ranges of 29.5~39.6, 43.4~74.9 and 44.1~76.5 kg/kg, respectively. While PFP-N showed no significant changes from 2000 to 2010, both PFP-P and PFP-K showed an increased trend over this period. The mean agronomic efficiency (AE, kg grain yield increased per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied values of N (AEN, P (AEP and K (AEK were 9.4, 10.2 and 6.5 kg/kg, respectively. The AE values demonstrated marked inter-annual fluctuations, with the amplitude of fluctuation for AEN greater than those for AEP and AEK. The mean fertilizer recovery efficiency (RE, the fraction of nutrient uptake in aboveground plant dry matter to the nutrient of fertilizer application values of N, P and K in the aboveground biomass were 33.1%, 24.3% and 28.4%, respectively. It was also revealed that different wheat ecological regions differ greatly in wheat productivity, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency. In summary, it was suggested that best nutrient management practices, i.e. fertilizer recommendation applied based on soil testing or yield response, with strategies to match the nutrient input with realistic yield and demand, or provided with the 4R's nutrient management (right time, right rate, right

  13. Analysis of grain filling process to the varied meteorological conditions in winter wheat [Triticum aestivum] cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Nakazono, K.; Wakiyama, Y.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes effects of varied meteorological conditions on the grain filling periods, stabilities of yield and quality of winter wheat cultivars with different maturity characteristics (cv. Ayahikari, Norin61, Bandowase, and Tsurupikari). In the field experiments, the meteorological treatments were made during the first heading time on 17 April 2001 and the middle heading time on 24 April 2000. Air temperature, global solar radiation and soil moisture were controlled using a rain shelter, cheesecloth and irrigation system. The growth speed and growth period of wheat grains varied among four winter wheat cultivars, depending on meteorological conditions. The growth speed increased within 1 8.4 deg C of mean air temperature over the 30 days after the anthesis. On the other hand, it was found that the growth speed of wheat grains and the maximum number of wheat grains (Ymax) decreased greatly with the 44.4% interception of global solar radiation. Logistic functions were fitted to the relationship between the relative thousand-kernel-weight (Y/Ymax) and the total integrated temperature (sigmaTa) after heading for all treatment conditions. The maximum weight of grains (Ymax) achieved at the harvest time varied somewhat clearly among four winter wheat cultivars and meteorological conditions. Multiple regression analysis showed that the grain yield (Ymax) of four wheat cultivars correlated positively with daily mean solar radiation. It was also found that the cultivar Ayahikari had a highly significant negative correlation between its grain weight and soil moisture. Namely, the grain weight of high soil moisture plot with pF=1.5 was lower by about 9% than that of a control plot with pF=3.5. On the other hand, the grain yield of cultivar Norin61 responded inversely to a wet environment, indicating that its grain weight was higher for high soil moisture and high wet-bulb temperature than for a dry environment. The grain yield of early varieties of Bandowase and

  14. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WHEAT CULTIVARS IN GRAIN PARAMETERS RELATED TO ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mikulíková

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain samples from sixteen winter cultivars originated from four localities were evaluated and compared in traits related to ethanol production as grain yield, grain hardness, content of protein, starch and amylose, and α-amylase activity. Results obtained indicate significant differences between cultivars in amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness compared to grain yield, protein content, and starch content where differences were not significant. The amylose content, α-amylase activity, and grain hardness were affected by cultivar. Both testing methods for starch fermentation - separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF revealed difference between cultivars in ethanol yield.

  15. Predictive statistical modelling of cadmium content in durum wheat grain based on soil parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viala, Yoann; Laurette, Julien; Denaix, Laurence; Gourdain, Emmanuelle; Méléard, Benoit; Nguyen, Christophe; Schneider, André; Sappin-Didier, Valérie

    2017-09-01

    Regulatory limits on cadmium (Cd) content in food products are tending to become stricter, especially in cereals, which are a major contributor to dietary intake of Cd by humans. This is of particular importance for durum wheat, which accumulates more Cd than bread wheat. The contamination of durum wheat grain by Cd depends not only on the genotype but also to a large extent on soil Cd availability. Assessing the phytoavailability of Cd for durum wheat is thus crucial, and appropriate methods are required. For this purpose, we propose a statistical model to predict Cd accumulation in durum wheat grain based on soil geochemical properties related to Cd availability in French agricultural soils with low Cd contents and neutral to alkaline pH (soils commonly used to grow durum wheat). The best model is based on the concentration of total Cd in the soil solution, the pH of a soil CaCl 2 extract, the cation exchange capacity (CEC), and the content of manganese oxides (Tamm's extraction) in the soil. The model variables suggest a major influence of cadmium buffering power of the soil and of Cd speciation in solution. The model successfully explains 88% of Cd variability in grains with, generally, below 0.02 mg Cd kg -1 prediction error in wheat grain. Monte Carlo cross-validation indicated that model accuracy will suffice for the European Community project to reduce the regulatory limit from 0.2 to 0.15 mg Cd kg -1 grain, but not for the intermediate step at 0.175 mg Cd kg -1 . The model will help farmers assess the risk that the Cd content of their durum wheat grain will exceed regulatory limits, and help food safety authorities test different regulatory thresholds to find a trade-off between food safety and the negative impact a too strict regulation could have on farmers.

  16. Products deriving from microbial fermentation are linked to insulinaemic response in pigs fed breads prepared from whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Serena, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The effects of wheat and rye breads made from whole-wheat grain (WWG), wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on net portal absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients (glucose, SCFA and lactate) and apparent insulin secretion were studied in a model experiment with catheterised...

  17. Impact of improved wheat technology adoption on productivity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important cereal crops cultivated in wide range of agro-ecologies in Eastern Africa. However, wheat productivity has remained low. This study was carried out in Ethiopia Aris Zone to determine the level and impact of adoption of improved wheat varieties on wheat productivity ...

  18. Path Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components and Some Agronomic Traits in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new bread wheat cultivars needs efficient tools to monitor trait association in a breeding program. This investigation was aimed to characterize grain yield components and some agronomic traits related to bread wheat grain yield. The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between different traits and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to grain yield. Correlation and path analysis were carried out in 56 bread wheat genotypes grown under field conditions of Maragheh, Iran. Observations were recorded on 18 wheat traits and correlation coefficient analysis revealed grain yield was positively correlated with stem diameter, spike length, floret number, spikelet number, grain diameter, grain length and 1000 seed weight traits. According to the variance inflation factor (VIF and tolerance as multicollinearity statistics, there are inconsistent relationships among the variables and all traits could be considered as first-order variables (Model I with grain yield as the response variable due to low multicollinearity of all measured traits. In the path coefficient analysis, grain yield represented the dependent variable and the spikelet number and 1000 seed weight traits were the independent ones. Our results indicated that the number of spikelets per spikes and leaf width and 1000 seed weight traits followed by the grain length, grain diameter and grain number per spike were the traits related to higher grain yield. The above mentioned traits along with their indirect causal factors should be considered simultaneously as an effective selection criteria evolving high yielding genotype because of their direct positive contribution to grain yield.

  19. Studies on the Effects of Climatic Factors on Dryland Wheat Grain Yield in Maragheh Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Feiziasl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effects of climate variables on rainfed wheat grain yield, climate data and wheat yield for 10 years (1995-2005 collected from Dryland Agricultural Research Institute (DARI in Maragheh as the main station in cold and semi-cold areas. Collected data were analyzed by correlation coefficient, simple regression, stepwise regression and path analysis. The results showed that relationships between grain yield with average relative humidity and total rainfall of growing season was positive and significant at 5% and 1% probabilities, respectively. However, evaluation between grain yield with sunny hours and class A pan evaporation was negative and significant (p

  20. Updated stomatal flux and flux-effect models for wheat for quantifying effects of ozone on grain yield, grain mass and protein yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünhage, Ludger; Pleijel, Håkan; Mills, Gina; Bender, Jürgen; Danielsson, Helena; Lehmann, Yvonne; Castell, Jean-Francois; Bethenod, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Field measurements and open-top chamber experiments using nine current European winter wheat cultivars provided a data set that was used to revise and improve the parameterisation of a stomatal conductance model for wheat, including a revised value for maximum stomatal conductance and new functions for phenology and soil moisture. For the calculation of stomatal conductance for ozone a diffusivity ratio between O(3) and H(2)O in air of 0.663 was applied, based on a critical review of the literature. By applying the improved parameterisation for stomatal conductance, new flux-effect relationships for grain yield, grain mass and protein yield were developed for use in ozone risk assessments including effects on food security. An example of application of the flux model at the local scale in Germany shows that negative effects of ozone on wheat grain yield were likely each year and on protein yield in most years since the mid 1980s. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Bread from the bioactivated wheat grain with the raised nutrition value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, E I; Alekhina, N N; Bakaeva, I A

    2016-01-01

    Bread from the bioactivated grain of wheat differs in high content of dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins compared to traditional types of bread, but, despite this, it has low protein and lysine content. The aim of the study was the development of bread with the raised nutritional value from the bioactivated wheat grain by use of flour from cake of wheat germ (6.5%). It has been established that the flour from wheat germ has protein biological value (77.4%) and the amino acid score according to lysine (100.3%) above 12 and 40.5%, respectively, compared with those from bioactivated wheat. During calculation of nutritive, biological and energy value of products from the bioactivated wheat grain it is revealed that the biological value of bread from wheat germ flour slightly exceeded the biological value of the bread without its addition and amounted to 70.80%, due to a high protein content and a balanced amino acid composition. The protein content in the test sample of bakery products was 19.0% higher than the control, phosphorus - 13.0%, zinc - 50.0%.

  2. Tocotrienols and tocopherols in colored-grain wheat, tritordeum and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Jaromír; Hejtmánková, Alena; Orsák, Matyáš; Popov, Marek; Martinek, Petr

    2018-02-01

    Colored-grain spring and winter wheat, spring tritordeum and barley (blue aleurone, purple pericarp, and yellow endosperm) from the harvests 2014 and 2015 were evaluated for tocol contents by HPLC-FD. Higher content of total tocols was found in spring wheat varieties compared with winter varieties. Four tocols (β-tocotrienol, α-tocotrienol, β-tocopherol, and α-tocopherol) were identified in wheat and tritordeum varieties. Dominant tocols in purple- and blue-grained wheat and yellow-grained tritordeum were α-tocopherol and β-tocotrienol, whereas spring barley varieties differed from wheat and tritordeum by high α-tocotrienol content. Tocol content was significantly affected by genotype and in a lesser extent in some varieties and lines also by rainfall and temperatures during crop year. Higher rainfall and lower temperatures caused in most varieties higher tocol contents. Purple- and blue-grained wheat lines with higher tocol, anthocyanin and phenolic acids with health benefits may be useful for breeding new varieties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic improvement of drought tolerance in semi-dwarf wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sial, M.A.; Laghari, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Water stress is one of the main environmental constraints for the wheat crop. Drought stress from anthesis to maturity, especially if accompanied by heat stress, affects every morphological and physiological aspect of wheat plant and significantly reduces final yield. Genetic improvement for drought tolerance in wheat could be possible through conventional and mutation breeding tools. There is a dire need to identify stress tolerant genotypes which can grow and flourish well under harsh environments (low water requirements). Twelve newly evolved bread wheat genotypes alongwith 3 drought-tolerant commercial check varieties, viz., Sarsabz, Khirman and Chakwal-86 were screened under three water stresses (zero, single and two irrigations). Different yield associated traits were studied. At severe water stress (zero irrigation), six genotypes (BWM-3, NIA-8/7, NIA-9/5, NIA-28/4, NIA-25/5, MSH-36) produced significantly higher grain yield (ranged from 1522 to 2022 kg/ha) than check varieties. These genotypes had higher seed index and less spike sterility at severe stress, which indicated that these genotypes were less responsive to water stress and possessed more tolerance to drought stress. (author)

  4. Computer vision-based method for classification of wheat grains using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanci, Kadir; Kayabasi, Ahmet; Toktas, Abdurrahim

    2017-06-01

    A simplified computer vision-based application using artificial neural network (ANN) depending on multilayer perceptron (MLP) for accurately classifying wheat grains into bread or durum is presented. The images of 100 bread and 100 durum wheat grains are taken via a high-resolution camera and subjected to pre-processing. The main visual features of four dimensions, three colors and five textures are acquired using image-processing techniques (IPTs). A total of 21 visual features are reproduced from the 12 main features to diversify the input population for training and testing the ANN model. The data sets of visual features are considered as input parameters of the ANN model. The ANN with four different input data subsets is modelled to classify the wheat grains into bread or durum. The ANN model is trained with 180 grains and its accuracy tested with 20 grains from a total of 200 wheat grains. Seven input parameters that are most effective on the classifying results are determined using the correlation-based CfsSubsetEval algorithm to simplify the ANN model. The results of the ANN model are compared in terms of accuracy rate. The best result is achieved with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 9.8 × 10 -6 by the simplified ANN model. This shows that the proposed classifier based on computer vision can be successfully exploited to automatically classify a variety of grains. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Increased pericarp cell length underlies a major quantitative trait locus for grain weight in hexaploid wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Jemima; Simmonds, James; Minter, Francesca; Leverington-Waite, Michelle; Snape, John; Uauy, Cristobal

    2017-08-01

    Crop yields must increase to address food insecurity. Grain weight, determined by grain length and width, is an important yield component, but our understanding of the underlying genes and mechanisms is limited. We used genetic mapping and near isogenic lines (NILs) to identify, validate and fine-map a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on wheat chromosome 5A associated with grain weight. Detailed phenotypic characterisation of developing and mature grains from the NILs was performed. We identified a stable and robust QTL associated with a 6.9% increase in grain weight. The positive interval leads to 4.0% longer grains, with differences first visible 12 d after fertilization. This grain length effect was fine-mapped to a 4.3 cM interval. The locus also has a pleiotropic effect on grain width (1.5%) during late grain development that determines the relative magnitude of the grain weight increase. Positive NILs have increased maternal pericarp cell length, an effect which is independent of absolute grain length. These results provide direct genetic evidence that pericarp cell length affects final grain size and weight in polyploid wheat. We propose that combining genes that control distinct biological mechanisms, such as cell expansion and proliferation, will enhance crop yields. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Comparison of Grain Yield and Some Characteristics of Hulled, Durum and Bread Wheat Genotypes Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Atar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the low grain yield they produce, the hulled wheat have become even more important in recent years because of their resistance to negative environmental conditions and healthy nutritional content. The research was carry out in order to comparison the yield and yield characteristics of durum (Kiziltan-91 and C-1252, hulled (Einkorn and Emmer and bread wheat (Tir varieties in Isparta ecological conditions in 2013-14 and 2014-15 vegetation periods. In both years, the highest grain yield was obtained in Kiziltan-91 variety (3992 and 3758 kg ha-1 respectively. The grain yield of hulled wheats in the first year (Einkorn 1269 kg ha-1, Emmer 2125 kg ha-1 was around Turkey averages. However, grain yield decreased of commercial wheat varieties due to the negative effect of high amount of rainfall in June in the second year, but considerably increased in (Einkorn 2150 kg ha-1, Emmer 2533 kg ha-1. N uptake was found to be lower in the than durum wheats. In terms of grain protein content, the highest values were obtained in Emmer variety (16.4%-15.3%.

  7. Proteomic analysis of the impacts of powdery mildew on wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Xinhao; Yang, Xiwen; Li, Yongchun; Wang, Chenyang; He, Dexian

    2018-09-30

    Powdery mildew of wheat is one of the major foliar diseases, causing significant yield loss and flour quality change. In this study, grain protein and starch response to powdery mildew infection were investigated. Total protein, glutenin and gliadin exhibited a greater increase in grains from infected wheat, while the content of total starch and amylopectin was decreased. Comparative proteomic analysis demonstrated that the overabundant protein synthesis-related proteins might facilitate the accumulation of storage proteins in grains from infected plants. The significant increase in triticin, serpin and HMW-GS in grains from infected wheat might relate to the superior gluten quality. In addition, overabundant carbohydrate metabolism-related proteins in grains from infected wheat were conducive to the depletion of starch, whereas the decreased abundance of ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase might be related to the deficiency of starch synthesis. These results provide a deeper understanding on the change of wheat quality under powdery mildew infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvement of triticale for fertility and grain character through induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakoor, A.; Saleem, M.; Afzal, M.

    1980-01-01

    Triticale is a new cereal resulting from a cross between wheat and rye. It has better yield potential than wheat and rye but suffers from low fertility, and poor development of grain. Two mutant lines NIAB T-102 and NIAB T-103 showing improvement in fertility and grain character were obtained from AUT. 567 through 10 KR exposure of gamma irradiation. As compared to the parent, the mutant lines yielded better and possessed well filled grains. The possibilities of using these mutant lines as fodder crop as well as in cross breeding programme are discussed. (author)

  9. Split Nitrogen Application Improves Wheat Baking Quality by Influencing Protein Composition Rather Than Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Cheng; Auf'm Erley, Gunda Schulte; Rossmann, Anne; Schuster, Ramona; Koehler, Peter; Mühling, Karl-Hermann

    2016-01-01

    The use of late nitrogen (N) fertilization (N application at late growth stages of wheat, e.g., booting, heading or anthesis) to improve baking quality of wheat has been questioned. Although it increases protein concentration, the beneficial effect on baking quality (bread loaf volume) needs to be clearly understood. Two pot experiments were conducted aiming to evaluate whether late N is effective under controlled conditions and if these effects result from increased N rate or N splitting. Late N fertilizers were applied either as additional N or split from the basal N at late boot stage or heading in the form of nitrate-N or urea. Results showed that late N fertilization improved loaf volume of wheat flour by increasing grain protein concentration and altering its composition. Increasing N rate mainly enhanced grain protein quantitatively. However, N splitting changed grain protein composition by enhancing the percentages of gliadins and glutenins as well as certain high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), which led to an improved baking quality of wheat flour. The late N effects were greater when applied as nitrate-N than urea. The proportions of glutenin and x-type HMW-GS were more important than the overall protein concentration in determining baking quality. N splitting is more effective in improving wheat quality than the increase in the N rate by late N, which offers the potential to cut down N fertilization rates in wheat production systems.

  10. Split nitrogen application improves wheat baking quality by influencing protein composition rather than concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng eXue

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of late nitrogen (N fertilization (N application at late growth stages of wheat, e.g. booting, heading or anthesis to improve baking quality of wheat has been questioned. Although it increases protein concentration, the beneficial effect on baking quality (bread loaf volume needs to be clearly understood. Two pot experiments were conducted aiming to evaluate whether late N is effective under controlled conditions and if these effects result from increased N rate or N splitting. Late N fertilizers were applied either as additional N or split from the basal N at late boot stage or heading in the form of nitrate-N or urea. Results showed that late N fertilization improved loaf volume of wheat flour by increasing grain protein concentration and altering its composition. Increasing N rate mainly enhanced grain protein quantitatively. However, N splitting changed grain protein composition by enhancing the percentages of gliadins and glutenins as well as certain high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS, which led to an improved baking quality of wheat flour. The late N effects were greater when applied as nitrate-N than urea. The proportions of glutenin and x-type HMW-GS were more important than the overall protein concentration in determining baking quality. N splitting is more effective in improving wheat quality than the increase in the N rate by late N, which offers the potential to cut down N fertilization rates in wheat production systems.

  11. Whole grain wheat sourdough bread does not affect plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in adults with normal or impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, K A; Tucker, A J; Duncan, A M; Graham, T E; Robinson, L E

    2012-09-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest whole grain consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly through alterations in glucose metabolism and subsequent effects on plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, a novel biomarker for CVD. Our aim was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole grain wheat sourdough bread consumption versus refined white bread on PAI-1. Normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic (NGI; n = 14; age 53 ± 6 y; BMI 26.5 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic (HGI; n = 14; age 57 ± 7 y; BMI 35.7 ± 5.7 kg/m(2)) adults incorporated whole grain wheat sourdough (162.5 g) or white (168.8 g) bread into their diet, for 6 wk in a randomized crossover study. Pre- and post-intervention, fasting blood samples were analyzed for PAI-1 (primary outcome), as well as glucose, insulin and glucagon (secondary outcomes) at fasting and postprandially after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Anthropometric measures, fasting glucose, insulin, glucagon and PAI-1 antigen and activity were not different between treatments in either NGI or HGI adults. Glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was lower (19%, P = 0.02) after 6 wk consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough bread compared to white bread in the HGI group, with no differences in insulin or glucagon iAUC in either group. Our data showed decreased glucose iAUC after an OGTT following 6 wk whole grain wheat bread consumption in adults with differing glycemic/insulinemic status, but no improvements in PAI-1 or fasting glycemic parameters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chilean flour and wheat grain: tracing their origin using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, Ma Inmaculada; Wells Moncada, Guillermo; González-Pérez, Claudio; Zapata San Martín, Nelson; López-González, Fernando; Lobos Ortega, Iris; Hernández-Hierro, Jose-Miguel

    2014-02-15

    Instrumental techniques such a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are used in industry to monitor and establish product composition and quality. As occurs with other food industries, the Chilean flour industry needs simple, rapid techniques to objectively assess the origin of different products, which is often related to their quality. In this sense, NIRS has been used in combination with chemometric methods to predict the geographic origin of wheat grain and flour samples produced in different regions of Chile. Here, the spectral data obtained with NIRS were analysed using a supervised pattern recognition method, Discriminat Partial Least Squares (DPLS). The method correctly classified 76% of the wheat grain samples and between 90% and 96% of the flour samples according to their geographic origin. The results show that NIRS, together with chemometric methods, provides a rapid tool for the classification of wheat grain and flour samples according to their geographic origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term Low Radiation Decreases Leaf Photosynthesis, Photochemical Efficiency and Grain Yield in Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, H; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    the impact of low radiation on crop growth, photosynthesis and yield. Grain yield losses and leaf area index (LAI) reduction were less than the reduction in solar radiation under both shading treatment in both cultivars. Compared with the control (S0), grain yield only reduced 6.4 % and 9.9 % under 22.......0-22.9 % (S1) and 29.5-49.6 % (S2), which was consistent with the reduction in radiation. The reduction in LAI was partially compensated by increases in the fraction of the top and bottom leaf area to the total leaf area, which facilitated to intercept more solar radiation by the canopy. The decrease......Low radiation reduces wheat grain yield in tree-crop intercropping systems in the major wheat planting area of China. Here, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars, Yangmai 158 (shading tolerant) and Yangmai 11 (shading sensitive), were shaded from jointing to maturity to evaluate...

  14. Breeding of newly licensed wheat variety Huapei 8 and improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H2 was the best selection generation for traits with high heredity ability, and H3 was the best selection for grain traits and yield test. Consequently, we bred and licensed six new wheat varieties derived from anther culture and significantly reduced breeding time to three to five years. Huapei 8 was the newest released wheat ...

  15. Changes in Nutrient Content of Root and Grain of Wheat Cultivars Inoculated by Azospirillum and Mycorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jiriaie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Providing the nutritional requirements of agricultural crops by non-chemical resources is a new approach in the organic farming that has attracted the attention of both the researchers and the consumers in recent years. Therefore, it is highly important to find new fertilizer resources that are both economically able to provide the nutritional needs of the crop plants and have no adverse effects on the consumers and the environment. Materials and Methods: With this approach, an experiment was conducted in the research station of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran in 2012-13. The experimental design was factorial based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. The treatments including Mycorrhizal fungi in three levels (i.e. no use of strain; use of Glomus intraradices strain; and use of Glomus mosseae strain, bacteria Azospirillum lipoferum in two-levels (i.e. non-inoculated and inoculated and wheat cultivars in three levels (i.e. Chamran; Dena; and Behrang. The measured parameters include the concentration of macronutrients (i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium and some micronutrients (i.e. zinc, iron and manganese in two part seed and the root of wheat. Results and Discussion: Surveying the elements content in the root and the grain indicated a significant and positive effect of the use the Azospirillum and Mycorrhiza to improve the concentration of the elements in wheat cultivars. However, the simultaneous use of these microorganisms led to an increase of the effects of their application on their assessed traits.Finally the highest concentration of N (2.21 present, P (0.50 present and Fe (33.88 mg.kg-1 were observed in the grain; the highest concentration of K (0.93 present and 0.54 present and Mn (43.11 and 23.63 mg.kg-1 were observed in the grain and root, respectively. Moreover, the highest concentration of Zn in the root (19.70 mg.kg-1 was obtained from inoculation of C.V Dena seeds with

  16. [Polychlorinated biphenyls in fractions of wheat grains and in selected bakery products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Elzbieta; Pietrzak-Fiećko, Renata; Smoczyński, S S

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) form a group of synthetic aromatic chemical compounds, commonly occurring in the environment as a result of industrialisation. Despite the ban on PCBs production, their wide application in the past resulted in their common occurrence in all elements of the environment. The lipophilic nature of the compounds resulting in their accumulation in live organisms and in the human body may trigger many harmful effects. The aim of this study was to determine the PCBs content in the selected species of wheat and in bakery products. The studies aiming at confirming possible correlation between the size of the grain of the selected species of wheat and the content of polychlorinated biphenyls were presented in this paper. Moreover, PCBs concentration in cereals' grains and in bread was compared. The PCBs content was defined in different sizes of grains species of wheat i.e. Opatka, Zyta, Elena and Almari. The study included also two kinds of wheat bread. PCBs were determined after the extraction with n-hexane followed by sulphuric acid hydrolysis. Gas chromatography analysis was conducted on a PU 4600 Unicam apparatus with an electron capture detector. The large variations in PCBs content depending on the grain size were confirmed. In the Opatka species the increase in the content of all determined congeners and the size of grain was confirmed. The lowest PCBs concentrations were in smallest grains (0,0090 mg/kg of fat), and the highest in the largest grains (0,0264 mg/kg of fat). In Zyta species PCBs content was also lowest in the smallest grains, however these results were not statistically significant. In the Elena species the increase in the PCBs content together with the increase in the grain size was confirmed. Basing on the determination coefficient it was found that the concentration of PCBs depends on the size of grains in 24%. The highest concentration of PCBs (0,0366 mg/kg of fat) was found in the largest grains, however differences

  17. Free and esterified carotenoids in pigmented wheat, tritordeum and barley grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paznocht, Luboš; Kotíková, Zora; Šulc, Miloslav; Lachman, Jaromír; Orsák, Matyáš; Eliášová, Marie; Martinek, Petr

    2018-02-01

    Carotenoids are important phytonutrients responsible for the yellow endosperm color in cereal grains. Five carotenoids, namely lutein, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, α- and β-carotene, were quantified by HPLC-DAD-MS in fourteen genotypes of wheat, barley and tritordeum harvested in Czechia in 2014 and 2015. The highest carotenoid contents were found in yellow-grained tritordeum HT 439 (12.16μg/gDW), followed by blue-grained wheat V1-131-15 (7.46μg/gDW), and yellow-grained wheat TA 4024 (7.04μg/gDW). Comparing carotenoid contents, blue varieties had lower whereas purple ones had the same or higher levels than conventional bread wheat. Lutein was the main carotenoid found in wheat and tritordeum while zeaxanthin dominated in barley. The majority of cereals contained considerable levels of esterified forms (up to 61%) of which lutein esters prevailed. It was assessed that cereal genotype determines the proportion of free and esterified forms. High temperatures and drought during the growing season promoted carotenoid biosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on grain yield and some baking quality characteristics of spring wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paavo Elonen

    1975-05-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1967—70 twelve irrigation experiments of spring wheat were carried out in southern Finland (60-62° N, 22-26° E. Sprinkler irrigation (2 X 30 mm increased the grain yields on an average by 1240±470kg/ha (from 2740 to 3980 kg or 45±17 %. The increases in yield were significant on clay soils (9 trials and loam (1 trial but insignificant on fines and (1 trial and mould (1 trial. Additional nitrogen fertilization (from 76 to 143kg/ha N increased the grain yields on an average by 350± 200 kg/ha or 11±6 %. The ripening of wheat was significantly promoted by irrigation in one year but slightly retarded in three years. Nitrogen fertilization slightly retarded ripening every year The falling number of grains tended to be slightly improved by irrigation (from 285 to 321, on an average, but in most trials irrigation and nitrogen fertilization had no significant influence on the falling number. Irrigation decreased the crude protein content of grains in all trials, on an average by 2.2 ± 0.7 %-units (from 16.3 to 14.1%. This unfavourable effect was, however, avoided with additional nitrogen which increased the protein content by 1.9±0.4%-units (from 14,3 to 16.2 %. The effects of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on those characteristics of wheat that are correlated with protein, were similar to the effects on the protein content. Thus, irrigation decreased the zeleny value (from 64 to 53 ml, cold viscosity (from 214 to 114 seconds, water absorption (from 66.5 to 64.9 % and the valorimeter value (from 68 to 60, while these characteristics were improved by nitrogen fertilization. Irrigation did not decrease the Pelshenke value but increased significantly the ratio of the Pelshenke value/protein content (from 5,1 to 6.1. This indicates that the quality of protein was improved by irrigation, while the effect of nitrogen fertilization was the reverse. In fact, irrigation and additional nitrogen fertilization affected the quantity and

  19. Estimation of the deoxynivalenol and moisture contents of bulk wheat grain samples by FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in harvested grain samples are used to evaluate the Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance of wheat cultivars and breeding lines. Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) calibrations were developed to estimate the DON and moisture content (MC) of bulk wheat grain samples ...

  20. Genetic analysis of kernel texture (grain hardness) in a hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bi-parental population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain hardness is a very important trait in determining wheat market class and also influences milling and baking traits. At the grain Hardness (Ha) locus on chromosome 5DS, there are two primary mutations responsible for conveying a harder kernel texture among U.S. hard red spring wheats: (1) the P...

  1. Grain yield and baking quality of wheat under different sowing dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Rossi Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Choosing the right sowing dates can maximize the outcomes of the interaction between genotype and environment, thus increasing grain yield and baking quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The present study aimed at determining the most appropriate sowing dates that maximize grain yield and baking quality of wheat cultivars. Seven wheat cultivars (BRS 179, BRS Guamirim, BRS Guabiju, BRS Umbu, Safira, CD 105 and CD 115 were evaluated at four sowing dates (the 1st and the 15th of June and July in two harvesting seasons (2007 and 2008. The study was setup in a completely randomized block design with four repetitions. The effects of the year and sowing date when combined explained 93% of the grain yield variance. In 2007, the CD 105 and Safira cultivars had the highest grain yield (GY for all sowing dates. Only the BRS Guabiju and Safira cultivars possessed high baking quality for all sowing dates assessed. In 2008, the environmental conditions were favorable for superior GY, but the baking quality was inferior. Considering adapted cultivars and sowing dates, it is possible to maximize grain yield and baking quality of wheat.

  2. Maternal effects of the English grain aphids feeding on the wheat varieties with different resistance traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Zhu, Tong-Yi; Song, Yue; Wu, Li-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2018-05-09

    The maternal effects of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae on offspring phenotypes and performance on wheat varieties with different resistance traits were examined. We found that both conditioning wheat varieties(the host plant for over 3 months) and transition wheat varieties affected the biological parameters of aphid offspring after they were transferred between wheat varieties with different resistance traits. The conditioning varieties affected weight gain, development time (DT), and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m ), whereas transition varieties affected the fecundity, r m , net reproductive rate, and fitness index. The conditioning and transition wheat varieties had significant interaction effects on the aphid offspring's DT, mean relative growth rate, and fecundity. Our results showed that there was obvious maternal effects on offspring when S. avenae transferred bwteen wheat varieties with different resistance level, and the resistance traits of wheat varieties could induce an interaction between the conditioning and transition wheat varieties to influence the growth, development, reproduction, and even population dynamics of S. avenae. The conditioning varieties affected life-history traits related to individual growth and development to a greater extent, whereas transition varieties affected fecundity and population parameters more.

  3. Iron biofortification of wheat grains through integrated use of organic and chemical fertilizers in pH affected calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzani, Pia Muhammad Adnan; Khalid, Muhammad; Naveed, Muhammad; Ahmad, Rashid; Shahid, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Incidence of iron (Fe) deficiency in human populations is an emerging global challenge. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of iron sulphate combined with biochar and poultry manure for Fe biofortification of wheat grains in pH affected calcareous soil. In first two incubation studies, rates of sulfur (S) and Fe combined with various organic amendments for lowering pH and Fe availability in calcareous soil were optimized. In pot experiment, best rate of Fe along with biochar (BC) and poultry manure (PM) was evaluated for Fe biofortification of wheat in normal and S treated low pH calcareous soil. Fe applied with BC provided fair increase in root-shoot biomass and photosynthesis up to 79, 53 and 67%, respectively in S treated low pH soil than control. Grain Fe and ferritin concentration was increased up to 1.4 and 1.2 fold, respectively while phytate and polyphenol was decreased 35 and 44%, respectively than control in treatment where Fe was applied with BC and S. In conclusion, combined use of Fe and BC could be an effective approach to improve growth and grain Fe biofortification of wheat in pH affected calcareous soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic diversity of wheat grain quality and determination the best clustering technique and data type for diversity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodadadi Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is an important staple in human nutrition and improvement of its grain quality characters will have high impact on population's health. The objectives of this study were assessing variation of some grain quality characteristics in the Iranian wheat genotypes and identify the best type of data and clustering method for grouping genotypes. In this study 30 spring wheat genotypes were cultivated through randomized complete block design with three replications in 2009 and 2010 years. High significant difference among genotypes for all traits except for Sulfate, K, Br and Cl content, also deference among two years mean for all traits were no significant. Meanwhile there were significant interaction between year and genotype for all traits except Sulfate and F content. Mean values for crude protein, Zn, Fe and Ca in Mahdavi, Falat, Star, Sistan genotypes were the highest. The Ca and Br content showed the highest and the lowest broadcast heritability respectively. In this study indicated that the Root Mean Square Standard Deviation is efficient than R Squared and R Squared efficient than Semi Partial R Squared criteria for determining the best clustering technique. Also Ward method and canonical scores identified as the best clustering method and data type for grouping genotypes, respectively. Genotypes were grouped into six completely separate clusters and Roshan, Niknejad and Star genotypes from the fourth, fifth and sixth clusters had high grain quality characters in overall.

  5. WHEAT CHARACTERISTIC DEMAND AND IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED GRAINS

    OpenAIRE

    Janzen, Edward L.; Mattson, Jeremy W.; Wilson, William W.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnology is advancing rapidly and is embracing all major crops. The adoption of genetically modified corn, soybeans, and cotton have reached high levels in the United States. Wheat is the next major crop confronting the biotechnology issue, but no commercial varieties of genetically modified (GM) wheat have been released yet. Primary opportunities for GM developments in wheat center around improvements that meet consumer and end-user needs/issues in addition to meeting produ...

  6. Spatial Variability Analysis of Within-Field Winter Wheat Nitrogen and Grain Quality Using Canopy Fluorescence Sensor Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Song

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain protein content (GPC is a key component when evaluating wheat nutrition. It is also important to determine wheat GPC before harvest for agricultural and food process enterprises in order to optimize the wheat grading process. Wheat GPC across a field is spatially variable due to the inherent variability of soil properties and position in the landscape. The objectives of this field study were: (i to assess the spatial and temporal variability of wheat nitrogen (N attributes related to the grain quality of winter wheat production through canopy fluorescence sensor measurements; and (ii to examine the influence of spatial variability of soil N and moisture across different growth stages on the wheat grain quality. A geostatistical approach was used to analyze data collected from 110 georeferenced locations. In particular, Ordinary Kriging Analysis (OKA was used to produce maps of wheat GPC, GPC yield, and wheat canopy fluorescence parameters, including simple florescence ratio and Nitrogen Balance Indices (NBI. Soil Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N content and soil Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR value in the study field were also interpolated through the OKA method. The fluorescence parameter maps, soil NO3-N and soil TDR maps obtained from the OKA output were compared with the wheat GPC and GPC yield maps in order to assess their relationships. The results of this study indicate that the NBI spatial variability map in the late stage of wheat growth can be used to distinguish areas that produce higher GPC.

  7. Cross-Species Extrapolation of Models for Predicting Lead Transfer from Soil to Wheat Grain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Liu

    Full Text Available The transfer of Pb from the soil to crops is a serious food hygiene security problem in China because of industrial, agricultural, and historical contamination. In this study, the characteristics of exogenous Pb transfer from 17 Chinese soils to a popular wheat variety (Xiaoyan 22 were investigated. In addition, bioaccumulation prediction models of Pb in grain were obtained based on soil properties. The results of the analysis showed that pH and OC were the most important factors contributing to Pb uptake by wheat grain. Using a cross-species extrapolation approach, the Pb uptake prediction models for cultivar Xiaoyan 22 in different soil Pb levels were satisfactorily applied to six additional non-modeled wheat varieties to develop a prediction model for each variety. Normalization of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF to specific soil physico-chemistry is essential, because doing so could significantly reduce the intra-species variation of different wheat cultivars in predicted Pb transfer and eliminate the influence of soil properties on ecotoxicity parameters for organisms of interest. Finally, the prediction models were successfully verified against published data (including other wheat varieties and crops and used to evaluate the ecological risk of Pb for wheat in contaminated agricultural soils.

  8. Computing wheat nitrogen requirements from grain yield and protein maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optical protein sensors and mass-flow yield monitors provide the opportunity to continuously measure grain quality and quantity during harvesting. This chapter illustrates how yield monitor and grain protein measurements may provide useful postharvest information for evaluating water or nitrogen (N)...

  9. Identification of Alleles of Puroindoline Genes and Their Effect on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Grain Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Štiasna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain hardness is one of the most important quality characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. It is a significant property of wheat grains and relates to milling quality and end product quality. Grain hardness is caused by the presence of puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb. A collection of 25 genotypes of wheat with unusual grain colour (blue aleurone, purple and white pericarp, yellow endosperm was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the diversity within Pina and Pinb (alleles: Pina-D1a, Pina-D1b, Pinb-D1a, Pinb- -D1b, Pinb-D1c and Pinb-D1d. The endosperm structure was determined by a non-destructive method using light transfl ectance meter and grain hardness by a texture analyser. Genotype Novosibirskaya 67 and isogenic ANK lines revealed hitherto unknown alleles at the locus for the annealing of primers of Pinb-D1. Allele Pinb-D1c was found to be absent from each genotype. The mealy endosperm ranged from 0 to 100 % and grain hardness from 15.10 to 26.87 N per sample.

  10. A proteomics survey on wheat susceptibility to Fusarium head blight during grain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetouhi, Cherif; Bonhomme, Ludovic; Lecomte, Philippe; Cambon, Florence; Merlino, Marielle; Biron, David Georges; Langin, Thierry

    2015-02-01

    The mycotoxigenic fungal species Fusarium graminearum is able to attack several important cereal crops, such as wheat and barley. By causing Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) disease, F. graminearum induces yield and quality losses and poses a public health concern due to in planta mycotoxin production. The molecular and physiological plant responses to FHB, and the cellular biochemical pathways used by F. graminearum to complete its infectious process remain still unknown. In this study, a proteomics approach, combining 2D-gel approach and mass spectrometry, has been used to determine the specific protein patterns associated with the development of the fungal infection during grain growth on susceptible wheat. Our results reveal that F. graminearum infection does not deeply alter the grain proteome and does not significantly disturb the first steps of grain ontogeny but impacts molecular changes during the grain filling stage (impact on starch synthesis and storage proteins). The differentially regulated proteins identified were mainly involved in stress and defence mechanisms, primary metabolism, and main cellular processes such as signalling and transport. Our survey suggests that F. graminearum could take advantage of putative susceptibility factors closely related to grain development processes and thus provide new insights into key molecular events controlling the susceptible response to FHB in wheat grains.

  11. A comprehensive survey of soft wheat grain quality in United States germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) quality is dependent upon both genetic and environmental factors, which work in combination to produce specific grain, milling, and baking characteristics. Along with these genetic and environmental factors, the adaptation of the genetics to the given growing environment...

  12. In vitro gas production of wheat grain flour coated with different fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gas production (GP) is a rapid method for feedstuffs assessment. A study was done to investigate wheat grain coated with hydrogenated tallow (HT) and hydrogenated palm oil (HP) of different fatty acids types and levels to study total gas production. Approximately, 200 mg (DM basis) of sample was weighed and inserted in ...

  13. Heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Effects on grain growth and quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Xu, H.; Primo-Martin, C.; Don, C.; Putten, P.E.L. van der

    2006-01-01

    Heat stress effects on grain dry mass and quality were studied in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Three cultivars were chosen with respect to heat tolerance: Lavett (genotype 1), selected for temperate growing conditions and two CIMMYT cultivars, Ciano-79 (genotype 2) and Attila

  14. Yield and grain quality of winter wheat under Southern Steppe of Ukraine growing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Корхова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three years study of the effect of sowing time and seed application rates on yield and grain quality of different varieties of winter wheat under the conditions of South Steppe of Ukraine were presented. It was found that winter wheat provides optimal combination of high yield and grain quality in case of sowing in October 10 with seed application rate of 5,0 million seeds/ha. The highest yield – 4,59 t/ha on average in 2011–2013 was obtained for the variety of Natalka when sowing in October 10 with seed application rate  of 5 million germinable seeds. With increasing seed application rate from 3 to 5 million seeds/ha, protein content in winter wheat was decreased by 0,3%, gluten – by 0,6%. The variety Natalka  formed the highest quality grains when sowing in October 20 with seed application rate of 3 million seeds/ha, in this case protein content was 15,8%, gluten – 32,9%. It is proved that early sowing time  – September 10 leads to yields reduction and grain   quality deterioration for all winter wheat varieties.

  15. Improvement of wheat yield grown under drought stress by boron foliar application at different growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M.F. Abdel-Motagally

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of boron foliar application and water stress on yield of wheat plant grown in calcareous soil during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons. The highest mean values obtained against boron application time were potential contributor to total grains mass by improving the plant height (99.42 and 98.32 cm, spike length (11.86 and 11.72 cm, number of spikelets m−2 (332.65 and 324.35, grain yield plant−1 (21.56 and 20.26 g, 1000-grain weight (35.2 and 37.4 g and grain yield (1.87 and 1.85 ton fed.−1, which were recorded at normal irrigation level (100% from the amount of water consumption for wheat with boron spraying at booting stage (B1 in the first and second seasons, respectively. Furthermore, boron application significantly enhanced all studied growth traits under water stress levels (50% from the amount of water consumption for wheat compared to B-untreated plants. Boron spraying at booting stage enhances also plant pigments contents recording its highest mean values under normal water level (100% from the amount of water consumption for wheat. The reduction in stress markers (proline and H2O2 and the enhancement of plant pigments content under water stress levels (50% from the amount of water consumption for wheat by B spraying suggests an alleviating effect of boron foliar application to water stress in the test plant. This alleviating effect was more pronounced when B applied at booting stage. Therefore, booting stage was found to be the best time for boron application to get higher grains production and consequently, better economic returns of wheat. Keywords: Wheat, Growth stages, Boron application time, Water stress, Crop yield, Plant pigments, Proline, H2O2

  16. Effectiveness of an improved form of insecticide-based diatomaceous earth against four stored grain pests on different grain commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Nadia; Farooq, Muhammad; Shakeel, Muhammad; Ashraf, Misbah

    2018-04-07

    The effectiveness of Grain-Guard, an improved form of diatomaceous earth (DE), with low risk to the environment, was evaluated against the storage pests Liposcelis paeta, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Rhyzopertha dominica, and Tribolium castaneum on four grain commodities, wheat, rice, maize and sorghum. The overall mortality of stored grain pests increased with the rise of application rate and exposure intervals of diatomaceous earth and decreased over 120 days of post-treatment period. Our results revealed that mortality of adults 14 days post-disclosure was > 80% on wheat at the start of post-treatment than rice, maize, and sorghum, respectively. During the first 60 days of post-treatment, adult mortality increased, whereas later on, a steady decrease in adult mortality was observed. Considerable differences in dose rates were observed on mortality levels along with grain commodities. Following 14 days of exposure, all adults of four species were dead on wheat at 100 ppm and on rice at 150 ppm except maize and sorghum. The suppression of progeny was noticeably higher at the beginning of post-treatment duration while after 60-days of post-treatment, progeny numbers started to increase with the rise in post-treatment durations. This new improved DE formulation was found to be effective at dose rates that are extensively lower than required with previous DE formulations and will contribute to lower the risk of health and environment.

  17. Modelling fungal sink competitiveness with grains for assimilates in wheat infected by a biotrophic pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancal, Marie-Odile; Hansart, Amandine; Sache, Ivan; Bancal, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Experiments have shown that biotrophic fungi divert assimilates for their growth. However, no attempt has been made either to account for this additional sink or to predict to what extent it competes with both grain filling and plant reserve metabolism for carbon. Fungal sink competitiveness with grains was quantified by a mixed experimental–modelling approach based on winter wheat infected by Puccinia triticina. Methods One week after anthesis, plants grown under controlled conditions were inoculated with varying loads. Sporulation was recorded while plants underwent varying degrees of shading, ensuring a range of both fungal sink and host source levels. Inoculation load significantly increased both sporulating area and rate. Shading significantly affected net assimilation, reserve mobilization and sporulating area, but not grain filling or sporulation rates. An existing carbon partitioning (source–sink) model for wheat during the grain filling period was then enhanced, in which two parameters characterize every sink: carriage capacity and substrate affinity. Fungal sink competitiveness with host sources and sinks was modelled by representing spore production as another sink in diseased wheat during grain filling. Key Results Data from the experiment were fitted to the model to provide the fungal sink parameters. Fungal carriage capacity was 0·56 ± 0·01 µg dry matter °Cd−1 per lesion, much less than grain filling capacity, even in highly infected plants; however, fungal sporulation had a competitive priority for assimilates over grain filling. Simulation with virtual crops accounted for the importance of the relative contribution of photosynthesis loss, anticipated reserve depletion and spore production when light level and disease severity vary. The grain filling rate was less reduced than photosynthesis; however, over the long term, yield loss could double because the earlier reserve depletion observed here would shorten the

  18. Effect of Trichoderma harzianum on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Grain Yield under Different Levels of Cadmium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taghavi Ghasemkheyli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma spp. on yield and yield components of wheat (cv. N81 under different levels of cadmium nitrate. Experiment was arranged in factorial based on completely randomized design with three replicates. Trichoderma harzianum at two levels (with and without inoculation and four levels of cadmium nitrate (0, 50, 100, 150 mg l-1 were the treatment. Results of ANOVA and mean comparisons showed that inoculation of Trichoderma increased biological yield (46% and straw yield (30% as compared to control. Cadmium pollution has led to significant decrease in harvest index, grain number per spike and partitioning coefficient up to 5, 20, 24 and 38 percent compared to control, respectively. Furthermore, cadmium and fungus interaction were significant in terms of spike number, grain weight per spike, grain yield and tolerance index. Maximum grain yield and tolerance index were recorded in Trichoderma inoculation under cadmium-free plots which nearly increased 65 and 53 percent, respectively. In conclusion, using Trichoderma under cadmium pollution could improve wheat growth, yield and tolerance index

  19. Gamma-radiation control of the Sitophilus-orizae insect pest in the wheat grain storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritacco, M.

    1988-01-01

    Insects produce very important grain lost in the cereal storage. This lost is highly variable according to the type of cereal and the stored time. The principal pest among coleopters is Sitophilus orizae which attacks wheat grains. Ionizing radiation allowed us to develope an alternative control method to the chemical insecticides which have serious disadvantages. Our results expressed as the DL 50 , showed a considerable reduction of adult life spanning from 250 Gy. Post-irradiation adquired sterility was observed in the stored grain due to the absence of descendents. (Autor) [es

  20. Empirical Study on the Sustainability of China’s Grain Quality Improvement: The Role of Transportation, Labor, and Agricultural Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Duan, Fang; Mao, Zisen

    2018-01-01

    As a major part of farming sustainability, the issues of grain production and its quality improvement have been important in many countries. This paper aims to address these issues in China. Based on the data from the main production provinces and by applying the stochastic frontier analysis methodology, we find that the improvement of transportation and the use of agricultural machinery have become the main driving forces for grain quality improvement in China. After further studying different provinces’ potentials of grain quality improvement, we show that grain quality has increased steadily. Therefore, we can conclude China’s grain quality improvement is indeed sustainable. Furthermore, different grains like rice, wheat, and corn share similar characteristics in terms of quality improvement, but the improvement rate for rice is relatively low, while those of corn and wheat are relatively high. Moreover, the overall change of efficiency gain of grain quality improvement is not significant for different provinces. The efficiency gains of the quality improvements for rice and wheat even decrease slightly. In addition, we find that only expanding grain quality improvement potential can simultaneously achieve the dual objectives of improving grain quality and increasing yield. PMID:29401727

  1. Empirical Study on the Sustainability of China's Grain Quality Improvement: The Role of Transportation, Labor, and Agricultural Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Duan, Fang; Mao, Zisen

    2018-02-05

    As a major part of farming sustainability, the issues of grain production and its quality improvement have been important in many countries. This paper aims to address these issues in China. Based on the data from the main production provinces and by applying the stochastic frontier analysis methodology, we find that the improvement of transportation and the use of agricultural machinery have become the main driving forces for grain quality improvement in China. After further studying different provinces' potentials of grain quality improvement, we show that grain quality has increased steadily. Therefore, we can conclude China's grain quality improvement is indeed sustainable. Furthermore, different grains like rice, wheat, and corn share similar characteristics in terms of quality improvement, but the improvement rate for rice is relatively low, while those of corn and wheat are relatively high. Moreover, the overall change of efficiency gain of grain quality improvement is not significant for different provinces. The efficiency gains of the quality improvements for rice and wheat even decrease slightly. In addition, we find that only expanding grain quality improvement potential can simultaneously achieve the dual objectives of improving grain quality and increasing yield.

  2. Empirical Study on the Sustainability of China’s Grain Quality Improvement: The Role of Transportation, Labor, and Agricultural Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As a major part of farming sustainability, the issues of grain production and its quality improvement have been important in many countries. This paper aims to address these issues in China. Based on the data from the main production provinces and by applying the stochastic frontier analysis methodology, we find that the improvement of transportation and the use of agricultural machinery have become the main driving forces for grain quality improvement in China. After further studying different provinces’ potentials of grain quality improvement, we show that grain quality has increased steadily. Therefore, we can conclude China’s grain quality improvement is indeed sustainable. Furthermore, different grains like rice, wheat, and corn share similar characteristics in terms of quality improvement, but the improvement rate for rice is relatively low, while those of corn and wheat are relatively high. Moreover, the overall change of efficiency gain of grain quality improvement is not significant for different provinces. The efficiency gains of the quality improvements for rice and wheat even decrease slightly. In addition, we find that only expanding grain quality improvement potential can simultaneously achieve the dual objectives of improving grain quality and increasing yield.

  3. Winter wheat grain yield and its components in the North China Plain: irrigation management, cultivation, and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Lv

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation has been identified as the main driving factor of groundwater drawdown in the North China Plain (NCP. In order to develop appropriate irrigation strategies for satisfactory yields of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., grain yield (GY, yield components, and water use efficiency (WUE were studied. A field experiment was conducted with two types of winter wheat, 'Shimai15' and 'Shixin733', and five irrigation treatments, including rainfed and four spring irrigation water applications, in four growing seasons (2005 to 2009. Results showed that maximum GY was achieved with three irrigation treatments in the 2005-2006 and 2008-2009 dry seasons and two irrigation treatments in the 2006-2007 normal season. However, in the 2007-2008 wet season, the four irrigation treatments, especially the additional irrigation event at the reviving stage (28, produced maximum GY. Grain yield was significantly related to seasonal full evapotranspiration (ET and 410 to 530 mm of seasonal full ET, including 143 mm rainfall and 214 mm irrigation water, which led to maximum GY. The two types of cultivars responded differently to irrigation management in different rainfall years. The yield of the water-saving cv. 'Shimai 15' was much higher in the dry seasons than in the other seasons. Variations of yield components were mainly caused by irrigation time and meteorological factors. The higher accumulated temperature during the sowing and tillering stages (24 and irrigation or precipitation at the reviving stage (28 significantly improved tiller growth. The lower average temperature in March and April greatly increased grain number per spike. Sunshine duration played a decisive role in improving grain weight. Our results provide very useful information about irrigation time and frequency of winter wheat in the NCP in order to obtain high yield but reduce the use of underground water.

  4. Effect of FYM, potassium and zinc on phenology and grain yield of wheat in rain fed cropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawab, K.; Amanullah; Arif, M.; Shah, P.; Khan, M.A.; Khan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Little work has been done on potassium (K) and zinc (Zn) in combination with farm yard manure (FYM) under rain fed conditions of NWFP. This study was designed to examine the effects of un-irrigated cropping patterns and organic and in-organic fertilizers on wheat crop. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of cropping patterns and farm yard manure, potassium and zinc on phenology and grain yield of wheat under rain fed (barani or un-irrigated) conditions at Agricultural Research Station, Serai Naurang Bannu for two years during 2001-02 and 2002-03. The experiment was designed in RCB design with split arrangements. Two factors were studied in the experiment. Effects of five cropping patterns i.e., fallow-wheat, groundnut-wheat, mungbean-wheat, sorghum-wheat and pigeon pea-wheat and three organic and in-organic fertilizers on subsequent wheat crop were observed. Data revealed that both the cropping patterns and manures/fertilizers had non-significant effect on days to anthesis, seed fill duration and days to maturity of wheat. Highest grain yield (3194 kg ha/sup -1/ wheat following mungbean produced more yield and wheat following groundnut produced less yield under dry land conditions. The present findings revealed that pigeon pea-wheat cropping pattern seems to be more sustainable in terms of yield under rain fed conditions and use of FYM, K and Zn should be included in integrated crop management approaches for sustainable crop production. (Author)

  5. Transcriptome analysis reveals key differentially expressed genes involved in wheat grain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglong Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat seed development is an important physiological process of seed maturation and directly affects wheat yield and quality. In this study, we performed dynamic transcriptome microarray analysis of an elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar (Jimai 20 during grain development using the GeneChip Wheat Genome Array. Grain morphology and scanning electron microscope observations showed that the period of 11–15 days post-anthesis (DPA was a key stage for the synthesis and accumulation of seed starch. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and significance analysis of microarrays revealed that the period from 11 to 15 DPA was more important than the 15–20 DPA stage for the synthesis and accumulation of nutritive reserves. Series test of cluster analysis of differential genes revealed five statistically significant gene expression profiles. Gene ontology annotation and enrichment analysis gave further information about differentially expressed genes, and MapMan analysis revealed expression changes within functional groups during seed development. Metabolic pathway network analysis showed that major and minor metabolic pathways regulate one another to ensure regular seed development and nutritive reserve accumulation. We performed gene co-expression network analysis to identify genes that play vital roles in seed development and identified several key genes involved in important metabolic pathways. The transcriptional expression of eight key genes involved in starch and protein synthesis and stress defense was further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of wheat seed development and the determinants of yield and quality.

  6. Genetic variability and fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolated from durum wheat grains in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, S A; Susca, A; Haidukowski, M; Stea, G; Cendoya, E; Ramírez, M L; Chulze, S N; Farnochi, M C; Moretti, A; Torres, A M

    2015-05-18

    Fusarium proliferatum is a member of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) involved in the maize ear rot together with Fusarium verticillioides, which is a very closely related species. Recently, different studies have detected natural fumonisin contamination in wheat kernels and most of them have shown that the main species isolated was F. proliferatum. Fusarium strains obtained from freshly harvested durum wheat samples (2008 to 2011 harvest seasons) from Argentina were characterized through a phylogenetic analysis based on translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) and calmodulin (CaM) genes, determination of mating type alleles, and evaluation of fumonisin production capability. The strains were identified as F. proliferatum (72%), F. verticillioides (24%) and other Fusarium species. The ratio of mating type alleles (MAT-1 and MAT-2) obtained for both main populations suggests possible occurrence of sexual reproduction in the wheat fields, although this seems more frequent in F. proliferatum. Phylogenetic analysis revealed greater nucleotide variability in F. proliferatum strains than in F. verticillioides, however this was not related to origin, host or harvest year. The fumonisin-producing ability was detected in 92% of the strains isolated from durum wheat grains. These results indicate that F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, among the fumonisin producing species, frequently contaminate durum wheat grains in Argentina, presenting a high risk for human and animal health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative analysis the selenium concentration in grains of wheat and barley species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal, F.; Arif, M.; Munsif, F.; Ali, K.

    2016-01-01

    Macro and micro nutrients are essential for human health and growth development. It is reported that about three million people are suffering from nutrient deficiencies all over the world. Various sources are available like: vegetables, fruits, fish, meat and cereals to overcome these deficiencies. Among cereals, wheat and barley are main source to meet the requirement of this dietary element. Two year studies were conducted to investigate the Se concentration in grains of different wheat (T. aestivum L., T. turgidum L. and T. durum L.) and barley (H. spontaneum L. and H. vulgare L.) species originated from different parts of the world. Results indicated that the durum and emmer wheat grains contain higher Se level in both studied years (70.5 and 72.9 micro g kg-1 in 2012 and 74.1 and 73.2 microg kg-1 in 2013 respectively). Among H. spontaneum L. collected from six populations, Mahola population of barley showed remarkable variations in grain Se concentration ranged from 88.3-437.2 and 90.2-439.5 micro g kg-1 in 2012 and 2013 respectively. The information obtained from the findings helps in identifying the lines of wild barley that have more Se uptake and accumulation capability. According to the conclusion of the study that H. Spontaneum L. had greater genetic variation for Se as compare to other species of wheat and barley. (author)

  8. Ochratoxin A and citrinin loads in stored wheat grains: impact of grain dust and possible prediction using ergosterol measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangni, E K; Pussemier, L

    2006-02-01

    Crop storage should be carried out under hygienic conditions to ensure safe products, but sometimes grain dust which has settled from previous storage may be left over and incorporated to the following stored grains. This paper describes the results obtained using a lab model developed in order to assess the impact of grain dust incorporation for its direct contribution as a contaminant but also as an inoculum in stored wheat. Settled grain dust (4 samples) released from Belgian grain storages were collected and analysed by HPLC for ergosterol, ochratoxin A (OTA) and citrinin (CIT) content. For OTA and for ergosterol, there was a high degree of variability in concentrations found in the dust samples (from 17.3-318 ng g(-1) and from 39-823 microg g(-1), respectively) whilst for CIT, the range was less significant (from 137-344 ng g(-1)). Incorporation of grain dust into wheat storage contributed to an increase in the concentrations of mycotoxins in the stored grain. Dust acts as a contaminant and as an inoculum. According to these two ways, patterns of mycotoxin generation vary with the nature of the mycotoxin, the mycotoxigenic potential of dust and the water activity of the wheat. OTA and CIT showed a very versatile image when considering the amounts of toxins produced under the selected experimental conditions. The development of a robust tool to forecast the mycotoxigenicity of dust was based on the determination of ergosterol content as a general marker of fungal biomass. Present results suggest that this predictive tool would only be valid for predicting the contamination level of CIT and OTA at reasonable moisture content (14-20%). The potential risk of having highly contaminated batches from stock to stock may thus occur and this paper discusses possible pathways leading to OTA and CIT contamination either under wet or dry storage conditions. We therefore, recommend taking precautionary measures not only by controlling and maintaining moisture at a

  9. Seed protein improvement in wheat by mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammed, A.; Shakoor, A.; Tahir Nadeem, M.; Ali, A.; Ifzal, S.M.; Sadiq, M.

    1976-01-01

    Several nutritional surveys conducted in different areas in Pakistan have shown the prevalence of protein-calorie malnutrition, especially among young children. However, there is no evidence of overall deficiency of protein resources in the country on a national basis. The available data are entirely inadequate to draw a definite conclusion about the extent of malnutrition in the country, and to plan a strategy for improving the diet of vulnerable groups. The common meal of the low income groups consists of Dal-Roti, which is a spiced pulse soup and pan bread. It is therefore essential to improve the protein content of the pulses and wheat in order to overcome malnutrition. The average yield per acre of pulses in Pakistan is very low, and it is particularly important to evolve high yielding, improved grain quality varieties of the popular pulses which have been hitherto largely neglected. Studies on the improvement of various local and exotic varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and mung (Phaseolus aureus), through induced mutation, have yielded several high yielding and high protein mutants. These mutant lines are being further investigated for the confirmation of their variant traits. Single plant selections of mung bean made from the M 2 generation on the basis of their plant type, habit of growth, maturity time, grain yield and disease resistance are under critical observation. Other pulses, e.g. Cicer arietinum, Lens esculenta and Phaseolus mungo have also been included in the programme; however the breeding work on these crops is still in the preliminary stages. (author)

  10. Variation in the Microbiome, Trichothecenes, and Aflatoxins in Stored Wheat Grains in Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Song Yuan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Contamination by fungal and bacterial species and their metabolites can affect grain quality and health of wheat consumers. In this study, sequence analyses of conserved DNA regions of fungi and bacteria combined with determination of trichothecenes and aflatoxins revealed the microbiome and mycotoxins of wheat from different silo positions (top, middle, and bottom and storage times (3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The fungal community in wheat on the first day of storage (T0 included 105 classified species (81 genera and 41 unclassified species. Four species had over 10% of the relative abundance: Alternaria alternata (12%, Filobasidium floriforme (27%, Fusarium graminearum (12%, and Wallemia sebi (12%. Fungal diversity and relative abundance of Fusarium in wheat from top silo positions were significantly lower than at other silo positions during storage. Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol in wheat were 13–34% higher in all positions at 3 months compared to T0, and mycotoxins in wheat from middle and bottom positions at 6 to 12 months were 24–57% higher than at T0. The relative abundance of toxigenic Aspergillus and aflatoxins were low at T0 and during storage. This study provides information on implementation and design of fungus and mycotoxin management strategies as well as prediction models.

  11. Genetic diversity, population structure and marker-trait associations for agronomic and grain traits in wild diploid wheat Triticum urartu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Luo, Guangbin; Yang, Wenlong; Li, Yiwen; Sun, Jiazhu; Zhan, Kehui; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Aimin

    2017-07-01

    Wild diploid wheat, Triticum urartu (T. urartu) is the progenitor of bread wheat, and understanding its genetic diversity and genome function will provide considerable reference for dissecting genomic information of common wheat. In this study, we investigated the morphological and genetic diversity and population structure of 238 T. urartu accessions collected from different geographic regions. This collection had 19.37 alleles per SSR locus and its polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.76, and the PIC and Nei's gene diversity (GD) of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) were 0.86 and 0.88, respectively. UPGMA clustering analysis indicated that the 238 T. urartu accessions could be classified into two subpopulations, of which Cluster I contained accessions from Eastern Mediterranean coast and those from Mesopotamia and Transcaucasia belonged to Cluster II. The wide range of genetic diversity along with the manageable number of accessions makes it one of the best collections for mining valuable genes based on marker-trait association. Significant associations were observed between simple sequence repeats (SSR) or HMW-GSs and six morphological traits: heading date (HD), plant height (PH), spike length (SPL), spikelet number per spike (SPLN), tiller angle (TA) and grain length (GL). Our data demonstrated that SSRs and HMW-GSs were useful markers for identification of beneficial genes controlling important traits in T. urartu, and subsequently for their conservation and future utilization, which may be useful for genetic improvement of the cultivated hexaploid wheat.

  12. Combined Effect of Infrared and Gamma Radiation on Certain Insects in Stored Wheat Grains and Wheat Flour *

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, S.A.; Mikhaiel, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Dosage mortality studies on the infrared radiation and combined effects with 1500 Gy gamma irradiation, which calculated to kill about 50% of adults, were applied to samples of 50 and 100 grams of wheat grains and flour containing newly emerged adults of T. granarium, T. castaneum, S. granarius and R. dominica. The time required to obtain thermal energy from infrared radiation that were lethal to those adults depends not only on the insect species but also on the heat retention characteristics of the grain or flour and the distances from source of radiation to materials. The dose of infrared (180 sec) at which the temperature attained to 64.8 degree C and 54.3 degree C on 50 and 100 g of wheat flour gave about 60.0 and 44.67% adult mortality for T. granarium and 58.67% and 39.33% adult mortality for T. castaneum on distance 4 cm, respectively. The combined gamma radiation (1500 Gy) with the same doses of infrared gave 96.0% and 86.0%, 90.0% and 78.0% adult mortalities for T. granarium and T. castaneum, respectively. At dose 240 sec infrared on 50 and 100 g of wheat grains which received 77 degree C and 69.7 degree C gave about 60.0% and 46.0% adult mortality for S. granarius and 56.67% and 42.67% for R. dominica on distance 4 cm, respectively, but the combination of 1500 Gy with the same dose of infrared gave 98.0% and 90.0% adult mortality for S. granarius and 94.0% and 88.0% adult mortality for R. dominica, respectively. By rising the time of exposure and reducing distance from IR source, the temperatures were gradually increased causing high adult mortalities. Finally, T. granarium, T. castaneum, and S. granarius were more sensitive than R. dominica.

  13. Improvement of wheat for resistance to Russian Wheat Aphid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyua, M.; Malinga, J.N.; Wanyama, J.; Karanja, L.; Njau, P.; Leo, T.; Alomba, E.

    2001-01-01

    Breeding for resistance against Russian wheat aphid in Kenya is reported. Results of six of the lines were found to have high to moderate resistance to Russian wheat aphid. Popular lines were susceptible in the greenhouse when subjected to aphid pressure but showed moderate susceptibility when screened under field conditions, indicating that in years or location with low aphid pressure farmers may still get a crop. However in areas of high aphid pressure or bad years they may lose their crop. Consequently, developing resistant/torerant varieties is urgent

  14. Effects of Heat Stress on Metabolite Accumulation and Composition, and Nutritional Properties of Durum Wheat Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria de Leonardis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum (L. subsp. turgidum (L. convar. durum (Desf. is momentous for human nutrition, and environmental stresses can strongly limit the expression of yield potential and affect the qualitative characteristics of the grain. The aim of this study was to determine how heat stress (five days at 37 °C applied five days after flowering affects the nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity and metabolic profile of the grain of two durum wheat genotypes: “Primadur”, an elite cultivar with high yellow index, and “T1303”, an anthocyanin-rich purple cultivar. Qualitative traits and metabolite evaluation (by gas chromatography linked to mass spectrometry were carried out on immature (14 days after flowering and mature seeds. The effects of heat stress were genotype-dependent. Although some metabolites (e.g., sucrose, glycerol increased in response to heat stress in both genotypes, clear differences were observed. Following the heat stress, there was a general increase in most of the analyzed metabolites in “Primadur”, with a general decrease in “T1303”. Heat shock applied early during seed development produced changes that were observed in immature seeds and also long-term effects that changed the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the mature grain. Therefore, short heat-stress treatments can affect the nutritional value of grain of different genotypes of durum wheat in different ways.

  15. Agriproteomics of Bread Wheat: Comparative Proteomics and Network Analyses of Grain Size Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkar, Vishal V; Dholakia, Bhushan B; Gupta, Vidya S

    2015-07-01

    Agriproteomics signifies the merging of agriculture research and proteomics systems science and is impacting plant research and societal development. Wheat is a frequently consumed foodstuff, has highly variable grain size that in effect contributes to wheat grain yield and the end-product quality. Very limited information is available on molecular basis of grain size due to complex multifactorial nature of this trait. Here, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we investigated the proteomics profiles from grains of wheat genotypes, Rye selection 111 (RS111) and Chinese spring (CS), which differ in their size. Significant differences in protein expression were found, including 33 proteins uniquely present in RS111 and 32 only in CS, while 54 proteins were expressed from both genotypes. Among differentially expressed proteins, 22 were upregulated, while 21 proteins were downregulated in RS111 compared to CS. Functional classification revealed their role in energy metabolism, seed storage, stress tolerance and transcription. Further, protein interactive network analysis was performed to predict the targets of identified proteins. Significantly different interactions patterns were observed between these genotypes with detection of proteins such as Cyp450, Sus2, and WRKY that could potentially affect seed size. The present study illustrates the potentials of agriproteomics as a veritable new frontier of plant omics research.

  16. The Effect of Zinc Fertilizer Application on Grain Yield of Different Zinc-Efficient Spring and Winter Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available These field trials were carried out to investigate the effect of various zinc (Zn fertilizer application treatments on grain yield of some spring (Isfahan and Neishabour and winter wheat cultivars (Mashhad and Jolge-e-Rokh with different Zn efficiency during 2009-2010 growth seasons. Five Zn fertilizer treatments were applied including: no added Zn (control, soil application of Zn-sulfate, and foliar spray of Zn-sulfate, Omex1, and Omex2. Omex1 and Omex2 contained 4 and 17% Zn, respectively. Foliar spray was performed at the anthesis stage. Both spring and winter wheat genotypes significantly differed in grain yield. The results showed that wheat genotypes largely varied in their grain yield response to different Zn application treatments. Some spring (Sholeh in Isfahan and winter (Sabalan in Jolg-e-Rokh wheat genotypes had greater response to Zn fertilization so that Zn addition increased grain yield of Sholeh by 48% and Sabalan by 17% as compared with no added Zn control. In contrast, Zn addition had no effect on grain yield of some other genotypes. Yield response of wheat genotypes to Zn application treatments significantly varied upon location. According to the results obtained from this study, the efficacy of Zn fertilizer treatments on grain yield of wheat is dependent on the genotype and location. Therefore, this concern should be considered in fertilizer recommendation programs that a specific Zn fertilizer treatment may not be recommended for all wheat cultivars and locations.

  17. Iron and zinc complexation in wild-type and ferritin-expressing wheat grain: implications for mineral transport into developing grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neal, Andrew L; Geraki, Kalotina; Borg, Søren

    2013-01-01

    of modified complexation of both metals in transgenic grain overexpressing wheat ferritin. For zinc, there is a consistent doubling of the number of complexing phosphorus atoms. Although there is some EXAFS evidence for iron phytate in ferritin-expressing grain, there is also evidence of a structure lacking......We have used synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence and absorption techniques to establish both metal distribution and complexation in mature wheat grains. In planta, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy reveals iron phytate and zinc phytate structures in aleurone cells...... of ferritin-expressing grains is quite different from that in wild-type grain. This may explain why the raised levels of minerals transported to the developing grain accumulate within the crease region of the transgenic grain....

  18. THE EFFECT OF ADDING WHOLE WHEAT GRAIN TO FEED MIXTURE ON SLAUGHTER YIELD AND CARCASS COMPOSITION IN GAME PHEASANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIUSZ KOKOSZYŃSKI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The mean body weight of pheasant cocks (1226 g and hens (946.9 g receiving feed mixtures was lower than that of birds fed diets with wheat (♂ 1421.4 g, ♀ 953.2 g. The dressing percentage of both sexes pheasants fed wheat grain also (69.9% was only 0.3% lower than in birds receiving feed mixtures only (70.2%. The carcasses of birds (♂♀ fed the diet with whole wheat grain contained more breast muscles (251.2 g, leg muscles (198.8 g and other carcass components. The carcass percentage of breast muscles, leg muscles, wings and skin with fat was lower, and that of remainders of carcass higher in pheasants receiving wheat grain. In addition, the carcasses of pheasants (♂♀ fed the wheat diets were characterized by a higher weight of meat and fat and lower carcass meat and fat percentage.

  19. A study on toxic and essential elements in wheat grain from the Republic of Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattibayeva, Damira; Nebot, Carolina; Miranda, Jose M; Abuova, Altynai B; Baibatyrov, Torebek A; Kizatova, Maigul Z; Cepeda, Alberto; Franco, Carlos M

    2016-03-01

    Little information is currently available about the content of different elements in wheat samples from the Republic of Kazakhstan. The concentrations of toxic (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and U) and essential (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, and Zn) elements in 117 sampled wheat grains from the Republic of Kazakhstan were measured. The results indicated that the mean and maximum concentrations of most investigated elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Se, Pb, and U) were higher in samples collected from southern Kazakhstan. The mean and maximum concentrations of toxic elements such as As, Cd, Hg, and Pb did not exceed levels specified by European, FAO, or Kazakh legislation, although the hazard quotient (HQ) values for Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn were higher than 1 and the hazard index (HI) was higher than 1 for samples collected from all areas of Kazakhstan. This indicates that there should be concern about the potential hazards of the combination of toxic elements in Kazakh wheat.

  20. Effect of replacing maize grain and soybean meal with a xylose-treated wheat grain on feed intake and performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninghoff, Jens; Hamann, Gregor; Steingaß, Herbert; Romberg, Franz-Josef; Landfried, Karl; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated wheat grain which was treated with xylose in aqueous Ca-Mg lignosulphonate solution at elevated temperatures (WeiPass®) in order to reduce ruminal degradation of starch and crude protein. The two tested isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets contained on dry matter (DM) basis either 16% maize grain and 6.4% soybean meal (Diet CON) or 17.8% xylose-treated wheat and 4.6% soybean meal (Diet Wheat). Thirty-six German Holstein dairy cows were assigned to one of the two groups according to parity, body weight after calving, and milk yield during the previous lactation. Data collection started at 21 d before the expected calving date until 120 d in milk. The average of DM intake, energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield, and milk fat and protein yields (all given as kg/d) were 18.9, 28.7, 1.25, and 1.02 for Diet CON and 19.3, 32.5, 1.36, and 1.11 for Diet Wheat, respectively. Only ECM and milk protein yields were greater (p < 0.05) for cows receiving Diet Wheat. In conclusion, the xylose-treated wheat grain can replace maize grain and part of soybean meal in diets for lactating dairy cows and may be an alternative feedstuff depending on overall ration composition and availability and costs of grain sources.

  1. Integrated use of biochar: a tool for improving soil and wheat quality of degraded soil under wheat-maize cropping pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, K.; Arif, M.; Jan, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat quality, nutrient uptake and nutrient use efficiency are significantly influenced by nutrient sources and application rate. To investigate the integrative effect of biochar, farmyard manure (FYM) and nitrogen (organic and inorganic soil amendments) in a wheat-maize cropping system, a two year study was designed to assess the interactive outcome of biochar, FYM and nitrogenous fertilizer on wheat nitrogen (N) parameters and associated soil quality parameters. Three levels of biochar (0, 25 and 50 t ha-1), two levels of FYM (5 and 10 t ha-1) and two levels of nitrogen fertilizer (60 and 120 kg ha-1) were used in the study. Biochar application displayed a significantly increased in wheat leaf, stem, straw and grain N content; grain and total N-uptake and grain protein content by 24, 20, 24, 56, 50, 17 and 20% respectively. Similarly, biochar application significantly increased soil total N (TN) and soil mineral N (SMN) by 63 and 40% respectively in second year. FYM application increased grain, leaf and straw N content by 20, 19.5 and 18% respectively, and increased total N-uptake and grain protein content by 49 and 19% respectively. FYM increased soil TN and SMN by 63 and 32% in both the years of the experiment. Mineral N application increased soil TN by over a half and SMN by a third, and grain protein content increased 16%. In contrast, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) decreased for all amendments relative to the control. However, biochar treated plots improved NUE by 38% compared to plots without biochar. In conclusion, this field experiment has illustrated the potential of biochar to bring about short-term benefits in wheat and soil quality parameters in wheat-maize cropping systems. However, the long-term benefits remain to be quantified. (author)

  2. Induced mutants for cereal grain protein improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Out of 17 papers and one summary presented, six dealing with the genetic improvement of seed protein using ionizing radiations fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics discussed were non-radiation induced mutants used for cereal grain protein improvement

  3. Factors limiting the grain protein content of organic winter wheat in south-eastern France: a mixed-model approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, M.; David, C.; Valantin-Morison, M.; Makowski, D.; Jeuffroy, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Organic agriculture could achieve the objectives of sustainable agriculture by banning the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. However, organic crops generally show lower performances than conventional ones. In France, organic winter wheat production is characterized by low grain protein

  4. Contamination of wheat grain with microscopic fungi and their metabolites in Poland in 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2014-01-01

    Microscopic fungi are microorganisms commonly found in cereal products. Pathogens of cereals colonising kernels are responsible, among other things, for deterioration of the technological value of grain. However, the greatest threat is posed by mycotoxins produced by toxin-forming strains of these microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to determine the level of contamination with microscopic fungi and mycotoxins from the group of trichothecenes in wheat grain from Poland in a 4-year cycle. In the period 2006-2009, studies were conducted on the content of fungal metabolites (ergosterol [ERG] and type A and B trichothecenes) and the content of microscopic fungi expressed in colony-forming units (CFU) in wheat grain. A total of 129 grain samples were examined. Analysed wheat samples had similar contents of both the investigated fungal metabolites and levels of microscopic fungi. Contents of microscopic fungi were low. Concentration of ERG, on average, was 2.64 mg/kg, while in colony forming units this value ranged from 10(1) CFU/g to over 10(3) CFU/g. The total concentration of type A and B trichothecenes was also low and within the 4 years of the investigation did not exceed 0.062 mg/kg. Concentration of DON did not exceed 1,250 µg/kg, established as safe in grain for human consumption, in any of the tested samples. For the results collected in the years 2006-2009 and presented in this paper, correlations were calculated between the amount of mycoflora and analysed metabolites in 3 possible combinations: 0.7096 for ERG/total toxin concentration, 0.6086 for ERG/log CFU/g, and 0.4016 for the concentration of total toxins/log CFU/g. Highly significant correlations between the content of trichothecenes and the concentration of ERG indicate that the level of this metabolite is closely related to the content of mycotoxins in grain.

  5. Effects of Organic and Conventional Crop Nutrition on Profiles of Polar Metabolites in Grain of Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter; Rakszegi, Marianna; Lovegrove, Alison; Amos, Dominic; Corol, Delia-Irina; Tawfike, Ahmed; Mikó, Péter; Ward, Jane L

    2018-05-16

    The profiles of polar metabolites were determined in wholemeal flours of grain from the Broadbalk wheat experiment and from plants grown under organic and low-input systems to study the effects of nutrition on composition. The Broadbalk samples showed increased amino acids, acetate, and choline and decreased fructose and succinate with increasing nitrogen fertilization. Samples receiving farm yard manure had similar grain nitrogen to those receiving 96 kg of N/ha but had higher contents of amino acids, sugars, and organic acids. A comparison of the profiles of grain from organic and low-input systems showed only partial separation, with clear effects of climate and agronomy. However, supervised multivariate analysis showed that the low-input samples had higher contents of many amino acids, raffinose, glucose, organic acids, and choline and lower sucrose, fructose, and glycine. Consequently, although differences between organic and conventional grain occur, these cannot be used to confirm sample identity.

  6. Climatic warming increases winter wheat yield but reduces grain nitrogen concentration in east China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlu Tian

    Full Text Available Climatic warming is often predicted to reduce wheat yield and grain quality in China. However, direct evidence is still lacking. We conducted a three-year experiment with a Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI facility to examine the responses of winter wheat growth and plant N accumulation to a moderate temperature increase of 1.5°C predicted to prevail by 2050 in East China. Three warming treatments (AW: all-day warming; DW: daytime warming; NW: nighttime warming were applied for an entire growth period. Consistent warming effects on wheat plant were recorded across the experimental years. An increase of ca. 1.5°C in daily, daytime and nighttime mean temperatures shortened the length of pre-anthesis period averagely by 12.7, 8.3 and 10.7 d (P<0.05, respectively, but had no significant impact on the length of the post-anthesis period. Warming did not significantly alter the aboveground biomass production, but the grain yield was 16.3, 18.1 and 19.6% (P<0.05 higher in the AW, DW and NW plots than the non-warmed plot, respectively. Warming also significantly increased plant N uptake and total biomass N accumulation. However, warming significantly reduced grain N concentrations while increased N concentrations in the leaves and stems. Together, our results demonstrate differential impacts of warming on the depositions of grain starch and protein, highlighting the needs to further understand the mechanisms that underlie warming impacts on plant C and N metabolism in wheat.

  7. Residual efficacy of cypermethrin and pirimiphos-methyl against Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier in wheat grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pražić-Golić Marijana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual efficacy of EC formulations of two insecticides: cypermethrin supplemented with the synergist piperonyl butoxide, and pirimiphos-methyl, against adults of the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier, was investigated in the laboratory (at 25±1°C and 55-60% r.h. by applying water solutions of products based either on cypermethrin (1.6 mg a.i./kg of wheat grain or pirimiphos-methyl (4 mg a.i./kg of wheat grain to wheat grain. Insect mortality on deposits of different age: 0, 7, 14, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days was estimated after 2, 7 and 14 days of insect exposure to treated wheat. After 2 day exposure, cypermethrin caused mortality of up to 46% on all deposits (age 0-180 days. After 7 days of exposure, high efficacy (94-100% was found only on deposits that were up to 90 days old, while the mortality of S. cerealella adults on all deposits following 14 days of exposure was 98-100%, and it was probably additionally enhanced by natural mortality. Pirimiphos-methyl was 98-100% effective after 2 days of exposure to deposits that were up to 30 days old, while it achieved maximum efficacy (100% after 7 days of insect exposure to deposits aging for up to 150 days, and 94% efficacy on 180 days old deposits. After 14 days of adult exposure to all deposit ages, there were no surviving insects (efficacy 100%. The results show that pirimiphos-methyl was more effective against S. cerealella adults and had a longer residual activity than cypermethrin.

  8. Fungal volatiles associated with moldy grain in ventilated and non-ventilated bin-stored wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, R N; Tuma, D; Abramson, D; Muir, W E

    1988-01-01

    The fungal odor compounds 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone were monitored in nine experimental bins in Winnipeg, Manitoba containing a hard red spring wheat during the autumn, winter and summer seasons of 1984-85. Quality changes were associated with seed-borne microflora and moisture content in both ventilated and non-ventilated bins containing wheat of 15.6 and 18.2% initial moisture content. All three odor compounds occurred in considerably greater amounts in bulk wheat in non-ventilated than in ventilated bins, particularly in those with wheat having 18.2% moisture content. The presence of these compounds usually coincided with infection of the seeds by the fungi Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, Aspergillus repens DeBarry, A. versicolor (Vuill.) Tiraboschi, Penicillium crustosum Thom, P. oxalicum Currie and Thom, P. aurantiogriesum Dierckx, and P. citrinum Thom. High production of all three odor compounds in damp wheat stored in non-ventilated bins was associated with heavy fungal infection of the seeds and reduction in seed germinability. High initial moisture content of the harvested grain accelerated the production of all three fungal volatiles in non-ventilated bins.

  9. Favorable Alleles for Stem Water-Soluble Carbohydrates Identified by Association Analysis Contribute to Grain Weight under Drought Stress Conditions in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runzhi; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint to crop distribution and productivity. Stem water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) buffer wheat grain yield against conditions unfavorable for photosynthesis during the grain filling stage. In this study, 262 winter wheat accessions and 209 genome-wide SSR markers were collected and used to undertake association analysis based on a mixed linear model (MLM). The WSC in different internodes at three growth stages and 1000-grain weight (TGW) were investigated under four environmental regimes (well-watered, drought stress during the whole growth period, and two levels of terminal drought stress imposed by chemical desiccation under the well-watered and drought stress during the whole growth period conditions). Under diverse drought stress conditions, WSC in lower internodes showed significant positive correlations with TGW, especially at the flowering stage under well-watered conditions and at grain filling under drought stress. Sixteen novel WSC-favorable alleles were identified, and five of them contributed to significantly higher TGW. In addition, pyramiding WSC favorable alleles was not only effective for obtaining accessions with higher WSC, but also for enhancing TGW under different water regimes. During the past fifty years of wheat breeding, WSC was selected incidentally. The average number of favorable WSC alleles increased from 1.13 in the pre-1960 period to 4.41 in the post-2000 period. The results indicate a high potential for using marker-assisted selection to pyramid WSC favorable alleles in improving WSC and TGW in wheat. PMID:25768726

  10. Grain subproteome responses to nitrogen and sulfur supply in diploid wheat Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnot, Titouan; Bancel, Emmanuelle; Alvarez, David; Davanture, Marlène; Boudet, Julie; Pailloux, Marie; Zivy, Michel; Ravel, Catherine; Martre, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Wheat grain storage proteins (GSPs) make up most of the protein content of grain and determine flour end-use value. The synthesis and accumulation of GSPs depend highly on nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) availability and it is important to understand the underlying control mechanisms. Here we studied how the einkorn (Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum) grain proteome responds to different amounts of N and S supply during grain development. GSP composition at grain maturity was clearly impacted by nutrition treatments, due to early changes in the rate of GSP accumulation during grain filling. Large-scale analysis of the nuclear and albumin-globulin subproteomes during this key developmental phase revealed that the abundance of 203 proteins was significantly modified by the nutrition treatments. Our results showed that the grain proteome was highly affected by perturbation in the N:S balance. S supply strongly increased the rate of accumulation of S-rich α/β-gliadin and γ-gliadin, and the abundance of several other proteins involved in glutathione metabolism. Post-anthesis N supply resulted in the activation of amino acid metabolism at the expense of carbohydrate metabolism and the activation of transport processes including nucleocytoplasmic transit. Protein accumulation networks were analyzed. Several central actors in the response were identified whose variation in abundance was related to variation in the amounts of many other proteins and are thus potentially important for GSP accumulation. This detailed analysis of grain subproteomes provides information on how wheat GSP composition can possibly be controlled in low-level fertilization condition. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Cryopreservation at -75 °C of Agaricus subrufescens on wheat grains with sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lienine Luiz Zaghi Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract Agaricus subrufescens is a basidiomycete which is studied because of its medicinal and gastronomic importance; however, less attention has been paid to its preservation. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sucrose addition to substrate and cryotube on the viability of Agaricus subrufescens cryopreserved at -20 °C and at -75 °C for one and two years. Zero, 10% or 20% sucrose was added to potato dextrose agar or wheat grain. The mycelia were cryopreserved in the absence of cryoprotectant or with sucrose solutions at 15%, 30% or 45%. After one or two years at -75 °C or at -20 °C, mycelia were thawed and evaluated about viability, initial time of growth, colony diameter and genomic stability. Cryopreservation at -20 °C is not effective to keep mycelial viability of this fungus. Cryopreservation at -75 °C is effective when sucrose is used in substrates and/or cryotubes. Without sucrose, cryopreservation at -75 °C is effective only when wheat grains are used. Physiological characteristic as mycelial colony diameter is negatively affected when potato dextrose agar is used and unaffected when wheat grain is used after two-year cryopreservation at -75 °C. The fungus genome does not show alteration after two-year cryopreservation at -75 °C.

  12. Natural co-occurrence of mycotoxins in wheat grains from Italy and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadri, D; Rubert, J; Prodi, A; Pisi, A; Mañes, J; Soler, C

    2014-08-15

    This article describes the application of an analytical method for the detection of 25 mycotoxins in wheat grain based on simultaneous extraction using matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (QTrap®). Information Dependent Acquisition (IDA), an extra confirmation tool for samples that contain the target mycotoxins, was used. The analysis of 40 Syrian and 46 Italian wheat grain samples interestingly showed that Syrian samples were mainly contaminated with ochratoxin A and aflatoxins, whereas Italian samples with deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol. Emerging Fusarium mycotoxins were predominant in Italian samples compared to the Syrian. Among the analysed samples, only one was found containing zeralenone with level above the maximum European recommended concentration (100 ppb). These results confirm that climatic differences between Syria and Italy, both in Mediterranean basin, play a key role in the diversity of fungal genera and mycotoxins in wheat grains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CO2-Induced Changes in Wheat Grain Composition: Meta-Analysis and Response Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin C. Broberg

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2 stimulates wheat grain yield, but simultaneously reduces protein/nitrogen (N concentration. Also, other essential nutrients are subject to change. This study is a synthesis of wheat experiments with eCO2, estimating the effects on N, minerals (B, Ca, Cd, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Zn, and starch. The analysis was performed by (i deriving response functions to assess the gradual change in element concentration with increasing CO2 concentration, (ii meta-analysis to test the average magnitude and significance of observed effects, and (iii relating CO2 effects on minerals to effects on N and grain yield. Responses ranged from zero to strong negative effects of eCO2 on mineral concentration, with the largest reductions for the nutritionally important elements of N, Fe, S, Zn, and Mg. Together with the positive but small and non-significant effect on starch concentration, the large variation in effects suggests that CO2-induced responses cannot be explained only by a simple dilution model. To explain the observed pattern, uptake and transport mechanisms may have to be considered, along with the link of different elements to N uptake. Our study shows that eCO2 has a significant effect on wheat grain stoichiometry, with implications for human nutrition in a world of rising CO2.

  14. Identifying loci influencing grain number by microsatellite screening in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongling; Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Lanfen; Zhang, Xueyong

    2012-11-01

    Grain number (GN) is one of three major yield-related components in wheat. We used the Chinese wheat mini core collection to undertake a genome-wide association analysis of grain number using 531 SSR markers randomly located on all 21 chromosomes. Grain numbers of all accessions were measured in four trials, i.e. two environments in four growing seasons. Association analysis based on a mixed linear model (MLM) revealed that 27 SSR loci were significantly associated with mean GN (MGN) estimated by the best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) method. These included numerous breeder favorable alleles with strong positive effects at 23 loci. Significant or extremely significant differences were detected on MGN between varieties conveying favored allele and varieties with other alleles. Moreover, statistical simulation showed that the favored alleles have additive genetic effects. Although modern varieties combined larger numbers of favored alleles, the numbers of favored alleles were not significantly different from those in landraces, especially those alleles contributing mostly to the phenotypic variation. These results indicate that there is still considerable genetic potential for use of markers for genome selection of GN for high yield in wheat.

  15. Effects of Zn, macronutrients, and their interactions through foliar applications on winter wheat grain nutritional quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxia Wang

    Full Text Available Although application of Zn combined with macronutrients (K, P, and N can be used to fortify wheat grain with Zn, little is known about their interactions when foliar application is employed or the influences of common soil fertility management practices (e.g. N and straw management on their efficiency. Therefore, the effects of foliar-applied Zn and N, P, or K on grain nutritional quality (especially Zn were investigated in wheat grown under different soil N rates at two sites with (Sanyuan or without (Yangling employing straw return. A 4-year-long field experiment was also conducted to evaluate the environmental stability of the foliar formulations. Across 6 site-years, foliar Zn application alone or combined with N, P, or K fertilizers resulted in 95.7%, 101%, 67.9% and 121% increases in grain Zn concentration, respectively. In terms of increasing grain Zn concentration, foliar-applied Zn positively interacted with N (at Sanyuan and K (at Yangling, but negatively interacted with P at any condition tested, suggesting depressive effects of foliarly-applied P on physiological availability of Zn. Although these interaction effects were the major factor that governing the efficiency of foliar-applied Zn combined with N, P, or K on grain Zn concentration, the magnitude of the increase/decrease in grain Zn (-3.96~5.71 mg kg-1 due to these interactions was much less than the average increases following Zn+K (31.3, Zn+P (18.7, and Zn+N (26.5 mg kg-1 treatments relative to that observed in foliar Zn-only treatment. The combined foliar application of Zn with N, P, or K did not cause any adverse impact on grain yield and other nutritional quality and in some cases slightly increased grain yield and macronutrient concentrations. Grain phytic acid:Zn molar ratios were respectively 52.0%, 53.1%, 43.4% and 63.5% lower in the foliar Zn, Zn+N, Zn+P and Zn+K treatments than in the control treatment. These effects were consistent over four years and across three

  16. Effects of Zn, macronutrients, and their interactions through foliar applications on winter wheat grain nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoxia; Li, Meng; Liu, Ke; Tian, Xiaohong; Li, Shuo; Chen, Yanlong; Jia, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Although application of Zn combined with macronutrients (K, P, and N) can be used to fortify wheat grain with Zn, little is known about their interactions when foliar application is employed or the influences of common soil fertility management practices (e.g. N and straw management) on their efficiency. Therefore, the effects of foliar-applied Zn and N, P, or K on grain nutritional quality (especially Zn) were investigated in wheat grown under different soil N rates at two sites with (Sanyuan) or without (Yangling) employing straw return. A 4-year-long field experiment was also conducted to evaluate the environmental stability of the foliar formulations. Across 6 site-years, foliar Zn application alone or combined with N, P, or K fertilizers resulted in 95.7%, 101%, 67.9% and 121% increases in grain Zn concentration, respectively. In terms of increasing grain Zn concentration, foliar-applied Zn positively interacted with N (at Sanyuan) and K (at Yangling), but negatively interacted with P at any condition tested, suggesting depressive effects of foliarly-applied P on physiological availability of Zn. Although these interaction effects were the major factor that governing the efficiency of foliar-applied Zn combined with N, P, or K on grain Zn concentration, the magnitude of the increase/decrease in grain Zn (-3.96~5.71 mg kg-1) due to these interactions was much less than the average increases following Zn+K (31.3), Zn+P (18.7), and Zn+N (26.5 mg kg-1) treatments relative to that observed in foliar Zn-only treatment. The combined foliar application of Zn with N, P, or K did not cause any adverse impact on grain yield and other nutritional quality and in some cases slightly increased grain yield and macronutrient concentrations. Grain phytic acid:Zn molar ratios were respectively 52.0%, 53.1%, 43.4% and 63.5% lower in the foliar Zn, Zn+N, Zn+P and Zn+K treatments than in the control treatment. These effects were consistent over four years and across three soil N

  17. Exclusion of solar UV radiation improves photosynthetic performance and yield of wheat varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, K N

    2015-12-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine the potential for alterations in photosynthetic performance and grain yield of four wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties of India- Vidisha, Purna, Swarna and Naveen Chandausi by ambient ultraviolet radiation (UV). The plants were grown in specially designed UV exclusion chambers, wrapped with filters that excluded UV-B (solar UV exclusion increased the leaf mass per area ratio, leaf weight ratio and chlorophylls per unit area of flag leaves in all the four varieties of wheat. Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence transients from the flag leaves of UV excluded wheat plants gave a higher fluorescence yield. Exclusion of solar UV significantly enhanced photosynthetic performance as a consequence of increased efficiency of PS II, performance index (PIABS) and rate of photosynthesis in the flag leaves of wheat varieties along with a remarkable increase in carbonic anhydrase, Rubisco and nitrate reductase activities. This additional fixation of carbon and nitrogen by exclusion of UV was channelized towards the improvement in grain yield of wheat varieties as there was a decrease in the UV-B absorbing substances and an increase in soluble protein content in flag leaves of all the four varieties of wheat. The magnitude of response for UV exclusion for all the measured parameters was higher in two varieties of wheat Vidisha and Purna as compared to Swarna and Naveen Chandausi. Cumulative stress response index (CSRI) for each variety was developed from the cumulative sum of physiological and yield parameters such as leaf mass area ratio of flag leaf, total chlorophyll content, performance index at absorption basis, rate of photosynthesis and grain yield. All the varieties had a negative CSRI, demonstrating a negative impact of ambient UV radiation. Naveen Chandausi and Swarna are less sensitive to ambient UV radiation; Vidisha is more sensitive to both UV-A and UV-B and Purna is more sensitive to ambient UV-B radiation. Copyright

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study of Calcium Accumulation in Grains of European Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Z. Alomari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineral concentrations in cereals are important for human health, especially for people who depend mainly on consuming cereal diet. In this study, we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS of calcium concentrations in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grains using a European wheat diversity panel of 353 varieties [339 winter wheat (WW plus 14 of spring wheat (SW] and phenotypic data based on two field seasons. High genotyping densities of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers were obtained from the application of the 90k iSELECT ILLUMINA chip and a 35k Affymetrix chip. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES was used to measure the calcium concentrations of the wheat grains. Best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs for calcium were calculated across the seasons and ranged from 288.20 to 647.50 among the varieties (μg g-1 DW with a mean equaling 438.102 (μg g-1 DW, and the heritability was 0.73. A total of 485 SNP marker–trait associations (MTAs were detected in data obtained from grains cultivated in both of the two seasons and BLUE values by considering associations with a -log10 (P-value ≥3.0. Among these SNP markers, we detected 276 markers with a positive allele effect and 209 markers with a negative allele effect. These MTAs were found on all chromosomes except chromosomes 3D, 4B, and 4D. The most significant association was located on chromosome 5A (114.5 cM and was linked to a gene encoding cation/sugar symporter activity as a potential candidate gene. Additionally, a number of candidate genes for the uptake or transport of calcium were located near significantly associated SNPs. This analysis highlights a number of genomic regions and candidate genes for further analysis as well as the challenges faced when mapping environmentally variable traits in genetically highly diverse variety panels. The research demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for illuminating the genetic architecture of

  19. Estimating grain yield losses caused by septoria leaf blotch on durum wheat in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Berraies

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Septoria leaf blotch (SLB, caused by Zymoseptoria tritici (Desm. Quaedvlieg & Crous, 2011 (teleomorph: Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel J. Schrot., is an important wheat disease in the Mediterranean region. In Tunisia, SLB has become a major disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum [Desf.] Husn. particularly during favorable growing seasons where significant yield losses and increase of fungicides use were recorded over the last three decades. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of SLB severity on grain yield of new elite durum wheat breeding lines and to measure the relative effect of fungicide control on grain yield. Experiments were conducted during 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 cropping seasons. A set of 800 breeding lines were screened for reaction to SLB under natural infection at Beja research station. To estimate the disease effect, correlation between disease severity at early grain filling stage and grain yield was performed. Results showed that susceptible varieties yield was significantly reduced by SLB. Average yield reduction was as high as 384 and 325 kg ha-1 for every increment in disease severity on a 0-9 scale in both seasons, respectively. A negative correlation coefficient varied between -0.61 and -0.66 in both seasons. Treated and untreated trials conducted during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 showed that yield of treated plots increased by 50% on the commonly cultivated susceptible varieties. The results of this investigation suggested that septoria incidence is related to large grain yield losses particularly on susceptible high yielding cultivars. However, appropriate fungicide application at booting growth stage could be beneficial for farmers. The development and use of more effective fungicide could be sought to alleviate the disease effects and therefore could be considered as a part of the integrated pest management and responsible use strategy on septoria leaf blotch in Tunisia.

  20. Biotechnology in wheat improvement in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanja, L.; Kinyua, M.G.; Njau, P.N.; Maling'a, J.

    2001-01-01

    Use of double haploid (DH) and mutation techniques in breeding wheat lines and varieties tolerant to drought, acid soils and resistant to Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA) at the National Plant Breeding Research Center in the last 4 years, is reported. The wheat variety, ''Pasa'' irradiated in 1996 is reported to have undergone selection process through yield trials in 1999-2000. Work done in the year 2000 is mainly described

  1. The evaluation of wheat grain odor and color after gamma and microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warchalewski, J.R.; Gralik, J.; Kusnierz, R.; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R.; Zabielski, J.

    1998-01-01

    Wheat grain was exposed to gamma ionising irradiation at selected doses between 0.05-10 kGy and microwave radiation from 45 to 180 sec. The sensory evaluation of a grain odor proved that both applied treatments, gamma and microwave irradiation, did not cause significant changes in the grain odor in comparison to control samples of grain with the exclusion of maximum irradiation dose 10 kGy, and maximum microwave heating time 180 sec. The results obtained after measurement of the grain reflected-light showed that gamma 60 Co irradiation did not cause any changes in grain color. The grain after microwave heating at 90, 120, 180 sec was characterised by significantly higher lightness (L*) value. The total colour difference (δE) between microwave irradiated samples and the control ones was increasing gradually, with the increase in temperature. The yellowness (b*) and the redness (a*) values were statistically significantly higher in the case of 120 and 180 sec of irradiation time comparing to the control sample. (author)

  2. Relay cropping of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) improves the profitability of cotton-wheat cropping system in Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Aamer; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Ahmad, Riaz; Waraich, Ejaz Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    Delayed sowing of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in cotton-based system reduces the productivity and profitability of the cotton-wheat cropping system. In this scenario, relay cropping of wheat in standing cotton might be a viable option to ensure the timely wheat sowing with simultaneous improvement in wheat yields and system profitability. This 2-year study (2012-2013 and 2013-2014) aimed to evaluate the influence of sowing dates and relay cropping combined with different management techniques of cotton sticks on the wheat yield, soil physical properties, and the profitability of the cotton-wheat system. The experiment consisted of five treatments viz. (S1) sowing of wheat at the 7th of November by conventional tillage (two disc harrows + one rotavator + two plankings) after the removal of cotton sticks, (S2) sowing of wheat at the 7th of November by conventional tillage (two disc harrows + two plankings) after the incorporation of cotton sticks in the field with a rotavator, (S3) sowing of wheat at the 7th of November as relay crop in standing cotton with broadcast method, (S4) sowing of wheat at the 15th of December by conventional tillage (two disc harrows + one rotavator + two plankings) after the removal of cotton sticks, and (S5) sowing of wheat at the 15th of December by conventional tillage (two disc harrows + two plankings) after the incorporation of cotton sticks in the field with a rotavator. The highest seed cotton yield was observed in the S5 treatment which was statistically similar with the S3 and S4 treatments; seed cotton yield in the S1 and S2 treatments has been the lowest in both years of experimentation. However, the S2 treatment produced substantially higher root length, biological yield, and grain yield of wheat than the other treatments. The lower soil bulk density at 0-10-cm depth was recorded in the S2 treatment which was statistically similar with the S5 treatment during both years of experimentation. The volumetric water contents, net

  3. Effects of starch synthase IIa gene dosage on grain, protein and starch in endosperm of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konik-Rose, Christine; Thistleton, Jenny; Chanvrier, Helene; Tan, Ihwa; Halley, Peter; Gidley, Michael; Kosar-Hashemi, Behjat; Wang, Hong; Larroque, Oscar; Ikea, Joseph; McMaugh, Steve; Regina, Ahmed; Rahman, Sadequr; Morell, Matthew; Li, Zhongyi

    2007-11-01

    Starch synthases (SS) are responsible for elongating the alpha-1,4 glucan chains of starch. A doubled haploid population was generated by crossing a line of wheat, which lacks functional ssIIa genes on each genome (abd), and an Australian wheat cultivar, Sunco, with wild type ssIIa alleles on each genome (ABD). Evidence has been presented previously indicating that the SGP-1 (starch granule protein-1) proteins present in the starch granule in wheat are products of the ssIIa genes. Analysis of 100 progeny lines demonstrated co-segregation of the ssIIa alleles from the three genomes with the SGP-1 proteins, providing further evidence that the SGP-1 proteins are the products of the ssIIa genes. From the progeny lines, 40 doubled haploid lines representing the eight possible genotypes for SSIIa (ABD, aBD, AbD, ABd, abD, aBd, Abd, abd) were characterized for their grain weight, protein content, total starch content and starch properties. For some properties (chain length distribution, pasting properties, swelling power, and gelatinization properties), a progressive change was observed across the four classes of genotypes (wild type, single nulls, double nulls and triple nulls). However, for other grain properties (seed weight and protein content) and starch properties (total starch content, granule morphology and crystallinity, granule size distribution, amylose content, amylose-lipid dissociation properties), a statistically significant change only occurred for the triple nulls, indicating that all three genes had to be missing or inactive for a change to occur. These results illustrate the importance of SSIIa in controlling grain and starch properties and the importance of amylopectin fine structure in controlling starch granule properties in wheat.

  4. Investigation of The Relationship Between Grain Yield with Physiological Parameters in Some Bread Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KARAMAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the relationships between grain yield with physiological parameters in some bread wheat varieties. For this purpose, ten bread wheat genotypes were grown in randomized complete block design with 3 replications under rainfall conditions in the experimental field of GAP International Agricultural Research and Training Center during the 2012-2013 growing season. The most high yielding varieties in this study, Pehlivan, Kate A-1, Cemre and Anapo, were observed as standing out in terms of flag leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value, flag leaf ash ratio, leaf area index and grain filling period . The correlation analyses of the study showed positive and significant correlations between chlorophyll content of flag leaf at heading stage with chlorophyll content at flowering stage, between chlorophyll content of flag leaf at flowering and heading stages with chlorophyll content of flag leaf at milk stage and between grain filling rate with leaf area index, In addition, positive and significant correlations were identified between flag leaf ash ratio and NDVI reading prior to heading time with grain yield

  5. The role of whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients on the digestion and fermentation processes in the gut - a model experiment with pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legall, Maud; Serena, Anja; Jørgensen, Henry

    2009-01-01

    The effect of wheat and rye breads made from white wheat flour with added refined fibre (WFL), whole-wheat grain, wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on digestion and fermentation processes in the gut was studied in a model experiment with pigs. The diets were similar in dietary...... of the wheat-based diets primarily due to the higher intestinal viscosity. The DF composition had an impact on (P,0001) the site for fibre degradation in the large intestine. Thus, AX of the WAF bread, with the lowest degree of substitution, were fermented as much in the caecum as in the colon, whereas AX...... of the RAF bread, with an intermediary degree of substitution, were mainly fermented in the caecum. The WFL bread, rich in cellulose, was fermented more distally. Fermentation of experimental breads in the large intestine had no effect (P.005) on the production of metabolites, except for butyrate which...

  6. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-10-18

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain.

  7. Higher Fusarium Toxin Accumulation in Grain of Winter Triticale Lines Inoculated with Fusarium culmorum as Compared with Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Halina; Ochodzki, Piotr; Walentyn-Góral, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to Fusarium head blight in 32 winter triticale and 34 winter wheat accessions was evaluated. Triticale and wheat were sown in field experiments in two locations. At the time of flowering, heads were inoculated with three Fusarium culmorum isolates. Fusarium head blight index was scored and after the harvest percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was assessed. Grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone (ZEN) content. The average Fusarium head blight indexes were 28.0% for wheat and 19.2% for triticale accessions. The percentage of Fusarium damaged kernels was also higher for wheat and came to 55.6%, while for triticale this figure was 40.2%. The average content of deoxynivalenol (DON) for wheat amounted to 11.65 mg/kg and was lower than the result for triticale which was 14.12 mg/kg. The average contents of nivalenol were similar in both cereals: 4.13 mg/kg and 5.19 mg/kg for wheat and triticale respectively. Considerable amounts of DON derivatives in the cereals were also detected. The ZEN content in the grain was 0.60 mg/kg for wheat and 0.66 mg/kg for triticale. Relationships between Fusarium head blight index, Fusarium damaged kernels and mycotoxin contents were statistically significant for wheat and mostly insignificant for triticale. Triticale proved to have less infected heads and kernels than wheat. However, the content of type B trichothecenes was higher in triticale grain than in wheat grain. PMID:27763547

  8. Breeding of newly licensed wheat variety Huapei 8 and improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Breeding of newly licensed wheat variety Huapei 8 and improved breeding strategy by anther culture ... more efficient in pure line selection rather than the hete- .... Regional and productivity tests showed that Huapei 8 had .... Large-scale production of wheat and triticale double.

  9. Impact of Solid and Hollow Varieties of Winter and Spring Wheat on Severity of Wheat Stem Sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) Infestations and Yield and Quality of Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Glover, Karl D; Berzonsky, William

    2015-10-01

    Wheat stem sawfly (WSS), Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), has recently emerged as a key pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains and Canadian provinces. The expanding impact of WSS has caused considerable economic losses to wheat production. Solid-stem varieties of wheat remain the only effective measure of suppression of WSS, and the goal of this research was to test whether five solid- and hollow-stem varieties of winter and spring wheat reduce survival of WSS in South Dakota. We reported that solid-stem varieties had significantly lower numbers of WSS larvae, and this effect was especially evident when WSS infestation rates exceeded 15%. We also observed that the yield of solid-stem varieties was significantly lower than hollow-stem varieties when the abundance of WSS was low, but not when populations of WSS were relatively high. We did not observe consistent differences in grain quality between solid- and hollow-stem varieties, however, and in case of protein levels of grain, solid-stem wheat varieties performed better than hollow-stem wheat. We conclude that solid-stem varieties of wheat appear to effectively suppress WSS survival, and reduced yield of these varieties is less apparent when populations of C. cinctus are high enough to affect the yield of hollow-stem wheat. This is the first report to describe the effectiveness of solid-stem varieties of wheat on WSS in South Dakota. More research in the state is necessary before more robust conclusions can be drawn. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Effects of high NH4+ on K+ uptake, culm mechanical strength and grain filling in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingan eKong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that a high external NH4+ concentration depresses many processes in plant development, but the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. To determine whether the negative effects of high levels of NH4+ are related to competitive cation uptake, wheat was grown in a field with moderate (18 g N m-2 and high (30 g N m-2 supplies of NH4+ in the presence or absence of additional K+ (6 g K2O m-2 to examine culm mechanical strength, the main components of the vascular bundle, nitrogen (N remobilization and the grain-filling rate. The results indicated that an excessive supply of NH4+ significantly decreased culm mechanical strength, the cellulose and lignin contents of vascular bundles, the N remobilization efficiency (NRE and the grain-filling rate compared with a moderate level of NH4+. The additional provision of K+ considerably alleviated these negative effects of high NH4+, resulting in a 19.41%-26.95% increase in culm mechanical strength during grain filling and a 34.59% increase in the NRE. An assay using the scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET showed that the net rate of transmembrane K+ influx decreased by 84.62%, and measurements using flame photometry demonstrated that the K+ content decreased by 36.13% in wheat plants subjected to high NH4+. This study indicates that the effects of high NH4+ on culm mechanical strength, cellulose and lignin contents, the NRE and the grain-filling rate are probably associated with inhibition of K+ uptake in wheat.

  11. Effect of Sulphur Fertilization on Grain Quality and Protein Composition of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Pompa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of atmosphere emission of SO2 and the massive use of fertilizers high in nitrogen and phosphorus resulted in a decrease of the sulphur content in the soil. In durum wheat cultivation, sulphur supply plays a key role not only for plant growth, but also for grain quality. Sulphur is an essential macronutrient primarily used to synthesize methionine and cysteine and it is also involved in establishing protein structures by disulphide bonds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sulphur nutrition on grain quality and protein composition of durum wheat cultivars grown under water deficit conditions, typical of Mediterranean areas. To this purpose, in the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 crop seasons a field trial was carried out by comparing two water regimes (irrigated and rainfed, two sulphur fertilizer levels and two durum wheat cultivars. Under our experimental conditions, an increase in protein and gluten content in the rainfed treatment and a positive effect of sulphur fertilization on quality parameters were observed. Few changes were observed in protein composition in response to sulphur fertilization.

  12. Occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Fumonisins in Stored Wheat Grains Marketed in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharuddin Salleh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grains are well known to be invaded by Fusarium spp. under field and storage conditions and contaminated with fumonisins. Therefore, determining Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in wheat grains is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Eighty-two stored wheat samples produced in Iran were collected from various supermarkets and tested for the presence of Fusarium spp. by agar plate assay and fumonisins by HPLC. A total of 386 Fusarium strains were isolated and identified through morphological characteristics. All these strains belonged to F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. Of the Fusarium species, F. graminearum was the most prevalent species, followed by F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and then F. culmorum. Natural occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1 could be detected in 56 (68.2% samples ranging from 15–155 μg/kg, fumonisin B2 (FB2 in 35 (42.6% samples ranging from 12–86 μg/kg and fumonisin B3 (FB3 in 26 (31.7% samples ranging from 13–64 μg/kg. The highest FB1 levels were detected in samples from Eilam (up to 155 μg/kg and FB2 and FB3 in samples from Gilan Gharb (up to 86 μg/kg and 64 μg/kg.

  13. Occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Fumonisins in Stored Wheat Grains Marketed in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehri, Khosrow; Jahromi, Saeed Tamadoni; Reddy, Kasa R. N.; Abbasi, Saeed; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2010-01-01

    Wheat grains are well known to be invaded by Fusarium spp. under field and storage conditions and contaminated with fumonisins. Therefore, determining Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in wheat grains is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Eighty-two stored wheat samples produced in Iran were collected from various supermarkets and tested for the presence of Fusarium spp. by agar plate assay and fumonisins by HPLC. A total of 386 Fusarium strains were isolated and identified through morphological characteristics. All these strains belonged to F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides. Of the Fusarium species, F. graminearum was the most prevalent species, followed by F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and then F. culmorum. Natural occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) could be detected in 56 (68.2%) samples ranging from 15–155 μg/kg, fumonisin B2 (FB2) in 35 (42.6%) samples ranging from 12–86 μg/kg and fumonisin B3 (FB3) in 26 (31.7%) samples ranging from 13–64 μg/kg. The highest FB1 levels were detected in samples from Eilam (up to 155 μg/kg) and FB2 and FB3 in samples from Gilan Gharb (up to 86 μg/kg and 64 μg/kg). PMID:22069576

  14. Occurrence of Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in stored wheat grains marketed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehri, Khosrow; Jahromi, Saeed Tamadoni; Reddy, Kasa R N; Abbasi, Saeed; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2010-12-01

    Wheat grains are well known to be invaded by Fusarium spp. under field and storage conditions and contaminated with fumonisins. Therefore, determining Fusarium spp. and fumonisins in wheat grains is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Eighty-two stored wheat samples produced in Iran were collected from various supermarkets and tested for the presence of Fusarium spp. by agar plate assay and fumonisins by HPLC. A total of 386 Fusarium strains were isolated and identified through morphological characteristics. All these strains belonged to F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. proliferatum and F.verticillioides. Of the Fusarium species, F. graminearum was the most prevalent species, followed by F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum and then F. culmorum. Natural occurrence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) could be detected in 56 (68.2%) samples ranging from 15-155 μg/kg, fumonisin B2 (FB2) in 35 (42.6%) samples ranging from 12-86 μg/kg and fumonisin B3 (FB3) in 26 (31.7%) samples ranging from 13-64 μg/kg. The highest FB1 levels were detected in samples from Eilam (up to 155 μg/kg) and FB2 and FB3 in samples from Gilan Gharb (up to 86 μg/kg and 64 μg/kg).

  15. Interpreting genotype × environment interactions for grain yield of rainfed durum wheat in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clustering genotype × environment (GE interactions and understanding the causes of GE interactions are among the most important tasks in crop breeding programs. Pattern analysis (cluster and ordination techniques was applied to analyze GE interactions for grain yield of 24 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum genotypes (breeding lines and old and new cultivars along with a popular bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar grown in 21 different rainfed environments during the 2010–2013 cropping seasons. To investigate the causes of GE interaction, several genotypic and environmental covariables were used. In a combined ANOVA, environment was the predominant source of variation, accounting for 81.2% of the total sum of squares (TSS, and the remaining TSS due to the GE interaction effect was almost seven times that of the genetic effect. Cluster analysis separated the environments into four groups with similar discriminating ability among genotypes, and genotypes into five groups with similar patterns in yield performance. Pattern analysis confirmed two major environmental clusters (cold and warm, and allowed the discrimination and characterization of genotype adaptation. Within the cold-environment cluster, several subclusters were identified. The breeding lines were most adapted to moderate and warm environments, whereas the old varieties were adapted to cold environments. The results indicated that winter rainfall and plant height were among the environmental and genotypic covariables, respectively, that contributed most to GE interaction for grain yield in rainfed durum wheat.

  16. Transgenic expression of phytase in wheat endosperm increases bioavailability of iron and zinc in grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Nabeela; Khatoon, Asia; Maqbool, Asma; Irfan, Muhammad; Bashir, Aftab; Asif, Irsa; Shahid, Muhammad; Saeed, Asma; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Malik, Kauser A

    2017-02-01

    Phytate is a major constituent of wheat seeds and chelates metal ions, thus reducing their bioavailability and so the nutritional value of grains. Transgenic plants expressing heterologous phytase are expected to enhance degradation of phytic acid stored in seeds and are proposed to increase the in vitro bioavailability of mineral nutrients. Wheat transgenic plants expressing Aspergillus japonicus phytase gene (phyA) in wheat endosperm were developed till T 3 generation. The transgenic lines exhibited 18-99 % increase in phytase activity and 12-76 % reduction of phytic acid content in seeds. The minimum phytic acid content was observed in chapatti (Asian bread) as compared to flour and dough. The transcript profiling of phyA mRNA indicated twofold to ninefold higher expression as compared to non transgenic controls. There was no significant difference in grain nutrient composition of transgenic and non-transgenic seeds. In vitro bioavailability assay for iron and zinc in dough and chapatti of transgenic lines revealed a significant increase in iron and zinc contents. The development of nutritionally enhanced cereals is a step forward to combat nutrition deficiency for iron and zinc in malnourished human population, especially women and children.

  17. Substitution of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles for barley grain or barley silage in feedlot cattle diets: intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; He, M L; McKinnon, J J; Yang, W Z

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) for barley grain and barley silage on intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation in feedlot beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (initial BW 455 ± 10.8 kg) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 treatments: control, low (25%), medium (30%), and high (35%) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The diets consisted of barley silage, barley concentrate, and wheat DDGS in ratios of 15:85:0 (CON), 10:65:25 (25DDGS), 5:65:30 (30DDGS), and 0:65:35 (35DDGS; DM basis), respectively. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy (grain) and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Intakes (kg/d) of DM and OM were not different, whereas those of CP, NDF, ADF, and ether extract (EE) were greater (P Ruminal pH and total VFA concentrations were not different (P > 0.15) between 25DDGS and CON diets. Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (i.e., from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P ruminal pH tended (P=0.10) to linearly decrease, and ruminal pH status decreased with longer (P=0.04) duration of pH 0.19) ruminal VFA and NH(3)-N concentrations. Results indicated that wheat DDGS can be effectively used to replace both barley grain and silage at a moderate amount to meet energy and fiber requirements of finishing cattle. However, when silage content of the diet is low (ruminal pH status even though the rapidly fermentable starch content of the diet is considerably reduced. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  18. A kinetic and microautoradiographic study of 14C-sucrose translocation into developing wheat grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Wang; Fisher, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    The kinetics of 14 C-photosynthate import by developing wheat grains was followed after pulse-labeling the flag leaf with 14 CO 2 . Samples were collected from four successive points along the transport pathway to and within the grain: exuding aphid stylets on the peduncle, exuding grain pedicels, the grain crease tissues, and the liquid contents of the endosperm cavity. In addition, microautoradiographs were prepared of the grain crease tissues during movement of the 14 C pulse into the grain. At all times, sucrose accounted for 93 to 97% of the total 14 C present at all four sampling sites. The main features of the 14 C kinetics could be accounted for by a simple compartmental model consisting of sucrose pools in series. Microautoradiographs of the crease tissues showed fairly uniform labeling of vascular parenchyma at all times, with a sharp gradient in labeling across the chalaza to the nucellus. Thus the principal resistance to post-phloem solute transport through the maternal tissues appears to be in the symplastic pathway across the chalaza

  19. Association analysis of genomic loci important for grain weight control in elite common wheat varieties cultivated with variable water and fertiliser supply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunpu Zhang

    Full Text Available Grain weight, an essential yield component, is under strong genetic control and markedly influenced by the environment. Here, by genome-wide association analysis with a panel of 94 elite common wheat varieties, 37 loci were found significantly associated with thousand-grain weight (TGW in one or more environments differing in water and fertiliser levels. Five loci were stably associated with TGW under all 12 environments examined. Their elite alleles had positive effects on TGW. Four, two, three, and two loci were consistently associated with TGW in the irrigated and fertilised (IF, rainfed (RF, reduced nitrogen (RN, and reduced phosphorus (RP environments. The elite alleles of the IF-specific loci enhanced TGW under well-resourced conditions, whereas those of the RF-, RN-, or RP-specific loci conferred tolerance to the TGW decrease when irrigation, nitrogen, or phosphorus were reduced. Moreover, the elite alleles of the environment-independent and -specific loci often acted additively to enhance TGW. Four additional loci were found associated with TGW in specific locations, one of which was shown to contribute to the TGW difference between two experimental sites. Further analysis of 14 associated loci revealed that nine affected both grain length and width, whereas the remaining loci influenced either grain length or width, indicating that these loci control grain weight by regulating kernel size. Finally, the elite allele of Xpsp3152 frequently co-segregated with the larger grain haplotype of TaGW2-6A, suggesting probable genetic and functional linkages between Xpsp3152 and GW2 that are important for grain weight control in cereal plants. Our study provides new knowledge on TGW control in elite common wheat lines, which may aid the improvement of wheat grain weight trait in further research.

  20. Effects of supplemental irrigation on water consumption characteristics and grain yield in different wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Weiwei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of water resources is a major limiting factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production in the North China Plain. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of supplemental irrigation (SI on water use characteristics and grain yield of the wheat cultivars 'Jimai 22'and 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Two supplemental irrigation treatment regimens were designed based on target relative soil moisture contents in 0-140 cm soil layers at jointing rising to 75% of field capacity (FC for each cultivar, and at anthesis rising to 65% and 75% (W1, and 70% and 80% (W2 in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively. Rain-fed (W0 treatment was used as control. Under W1, grain yield of 'Jimai 22' was 5.22% higher than that of W2, and water use efficiency (WUE of 'Zhouyuan 9369' was 4.0% higher than that under W2. No significant differences in WUE of 'Jimai 22' and grain yield of 'Zhouyuan 9369' were observed for the two treatment regimens in 2009-2010. Grain yield and WUE in W1 were higher than those of W2 for both cultivars in 2010-2011. W1 enhanced soil water consumption compared to W2, especially in the 100-200 cm soil layers, for both cultivars in 2009-2011. Meanwhile, 'Jimai 22' showed higher soil water consumption and ET from anthesis to mature stage, which resulted in increase in grain yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' by 8.15-21.7% and 7.75-11.73% in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively, compared with 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Thus, our results showed that SI increased the yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' and W1 was the better treatment regimen.

  1. Divergence in homoeolog expression of the grain length-associated gene GASR7 during wheat allohexaploidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexaploid wheat has triplicated homoeologs for most of the genes that are located in subgenomes A, B, and D. GASR7, a member of the Snakin/GASA gene family, has been associated with grain length development in wheat. However, little is known about divergence of its homoeolog expression in wheat polyploids. We studied the expression patterns of the GASR7 homoeologs in immature seeds in a synthetic hexaploid wheat line whose kernels are slender like those of its maternal parent (Triticum turgidum, AABB, PI 94655 in contrast to the round seed shape of its paternal progenitor (Aegilops tauschii, DD, AS2404. We found that the B homoeolog of GASR7 was the main contributor to the total expression level of this gene in both the maternal tetraploid progenitor and the hexaploid progeny, whereas the expression levels of the A and D homoeologs were much lower. To understand possible mechanisms regulating different GASR7 homoeologs, we firstly analyzed the promoter sequences of three homoeologous genes and found that all of them contained gibberellic acid (GA response elements, with the TaGASR7B promoter (pTaGASR7B uniquely characterized by an additional predicted transcriptional enhancer. This was confirmed by the GA treatment of spikes where all three homoeologs were induced, with a much stronger response for TaGASR7B. McrBC enzyme assays showed that the methylation status at pTaGASR7D was increased during allohexaploidization, consistent with the repressed expression of TaGASR7D. For pTaGASR7A, the distribution of repetitive sequence-derived 24-nucleotide (nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs were found which suggests possible epigenetic regulation because 24-nt siRNAs are known to mediate RNA-dependent DNA methylation. Our results thus indicate that both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in the divergence of GASR7 homoeolog expression in polyploid wheat.

  2. Effect of environmental and genetic factors on the correlation and stability of grain yield components in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More effective breeding and development of new wheat genotypes depend on an intricate analysis of the complex relationships among many different traits. The objective of this paper was to determine the interrelationship, direct and indirect effects, and stability of different yield components in wheat. Forty divergent genotypes were analyzed in a three- year study (2005-2007. Highly significant correlations were found between grain yield per plant and all the other traits analyzed except spike length, with the only negative correlation being that with plant height. Path analysis revealed highly significant direct effects of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and 1000 grain weight on grain yield per plant. Analysis of stability parameters showed that the stability of grain yield per plant depended for the most part on the stability of grain number per spike, grain mass per spike and harvest index. Cluster analysis identified genotypes with a high performance for grain yield per plant and good stability parameters, indicating the possibility of developing wheat varieties with a high potential and high stability for a particular trait.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSED PRODUCTS OF WHEAT GERM ON GRAIN BREAD QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    E. I. Ponomareva; N. N. Alekhinа; I. A. Bakayeva

    2014-01-01

    Development and introduction of new types of bakery products with increased nutritional value is one of the basic and urgent problems in the bakery industry. The solution of it is the use of whole grains, as well as secondary products of their processing. The use of by-products of wheat germ (oil, oilcake, oilcake flour), which are rich in proteins and enhances the nutritional value of products is considered to be a promising area in the bakery industry. At the same time the program objective...

  4. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the ‘Amigo’ variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. ‘Tm’ (Triticum monococcum), ‘Astron,’ ‘Xanthus,’ ‘Ww2730,’ and ‘Batis’ varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, ‘Amigo,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ and some ‘186Tm’ samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for ‘98-10-35,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ ‘Tp,’ ‘Tam200,’ ‘PI high,’ and other ‘186Tm’ samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to ‘Xinong1376,’ because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of

  5. Physiology and biochemistry of source-regulated protein accumulation in the wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barneix, Atilio J

    2007-05-01

    Wheat is unique among cereals for the baking qualities of its flour, which are dependent upon the type and concentration of its proteins. As a consequence, the grain protein concentration (GPC) is one of the main determinants of wheat international market price. More than 50-70% of the final grain N is accumulated before flowering and later remobilized to the grain, N fertilization being the common practice used to produce high GPC. However, after incremental additions of N fertilizer, GPC reaches a maximum and then remains constant, without any increase in N uptake or remobilization by the crop, thus decreasing the efficiency of N fertilizer. Although, the genetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate N uptake by the roots are being clarified quickly, the regulation and physiology of N transport from the leaves to the grain remains less clear. In this review, the possible regulatory points involved in N transport to the grain and the difficulties for increasing GPC are discussed. It has been demonstrated that protein synthesis in the grain is source-limited, and that the grain can accumulate protein limited only by the amino acids provided by the phloem. It has also been shown that there is no limitation in the amino acid/sugar ratios that can be exported to the phloem. On the other hand, NO(3)(-) uptake transporters are depressed when the plant concentration of some amino acids, such as glutamine, is high. It has also been shown that a high N supply increases cytokinins concentration, preventing leaf senescence and proteolysis. Based on this information, it is postulated that there are two main regulatory points during grain filling when plant N status is ample. On the one hand, the N uptake transporters in the roots are depressed due to the high amino acids concentration in the tissues, and N uptake is low. On the other, a high amino acids concentration keeps the cytokinins level high, repressing leaf protein degradation and decreasing amino acid export to the

  6. Utilization of a maltotetraose-producing amylase as a whole wheat bread improver: dough rheology and baking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Woosung; Lee, Sung Ho; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Lee, Suyong

    2014-08-01

    A maltotetraose-producing enzyme (G4-amylase) was utilized to improve the baking performance of whole-grain wheat flour. Whole-grain bread dough prepared with G4-amylase showed reduced water absorption and increased development time, while the dough stability was not affected. Also, the G4-amylase-treated samples exhibited lower Mixolab torque values than the control upon heating and cooling. Rheological measurements showed the decreased ratio of Rmax /E and increased tan δ, clearly demonstrating that the viscous characteristics of whole-grain bread dough became dominant with increasing levels of G4-amylase. The use of G4-amylase produced whole-grain wheat breads with a variety of maltooligosaccharides, primarily maltotetraose that positively contributed to the bread volume (1.2-fold higher than the control). Moreover, G4-amylase delayed the crumb firming of whole-grain wheat bread during a 7-d storage period, showing that it can function as an antiretrogradation agent to enhance the quality attributes of whole-grain wheat bread. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. The influence of irradiated wheat on longevity and reproduction of the grain weevil sitophilus granarius LINNE 1758

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, V.; Wiendl, F.M.; Franco, S.S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of the present research was to determine the influence of gamma irradiations on wheat, the diet of the grain weevil, using as parameters of the longevity and reproduction of this insect. The doses of 60 Co γ-rays applied to wheat grains were 0(control), 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Gy, at a dose rate of 3000 Gy per hour. The longevity, expressed as life-expectancy in days, and the reproduction expressed as the number of F 1 adults, showed no differences up to the dose of 2000 Gy. The wheat irradiated with the dose of 4000 Gy induced a lower life-expectancy of the insects fed with irradiated wheat and a smaller number of insects of the F 1 generation

  8. Swedish Spring Wheat Varieties with the Rare High Grain Protein Allele of NAM-B1 Differ in Leaf Senescence and Grain Mineral Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Linnéa; Bergkvist, Göran; Leino, Matti W.; Westerbergh, Anna; Weih, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Some Swedish spring wheat varieties have recently been shown to carry a rare wildtype (wt) allele of the gene NAM-B1, known to affect leaf senescence and nutrient retranslocation to the grain. The wt allele is believed to increase grain protein concentration and has attracted interest from breeders since it could contribute to higher grain quality and more nitrogen-efficient varieties. This study investigated whether Swedish varieties with the wt allele differ from varieties with one of the more common, non-functional alleles in order to examine the effect of the gene in a wide genetic background, and possibly explain why the allele has been retained in Swedish varieties. Forty varieties of spring wheat differing in NAM-B1 allele type were cultivated under controlled conditions. Senescence was monitored and grains were harvested and analyzed for mineral nutrient concentration. Varieties with the wt allele reached anthesis earlier and completed senescence faster than varieties with the non-functional allele. The wt varieties also had more ears, lighter grains and higher yields of P and K. Contrary to previous information on effects of the wt allele, our wt varieties did not have increased grain N concentration or grain N yield. In addition, temporal studies showed that straw length has decreased but grain N yield has remained unaffected over a century of Swedish spring wheat breeding. The faster development of wt varieties supports the hypothesis of NAM-B1 being preserved in Fennoscandia, with its short growing season, because of accelerated development conferred by the NAM-B1 wt allele. Although the possible effects of other gene actions were impossible to distinguish, the genetic resource of Fennoscandian spring wheats with the wt NAM-B1 allele is interesting to investigate further for breeding purposes. PMID:23555754

  9. grain and biomass yield reduction due to russian wheat aphid on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2015-05-25

    May 25, 2015 ... farmers' management is far lower than under on- station and on-farm ... of seeds for improved varieties and insect pests and diseases. .... the control of D. noxia infestation by. Fenitrothion 50 ... International Education (SRF) and Rutgers. Foundation. ... wheat, related cereals and a Bromus grass species. pp.

  10. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Aghili

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower, ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF, and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  11. Identification and Validation of a New Source of Low Grain Cadmium Accumulation in Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atena Oladzad-Abbasabadi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a heavy metal that has no known biological function and is toxic for many living organisms. The maximum level of Cd concentration allowed in the international market for wheat grain is 0.2 mg kg−1. Because phenotyping for Cd uptake is expensive and time consuming, molecular markers associated with genes conferring low Cd uptake would expedite selection and lead to the development of durum cultivars with reduced Cd concentrations. Here, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with a novel low Cd uptake locus in the durum experimental line D041735, which has hexaploid common wheat in its pedigree. Genetic analysis revealed a single major QTL for Cd uptake on chromosome arm 5BL within a 0.3 cM interval flanked by SNP markers. Analysis of the intervening sequence revealed a gene with homology to an aluminum-induced protein as a candidate gene. Validation and allelism tests revealed that the low Cd uptake gene identified in this study is different from the closely linked Cdu1-B gene, which also resides on 5BL. This study therefore showed that the durum experimental line D041735 contains a novel low Cd uptake gene that was likely acquired from hexaploid wheat.

  12. Redistribution of mineral elements in wheat grain when applying the complex enzyme preparations based on phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kuznetsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic minerals play an important role in the whole human nutrition, but they are included in the grain of the phytates that reduces their bioavailability. Whole wheat bread is generally considered a healthy food, but the presence of mineral elements in it is insignificant, because of weak phytate degradation. From all sources of exogenous phytase the most productive are microscopic fungi. To accelerate the process of transition hard mineral elements are mobilized to implement integrated cellulolytic enzyme preparation based on the actions of phytase (producer is Penicillium canescens. Phytase activity was assessed indirectly by the rate of release of phosphate from the substrate. It has been established that the release rate of the phosphoric acid substrate is dependent on the composition of the drug and the enzyme complex is determined by the presence of xylanase. The presented experimental data shows that a cellulase treatment of the grain in conjunction with the β-glucanase or xylanase leading to an increase in phytase activity could be 1.4 - 2.3 times as compared with the individual enzymes. As a result of concerted action of enzymes complex preparation varies topography grain, increase the pore sizes in seed and fruit shells that facilitate the penetration of the enzyme phytase in the aleurone layer to the site of phytin hydrolysis and leads to an increase in phytase activity. In terms of rational parameters of enzymatic hydrolysis, the distribution of mineral elements in the anatomical parts of the grain after processing complex enzyme preparation with the help of X-ray detector EMF miniCup system in a scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM 6390 were investigated. When processing enzyme preparation wheat trend in the distribution of mineral elements, characteristic of grain - the proportion of these elements in the aleurone layer decreases, and in the endosperm increases. Because dietary fiber and phytate found together in the

  13. Genotype x environment interaction for grain yield of wheat genotypes tested under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sail, M.A.; Dahot, M.U.; Mangrio, S.M.; Memon, S.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of water stress on grain yield in different wheat genotypes was studied under field conditions at various locations. Grain yield is a complex polygenic trait influenced by genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction. To understand the stability among genotypes for grain yield, twenty-one wheat genotypes developed Through hybridization and radiation-induced mutations at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) TandoJam were evaluated with four local check varieties (Sarsabz, Thori, Margalla-99 and Chakwal-86) in multi-environmental trails (MET/sub s/). The experiments were conducted over 5 different water stress environments in Sindh. Data on grain yield were recorded from each site and statistically analyzed. Combined analysis of variance for all the environments indicated that the genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction were highly significant (P greater then 0.01) for grain yield. Genotypes differed in their response to various locations. The overall highest site mean yield (4031 kg/ha) recorded at Moro and the lowest (2326 kg/ha) at Thatta. Six genotypes produced significantly (P=0.01) the highest grain yield overall the environments. Stability analysis was applied to estimate stability parameters viz., regression coefficient (b), standard error of regression coefficient and variance due to deviation from regression (S/sub 2/d) genotypes 10/8, BWS-78 produced the highest mean yield over all the environments with low regression coefficient (b=0.68, 0.67 and 0.63 respectively and higher S/sup 2/ d value, showing specific adaptation to poor (un favorable) environments. Genotype 8/7 produced overall higher grain yield (3647 kg/ha) and ranked as third high yielding genotype had regression value close to unity (b=0.9) and low S/sup d/ value, indicating more stability and wide adaptation over the all environments. The knowledge of the presence and magnitude of genotype x environment (GE) interaction is important to

  14. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  15. Variability of Pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. Originating from Maize and Wheat Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Tančić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the pathogenicity of 93 isolates of seven species belonging to the genus Fusarium (F. graminearum, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. subglutinans, F. sporotrichioides, F. semitectum and F. equiseti, originating from maize kernels (61 and wheat grains (32, were examined based on the germination percentage of inoculated seeds. The studied species demonstrated inter- and intraspecies variability regarding the effects on maize seed germination. On the average, the greatest germination reduction was found in seeds inoculated with the spore suspensions of F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum. A similar reduction was detected in seeds inoculated with F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans. The effect of F. subglutinans on seed germination reduction was higher compared to the two latter species, while the effects of F. semitectum and F. equiseti were smallest. The majority of isolates were of moderate pathogenicity, while the lowest number of isolates was either very pathogenic (7 or apathogenic (10. Pathogenicity of the isolates originating from wheat grains was generally lower than the pathogenicity of isolates originating from maize kernels, with the exception of F. sporotrichioides.

  16. Aleurone Cell Walls of Wheat Grain: High Spatial Resolution Investigation Using Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamme, F.; Robert, R.; Bouchet, B.; Saulnier, L.; Dumas, P.; Guillon, F.

    2008-01-01

    Infrared microspectroscopy and immunolabeling techniques were employed in order to obtain deeper insight into the biochemical nature of aleurone cell walls of wheat grain. The use of a synchrotron source, thanks to its intrinsic brightness, has provided unprecedented information at the level of a few micrometers and has allowed the discrimination of various polysaccharides in cell walls. The high spectral quality obtained in the small analyzed domain has been beneficial in estimating the relative proportions of Β-glucan and arabinoxylan, through the use of principal component analysis (PCA). The highest amount of Β-glucan is found in periclinal cell walls close to the starchy endosperm. The junction regions between aleurone cells are enriched in arabinoxylan. At the early stage of wheat grain development (271 degrees D), the chemical composition along the cell walls is more heterogeneous than at the mature stage. Both synchrotron infrared microspectroscopy and immunolabeling experiments made it possible to reveal the spatial heterogeneity of the various chemical compositions of aleurone cell walls.

  17. A Proteomics Approach to Discover Drought Tolerance Proteins in Wheat Pollen Grain at Meiosis Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotovat, Reza; Alikhani, Mehdi; Valizadeh, Mostafa; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Salekdeh, Ghasem H

    2017-01-01

    Plants reproductive phase, when grain yield and consequently farmers' investment is most in jeopardy, is considered as the most sensitive stage to drought stress. In this study, we aimed to explore the proteomic response of wheat anther at meiosis stage in a drought tolerant, Darab, and susceptible, Shiraz, wheat genotypes. Wheat plants were exposed to drought stress at meiosis stage for four days under controlled environmental conditions. Then, anthers from both genotypes were sampled, and their proteomes were examined via quantitative proteomics analysis. Our results demonstrated that short-term stress at meiosis stage reduced plant seed-setting compared to well-watered plants. This reduction was more pronounced in the susceptible genotype, Shiraz, by 51%, compared to the drought tolerant Darab by 14.3%. Proteome analysis revealed that 60 protein spots were drought responsive, out of which 44 were identified using a mass spectrometer. We observed a dramatic up-regulation of several heat shock proteins, as well as induction of Bet v I allergen family proteins, peroxiredoxin-5, and glutathione transferase with similar abundance in both genotypes. However, the abundance of proteins such as several stress response related proteins, including glutaredoxin, proteasome subunit alpha type 5, and ribosomal proteins showed a different response to drought stress in two genotypes. The differential abundance of proteins in two genotypes may suggest mechanisms by which tolerant genotype cope with drought stress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first proteome analysis of plant reproductive tissue response to drought stress in wheat and could broaden our insight into plant adaptation to drought stress. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Effects of Cd2+ on chlorophyll content in flag and grain yield of wheats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhiyong; Li Youjun; Liu Yingjie; Duan Youqiang; Li Qiang; Hao Yufen; Guo Jia

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted with wheat cultivars Luohan 6 and Yumai 18 to investigate the effects of Cd 2+ stress on chlorophyll contents in flag leaves, flag leave area, thousand kernel weight, kernel filling velocity and yield of wheat. Results indicated that, under low Cd 2+ stress (10 mg/kg), the average contents of chlorophyll a + b of Luohan 6 reduced by 1.6%, however, its average area of flag leave and yield increased by 3.8% and 1.6%, respectively. At the same time, the average content of chlorophyll a + b, area of flag leave yield of Yumai 18 reduced 8.0%, 9.6% and 5.4%. Under high Cd 2+ stress (100 mg/kg), the average contents of chlorophyll a + b, areas of flag leaves and yields of Luohan 6 and Yumai 18 reduced by 29.2% and 30.5%, 6.3% and 17.4%, 16.7% and 36.7%, respectively. The results demonstrated that Cd 2+ restrained synthesis and accumulation of chlorophyll and its components. This study even showed that within a range of Cd 2+ concentration could promote the growth of flag leaves, and it also had an equal positive effect on yield of wheat if the Cd 2+ concentration in grains were not out of limit. The growth of flag leave and yield of wheat would be limited when Cd 2+ concentration exceed that range. Overall, Yumai 18 bore more poison from Cd 2+ than Luohan 6. (authors)

  19. Localization and distribution of Zn and Fe in grains of biofortified bread wheat lines through micro- and triaxial-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, P.; Mateus, T. C.; Velu, G.; Singh, R. P.; Santos, J. P.; Carvalho, M. L.; Lourenço, V. M.; Lidon, F.; Reboredo, F.; Guerra, M.

    2018-03-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis has been performed in wheat grains from a field trial where some biofortified and non-biofortified wheat varieties were subjected to Zn biofortification through soil fertilizer application. A set of ten biofortified and non-biofortified wheat varieties developed at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico, were used for this study. Two analytical methods were employed to investigate the contents and localization of the trace metals Zn and Fe within the grains, one with polarized monochromatic X-rays for lower limits of detection, and another featuring polycapillary lenses for micrometric beam size (μ-EDXRF). Elemental maps were obtained with μ-EDXRF allowing for the study of Zn and Fe localization in plants grown in normal and Zn-enriched soil. It is acknowledged that the biofortification procedures result in around 30% average increase in overall Zn concentration when compared to other high Zn genotypes grown in normal soil. A genotypic ranking was performed taking into account the influence of the measurement methods and field conditions and the obtained results show that two of the top three varieties regarding zinc contents also rank among the top three in terms of Fe concentration. Elemental mapping analysis seems to favor the use of integral flour for the manufacture of bread and pasta products, as the bran retains most of the minerals.

  20. Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration may imply higher risk of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of wheat grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencze, Szilvia; Puskás, Katalin; Vida, Gyula; Karsai, Ildikó; Balla, Krisztina; Komáromi, Judit; Veisz, Ottó

    2017-08-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentration not only has a direct impact on plants but also affects plant-pathogen interactions. Due to economic and health-related problems, special concern was given thus in the present work to the effect of elevated CO 2 (750 μmol mol -1 ) level on the Fusarium culmorum infection and mycotoxin contamination of wheat. Despite the fact that disease severity was found to be not or little affected by elevated CO 2 in most varieties, as the spread of Fusarium increased only in one variety, spike grain number and/or grain weight decreased significantly at elevated CO 2 in all the varieties, indicating that Fusarium infection generally had a more dramatic impact on the grain yield at elevated CO 2 than at the ambient level. Likewise, grain deoxynivalenol (DON) content was usually considerably higher at elevated CO 2 than at the ambient level in the single-floret inoculation treatment, suggesting that the toxin content is not in direct relation to the level of Fusarium infection. In the whole-spike inoculation, DON production did not change, decreased or increased depending on the variety × experiment interaction. Cooler (18 °C) conditions delayed rachis penetration while 20 °C maximum temperature caused striking increases in the mycotoxin contents, resulting in extremely high DON values and also in a dramatic triggering of the grain zearalenone contamination at elevated CO 2 . The results indicate that future environmental conditions, such as rising CO 2 levels, may increase the threat of grain mycotoxin contamination.

  1. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-04-01

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff.

  2. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-01-01

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff

  3. TaFlo2-A1, an ortholog of rice Flo2, is associated with thousand grain weight in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Muhammad; Ma, Xiaoling; Habibullah Khan, Sultan; Shoaib, Muhammad; Song, Yanhong; Yang, Wenlong; Zhang, Aimin; Liu, Dongcheng

    2017-10-16

    The Flo2 gene is a member of a conserved gene family in plants. This gene has been found to be related to thousand grain weight (TGW) in rice. Its orthologs in hexaploid wheat were cloned, and the haplotype variation in TaFlo2-A1 was tested for association with TGW. The cloned sequences of TaFlo2-A1, TaFlo2-B1 and TaFlo2-D1 contained 23, 23 and 24 exons, respectively. The deduced proteins of TaFlo2-A1 (1734 aa), TaFlo2-B1 (1698 aa) and TaFlo2-D1 (1682 aa) were highly similar (>94%) and exhibited >77% similarity with the rice FLO2 protein. Like the rice FLO2 protein, four tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs were observed in the deduced TaFLO2 protein. An 8-bp InDel (-10 to -17 bp) in the promoter region and five SNPs in first intron of TaFlo2-A1 together formed two haplotypes, TaFlo2-A1a and TaFlo2-A1b, in bread wheat. TaFlo2 was located on homeologous group 2 chromosomes. TaFlo2-A1 was inferred to be located on deletion bin '2AL1-0.85-1.00'. The TaFlo2-A1 haplotypes were characterized in the Chinese Micro Core Collection (MCC) and Pakistani wheat collection using the molecular marker TaFlo2-Indel8. TaFlo2-A1 was found to be associated with TGW but not with grain number per spike (GpS) in both the MCC and Pakistani wheat collections. The frequency of TaFlo2-A1b (positive haplotype) was low in commercial wheat cultivars; thus this haplotype can be selected to improve grain weight without negatively affecting GpS. The expression level of TaFlo2-A1 in developing grains at 5 DAF (days after flowering) was positively correlated with TGW in cultivars carrying the positive haplotype. This study will likely lead to additional investigations to understand the regulatory mechanism of the Flo2 gene in hexaploid wheat. Furthermore, the newly developed molecular marker 'TaFlo2-InDel8' could be incorporated into the kit of wheat breeders for use in marker-assisted selection.

  4. Effect of spray volume on the moisture of stored corn and wheat grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alberto Vásquez-Castro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of spray volume on the moisture of the stored grains of the corn and wheat. Two kg of each type of the grain were placed into the plastic bags and sprayed with the theoretical doses of 0, 1, 3, 5, 8, and 10 liters of water / ton of the grain. The grain moisture content was evaluated 24 h after the spray operation by the oven method. The increase in the grain moisture was quadratic and showed the same trend in both the corn and wheat. The grain moisture after spraying 10 L.t-1 showed little increase (0.8 % as compared to the initial moisture content. Thus, the application of any spray volume as used in this study made no difference for a possible better uniformity in the distribution of insecticide throughout the sprayed material.A pulverização de inseticidas é o principal método de controle preventivo das pragas dos grãos armazenados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do volume de pulverização na umidade de grãos de milho e trigo armazenados. Foram acondicionados 2 kg de grãos em sacos plásticos e pulverizados com doses teóricas de zero, 1, 3, 5, 8 e 10 litros de água / tonelada de grão. A avaliação do teor de umidade dos grãos foi feita 24 horas após a pulverização mediante o método da estufa. O acréscimo na umidade dos grãos em função do volume de água pulverizado, foi quadrático e teve a mesma tendência tanto para o milho como para o trigo. A umidade dos grãos após a pulverização de 10 L.t-1 teve pequeno acréscimo (0,8 % quando comparado com o teor inicial. Desse modo, é indiferente o uso de qualquer volume estudado, visando a maior uniformidade de distribuição do inseticida na massa de grãos.

  5. The prevalence of deoxynivalenol and its derivatives in the spring wheat grain from different agricultural production systems in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaviciene, Sigita; Mankeviciene, Audrone; Suproniene, Skaidre; Kochiieru, Yuliia; Keriene, Ilona

    2018-02-22

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) together with two acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) occurs in cereal grains and their products. Co-occurrence of DON and acetylated derivatives in cereal grain is detected worldwide. Until now, DON and its derivatives have been considered equally toxic by health authorities. In this study, we analysed 103 samples of spring wheat grain, originating from the fields of different production systems in Lithuania, for the co-occurrence of type-B trichothecenes (DON, 3-ADON, 15-ADON). The samples were classified according to the production system-organic, sustainable and intensive. Mycotoxin levels in the spring wheat grain samples were determined by the HPLC method with UV detection. The type-B trichothecenes were found to be present at higher concentrations in the grain from the intensive production system. Eighty-one percent of the spring wheat grain samples from the intensive production system were co-contaminated with a combination of DON+3-ADON+15-ADON, 1% with DON+3-ADON. Additionally, DON+15-ADON and DON were found in 5% and 10% of the tested samples, respectively. Two percent of the samples were free from mycotoxins. In the grain samples from the sustainable production system, DON and a combination of DON+3-ADON showed a higher incidence - 47% and 23%, respectively. The samples with a combination of DON+3-ADON+15-ADON accounted for 18%. Completely different results were obtained from the analyses of organic grain samples. A large number of the organic spring wheat grain samples were contaminated with DON+3-ADON (55%) or DON (36%). The combination of DON+3-ADON+15-ADON was not present, while DON+15-ADON was present in 9% of the samples tested. The production systems did not lead to significant differences in mycotoxin levels, although a trend toward higher incidence and higher contamination was observed for the samples from the intensive and sustainable production systems.

  6. Effects of different depth of grain colour on antioxidant capacity during water imbibition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Oon Ha; Kim, Dae Yeon; Seo, Yong Weon

    2017-07-01

    The importance of the effect of phytochemical accumulation in wheat grain on grain physiology has been recognised. In this study, we tracked phytochemical concentration in the seed coat of purple wheat during the water-imbibition phase and also hypothesised that the speed of germination was only relevant to its initial phytochemical concentration. The results indicate that the speed of germination was significantly reduced in the darker grain groups within the purple wheat. Total phenol content was slightly increased in all groups compared to their initial state, but the levels of other phytochemicals varied among groups. It is revealed that anthocyanin was significantly degraded during the water imbibition stage. Also, the activities of peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase in each grain colour group did not correlated with germination speed. Overall antioxidant activity was reduced as imbibition progressed in each group. Generally, darker grain groups showed higher total antioxidant activities than did lighter grain groups. These findings suggested that the reduced activity of reactive oxygen species, as controlled by internal antioxidant enzymes and phytochemicals, related with germination speed during the water imbibition stage in grains with greater depth of purple colouring. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Introgression of novel traits from a wild wheat relative improves drought adaptation in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placido, Dante F; Campbell, Malachy T; Folsom, Jing J; Cui, Xinping; Kruger, Greg R; Baenziger, P Stephen; Walia, Harkamal

    2013-04-01

    Root architecture traits are an important component for improving water stress adaptation. However, selection for aboveground traits under favorable environments in modern cultivars may have led to an inadvertent loss of genes and novel alleles beneficial for adapting to environments with limited water. In this study, we elucidate the physiological and molecular consequences of introgressing an alien chromosome segment (7DL) from a wild wheat relative species (Agropyron elongatum) into cultivated wheat (Triticum aestivum). The wheat translocation line had improved water stress adaptation and higher root and shoot biomass compared with the control genotypes, which showed significant drops in root and shoot biomass during stress. Enhanced access to water due to higher root biomass enabled the translocation line to maintain more favorable gas-exchange and carbon assimilation levels relative to the wild-type wheat genotypes during water stress. Transcriptome analysis identified candidate genes associated with root development. Two of these candidate genes mapped to the site of translocation on chromosome 7DL based on single-feature polymorphism analysis. A brassinosteroid signaling pathway was predicted to be involved in the novel root responses observed in the A. elongatum translocation line, based on the coexpression-based gene network generated by seeding the network with the candidate genes. We present an effective and highly integrated approach that combines root phenotyping, whole-plant physiology, and functional genomics to discover novel root traits and the underlying genes from a wild related species to improve drought adaptation in cultivated wheat.

  8. Optimizing silicon application to improve salinity tolerance in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity often suppresses the wheat performance. As wheat is designated as silicon (Si accumulator, hence Si application may alleviate the salinity induced damages. With the objective to combat the salinity stress in wheat by Si application (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg L-1 using calcium silicate, an experiment was conducted on two contrasting wheat genotypes (salt sensitive; Auqab-2000 and salt tolerant; SARC-5 in salinized (10 dS m-1 and non-salinized (2 dS m-1 solutions. Plants were harvested 32 days after transplanting and evaluation was done on the basis of different morphological and analytical characters. Silicon supplementation into the solution culture improved wheat growth and K+/Na+ with reduced Na+ and enhanced K+ uptake. Concomitant improvement in shoot growth was observed; nonetheless the root growth remained unaffected by Si application. Better results were obtained with 150 and 200 mg L-1 of Si which were found almost equally effective. It was concluded that SARC-5 is better than Auqab-2000 against salt stress and Si inclusion into the solution medium is beneficial for wheat and can improve the crop growth both under optimal and salt stressful conditions.

  9. Harnessing Diversity in Wheat to Enhance Grain Yield, Climate Resilience, Disease and Insect Pest Resistance and Nutrition Through Conventional and Modern Breeding Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Suchismita; Rutkoski, Jessica E.; Velu, Govindan; Singh, Pawan K.; Crespo-Herrera, Leonardo A.; Guzmán, Carlos; Bhavani, Sridhar; Lan, Caixia; He, Xinyao; Singh, Ravi P.

    2016-01-01

    Current trends in population growth and consumption patterns continue to increase the demand for wheat, a key cereal for global food security. Further, multiple abiotic challenges due to climate change and evolving pathogen and pests pose a major concern for increasing wheat production globally. Triticeae species comprising of primary, secondary, and tertiary gene pools represent a rich source of genetic diversity in wheat. The conventional breeding strategies of direct hybridization, backcrossing and selection have successfully introgressed a number of desirable traits associated with grain yield, adaptation to abiotic stresses, disease resistance, and bio-fortification of wheat varieties. However, it is time consuming to incorporate genes conferring tolerance/resistance to multiple stresses in a single wheat variety by conventional approaches due to limitations in screening methods and the lower probabilities of combining desirable alleles. Efforts on developing innovative breeding strategies, novel tools and utilizing genetic diversity for new genes/alleles are essential to improve productivity, reduce vulnerability to diseases and pests and enhance nutritional quality. New technologies of high-throughput phenotyping, genome sequencing and genomic selection are promising approaches to maximize progeny screening and selection to accelerate the genetic gains in breeding more productive varieties. Use of cisgenic techniques to transfer beneficial alleles and their combinations within related species also offer great promise especially to achieve durable rust resistance. PMID:27458472

  10. Radiation and nitrogen use at the leaf and canopy level by wheat and oilseed rape during the critical period for grain number definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreccer, M.F.; Schapendonk, H.C.M.; Oijen, M. van; Pot, C.S.; Rabbinge, R.

    2000-01-01

    During the critical period for grain number definition, the amount of biomass produced per unit absorbed radiation is more sensitive to nitrogen (N) supply in oilseed rape than in wheat, and reaches a higher value at high N. This response was investigated by combining experimental and modelling work. Oilseed rape and wheat were grown at three levels of N supply, combined with two levels of plant density at high N supply. Canopy photosynthesis and daytime radiation use efficiency (RUE A ) were calculated with a model based on observed N-dependent leaf photosynthesis and observed canopy vertical distribution of light and leaf N. In oilseed rape, RUE A was higher than in wheat and, in contrast to wheat, the sensitivity to canopy leaf N content increased from the start to the end of the critical period. These results were partly explained by the higher leaf photosynthesis in oilseed rape vs wheat. In addition, oilseed rape leaves were increasingly shaded by the inflorescence. Thus, RUE A increased because more leaves were operating at non-saturating light levels. In both species, the vertical distribution of leaf N was close to that optimising canopy photosynthesis. The results are discussed in relation to possibilities for improvement of N productivity in these crops. (author)

  11. Accumulation and conversion of sugars by developing wheat grains. VII. Effect of changes in sieve tube and endosperm cavity sap concentrations on the grain filling rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.B.; Gifford, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The extent to which wheat grain growth is dependent on transport pool solute concentration was investigated by the use of illumination and partial grain removal to vary solute concentrations in the sieve tube and endosperm cavity saps of the wheat ear (Triticum aestivum L.). Short-term grain growth rates were estimated indirectly from the product of phloem area, sieve tube sap concentration, and 32 P translocation velocity. On a per grain basis, calculated rates of mass transport through the peduncle were fairly constant over a substantial range in other transport parameters (i.e. velocity, concentration, phloem area, and grain number). The rates were about 40% higher than expected; this probably reflects some unavoidable bias on faster-moving tracer in the velocity estimates. Sieve tube sap concentration increased in all experiments (by 20 to 64%), with a concomitant decline in velocity (to as low as 8% of the initial value). Endosperm cavity sucrose concentration also increased in all experiments, but cavity sap osmolality and total amino acid concentration remained nearly constant. No evidence was found for an increase in the rate of mass transport per grain through the peduncle in response to the treatments. This apparent unresponsiveness of grain growth rate to increased cavity sap sucrose concentration conflicts with earlier in vitro endosperm studies showing that sucrose uptake increased with increasing external sucrose concentration up to 150 to 200 millimolar

  12. Prospecting plant growth promoting bacteria and cyanobacteria as options for enrichment of macro- and micronutrients in grains in rice–wheat cropping sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Rana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB and cyanobacteria, alone and in combination, was investigated on micronutrient enrichment and yield in rice–wheat sequence, over a period of two years. Analysis of variance (ANOVA in both crops indicated significant differences in soil dehydrogenase activity and micronutrient enrichment in grains (Fe, Zn in rice, and Cu, Mn in wheat. The combined inoculation of Anabaena oscillarioides CR3, Brevundimonas diminuta PR7, and Ochrobactrum anthropi PR10 (T6 significantly increased nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK content and improved rice yield by 21.2%, as compared to the application of recommended dose of NPK fertilizers (T2. The treatment T5 (Providencia sp. PR3 + B. diminuta PR7 + O. anthropi PR10 recorded an enhancement of 13–16% in Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn concentrations, respectively, in rice grains. In wheat, Providencia sp. PW5 (T6 recorded the highest yield (5.23 Mg ha−1 and significantly higher enrichment of Fe and Cu (44–45% in the grains. This study highlighted the promise of combinations of cyanobacteria/bacteria and their synergistic action in biofortification and providing savings of 40–60 kg N ha−1. Future focus needs to be towards integrating such promising environment-friendly and environmentally sustainable options in nutrient management strategies for this cropping sequence.

  13. Non-destructive, high-content analysis of wheat grain traits using X-ray micro computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Hughes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat is one of the most widely grown crop in temperate climates for food and animal feed. In order to meet the demands of the predicted population increase in an ever-changing climate, wheat production needs to dramatically increase. Spike and grain traits are critical determinants of final yield and grain uniformity a commercially desired trait, but their analysis is laborious and often requires destructive harvest. One of the current challenges is to develop an accurate, non-destructive method for spike and grain trait analysis capable of handling large populations. Results In this study we describe the development of a robust method for the accurate extraction and measurement of spike and grain morphometric parameters from images acquired by X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT. The image analysis pipeline developed automatically identifies plant material of interest in μCT images, performs image analysis, and extracts morphometric data. As a proof of principle, this integrated methodology was used to analyse the spikes from a population of wheat plants subjected to high temperatures under two different water regimes. Temperature has a negative effect on spike height and grain number with the middle of the spike being the most affected region. The data also confirmed that increased grain volume was correlated with the decrease in grain number under mild stress. Conclusions Being able to quickly measure plant phenotypes in a non-destructive manner is crucial to advance our understanding of gene function and the effects of the environment. We report on the development of an image analysis pipeline capable of accurately and reliably extracting spike and grain traits from crops without the loss of positional information. This methodology was applied to the analysis of wheat spikes can be readily applied to other economically important crop species.

  14. Wheat grain mechanical vulnerability to mechanical damage in light of the recent agrophysical research[X-radiation]; Podatnosc ziarna pszenicy na uszkodzenia mechaniczne w swietle dotychczasowych badan agrofizycznych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundas, S [Instytut Agrofizyki Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Lublin (Poland)

    1995-07-01

    The paper contains basic information on mechanical damage to wheat grains. The most important causes of mechanical damage and some of its effects in manufacturing are discussed. Grain material included 5 varieties of winter wheat and 2 varieties of spring wheat. Internal mechanical damage was examined by X-ray technique; external damage was examined with the colorimeter method. The results obtained were compared with the estimation results of more important processing features of the grain: gluten quantity and quality and grain hardness. (author)

  15. Impact of humic acid and chemical fertilizer application on growth and grain yield of rainfed wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.U.; Khan, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The high cost of inorganic fertilizer, use of natural fertilizer resources for increasing crop production on sustainable basis has become imperative. Two field experiments were conducted to study the potential of humic acid (HA) as a low-cost natural fertilizer and to determine its effect on the yield of rainfed wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Naseer) at the research farm of Arid Zone Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan during two successive winter seasons, 2007-08 and 2008-09. The treatments consisted of HA alone (3 kg ha/sup -1/ or 1.5 kg ha/sup -1/) and in combination with full (60:40 kg ha/sup -1/) and half (30:20 kg ha/sup -1/) the recommended rates of NP fertilizers. Results showed that in the first growing season (2007-08), the combination of 3 kg ha/sup -1/ HA with half (30:20 kg ha-1) rate of NP produced the highest grain yield (1314 kg ha/sup -1/) and increased the yield by 46.9% over the control. In the second growing season (2008-09), application of 3 kg ha/sup -1/ HA alone produced significantly (P<0.05) higher grain yield (2999.9 kg ha/sup -1/) and increased the yield by 24% over the control and saved 100% cost of the chemical fertilizer. Results suggested that HA applied alone at 3 kg ha/sup -1/ or in combination with half (30:20 kg ha/sup -1/) rate of NP fertilizers appeared to be the most economical rate to obtain the maximum yield of wheat under the rainfed conditions of Dera Ismail Khan. HA has great potential as a low cost natural fertilizer to improve soil fertility on sustainable basis. (author)

  16. Whole-grain rye and wheat affect some markers of gut health without altering the fecal microbiota in healthy overweight adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Iversen, Kia Nøhr

    2017-01-01

    % CI: 0.18, 0.80) and WGR (OR: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.72). Stool frequency increased following WGR but not WGW, compared to RW in weeks 2 (0.4 defecations/d, P = 0.049) and 4 (0.5 defecations/d, P = 0.043), but not in week 6. The WGW and WGR groups did not differ from each other in any of the variables......Background: Whole grains have shown potential for improving gut health, but evidence comparing different whole-grain types is lacking.Objective: We investigated whether whole-grain wheat (WGW) and whole-grain rye (WGR) improve gut health in different ways compared to refined wheat (RW...... tested.Conclusion: Regular consumption of WGR and WGW affected fecal butyrate concentration and gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy overweight adults, supporting the hypothesis that WGR and WGW can be included in the diet equally to maintain gut health. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials...

  17. Mineral composition of durum wheat grain and pasta under increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beleggia, Romina; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Miglietta, Franco; Cattivelli, Luigi; Menga, Valeria; Nigro, Franca; Pecchioni, Nicola; Fares, Clara

    2018-03-01

    The concentrations of 10 minerals were investigated in the grain of 12 durum wheat genotypes grown under free air CO 2 enrichment conditions, and in four of their derived pasta samples, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared to ambient CO 2 (400ppm; AMB), under elevated CO 2 (570ppm; ELE), the micro-element and macro-element contents showed strong and significant decreases in the grain: Mn, -28.3%; Fe, -26.7%; Zn, -21.9%; Mg, -22.7%; Mo, -40.4%; K, -22.4%; and Ca, -19.5%. These variations defined the 12 genotypes as sensitive or non-sensitive to ELE. The pasta samples under AMB and ELE showed decreased mineral contents compared to the grain. Nevertheless, the contributions of the pasta to the recommended daily allowances remained relevant, also for the micro-elements under ELE conditions (range, from 18% of the recommended daily allowance for Zn, to 70% for Mn and Mo). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of water activity and temperature on growth and fumonisin production by Fusarium proliferatum strains on irradiated wheat grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendoya, Eugenia; Monge, María Del Pilar; Chiacchiera, Stella Maris; Farnochi, María Cecilia; Ramirez, María Laura

    2018-02-02

    Wheat is the most important cereal consumed by the Argentine population. In previous studies performed in durum and common wheat grains in this country it has been observed fumonisin contamination as well as high incidence of Fusarium proliferatum. Fumonisins are toxic fungal metabolites, and consumption of fumonisin-contaminated maize has been epidemiologically associated with oesophageal cancer and neural tube defects in some human populations. Using irradiated wheat-grains, the effects of abiotic factors, temperature (15, 25, and 30°C) and water activity (a W ; 0.995, 0.98, 0.96, 0.94, 0.92, and 0.88), on mycelial growth and fumonisin biosynthesis were compared for three F. proliferatum strains isolated from wheat grains in Argentina. Although all isolates showed similar profiles of growth, the fumonisin production profiles were slightly different. Maximum growth rates were obtained at the highest a W (0.995) and 25°C, with growth decreasing as the a W of the medium was reduced. Maximum amounts of total fumonisins (FB 1 , FB 2 and FB 3 ) were produced at 0.995 a W and 15°C for 2 strains, and at 25°C and 0.995 a W for the third one. Fumonisins concentrations varied considerably depending on the a W and temperature interactions assayed. Studied strains showed different fumonisin production profiles. Two-dimensional profiles of a W by temperature interactions were developed from these data to identify areas where conditions indicate a significant risk of fumonisins accumulation on wheat. As a result, temperature and a W conditions that resulted in fumonisins production are those found during wheat grain development (especially milk and dough stages) in the field. This is the first study made using irradiated wheat grains and provides useful baseline data on conditions representing a low or a high risk for fumonisins contamination of wheat grains which is of concern because this cereal is destined mainly for human consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  19. Mycotoxin and fungicide residues in wheat grains from fungicide-treated plants measured by a validated LC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Suzane Rickes; Pazdiora, Paulo Cesar; Dallagnol, Leandro José; Dors, Giniani Carla; Chaves, Fábio Clasen

    2017-04-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an annual crop, cultivated in the winter and spring and susceptible to several pathogens, especially fungi, which are managed with fungicides. It is also one of the most consumed cereals, and can be contaminated by mycotoxins and fungicides. The objective of this study was to validate an analytical method by LC-MS for simultaneous determination of mycotoxins and fungicide residues in wheat grains susceptible to fusarium head blight treated with fungicides, and to evaluate the relationship between fungicide application and mycotoxin production. All parameters of the validated analytical method were within AOAC and ANVISA limits. Deoxynivalenol was the prevalent mycotoxin in wheat grain and epoxiconazole was the fungicide residue found in the highest concentration. All fungicidal treatments induced an increase in AFB2 production when compared to the control (without application). AFB1 and deoxynivalenol, on the contrary, were reduced in all fungicide treatments compared to the control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of Sociocultural Differences in Translating Euphemistic Expressions from English into Arabic in "A Grain of Wheat"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anber, Sameerah Jabbar; Swear, Muna Abdual Hussein

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the sociocultural differences in translating Euphemistic expressions from English into Arabic. Particularly, the study took the novel "A Grain of Wheat" to show the differences of these expressions usage by two translators from different cultures. The study adapts a qualitative approach applied in Leppihalme's…

  1. The freezing of water bonded in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain studied by means protons magnetic relaxation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haranczyk, H.; Jasinski, G.; Strzalka, K.

    1994-01-01

    Some biological aspects of water freezing in the wheat grain have been studied using NMR methods. Measuring of the relaxation times for freezing and liquid water shown absence of T 2 ∼100 μs and T 2 ∼1 ms separated components what pointed for some different way of water bonding

  2. Hybrid breeding in wheat: technologies to improve hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Ryan; Fleury, Delphine; Reif, Jochen C; Garcia, Melissa; Okada, Takashi; Korzun, Viktor; Langridge, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Global food security demands the development and delivery of new technologies to increase and secure cereal production on finite arable land without increasing water and fertilizer use. There are several options for boosting wheat yields, but most offer only small yield increases. Wheat is an inbred plant, and hybrids hold the potential to deliver a major lift in yield and will open a wide range of new breeding opportunities. A series of technological advances are needed as a base for hybrid wheat programmes. These start with major changes in floral development and architecture to separate the sexes and force outcrossing. Male sterility provides the best method to block self-fertilization, and modifying the flower structure will enhance pollen access. The recent explosion in genomic resources and technologies provides new opportunities to overcome these limitations. This review outlines the problems with existing hybrid wheat breeding systems and explores molecular-based technologies that could improve the hybrid production system to reduce hybrid seed production costs, a prerequisite for a commercial hybrid wheat system.

  3. Comparison of wheat or corn dried distillers grains with solubles on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility by feedlot heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, L J; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A; He, M; McKinnon, J J

    2012-04-01

    A 5 × 5 Latin square design trial was conducted to evaluate rumen fermentation and apparent nutrient digestibility in 5 rumen-cannulated heifers (420 ± 6 kg) fed a barley-based finishing diet supplemented with 20 or 40% wheat or corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The composition of the control diet was 88.7% rolled barley grain, 5.5% supplement, and 5.8% barley silage (DM basis). Increasing the quantity of corn DDGS in the ration resulted in a quadratic decrease in DMI (P = 0.04) and OM intake (P = 0.05). Rumen pH, pH duration, and area under rumen pH thresholds of 5.8 or 5.5 were not affected (P > 0.05) by treatment. Inclusion of wheat DDGS resulted in a quadratic increase (P = 0.05) in pH area below the cutoff value of 5.2, with the most pronounced effect at 20% inclusion. Wheat DDGS linearly increased (P = 0.01) rumen NH(3)-N concentrations. Increasing the inclusion rate of wheat and corn DDGS resulted in quadratic (P = 0.05) and linear (P = 0.04) decreases in rumen propionate, whereas butyrate increased quadratically (P content of the diet. Feeding both wheat and corn DDGS linearly increased (P = 0.01) the excretion of N and P. In summary, replacement of barley grain with up to 40% wheat or corn DDGS did not mitigate rumen pH conditions associated with mild to moderate acidosis in heifers fed a barley-based finishing diet. Supplementing corn DDGS increased nutrient digestibility of all nutrients and, as a result, led to greater DE content. Supplementation of wheat DDGS reduced DM and OM digestibility values, with no effect on DE content. Increased N and P excretion by heifers fed DDGS at 20 or 40% of dietary DM presents a challenge for cattle feeders with respect to nutrient management.

  4. Self-Organized Crystallization Patterns from Evaporating Droplets of Common Wheat Grain Leakages as a Potential Tool for Quality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Olga Kokornaczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the evaporation-induced pattern formation in droplets of common wheat kernel leakages prepared out of ancient and modern wheat cultivars as a possible tool for wheat quality analysis. The experiments showed that the substances which passed into the water during the soaking of the kernels created crystalline structures with different degrees of complexity while the droplets were evaporating. The forms ranged from spots and simple structures with single ramifications, through dendrites, up to highly organized hexagonal shapes and fractal-like structures. The patterns were observed and photographed using dark field microscopy in small magnifications. The evaluation of the patterns was performed both visually and by means of the fractal dimension analysis. From the results, it can be inferred that the wheat cultivars differed in their pattern-forming capacities. Two of the analyzed wheat cultivars showed poor pattern formation, whereas another two created well-formed and complex patterns. Additionally, the wheat cultivars were analyzed for their vigor by means of the germination test and measurement of the electrical conductivity of the grain leakages. The results showed that the more vigorous cultivars also created more complex patterns, whereas the weaker cultivars created predominantly poor forms. This observation suggests a correlation between the wheat seed quality and droplet evaporation patterns.

  5. Effects of shading on morphology, physiology and grain yield of winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Huawei; Jiang, Dong; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    In a field experiment, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Yangmai 158 (YM 158, shading tolerant) and Yangmai 11 (YM 11, shading-sensitive) were subjected to shading between jointing and maturity. Three shading treatments were applied, i.e. 92% (S1), 85% (S2) and 77% (S3) of full...... the shading treatments applied, leaf area index, length of the peduncle internode, area of the upper leaves and content of pigments increased, which favoured efficient light capture. Shading modified light quality in the canopy as indicated by increases of diffuse- and blue light fractions and a reduction...... the flag leaf, as in most cases Pn of the third and the penultimate leaves were found to increase under shading treatments. Shading increased the redistribution of dry matter from vegetative organs into grains. The responses of the morphological and physiological traits to shading are discussed in relation...

  6. Quality and nutritional properties of pasta products enriched with immature wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Erba, Daniela; Marti, Alessandra; Cecchini, Cristina; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia

    2013-08-01

    In this study, nutritional and sensory properties of pasta enriched with 30% immature wheat grain (IWG), a natural source of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), are evaluated. Colour and cooking quality, nutritional value and glycaemic index (GI) of pasta were assessed in comparison with commercially enriched inulin and 100% wholewheat pastas. IWG integration induced deep changes in colour, without negatively affecting the cooking quality of pasta, and promoted nutritional quality by increasing the fibre content; IWG pasta presented a remarkable leaching of FOS in cooking water, thus providing only 1 g of FOS per serving. IWG pastas showed a GI of 67 (dried) and 79 (fresh), not significantly different from commercial pasta products. IWG can be considered an interesting ingredient to obtain functional products 'naturally enriched' in FOS and fibre. Results about FOS leaching suggest that, in dealing with functional effects, the actual prebiotic content should be carefully considered on food 'as eaten'.

  7. Physiological and proteome studies of responses to heat stress during grain filling in contrasting wheat cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Dinler, Burcu Seckin; Vignjevic, Marija

    2015-01-01

    compared to sensitive cultivars under heat stress. The tolerant cv. '810' and the sensitive cv. '1039' were selected for further proteome analysis of leaves. Proteins related to photosynthesis, glycolysis, stress defence, heat shock and ATP production were differently expressed in leaves of the tolerant...... and sensitive cultivar under heat stress in relation to the corresponding control. The abundance of proteins related to signal transduction, heat shock, photosynthesis, and antioxidants increased, while the abundance of proteins related to nitrogen metabolism decreased in the tolerant cv. '810' under heat......Experiments to explore physiological and biochemical differences of the effects of heat stress in ten wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars have been performed. Based on the response of photosynthesis rates, cell membrane lipid peroxide concentrations and grain yield to heat, six cultivars were...

  8. Root growth, soil water variation, and grain yield response of winter wheat to supplemental irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Man

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China. Thus, we investigated the effect of supplemental irrigation (SI on the root growth, soil water variation, and grain yield of winter wheat in this region by measuring the moisture content in different soil layers. Prior to SI, the soil water content (SWC at given soil depths was monitored to calculate amount of irritation water that can rehydrate the soil to target SWC. The SWC before SI was monitored to depths of 20, 40, and 60 cm in treatments of W20, W40, and W60, respectively. Rainfed treatment with no irrigation as the control (W0. The mean root weight density (RWD, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride reduction activity (TTC reduction activity, soluble protein (SP concentrations as well as catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities in W40 and W60 treatments were significantly higher than those in W20. The RWD in 60–100 cm soil layers and the root activity, SP concentrations, CAT and SOD activities in 40–60 cm soil layers in W40 treatment were significantly higher than those in W20 and W60. W40 treatment is characterized by higher SWC in the upper soil layers but lower SWC in the 60–100-cm soil layers during grain filling. The soil water consumption (SWU in the 60–100 cm soil layers from anthesis after SI to maturity was the highest in W40. The grain yield, water use efficiency (WUE, and irrigation water productivity were the highest in W40, with corresponding mean values of 9169 kg ha−1, 20.8 kg ha−1 mm−1, and 35.5 kg ha−1 mm−1. The RWD, root activities, SP concentrations, CAT and SOD activities, and SWU were strongly positively correlated with grain yield and WUE. Therefore, the optimum soil layer for SI of winter wheat after jointing is 0–40 cm.

  9. Differential representation of albumins and globulins during grain development in durum wheat and its possible functional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Simona; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Vitale, Monica; Mazzeo, Fiorella; Mamone, Gianfranco; Di Stasio, Luigia; Maccaferri, Marco; Curci, Pasquale Luca; Sonnante, Gabriella; Zambrano, Nicola; Scaloni, Andrea

    2017-06-06

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.) is an economically important crop used for the production of semolina, which is the basis of pasta and other food products. Its grains provide proteins and starch for human consumption. Grain development is a key process in wheat physiology; it is highly affected by a number of enzymes that control the metabolic processes governing accumulation of starch and storage proteins and ultimately grain weight. Most of these enzymes are present in the albumin/globulin grain fraction, which represents about a quarter of total seed proteins. With the aim to describe the dynamic profile of the albumin/globulin fraction during durum wheat grain development, we performed a proteomic analysis of this subproteome using a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE)-based approach and compared six developmental stages. A total of 285 differentially (237 over- and 48 under-) represented spots was identified by nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS, which were associated with 217 non-redundant Triticum sequence entries. Quantitative protein dynamics demonstrated that carbon metabolism, energy, protein destination/storage, disease/defense and cell growth/division functional categories were highly affected during grain development, concomitantly with progressive grain size increase and starch/protein reserve accumulation. Bioinformatic interaction prediction revealed a complex network of differentially represented proteins mainly centered at enzymes involved in carbon and protein metabolism. A description of 18 proteins associated with wheat flour human allergies was also obtained; these components showed augmented levels at the last developmental stages. By providing a comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis of durum wheat grain development, yield and quality formation, this study provides the foundation and reveals potential biomarkers for further investigations of durum wheat breeding and semolina quality. A 2D

  10. Induced mutations for improvement of grain legume production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    After an introduction on plant science research in Malaysia concerning crop breeding, 22 research reports are presented, 17 of which are analyzed individually and constitute separate INIS references. The remaining 5 were essentially concerned with only future applications of nuclear technology: a paper by V.L. Chopra (India) on mutation breeding for partial disease resistance of wheat; by H.H. Hoppe (Federal Republic of Germany) on mechanisms of resistance against Uromyces in Phaseolus vulgaris; by I.S. Santos (Philippines) on induction evaluation and utilization of beneficial mutations in the winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), where gamma rays and fast neutrons will be used as well as other mutagens; by F. Saccardo (Italy) on breeding for disease resistance in peas and other vegetables (short communication only); and by E. Balazs and I. Sziraki (Hungary) on in vitro studies on virus resistance of legumes, including virus-host interaction studies involving gamma irradiation (short communication only). The conclusions and recommendations of the Regional Seminar on Induced Mutations for the Improvement of Grain Legumes in S.E. Asia 1975 (IAEA-203, 1977) were considered and generally endorsed, with some clarification. Conclusions and recommendations are given on p.121-126

  11. Degradation of bifenthrin and pirimiphos-methyl residues in stored wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Bortolotto, Tiago; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-07-15

    Pesticide insecticides are used on wheat grains in storage units but their efficiency is hindered by persistent residues in the grains. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of ozone (O3) gas treatment on the degradation of residual bifenthrin and pirimiphos-methyl insecticides commonly used in storage wheat grains, as well as to evaluate degradation of their by-products. The residues of bifenthrin decreased after 180 min of exposure in a concentration of 60 μmol/mol (a 37.5 ± 7.4% reduction) with 20% moisture content and 0.9 water activity. On the other hand, under the same experimental conditions, the pirimiphos-methyl residues significantly decreased in the wheat grains (71.1 ± 8.6%) after 30 min of exposure. After O3 gas treatment, three by-products of pirimiphos-methyl (m/z=306.1) containing different molecular mass to charge ratios (m/z=278.1, 301.1 and 319.2) were identified by LC-MS. O3 is a strong oxidizer that has shown the potential to reduce pesticide residues in stored grain in order to ensure food quality and safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physicochemical composition and glycemic index of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Akanbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study entails quality assessment of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat. Quality protein maize and wheat were processed into flours and mixed at various ratios for bread production. The proximate compositions, physical properties, glycemic response, functional and sensory properties of the samples were evaluated using standard methods. The result showed no significant difference (p<0.05 in the proximate composition parameters of the bread samples. The loaf height (2.50 - 3.95 cm, volume (291.00 - 415.00 cm3 and specific volume(1.72 - 2.42 cm3/g decreased significantly with increasing level of quality protein maize, however, loaf length was not affected by the substitution of quality protein maize. The result of the functional properties showed that final viscosity, water absorption and swelling capacity increased with increasing level of quality protein maize. The result of the glycemic response showed that the inclusion of quality protein maize resulted in decline in the blood glucose content (glycemic index of the products. The bread samples were generally acceptable however; bread with 100% wheat was the most preferred. The result of the sensory properties showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05 in the texture and taste of 100% wheat bread and the other samples. The study concluded that substitution of quality protein maize with wheat produced acceptable whole grain loaves that have positive effect on the reduction of blood glucose level.

  13. Quality of grain and flour of foreign bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. under the conditions of south Dobrudzha region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chamurliyski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute One of the main directions of the breeding programs in common winter wheat, besides increasing productivity, is developing of cultivars with excellent baking properties. An important prerequisite for this is the involvement of new gene plasma of variable origin, which is adequate to the growing conditions and the desired breeding direction. The aim of investigation is study of some main properties related to the grain quality and the baking properties of bread wheat accessions of foreign origin under the conditions of the South Dobrudzha region. Twenty-five foreign bread wheat cultivars of various origins were investigated for a three year period. Cultivars Aglika, Enola, Pryaspa and Yantur were used as standards. Some indices related to the quality of grain and flour were analyzed at the Bread Making Laboratory of (DAI. The expression of the following parameters was followed: test weigh, % of protein, sedimentation, wet gluten yield, softening degree, pharinographic value, bread volume, and the quality index (QI was calculated. The cultivars, which demonstrated high grain quality, were the Romanian Faur, Moldovan Dobropolka, American Wahoo and the Ukrainian Zmina. Averaged for the three years, highest variation was found for the index pharinographic value. On the whole, the materials with origin from Romania, Ukraine and USA were characterized with high values of the quality indices. Cultivars Faur and Zmina can be successfully included in the breeding program of DAI for development of strong wheat varieties

  14. Effects of Whole Grain Wheat Bread on Visceral Fat Obesity in Japanese Subjects: A Randomized Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yosuke; Nozaki, Satomi; Makita, Miki; Yokozuka, Shoji; Fukudome, Shin-Ichi; Yanagisawa, Takashi; Aoe, Seiichiro

    2018-04-18

    Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and has become increasingly common in Japan. Epidemiological studies show inverse associations between intake of whole wheat grains and metabolic syndrome, but few dietary intervention trials have investigated the effect of whole wheat grain consumption. It was investigated whether a diet in which refined wheat bread (RW diet) was substituted by whole grain wheat bread (WW diet) would reduce visceral fat obesity in Japanese subjects. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study was conducted in 50 Japanese subjects with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 23 kg/m 2 . Subjects were randomly assigned WW (WW group) or RW diets (RW group) for 12 weeks. Blood samples and computed tomography scans were obtained every 6th week. The WW group showed decrease (-4 cm 2 ) in visceral fat area (VFA) (p < 0.05), whereas the RW group showed no significant changes. These time-dependent changes were significantly different between the groups. WW diet led to significant and safe reductions in VFA in subjects with BMI ≥ 23 kg/m 2 . WW diet may contribute to preventing visceral fat obesity.

  15. Phenotyping of field-grown wheat in the UK highlights contribution of light response of photosynthesis and flag leaf longevity to grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Andralojc, P John; Scales, Joanna C; Driever, Steven M; Mead, Andrew; Lawson, Tracy; Raines, Christine A; Parry, Martin A J

    2017-06-15

    Improving photosynthesis is a major target for increasing crop yields and ensuring food security. Phenotyping of photosynthesis in the field is critical to understand the limits to crop performance in agricultural settings. Yet, detailed phenotyping of photosynthetic traits is relatively scarce in field-grown wheat, with previous studies focusing on narrow germplasm selections. Flag leaf photosynthetic traits, crop development, and yield traits were compared in 64 field-grown wheat cultivars in the UK. Pre-anthesis and post-anthesis photosynthetic traits correlated significantly and positively with grain yield and harvest index (HI). These traits included net CO2 assimilation measured at ambient CO2 concentrations and a range of photosynthetic photon flux densities, and traits associated with the light response of photosynthesis. In most cultivars, photosynthesis decreased post-anthesis compared with pre-anthesis, and this was associated with decreased Rubisco activity and abundance. Heritability of photosynthetic traits suggests that phenotypic variation can be used to inform breeding programmes. Specific cultivars were identified with traits relevant to breeding for increased crop yields in the UK: pre-anthesis photosynthesis, post-anthesis photosynthesis, light response of photosynthesis, and Rubisco amounts. The results indicate that flag leaf longevity and operating photosynthetic activity in the canopy can be further exploited to maximize grain filling in UK bread wheat. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Effects of Post-Anthesis Drought and Waterlogging on Accumulation of High-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunits and Glutenin Macropolymers Content in Wheat Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, D; Yue, H; Wollenweber, B

    2009-01-01

    Drought and flooding during grain filling have become major constraints to wheat quality and yield. The impacts of water deficits and waterlogging during the grain filling on contents of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and of glutenin macropolymers (GMP) in grains of the winter w...

  17. Seed-borne mycoflora of local and improved wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three varieties each of local and improved wheat (Triticum sativum) cultivars were investigated for seed-borne pathogenic mycoflora using the plate technique and laid on completely randomized design. A total 99 fungal isolate grouped into five fungal species namely; Rhizopus nigricans, Mucor spp, Penillium jenseni, ...

  18. Improving detection probabilities for pests in stored grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmouttie, David; Kiermeier, Andreas; Hamilton, Grant

    2010-12-01

    The presence of insects in stored grain is a significant problem for grain farmers, bulk grain handlers and distributors worldwide. Inspection of bulk grain commodities is essential to detect pests and thereby to reduce the risk of their presence in exported goods. It has been well documented that insect pests cluster in response to factors such as microclimatic conditions within bulk grain. Statistical sampling methodologies for grain, however, have typically considered pests and pathogens to be homogeneously distributed throughout grain commodities. In this paper, a sampling methodology is demonstrated that accounts for the heterogeneous distribution of insects in bulk grain. It is shown that failure to account for the heterogeneous distribution of pests may lead to overestimates of the capacity for a sampling programme to detect insects in bulk grain. The results indicate the importance of the proportion of grain that is infested in addition to the density of pests within the infested grain. It is also demonstrated that the probability of detecting pests in bulk grain increases as the number of subsamples increases, even when the total volume or mass of grain sampled remains constant. This study underlines the importance of considering an appropriate biological model when developing sampling methodologies for insect pests. Accounting for a heterogeneous distribution of pests leads to a considerable improvement in the detection of pests over traditional sampling models. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Effect of Drought Stress at Pre and Post-anthesis on Dry Matter Accumulation of Grains in Irrigated Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Elyasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating assimilate contribution and grain filling pattern in winter wheat is importance under drought stress condition. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between drought stress on grain filling and yield of 4 cultivars including MV17 (dwarf, Alvand, Shahryar (semi-dwarf and Toos (tall. Experimental design was randomized complete block with three replications. Drought stress assigned to main plots and cultivars to sub plots. Growth curve sampling started at 7 days after anthesis with 4 days interval. In pre-anthesis drought stress Alvand produced highest yield, while it was 29.14% less than control treatment. The yield of Toos cultivar was lowest at pre-anthesis drought stress. Rate of grain filling of Toos cultivar did not change at pre-anthesis drought stress. Drought stress treatment at post-anthesis decreased rate of grain filling in all cultivars as compared to control, but it was significant only Toos c.v. In pre-anthesis drought stress grain filling duration increased in Alvand but decreased in Toos. Alvand with higher rate of grain filling produced highest grain yield (3850 kg/ha. It can be concluded that, drought stress decreases grain filling duration and rate of grain filling.

  20. Maximizing the concentrations of wheat grain fructans in bread by exploring strategies to prevent their yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae )-mediated degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspreet, Joran; Hemdane, Sami; Dornez, Emmie; Cuyvers, Sven; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2013-02-13

    The degradation of endogenous wheat grain fructans, oligosaccharides with possible health-promoting potential, during wheat whole meal bread making was investigated, and several strategies to prevent their degradation were evaluated. Up to 78.4 ± 5.2% of the fructans initially present in wheat whole meal were degraded during bread making by the action of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) invertase. The addition of sucrose to dough delayed fructan degradation but had no effect on final fructan concentrations. However, yeast growth conditions and yeast genotype did have a clear impact. A 3-fold reduction of fructan degradation could be achieved when the commercial bread yeast strain was replaced by yeast strains with lower sucrose degradation activity. Finally, fructan degradation during bread making could be prevented completely by the use of a yeast strain lacking invertase. These results show that the nutritional profile of bread can be enhanced through appropriate yeast technology.

  1. Grain yield losses in yellow-rusted durum wheat estimated using digital and conventional parameters under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Vergara-Diaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The biotrophic fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is the causal agent of the yellow rust in wheat. Between the years 2010–2013 a new strain of this pathogen (Warrior/Ambition, against which the present cultivated wheat varieties have no resistance, appeared and spread rapidly. It threatens cereal production in most of Europe. The search for sources of resistance to this strain is proposed as the most efficient and safe solution to ensure high grain production. This will be helped by the development of high performance and low cost techniques for field phenotyping. In this study we analyzed vegetation indices in the Red, Green, Blue (RGB images of crop canopies under field conditions. We evaluated their accuracy in predicting grain yield and assessing disease severity in comparison to other field measurements including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, leaf chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, and canopy temperature. We also discuss yield components and agronomic parameters in relation to grain yield and disease severity. RGB-based indices proved to be accurate predictors of grain yield and grain yield losses associated with yellow rust (R2 = 0.581 and R2 = 0.536, respectively, far surpassing the predictive ability of NDVI (R2 = 0.118 and R2 = 0.128, respectively. In comparison to potential yield, we found the presence of disease to be correlated with reductions in the number of grains per spike, grains per square meter, kernel weight and harvest index. Grain yield losses in the presence of yellow rust were also greater in later heading varieties. The combination of RGB-based indices and days to heading together explained 70.9% of the variability in grain yield and 62.7% of the yield losses.

  2. An Optimized Protocol for DNA Extraction from Wheat Seeds and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP to Detect Fusarium graminearum Contamination of Wheat Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Moslem

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, and efficient method for isolating genomic DNA from germinated seeds of wheat that is free from polysaccharides and polyphenols is reported. DNA was extracted, treated with RNase, measured and tested for completeness using agarose gel electrophoresis. DNA purification from wheat grains yielded abundant, amplifiable DNA with yields typically between 100 and 200 ng DNA/mg. The effectiveness and reliability of the method was tested by assessing quantity and quality of the isolated DNA using three PCR-based markers. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs were used to assess the genetic diversity between different wheat varieties. Specific PCR primer pair Tox5-1/Tox5-2 and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP procedure were used to detect genomic DNA of Fusarium graminearum in contaminated wheat seeds. In this method there is no need to use liquid nitrogen for crushing germinated seedlings. The protocol takes approximately one hour to prepare high quality DNA. In combination with the LAMP assay it is a fast and cost-effective alternative to traditional diagnostic methods for the early detection of toxigenic fusaria in cereals.

  3. An optimized protocol for DNA extraction from wheat seeds and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) to detect Fusarium graminearum contamination of wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elsalam, Kamel; Bahkali, Ali; Moslem, Mohamed; Amin, Osama E; Niessen, Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and efficient method for isolating genomic DNA from germinated seeds of wheat that is free from polysaccharides and polyphenols is reported. DNA was extracted, treated with RNase, measured and tested for completeness using agarose gel electrophoresis. DNA purification from wheat grains yielded abundant, amplifiable DNA with yields typically between 100 and 200 ng DNA/mg. The effectiveness and reliability of the method was tested by assessing quantity and quality of the isolated DNA using three PCR-based markers. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) were used to assess the genetic diversity between different wheat varieties. Specific PCR primer pair Tox5-1/Tox5-2 and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) procedure were used to detect genomic DNA of Fusarium graminearum in contaminated wheat seeds. In this method there is no need to use liquid nitrogen for crushing germinated seedlings. The protocol takes approximately one hour to prepare high quality DNA. In combination with the LAMP assay it is a fast and cost-effective alternative to traditional diagnostic methods for the early detection of toxigenic fusaria in cereals.

  4. Bioprocessing of wheat bran improves in vitro bioaccessibility and colonic metabolism of phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.; Selinheimo, E.; Havenaar, R.; Aura, A.-M.; Mattila, I.; Lehtinen, P.; Bast, A.; Poutanen, K.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is the most abundant phenolic compound in wheat grain, mainly located in the bran. However, its bioaccessibility from the bran matrix is extremely low. Different bioprocessing techniques involving fermentation or enzymatic and fermentation treatments of wheat bran were developed

  5. Economic Evaluation of Improved Irrigated Bread Wheat Varieties with National and International Origins and Its Impacts on Transfer of Supply Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hormoz asadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agricultural research is important and one of the determinant factors of development of technologies in agricultural sector. Among agricultural research disciplines, breeding programs, especially, wheat breeding programs are one of the applied approaches in improving of production and food security. Based on a study by Byerlee & Traxler (1995, economic benefits and Internal Rate of Return (IRR for Impact of International Wheat Improvement (for all breeding programs were estimated US$3.0 billion per year with internal rate of 53%, and economic benefits for Impact of International Wheat Improvement (Attributed to IWIN was estimated US$1.5 billion per year during 1966-90. Materials and methods The main objectives of this research were to determine shift of supply function of variety and impacts of breeding wheat varieties on reduction costs, and determination of economic return of released irrigated bread wheat in breeding program for the period of 1991-2000. Wheat varieties included; 23 varieties of released irrigated bread wheat by wheat breeding program of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII and Provincial Agricultural Research Centers. Ex-ante and Ex-post methods were used in this study. Measuring criteria for these methods were; quantity of shift in supply function, cost-benefit analysis and internal rate of return of varieties. For estimation of reduction costs and shift of supply function of varieties in breeding program were calculated following Brennan et al. (2002: Where: Cvb: Cost reduction due to breeding program, TCh: Cost production per ha, Yv (without: yield of check variety in breeding plots, Yv (with: yield of new variety in breeding plots, PSS: % supply shift in breeding program and Pw: price of wheat grain per kg For assessing economic criteria, Net Present Value (NPV, Cost-Benefit Analysis and Internal Rate of Return (IRR were used: Following Brennan et al (2002, gross benefit of irrigated bread wheat

  6. Silencing of ABCC13 transporter in wheat reveals its involvement in grain development, phytic acid accumulation and lateral root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Kaushal Kumar; Alok, Anshu; Kumar, Anil; Kaur, Jagdeep; Tiwari, Siddharth; Pandey, Ajay Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Low phytic acid is a trait desired in cereal crops and can be achieved by manipulating the genes involved either in its biosynthesis or its transport in the vacuoles. Previously, we have demonstrated that the wheat TaABCC13 protein is a functional transporter, primarily involved in heavy metal tolerance, and a probable candidate gene to achieve low phytate wheat. In the current study, RNA silencing was used to knockdown the expression of TaABCC13 in order to evaluate its functional importance in wheat. Transgenic plants with significantly reduced TaABCC13 transcripts in either seeds or roots were selected for further studies. Homozygous RNAi lines K1B4 and K4G7 exhibited 34-22% reduction of the phytic acid content in the mature grains (T4 seeds). These transgenic lines were defective for spike development, as characterized by reduced grain filling and numbers of spikelets. The seeds of transgenic wheat had delayed germination, but the viability of the seedlings was unaffected. Interestingly, early emergence of lateral roots was observed in TaABCC13-silenced lines as compared to non-transgenic lines. In addition, these lines also had defects in metal uptake and development of lateral roots in the presence of cadmium stress. Our results suggest roles of TaABCC13 in lateral root initiation and enhanced sensitivity towards heavy metals. Taken together, these data demonstrate that wheat ABCC13 is functionally important for grain development and plays an important role during detoxification of heavy metals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  8. The effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  9. Registration of 'Bolles' hard red spring wheat with high grain protein concentration and superior baking quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hard red spring wheat market class in the U.S. commands the highest prices on the worldwide wheat markets because of its high protein content, strong gluten, and good baking properties. ‘Bolles’ (PI 678430), a hard red spring wheat cultivar, was released by the University of Minnesota Agricultu...

  10. Microbiological Characterization of Wet Wheat Distillers' Grain, with Focus on Isolation of Lactobacilli with Potential as Probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, C.; Jonsson, H.; Lindberg, J. E.; Roos, S.

    2004-01-01

    Wet wheat distillers' grain (WWDG), a residue from ethanol fermentation, was examined from a microbiological perspective. After storage, WWDG was characterized by a high content of lactobacilli, nondetectable levels of other bacteria, occasional occurrence of yeasts, and a pH of about 3.6 and contained a mixture of lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol. The composition of lactobacilli in WWDG was simple, including primarily the species Lactobacillus amylolyticus, Lactobacillus panis, and Lact...

  11. Assessment of adaptability and stability of grain yield in bread wheat genotypes under different sowing times in Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Hussain, M.; Ali, M.A.; Subhani, G.M.; Munir, M.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty advanced lines/genotypes of wheat including two check varieties were sown under two different sowing times through out the Punjab province at 18 different locations with diverse environments to study their stability and adaptability. Normal sowing was done in second week of November 2007 while the delayed sowing was completed during second week of December 2007 during crop season 2007-08. The pooled analysis of variance showed significant differences among environments and genotypes for grain yield demonstrating the presence of considerable variations (p<0.01) among genotypes as well as diversity of growing environments at various locations for both normal and late sown wheat crops. The highest average grain yield was obtained at Jalandar Seed Farm, Arifwala and Pak. German Farm, Multan for normal and delayed sown crops, respectively. Most of the locations emerged as high yielding in normal sowing compared to late sown crop. Dendrograms of 18 locations based on the average yield of 20 wheat genotypes grown under normal and late sown crop revealed two main clusters. Under both normal and late sowing, none of the varieties exceeded the check Seher-2006, however, the check was followed by the advanced lines V-04022 and V-05066 for normal sown crop and Shafaq-2006, V-05066 and V-04022 under delayed sowing. All the genotypes revealed decline in grain yield for late sown wheat crop. The analysis of stability based on mean grain yield, regression coefficient and deviation from regression advocated that the cultivars V-05066 and V-03BT007 were most stable and adapted to diverse environmental conditions of Punjab. These cultivars revealed unit regression and non-significant deviations from regression. The check variety Seher-2006 produced maximum yield for both sowing times that suggested its consistent and stable performance across the environments. (author)

  12. The effect of the Tom Thumb dwarfing gene on grain size and grain number of wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, M.D.; Flintham, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Tom Thumb dwarfing gene, Rht3, like the related genes Rht1 and Rht2 from Norin 10, has pleiotropic effects on individual ear yields, and grain protein concentrations. An experiment was conducted in which tiller number per plant and grain number per spike were restricted to ascertain whether reduced grain size and protein content are primary or secondary competitive effects in near-isogenic lines. The potential for grain growth was shown to be identical in Rht3 and rht genotypes when grain set was restricted, indicating that the primary effect of the gene is to increase spikelet fertility. Nitrogen accumulation within the grain was also affected by inter-grain competition but decreased nitrogen yields per plant indicated that reduced protein levels are, in part, a primary effect of the gene. Analysis of individual grain yields within Rht3 and rht spikes showed that the gene affected developmental 'dominance' relationships within the spike. (author)

  13. Seed priming and transgenerational drought memory improves tolerance against salt stress in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Tahira; Farooq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Riaz; Zohaib, Ali; Wahid, Abdul

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of seed priming following terminal drought on tolerance against salt stress in bread wheat. Drought was imposed in field sown wheat at reproductive stage (BBCH growth stage 49) and was maintained till physiological maturity (BBCH growth stage 83). Seeds of bread wheat, collected from crop raised under terminal drought and/or well-watered conditions, were subjected to hydropriming and osmopriming (with 1.5% CaCl 2 ) and were sown in soil-filled pots. After stand establishment, salt stress treatments viz. 10 mM NaCl (control) and 100 mM NaCl were imposed. Seed from terminal drought stressed source had less fat (5%), and more fibers (11%), proteins (22%) and total soluble phenolics (514%) than well-watered seed source. Salt stress reduced the plant growth, perturbed water relations and decreased yield. However, an increase in osmolytes accumulation (4-18%), malondialdehyde (MDA) (27-35%) and tissue Na + contents (149-332%) was observed under salt stress. The seeds collected from drought stressed crop had better tolerance against salt stress as indicated by better yield (28%), improved water relations (3-18%), osmolytes accumulation (21-33%), and less MDA (8%) and Na contents (35%) than progeny of well-watered crop. Seed priming, osmopriming in particular, further improved the tolerance against salt stress through improvement in leaf area, water relations, leaf proline, glycine betaine and grain yield while lowering MDA and Na + contents. In conclusion, changed seed composition during terminal drought and seed priming improved the salt tolerance in wheat by modulating the water relations, osmolytes accumulation and lipid peroxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Unravelling mycorrhiza-induced wheat susceptibility to the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amma L.; Wellham, Peter A. D.; Aradottir, Gudbjorg I.; Gange, Alan C.

    2017-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are root symbionts that can increase or decrease aphid growth rates and reproduction, but the reason by which this happens is unknown. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of this interaction, we examined the effect of AM fungi on the English Grain aphid (Sitobion avenae) development, reproduction, attraction, settlement and feeding behaviour on two naturally susceptible varieties Triticum aestivum (L.) variety Solstice and T. monococcum MDR037, and two naturally resistant lines, T. monococcum MDR045 and MDR049. Mycorrhizal colonisation increased the attractiveness of T. aestivum var. Solstice to aphids, but there was no effect on aphid development on this variety. Using the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) technique, we found that mycorrhizal colonisation increased aphid phloem feeding on T. monococcum MDR037 and MDR045, colonisation also increased growth rate and reproductive success of S. avenae on these varieties. Mycorrhizas increased vascular bundle size, demonstrating that these fungi can influence plant anatomy. We discuss if and how this could be related to an enhanced success rate in phloem feeding in two varieties. Overall, we present and discuss how mycorrhizal fungi can affect the feeding behaviour of S. avenae in wheat, inducing susceptibility in a resistant variety.

  15. Use of electrophoretic analysis of grain proteins in the identification of wheat radiomutant ST 7750

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasek, A.; Kubanek, J.; Hanis, M.; Cerny, J.

    1977-01-01

    For a more precise comparison of the protein complexes of the grain of the 'Jubilar' cv. and of its radiomutant ST 7750, the methods of the electrophoresis in starch gel in various buffer systems and of disc electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel were used for the study of anodal isoperoxidases. A determination was made of the total protein content, of the basic protein fractions, and of the quantitative proportion of amino acids. Basic qualitative correspondence of the albumin-globulin and gliadin spectrum of the examined variants was found and only in some zones of both spectra certain differences were observed in the quantitative content which may of course, indicate genotypic differentiation of the mutant SF 7750 and of the starting 'Jubilar' cv. Analogous findings were confirmed also by the results of isoperoxidases. Complementary analyses of the protein fractions confirmed the correspondence of the content of albumins, globulins, and gliadins of the investigated variants. Differences were found in the content of glutelin fractions and of insoluble residue. The ascertained changes were confirmed by amino acid analysis where higher methionine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine levels were found in the ST 7750 mutant. The results obtained have shown that especially the analysis of gliadin spectra by electrophoresis in starch gel is a suitable method of differentiating and unifying wheat genotypes as it reveals the differences between the initial and the mutated genotype. (author)

  16. Efficient conversion of pretreated brewer's spent grain and wheat bran by submerged cultivation of Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Niklas; Schabronath, Christoph; Schembecker, Gerhard; Merz, Juliane

    2016-12-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG) and wheat bran (WB) are industrial byproducts that accumulate in millions of tons per year and are typically applied as animal feed. Since both byproducts show a great potential as substrates for fermentation, the approach developed in this study consists of utilizing these lignocellulosic byproducts for biomass production of the medicinal fungus Hericium erinaceus through submerged cultivation. To increase the biological efficiency of the bioconversion, acidic pretreatment was applied yielding a bioconversion of 38.6% for pretreated BSG and 34.8% for pretreated WB. This study shows that the complete degradation of (hemi)cellulose into monosaccharides was not required for an efficient bioconversion. The produced fungal biomass was applied in a second fermentation step to induce the secondary metabolite erinacine C production. Thus, biomass was produced as a functional food ingredient with erinacine C contents of 174.8mg/g for BSG and 99.3mg/g for WB based bioconversions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Grain Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Extremely-Late Sown Winter Wheat Cultivars under Two Irrigation Regimes in the North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    Full Text Available Wheat production is threatened by water shortages and groundwater over-draft in the North China Plain (NCP. In recent years, winter wheat has been increasingly sown extremely late in early to mid-November after harvesting cotton or pepper. To improve water use efficiency (WUE and guide the extremely late sowing practices, a 3-year field experiment was conducted under two irrigation regimes (W1, one-irrigation, 75 mm at jointing; W2, two-irrigation, 75 mm at jointing and 75 mm at anthesis in 3 cultivars differing in spike size (HS4399, small spike; JM22, medium spike; WM8, large spike. Wheat was sown in early to mid-November at a high seeding rate of 800-850 seeds m(-2. Average yields of 7.42 t ha(-1 and WUE of 1.84 kg m(-3 were achieved with an average seasonal evapotranspiration (ET of 404 mm. Compared with W2, wheat under W1 did not have yield penalty in 2 of 3 years, and had 7.9% lower seasonal ET and 7.5% higher WUE. The higher WUE and stable yield under W1 was associated with higher 1000-grain weight (TGW and harvest index (HI. Among the 3 cultivars, JM22 had 5.9%-8.9% higher yield and 4.2%-9.3% higher WUE than WM8 and HS4399. The higher yield in JM22 was attributed mainly to higher HI and TGW due to increased post-anthesis biomass and deeper seasonal soil water extraction. In conclusion, one-irrigation with a medium-sized spike cultivar JM22 could be a useful strategy to maintain yield and high WUE in extremely late-sown winter wheat at a high seeding rate in the NCP.

  18. Effects of elevated O3 exposure on nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain in Yangtze River Delta, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Feixiang; Wang, Xiaoke; Zhang, Weiwei; Hou, Peiqiang; Lu, Fei; Du, Keming; Sun, Zhongfu

    2013-01-01

    With the open-top chambers (OTCs) in situ in Yangtze River Delta, China in 2007 and 2008, the effects of elevated O 3 exposure on nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain were investigated. Grain yield per plant of winter wheat and rice declined in both years. The N and S concentrations increased under elevated O 3 exposure in both years and C–N ratios decreased significantly. The concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, P, Mn, Cu and Zn in winter wheat and the concentrations of Mg, K, Mn and Cu in rice increased. The concentrations of protein, amino acid and lysine in winter wheat and rice increased and the concentration of amylose decreased. The increase in the nutrient concentration was less than the reduction of grain yield in both winter wheat and rice, and, hence, the absolute amount of the nutrients was reduced by elevated O 3 . -- Highlights: •The nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain response to ozone had been investigated for two years in China. •Grain yield per plant of winter wheat and rice were reduced in both years. •The extent of ozone impact on the nutrient elements concentrations of winter wheat and rice were different. •The concentrations of protein, amino acid and lysine increased but the concentrations of amylose decreased. •The absolute amount of the nutrients was reduced by elevated O 3 . -- The nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain were seriously affected under the elevated O 3 exposure

  19. Effects of wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles and cinnamaldehyde on in vitro fermentation and protein degradation using the Rusitec technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lia, Yangling; He, Maolong; Li, Chun; Forster, Robert; Beauchemin, Karen Anne; Yang, Wenzhu

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN) on in vitro fermentation and microbial profiles using the rumen simulation technique. The control substrate (10% barley silage, 85% barley grain and 5% supplement, on dry matter basis) and the wheat DDGS substrate (30% wheat DDGS replaced an equal portion of barley grain) were combined with 0 and 300 mg CIN/l of culture fluid. The inclusion of DDGS increased (p fermentation pattern changed to greater acetate and less propionate proportions (p fermentability and potentially increase protein flows to the intestine. Supplementation of high-grain substrates with CIN reduced methane production and potentially increased the true protein reaching the small intestine; however, overall reduction of feed fermentation may lower the feeding value of a high-grain diet.

  20. Activities of fructan- and sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in wheat stems subjected to water stress during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianchang; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Zhiqing; Zhu, Qingsen; Liu, Lijun

    2004-12-01

    This study investigated if a controlled water deficit during grain filling of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) could accelerate grain filling by facilitating the remobilization of carbon reserves in the stem through regulating the enzymes involved in fructan and sucrose metabolism. Two high lodging-resistant wheat cultivars were grown in pots and treated with either a normal (NN) or high amount of nitrogen (HN) at heading time. Plants were either well-watered (WW) or water-stressed (WS) from 9 days post anthesis until maturity. Leaf water potentials markedly decreased at midday as a result of water stress but completely recovered by early morning. Photosynthetic rate and zeatin + zeatin riboside concentrations in the flag leaves declined faster in WS plants than in WW plants, and they decreased more slowly with HN than with NN when soil water potential was the same, indicating that the water deficit enhanced, whereas HN delayed, senescence. Water stress, both at NN and HN, facilitated the reduction in concentration of total nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and fructans in the stems but increased the sucrose level there, promoted the re-allocation of pre-fixed (14)C from the stems to grains, shortened the grain-filling period, and accelerated the grain-filling rate. Grain weight and grain yield were increased under the controlled water deficit when HN was applied. Fructan exohydrolase (FEH; EC 3.2.1.80) and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) activities were substantially enhanced by water stress and positively correlated with the total NSC and fructan remobilization from the stems. Acid invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) activity was also enhanced by the water stress and associated with the change in fructan concentration, but not correlated with the total NSC remobilization and (14)C increase in the grains. Sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.99) activity was inhibited by the water stress and negatively correlated with the remobilization of carbon reserves

  1. Effect of the New Plant Growth Biostimulants Based on Amino Acids on Yield and Grain Quality of Winter Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popko, Małgorzata; Michalak, Izabela; Wilk, Radosław; Gramza, Mateusz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Górecki, Henryk

    2018-02-21

    Field and laboratory experiments were carried out in 2012-2013, aimed at evaluating the influence of new products stimulating plant growth based on amino acids on crop yield, characteristics of grain and content of macro- and micronutrients in winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). The tests included two formulations produced in cooperation with INTERMAG Co. (Olkusz, Poland)-AminoPrim and AminoHort, containing 15% and 20% amino acids, respectively, and 0.27% and 2.1% microelements, respectively. Field experiments showed that the application of products based on amino acids influenced the increase of grain yield of winter wheat (5.4% and 11%, respectively, for the application of AminoPrim at a dose 1.0 L/ha and AminoHort at dose 1.25 L/ha) when compared to the control group without biostimulant. Laboratory tests showed an increase of technological characteristics of grain such as ash content, Zeleny sedimentation index and content of protein. The use of the tested preparations at different doses also contributed to the increase of the nutrients content in grains, in particular copper (ranging 31-50%), as well as sodium (35-43%), calcium (4.3-7.9%) and molybdenum (3.9-16%). Biostimulants based on amino acids, tested in the present study, can be recommended for an efficient agricultural production.

  2. The influence of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer forms on micronutrient retranslocation and accumulation in grains of winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barunawati, Nunun; Giehl, Ricardo F Hettwer; Bauer, Bernhard; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2013-01-01

    The fortification of cereal grains with metal micronutrients is a major target to combat human malnutrition of Fe and Zn. Based on recent studies showing that N fertilization can promote Fe and Zn accumulation in cereal grains, we investigated here the influence of nitrate- or ammonium-based N fertilization on the accumulation of Fe, Zn, and Cu as well as metal chelator pools in flag leaves and grains of winter wheat. Fertilization with either N form increased the concentrations of N and of the metal chelator nicotianamine (NA) in green leaves, while 2'-deoxymugineic acid (DMA) remained unaffected. Despite the differential response to N fertilization of NA and DMA levels in flag leaves, N fertilization remained without any significant effect on the net export of these metals during flag leaf senescence, which accounted for approximately one third of the total Fe, Zn, or Cu content in leaves. The significant increase in the accumulation of Fe, Zn, and Cu found in the grains of primarily ammonium-fertilized plants was unrelated to the extent of metal retranslocation from flag leaves. These results indicate that an increased N nutritional status of flag leaves promotes the accumulation of Fe, Zn, and Cu in flag leaves, which is accompanied by an increased pool of NA but not of DMA. With regard to the far higher concentrations of DMA relative to NA in leaves and leaf exudates, DMA may be more relevant for the mobilization and retranslocation of these metals in high-yielding wheat production.

  3. Contrasting response of biomass and grain yield to severe drought in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Paul

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a case study of natural variations and correlations of some photosynthetic parameters, green biomass and grain yield in Cappelle Desprez and Plainsman V winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars, which are classified as being drought sensitive and tolerant, respectively. We monitored biomass accumulation from secondary leaves in the vegetative phase and grain yield from flag leaves in the grain filling period. Interestingly, we observed higher biomass production, but lower grain yield stability in the sensitive Cappelle cultivar, as compared to the tolerant Plainsman cv. Higher biomass production in the sensitive variety was correlated with enhanced water-use efficiency. Increased cyclic electron flow around PSI was also observed in the Cappelle cv. under drought stress as shown by light intensity dependence of the ratio of maximal quantum yields of Photosystem I and Photosystem II, as well by the plot of the Photosystem I electron transport rate as a function of Photosystem II electron transport rate. Higher CO2 uptake rate in flag leaves of the drought-stressed Plainsman cv. during grain filling period correlates well with its higher grain yield and prolonged transpiration rate through spikes. The increase in drought factor (DFI and performance (PI indices calculated from variable chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of secondary leaves also showed correlation with higher biomass in the Cappelle cultivar during the biomass accumulation period. However, during the grain filling period, DFI and PI parameters of the flag leaves were higher in the tolerant Plainsman V cultivar and showed correlation with grain yield stability. Our results suggest that overall biomass and grain yield may respond differentially to drought stress in different wheat cultivars and therefore phenotyping for green biomass cannot be used as a general approach to predict grain yield. We also conclude that photosynthetic efficiency of flag and secondary leaves

  4. Using Ridge Regression Models to Estimate Grain Yield from Field Spectral Data in Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. Grown under Three Water Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernandez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeding based on grain yield (GY is an expensive and time-consuming method, so new indirect estimation techniques to evaluate the performance of crops represent an alternative method to improve grain yield. The present study evaluated the ability of canopy reflectance spectroscopy at the range from 350 to 2500 nm to predict GY in a large panel (368 genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. through multivariate ridge regression models. Plants were treated under three water regimes in the Mediterranean conditions of central Chile: severe water stress (SWS, rain fed, mild water stress (MWS; one irrigation event around booting and full irrigation (FI with mean GYs of 1655, 4739, and 7967 kg∙ha−1, respectively. Models developed from reflectance data during anthesis and grain filling under all water regimes explained between 77% and 91% of the GY variability, with the highest values in SWS condition. When individual models were used to predict yield in the rest of the trials assessed, models fitted during anthesis under MWS performed best. Combined models using data from different water regimes and each phenological stage were used to predict grain yield, and the coefficients of determination (R2 increased to 89.9% and 92.0% for anthesis and grain filling, respectively. The model generated during anthesis in MWS was the best at predicting yields when it was applied to other conditions. Comparisons against conventional reflectance indices were made, showing lower predictive abilities. It was concluded that a Ridge Regression Model using a data set based on spectral reflectance at anthesis or grain filling represents an effective method to predict grain yield in genotypes under different water regimes.

  5. Limitation of multi-elemental fingerprinting of wheat grains: Effect of cultivar, sowing date, and nutrient management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suarez-Tapia, Alfonso; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2017-01-01

    Multi-element fingerprinting demonstrates some potential for tracing the origin of agricultural products but not for discriminating among crop cultivars and nutrient management (source, rate). With principal component analysis (PCA) and univariate statistics, we examined 19 elements in grains from...... two winter wheat cultivars (Hereford, Mariboss) grown with different rates of animal manure (AM) or mineral fertilisers (NPK) in a long-term field experiment and two sowing dates (early, timely). Nitrogen, Cd and Mn related to NPK, and Mo and Na to AM. Barium, Fe, and P reflected nutrient rate......; these elements increased with nutrient rate regardless of source. Unmanured grains were enriched in Cu. Mariboss was characterized by higher concentrations of Sr, Ba and Sc compared to Hereford with Sr in grain as the main separator. Univariate statistics showed higher concentrations of N, P, Mg, Ba, Cu, Mo...

  6. Influence of xylanase addition on the characteristics of loaf bread prepared with white flour or whole grain wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Zafalon Jaekel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the influence of the addition of the enzyme xylanase (four concentrations: 0, 4, 8, and 12 g.100 kg-1 flour on the characteristics of loaf bread made with white wheat flour or whole grain wheat flour. Breads made from white flour and added with xylanase had higher specific volumes than those of the control sample (no enzyme; however, the specific volume did not differ significantly (p < 0.05 among the breads with different enzyme concentrations. All formulations made from whole grain wheat flour and added with xylanase also had specific volumes significantly higher than those of the control sample, and the highest value was found for the 8 g xylanase.100 kg-1 flour formulation. With respect to moisture content, the formulations with different enzyme concentrations showed small significant differences when compared to the control samples. In general, breads made with the addition of 8 g enzyme.100 kg-1 flour had the lowest firmness values, thus presenting the best technological characteristics.

  7. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  8. RNA-seq in grain unveils fate of neo- and paleopolyploidization events in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Caroline; Murat, Florent; Confolent, Carole; Balzergue, Sandrine; Salse, Jérôme

    2011-12-02

    Whole genome duplication is a common evolutionary event in plants. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a good model to investigate the impact of paleo- and neoduplications on the organization and function of modern plant genomes. We performed an RNA sequencing-based inference of the grain filling gene network in bread wheat and identified a set of 37,695 non-redundant sequence clusters, which is an unprecedented resolution corresponding to an estimated half of the wheat genome unigene repertoire. Using the Brachypodium distachyon genome as a reference for the Triticeae, we classified gene clusters into orthologous, paralogous, and homoeologous relationships. Based on this wheat gene evolutionary classification, older duplicated copies (dating back 50 to 70 million years) exhibit more than 80% gene loss and expression divergence while recent duplicates (dating back 1.5 to 3 million years) show only 54% gene loss and 36 to 49% expression divergence. We suggest that structural shuffling due to duplicated gene loss is a rapid process, whereas functional shuffling due to neo- and/or subfunctionalization of duplicates is a longer process, and that both shuffling mechanisms drive functional redundancy erosion. We conclude that, as a result of these mechanisms, half the gene duplicates in plants are structurally and functionally altered within 10 million years of evolution, and the diploidization process is completed after 45 to 50 million years following polyploidization.

  9. Biofortification of maize flour with grain amaranth for improved nutrition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biofortification of maize flour with grain amaranth for improved nutrition. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home ...

  10. Improving Wheat Growth and Yield Using Chlormequat Chloride, Salicylic Acid and Jasmonic Acid under Water Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Vahabi

    2017-06-01

    measured by a water meter. Results and Discussion The results showed that water stress decreased flag leaf area, ear length, grain number per ear, biological yield and grain yield in the greenhouse and biological yield and grain yield in the field experiment. The maximum of flag leaf area was obtained at anthesis and after that there was no increase in green area. In the other hand, ear length and grain number per ear were fixed at anthesis and so drought stress had less negative impact on flag leaf area, ear length and grain number per ear under field conditions. Increasing the level of drought stress was considerably associated with greater reduction in grain yield and yield components. However, PGRS application improved yield components and consequently enhanced the grain yield. The higher flag leaf area in PGRs-treated plants might be due to lowering developmental rate or delaying plant maturity and senescence. So, by improving leaf area, PGR application resulted in increased photosynthetic rate leading to a higher yield. Although all PGRs had positive effect on growth and yield of wheat nevertheless, the effect of chlormequat chloride followed by salicylic acid was greater than jasmonic acid; so that foliar applications of chlormequat chloride, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid were associated with 20.7%, 13.8% and 7.24% increase in grain yield, respectively, under controlled conditions. These values were 18.3%, 12.2% and 8.1% for the field experiment. Such compensatory effects of PGRs could be due to various reasons. Chlormequat chloride can stimulate root growth, reduce transpiration, increase water use efficiency, and prevent chlorophyll destruction. Similarly, SA application may result in stomatal closure, increased WUE, increased chlorophyll content, increased respiratory-pathways and intercellular CO2 concentration, and stimulatory changes in other physiological and biochemical attributes. Jasmonic acid is also essential components for the signaling pathway

  11. Improving the baking quality of bread wheat by genomic selection in early generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Sebastian; Kummer, Christian; Gallee, Martin; Hellinger, Jakob; Ametz, Christian; Akgöl, Batuhan; Epure, Doru; Löschenberger, Franziska; Buerstmayr, Hermann

    2018-02-01

    Genomic selection shows great promise for pre-selecting lines with superior bread baking quality in early generations, 3 years ahead of labour-intensive, time-consuming, and costly quality analysis. The genetic improvement of baking quality is one of the grand challenges in wheat breeding as the assessment of the associated traits often involves time-consuming, labour-intensive, and costly testing forcing breeders to postpone sophisticated quality tests to the very last phases of variety development. The prospect of genomic selection for complex traits like grain yield has been shown in numerous studies, and might thus be also an interesting method to select for baking quality traits. Hence, we focused in this study on the accuracy of genomic selection for laborious and expensive to phenotype quality traits as well as its selection response in comparison with phenotypic selection. More than 400 genotyped wheat lines were, therefore, phenotyped for protein content, dough viscoelastic and mixing properties related to baking quality in multi-environment trials 2009-2016. The average prediction accuracy across three independent validation populations was r = 0.39 and could be increased to r = 0.47 by modelling major QTL as fixed effects as well as employing multi-trait prediction models, which resulted in an acceptable prediction accuracy for all dough rheological traits (r = 0.38-0.63). Genomic selection can furthermore be applied 2-3 years earlier than direct phenotypic selection, and the estimated selection response was nearly twice as high in comparison with indirect selection by protein content for baking quality related traits. This considerable advantage of genomic selection could accordingly support breeders in their selection decisions and aid in efficiently combining superior baking quality with grain yield in newly developed wheat varieties.

  12. Amaranth addition to enzymatically modified wheat flour improves dough functionality, bread immunoreactivity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Sandoval, N G; Calderón de la Barca, A M; Carvajal-Millán, E; Islas-Rubio, A R

    2018-01-24

    Consumers with gluten-related disorders require gluten-free (GF) foods to avoid an immune response. Alternative to the use of non-gluten containing grains to prepare GF bread, the gluten reactivity has been greatly reduced using a proline specific cleavage enzyme, however, the gluten functionality was lost. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding an amaranth flour blend (AFB) to enzymatically modified wheat-flour proteins on dough functionality and to evaluate the immunoreactivity and acceptability of the prepared bread. First, wheat flour (20% w/v, substrate) was hydrolyzed using 8.4 U mg -1 protein Aspergillus niger prolyl-endopeptidase (AnPEP) for 8 h at 40 °C under constant agitation. Four types of breads were prepared with the same formulation except for the type of flour (14% w.b.): wheat flour (WF), WF-AFB unmodified not incubated, WF-AFB unmodified incubated and WF-AFB modified. The protein composition and free thiols were analyzed before and after amaranth addition, and the flour and bread proteins were run using SDS-PAGE and immune-detected in blots with IgA from celiac disease patients. The immunoreactive gluten content, specific volume and bread acceptability were evaluated. The polymeric proteins and free thiol groups of WF decreased after AnPEP treatment. The electrophoretic patterns of the modified flour and bread proteins were different and the IgA-immunodetection in blots was highly reduced, particularly for the higher molecular weight subunits. The addition of AFB to the modified wheat flour prepared using AnPEP improved the dough functionality by increasing the thiol groups and allowed the preparation of a sensorially acceptable bread with only 60 mg kg -1 immunoreactive gluten.

  13. Relationship between QTL for grain shape, grain weight, test weight, milling yield, and plant height in the spring wheat cross RL4452/'AC Domain'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Adrian L; Jordan, Mark C; Larson, Gary; Somers, Daryl J; Humphreys, D Gavin; McCartney, Curt A

    2018-01-01

    Kernel morphology characteristics of wheat are complex and quantitatively inherited. A doubled haploid (DH) population of the cross RL4452/'AC Domain' was used to study the genetic basis of seed shape. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses were conducted on a total of 18 traits: 14 grain shape traits, flour yield (Fyd), and three agronomic traits (Plant height [Plht], 1000 Grain weight [Gwt], Test weight [Twt]), using data from trial locations at Glenlea, Brandon, and Morden in Manitoba, Canada, between 1999 and 2004. Kernel shape was studied through digital image analysis with an Acurum® grain analyzer. Plht, Gwt, Twt, Fyd, and grain shape QTL were correlated with each other and QTL analysis revealed that QTL for these traits often mapped to the same genetic locations. The most significant QTL for the grain shape traits were located on chromosomes 4B and 4D, each accounting for up to 24.4% and 53.3% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. In addition, the most significant QTL for Plht, Gwt, and Twt were all detected on chromosome 4D at the Rht-D1 locus. Rht-D1b decreased Plht, Gwt, Twt, and kernel width relative to the Rht-D1a allele. A narrow genetic interval on chromosome 4B contained significant QTL for grain shape, Gwt, and Plht. The 'AC Domain' allele reduced Plht, Gwt, kernel length and width traits, but had no detectable effect on Twt. The data indicated that this variation was inconsistent with segregation at Rht-B1. Numerous QTL were identified that control these traits in this population.

  14. Relationship between QTL for grain shape, grain weight, test weight, milling yield, and plant height in the spring wheat cross RL4452/‘AC Domain’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Adrian L.; Jordan, Mark C.; Larson, Gary; Somers, Daryl J.; Humphreys, D. Gavin

    2018-01-01

    Kernel morphology characteristics of wheat are complex and quantitatively inherited. A doubled haploid (DH) population of the cross RL4452/‘AC Domain’ was used to study the genetic basis of seed shape. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses were conducted on a total of 18 traits: 14 grain shape traits, flour yield (Fyd), and three agronomic traits (Plant height [Plht], 1000 Grain weight [Gwt], Test weight [Twt]), using data from trial locations at Glenlea, Brandon, and Morden in Manitoba, Canada, between 1999 and 2004. Kernel shape was studied through digital image analysis with an Acurum® grain analyzer. Plht, Gwt, Twt, Fyd, and grain shape QTL were correlated with each other and QTL analysis revealed that QTL for these traits often mapped to the same genetic locations. The most significant QTL for the grain shape traits were located on chromosomes 4B and 4D, each accounting for up to 24.4% and 53.3% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. In addition, the most significant QTL for Plht, Gwt, and Twt were all detected on chromosome 4D at the Rht-D1 locus. Rht-D1b decreased Plht, Gwt, Twt, and kernel width relative to the Rht-D1a allele. A narrow genetic interval on chromosome 4B contained significant QTL for grain shape, Gwt, and Plht. The ‘AC Domain’ allele reduced Plht, Gwt, kernel length and width traits, but had no detectable effect on Twt. The data indicated that this variation was inconsistent with segregation at Rht-B1. Numerous QTL were identified that control these traits in this population. PMID:29357369

  15. Exogenous lactobacilli mitigate microbial changes associated with grain fermentation (corn, oats, and wheat) by equine fecal microflora ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Brittany E; Lawrence, Laurie M; Harris, Patricia A; Aiken, Glen E; Flythe, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Cereal grains are often included in equine diets. When starch intake exceeds foregut digestion starch will reach the hindgut, impacting microbial ecology. Probiotics (e.g., lactobacilli) are reported to mitigate GI dysbioses in other species. This study was conducted to determine the effect of exogenous lactobacilli on pH and the growth of amylolytic and lactate-utilizing bacteria. Feces were collected from 3 mature geldings fed grass hay with access to pasture. Fecal microbes were harvested by differential centrifugation, washed, and re-suspended in anaerobic media containing ground corn, wheat, or oats at 1.6% (w/v) starch and one of five treatments: Control (substrate only), L. acidophilus, L. buchneri, L. reuteri, or an equal mixture of all three (107 cells/mL, final concentration). After 24 h of incubation (37°C, 160 rpm), samples were collected for pH and enumerations of total amylolytics, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC; Enterococci, Streptococci), lactobacilli, and lactate-utilizing bacteria. Enumeration data were log transformed prior to ANOVA (SAS, v. 9.3). Lactobacilli inhibited pH decline in corn and wheat fermentations (P Exogenous lactobacilli decreased amylolytics, while increasing lactate-utilizers in corn and wheat fermentations (P Exogenous lactobacilli decreased the initial (first 8 h) rate of starch catalysis when wheat was the substrate, but did not decrease total (24 h) starch utilization in any case. These results indicate that exogenous lactobacilli can impact the microbial community and pH of cereal grain fermentations by equine fecal microflora ex vivo. Additionally, dead (autoclaved) exogenous lactobacilli had similar effects as live lactobacilli on fermentation. This latter result indicates that the mechanism by which lactobacilli impact other amylolytic bacteria is not simple resource competition.

  16. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP. PMID:27612146

  17. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuwei Liu

    Full Text Available The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP.

  18. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuwei; Sun, Hongyong; Feike, Til; Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP.

  19. Accumulation of Phenolic Compounds and Expression Profiles of Phenolic Acid Biosynthesis-Related Genes in Developing Grains of White, Purple, and Red Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongyun; Li, Yaoguang; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chenyang; Qin, Haixia; Ding, Huina; Xie, Yingxin; Guo, Tiancai

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat, while total soluble phenolic acid, soluble ferulic acid, and vanillic acid levels were significantly higher in purple and red wheat than in white wheat. Ferulic acid and syringic acid levels peaked at 14 days after anthesis (DAA), whereas p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid levels peaked at 7 DAA, and vanillic acid levels gradually increased during grain filling and peaked near ripeness (35 DAA). Nine phenolic acid biosynthesis pathway genes (TaPAL1, TaPAL2, TaC3H1, TaC3H2, TaC4H, Ta4CL1, Ta4CL2, TaCOMT1, and TaCOMT2) exhibited three distinct expression patterns during grain filling, which may be related to the different phenolic acids levels. White wheat had higher phenolic acid contents and relatively high gene expression at the early stage, while purple wheat had the highest phenolic acid contents and gene expression levels at later stages. These results suggest that the expression of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes may be closely related to phenolic acids accumulation.

  20. Interaction Effect Of Irradiation And Fertilization On Grain Yield, Kernel Weight And Severity Of Wheat To Septoria Tritici Blotch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M. A.; Jawhar, M.

    2004-01-01

    Field research was undertaken, for two growing seasons, to investigate the effects of soil fertilization with potassium (K 2 SO 4 , 36% K) and nitrogen (urea, 46% N), seed irradiation with gamma rays (0, 5, 10 and 15 Gy) and their combinations on the grain yield, 1000-kernel weight and severity of Mycosphaerella graminicola on wheat. Two Syrian wheat cultivars; Bohuth 6 (Triticum aestivum L.) and Bohuth 5 (T. turgidum var durum Desf.) were used in this study. Plants were inoculated with a mixture of 15 virulent isolates of the pathogen at the growth stage (GS) 33-34. Results indicated that the average response to fertilizer application and irradiation treatments was dependent on the susceptibility level of cultivars compared with the control. The level of infection of the combined NK and 15 Gy treatment was reduced by 9 and 46 % in 1998 and by 6 and 42 % in 1999 for Bohuth 5 and Bohuth 6, respectively. This was associated with increased grain yield by 68 and 59% in 1998 and 59 and 33% in 1999, respectively. Highest yield losses from M. graminicola occurred in the treatment of nil fertilization and irradiation. Grain weight was increased by various treatments applied, but such an increase was highest in the combined NK and 15 Gy treatment. This combined treatment appeared to be more effective on calcareous soils, which are typical of Mediterranean environments. (Authors)

  1. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON GRAIN MOISTURE, GERMINATION AND VIGOUR OF THREE WHEAT CULTIVARS DURING ONE YEAR STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Strelec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in grain moisture, germination and vigour of three wheat cultivars packed in paper bags and stored for one year under four different conditions of environmental temperature and relative humidity (RH were investigated. During the first ninety days of storage significant reduction in grain moisture content of 4, 2.5 and 0.9 %, respectively, under 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C and RH of 45 % occurred. Subsequently grain moisture remained constant until the end of storage. Seeds of examined cultivars lost their germination ability and vigour only under elevated storage temperatures. Germination and vigour loss after one year of storage differed between cultivars being higher for seeds kept under 40°C, RH = 45% (35-85 % and 55-94 %, respectively, than under 25°C, RH = 45 % (10-20 % and 15-22 %, respectively. Obtained data indicate significant influence of storage conditions on moisture content, germination and vigour changes during storage of wheat seeds, as well as varietal dependence of seed viability.

  2. Mycotoxin production in wheat grains by different Aspergilli in relation to different relative humidities and storage periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalla, Mohamed Mabrouk; Hassanein, Naziha Mohamed; El-Beih, Ahmed Atef; Youssef, Youssef Abdel-ghany

    2003-02-01

    Four different Aspergilli (Aspergillus oryzae, A. parasiticus, A. terreus and A. versicolor) were grown on wheat grains underdifferent degrees of relative humidity 14, 50, 74, 80 and 90%. Samples of wheat grains were taken monthly for a period of six months and examined for mycotoxin production. A. oryzae was found to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, zearalenone, DON and T-2 toxins under elevated degrees of humidity and prolonged periods of storage. A. parasiticus produced aflatoxins B1, G1, NIV, DON and T-2 toxins in high concentrations during a period of not more than three months storage at 14% relative humidity; at an increased level of relative humidity of 74% ochratoxin A, zearalenone and sterigmatocystin were also produced at high levels. The isolate was drastic in toxin production. A. terrus produced toxins at 14% relative humidity (aflatoxin G2 and DON) at levels much higher than any other prevalent degrees of humidity. A. versicolor is highly sensitive to relative humidity and grain moisture content It produced aflatoxins B1, G1, NIV and DON at a relative humidity of 50% and another toxins (aflatoxin G2, ochratoxins A, B and zearalenone) at 74%. The microorganism can be considered a trichothecene producer under suitable relative humidity.

  3. Accumulation of Cs, Sr into leaves and grain of winter wheat under act of N, Zn, Li, Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzinsky, D.; Tkatchuk, K.; Zhmurko, N.; Bogdan, T.; Guralchuk, Zh.

    1998-01-01

    The experiments were carried out on cv Lutencens 7 winter wheat grown on grey forest soil. In order to study the influence of nitrogen on Cs and Sr accumulation, a background of P60 K60 added in autumn different doses of nitrogen (30, 60, 120 kg/ha) were applied in spring. The influence of micronutrients on Cs and Sr accumulation was studied by adding 3 kg/ha Zn and 2 kg/ha Li to the soil under ploughing on background of N60 P60 K60. Besides the foliar application with 0.05% Na 2 SO 4 was carried out. Cation content (Cs, Sn, Zn, Li, Na) in soil and plant organs was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The Cs, Sr content in control plant leaves made up 15.0 and 21.0 mg per g of dry matter at the early stages of plant development. As the plants aged, the content of those elements in the leaves decreased strongly (3-4 times). At early stages of plant development, nitrogen caused an 8.9-11% increase in the Cs content of the leaves. At the stages of heading to grain filling, the Cs content increase was only observed at a high nitrogen dose, whereas low nitrogen doses had no effected on Cs accumulation in leaves. In should be noted that nitrogen (N60 and N120) decreased the Cs content in grain by 32-33%. As for the Sr content of grain, this was 3 to 4-fold less than that of Cs. Nitrogen had no effected on the Sr content of grain. Zn and Li addition to soil as well as foliar nutrition with Na had a different effect on the Cs and Sr content of winter wheat leaves and grain. Addition of Li decreased the Cs and Sr content of old leaves by 13% and 25% respectively. Addition of Zn and Na decreased the Sr content of old leaves but had no effect on the Cs content. Zn, Na and Li reduced the Sr content in grain also, viz. by 16,11 and 7% respectively. Thus the research has demonstrated the possibility of regulating Cs and Sr accumulation in the above-ground organs of winter wheat plants

  4. Effect of Plant Essential Oils and Gamma Irradiation on Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus Flavus Isolated from Wheat Grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.A.; Shalaby, Kh.

    2016-01-01

    The antifungal potential of essential oils of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and camphor ( Eucalyptus rostrata L.) was determined on Aspergillus flavus link isolated from wheat grains on Potato dextrose agar (PDA). They inhibited completely mycelia growth of the fungus at 1000 and 2000 ppm, and prevented aflatoxin production at sub lethal dose 500 and 1000 ppm respectively. Gamma radiation was used to control mycelia growth of Aspergillus flavus Link and inhibiting aflatoxin production. A dose level of 3.5 KGy gamma radiation prevented the fungal growth and aflatoxin production by A. flavus link, where a dose of 2.5 K Gy ( the sub lethal dose) prevented about 85% of aflatoxin production

  5. Insight into durum wheat Lpx-B1: a small gene family coding for the lipoxygenase responsible for carotenoid bleaching in mature grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlotta, Angelo; De Simone, Vanessa; Mastrangelo, Anna M; Cattivelli, Luigi; Papa, Roberto; Trono, Daniela

    2010-11-26

    The yellow colour of pasta products is one of the main criteria used by consumers to assess pasta quality. This character is due to the presence of carotenoid pigments in semolina. During pasta processing, oxidative degradation of carotenoid pigments occurs mainly due to lipoxygenase (LOX). In durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), two Lpx-1 genes have been identified on chromosome 4B, Lpx-B1.1 and Lpx-B1.2, and evidences have been reported that the deletion of Lpx-B1.1 is associated with a strong reduction in LOX activity in semolina. In the present study, we characterised the Lpx-B1 gene family identified in a durum wheat germplasm collection and related the distribution and expression of the Lpx-B1 genes and alleles to variations in LOX activity in the mature grains. In addition to the already known Lpx-B1.1 and Lpx-B1.2 genes, a new gene was identified, Lpx-B1.3, along with three different Lpx-B1.1 alleles, Lpx-B1.1a, Lpx-B1.1b and the partially deleted Lpx-B1.1c. Screening of the germplasm collection showed that all of the genotypes have one of the three Lpx-B1.1 alleles, associated with either Lpx-B1.2 or Lpx-B1.3, thus showing that in this collection the two genes are alternatives. Therefore, based on Lpx-B1 distribution, three different haplotypes were distinguished: haplotype I, carrying Lpx-B1.3 and the Lpx-B1.1b allele; haplotype II carrying Lpx-B1.2 and the Lpx-B1.1a allele; and haplotype III carrying Lpx-B1.2 and the Lpx-B1.1c allele. Determination of Lpx-B1 transcript abundance and total LOX activity in mature grains revealed differences among these three haplotypes: haplotypes I, II and III showed high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of functional Lpx-B1 transcripts and enzymatic activity. In this germplasm collection, the Lpx-B1 gene family accounts for most of the total LOX activity in the mature grains. Information on these Lpx-B1 haplotypes provides significant improvement for prediction of LOX-1 activity levels in mature grains, and

  6. Coexpression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 and puroindoline improves dough mixing properties in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Wang, Qiong; Li, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xin; Sun, Fusheng; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Wei; Feng, Zhijuan; Chang, Junli; Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Yuesheng; Li, Kexiu; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2012-01-01

    Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread) and may improve the economic values of durum

  7. Coexpression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Ax1 and puroindoline improves dough mixing properties in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Li

    Full Text Available Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS, plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina and Puroindoline b (Pinb genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread and may improve the economic

  8. Investigation of Water Dynamics and the Effect of Evapotranspiration on Grain Yield of Rainfed Wheat and Barley under a Mediterranean Environment: A Modelling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kefeng; Bosch-Serra, Angela D; Boixadera, Jaume; Thompson, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Agro-hydrological models have increasingly become useful and powerful tools in optimizing water and fertilizer application, and in studying the environmental consequences. Accurate prediction of water dynamics in such models is essential for models to produce reasonable results. In this study, detailed simulations were performed for water dynamics of rainfed winter wheat and barley grown under a Mediterranean climate over a 10-year period. The model employed (Yang et al., 2009. J. Hydrol., 370, 177-190) uses easily available agronomic data, and takes into consideration of all key soil and plant processes in controlling water dynamics in the soil-crop system, including the dynamics of root growth. The water requirement for crop growth was calculated according to the FAO56, and the soil hydraulic properties were estimated using peto-transfer functions (PTFs) based on soil physical properties and soil organic matter content. Results show that the simulated values of soil water content at the depths of 15, 45 and 75 cm agreed with the measurements well with the root of the mean squared errors of 0.027 cm(3) cm(-3) and the model agreement index of 0.875. The simulated seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) ranged from 208 to 388 mm, and grain yield was found to correlate with the simulated seasonal ET in a linear manner within the studied ET range. The simulated rates of grain yield increase were 17.3 and 23.7 kg ha(-l) for every mm of water evapotranspired for wheat and barley, respectively. The good agreement of soil water content between measurement and simulation and the simulated relationships between grain yield and seasonal ET supported by the data in the literature indicates that the model performed well in modelling water dynamics for the studied soil-crop system, and therefore has the potential to be applied reliably and widely in precision agriculture. Finally, a two-staged approach using inverse modelling techniques to further improve model performance was

  9. The influence of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer forms on micronutrient retranslocation and accumulation in grains of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunun eBarunawati

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fortification of cereal grains with metal micronutrients is a major target to combat human malnutrition of Fe and Zn. Based on recent studies showing that N fertilization can promote Fe and Zn accumulation in cereal grains, we investigated here the influence of nitrate- or ammonium-based N fertilization on the accumulation of Fe, Zn and Cu as well as metal chelator pools in flag leaves and grains of winter wheat. Fertilization with either N form increased the concentrations of N and of the metal chelator nicotianamine (NA in green leaves, while 2’-deoxymugineic acid (DMA remained unaffected. Despite the differential response to N fertilization of NA and DMA levels in flag leaves, N fertilization remained without any significant effect on the net export of these metals during flag leaf senescence, which accounted for approx. one third of the total Fe, Zn or Cu content in leaves. The significant increase in the accumulation of Fe, Zn and Cu found in the grains of primarily ammonium-fertilized plants was unrelated to the extent of metal retranslocation from flag leaves. These results indicate that an increased N nutritional status of flag leaves promotes the accumulation of Fe, Zn and Cu in flag leaves, which is accompanied by an increased pool of NA but not of DMA. With regard to the far higher concentrations of DMA relative to NA in leaves and leaf exudates, DMA may be more relevant for the mobilization and retranslocation of these metals in high-yielding wheat production.

  10. Computer vision system: a tool for evaluating the quality of wheat in a grain tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkin, Uryi Igorevish; Panchenko, Aleksei Vladimirovich; Shkanaev, Aleksandr Yurievich; Konovalenko, Ivan Andreevich; Putintsev, Dmitry Nikolaevich; Sadekov, Rinat Nailevish

    2018-04-01

    The paper describes a technology that allows for automatizing the process of evaluating the grain quality in a grain tank of a combine harvester. Special recognition algorithm analyzes photographic images taken by the camera, and that provides automatic estimates of the total mass fraction of broken grains and the presence of non-grains. The paper also presents the operating details of the tank prototype as well as it defines the accuracy of the algorithms designed.

  11. Sina and Sinb genes in triticale do not determine grain hardness contrary to their orthologs Pina and Pinb in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparis, Sebastian; Orczyk, Waclaw; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2013-11-26

    Secaloindoline a (Sina) and secaloindoline b (Sinb) genes of hexaploid triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) are orthologs of puroindoline a (Pina) and puroindoline b (Pinb) in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It has already been proven that RNA interference (RNAi)-based silencing of Pina and Pinb genes significantly decreased the puroindoline a and puroindoline b proteins in wheat and essentially increased grain hardness (J Exp Bot 62:4025-4036, 2011). The function of Sina and Sinb in triticale was tested by means of RNAi silencing and compared to wheat. Novel Sina and Sinb alleles in wild-type plants of cv. Wanad were identified and their expression profiles characterized. Alignment with wheat Pina-D1a and Pinb-D1a alleles showed 95% and 93.3% homology with Sina and Sinb coding sequences. Twenty transgenic lines transformed with two hpRNA silencing cassettes directed to silence Sina or Sinb were obtained by the Agrobacterium-mediated method. A significant decrease of expression of both Sin genes in segregating progeny of tested T1 lines was observed independent of the silencing cassette used. The silencing was transmitted to the T4 kernel generation. The relative transcript level was reduced by up to 99% in T3 progeny with the mean for the sublines being around 90%. Silencing of the Sin genes resulted in a substantial decrease of secaloindoline a and secaloindoline b content. The identity of SIN peptides was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The hardness index, measured by the SKCS (Single Kernel Characterization System) method, ranged from 22 to 56 in silent lines and from 37 to 49 in the control, and the mean values were insignificantly lower in the silent ones, proving increased softness. Additionally, the mean total seed protein content of silenced lines was about 6% lower compared with control lines. Correlation coefficients between hardness and transcript level were weakly positive. We documented that RNAi-based silencing of Sin genes resulted in

  12. Particle models for discrete element modeling of bulk grain properties of wheat kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research has shown the potential of discrete element method (DEM) in simulating grain flow in bulk handling systems. Research has also revealed that simulation of grain flow with DEM requires establishment of appropriate particle models for each grain type. This research completes the three-p...

  13. CO2 dose–response functions for wheat grain, protein and mineral yield based on FACE and open-top chamber experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleijel, Håkan; Högy, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Data from three Swedish open-top chamber and four German FACE experiments were combined to derive response functions for elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ) effects on Cd, Zn, Mn, protein, grain yield, grain mass and grain number of wheat. Grain yield and grain number were increased by ∼6% and ∼7%, respectively, per 100 ppm CO 2 ; the former effect was linked to plant nitrogen status. Grain mass was not influenced by eCO 2 , whereas Cd concentration was reduced. Unlike Zn, Mn and protein, effects on Cd yield were not related to effects on grain yield. Yields of Mn, Zn and (weakly) protein were positively affected by eCO 2 . For protein, grain yield, grain mass and grain number, the results were consistent among the FACE and OTC experiments. A key conclusion was that yields of essential nutrients were enhanced (Mn > Zn > protein), although less than grain yield, which would not be expected from a simple dilution model. - Highlights: • Grain yield and grain number were positively affected by 6–7% per 100 ppm CO 2 . • Yield stimulation by CO 2 was influenced by plant nitrogen status. • Cd concentration was reduced by elevated CO 2 . • Yields of Zn, Mn and protein were stimulated by CO 2 , but less than grain yield. • A simple dilution model did not explain effects on Zn, Mn and protein. - Yields of Zn, Mn and protein were stimulated less by elevated CO 2 than grain yield, while Cd yield and grain mass were unaffected, in wheat exposed in FACE and open-top chambers

  14. Effect of simplified feeding based only on wheat bran and brewer’s grain on rabbit performance and economic efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakia Cherifi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Simplified diets are based on maximum incorporation of fodder and/or by-products into animal feed, thus minimizing the formulation and the costs. This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of feeding fattening rabbits with a simplified diet composed of only two agro-industrial by-products inexpensive and locally available: brewer’s grain and wheat bran. At weaning (35 days, 68 rabbits were divided into two identical groups (mean weight = 833 g and housed in individual cages until slaughter (77 days. Each of the two groups (B0 and SF was fed ad libitum either a commercial pelleted feed (control, or a simplified pelleted  experimental diet "SF" containing 72% wheat bran and 27% brewer’s grain. The feed conversion was within the standards and similar in the two groups (3.55 on average. The growth rate and feed intake of B0 group were 12% higher (P <0.001 than that of the SF group (35.2g vs 31.2 and 128.3 vs 113 g/d. The cold carcass yield and the carcass weight were respectively higher (P <0.001 by 4 units and by 9% in the control group. The carcass of SF group was less fatty (perirenal fat: -23%, inguinal fat: -41% and scapular fat:-14%. The economic efficiency was 40% better for SF diet with almost 50 Algerian Dinar more benefit (/kg of meat.

  15. The transcriptome of the developing grain: a resource for understanding seed development and the molecular control of the functional and nutritional properties of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Parimalan; Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J

    2017-10-11

    Wheat is one of the three major cereals that have been domesticated to feed human populations. The composition of the wheat grain determines the functional properties of wheat including milling efficiency, bread making, and nutritional value. Transcriptome analysis of the developing wheat grain provides key insights into the molecular basis for grain development and quality. The transcriptome of 35 genotypes was analysed by RNA-Seq at two development stages (14 and 30 days-post-anthesis, dpa) corresponding to the mid stage of development (stage Z75) and the almost mature seed (stage Z85). At 14dpa, most of the transcripts were associated with the synthesis of the major seed components including storage proteins and starch. At 30dpa, a diverse range of genes were expressed at low levels with a predominance of genes associated with seed defence and stress tolerance. RNA-Seq analysis of changes in expression between 14dpa and 30dpa stages revealed 26,477 transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed at a FDR corrected p-value cut-off at ≤0.01. Functional annotation and gene ontology mapping was performed and KEGG pathway mapping allowed grouping based upon biochemical linkages. This analysis demonstrated that photosynthesis associated with the pericarp was very active at 14dpa but had ceased by 30dpa. Recently reported genes for flour yield in milling and bread quality were found to influence wheat quality largely due to expression patterns at the earlier seed development stage. This study serves as a resource providing an overview of gene expression during wheat grain development at the early (14dpa) and late (30dpa) grain filling stages for use in studies of grain quality and nutritional value and in understanding seed biology.

  16. Transcriptome dynamics of a susceptible wheat upon Fusarium head blight reveals that molecular responses to Fusarium graminearum infection fit over the grain development processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetouhi, Cherif; Bonhomme, Ludovic; Lasserre-Zuber, Pauline; Cambon, Florence; Pelletier, Sandra; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Langin, Thierry

    2016-03-01

    In many plant/pathogen interactions, host susceptibility factors are key determinants of disease development promoting pathogen growth and spreading in plant tissues. In the Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease, the molecular basis of wheat susceptibility is still poorly understood while it could provide new insights into the understanding of the wheat/Fusarium graminearum (Fg) interaction and guide future breeding programs to produce cultivars with sustainable resistance. To identify the wheat grain candidate genes, a genome-wide gene expression profiling was performed in the French susceptible wheat cultivar, Recital. Gene-specific two-way ANOVA of about 40 K transcripts at five grain developmental stages identified 1309 differentially expressed genes. Out of these, 536 were impacted by the Fg effect alone. Most of these Fg-responsive genes belonged to biological and molecular functions related to biotic and abiotic stresses indicating the activation of common stress pathways during susceptibility response of wheat grain to FHB. This analysis revealed also 773 other genes displaying either specific Fg-responsive profiles along with grain development stages or synergistic adjustments with the grain development effect. These genes were involved in various molecular pathways including primary metabolism, cell death, and gene expression reprogramming. An increasingly complex host response was revealed, as was the impact of both Fg infection and grain ontogeny on the transcription of wheat genes. This analysis provides a wealth of candidate genes and pathways involved in susceptibility responses to FHB and depicts new clues to the understanding of the susceptibility determinism in plant/pathogen interactions.

  17. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, N W; Lærke, H N; Bach Knudsen, K E; Stein, H H

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn bran), and 2 coproducts from the flour milling industry (wheat middlings and wheat bran). Results indicated that grains contained more starch and less NSP compared with grain coproducts. The concentration of soluble NSP was low in all ingredients. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in wheat and wheat coproducts. The concentration of lignin in grains was between 0.8 and 1.8% (DM basis), whereas coproducts contained between 2.2 and 11.5% lignin (DM basis). The in vitro ileal digestibility of NSP was close to zero or negative for all feed ingredients, indicating that pepsin and pancreas enzymes have no effect on in vitro degradation of NSP. A strong negative correlation ( = 0.97) between in vitro ileal digestibility of DM and the concentration of NSP in feed ingredients was observed. In vitro total tract digestibility of NSP ranged from 6.5% in corn bran to 57.3% in corn gluten meal. In conclusion, grains and grain coproducts contain mostly insoluble NSP and arabinoxylans make up the majority of the total NSP fraction. The in vitro

  18. The effect of feeding wheat varieties with different grain pigmentation on growth performance, texture, colour and meat sensory traits of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Šťastník

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The feeding effect of of three spring wheat genotypes (Vánek, Konini and UC66049 with different grain colour on growth performance, body composition and meat quality parameters of broiler chickens was tested. Ninety chickens were divided into three groups (control, Konini and UC with 30 chickens in each. The tested genotypes were compares with standard variety Vánek (control with common (red grain colour. The two experimental groups received feed mixtures containing 38.2% of wheats with different grain colour: groups Konini (n = 30 and UC (n = 30 with. The third group (n = 30 had 38.2% of common wheat Vánek cultivar (Control group. The live weight of chickens between the experimental groups and control group was not significant different, as well as body composition and chemical analysis of breast and thigh meat of chickens. The feeding of wheat with different grain colour had no effect on performance parameters of broiler chickens. Breast meat tenderness according to the Razor Blade Shear Force was higher in control group against experimental groups. The colour change was not significantly different in all coordinates. pH values (measured after 1-hour post mortem were found significantly higher in the group fattening with Konini wheat than control and UC groups. Chickens meat from the experimental group was characterised by steady overall quality. The effect of various feeding had no effect on meat quality in terms of relevance to consumers.

  19. Solid-substrate fermentation of wheat grains by mycelia of indigenous species of the genus Ganoderma (higher Basidiomycetes) to enhance the antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sarasvathy; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Tan, Yee Shin

    2014-01-01

    Species of the genus Ganoderma are a cosmopolitan wood decaying white rot fungi, which has been used by the Asians for therapeutic purposes for centuries. In the present study, solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) was carried out with indigenous Ganoderma australe (KUM60813) and G. neo-japonicum (KUM61076) selected based on ethnomycological knowledge. G. lucidum (VITA GL) (a commercial strain) was also included in the study. Antioxidant activities of the crude ethanol and aqueous extracts of the fermented and unfermented wheat grains were investigated by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, and lipid peroxidation assay. Among the six mycelia extracts tested, the ethanol extract from wheat fermented with KUM61076 mycelia showed the most potent antioxidant activities, whereas the ethanol extract of wheat grains fermented with KUM60813 mycelia has a good potential in protecting frying oils against oxidation. Total phenolic content (TPC) in the ethanol extracts were higher than that in the aqueous extract. The wheat grains fermented with G. australe (KUM60813) and G. neo-japonicum KUM61076 have greater antioxidant potential compared to the commercially available G. lucidum (VITA GL). The antioxidant activities of the mycelia extracts had a positive correlation with their phenolic contents. Thus phenolic compounds may play a vital role in the antioxidant activities of the selected Ganoderma spp.

  20. Methane emissions, feed intake, performance, digestibility, and rumen fermentation of finishing beef cattle offered whole-crop wheat silages differing in grain content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Geough, E J; O'Kiely, P; Hart, K J; Moloney, A P; Boland, T M; Kenny, D A

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to quantify the methane emissions and feed intake, performance, carcass traits, digestibility, and rumen fermentation characteristics of finishing beef cattle offered diets based on whole-crop wheat (WCW) silages differing in grain content and to rank these relative to diets based on grass silage (GS) and ad libitum concentrates (ALC). In Exp. 1, a total of 90 continental crossbred steers [538 +/- 27.6 kg of BW (mean +/- SD)] were blocked by BW and assigned in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 6 treatments based on 4 WCW silages [grain-to-straw plus chaff ratios of 11:89 (WCW I), 21:79 (WCW II), 31:69 (WCW III), and 47:53 (WCW IV)], GS, and ALC. Increasing grain content in WCW silage resulted in a quadratic (P = 0.01) response in DMI, with a linear (P content of WCW silage. A quadratic (P content of WCW; however, linear decreases were observed when expressed relative to DMI (P = 0.01) and CG (P rumen fermentation parameters were determined using 4 ruminally cannulated Rotbunde-Holstein steers (413 +/- 30.1 kg of BW) randomly allocated among WCW I, the average of WCW II and III (WCW II/III), WCW IV, and GS in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Ruminal pH and total VFA concentration did not differ across dietary treatments. Molar proportion of acetic acid decreased (P = 0.01), with propionic acid tending to increase (P = 0.06) with increasing grain content. It was concluded that increasing the grain content of WCW silage reduced methane emissions relative to DMI and CG and improved animal performance. However, the relativity of GS to WCW in terms of methane emissions was dependent on the unit of expression used. Cattle offered ALC exhibited decreased methane emissions and greater performance than those offered any of the silage-based treatments.

  1. Comparative proteome analysis of glutenin synthesis and accumulation in developing grains between superior and poor quality bread wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan; Zhang, Yanzhen; Gao, Xuan; Wang, Ke; Wang, Shunli; Zhang, Yong; He, Zhonghu; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Yueming

    2012-01-15

    Wheat glutenins are the major determinants of wheat quality. In this study, grains at the development stage from three wheat cultivars (Jimai 20, Jin 411 and Zhoumai 16) with different bread-making quality were harvested based on thermal times from 150 °C(d) to 750 °C(d) , and were used to investigate glutenin accumulation patterns and their relationships with wheat quality. High and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs and LMW-GSs) were synthesised concurrently. No obvious correlations between HMW/LMW glutenin ratios and dough property were observed. Accumulation levels of HMW-GSs and LMW-GSs as well as 1Bx13 + 1By16 and 1Dx4 + 1Dy12 subunits were higher in superior gluten quality cultivar Jimain 20 than in poor quality cultivar Jing 411 and Zhoumai 16. According to the results of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, six types of accumulation patterns in LMW-GSs were identified and classified. The possible relationships between individual LMW-GSs and gluten quality were established. The high accumulation level of HMW-GSs and LMW-GSs as well as 1Bx13 + 1By16 and 1Dx4 + 1Dy12 subunits contributed to the superior gluten quality of Jimai 20. Two highly expressed and 16 specifically expressed LMW glutenin subunits in Jimain 20 had positive effects on dough quality, while 17 specifically expressed subunits in Zhoumai 16 and Jing 411 appeared to have negative effects on gluten quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Application of the EPR technique to examine free radical qualities reducing infection of spring wheat grain with pathogenic fungi by He-Ne laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagoś, M.; Koper, R.; Sujak, A.; Misiak, L.E.; Kowalczuk, E.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of spring wheat grain, Jasna cv., infected with pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Fusarium, Mucor) were examined using an EPR technique. Considering the quantity of generated free radicals the fungi belonged to most toxine generating. Their toxicity was connected with the number of free radicals generated in examined grain. Grain was irradiated with He-Ne laser at known wavelength, power density and time of exposure what gave the mycostatic effect appearing in decrease of free radicals in grain samples. However, this process was not stable as the increase of free radicals was observed again with the regrowth of fungi after some days

  3. Transgenic approach to improve wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, Cecília; Kisgyörgy, Boglárka N; Rakszegi, Mariann; Wilkinson, Mark D; Yang, Moon-Sik; Láng, László; Tamás, László; Bedo, Zoltán

    2009-07-01

    An amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) albumin gene, encoding the 35-kDa AmA1 protein of the seed, with a high content of essential amino acids, was used in the biolistic transformation of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety Cadenza. The transformation cassette carried the ama1 gene under the control of a powerful wheat endosperm-specific promoter (1Bx17 HMW-GS). Southern-blot analysis of T(1) lines confirmed the integration of the foreign gene, while RT-PCR and Western-blot analyses of the samples confirmed the transcription and translation of the transgene. The effects of the extra albumin protein on the properties of flour, produced from bulked T(2) seeds, were calculated using total protein and essential amino acid content analysis, polymeric/monomeric protein and HMW/LMW glutenin subunit ratio measurements. The results indicated that not only can essential amino acid content be increased, but some parameters associated with functional quality may also be improved because of the expression of the AmA1 protein.

  4. Enhanced Sucrose Loading Improves Rice Yield by Increasing Grain Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang; Lu, Congming

    2015-12-01

    Yield in cereals is a function of grain number and size. Sucrose (Suc), the main carbohydrate product of photosynthesis in higher plants, is transported long distances from source leaves to sink organs such as seeds and roots. Here, we report that transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa) expressing the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) phloem-specific Suc transporter (AtSUC2), which loads Suc into the phloem under control of the phloem protein2 promoter (pPP2), showed an increase in grain yield of up to 16% relative to wild-type plants in field trials. Compared with wild-type plants, pPP2::AtSUC2 plants had larger spikelet hulls and larger and heavier grains. Grain filling was accelerated in the transgenic plants, and more photoassimilate was transported from the leaves to the grain. In addition, microarray analyses revealed that carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism was enhanced in the leaves and grain of pPP2::AtSUC2 plants. Thus, enhancing Suc loading represents a promising strategy to improve rice yield to feed the global population. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Hard Winter Wheat and Flour Properties in Relation to Breadmaking Quality of Straight-dough Bread: Flour Particle Size and Bread Crumb Grain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S H Park; O K Chung; P A Seib

    2006-01-01

    Samples of 12 hard winter wheats and their flours that produced breads varying in crumb grain scores were studied for 38 quality parameters including: wheat physical and chemical characteristics; flour ash and protein contents, starch damage,swelling power, pasting characteristics, and flour particle size distribution; dough properties determined by a mixograph; and breadmaking properties for pup loaves (100g flour). Only two parameters, the protein content of wheat and the granulation of flour, showed significant correlations with bread crumb grain scores. Protein content of wheat ranging 12.9%~ 14.5% determined by an NIR method showed a weak inverse relationship (r =-0.61, p < 0.05) with bread crumb grain score. Flour particle size distribution measured by both Alpine Air Jet Sieve and NIR methods revealed that the weight wt % of particles less than 38μ m in size and representing 9.6%~ 19.3% of the flour weights was correlated positively (r =0.78, p < 0.01) with crumb grain score, whereas wt % of flour particles larger than 125μm had an inverse relationship (r =-0.60, p<0.05) with crumb grain score.

  6. Use of flyash and biogas slurry for improving wheat yield and physical properties of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R N; Pathak, H; Das, D K; Tomar, R K

    2005-08-01

    This study explores the potential use of by-products of energy production, i.e., (i) flyash from coal-powered electricity generation and (ii) biogas slurry from agricultural waste treatment, as nutrient sources in agriculture. These residues are available in large amounts and their disposal is a major concern for the environment. As both residues contain considerable amounts of plant nutrients, their use as soil amendment may offer a promising win-win opportunity to improve crop production and, at the same time, preventing adverse environmental impacts of waste disposal. Effect of flyash and biogas slurry on soil physical properties and growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was studied in a field experiment. Leaf area index, root length density and grain yield of wheat were higher in plots amended with flyash or biogas slurry compared to unamended plots. Both types of amendments reduced bulk density, and increased saturated hydraulic conductivity and moisture retention capacity of soil. The study showed that flyash and biogas slurry should be used as soil amendments for obtaining short-term and long-term benefits in terms of production increments and soil amelioration.

  7. Capability of crop water content for revealing variability of winter wheat grain yield and soil moisture under limited irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Jiangui; Shang, Jiali; Cai, Huanjie

    2018-08-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in the Guanzhong Plain, China. Understanding its water status is important for irrigation planning. A few crop water indicators, such as the leaf equivalent water thickness (EWT: g cm -2 ), leaf water content (LWC: %) and canopy water content (CWC: kg m -2 ), have been estimated using remote sensing techniques for a wide range of crops, yet their suitability and utility for revealing winter wheat growth and soil moisture status have not been well studied. To bridge this knowledge gap, field-scale irrigation experiments were conducted over two consecutive years (2014 and 2015) to investigate relationships of crop water content with soil moisture and grain yield, and to assess the performance of four spectral process methods for retrieving these three crop water indicators. The result revealed that the water indicators were more sensitive to soil moisture variation before the jointing stage. All three water indicators were significantly correlated with soil moisture during the reviving stage, and the correlations were stronger for leaf water indicators than that of the canopy water indicator at the jointing stage. No correlation was observed after the heading stage. All three water indicators showed good capabilities of revealing grain yield variability in jointing stage, with R 2 up to 0.89. CWC had a consistent relationship with grain yield over different growing seasons, but the performances of EWT and LWC were growing-season specific. The partial least squares regression was the most accurate method for estimating LWC (R 2 =0.72; RMSE=3.6%) and comparable capability for EWT and CWC. Finally, the work highlights the usefulness of crop water indicators to assess crop growth, productivity, and soil water status and demonstrates the potential of various spectral processing methods for retrieving crop water contents from canopy reflectance spectrums. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Grain yield and competitive ability against weeds in modern and heritage common wheat cultivars are differently influenced by sowing density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariateresa Lazzaro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sowing density can have a strong impact on crop stand development during wheat growing cycle. In organic and low-input agriculture, and therefore with minimum or nil use of chemical herbicides, increased sowing density is expected to affect not only grain yield but also weed suppression. In this study we tested, under Mediterranean conditions, six common wheat cultivars (three modern and three heritage and two three-component mixtures (arranged by combining the three modern or the three heritage cultivars. The different crop stands were tested at sowing densities of 250 (low and 400 (high, similar to standard sowing density used by local farmers viable seeds m–2 for two growing seasons. We did not detect a significant effect of crop stand diversity (single cultivars vs mixtures on grain yield and weed suppression. Differences were ascribed to type of cultivars used (heritage vs modern. Compared to high sowing density, in modern cultivars grain yield did not decrease significantly with low sowing density, whereas in heritage cultivars it increased by 15.6%, possibly also because of 21.5% lower plant lodging. Weed biomass increased with low sowing density both in heritage and modern cultivar crop stand types. However, heritage crop stands had, on average, a lower weed biomass (56% than modern crop stands. Moreover, weed biomass in heritage crop stands at low density (6.82±1.50 g m–2 was lower than that of modern cultivars at the same sowing density (15.54±3.35 g m–2, confirming the higher suppressive potential of the former. We can conclude that lower sowing density can be advisable when using heritage crop stands as it keeps productivity while decreasing plant lodging and maintaining weeds under control.

  9. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes. Proceedings series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Natural and induced variability was studied in Vicia faba, Phaseolus, soybeans, maize, barley, wheat, rice, and other cereals. Studies included mutations induced by radiation and chemical mutagens and breeding for high protein production. Prospects for the future were considered with regard to cell cultures, plant transformations, and development of food and feed materials. Other studies included molecular basis of gene action in protein synthesis; genetic control of protein synthesis; automated assay of protease inhibitors; radioinduced mutants in mung beans; and improvement in lysine content in maize. (HLW)

  10. Investigation of Barely Grain Yield Improvement during the Last Half Century across Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hajipoor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Barely (Hordeum vulgare is the fourth most important cereal after wheat, corn and rice. Regarding the role of breeding to increase barley grain yield a large number of studies have been done in different countries. However, a few studies have been performed across Golestan Province, in Iran. Therefore, this study was conducted to know what barley traits have changed with grain yield during recent years. How these traits will further improve the barley grain yield in the future breeding programs? Materials and Methods In order to study barely grain yield improvement during the last half century across Golestan Province, this expriment carried out at randomized complete block desing with 4 replications in Gonbad kavous university research field in 2013-2014. Treatments were included nine barley cultivars: Sahra, Dasht, Torkaman, Gorgan4, Nimruz, Mahoor, Khoram, Reyhan and Yousef. We analysed the results using ANOVA in the statistical software package SAS. Step by step regression analysis and pathway analysis was done to evaluate the relative proportion of different traits on yield and direct and indirect impacts of yield components on grain yield, respectively. Results and Discussion The results showed that the values of the studied parameters were significantly different in different cultivars. Results illustrated that the hieghest and the lowest grain weight were related to Mahoor (37.33 mg and Torkaman (22.66 mg, respectively. Due to the high number of rows per spike in barely cultivars, grains are closer together and there are less space for growth and phothosynthetic material storage. In addition, total assimilation was not enough to fill the grain of cultivars which have the more grain numbers per spike and it caused low grain weight. Although thousand grain weight is among the main grain yield components with high heritability, it influenced by other components such as the number of spikes and its length. The highest and the

  11. Study of improving the quality of bread and wheat-aegilops hybrids with the biotechnological ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganbarzada, Aygun; Hasanova, Sudaba

    2016-08-01

    The great need of the people to bread demands to increase high qualitative grain plants. At present time for solving these problem different methods of biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology are widely used in the process of selection. To investigate biochemical peculiarities of wheat-aegilops hybrids and to define the correlative relation between these characteristics. To investigate the technological peculiarities of wheat- aegilops hybrids and to define the relation between their main biochemical and technological characteristics. The conclusion of this investigation showed the followings- the wheat-aegilops hybrids according to their morphological and biochemical characteristics have approached to wheats. The electrophoretic spectres of the wheat- aegilops hybrids which have stable for their morphological characteristics are homogeny and heterogenic. Hereditarily some group protein components have passed to their tribes from their parents. But spontaneous hybridisation results in taking part the components of other unknown wheats in these electrophoretic spectres. There is a relation between the electrophoretic spectres and the indications of the grain quality.

  12. Effects of kernel weight and source-limitation on wheat grain yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRmohammadi

    2012-02-09

    Feb 9, 2012 ... Many regions need wheat cultivars that are capable of high yields when the weather is beneficial but produce stable yields when conditions are adverse. These geno- types should have high yield potential in both favorable and high temperature environments (Yang et al., 2002a;. Ahmed et al., 2011a, b).

  13. BIOSECURITY FOR REDUCING OCHRATOXIN A PRODUCTIVITY AND THEIR IMPACT ON GERMINATION AND ULTRASTRUCTURES OF GERMINATED WHEAT GRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a secondary metabolite of some fungi that causes very serious problems for plants, animals and humans. Various microorganisms such as bacteria and microscopic fungi have been tested for their abilities to prevent ochratoxin A contamination or detoxify foods. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus bulgaricus reduced OTA production by Aspergillus ochraceus to 40.88 µg/ml ( productivity 60.69% and 13.80 µg/ml (productivity 20.48% respectively compared with the control (67.35 µg/ml (productivity 100%. The results clearly indicated that the seed germinibility in the presence of OTA was decreased with increasing concentration, whereas the germinibility was uncompletely ceased at high concentration (67.35 µg/ml of OTA. The maximum amount of germination was observed in control (without OTA treatment and at low concentration (13.80 µg/ml within 4 days. Antioxidant enzymes catalase and peroxidase decreased in germinated grains treated with OTA. Catalase was 18.12 U/ml in grains treated with low concentration (13.80 µg/ml of OTA while at high concentration (67.35 µg/ml, it was 12.23 U/ml compared with the control (20.33 U/ml. On the other hand, peroxidase decreased only in germinated grains treated with high concentration of OTA. The ultrastructural studies indicate that there were dramatic differences between the cells of root system of wheat seedlings of grains treated and untreated with the OTA. Cell ultrastructures of treated grains with OTA showed that the cytoplasmic membrane collapses away from the cell wall. Plasmodesmata threads were appeared in untreated cells but not formed in treated cells.

  14. Plasma alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, and incidence of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Landberg, Rikard; Skeie, Guri; Loft, Steffen; Åman, Per; Leenders, Max; Dik, Vincent K.; Siersema, Peter D.; Pischon, Tobias; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Cottet, Vanessa; Kühn, Tilman; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bakken, Toril; Åsli, Lene Angell; Argüelles, Marcial; Jakszyn, Paula; Sánchez, María José; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Palmqvist, Richard; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Jenab, Mazda; Gunter, Marc J.; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Eilo; Tjønneland, Anne; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. B.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundFew studies have investigated the association between whole-grain intake and colorectal cancer. Because whole-grain intake estimation might be prone to measurement errors, more objective measures (eg, biomarkers) could assist in investigating such associations.MethodsThe association

  15. Ferulic acid from aleurone determines the antioxidant potency of wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.; Berg, R. van den; Havenaar, R.; Bast, A.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Grain is an important source of phytochemicals, which have potent antioxidant capacity. They have been implicated in the beneficial health effect of whole grains in reducing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to identify the most important antioxidant

  16. Effects of location and year on grain yield and its components in wheat genotypes developed from seed irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I.M.; El-Rassas, H.N.; Abdel-Aleem, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Eight mutant lines derived from gamma ray treatments and their parental cultivar sokha 69 of bread wheat were evaluated for grain yield per feddan, straw yield per feddan, harvest index, spike length, spike yield and weight of 1000-kernels at two locations (El-Fayoum and Inshas) in two seasons, 1991/92 and 1992/93. Significant effects of location on yield and yield components were found and the year significantly affects all the studied traits except grain yield per feddan. A significant location genotype interaction was detected for spike length, 1000-kernel weight and straw yield per feddan. In addition, year genotype interaction was significant in weight of 1000-kernels, straw yield per feddan and harvest index. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference among genotypes over all environments for spike length, 1000-kernel weight, straw yield per feddan and harvest index. However, these did not reflect significant effect on grain yield per feddan over all environments because it has a highly compensation ability. Meanwhile, mutant L 1 2 -1 exhibited significantly higher straw yield than sokha 69, when averaged over two seasons at El-Fayoum. Mutant L 1 9 -1 gave higher weight of 1000-kernels, spike length and harvest index than the other genotypes at low-yielding location (Inshas). It seems to be stable over a wide range of environments. 3 tabs

  17. Enhancement effects of dietary wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles on growth, immunology, and resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the effects of the inclusion of wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (WDDGS) at levels of 0 (control), 10, 20, 30 and 40% without (diets 2-5) and with (diets 6-9) lysine supplementation, as substitutes of soybean meal and corn meal mixture on growth, body composition, he...

  18. Radiation and nitrogen use at the leaf and canopy level by wheat and oilseed rape during the critical period for grain number definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreccer, M.F.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.; Oijen, van M.; Pot, C.S.; Rabbinge, R.

    2000-01-01

    During the critical period for grain number definition, the amount of biomass produced per unit absorbed radiation is more sensitive to nitrogen (N) supply in oilseed rape than in wheat, and reaches a higher value at high N. This response was investigated by combining experimental and modelling

  19. Whole Grain Compared with Refined Wheat Decreases the Percentage of Body Fat Following a 12-Week, Energy-Restricted Dietary Intervention in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Toubro, Søren; Jensen, Morten Georg

    2012-01-01

    ) with whole-grain wheat (WW) for 12 wk on body weight and composition after a 2-wk run-in period of consumption of RW-containing food intake. In this open-label randomized trial, 79 overweight or obese postmenopausal women were randomized to an energy-restricted diet (deficit of approximately 1250 k...

  20. In vitro competition between Fusarium graminearum and Epicoccum nigrum on media and wheat grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brita Dahl; Knorr, Kamilla; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    showed hyphae of F. graminearum and E. nigrum with many side branches when in close proximity, in contrast to pronounced apical hyphal growth when growing alone. Combinations of F. graminearum and E. nigrum on sterilised wheat grains were studied over time by qPCR. F. graminearum biomass...

  1. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Plant breeders, molecular biologists, analytical chemists and nutritionists report on progress and achievements to date. High-lysine genotypes of maize, barley and sorghum have been produced. One high-protein variety of wheat is reported available for commercial use. Grain legumes already have high seed protein content but, compared to cereals, less of the total biological yield is available as seed, and intensive efforts are being made to produce genotypes with higher seed yield. Genetic variability is available from world germplasm collections and from induced-mutation programmes. In the basic sciences considerable advances are reported. Putative structural genes determining protein quality and quantity have been located on various chromosomes. In vitro synthesis of legume and cereal storage proteins and the isolation of some mRNA and the preparation and cloning of cDNA have been reported. Uptake and incorporation of N into amino acids, their synthesis into proteins, and interaction between protein and carbohydrate biosynthesis during seed development are discussed. Future prospects are considered including potential selection at the cellular rather than the whole plant level. In only a minority of the 64 papers is the use of nuclear techniques indicated specifically enough to justify individual entries in INIS

  2. GENOMIC APPROACHES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF DROUGHT ADAPTATION IN WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dénes Dudits

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Breeding for yield stability under water limited conditions plays an essential role in the reduction of economic and social consequences of global climate changes. We show that two exotic drought resistant genotypes (Kobomughi and Plainsmann differ in root growth rate, root/shoot ratio, and adaptation to low soil water content. These genotypes exhibit characteristic transcript profiles as shown by barley macroarray studies using 10500 unigenes. Reprogramming of gene expression primarily occurred during the 1-2 weeks of water stress, and 6,1% of tested genes were up-regulated in roots of the more adaptive Plainsmann plants. The time course for expression of gene clusters from Kobomughi genotype revealed a prompt and transient gene activation that can help the survival of plants through function of various defense mechanisms. The aldo-keto reductases (AKRs can detoxify lipid peroxidation products (4-hydroxynon-2-enal and glycolysis-derived reactive aldehydes (metylglyoxal that contribute significantly to cellular damages caused by variety of environmental stresses such as drought, high light intensity, UV-B irradiation, cold. Overproduction of AKRs in transgenic tobacco or wheat plants provides considerable stress tolerance and resistance to methylglyoxal. Several transgenic wheat genotypes have been produced with production of elevated level of AKR enzyme. The drought tolerance of these materials was tested by a complex stress diagnostic system, that integrates imaging of plants and monitoring the leaf temperature and fluorescence induction. Based on these parameters, we can conclude that this transgenic strategy that is based on detoxification of lipid aldehyde can result in improved stress adaptation and reduced yield loss.

  3. Characterization of an Integrated Active Glu-1Ay Allele in Common Wheat from Wild Emmer and Its Potential Role in Flour Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Glu-1Ay, one of six genes encoding a high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS, is frequently silenced in hexaploid common wheat. Here, an active allele of Glu-1Ay was integrated from wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides accession D97 into the common wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar Chuannong 16 via the repeated self-fertilization of the pentaploid interspecific hybrid, culminating in the selection of a line TaAy7-40 shown to express the wild emmer Glu-1Ay allele. The open reading frame of this allele was a 1830 bp long sequence, demonstrated by its heterologous expression in Escherichia coli to encode a 608-residue polypeptide. Its nucleotide sequence was 99.2% identical to that of the sequence within the wild emmer parent. The TaAy7-40 introgression line containing the active Glu-1Ay allele showed higher protein content, higher sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS sedimentation value, higher content of wet gluten in the flour, higher grain weight, and bigger grain size than Chuannong 16. The end-use quality parameters of the TaAy7-40 were superior to those of the medium gluten common wheat cultivars Mianmai 37 and Neimai 9. Thus, the active Glu-1Ay allele might be of potential value in breeding programs designed to improve wheat flour quality.

  4. Induction of mutation: Improvement of genetic variability of wheat (Triticum sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parodi, P.C.P.

    1984-01-01

    The malnutrition problem in developing countries can be solved by increased production of foods with high proteic content. This paper discusses the application of mutagenesis by radiation in the development of an improved wheat variability with high content of proteins and amino acids. Wheat is the staple food of developing countries

  5. Implications of high-temperature events and water deficits on protein profiles in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jørgensen, Anders Dysted; Li, Huawei

    2011-01-01

    of interaction of water deficits and/or a high-temperature event (32 degrees C) during vegetative growth (terminal spikelet) with either of these stress events applied during generative growth (anthesis) in wheat. Influence of combinations of stress on protein fractions (albumins, globulins, gliadins...... and glutenins) in grains and stress-induced changes on the albumin and gliadin proteomes were investigated by 2-DE and MS. The synthesis of individual protein fractions was shown to be affected by both the type and time of the applied stresses. Identified drought or high-temperature-responsive proteins included...... proteins involved in primary metabolism, storage and stress response such as late embryogenesis abundant proteins, peroxiredoxins and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors. Several proteins, e.g. heat shock protein and 14-3-3 protein changed in abundance only under multiple high temperatures....

  6. Improving wheat simulation capabilities in Australia from a cropping systems perspective. III. The integrated wheat model (I-WHEAT).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinke, H.; Hammer, G.L.; Keulen, van H.; Rabbinge, R.

    1998-01-01

    Previous work has identified several short-comings in the ability of four spring wheat and one barley model to simulate crop processes and resource utilization. This can have important implications when such models are used within systems models where final soil water and nitrogen conditions of one

  7. The application of carbon isotope discrimination of charred wheat grains to reconstruct Late Holocene climate change and identify water management strategy in northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.; An, C.; Duan, F.; Zhao, Y.; Cao, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The AMS 14C dating and corresponding carbon stable isotope datum of charred wheat grains from archaeological sites in northwest China especially Hexi Corridor and Xinjiang have been collected widely to study its potential roles in reconstructing past climate change and identifying water management strategies through comparison with integrated regional humidity index, carbon isotope data of wheat grown under modern irrigation environment from study area and Mediterranean charred wheat carbon isotope data. The results suggest (1) carbon isotope discrimination values of charred wheat both in Hexi corridor and Xinjiang could respond well to regional moisture change, and there are also good positive correlation relationship between them (2) in contrast to consistent relationship between decreased carbon isotope discrimination values of charred wheat and dry climate condition, increased carbon isotope discrimination values does not represent wetter regional climate completely and may also reveal effects of human irrigation activities. The higher carbon isotope discrimination value of charred wheat which occurred in the Hexi Corridor from 4000 to 3850 a BP, 2100 a BP and 550 a BP and in Tianshan area of Xinjiang from 3730 a BP could be likely to be related with human activities (3) the carbon isotope discrimination value of charred wheat may have a certain limit which is generally not beyond 19‰. And this upper limit could influence its availability in reflecting abrupt change of precipitation/humidity especially rapid wetter trend. We conclude that carbon isotope analysis of charred wheat grains could be a good tool for reconstructing past climate change and identifying ancient irrigation practices.

  8. Transgenic Expression of a Functional Fragment of Harpin Protein Hpa1 in Wheat Represses English Grain Aphid Infestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Man-yu; ZHOU Ting; ZHAO Yan-ying; LI Jia-bao; XU Heng; DONG Han-song; ZHANG Chun-ling

    2014-01-01

    The harpin protein Hpa1 produced by the rice bacterial blight pathogen promotes plant growth and induces plant resistance to pathogens and insect pests. The region of 10-42 residues (Hpa110-42) in the Hpa1 sequence is critical as the isolated Hpa110-42 fragment is 1.3-7.5-fold more effective than the full length in inducing plant growth and resistance. Here we report that transgenic expression of Hpa110-42 in wheat induces resistance to English grain aphid, a dominant species of wheat aphids. Hpa110-42-induced resistance is effective to inhibit the aphid behavior in plant preference at the initial colonization stage and repress aphid performances in the reproduction, nymph growth, and instar development on transgenic plants. The resistance characters are correlated with enhanced expression of defense-regulatory genes (EIN2, PP2-A, and GSL10) and consistent with induced expression of defense response genes (Hel, PDF1.2, PR-1b, and PR-2b). As a result, aphid infestations are alleviated in transgenic plants. The level of Hpa110-42-induced resistance in regard to repression of aphid infestations is equivalent to the effect of chemical control provided by an insecticide. These results suggested that the defensive role of Hpa110-42 can be integrated into breeding germplasm of the agriculturally signiifcant crop with a great potential of the agricultural application.

  9. Effect of temperature stress on polyphenol oxidase activity in grains of some wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayani, W.K.

    2011-01-01

    Color is a key quality trait of wheat-based products and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is implicated to play a significant role in their undesirable darkening. Polyphenol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of phenols to quinines, which auto oxidize and polymerize with amino acid of cellular proteins resulting brown and black pigmentation propounding reduced nutritional values. In present study, the PPO activity in 50 different Pakistani wheat cultivars was investigated and grouped into three categories viz; low, medium and high PPO activity cultivars. PPO is a heat labile enzyme. To investigate effect of heat stress, nine cultivars from each category were chosen for treatment at 30, 40 and 50 deg. C for 30, 60, and 120 minutes each. A substantial change was experienced in PPO activity as compared to room temperature. Two wheat cultivar Wafaq-2001 and AS-2002 showed a compromising attitude of minimum PPO activity at 30 deg. C for a period of 30 and 60 minutes of incubation. In general, an incubation of 30 deg. C or 60 deg. C (low or high) for a period of 30 minutes can be recommended for suppressing PPO activity. (author)

  10. The concentration ratio of alkaline earth elements calcium, barium and strontium in grains of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Ivana V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though calcium (Ca, strontium (Sr and barium (Ba belong to the same group of the periodic table of elements, and thus have similar chemical features, their importance for plants differs greatly. Since plants do not have the ability to completely dis­criminate between essential (e.g. Ca and non-essential elements (e.g. Sr and Ba, they read­ily take all of them up from soil solution, which is reflected in the ratios of concentrations of those elements in plant tissues, and it influences their nutritive characteristics. The ability of plant species and genotypes to take up and accumulate chemical elements in their different tissues is related to their genetic background. However, differences in chemical composition are the least reflected in their reproductive parts. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate ratios of concentrations of Ca, Sr and Ba in the whole grain of diploid and tetraploid wheat - ancestors of common wheat, as well as in hexaploid commercial cultivars, grown in the field, at the same location, over a period of three years. The investigated genotypes accumulated Ca, Sr and Ba at different levels, which is reflected in the ratio of their concentrations in the grain. The lowest ratio was established between Ba and Sr, followed by Ca and Ba, while the highest ratio was between Ca and Sr. Moreover, the results have shown that the year of study, genotype and the combination highly significantly affected the ratio of the concentration Ca:Sr, Ca:Ba, and Ba:Sr.

  11. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer application timing on nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield of winter wheat in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efretuei A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to determine the effects of initiating application of fertilizer nitrogen (N to winter wheat at different growth stages (GSs on grain yield and N use efficiency (NUE. A factorial experiment was carried out in two growing seasons (2011 and 2012 with five timings of first N application (GS 24/26 [tillering], GS 30, GS 31, GS 32 or GS 37 and an unfertilized control, two sowing densities (100 and 400 seeds/m2 and a cattle slurry treatment (with or without slurry. The latter was included to simulate variation in soil N supply (SNS. Delaying the first application of N from the tillering stage until GS 30 had no significant effect on grain yield in either year. Further delaying the initial N application until GS 31 caused a significant yield reduction in 2011, in comparison to GS 30 application, but not in 2012. Differences in efficiency of recovery and use of fertilizer N by the crop among the first three application timings were small. There was no evidence to support alteration in the timing of the first application of N in response to low plant density. Slurry application did not influence SNS, so the interaction between SNS and fertilizer N application timing could not be determined. It is concluded that in order to maximise yield and NUE, the first N application should be applied to winter wheat between late tillering and GS 30 and that delaying the first N until GS 31 can lead to yield reductions compared to the yield obtained with earlier application.

  12. Improvement of the nutritional quality of barley and spring wheat: A review of the FAO/SIDA/SAREC project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, I.D.

    1984-01-01

    The main aim of the joint FAO/SIDA/SAREC project was to develop new varieties of barley and spring wheat adapted to conditions in developing countries and with increased protein and lysine contents of the grain. Six premier research institutes in Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Iran, Pakistan and Turkey co-operated in the project under the technical leadership of Svaloev AB, formerly the Swedish Seed Association, during the period 1974 to 1981. Barley lines having grain with high protein and high lysine contents derived from Hiproly, Risoe 1508 and B1 were used as donors and backcrossed at Svaloev into adapted breeding material provided by breeders in the participating countries. Backcrosses and other progenies selected for homozygosity of the lysine genes on the basis of their protein content and dye-binding capacity (DBC) were distributed to the participants who continued selection in their own environments. A similar programme was initiated for wheat, based largely on Atlas 66, Nap Hal and Rageni as donors of high protein and lysine, but the expression of high lysine was very weakly inherited and selection was abandoned in 1978. It has proved extremely difficult, and so far impossible, to find high yielding lines with desirable agronomic characters combined with increased protein and lysine contents. Evidence of positive improvement in protein production per unit area was obtained in both wheat and barley in India. Under the aegis of the project over 14,000 lines of wheat and nearly 21,000 lines of barley, which included around 6,000 mutant progenies, were screened for protein content and DBC values at Svaloev, but no new prospective donors were identified that were superior to those already available. Conclusions are drawn concerning the benefit of the project and suggestions are made for further action. (author)

  13. Quantitative assessment of possible human health risk associated with consumption of arsenic contaminated groundwater and wheat grains from Ropar Wetand and its environs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sakshi; Kaur, Jagdeep; Nagpal, Avinash Kaur; Kaur, Inderpreet

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic (As) is a carcinogenic metalloid that enters food chain through food and water and poses health risk to living beings. It is important to assess the As status in the environment and risks associated with it. Hence, a risk assessment study was conducted across Ropar wetland, Punjab, India and its environs in pre-monsoon season of 2013, to estimate the risk posed to adults and children via daily consumption of As contaminated groundwater and wheat grains. Arsenic concentrations determined in groundwater, soil and wheat grain samples using atomic absorption spectrometer ranged from 2.90 to 10.56 μg L(-1), 0.06 to 0.12 mg kg(-1) and 0.03 to 0.21 mg kg(-1), respectively. Arsenic in wheat grains showed significant negative correlation with phosphate content in soil indicating a competitive uptake of arsenate and phosphate ions by plants. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis suggested that both natural and anthropogenic factors contribute to variation in As content and other variables studied in soil and groundwater samples. Total cancer risk and hazard index were higher than the USEPA safety limits of 1.00 × 10(-6) and 1, respectively, for both adults and children indicating a high risk of cancer and other health disorders. Consumption of As contaminated wheat grains was found to pose higher risk of cancer and non-cancer health disorders as compared to intake of As contaminated groundwater by both adults and children. Moreover, children were found to be more prone to cancer and other heath disorders due to As exposure via wheat grains and groundwater as compared to adults.

  14. Penicillium verrucosum occurrence and Ochratoxin A contents in organically cultivated grain with special reference to ancient wheat types and drying practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholt, S.; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses the relationship between the ochratoxigenic strains of Penicillium verrucosum and ochratoxin A (OTA) contents in organically cultivated grain. It included 37 combined, non-dried grain samples from farmers with no drying facilities as well as 19 non-dried and 22 dried samples...... samples of spelt, which was significantly more contaminated by P. verrucosum than oats, wheat and barley. Though not statistically significant, the results also indicated that spelt was more contaminated than rye, which is usually regarded the most sensitive small grain cereal. No correlation was found...

  15. TaGW2-6A allelic variation contributes to grain size possibly by regulating the expression of cytokinins and starch-related genes in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Juan; Li, Liqun; Lv, Qian; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Li; Li, Xuejun

    2017-12-01

    Functional allelic variants of TaGW2 - 6A produce large grains, possibly via changes in endosperm cells and dry matter by regulating the expression of cytokinins and starch-related genes via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In wheat, TaGW2-6A coding region allelic variants are closely related to the grain width and weight, but how this region affects grain development has not been fully elucidated; thus, we explored its influence on grain development based mainly on histological and grain filling analyses. We found that the insertion type (NIL31) TaGW2-6A allelic variants exhibited increases in cell numbers and cell size, thereby resulting in a larger (wider) grain size with an accelerated grain milk filling rate, and increases in grain width and weight. We also found that cytokinin (CK) synthesis genes and key starch biosynthesis enzyme AGPase genes were significantly upregulated in the TaGW2-6A allelic variants, while CK degradation genes and starch biosynthesis-negative regulators were downregulated in the TaGW2-6A allelic variants, which was consistent with the changes in cells and grain filling. Thus, we speculate that TaGW2-6A allelic variants are linked with CK signaling, but they also influence the accumulation of starch by regulating the expression of related genes via the ubiquitin-proteasome system to control the grain size and grain weight.

  16. Rice and wheat yield improvement by the application of boron in salt affected soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdi, S.M.; Sarfraz, M.; Hassan, N.M.; Hassan, W.

    2007-01-01

    In recent past studies on wheat, rice and fruit plant showed that fairly large percentage of soils and crops are deficient in boron. Several times a question rose to study the boron responses in a cropping system to see the residual effect of boron. With the objective in mind, a field experiment was conducted at two sites in saline sodic soils to see the rice and wheat crops response to boron. Boron was applied to rice at the rate of 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 Kg ha/sub -1/ as sodium tetra borate. The results showed that both paddy and straw yields increased with the increasing rates of boron and highest yield was obtained from 2 Kg ha/sub -l/. After harvesting of rice crop wheat was sown in the same layout. The treatments were divided into two equal portions. Boron was applied to one portion at the same rates as to rice while remaining half remained as such to study the residual effect of B on wheat. The results showed that grain anti straw yields increased with increasing rates of boron. In case of untreated plots to see the residual effect grain and straw yield increased with increasing rates of boron applied to rice. It was concluded that B applied to rice did show residual effect to the following wheat crop. Therefore, there is no need to apply B to following crop when B is applied to the previous crop. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the Effect of Crop Rotations on Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Darya)

    OpenAIRE

    H. A. Fallahi; U. Mahmadyarov; H. Sabouri; M. Ezat-Ahmadi4

    2013-01-01

    Grain yield in wheat is influenced directly and indirectly by other plant characteristics. One of the main goals in wheat breeding programs is increase of grain yield. Considering the role of crop rotation in increasing grain yield, and in order to study the difference between crop rotations for wheat yield and yield components (Darya cultivar), an experiment was conducted with six rotation treatments (wheat-chickpea-wheat, wheat-cotton-wheat, wheat-watermelon-wheat, wheat-wheat-wheat, wheat-...

  18. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilei Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g significantly (p < 0.05 increased during mixing, fermenting, and baking (65% to 68%. Bound phenolics slightly (p > 0.05 decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9% compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p < 0.05 during 65 min fermenting and baking (16% to 27%. Their antioxidant activities followed a similar trend as observed for total phenolic content. The bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109% but decreased bound (2% to 3% phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC significantly (p < 0.05 decreased by 21% after mixing; however, it gradually increased to 90% of the original levels after fermenting. Baking significantly (p < 0.05 decreased TAC by 55%, resulting in the lowest value for bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g. p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p < 0.05 increased the phenolic content and antioxidant activities; however, it compromised the anthocyanin content of purple wheat bread.

  19. Fungal communities in wheat grain show significant co-existence patterns among species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, M.; Justesen, A. F.; Knorr, K.

    2014-01-01

    identified as ‘core’ OTUs as they were found in all or almost all samples and accounted for almost 99 % of all sequences. The remaining OTUs were only sporadically found and only in small amounts. Cluster and factor analyses showed patterns of co-existence among the core species. Cluster analysis grouped...... the 21 core OTUs into three clusters: cluster 1 consisting of saprotrophs, cluster 2 consisting mainly of yeasts and saprotrophs and cluster 3 consisting of wheat pathogens. Principal component extraction showed that the Fusarium graminearum group was inversely related to OTUs of clusters 1 and 2....

  20. Studies on translocation of tritiated assimilates into potatoes and wheat grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.; Diabate, S.; Strack, S.; Raskob, W.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium released in the enviroment may be converted to organically bound tritium (OBT), mainly by photosynthesis in green leaves. Tritiated assimilates can be translocated from leaves to storage organs of crop plants. This should be considered in models calculating the dose due to the ingestion pathway. This paper describes experiments with wheat and potatoes, which have been designed to study the translocation of tritiated assimilates. Additionally, gas exchange measurements have been performed with the leaves of those plants. A model has been developed to estimate the generation of OBT and the translocation of tritiated assimilates into edible plant parts. (orig.) [de

  1. To evaluate the efficacy of zinc sulphate mixed with phosphate and potash fertilizer on the grain yield of wheat (tritium aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, G.; Abbas, Z.; Ali, M.A.; Hussain, I.

    2009-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate yield response of wheat cv, BK-2002 at various fertilizer levels, at farmer, fields of District Mianwali during consecutive years 2006-07 and 2007-08. Six levels of ZnSo/sub 4/ mixed with NPK were evaluated in farmer's fields in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. All doses of znSo/sub 4/ along with Departmental recommended dose of NPK (114-84- 62 kg ha/sup-l/) revealed a linear increase in, plant height, number of tillers/m/sup 2/, number of spikelets /spike. number of grains/spike, 1000 grains weight (g) and yield (kg ha/sup-1/) of wheat variety BK-2002 were recorded. Maximum yield of wheat was recorded when it was subjected to 22.5 kg ho/sub -1/ 33% ZnSo/sub 4/ Departmental recommended dose of NPK fertilizer. The study indicated the potential role of ZnSo/sub 4/ in enhancing the growth and yield of wheat in arid climate and that 33% ZnSo/sub 4/ (22.5 kg ha/sub -1/) + Departmental recommended dose of NPK, (fertilizer might be the optimum level (T5) for the production of wheat in arid climate. (author)

  2. Biochemical Changes Associated with Germinating Rice Grains and Germination Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subajiny VELUPPILLAI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine biochemical changes during the germination of rice grains (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica var. Mottaikaruppan and to improve germination rate using gibberellic acid and surfactants [sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS (1.0 g/L and Triton-X−100 (1.0 mL/L], whole rice grains soaked in distilled water for 12 h at 30°C were germinated in the dark at 30°C for five days. The highest germination rate (77.1% was obtained on the 5th day. An increase in the content of reducing sugars from 7.3 to 58.1 mg/g DM (dry matter was observed from the 1st day of germination. Free amino acids and soluble protein contents increased to 3.69 and 5.29 mg/g DM, respectively on the 5th day of germination. Total protein content decreased from 100.5 to 91.0 g/kg DM during germination. Increases in amylolytic (1.1 to 190.0 U/g DM and proteolytic (0 to 0.12 U/g DM activities were observed during germination. Effects of different concentrations of gibberellic acid on the germination of rice grains were evaluated and 0.1 g/L was found to promote germination. When effects of gibberellic acid (0.1 g/L and surfactants were evaluated individually and together, higher germination rate was observed in the control experiment (grains germinated in distilled water, whereas giberellic acid and surfactants decreased the germination rate. Therefore, the flour obtained from the grains germinated for four days using distilled water to obtain high content of soluble materials and enzyme activities can be used in preparation of bakery items.

  3. Effect of late-season nitrogen fertilization on grain yield and on flour rheological quality and stability in common wheat, under different production situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Blandino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for a high and homogeneous technological quality of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. points out the necessity of improving wheat with by a higher protein (GPC and gluten content, strength of dough (W and dough stability. Among the current crop practices, late-season nitrogen (N fertilization, from heading to flowering, is generally considered the practice that has the most effects on the storage proteins and technological quality of the grain. In order to explore the influence late-season N application can have on the dough properties and on the formation of homogeneous lots in more detail, a research was set up between 2007 and 2013, over 6 growing seasons at different sites in North West Italy using the Bologna cultivar in each of the trials. Three different late-season N fertilization strategies were compared: T1, control without a late distribution of N; T2, foliar N fertilization at flowering; T3, top-dress granular soil fertilization at the beginning of heading. A randomized complete block experimental design with four replicates was adopted. The grain yield, GPC, W and P/L indexes were analyzed. Moreover, the rheological and enzymatic properties of the samples were studied using a Mixolab® analyser (Chòpin Technologies, Paris, France. Grain yield was found to be unaffected by the fertilization treatments, while the late N application (T2, T3 significantly increased GPC. Only the granular N fertilization (T3 increased the W index compared to T1, while the P/L index was not affected by any of the fertilization strategies. Furthermore, the T3 strategy was always more effective in reducing the variability of the W index than the T2 and the T1 strategies. Water absorption and dough development time were higher in T3, than in T1, while intermediate results were reached for T2. The effect of late-season N fertilization was also significant on the starch behaviour of the dough, as an increase in starch gelatinization and

  4. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lilei; Beta, Trust

    2015-08-26

    Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g) significantly (p 0.05) decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9%) compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109%) but decreased bound (2% to 3%) phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) significantly (p bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g). p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p bread.

  5. RNAi-Mediated Downregulation of Inositol Pentakisphosphate Kinase (IPK1 in Wheat Grains Decreases Phytic Acid Levels and Increases Fe and Zn Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipla Aggarwal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of micronutrient bioavailability is crucial to address the malnutrition in the developing countries. Various approaches employed to address the micronutrient bioavailability are showing promising signs, especially in cereal crops. Phytic acid (PA is considered as a major antinutrient due to its ability to chelate important micronutrients and thereby restricting their bioavailability. Therefore, manipulating PA biosynthesis pathway has largely been explored to overcome the pleiotropic effect in different crop species. Recently, we reported that functional wheat inositol pentakisphosphate kinase (TaIPK1 is involved in PA biosynthesis, however, the functional roles of the IPK1 gene in wheat remains elusive. In this study, RNAi-mediated gene silencing was performed for IPK1 transcripts in hexaploid wheat. Four non-segregating RNAi lines of wheat were selected for detailed study (S3-D-6-1; S6-K-3-3; S6-K-6-10 and S16-D-9-5. Homozygous transgenic RNAi lines at T4 seeds with a decreased transcript of TaIPK1 showed 28–56% reduction of the PA. Silencing of IPK1 also resulted in increased free phosphate in mature grains. Although, no phenotypic changes in the spike was observed but, lowering of grain PA resulted in the reduced number of seeds per spikelet. The lowering of grain PA was also accompanied by a significant increase in iron (Fe and zinc (Zn content, thereby enhancing their molar ratios (Zn:PA and Fe:PA. Overall, this work suggests that IPK1 is a promising candidate for employing genome editing tools to address the mineral accumulation in wheat grains.

  6. A quantitative approach to characterize sink-source relationships during grain filling in contrasting wheat genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Guo, W.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple generic framework to quantify source–sink relationships during grain filling, by using a determinate growth function which has a unique property, namely being able of explicitly describing the time for the end of a growth process. This model framework was applied to analyze these

  7. Compositional Study for Improving Wheat Flour with Functional Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Apostol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Helianthus tuberosus L. is cultivated widely across for its edible tuber. As a source of inulin with aperient, cholagogue and tonic effects, its tubers have been used for the treatment of diabetes. Also, the leaves of Helianthus tuberosus L. show antipyretic, analgesic effects and are therefore used for the treatment of bone fracture, skin wound and pain. The main aim of this study is to establish the optimum dose from rheological and nutritional point of view of Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber flour and leaves flour used as functional ingredient in bakery products industry. The types of mixtures of flours used in this study was: P1–100% wheat flour; P2-93% wheat flour + 7% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 2% leaves; P3-92% wheat flour + 8% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 3% leaves; P4- 90% wheat flour + 10%  Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 5% leaves; P5 -100% Helianthus tuber; P6- Helianthus leaves. The potential functional of wheat flour enriched with the Helianthus tuberosus, in different proportions, was evaluated concerning chemical composition and rheological behaviour of the doughs. Adding of the Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber and leaves provoked an effect increasing the levels of inulin, minerals and fiber in wheat flour. The rheological properties of dough showed that P2, kept the rheological parameters for the technological behavior in order to obtain an acceptable quality of the bakery products. 

  8. Improve of local durum wheat by gamma radiation use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, A. M.

    1993-01-01

    Syrian local durum wheat's, specially the cultivar Hurani, are known for adaptation to local environments; are characterized by many biotic and abiotic stresses. However, these local durum cultivars suffer from a low yield potential when compared to new high yielding lines, and lodging when high input technologies are used. A research program was initiated to improve the two local cultivars Hurani and Senator Capilli by exposing their seed to 5 doses of gamma rays (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 krad) to induced mutation. The treated seed were sown during 1983/84 and up to 1987/88 cropping seasons. 160 mutants were studies in comparison with the local Syrian durum. Mutant lines were selected as resistant to lodging (860, 990, 1065, 1052) as dwarf mutant lines (899, 465, 1072) as higher yielding than Hurani and Sentor and Capilli (33, 695, 1003). Some were superior or equal to the checks (915, 832, 840). Work will continue in theses lines in the coming cropping seasons to be evaluated for yield and homogeneity. (author)

  9. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and non-starch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat, and co-products from these grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, N. A.; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was deter......The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients...... was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn...... up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis...

  10. The influence of α-amylase supplementation, γ-irradiation (60Co) as well as long time of storage of wheat grain on flour technological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warchalewski, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The varieties of winter wheat, Aria and Beta, were studied. The Aria variety was stored for the period of four years. The part of wheat grain from Beta variety was irradiated with γ rays ( 60 Co). In extracts from wheat kernels and flour protein content, total α- and β-amylolytic activity as well as α-amylolytic activity were determined, α-amylases of native and fungal origin were added to the flour obtained from samples of stored wheat kernels (Aria), irradiated and non-irradiated (Beta). Consequently native α-amylase activity of flour increased by 25% and 50%, respectively. Extensive technological estimation of grain and flour with amylase supplements was carried out. The study included: sedimentation analysis, falling number test, milling experiment, farinogram and extensogram analyses, measurement of the degree of damaged starch and flour colour, as well as baking experiment. The obtained experimental loaves of bread were tested for their ability to remain fresh. It was found out that the stored grain flour was characterized by the highest α-amylolytic activity and the lowest falling number value, whereas the irradiated grain flour showed the highest degree of starch damage and water absorption. When α-amylase supplementation to doughs was not accompanied by either irradiation or storage of grain, it definitely changed their physical properties for the worse. The negative influence of native α-amylases appeared to be less significant than that of fungal α-amylases. The positive influence of α-amylase supplementations, especially of those increasing by 25% the native α-amylolytic activity of flour on volume, and freshness of loaves of bread was observed. (author)

  11. Microwave Synthesis of Fe2 O3 and ZnO Nanoparticles and Evaluation Its Application on Grain Iron and Zinc Concentrations of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and their Relationships to Grain Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Khaghani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fe2O3 and ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by a fast microwave method. Nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction  and scanning electron microscopy. The goal of bio-fortification is to develop plants that have an increased content of bioavailable nutrients in their edible parts. The micronutrients magnesium (Mg, manganese (Mn and copper (Cu, boron (B and calcium (Ca are essential for plants and the humans and animals that consume plants. Increasing the micronutrient density of staple crops, will greatly improve human nutrition on a global scale. In order to investigate the effect of Iron and Zinc on nutrient uptake of two line of wheat. The experimental design used for this research was a factorial experiment under complete randomized block design with three replications and two variety of wheat including Roshan back cross (V1 and C-78-14 line (V2, three levels of Iron from Fe-EDDHA (Sequestrene138 including no application (F0, Fe sulphate (F1 and Nano Fe2O3 (F2 and three Levels of  Zinc as zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 including no application (Z0, 25 kg/ha-1 (Z1 and 50 kg/ha-1 (Z2 were used. The result is showed that application of nanoparticles increased the study of parameters such as magnesium, manganese, copper, boron and calcium. Highest levels of grain yield with 5.13 ton/ha-1 was obtained in C-78-14 variety.

  12. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Based upon the recommendations of a panel of experts in 1968, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture established an international programme to improve the protein content and quality in seed crops of importance to developing countries. Reports of previous meetings held under this programme have been published by the IAEA. The meeting on Seed Protein Improvement in Cereals and Grain Legumes, held in September 1978, marked the formal end of the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on Seed Protein Improvement. It reviewed the progress achieved. Volume I covers 27 papers. Following a review of the world protein and nutritional situation, the contributions are grouped under the main headings of the need for and use of variability in protein characteristics; genetics, biochemistry and physiology of seed storage proteins; analytical and nutritional techniques; and coordinated research programmes under a joint FAO/IAEA/GSF programme on grain protein improvement. Individual papers of direct relevance are cited as separate entries in INIS

  13. From genetics to functional genomics: Improvement in drought signaling and tolerance in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet eBudak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought being a yield limiting factor has become a major threat to international food security. It is a complex trait and drought tolerance response is carried out by various genes, transcription factors (TFs, microRNAs (miRNAs, hormones, proteins, co-factors, ions and metabolites. This complexity has limited the development of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance by classical breeding. However, attempts have been made to fill the lost genetic diversity by crossing wheat with wild wheat relatives. In recent years, several molecular markers including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with genes for drought signaling pathways have been reported. Screening of large wheat collections by marker assisted selection (MAS and transformation of wheat with different genes/TFs has improved drought signaling pathways and tolerance. Several miRNAs also provide drought tolerance to wheat by regulating various TFs/genes. Emergence of OMICS techniques including transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and ionomics has helped to identify and characterize the genes, proteins, metabolites and ions involved in drought signaling pathways. Together, all these efforts helped in understanding the complex drought tolerance mechanism. Here, we have reviewed the advances in wide hybridization, MAS, QTL mapping, miRNAs, transgenic technique, genome editing system and above mentioned functional genomics tools for identification and utility of signaling molecules for improvement in wheat drought tolerance

  14. A QTL on the short arm of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3B affects the stability of grain weight in plants exposed to a brief heat shock early in grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirdelmoghanloo, Hamid; Taylor, Julian D; Lohraseb, Iman; Rabie, Huwaida; Brien, Chris; Timmins, Andy; Martin, Peter; Mather, Diane E; Emebiri, Livinus; Collins, Nicholas C

    2016-04-22

    Molecular markers and knowledge of traits associated with heat tolerance are likely to provide breeders with a more efficient means of selecting wheat varieties able to maintain grain size after heat waves during early grain filling. A population of 144 doubled haploids derived from a cross between the Australian wheat varieties Drysdale and Waagan was mapped using the wheat Illumina iSelect 9,000 feature single nucleotide polymorphism marker array and used to detect quantitative trait loci for heat tolerance of final single grain weight and related traits. Plants were subjected to a 3 d heat treatment (37 °C/27 °C day/night) in a growth chamber at 10 d after anthesis and trait responses calculated by comparison to untreated control plants. A locus for single grain weight stability was detected on the short arm of chromosome 3B in both winter- and autumn-sown experiments, determining up to 2.5 mg difference in heat-induced single grain weight loss. In one of the experiments, a locus with a weaker effect on grain weight stability was detected on chromosome 6B. Among the traits measured, the rate of flag leaf chlorophyll loss over the course of the heat treatment and reduction in shoot weight due to heat were indicators of loci with significant grain weight tolerance effects, with alleles for grain weight stability also conferring stability of chlorophyll ('stay-green') and shoot weight. Chlorophyll loss during the treatment, requiring only two non-destructive readings to be taken, directly before and after a heat event, may prove convenient for identifying heat tolerant germplasm. These results were consistent with grain filling being limited by assimilate supply from the heat-damaged photosynthetic apparatus, or alternatively, accelerated maturation in the grains that was correlated with leaf senescence responses merely due to common genetic control of senescence responses in the two organs. There was no evidence for a role of mobilized stem reserves (water

  15. Multi-environment analysis and improved mapping of a yield-related QTL on chromosome 3B of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Julien; Taylor, Julian; Parent, Boris; Bennett, Dion; Reynolds, Matthew; Feuillet, Catherine; Langridge, Peter; Mather, Diane

    2013-03-01

    Improved mapping, multi-environment quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and dissection of allelic effects were used to define a QTL associated with grain yield, thousand grain weight and early vigour on chromosome 3BL of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under abiotic stresses. The QTL had pleiotropic effects and showed QTL x environment interactions across 21 diverse environments in Australia and Mexico. The occurrence and the severity of water deficit combined with high temperatures during the growing season affected the responsiveness of this QTL, resulting in a reversal in the direction of allelic effects. The influence of this QTL can be substantial, with the allele from one parent (RAC875) increasing grain yield by up to 12.5 % (particularly in environments where both heat and drought stress occurred) and the allele from the other parent (Kukri) increasing grain yield by up to 9 % in favourable environments. With the application of additional markers and the genotyping of additional recombinant inbred lines, the genetic map in the QTL region was refined to provide a basis for future positional cloning.

  16. Whole-grain wheat consumption reduces inflammation in a randomized controlled trial on overweight and obese subjects with unhealthy dietary and lifestyle behaviors: role of polyphenols bound to cereal dietary fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitaglione, P.; Mennella, I.; Ferracane, R.; Rivellese, A.A.; Giacco, R.; Ercolini, D.; Gibbons, S.M.; Storia, la A.; Gilbert, A.J.; Jonnalagadda, S.; Thielecke, F.; Gallo, M.A.; Scalfi, L.; Fogliano, V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiology associates whole-grain (WG) consumption with several health benefits. Mounting evidence suggests that WG wheat polyphenols play a role in mechanisms underlying health benefits. Objective: The objective was to assess circulating concentration, excretion, and the physiologic

  17. Effect of the down-regulation of the high Grain Protein Content (GPC) genes on the wheat transcriptome during monocarpic senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantu, Dario; Pearce, Stephen P; Distelfeld, Assaf

    2011-01-01

    Background: Increasing the nutrient concentration of wheat grains is important to ameliorate nutritional deficiencies in many parts of the world. Proteins and nutrients in the wheat grain are largely derived from the remobilization of degraded leaf molecules during monocarpic senescence. The down....... At this early stage of senescence GPC transcript levels are significantly lower in transgenic GPC-RNAi plants than in the wild type, but there are still no visible phenotypic differences between genotypes. Results: We generated 1.4 million 454 reads from early senescing flag leaves (average ~350 nt......) and assembled 1.2 million into 30,497 contigs that were used as a reference to map 145 million Illumina reads from three wild type and four GPC-RNAi plants. Following normalization and statistical testing, we identified a set of 691 genes differentially regulated by GPC (431 ≥ 2-fold change). Transcript level...

  18. The effect of whole-grain compared to refined wheat on the gut microbial composition and integrity in a colonic epithelial cell model following a 12-week energy-restricted dietary intervention in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Licht, Tine Rask; Kristensen, M.

    in postmenopausal women who were randomized to either whole-grain wheat (WW) (n=38) or refined wheat (RW) (n=34) consumption as part of an energy-restricted diet for 12-weeks following a 2-week run-in period with RW. Percentage fat mass as well as serum total and LDL cholesterol were found to differ between the two...

  19. A novel allele of TaGW2-A1 is located in a finely mapped QTL that increases grain weight but decreases grain number in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Huijie; Feng, Zhiyu; Du, Xiaofen; Song, Yane; Liu, Xinye; Qi, Zhongqi; Song, Long; Li, Jiang; Li, Linghong; Peng, Huiru; Hu, Zhaorong; Yao, Yingyin; Xin, Mingming; Xiao, Shihe; Sun, Qixin; Ni, Zhongfu

    2018-03-01

    A novel TaGW2-A1 allele was identified from a stable, robust QTL region, which is pleiotropic for thousand grain weight, grain number per spike, and grain morphometric parameters in wheat. Thousand grain weight (TGW) and grain number per spike (GNS) are two crucial determinants of wheat spike yield, and genetic dissection of their relationships can help to fine-tune these two components and maximize grain yield. By evaluating 191 recombinant inbred lines in 11 field trials, we identified five genomic regions on chromosomes 1B, 3A, 3B, 5B, or 7A that solely influenced either TGW or GNS, and a further region on chromosome 6A that concurrently affected TGW and GNS. The QTL of interest on chromosome 6A, which was flanked by wsnp_BE490604A_Ta_2_1 and wsnp_RFL_Contig1340_448996 and designated as QTgw/Gns.cau-6A, was finely mapped to a genetic interval shorter than 0.538 cM using near isogenic lines (NILs). The elite NILs of QTgw/Gns.cau-6A increased TGW by 8.33%, but decreased GNS by 3.05% in six field trials. Grain Weight 2 (TaGW2-A1), a well-characterized gene that negatively regulates TGW and grain width in wheat, was located within the finely mapped interval of QTgw/Gns.cau-6A. A novel and rare TaGW2-A1 allele with a 114-bp deletion in the 5' flanking region was identified in the parent with higher TGW, and it reduced TaGW2-A1 promoter activity and expression. In conclusion, these results expand our knowledge of the genetic and molecular basis of TGW-GNS trade-offs in wheat. The QTLs and the novel TaGW2-A1 allele are likely useful for the development of cultivars with higher TGW and/or higher GNS.

  20. Effects Of Spring Herbicide Treatments On Winter Wheat Growth And Grain Yield*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamouz P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides provide a low-cost solution for protecting crops from significant yield losses. If weed infestations are below damage thresholds, however, then herbicide application is unnecessary and can even lead to yield loss. A small-plot field trial was conducted to examine the effect of herbicides on winter wheat yields. Weeds were removed manually from the trial area before herbicide application. Twenty-four treatments were tested in four replications. Treatment 1 consisted of an untreated weed-free control, whereas the other treatments comprised applications of the following herbicides and their combinations: metsulfuron-methyl + tribenuron-methyl (4.95 + 9.99 g ha−1, pinoxaden (30 g ha−1, fluroxypyr (175 g ha−1, and clopyralid (120 g ha−1. Water (250 l ha−1 or a urea-ammonium nitrate fertilizer solution (UAN, 120.5 l ha−1 was used as the herbicide carrier. Crop injury 30 days after treatment and yield loss were recorded. Results showed minor crop injury by herbicides and their combinations when applied without UAN and moderate injury caused by UAN in combination with herbicides. Yield losses reached 5.3% and 4.3% in those treatments where all of the tested herbicides were applied with and without UAN, respectively. The effect of all treatments on crop yield was, however, statistically insignificant (P = 0.934.

  1. Xylanase and Protease Increase Solubilization of Non-Starch Polysaccharides and Nutrient Release of Corn- and Wheat Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Brøgger; Dalsgaard, Søren; Arent, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The use of distiller dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as alternative to conventional animal feed for non-ruminants is challenged by the high content of non-starch polysaccharides and varying protein quality. In this study the enzymatic degradation of corn- and wheat DDGS was evaluated, in vitro...... of this xylanase. The current in vitro results indicate a high potential of xylanase in combination with protease to efficiently degrade DDGS and promote nutrient release in diets for non-ruminant animals....

  2. Effects of concentrated arabinoxylan and β-glucan compared with refined wheat and whole grain rye on glucose and appetite in subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, M L; Gregersen, S; Lærke, H N

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Several studies emphasise that arabinoxylan and β-glucan have more beneficial effects on glucose metabolism than low-dietary fibre (DF) meals. Less attention has been paid to the effects of concentrated DF compared with whole grain. We compared the effects of DF and whole...... grain on glucose, hormone responses and appetite in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifteen subjects with MetS participated in this acute, randomised, cross-over intervention study. The test breads provided 50 g of digestible carbohydrate: wheat bread with concentrated...

  3. Pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation alleviates the negative effects of postanthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrates remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2012-01-01

    The potential role of pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation in alleviating the negative effects of post-anthesis heat stress on stem stored carbohydrate remobilization and grain starch accumulation in wheat was investigated. The treatments included no heat-stress (CC), heat stress at pre...... had much higher starch content, and caused less modified B-type starch granule size indicators than the CH plants. Our results indicated that, compared with the non-acclimated plants, the pre-anthesis high temperature acclimation effectively enhanced carbohydrate remobilization from stems to grains...

  4. Effect of Silicon application on Morpho-physiological Characteristics, Grain Yield and Nutrient Content of Bread Wheat under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmollachaab

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on some physiological characteristics, yield and yield components, and grain mineral contents of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum under water stress condition, an experiment was conducted in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan, in 2012. The experiment was arranged in split-plots design in RCBD (Completely Randomized Blocks Design with three replications. Treatments consisted of drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of Available Water Content in main plots and silicon (0, 10, 20 and 30 Kg Si ha-1 arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that the effect of drought stress was significant on most traits and led to the increase of electrolyte leakage (EL, cuticular wax, leaf and grain silicon content and grain nitrogen content. But drought led to negative impacts on grain yield and its components, and leaf potassium content, i.e. moderate and severe stresses reduced yield by 17% and 38% compared to control, respectively. Effect of silicon application was significant on all traits except for spike per square meter. Silicon had the greatest impact on EL and led to 35% decrease in this trait. Also, silicon led to increase in leaf and grain silicon contents and grain K content and grain yield and yield components, when applied at 30 kg ha-1. Generally, application of 30 kg ha-1 of silicon led to 6 and 14% increases of grain yield at the presence of moderate and severe drought stresses, respectively. Thus, given the abundance of silicon it can be used as an ameliorating element for planting bread wheat in drought-prone conditions.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air, surface soil and wheat grain near a large steel-smelting manufacturer in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weijian; Wang, Yilong; Chen, Yuanchen; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wenxin

    2017-07-01

    The total concentrations and component profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air, surface soil and wheat grain collected from wheat fields near a large steel-smelting manufacturer in Northern China were determined. Based on the specific isomeric ratios of paired species in ambient air, principle component analysis and multivariate linear regression, the main emission source of local PAHs was identified as a mixture of industrial and domestic coal combustion, biomass burning and traffic exhaust. The total organic carbon (TOC) fraction was considerably correlated with the total and individual PAH concentrations in surface soil. The total concentrations of PAHs in wheat grain were relatively low, with dominant low molecular weight constituents, and the compositional profile was more similar to that in ambient air than in topsoil. Combined with more significant results from partial correlation and linear regression models, the contribution from air PAHs to grain PAHs may be greater than that from soil PAHs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Kihika’s Bible: The recontextualisation of the Gospel in Ngugi’s A Grain of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke van Vuuren

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available How might a post-colonial novel by the author of Decolonising the Mind deal with the Christian Gospel, that pillar of Western culture, used for too long to justify European imperialism in Africa and elsewhere? In A Grain of Wheat (1967, Ngugi depicts both the appropriation and betrayal of the Christian message by British colonialists in Kenya. One would expect the remnants of Christianity and its representatives to be waved off with some relief together with the departing government officials. Yet in the novel the Gospel survives; its recontextualisation in Kenyan history the key to its survival. Even before independence the appropriation of the Bible for a political programme is not limited to the colonists: the first freedom fighters are shown to adopt the sacrificial ethic suggested by the novel’s title. This article examines the criteria for the novel’s implicit judgement of Christian theologies and practices, its recontextualisation or “transgressive reinscription" of Biblical narratives, images and models of heroism for the struggle, as well as the ideological shift effected by Ngugi’s revisions of the text nineteen years after its initial publication - a shift in which the Biblical text is wrenched so far from its original context as to render it meaningless for all but his programme.

  7. Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation for improved xylose utilization in integrated ethanol production from wheat meal and wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdei Borbála

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The commercialization of second-generation bioethanol has not been realized due to several factors, including poor biomass utilization and high production cost. It is generally accepted that the most important parameters in reducing the production cost are the ethanol yield and the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth. Agricultural residues contain large amounts of hemicellulose, and the utilization of xylose is thus a plausible way to improve the concentration and yield of ethanol during fermentation. Most naturally occurring ethanol-fermenting microorganisms do not utilize xylose, but a genetically modified yeast strain, TMB3400, has the ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose. However, the xylose uptake rate is only enhanced when the glucose concentration is low. Results Separate hydrolysis and co-fermentation of steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS combined with wheat-starch hydrolysate feed was performed in two separate processes. The average yield of ethanol and the xylose consumption reached 86% and 69%, respectively, when the hydrolysate of the enzymatically hydrolyzed (18.5% WIS unwashed SPWS solid fraction and wheat-starch hydrolysate were fed to the fermentor after 1 h of fermentation of the SPWS liquid fraction. In the other configuration, fermentation of the SPWS hydrolysate (7.0% WIS, resulted in an average ethanol yield of 93% from fermentation based on glucose and xylose and complete xylose consumption when wheat-starch hydrolysate was included in the feed. Increased initial cell density in the fermentation (from 5 to 20 g/L did not increase the ethanol yield, but improved and accelerated xylose consumption in both cases. Conclusions Higher ethanol yield has been achieved in co-fermentation of xylose and glucose in SPWS hydrolysate when wheat-starch hydrolysate was used as feed, then in co-fermentation of the liquid fraction of SPWS fed with the mixed hydrolysates. Integration of first-generation and

  8. The effect of nitrogen fertilizing and fungicide application on the yield and selected parameters of grain quality of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Bezdíčková

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2001–2004 an influence of gradually increased portions of nitrogen (100–130–160 kg/N.ha–1 applied on the wheat variety Ebi in combination with the modified fungicidal protection in the yield and the selected quality grain parameters were observed within the small-plot field trials. Nitrogenous fertilizers according to the amount of nitrogen contained were applied in 2–4 terms during vegetation in regeneration (55kg/N.ha–1, 1st production (45kg/N.ha–1, 2nd production (30kg/N.ha–1 and qualitative portion (30kg/N.ha–1. The fungicidal protection was based on the equal treatment in the phase of BBCH 37 and with regard to the varieties different treatment in the phase of BBCH 55. The dependence on the year was proved at all observed parameters. Higher intensity of nitrogenous fertilization had no decisive impact on the yields. From the point of view of increased yields, the second production nitrogenous fertilization had the strongest impact; it increased the grain yields by 0.084–0.461 t./ha–1. Higher intensity of nitrogenous fertilization positively influenced the baker’s grain quality. The increased portions of nitrogen decisively increased the volume of N-substances in all trial years. The second production nitrogenous fertilization increased the N-substances volume from 0.1 to 0.8%. Qualitative additional fertilization increased their volume from 0.26 to 1.38%. Higher N portions increased sedimentation in most cases. The falling number was not considerably influenced. The mechanical grain qualities (volume weight, number full grains, and GTW were relatively less influenced than the baker’s quality by the nitrogenous fertilization. The application of fungicides positively influenced not only the yields but also mechanical qualities of the grain, i.e. volume weight, thousand grains weight and portion of Full grains. On the contrary the baker’s quality was not decisively influenced. It was proved that the decisive

  9. Reducing N losses through surface runoff from rice-wheat rotation by improving fertilizer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yansheng; Sun, Huifeng; Liu, Yaqin; Fu, Zishi; Chen, Guifa; Zou, Guoyan; Zhou, Sheng

    2017-02-01

    To better understand N runoff losses from rice-wheat rotation and demonstrate the effectiveness of improved fertilizer management in reducing N runoff losses, a field study was conducted for three consecutive rice-wheat rotations. Nitrogen losses through surface runoff were measured for five treatments, including CK without N application, C200, C300 simulating the conventional practices, CO200, and CO300. Optimum N rate was applied for C200 and CO200, and 30% of chemical fertilizer was substituted with organic fertilizer for CO200 and CO300 with respect to C200 and C300, respectively. Rice season had higher runoff coefficients than wheat season. Approximately 52% of total N was lost as NH 4 + -N in rice season, ranging from 21 to 83%, and in wheat season, the proportion of NO 3 - -N in total N averaged 53% with a variation from 38 to 67%. The N treatments lost less total N in rice season (1.67-10.7 kg N ha -1 ) than in wheat season (1.72-17.1 kg N ha -1 ). These suggested that a key to controlling N runoff losses from rice-wheat rotation was to limit NO 3 - -N accumulation in wheat season. In both seasons, N runoff losses for C200 and CO300 were lower than those for C300. CO200 better cut N losses than C200 and CO300, with 64 and 57% less N in rice and wheat seasons than C300, respectively. Compared with the conventional practices, optimum N inputs integrated with co-application of organic and chemical fertilizers could reduce N runoff losses with a better N balance under rice-wheat rotation.

  10. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R

    2014-12-01

    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (Pproducts (i.e. atypical dienes) with the first double bond at carbon 8 or 9 from the carboxyl end, conjugated linoleic acid isomers with the first double bond from carbon 7 to 10 from the carboxyl end, t-18:1 isomers, and reduced (Pmeat tenderness. However, in general feeding DGGS-15 or DDGS-30 diets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids.

  11. Short periods of high temperature during meiosis prevent normal meiotic progression and reduce grain number in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draeger, Tracie; Moore, Graham

    2017-09-01

    Exposure of wheat to high temperatures during male meiosis prevents normal meiotic progression and reduces grain number. We define a temperature-sensitive period and link heat tolerance to chromosome 5D. This study assesses the effects of heat on meiotic progression and grain number in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Chinese Spring), defines a heat-sensitive stage and evaluates the role of chromosome 5D in heat tolerance. Plants were exposed to high temperatures (30 or 35 °C) in a controlled environment room for 20-h periods during meiosis and the premeiotic interphase just prior to meiosis. Examination of pollen mother cells (PMCs) from immature anthers immediately before and after heat treatment enabled precise identification of the developmental phases being exposed to heat. A temperature-sensitive period was defined, lasting from premeiotic interphase to late leptotene, during which heat can prevent PMCs from progressing through meiosis. PMCs exposed to 35 °C were less likely to progress than those exposed to 30 °C. Grain number per spike was reduced at 30 °C, and reduced even further at 35 °C. Chinese Spring nullisomic 5D-tetrasomic 5B (N5DT5B) plants, which lack chromosome 5D, were more susceptible to heat during premeiosis-leptotene than Chinese Spring plants with the normal (euploid) chromosome complement. The proportion of plants with PMCs progressing through meiosis after heat treatment was lower for N5DT5B plants than for euploids, but the difference was not significant. However, following exposure to 30 °C, in euploid plants grain number was reduced (though not significantly), whereas in N5DT5B plants the reduction was highly significant. After exposure to 35 °C, the reduction in grain number was highly significant for both genotypes. Implications of these findings for the breeding of thermotolerant wheat are discussed.

  12. Traits and selection strategies to improve root systems and water uptake in water-limited wheat crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, A P; Richards, R A; Chatrath, R; Misra, S C; Prasad, S V Sai; Rebetzke, G J; Kirkegaard, J A; Christopher, J; Watt, M

    2012-05-01

    Wheat yields globally will depend increasingly on good management to conserve rainfall and new varieties that use water efficiently for grain production. Here we propose an approach for developing new varieties to make better use of deep stored water. We focus on water-limited wheat production in the summer-dominant rainfall regions of India and Australia, but the approach is generally applicable to other environments and root-based constraints. Use of stored deep water is valuable because it is more predictable than variable in-season rainfall and can be measured prior to sowing. Further, this moisture is converted into grain with twice the efficiently of in-season rainfall since it is taken up later in crop growth during the grain-filling period when the roots reach deeper layers. We propose that wheat varieties with a deeper root system, a redistribution of branch root density from the surface to depth, and with greater radial hydraulic conductivity at depth would have higher yields in rainfed systems where crops rely on deep water for grain fill. Developing selection systems for mature root system traits is challenging as there are limited high-throughput phenotyping methods for roots in the field, and there is a risk that traits selected in the lab on young plants will not translate into mature root system traits in the field. We give an example of a breeding programme that combines laboratory and field phenotyping with proof of concept evaluation of the trait at the beginning of the selection programme. This would greatly enhance confidence in a high-throughput laboratory or field screen, and avoid investment in screens without yield value. This approach requires careful selection of field sites and years that allow expression of deep roots and increased yield. It also requires careful selection and crossing of germplasm to allow comparison of root expression among genotypes that are similar for other traits, especially flowering time and disease and toxicity

  13. Improved fluorimetric measurement of uranium uptake and distribution in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borcia, Catalin [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Physics; Popa, Karin; Cecal, Alexandru [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Chemistry; Murariu, Manuela [' ' Petru Poni' ' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi (Romania)

    2016-08-01

    Uranium uptake and (radio)toxicity was tested on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a laboratory study using differently concentrated uranium nitrate solutions. Within these experiments, two analytical assays of uranium were comparatively tested: a fast and improved fluorimetric assay and the classical colorimetric (U(IV)-arsenazo(III) complexation) one. During the germination, the wheat seeds and plantlets supported well the uranium solutions of treatment within the entire concentration range (1 x 10{sup -4} -5 x 10{sup -3} M). Uranium proved to be non (radio)toxic to wheat as compared with other natural and anthropogenic radiocations, probably because its uptake by spring wheat during the germination is low. Indeed, only a small fraction of uranium administered was located within the roots, whereas the uranium content of the stems was negligible. A high correlation between the results obtained by two analytical methods was found. However, the fluorimetric assay proved to be more reliable and fast, and accurate.

  14. [Concentrations and Component Profiles PAHs in Surface Soils and Wheat Grains from the Cornfields Close to the Steel Smelting Industry in Handan, Hebei Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Wang, Yi-long; Liu, Wei-jian; Chen, Yuan-chen; Fu, Xiao-fang; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wen-xin

    2016-02-15

    In this study, paired surface soil and mature wheat grain samples were collected in the cornfields near the large Handan Steel Manufacturer; and the total concentrations and compositional profiles of the parent PAHs were measured, then the spatial distribution characteristics and correlation with total organic carbon fractions in soil were determined. Accordingly, a preliminary source identification was performed, and the association between PAHs in surface soil and wheat grain was briefly discussed. The median concentration of total PAHs in surface soils from the cornfields of Handan was 398.9 ng x g(-1) (ranged from 123.4 ng x g(-1) to 1626.4 ng x g(-1), where around 18% and 10% of all the studied soil samples were over the corresponding quality criteria for total PAHs and B [a] P in soils, respectively. The MMW and HMW species were the main components in the compositional profiles of surface soils. Based on the specific isomeric ratios of PAHs species, coal/biomass combustion and transportation fuel (tail gas) were the dominant mixed sources for the local PAHs emission. The fractions of surface soil TOC had significant positive correlations with the total PAHs and also with the individual components with different rings. In addition, the median concentration of total PAHs in wheat grains collected in the cornfields near the Handan Steel Manufacture was 27.0 ng x g(-1) (ranged from 19.0-34.0 ng x g(-1)). The levels in wheat grains were not high, and lower than the related hygienic standards of food proposed by EU and China. The LMW and MMW PAHs with 2 to 4 rings occupied a larger proportion, more than 84% of the total PAHs, which was largely different from the component profiles in surface soils. This situation suggested that the local sources of PAHs in wheat grains may originate not only from surface soil via root absorption and internal transportation, but also from ambient air through dry and wet deposition on the leaf surface (stoma).

  15. The OsSPL16-GW7 regulatory module determines grain shape and simultaneously improves rice yield and grain quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaokui; Li, Shan; Liu, Qian; Wu, Kun; Zhang, Jianqing; Wang, Shuansuo; Wang, Yi; Chen, Xiangbin; Zhang, Yi; Gao, Caixia; Wang, Feng; Huang, Haixiang; Fu, Xiangdong

    2015-08-01

    The deployment of heterosis in the form of hybrid rice varieties has boosted grain yield, but grain quality improvement still remains a challenge. Here we show that a quantitative trait locus for rice grain quality, qGW7, reflects allelic variation of GW7, a gene encoding a TONNEAU1-recruiting motif protein with similarity to C-terminal motifs of the human centrosomal protein CAP350. Upregulation of GW7 expression was correlated with the production of more slender grains, as a result of increased cell division in the longitudinal direction and decreased cell division in the transverse direction. OsSPL16 (GW8), an SBP-domain transcription factor that regulates grain width, bound directly to the GW7 promoter and repressed its expression. The presence of a semidominant GW7(TFA) allele from tropical japonica rice was associated with higher grain quality without the yield penalty imposed by the Basmati gw8 allele. Manipulation of the OsSPL16-GW7 module thus represents a new strategy to simultaneously improve rice yield and grain quality.

  16. Improving efficiencies of irrigation and nitrogen uptake in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazza, M.

    2000-01-01

    Three years of field studies and lysimeter experiments on irrigated wheat had the objective of finding ways of managing irrigation and N fertilization to minimize losses and reduce contamination of groundwater. Applied N had significant positive effects on crop-water consumptive use. The highest N losses occurred during early growth. Irrigation had little effect on N loss when it was practiced efficiently. Under the prevailing conditions, it is recommended that no N be applied to wheat at planting, in order to limit N losses by leaching caused by the high precipitation that usually occurs during early development when crop-N requirements are small. No more than 120 kg N ha -1 should be applied in total to minimize groundwater pollution and maximize N-uptake efficiency and economic returns. Also, for economic and environmental reasons, irrigation should be limited to 80% of the total requirement and to depths of 40 to 60 mm. (author)

  17. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-12-15

    Full text: This Symposium organized in co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF), Neuherberg near Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, was the culmination of the eight year FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme to Improve Protein Content and Quality of Crops by Nuclear Techniques The co-ordinated research programme has stimulated plant breeding in developing countries, assisted in the development of techniques for the identification and evaluation of nutritionally improved mutants and encouraged basic research on seed storage proteins. The Symposium comprised 90 scientific presentations plus equipment displays. Sixty-one scientific papers were orally presented and discussed in eight sessions. An additional 29 scientific contributions were presented as posters and were on display throughout the Symposium. One afternoon of the Symposium was devoted to examination and individual discussion of the poster displays. It was especially notable that this method of presentation and discussion of scientific results was very favourably received. Five items of scientific equipment demonstrated analytical systems in use for protein or amino acid assay in plant breeding programmes. The Symposium clearly demonstrated the reality of nutritional deficiencies in poor countries and outlined plant breeding strategies for overcoming these. Progress was reported in improving the nutritional quality of cereals (wheat, maize, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, triticale, oats), legumes (beans, peas, soybeans, field beans, chick peas, lentils, pigeon peas, cowpeas, grams, peanuts) and some other crops (cotton, buckwheat). Notable results have been achieved, but much of the work has been in progress less than 10 years, which is too short a time for the development, testing and release of commercial varieties. Chemical and nutritional assay methods, including some promising new methods were reviewed and assessed. Rapid developments in knowledge of the

  18. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Full text: This Symposium organized in co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF), Neuherberg near Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, was the culmination of the eight year FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme to Improve Protein Content and Quality of Crops by Nuclear Techniques The co-ordinated research programme has stimulated plant breeding in developing countries, assisted in the development of techniques for the identification and evaluation of nutritionally improved mutants and encouraged basic research on seed storage proteins. The Symposium comprised 90 scientific presentations plus equipment displays. Sixty-one scientific papers were orally presented and discussed in eight sessions. An additional 29 scientific contributions were presented as posters and were on display throughout the Symposium. One afternoon of the Symposium was devoted to examination and individual discussion of the poster displays. It was especially notable that this method of presentation and discussion of scientific results was very favourably received. Five items of scientific equipment demonstrated analytical systems in use for protein or amino acid assay in plant breeding programmes. The Symposium clearly demonstrated the reality of nutritional deficiencies in poor countries and outlined plant breeding strategies for overcoming these. Progress was reported in improving the nutritional quality of cereals (wheat, maize, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, triticale, oats), legumes (beans, peas, soybeans, field beans, chick peas, lentils, pigeon peas, cowpeas, grams, peanuts) and some other crops (cotton, buckwheat). Notable results have been achieved, but much of the work has been in progress less than 10 years, which is too short a time for the development, testing and release of commercial varieties. Chemical and nutritional assay methods, including some promising new methods were reviewed and assessed. Rapid developments in knowledge of the

  19. Effect of different forms of nitrogen fertlizers applied in the end of tillering on yield and quality of winter wheat grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Ducsay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1999 to 2001 in conditions of small-plot field experiments was carried out on loamy degraded chernozems at the Plant Breeding Station of Sládkovičovo-Nový Dvor to solve the problems of topdressing winter wheat (Triticum aestivum, L., variety Astella, with different forms of nitrogenous fertilizers. Nitrogenous fertilizers were applied at the growth phase of the 6th leaf (Zadoks = 29. Four various forms of fertilizers were exemined: urea solution, DAM-390, DAM-390 + Dumag, DASA. Different weather conditions statistically highly significantly influenced grain yield in respective experimental years. Topdressing with nitrogen (30 kg N.ha–1 caused statistically highly significant increase of grain yield in all fertilized variants ranging from +0.29 t.ha–1 (applied of DAM-390 to +0.69 t.ha–1 (applied of DASA according to respective treatments. Average grain yield in unfertilized control variant represented 7.23 t.ha–1. Nitrogen nutrition showed positive effect on the main macroelements offtake (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S by winter wheat grain in all fertilized variants. Nitrogen fertilizing positively influenced formation of wet gluten and crude protein with highest increment in variant with DASA and variant with DAM-390 + Dumag.

  20. Management Effects On Quality of Organically Grown Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Schweinzer, A.; Friedel, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for improving wheat grain quality by management strategies involving crop rotation, catch crops, and organic manure was tested in organic long-term experiments in Denmark and Austria. Growing grass clover in a four-year rotation resulted in a higher wheat yield increase that could n...

  1. Study on genetic diversity in Pakistani wheat varieties using simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is a grass species, cultivated world wide. Globally, it is the most important human food grain and ranks second in total production as a cereal crop behind maize. Genetic diversity evaluation of germplasm is the basis of improvement in wheat. In the present study genetic diversity of 10 ...

  2. Determination of behaviour of the corn weevil Sitophilus zeamais, Motschulsky, 1855 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) in corn, rice and wheat grains by using radioactive tracer iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    The dispersion behaviour and distribution pattern of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, 1855 through a bulk of corn, rice and wheat,leaving from a infestation focus, was investigated by means of tracer methodology. Adults insects were labeled with the gamma emitter 131 I, through bath in Na 131 I solution and released onto the top of grain mass deposited in cylinders each 430 mm height and 195 mm in diameter, filled to 20 mm of the top with grains. The cylinders were enclosed with lids. The insects were detected through the bulk of the grain by means of a crystal scintillator, in fourteen sites, zero 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after releasing. (author)

  3. Contribution of genetic diversity for improvement of some abiotic stresses in wheat (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, M.; Swati, Z.A.

    2005-01-01

    Wheat improvement has predominantly been accomplished through conventional plant breeding methodologies. This approach shall continue to be the predominant procedure in the future. Genetic diversity is crucial for crop improvement and in the Triticeae family it resides in the primary, secondary and tertiary gene pools. These gene pools can be utilize for wheat improvement by producing genetic stocks where the alien gene pools can be combined with durum and bread wheat cultivars via interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Adopting the interspecific route strategies has led to the production of several genetic stocks, which are elucidated here. The categories include the amphiploids of the A, B, and D genomes with durum cultivars (AAAABB, AABBBB, AABBDD) and new AADD tetraploids. Tertiary gene pool species (more complex to utilize) are a potent resource for gene pyramiding, which contribute towards stress durability and addresses sustainable agricultural aspects. The conventional classical protocols of introgressing alien genetic diversity into wheat are complex, and long-term in generating farmer usable products. The gene transfer procedures are further complicated when the stress trait has multigenic control associated with several alien chromosomes. Our current approach has incorporated a novel strategy for promoting alien chromosome introgression involving wheat/alien homeologous as well as non-homeologous chromosomes. The protocol comprises of hybridizing the Phph based amphiploid with the phph Chinese Spring wheat genetic stock to yield heterozygote Phph derivatives. From selfing of the heterozygotes or from their derived haploids via wheat/maize crosses the ph derivatives are identified by a PCR diagnostic. The ph seedlings form the reservoir of wheat/alien chromosome translocations which are identified by Giemsa C-banding / fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Plants with translocations are step-wise advanced by backcrosses to elite wheat cultivars

  4. Combined use of low dose gamma irradiation and fenoxycarb, as a means of protection against infestation of wheat grains with khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium, Everts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, I; Al-Ek, H.

    2006-04-01

    Larvae of khapra beetle were exposed to one of the following treatments: Rearing on wheat grains treated with varying concentrations of fenoxycarb. Irradiation with varying doses of gamma rays followed by rearing on non-treated wheat grains. Irradiation with varying doses of gamma rays followed by rearing on fenoxycarb-treated wheat grains. The development of these larvae was followed and the percentage of each developmental stage was recorded. Results indicate that the combined use of radiation and fenoxycarb resulted in a accumulative effect that leads to the reduction in the doses of both treatments needed to achieve a complete abolition of adult emergence. Within five weeks of commencement about 85% of the larvae in the control treatment have reached adulthood, eggs laid by these adults have hatched into life larvae. When larvae were irradiated with gamma ray, development was disrupted and percentages of emerging adults decreased with the increase in irradiation dose. At a dose of 100 Gy adult emergence was abolished and no adults were found five weeks from the start of the experiment. Likewise, Rearing of larvae on fenoxycarb-treated grains resulted in a disruption of development and a dose of 1ppm was necessary to achieve total abolishment of adult emergence. However, when a combination of gamma ray and fenoxycarb treatment was applied a accumulative effect was observed resulting in a reduction in the doses of irradiation and fenoxycarb needed to achieve similar results. The doses needed to achieve a total absence of adult emergence were reduced to 50Gy and 0.063 ppm for irradiation and fenoxycarb treatment respectively. The significance of the above results is discussed, and an explanation to the observed accumulative effect is offered. (author)

  5. Growth performance, behaviour, forestomach development and meat quality of veal calves provided with barley grain or ground wheat straw for welfare purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different feeding plans for veal calves were compared in the study: a traditional liquid diet supplemented with 250  g/calf/d of barley grain or with 250 g/calf/d of ground wheat straw. The two solid feeds had different chemical composi-  tion but a similar particle size obtained by grinding the straw in a mill with an 8-mm mesh screen. Twenty-four Polish  Friesian male calves were used in the study and they were housed in individual wooden stalls (0.83 x 1.80 m. The health  status of all the calves was satisfactory for the entire fattening period and no specific medical treatment was required  during the trial. Calves fed wheat straw showed a greater intake of solid feed (196 vs. 139 g/d; P  average daily gain (1288 vs. 1203 g/d; P  not affected by the type of solid feed and no milk refusal episodes were detected. The haemoglobin concentration was  similar in calves receiving the two feeding treatments despite the higher iron intake provided by the wheat straw through-  out the fattening period (2.12 vs. 1.15 g; P  calves’ metabolism. Feeding behaviour was affected by the provision of solid feeds. Eating and chewing were prolonged  in calves receiving ground wheat straw and the same solid feed reduced the frequency of oral stereotypies at the end of  the fattening period. At the slaughterhouse, no differences were observed between the feeding treatments as regards  carcass weight and dressing percentage. The calves fed ground wheat straw had a heavier weight of the empty omasum  (518 vs. 341 g; P  fed barley grain. The incidence of abomasal erosions, ulcers and scars was similar in both treatments; however the index  of abomasal damage, which considers the number and the seriousness of different type of lesions, was higher in calves  receiving barley grain. Therefore, the grinding of straw particles, as opposed to barley grain, can reduce the abrasive-  ness of roughage at the abomasum level. Visual evaluation of the

  6. Principal coordinate analysis of genotype × environment interaction for grain yield of bread wheat in the semi-arid regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabaghnia Naser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-environmental trials have significant main effects and significant multiplicative genotype × environment (GE interaction effect. Principal coordinate analysis (PCOA offers a more appropriate statistical analysis to deal with such situations, compared to traditional statistical methods. Eighteen bread wheat genotypes were grown in four semi-arid regions over three year seasons to study the GE interaction and yield stability and obtained data on grain yield were analyzed using PCOA. Combined analysis of variance indicated that all of the studied effects including the main effects of genotype and environments as well as the GE interaction were highly significant. According to grand means and total mean yield, test environments were grouped to two main groups as high mean yield (H and low mean yield (L. There were five H test environments and six L test environments which analyzed in the sequential cycles. For each cycle, both scatter point diagram and minimum spanning tree plot were drawn. The identified most stable genotypes with dynamic stability concept and based on the minimum spanning tree plots and centroid distances were G1 (3310.2 kg ha-1 and G5 (3065.6 kg ha-1, and therefore could be recommended for unfavorable or poor conditions. Also, genotypes G7 (3047.2 kg ha-1 and G16 (3132.3 kg ha-1 were located several times in the vertex positions of high cycles according to the principal coordinates analysis. The principal coordinates analysis provided useful and interesting ways of investigating GE interaction of barley genotypes. Finally, the results of principal coordinates analysis in general confirmed the breeding value of the genotypes, obtained on the basis of the yield stability evaluation.

  7. A comprehensive investigation on static and dynamic friction coefficients of wheat grain with the adoption of statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaei, S M; Kamgar, S

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with studying and modeling static friction coefficient (SFC) and dynamic friction coefficient (DFC) of wheat grain as affected by several treatments. Significance of single effect (SE) and dual interaction effect (DIE) of treatments (moisture content and contact surface) on SFC and, SE, DIE, and triple interaction effect (TIE) of treatments (moisture content, contact surface and sliding velocity) on DFC were determined using statistical analysis methods. Multiple linear regression (MLR) modeling was employed to predict SFC and DFC on different contact surfaces. Predictive ability of developed MLR models was evaluated using some statistical parameters (coefficient of determination ( R 2 ), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean relative deviation modulus (MRDM)). Results indicated that significant increasing DIE of treatments on SFC was 3.2 and 3 times greater than significant increasing SE of moisture content and contact surface, respectively. In case of DFC, the significant increasing TIE of treatments was 8.8, 3.7, and 8.9 times greater than SE of moisture content, contact surface, and sliding velocity, respectively. It was also found that the SE of contact surface on SFC was 1.1 times greater than that of moisture content and the SE of contact surface on DFC was 2.4 times greater than that of moisture content or sliding velocity. According to the reasonable average of statistical parameters ( R 2  = 0.955, RMSE = 0.01788 and MRDM = 3.152%), the SFC and DFC could be successfully predicted by suggested MLR models. Practically, it is recommended to apply the models for direct prediction of SFC and DFC, respective to each contact surface, based on moisture content and sliding velocity.

  8. Microbiological characterization of wet wheat distillers' grain, with focus on isolation of lactobacilli with potential as probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, C; Jonsson, H; Lindberg, J E; Roos, S

    2004-03-01

    Wet wheat distillers' grain (WWDG), a residue from ethanol fermentation, was examined from a microbiological perspective. After storage, WWDG was characterized by a high content of lactobacilli, nondetectable levels of other bacteria, occasional occurrence of yeasts, and a pH of about 3.6 and contained a mixture of lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol. The composition of lactobacilli in WWDG was simple, including primarily the species Lactobacillus amylolyticus, Lactobacillus panis, and Lactobacillus pontis, as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Since the use of WWDG as pig feed has indicated a health-promoting function, some relevant characteristics of three strains of each of these species were examined together with basal physiological parameters, such as carbohydrate utilization and growth temperature. Seven of the strains were isolated from WWDG, and two strains from pig feces were included for comparison. It was clear that all three species could grow at temperatures of 45 to 50 degrees C, with L. amylolyticus being able to grow at temperatures as high as 54 degrees C. This finding could be the explanation for the simple microflora of WWDG, where a low pH together with a high temperature during storage would select for these organisms. Some strains of L. panis and L. pontis showed prolonged survival at pH 2.5 in synthetic stomach juice and good growth in the presence of porcine bile salt. In addition, members of all three species were able to bind to immobilized mucus material in vitro. Especially the isolates from pig feces but, interestingly, some isolates from WWDG as well possessed properties that might be of importance for colonization of the gastrointestinal tracts of pigs.

  9. Analysis of the Gli-D2 locus identifies a genetic target for simultaneously improving the breadmaking and health-related traits of common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da; Jin, Huaibing; Zhang, Kunpu; Wang, Zhaojun; Wang, Faming; Zhao, Yue; Huo, Naxin; Liu, Xin; Gu, Yong Q; Wang, Daowen; Dong, Lingli

    2018-05-11

    Gliadins are a major component of wheat seed proteins. However, the complex homoeologous Gli-2 loci (Gli-A2, -B2 and -D2) that encode the α-gliadins in commercial wheat are still poorly understood. Here we analyzed the Gli-D2 locus of Xiaoyan 81 (Xy81), a winter wheat cultivar. A total of 421.091 kb of the Gli-D2 sequence was assembled from sequencing multiple bacterial artificial clones, and 10 α-gliadin genes were annotated. Comparative genomic analysis showed that Xy81 carried only eight of the α-gliadin genes of the D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, with two of them each experiencing a tandem duplication. A mutant line lacking Gli-D2 (DLGliD2) consistently exhibited better breadmaking quality and dough functionalities than its progenitor Xy81, but without penalties in other agronomic traits. It also had an elevated lysine content in the grains. Transcriptome analysis verified the lack of Gli-D2 α-gliadin gene expression in DLGliD2. Furthermore, the transcript and protein levels of protein disulfide isomerase were both upregulated in DLGliD2 grains. Consistent with this finding, DLGliD2 had increased disulfide content in the flour. Our work sheds light on the structure and function of Gli-D2 in commercial wheat, and suggests that the removal of Gli-D2 and the gliadins specified by it is likely to be useful for simultaneously enhancing the end-use and health-related traits of common wheat. Because gliadins and homologous proteins are widely present in grass species, the strategy and information reported here may be broadly useful for improving the quality traits of diverse cereal crops. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Supplemental irrigation to improve wheat production and water use efficiency under rainfed farming conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Q.; Bhatti, A.A.; Ahmad, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    The stochastic behaviors of rainfall pose serious limitations for sustained and profitable crop production in rainfed areas; farmers hesitate to apply fertilizers when they are not sure about rainfall. In view of these limitations a research study was conducted for three years (2003-2006) at field station of Water Resources Research Institute (WRRI), National Agricultural Research Centre(NARC), Islamabad to examine the effects of supplemental irrigation (SI) on wheat production and water use efficiency (WUE). Irrigation treatments employed under the experiment were: i) Rainfed without irrigation and fertilizer application (I/sub 0/); ii) SI of 25 mm was applied to non-fertilizer field at 75% management allowed deficit (MAD)(I/sub 1/); iii) Rainfed with fertilizer application at sowing time (I/sub 2/); and iv) SI of 25 mm was applied at 75% MAD and at the time of fertilizer application as top dressing (I/sub 3/). Supplemental irrigation increased the crop yield during the years 2003-2006 under both fertilizer and non-fertilizer conditions. Increased in grain yield under non-fertilizer conditions (I/sub 1/) ranges between 770-980 kg/ha, which is 27 to 48% higher than the rainfed yield (I/sub 0/). Supplemental irrigation and split application of fertilizer (treatment I/sub 3/) increased in grain yield within the range of 1000-1350 kg/ha, which is 27-49% higher than yield under treatment I/sub 2/. Whereas, due to synergetic effect of supplemental irrigation and fertilizer application, increased in grain yield ranges between 1550-2030 kg/ha, which is 49% to 100% higher than the rainfed and non-fertilizer field. WUE was calculated for rain (WUE/sub r/) for total water (grass: previous soil water storage + rain + irrigation) (WUE/sub g/), for SI water only (WUE/sub si/) and for synergetic effect (SI water + fertilizer application) (WUE/sub sis/) Water use efficiencies namely the WUE/sub r/, WUE/sub g/ and WUE/sub si/ during the period of three years under non fertilizer

  11. Weed Population Dynamics, Water Productivity and Grain Yield of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum L. in No-Tillage and Conventional Tillage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mojab

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Elimination or reduction of tillage in conservation agricultural systems has led to wide variations in germination, emergence, and growth of weeds and has caused variations in the density and diversity of weeds under such systems. Maintaining crop residues on the soil surface has many potential benefits in agricultural production systems; such as reducing water and wind erosions, increasing the soil organic matter content, improving the soil structure and sowing conditions, as well as a better weed management through allelopathy or physical interference provided by the crop residues. Crop residue and tillage system cause potential changes in the soil temperature and water content, which influence soil density, structure, moisture, as well as soil temperature and nutrients. Crop residues act as mulches and can effect on weed seed germination and seedling emergence. Therefore, the objectives of current study were to evaluate the effects of no-tillage systems on: (i narrow- and broadleaved weed densities, (ii crop yield and (iii water productivity (WP. Materials and Methods: A two-year field study based on a split plot experiment in a randomized complete block design with four replications was carried out in Zahedshahr, Fars province, Iran (latitude 28˚44΄N, longitude 53˚48΄E, 1180 m altitude during 2009-10 and 2010-11 growing seasons. The planting practices including moldboard plow, disk and leveler were practiced in conventional tillage plots and crop planting was performed using a drill seeder (made by Kohorasan Co., Iran. The no-tillage plots were directly planted without any soil disturbance and removing wheat residues of the last year using a direct planter machine (model Berteni, Argentina. Furrow irrigation was used at both systems and a water counter (model WD, size DN100 was applied to measure the amount of used water based on m3 ha-1. 1 x 1 m quadrates that were installed at the center of each plot. Crop density, narrow

  12. Use of Carbon Isotope Discrimination as Tool for Improving Drought Tolerance of Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Hakimi, A. S.

    2004-01-01

    As in many countries of the region, agriculture in Yemen has been strongly affected by drought conditions, and cereal production is the most concerned. So to this regard, two approaches could be adopted to solve this problem; enhancement of irrigated areas, but negative effects can also be noted as salinity (e.g. Marib, area) and development of foliar diseases. The second approaches is improvement of water use and drought resistance of wheat cultivars: this long-term strategy, which is a part of a general approach giving more attention to the sustainability of farming systems, is at the basis of the present study. Several morphophysiological mechanisms of drought tolerance involved in dehydration tolerance, As for other morphophysiological traits, the possibility of using carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) in breeding for water use efficiency (WUE) in drought prone environments is related to i) the facility of measurement, ii) the existence of variability, iii) high values of heritability, and iv) a good knowledge of eventual associations between Δ and other phenological or morphophysiological traits. The use of stable isotopes has until recently been limited because of the cost of mass spectrometers designed and the requirements for sample preparation. However, the recent linkage of an automatic gas sample preparation apparatus with a dual-inlet mass spectrometer has made the technique more convenient for fast and accurate analysis of stable isotope composition of the most important elements. The present study has been conducted to evaluate the interest of (Δ) in mature kernels as a criterion for the improvement of water use efficiency and yield under drought in tetraploid wheat species. For this purpose, T. durum Om Rabi 5 was crossed by T. polonicum 9 (Tp9) which had been found to be more droughts tolerant and to have a lower □ value of the grain. The F2 population showed a wide segregation for this last trait. Further, divergent selections were made among

  13. How can we improve the energy balance of ethanol production from wheat?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry D. Murphy; Niamh M. Power [University College Cork, Cork (Ireland). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-08-15

    The gross energy in ethanol using wheat as a feedstock in Ireland is 66 GJ/ha/a. The net energy production is 25 GJ/ha/a. A model is proposed, whereby the ethanol production process is combined with combustion of straw, and digestion of stillage, resulting in two transport fuels; ethanol and biomethane. In the proposed system stillage is not dried, reducing the thermal demand by 35%. A quarter of the straw associated with the wheat grain is sufficient, when combusted, to satisfy the reduced thermal demands. Stillage is digested wet; the biogas is scrubbed, compressed and utilised as a transport fuel. The net energy now is 72 GJ/ha/a. The production cost of biomethane is two thirds that of ethanol. 37 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

  14. Effects of exogenous ABA application on post-anthesis dry matter redistribution and grain starch accumulation of winter wheat with different staygreen characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate whether and how exogenous abscisic acid (ABA is involved in mediating starch accumulation in the grain and redistribution of carbohydrates during grain filling of two wheat cultivars with different staygreen characteristics. At blooming stage, plants of Wennong 6 (a staygreen cultivar and Jimai 20 (control were sprayed with 10 mg L− 1 abscisic acid (ABA for 3 days. The application of ABA significantly (P < 0.05 increased grain filling rate, starch accumulation rate and content, remobilization of dry matters to kernels, and 1000-grain weight of the two cultivars. Exogenous ABA markedly (P < 0.05 increased grain yield at maturity, and Wennong 6 and Jiami 20 showed 14.14% and 4.86% higher compared yield than the control. Dry matter accumulation after anthesis of Wennong 6 was also significantly (P < 0.05 influenced by exogenous ABA, whereas that of Jimai 20 was unchanged. Application of ABA increased endogenous zeatin riboside (ZR content 7 days after anthesis (DAA, and spraying ABA significantly increased endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and ABA contents from 7 to 21 DAA and decreased gibberellin (GA3 content at 14 DAA, but increased GA3 content from 21 to 35 DAA. The results suggested that increased yield of staygreen was due to greater starch assimilation owing to a higher filling rate and longer grain-filling duration.

  15. Application of Principal Component Analysis in Assessment of Relation Between the Parameters of Technological Quality of Wheat Grains Treated with Inert Dusts Against Rice Weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Bodroža-Solarov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality parameters of several wheat grain lots (low vitreous and high vitreous grains,non-infested and infested with rice weevils, (Sitophilus oryzae L. treated with inert dusts(natural zeolite, two diatomaceous earths originating from Serbia and a commercial productProtect-It® were investigated. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to investigatethe classification of treated grain lots and to assess how attributes of technological qualitycontribute to this classification. This research showed that vitreousness (0.95 and test weight(0.93 contributed most to the first principal component whereas extensigraph area (-0.76contributed to the second component. The determined accountability of the total variabilityby the first component was around 55%, while with the second it was 18%, which meansthat those two dimensions together account for around 70% of total variability of the observedset of variables. Principal component analysis (PCA of data set was able to distinguishamong the various treatments of wheat lots. It was revealed that inert dust treatments producedifferent effects depending on the degree of endosperm vitreousness.

  16. The proportion of nitrate in leaf nitrogen, but not changes in root growth, are associated with decreased grain protein in wheat under elevated [CO2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Helale; De Kok, Luit J; Armstrong, Roger; Fitzgerald, Glenn J; Bourgault, Maryse; Henty, Samuel; Tausz, Michael; Tausz-Posch, Sabine

    2017-09-01

    The atmospheric CO 2 concentration ([CO 2 ]) is increasing and predicted to reach ∼550ppm by 2050. Increasing [CO 2 ] typically stimulates crop growth and yield, but decreases concentrations of nutrients, such as nitrogen ([N]), and therefore protein, in plant tissues and grains. Such changes in grain composition are expected to have negative implications for the nutritional and economic value of grains. This study addresses two mechanisms potentially accountable for the phenomenon of elevated [CO 2 ]-induced decreases in [N]: N uptake per unit length of roots as well as inhibition of the assimilation of nitrate (NO 3 - ) into protein are investigated and related to grain protein. We analysed two wheat cultivars from a similar genetic background but contrasting in agronomic features (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Scout and Yitpi). Plants were field-grown within the Australian Grains Free Air CO 2 Enrichment (AGFACE) facility under two atmospheric [CO 2 ] (ambient, ∼400ppm, and elevated, ∼550ppm) and two water treatments (rain-fed and well-watered). Aboveground dry weight (ADW) and root length (RL, captured by a mini-rhizotron root growth monitoring system), as well as [N] and NO 3 - concentrations ([NO 3 - ]) were monitored throughout the growing season and related to grain protein at harvest. RL generally increased under e[CO 2 ] and varied between water supply and cultivars. The ratio of total aboveground N (TN) taken up per RL was affected by CO 2 treatment only later in the season and there was no significant correlation between TN/RL and grain protein concentration across cultivars and [CO 2 ] treatments. In contrast, a greater percentage of N remained as unassimilated [NO 3 - ] in the tissue of e[CO 2 ] grown crops (expressed as the ratio of NO 3 - to total N) and this was significantly correlated with decreased grain protein. These findings suggest that e[CO 2 ] directly affects the nitrate assimilation capacity of wheat with direct negative implications

  17. Effect of Water Stress and Spraying of Potassium Iodide on Agronomic Traits and Grain Yield of Bread Wheat (Tiriticum aistivum L. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pooladsaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effect of water stress and chemical desiccation (potassium iodide on grain yield and agronomic traits of 8 wheat genotypes, a field experiment was conducted using a split split plot design based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in Torogh Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station (Mashhad, Iran in 2006-2007 and 2007-2008. Main plots were assigned to two levels of water stress treatments; D1: optimum irrigation, and D2: cessation of watering from anthesis to maturity stages. Sub plots were assigned to eight bread wheat genotypes: 9103, 9116, 9203, 9205, 9207, 9212, C-81-10 and Cross Shahi (drought sensitive; and photosynthetic conditions with two levels: P1: using of current photosynthesis and P2: inhibition of current photosynthesis were in sub-sub plots. The results showed that the effects of water stress and photosynthetic conditions on number of total florets per spike (NTF/S, seed set percentage (SSP, spike harvest index (SHI, duration of grain filling (DGF and grain yield (GY were significant. There was a significant difference between genotypes for spike dry weight at anthesis (SDWA, number of spikletes per spike (NSP/S, NTF/S, SSP, SHI, spike partitioning coefficient (SPC, plant height (PLH, spike length (SL, DGF and GY. 9103 genotype produced the most GY (7870 kg/ha under D1P1 treatment. The least GY ( 1114 kg/ha related to Cross Shahi cultivar under D2P2 treatment. Considering that C-81-10, 9103 and 9116 genotypes showed the highest grain yield, potential for reserves and remobilizations of assimilates under different irrigation conditions thus, these genotypes could be introduced as promising in breeding programs for arid and semi-arid regions. Keywords: Triticum aestivum L., Cessation of watering, Chemical Desiccation, Spike, Grain yield

  18. Replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in the diet of lactating dairy cows: Feed intake, milk production and cow condition responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Ruairi P; Staines, Martin vH

    2017-08-01

    This research paper describes the effect of partially replacing wheat with maize grain and canola meal on milk production and body condition changes in early lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows consuming a grass silage-based diet over an 83-d period. Two groups of 39 cows were stratified for age, parity, historical milk yield and days in milk (DIM), and offered one of two treatment diets. The first treatment (CON) reflected a typical diet used by Western Australian dairy producers in summer and comprised (kg DM/cow per d); 8 kg of annual ryegrass silage, 6 kg of crushed wheat (provided once daily in a mixed ration), 3·6 kg of crushed lupins (provided in the milking parlour in two daily portions) and ad libitum lucerne haylage. The second treatment diet (COMP) was identical except the 6 kg of crushed wheat was replaced by 6 kg of a more complex concentrate mix (27% crushed wheat, 34% maize grain and 37% canola meal). Lucerne haylage was provided independently in the paddock to all cows, and no pasture was available throughout the experiment. The COMP group had a greater mean overall daily intake (22·5 vs 20·4 kg DM/cow) and a higher energy corrected milk (ECM) yield (29·2 vs 27·1 kg/cow; P = 0·047) than the CON cows. The difference in overall intake was caused by a higher daily intake of lucerne haylage in COMP cows (4·5 vs 2·3 kg DM/cow). The CON group had a higher concentration of milk fat (42·1 vs 39·3 g/kg; P = 0·029) than COMP cows. Milk protein yield was greater in COMP cows (P < 0·021); however, milk fat yield was unaffected by treatment. It is concluded that partially replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in a grass silage-based diet increases voluntary DMI of conserved forage and consequently yields of ECM and milk protein.

  19. Variation of heavy metal and micro and macro element concentrations of bread and durum wheats and their relationship in grain of Turkish wheat cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmankaya, Mustafa; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Gezgin, Sait

    2012-09-01

    The 64 varieties displayed a large variation for all mineral elements, investigated Fe, Mn and Zn, ranging from 24.2 to 43.1 mg/kg, 27.6 to 64.8 mg/kg and 10.4 to 38.2 mg/kg, respectively. The mean Ca, K, Mg, Na, P and S concentrations in wheat rain varieties amounted to 378, 4,266, 1,183, 317, 3,513 and 1,542 mg/kg, respectively. Ca, K, Mg, Na, P and S contents of wheat varieties changed at the levels between 266 and 531 mg/kg, 3,029 and 5,566 mg/kg, 972 and 1,525 mg/kg, 277 and 368 mg/kg, 2,422 and 4,610 mg/kg and 1,241 to 2,052 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of Al, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn of durum wheat samples were found at high levels. The mean Al, Cr, Mo, Ni, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn concentrations in durum wheat varieties amounted to 10.93, 0.47, 0.72, 0.72, 5.37, 34.9, 37.28 and 20.88 mg/kg, respectively.

  20. Evolution of Grain Yield and its Components Relationships in Bread Wheat Genotypes under Full Irrigation and Terminal Water Stress Conditions Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To study relationships between effective traits on wheat grain yield, the varieties Zarrin and Alvand, and some promising lines i.e. C-81-4, C-81-10, C-81-14 and C-82-12 were investigated at three sowing dates including 10 October, 1 November and 21 November. The experiment was carried out using strip plot in RCBD with three replications under two different water conditions including full-irrigation and terminal water stress at Miyandoab Agricultural Research Station in 2005-06 and 2006-07 cropping seasons. The results showed that under both full irrigation and terminal water stress conditions, grain yield had positive and significant correlation with days to heading, days to maturity, plant height, number of spikes/m2 and 1000 grain weight. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that 83 percent of yield variation under non-stressed conditions could be determined by days to maturity and number of spikes/m2 (R2 = 83% whereas these traits explained 87% of yield variation under stress conditions (R2= 87%. Path analysis indicated that number of spikes/m2 and days to maturity had the greatest positive direct and indirect effect on grain yield, under both conditions. The results of factor analysis under non-stressed condition showed that three factors explained 77% of total variation; these factors were called grain yield components, grain characteristics and plant phonology. Under non-stressed condition two factors (that were called grain yield and phenology, and plant morphology explained 88% of total variation. Cluster analysis through ward method, classified days to maturity and number of spikes/m2 in the same cluster where the grain yield was put under both conditions. It was concluded that under different sowing dates, selection based on days to maturity and number spikes/m2 could indirectly led to higher yield under both normal and water stress conditions.

  1. Identification and development of a functional marker of TaGW2 associated with grain weight in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhenqi; Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Lanfen; Dong, Yuchen; Zhang, Xueyong

    2011-01-01

    The OsGW2 gene is involved in rice grain development, influencing grain width and weight. Its ortholog in wheat, TaGW2, was considered as a candidate gene related to grain development. We found that TaGW2 is constitutively expressed, with three orthologs expressing simultaneously. The coding sequence (CDS) of TaGW2 is 1,275 bp encoding a protein with 424 amino acids, and has a functional domain shared with OsGW2. No divergence was detected within the CDS sequences in the same locus in ten varieties. Genome-specific primers were designed based on the sequence divergence of the promoter regions in the three orthologous genes, and TaGW2 was located in homologous group 6 chromosomes through CS nulli-tetrasomic (NT). Two SNPs were detected in the promoter region of TaGW2-6A, forming two haplotypes: Hap-6A-A (-593A and -739G) and Hap-6A-G (-593G and -769A). A cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker was developed based on the -593 A-G polymorphism to distinguish the two haplotypes in TaGW2-6A. This gene was fine mapped 0.6 cM from marker cfd80.2 near the centromere in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Two hundred sixty-five Chinese wheat varieties were genotyped and association analysis revealed that Hap-6A-A was significantly associated with wider grains and higher one-thousand grain weight (TGW) in two crop seasons. qRT-PCR revealed a negative relationship between TaGW2 expression level and grain width. The Hap-6A-A frequencies in Chinese varieties released at different periods showed that it had been strongly positively selected in breeding. In landraces, Hap-6A-A is mainly distributed in southern Chinese wheat regions. Association analysis also indicated that Hap-6A-A not only increased TGW by more than 3 g, but also had earlier heading and maturity. In contrast to Chinese varieties, Hap-6A-G was the predominant haplotype in European varieties; Hap-6A-A was mainly present in varieties released in the former Yugoslavia, Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary

  2. Exposure to field vs. storage wheat dust: different consequences on respiratory symptoms and immune response among grain workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Coralie; Wild, Pascal; Dorribo, Victor; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Laboissière, Audrey; Pralong, Jacques A; Danuser, Brigitta; Krief, Peggy; Millon, Laurence; Reboux, Gabriel; Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène

    2018-05-26

    The aim of this study was to understand the differential acute effects of two distinct wheat-related dusts, such as field or stored wheat dust handling, on workers' health and how those effects evolved at 6 month intervals. Exposure, work-related symptoms, changes in lung function, and blood samples of 81 workers handling wheat and 61 controls were collected during the high exposure season and 6 months after. Specific IgG, IgE, and precipitins against 12 fungi isolated from wheat dust were titrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay, and electrosyneresis. The level of fungi was determined in the workers' environment. Levels of exhaled fraction of nitrogen monoxide (F E NO) and total IgE were obtained. Exposure response associations were investigated by mixed logistic and linear regression models. The recent exposure to field wheat dust was associated with a higher prevalence for five of six self-reported airway symptoms and with a lower F E NO than those in the control population. Exposure to stored wheat dust was only associated with cough. No acute impact of exposure on respiratory function was observed. Exposure to field wheat dust led to workers' sensitization against the three field fungi Aureobasidum, Cryptococcus, and Phoma, although exposure to storage wheat dust was associated with tolerance. The level of Ig remained stable 6 months after exposure. The clinical picture of workers exposed to field or storage wheat dust differed. The systematic characterization of the aerosol microbial profile may help to understand the reasons for those differences.

  3. Algorithm based on regional separation for automatic grain boundary extraction using improved mean shift method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenying, Xu; Jiandong, Zhu; Qi, Zhang; Yamba, Philip

    2018-06-01

    Metallographic microscopy shows that the vast majority of metal materials are composed of many small grains; the grain size of a metal is important for determining the tensile strength, toughness, plasticity, and other mechanical properties. In order to quantitatively evaluate grain size in metals, grain boundaries must be identified in metallographic images. Based on the phenomenon of grain boundary blurring or disconnection in metallographic images, this study develops an algorithm based on regional separation for automatically extracting grain boundaries by an improved mean shift method. Experimental observation shows that the grain boundaries obtained by the proposed algorithm are highly complete and accurate. This research has practical value because the proposed algorithm is suitable for grain boundary extraction from most metallographic images.

  4. Controlled Release Urea as a Nitrogen Source for Spring Wheat in Western Canada: Yield, Grain N Content, and N Use Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenz Haderlein

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled release nitrogen (N fertilizers have been commonly used in horticultural applications such as turf grasses and container-grown woody perennials. Agrium, a major N manufacturer in North and South America, is developing a low-cost controlled release urea (CRU product for use in field crops such as grain corn, canola, wheat, and other small grain cereals. From 1998 to 2000, 11 field trials were conducted across western Canada to determine if seed-placed CRU could maintain crop yields and increase grain N and N use efficiency when compared to the practice of side-banding of urea N fertilizer. CRU was designed to release timely and adequate, but not excessive, amounts of N to the crop. Crop uptake of N from seed-placed CRU was sufficient to provide yields similar to those of side-banded urea N. Grain N concentrations of the CRU treatments were higher, on average, than those from side-banded urea, resulting in 4.2% higher N use efficiency across the entire N application range from 25 to 100 kg ha-1. Higher levels of removal of N in grain from CRU compared to side-banded urea can result in less residual N remaining in the soil, and limit the possibility of N losses due to denitrification and leaching.

  5. Seed priming improves salinity tolerance of wheat varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, Y.; Shafi, M.; Arif, M.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the response of wheat varieties to seed priming and salinity, an experiment was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications at Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (IBGE), KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. The performance of 6 wheat varieties (Tatara-96, Ghaznavi-98, Fakhri Sarhad, Bakhtawar-92, Pirsabaq-2004 and Auqab-2000) at two seed conditions (primed with 30 mM NaCl and un primed) under four salinity levels (0, 40, 80 and 120 mM) was studied. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that salinity, seed priming and varieties had significantly (P= 0.05) affected shoot fresh weight plant/sup -1/ shoot dry weight plant/sup -1/, shoot Na/sup +/ contents (mg g/sup -1/ dry weight), shoot K/sup +/ contents (mg g/sup -1/ dry weight) and shoot K/sup +/Na/sup +/ ratio. Maximum shoot fresh weight plant/sup -1/ (7.71 g), shoot dry weight plant/sup -1/ (1.68 g), shoot K/sup +/ contents (1.39 mg g/sup -1/ dry weight) and shoot K/sup +/ Na/sup +/ratio (1.45) were recorded from Bakhtawar-92 as compared with other varieties. Highest shoot Na/sup +/ contents (1.43 mg g/sup -1/ dry weight) were recorded from Auqab-2000 when compared with other varieties. All parameters were enhanced with seed priming except shoot Na/sup +/ contents, which reduced significantly (p= 0.05) with seed priming. (author)

  6. Improvement of baking quality traits through a diverse soft winter wheat population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding baking quality improvements into soft winter wheat (SWW) entails crossing lines based on quality traits, assessing new lines, and repeating several times as little is known about the genetics of these traits. Previous research on SWW baking quality focused on quantitative trait locus and ge...

  7. Effect of process variables on the quality characteristics of pelleted wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Lope Tabil; Anthony Opoku; Maria Rosario Mosqueda; Olaniyi Fadeyi

    2011-04-01

    The rapid expansion of ethanol processing plants in Canada has resulted in a significant increase in the production of wheat-based distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Transportation and flowability problems associated with DDGS necessitate investigations on pelleting. In the present study, the effect of process variables like die temperature (T) and feed moisture content (Mw) on the pellet properties like pellet moisture content, durability and pellet density was explored using a single pelleting machine; further studies on pelleting DDGS using a pilot-scale pellet mill were also conducted to understand the effect of die diameter and steam conditioning on durability and bulk density of pellets. Proximate analysis of DDGS indicated that crude protein and dry matter were in the range of 37.37–40.33% and 91.27–92.60%, respectively. Linear regression models developed for pellet quality attributes like pellet moisture content, pellet density and durability adequately described the single pelleting process with R2 value of 0.97, 0.99 and 0.7, respectively. ANOVA results have indicated that linear terms T and Mw and the interaction term T × Mw were statistically significant at P < 0.01 and P < 0.1 for pellet moisture content and pellet density. Based on the trends of the surface plots, a medium T of about 50–80 °C and a low Mw of about 5.1% resulted in maximum pellet density and durability and minimum pellet moisture content. Results from pilot-scale studies indicated that bulk density, durability and throughput values were 436.8–528.9 kg m-3, 60.3–92.7% and 45.52–68.77 kg h-1, respectively. It was observed that both die diameter and steam addition had a significant effect on the bulk density and the durability values. The highest bulk density and durability were achieved with 6.4 mm die diameter with steam addition compared to 7.9 mm die with or without steam addition.

  8. Putative Microsatellite DNA Marker-Based Wheat Genomic Resource for Varietal Improvement and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Jaiswal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wheat fulfills 20% of global caloric requirement. World needs 60% more wheat for 9 billion population by 2050 but climate change with increasing temperature is projected to affect wheat productivity adversely. Trait improvement and management of wheat germplasm requires genomic resource. Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs being highly polymorphic and ubiquitously distributed in the genome, can be a marker of choice but there is no structured marker database with options to generate primer pairs for genotyping on desired chromosome/physical location. Previously associated markers with different wheat trait are also not available in any database. Limitations of in vitro SSR discovery can be overcome by genome-wide in silico mining of SSR. Triticum aestivum SSR database (TaSSRDb is an integrated online database with three-tier architecture, developed using PHP and MySQL and accessible at http://webtom.cabgrid.res.in/wheatssr/. For genotyping, Primer3 standalone code computes primers on user request. Chromosome-wise SSR calling for all the three sub genomes along with choice of motif types is provided in addition to the primer generation for desired marker. We report here a database of highest number of SSRs (476,169 from complex, hexaploid wheat genome (~17 GB along with previously reported 268 SSR markers associated with 11 traits. Highest (116.93 SSRs/Mb and lowest (74.57 SSRs/Mb SSR densities were found on 2D and 3A chromosome, respectively. To obtain homozygous locus, e-PCR was done. Such 30 loci were randomly selected for PCR validation in panel of 18 wheat Advance Varietal Trial (AVT lines. TaSSRDb can be a valuable genomic resource tool for linkage mapping, gene/QTL (Quantitative trait locus discovery, diversity analysis, traceability and variety identification. Varietal specific profiling and differentiation can supplement DUS (Distinctiveness, Uniformity, and Stability testing, EDV (Essentially Derived Variety/IV (Initial Variety disputes, seed

  9. Opportunities in Tajikistan to breed wheat varieties resistant to seed-borne diseases and improved baking quality

    OpenAIRE

    Husenov, Bahromiddin

    2013-01-01

    Wheat seed-borne diseases and options for improving baking quality of wheat, as well as the role of genotypes for breeding to achieve high yield and quality are the key issues discussed in this introductory paper. The importance of wheat for Tajikistan and how to achieve food security goals in the country is also elucidated. Wheat seed-borne diseases are caused mostly by fungi. Loose Smut (Ustilago tritici), Common Bunt (Tilletia laevis and T.caries), Karnal Bunt (T.indica), Dwarf Bunt (T....

  10. The use of PCR assay for quality testing of grain of winter wheat cultivated in organic, integrated, conventional system and monoculture in phytopathological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Łukanowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of experiments was to evaluate the occurrence of fungi on grain of winter wheat cv. Roma cultivated in four systems on the experimental fields owned by the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation. Among pathogenic species, fungi from genus Fusarium dominated. Their number was the lowest on grain harvested in organic system and the highest in integrated one. Saprotrophic species were represented mainly by Alternaria alternata, which occurred the most often in organic system. Determination of F. avenaceum, F. culmorum and F. poae with microscope was confirmed with a PCR assay. All isolates of F. culmorum and F. poae gave an amplification product of Tri 5 gene coding the possibility of trichocene production, while none of isolates of F. avenaceum.

  11. The fate of the dry matter, carbohydrates and 14C lost from the leaves and stems of wheat during grain filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, R.B.; Edrich, J.A.; Ford, M.A.; Blackwell, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    In a field study with six winter wheat genotypes losses of dry matter from the stems between 30 June and maturity averaged 172 g m - 2 (range 82 to 256), there being significant differences in loss between genotypes. Respiration from the stems during the same period was estimated to amount to 106 g m -2 (range 104 to 225). The amount of dry matter mobilized from the stems, calculated by difference, was estimated as 66 g m -2 . The loss of ethanol- and water-soluble carbohydrate from the stems (170 g m -2 ; range 124 to 215) was very similar to the dry weight loss. Carbon-14 labelling was used to trace the time course and the amount of the movement of assimilates from the vegetative organs to the grain. Only 14.3 per cent (range 10.3 to 21.0) of the products of photosynthesis over the period 21 May to 20 June were relocated to the grains. This relocation amounted to an average of 7 per cent (range 5.7 to 11.4) of the final grain weight. It was estimated that during the 18 days following anthesis on 20 June photosynthesis contributed 48 per cent (range 39 to 55) of the final grain dry weight. Of this, about half was translocated to the grain within 10 days of initial assimilation. The remainder appeared to be stored temporarily in the stems and leaves and translocated to the grains during the period 17 to 29 July. In general, relocation of dry matter from the vegetative organs to the grains, assessed by carbon-14 labelling, was greatest in those genotypes (Hobbit and Sportsman) which lost most dry weight from the stems and leaves. (author)

  12. Generation of amphidiploids from hybrids of wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum as a source of genetic variation for wheat improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Csilla; Yang, Cai-yun; Kasprzak, Paul; Hubbart, Stella; Scholefield, Duncan; Mehra, Surbhi; Skipper, Emma; King, Ian; King, Julie

    2015-02-01

    We aim to improve diversity of domesticated wheat by transferring genetic variation for important target traits from related wild and cultivated grass species. The present study describes the development of F1 hybrids between wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum and production of new amphidiploids. Amphidiploid lines were produced from 20 different distant relatives. Both colchicine and caffeine were successfully used to double the chromosome numbers. The genomic constitution of the newly formed amphidiploids derived from seven distant relatives was determined using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Altogether, 42 different plants were analysed, 19 using multicolour GISH separating the chromosomes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat, as well as the distant relative, and 23 using single colour GISH. Restructuring of the allopolyploid genome, both chromosome losses and aneuploidy, was detected in all the genomes contained by the amphidiploids. From the observed chromosome numbers there is an indication that in amphidiploids the B genome of wheat suffers chromosome losses less frequently than the other wheat genomes. Phenotyping to realize the full potential of the wheat-related grass germplasm is underway, linking the analyzed genotypes to agronomically important target traits.

  13. Effect of Drought Stress on Antioxidant Enzymes and Cell Death Related Traits in Resistant and Susceptible Wheat Cultivars at Grain Filling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hasheminasab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major factors limiting crop production in Iran. Twenty Iranian wheat cultivars with wide range of sensitivity to drought, including 18 varieties of bread wheat and two varieties of durum wheat were used in two separate field experiments in 2009-2010 at the Experimental Station of College of Agricultural in Shiraz University. Each experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications. The moisture level in one of the experiments was optimum (100% field capacity while the second experiment was conducted under drought stress (45% field capacity. Several biochemical components including antioxidant enzymes and hydrogen peroxide and some physiological traits were analyzed in the two conditions. Drought stress significantly increased antioxidant activity at the grain filling stage. Superoxide dismutase activity showed the highest increase. Lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, electrolyte leakage and cell death increased significantly under drought condition, however membrane stability index decreased. Resistant cultivars showed the highest antioxidant activity and the lowest lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and electrolyte leakage. This trend was reversed in the susceptible cultivars. Peroxidase and superoxide dismutase had a significant correlation with yield stability index. Hydrogen peroxide and cell membrane stability indices showed the highest correlation with yield stability index. Also Pishtaz and Alamut were selected respectively as the most resistance and susceptible cultivars.

  14. Dynamics of genetic variation at gliadin-coding loci in bread wheat cultivars developed in small grains research center (Kragujevac during last 35 years

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    Novosljska-Dragovič Aleksandra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple alleles of gliadin-coding loci are well-known genetic markers of common wheat genotypes. Based on analysis of gliadin patterns in common wheat cultivars developed at the Small Grains Research Center in Kragujevac dynamics of genetic variability at gliadin-coding loci has been surveyed for the period of 35 years. It was shown that long-term breeding of the wheat cultivars involved gradual replacement of ancient alleles for those widely spread in some regions in the world, which belong to well-known cultivars-donor of some important traits. Developing cultivars whose pedigree involved much new foreign genetic material has increased genetic diversity as well as has changed frequency of alleles of gliadin-coding loci. So we can conclude that the genetic profile of modern Serbian cultivars has changed considerably. Genetic formula of gliadin was made for each the cultivar studied. The most frequent alleles of gliadin-coding loci among modern cultivars should be of great interest of breeders because these alleles are probably linked with genes that confer advantage to their carriers at present.

  15. Copy Number Variation of Cytokinin Oxidase Gene Tackx4 Associated with Grain Weight and Chlorophyll Content of Flag Leaf in Common Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Hai-Ping; Ma, Chuan-Xi; Sun, Genlou

    2015-01-01

    As the main pigment in photosynthesis, chlorophyll significantly affects grain filling and grain weight of crop. Cytokinin (CTK) can effectively increase chlorophyll content and chloroplast stability, but it is irreversibly inactivated by cytokinin oxidase (CKX). In this study, therefore, twenty-four pairs of primers were designed to identify variations of wheat CKX (Tackx) genes associated with flag leaf chlorophyll content after anthesis, as well as grain weight in 169 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from Triticum aestivum Jing 411 × Hongmangchun 21. Results indicated variation of Tackx4, identified by primer pair T19-20, was proven to significantly associate with chlorophyll content and grain weight in the RIL population. Here, two Tackx4 patterns were identified: one with two co-segregated fragments (Tackx4-1/Tackx4-2) containing 618 bp and 620 bp in size (as in Jing 411), and another with no PCR product. The two genotypes were designated as genotype-A and genotype-B, respectively. Grain weight and leaf chlorophyll content at 5~15 days after anthesis (DAA) were significantly higher in genotype-A lines than those in genotype-B lines. Mapping analysis indicated Tackx4 was closely linked to Xwmc169 on chromosome 3AL, as well as co-segregated with a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for both grain weight and chlorophyll content of flag leaf at 5~15 DAA. This QTL explained 8.9~22.3% phenotypic variations of the two traits across four cropping seasons. Among 102 wheat varieties, a third genotype of Tackx4 was found and designated as genotype-C, also having two co-segregated fragments, Tackx4-2 and Tackx4-3 (615bp). The sequences of three fragments, Tackx4-1, Tackx4-2, and Tackx4-3, showed high identity (>98%). Therefore, these fragments could be considered as different copies at Tackx4 locus on chromosome 3AL. The effect of copy number variation (CNV) of Tackx4 was further validated. In general, genotype-A contains both significantly higher grain weight

  16. Seed protein improvement by nuclear techniques. Proceedings of two research co-ordination meetings. The 4. research co-ordination meeting of the seed protein improvement programme jointly organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture and the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung held at Baden, Austria, 28 March - 1 April 1977. The 2. research co-ordination meeting on the use of aneuploids for protein improvement in wheat organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture held at Vienna, Austria, 26-30 September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The proceedings contain papers presented at two different meetings: 1) on seed protein improvement and 2) on aneuploids in wheat protein improvement. The former meeting discusses the seed protein content in cereals and grain legumes and the relation between protein content and yield; the procedures for analysis of protein and lysine content is also discussed. The latter meeting reports the results of co-operative experiments concerned with the chromosomal location of genes affecting protein and lysine content in wheat.

  17. Differences between two strains of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora on improving the nutritive value of wheat straw for ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nayan, N.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated differences between two strains of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora on improving the nutritive value and in vitro degradability of wheat straw. Methods and Results: Wheat straw was treated with the fungi for 7 weeks. Weekly samples were analysed for ergosterol content, in vitro

  18. Genetic Engineering of Maize (Zea mays L.) with Improved Grain Nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaotong; Duan, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yongzhen; Cheng, Jieshan; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Hongxia; Li, Bei

    2018-02-21

    Cell-wall invertase plays important roles in the grain filling of crop plants. However, its functions in the improvement of grain nutrients have not been investigated. In this work, the stable expression of cell-wall-invertase-encoding genes from different plant species and the contents of total starch, protein, amino acid, nitrogen, lipid, and phosphorus were examined in transgenic maize plants. High expressions of the cell-wall-invertase gene conferred enhanced invertase activity and sugar content in transgenic plants, leading to increased grain yield and improved grain nutrients. Transgenic plants with high expressions of the transgene produced more total star