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Sample records for wheat bran maize

  1. STUDY ON THE FEED CONVERSION RATIO (FCR IN MAJOR CARP CIRRHINUS MRIGALA FED ON SUNFLOWER MEAL, WHEAT BRAN AND MAIZE GLUTEN

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    S. Shabir, M. Salim and M. Rashid

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A six-week experiment was conducted in aquaria to study the feed conversion ratio (FCR in Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings fed on wheat bran (13.81% protein, sunflower meal (35.52 % protein and maize gluten (26.15% protein. The ingredients were supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fish twice a day. The fish gained the highest average body weight (0.31 ± 0.03 g on sunflower meal followed by maize gluten (0.23 ± 0.01g and wheat bran (0.19 ± 0.02g. FCR calculated for three treatments was highest for wheat bran (0.019 while for sunflower it was lowest (0.003. The correlation between average body weight and FCR values was significantly negative in case of wheat bran whereas in case of sunflower meal and maize gluten, the correlation was non-significant1y negative.

  2. Performance of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom grown on maize stalk residues supplemented with various levels of maize flour and wheat bran

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    Senzosenkosi Surprise MKHIZE

    Full Text Available Abstract Improving the performance of mushroom in terms of high production and fast growth rate is essential in mushroom cultivation. In the present study the performance of Pleurotus ostreatus was evaluated using varying levels of wheat bran (WB and maize flour (MF. The results indicated that Pleurotus ostreatus was highly influenced by different levels of supplementation, with 8% WB, 18% WB and 2% MF having higher contamination rate. The low levels of supplementation gave significantly better mycelial growth rate (MGR and shorter colonisation period as observed that the control had highest MGR whereby 20% MF had lowest MGR. The pinning time (TP was shortest at the first flush with minimum of 3 days (12% MF. The higher levels of supplementation showed maximum biological efficiency (BE such as 14% MF, 12% WB and 14% WB. The yield was also higher at high levels of supplementation such as 20% MF and 8% MF being the exception in the lower levels. Based on the results it was observed that for fast production of oyster mushroom there is no need to supplement the maize stalk substrate but for improved productivity supplements can be added up to certain limits such as 14% MF and 12 WB.

  3. Performance of Pleurotus pulmonarius mushroom grown on maize stalk residues supplemented with various levels of maize flour and wheat bran

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    Senzosenkosi Surprise MKHIZE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of supplemented agricultural waste in mushroom cultivation can be one of the environmentally friendly strategies for poverty alleviation. The study evaluated the performance of Pleurotus pulmonarius mushroom grown on maize stalk supplemented with varying levels of wheat bran (WB and maize flour (MF. A completely random design was used for the experiments. It was observed that Pleurotus pulmonarius was significantly affected by varying levels of supplementation, as 20% WB supplementation encountered higher contamination. The lower supplementation levels gave significantly shorter colonisation period with better mycelial growth rate (MGR. The 2% MF, 2% WB and 4% WB gave significantly higher MGR and faster colonisation. The shortest pinning time (TP was observed at the first flush with the minimum of 2 days. Higher supplementation levels gave maximum yield and biological efficiency (BE. With further increase of supplementation above a 12% WB and 14% MF, the BE and yield declined. Lower supplementation levels resulted in quicker colonisation period and improved growth rate, whereas high supplementation gave better production in terms of yield and BE. Therefore, for the purpose of maximum production, 12% WB and 14% MF may be recommended while for fast production time, 2% MF and 2% WB are recommended.

  4. Effects of different levels of wheat bran, rice bran and maize powder supplementation with saw dust on the production of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer).

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    Moonmoon, Mahbuba; Shelly, Nasrat Jahan; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Uddin, Md Nazim; Hossain, Kamal; Tania, Mousumi; Ahmed, Saleh

    2011-10-01

    The cultivation of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) is increasing rapidly in Bangladesh due to its nutritional and medicinal importance with excellent flavor and longer shelf life. With the aim of increased production, we have cultivated L. edodes on saw dust (SD) supplemented with different levels (10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35% and 40%) of wheat bran (WB), rice bran (RB), maize powder (MP) and their combination (WB+RB+MP = 1:1:1) to investigate the growth, yield and quality of this mushroom. Most of the growth, yield and quality parameters varied significantly when mushrooms were cultivated with different levels of supplementation. The yield of mushroom was increased with the level of each supplementation upto a certain level, and then decreased. SD supplemented with 25% WB produced the highest number of fruiting bodies (34.8/500 g packet), highest biological yield (153.3/500 g packet), and biological efficiency (76.6%) of L. edodes. But the yield of the best quality mushroom was observed on SD with 40% WB supplementation; however, the qualities were not always supplementation dose dependent. In this study, we report that 25% WB supplementation with SD may be very effective for higher yield and 40% WB supplementation for better quality of L. edodes.

  5. Utilization of maize bran-based diets supplemented with Roxazyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty broilers (Abor AcrePlus Strain) were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments of 3 replicates each. Five diets (Diet 1: basal, maize-based, with no Roxazyme G2 G enzyme; Diet 2: 20% maize bran with Roxazyme G2 G; Diet 3: 20% maize bran without Roxazyme G2 G; Diet 4: 40% maize bran with ...

  6. Comparative Digestibility of Maize brawn, Wheat offal and Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKEEM

    other nutrients, ruminant animals has the ability to utilize low quality material to form edible products such as meat, milk, skin and hide. The focus of this study is to assess the nutritional potential of rice bran, maize bran and wheat offal, through digestibility trial and nitrogen balance. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Description ...

  7. Effect of Different Extrusion Parameters on Dietary Fiber in Wheat Bran and Rye Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Annica A M; Andersson, R; Jonsäll, Anette; Andersson, Jörgen; Fredriksson, Helena

    2017-06-01

    Wheat bran and rye bran are mostly used as animal feed today, but their high content of dietary fiber and bioactive components are beneficial to human health. Increased use of bran as food raw material could therefore be desirable. However, bran mainly contains unextractable dietary fiber and deteriorates the sensory properties of products. Processing by extrusion could increase the extractability of dietary fiber and increase the sensory qualities of bran products. Wheat bran and rye bran were therefore extruded at different levels of moisture content, screw speed and temperature, in order to find the optimal setting for increased extractability of dietary fiber and positive sensory properties. A water content of 24% for wheat bran and 30% for rye bran, a screw speed of 400 rpm, and a temperature of 130 °C resulted in the highest extractability of total dietary fiber and arabinoxylan. Arabinoxylan extractability increased from 5.8% in wheat bran to 9.0% in extruded wheat bran at those settings, and from 14.6% to 19.2% for rye bran. Total contents of dietary fiber and arabinoxylan were not affected by extrusion. Content of β-glucan was also maintained during extrusion, while its molecular weight decreased slightly and extractability increased slightly. Extrusion at these settings is therefore a suitable process for increasing the use of wheat bran and rye bran as a food raw material. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Effects of substitution of soybean meal-alfalfa-maize by a combination of field bean or pea with hard wheat bran on digestion and growth performance in rabbits in Algeria

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    G. Lounaouci-Ouyed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the trial was to study the effects of replacement of a soybean meal-alfalfa-maize based diet by a mixture of field bean (g/kg as fed: 257 crude protein [CP], 139 neutral detergent fibre [NDF] or pea (g/kg as fed: 203 CP, 122 NDF combined with hard wheat bran (g/kg as fed: 140 CP, 396 NDF and without supplementation of synthetic DL-methionine, on diet digestibility, growth and slaughter traits of growing rabbits. Three diets were formulated: a control diet mainly consisting of 15% of soybean meal, alfalfa and maize (SBM15 diet; g/kg as fed: 161 CP and 267 NDF and 2 experimental diets based on 26% of field bean (FB26 diet; g/kg as fed: 167 CP and 250 NDF or 30% of pea (P30 diet; g/kg as fed: 167 CP and 255 NDF as main protein source, and completed with hard wheat bran (34 and 40%, respectively for FB26 and P30 diets partly replacing alfalfa and maize. Diets were distributed ad libitum to 3 groups of 40 mixed-sex growing rabbits of Algerian white population, placed in collective cages (4 rabbits/cage from weaning (28 d, mean weight: 614±112 g until 77 d of age (slaughter. Faecal digestibility was measured between 42 and 46 d of age in 7 rabbits/group. Gross energy and crude protein digestibility coefficients were similar for SBM15 and FB26 diets (78.6 and 86.4%, respectively and lower for P30 diet (75.1 and 83.6%, respectively; P≤0.03. Treatments had no effect (P=0.12 on mortality rate, which was on av. 9.2%. Treatments did not affect growth performance from 28 to 77 d of age (30.8 g/d or feed intake (mean 94.6 g/d, but feed conversion ratio was higher for rabbits fed FB26 and P30 diets compared to those fed SBM15 diet (3.13 vs. 2.94; P=0.006. The dressing out percentages (mean 66.6% and the muscle/bone ratio (6.8 were similar for the 3 groups of rabbits. In conclusion, the substitution of soybean meal-alfalfa-maize by a combination of field bean or pea with hard wheat bran, without methionine supplementation, does not seem to affect

  9. Impact of Added Colored Wheat Bran on Bread Quality

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    Lenka Machálková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of colored wheat bran addition on bread quality was tested on wheat varieties with purple pericarp (Konini, Rosso and Karkulka and on a variety containing blue aleurone (Skorpion. The effect of 10 %, 15 % and 20 % bran addition on sensory evaluation, bread color and texture was compared to the characteristics of bread prepared from wheat variety Mulan. The addition of 10 % bran significantly increased the sensory evaluation scores of bread. Crumb characteristics were improved mainly by the addition of 10 % bran. Moreover, top-quality bread contained bran separated from wheat variety Konini.

  10. Mechanisms by which wheat bran and oat bran increase stool weight in humans.

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    Chen, H L; Haack, V S; Janecky, C W; Vollendorf, N W; Marlett, J A

    1998-09-01

    Generally, stool weight is significantly increased by adding sources of insoluble fiber to the diet. Comparable amounts of fiber provided by wheat and oat brans have the same effect on daily stool output, even though > 90% of wheat bran fiber but only 50-60% of oat bran fiber is insoluble. To determine the bases for these increases in stool weight, stool samples collected from 5 men in 2 constant diet studies that determined the effects of wheat and oat brans on large-bowel physiology were fractionated by using a physicochemical procedure into plant, bacterial, and soluble fractions, which were weighed and analyzed for sugar content and composition. Nitrogen, crude fat, and ash outputs were also determined. Wheat bran increased the fecal concentration of sugars and mass of plant material more than did oat bran, whereas oat bran increased fecal bacterial mass more. Each fiber source increased nitrogen, ash, and fat excretion, but excretion of fat was greater with oat bran. The apparent digestibility of plant-derived neutral sugars decreased significantly when wheat but not oat bran was consumed. The apparent digestibility of neutral sugars provided by wheat bran was 56%; the apparent digestibility of those provided by oat bran was 96%. We conclude that bacteria and lipids are major contributors to the increase in stool weight with oat bran consumption, whereas undigested plant fiber is responsible for much of the increase in stool weight with wheat bran consumption. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that oat bran increases stool weight by providing rapidly fermented soluble fiber in the proximal colon for bacterial growth, which is sustained until excretion by fermentation of the insoluble fiber.

  11. A note on the effect of wheat versus maize on the backfat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veek.1987, 17(2). Table 1 Percentage composition of maize and wheat- based experimental diets (on an air-dry basis). Yellow maize meal. Wheat. Fish meal. Wheaten bran. Sunflower oilcake meal. Synthetic lysine. Salt. Monocalcium phosphate. Feed lime. Vitamin and Mineral mixture". Calculated composition. Protein (%).

  12. Enrichment of maize and triticale bran with recombinant Aspergillus tubingensis ferulic acid esterase

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zwane, EN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available from maize bran and triticale bran, respectively, and also significantly increased the levels of p-coumaric and caffeic acid from triticale bran. The cost-effective production of AtFAEA could therefore allow for the enrichment of brans generally used...

  13. Dry-fractionation of wheat bran increases the bioaccessibility of phenolic acids in breads made from processed bran fractions

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    Hemery, Y.M.; Anson, N.M.; Havenaar, R.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Noort, M.W.J.; Rouau, X.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential of using ultra-fine grinding and electrostatic separation of wheat bran as methods to improve the bioaccessibility of para-coumaric acid (pCA), sinapic acid (SA) and ferulic acid (FA) from bran-rich breads. Bran fractions were produced and used to bake white bread,

  14. Arabinoxylans concentrates from wheat bran by electrostatic separation

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    Wang, J.; Smits, E.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2015-01-01

    Electrostatic separation has been recently proposed as a novel method to fractionate wheat bran into valuable ingredient fractions. However, systematic study into the influence of parameters on electrostatic separation was lacking. Therefore, this study aimed at a more detailed evaluation of

  15. Influence of wheat bran as a silage additive on chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of wheat bran (WB) as a silage additive on chemical composition, in situ degradability and in vitro gas production of citrus pulp silage (CPS) was investigated. The whole fresh citrus pulp was manually chopped and used as untreated or treated with 6, 12, or 18 g WB/kg fresh citrus pulp for ensiling. The data were ...

  16. Effect of wheat bran supplementation with fresh and composted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of wheat bran supplementation with fresh and composted agricultural wastes on the growth of Kenyan native wood ear mushrooms [ Auricularia auricula (L. ex Hook.) Underw.] ... Mean separation was done using least significant difference (LSD) and effects were declared significant at 5% level. Keywords: Wood ear ...

  17. Influence of wheat bran as a silage additive on chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dear User!

    2012-06-22

    Jun 22, 2012 ... The effect of wheat bran (WB) as a silage additive on chemical composition, in situ degradability and in vitro gas production of citrus pulp silage (CPS) was investigated. The whole fresh citrus pulp was manually chopped and used as untreated or treated with 6, 12, or 18 g WB/kg fresh citrus pulp for ensiling ...

  18. Bioprocessing of wheat bran improves in vitro bioaccessibility and colonic metabolism of phenolic compounds

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    Mateo Anson, N.; Selinheimo, E.; Havenaar, R.; Aura, A.-M.; Mattila, I.; Lehtinen, P.; Bast, A.; Poutanen, K.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is the most abundant phenolic compound in wheat grain, mainly located in the bran. However, its bioaccessibility from the bran matrix is extremely low. Different bioprocessing techniques involving fermentation or enzymatic and fermentation treatments of wheat bran were developed

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE WHIPPED BREAD WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT, RYE AND WHEAT BRAN

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    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of whipped bakery products enriched with dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins retinol, tocopherol, group, polyunsaturated fatty acids through the use of rye and wheat bran and flour of wholegrain wheat. The main raw material for enrichment whipped bakery products used wheat bran and rye. Choice of rye and wheat bran as supplementation prepared whipped bread is explained not only from the point of view of the rationality of the use of this secondary raw materials, but also its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Wheat bran contain the necessary man of b vitamins, including B1, B2, B6, PP and others. Found provitamin a (carotene and vitamin E (tocopherol. Bran is rich in mineral substances. Among them potassium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper, selenium and other trace elements. Thanks to this composition bran are essential dietary product. They are rich in insoluble fiber and can be useful to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. Rye bran contain dietary fiber, tocopherol E, thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Pantothenic acid B5, B4 (choline, nicotinic acid B3, etc. In the bran rich set of microelements and macroelements such as iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iodine, selenium, chromium, etc. the Introduction in the diet, bran rye contribute to the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes and anemia. They restore blood pressure, reduce blood sugar levels and improve the cardiovascular system. Flour from wholegrain wheat is the main supplier of bread protein and starch, while preserving the maximum of the original nutritional value of the grain, enriched whipped bread macro - and micronutrients. The analysis of the chemical composition of flour from wholegrain wheat, rye and wheat bran leads to the conclusion that the choice of these types of materials suitable for making the recipe whipped bakery products, because their use can increase the content in bread is not only the

  20. Impact of solid state fermentation on nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran.

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    Zhao, Hui-Min; Guo, Xiao-Na; Zhu, Ke-Xue

    2017-02-15

    To improve the nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran, yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were used for fermenting wheat bran in solid state. Appearance properties, nutritional properties, microstructure, hydration properties and flavor of raw bran and fermented bran were evaluated. After treatments, water extractable arabinoxylans were 3-4 times higher than in raw bran. Total dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber increased after solid state fermentation. Over 20% of phytic acid was degraded. Microstructure changes and protein degradation were observed in fermented brans. Water holding capacity and water retention capacity of fermented brans were improved. Results suggest that solid state fermentation is an effective way to improve the properties of wheat brans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dry heat treatment affects wheat bran surface properties and hydration kinetics.

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    Jacobs, Pieter J; Hemdane, Sami; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-07-15

    Heat stabilization of wheat bran aims at inactivation of enzymes which may cause rancidity and processability issues. Such treatments may however cause additional unanticipated phenomena which may affect wheat bran technological properties. In this work, the impact of toasting on wheat bran hydration capacity and hydration kinetics was studied. Hydration properties were assessed using the Enslin-Neff and drainage centrifugation water retention capacity methods, thermogravimetric analysis and contact angle goniometry, next to more traditional methods. While equilibrium hydration properties of bran were not affected by the heat treatment, the rate at which the heat treated bran hydrated was, however, very significantly reduced compared to the untreated bran. This phenomenon was found to originate from the formation of a lipid coating during the treatment rendering the bran surface hydrophobic. These insights help to understand and partially account for the modified processability of heat treated bran in food applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Wheat bran glucuronoarabinoxylans : biochemical and physical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schooneveld - Bergmans, M.E.F.

    1997-01-01

    Arabinoxylans are present in cereal cell walls and in vitro they have interesting physicochemical properties, such as viscosity and gelation. Although many studies on these properties were reported for wheat flour arabinoxylan, not much research has been directed towards exploitation of

  3. Physical, textural, and antioxidant properties of extruded waxy wheat flour snack supplemented with several varieties of bran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and while industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets discarded. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran varieties from hard red spring, white club Bruehl, and purple whea...

  4. Partial replacement of fat with wheat bran in formulation of biscuits enriched with herbal blend

    OpenAIRE

    Filipčev Bojana; Nedeljković Nataša; Šimurina Olivera; Sakač Marijana; Pestorić Mladenka; Jambrec Dubravka; Šarić Bojana; Jovanov Pavle

    2017-01-01

    The effects of replacing fat with finely ground wheat bran, at different levels (30, 40, 50%), in biscuit formulation were investigated with respect to dough texture and final biscuit characteristics and nutritional quality. Fat reduction using wheat bran increased dough hardness but decreased adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and springiness. Biscuit hardness increased and fracturability decreased with increasing fat replacement level. Changes in biscuit colour ...

  5. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  6. Bran characteristics influencing quality attributes of whole wheat Chinese steamed bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the variations in the characteristics of brans obtained from a pilot-scale milling of 17 soft red winter wheat varieties and their influences on the quality of whole wheat northern-style Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from blends of a base flour and brans of different w...

  7. effect of replacing cocoa husk for wheat bran on internal organs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFECT OF REPLACING COCOA HUSK FOR WHEAT BRAN ON INTERNAL ORGANS, CARCASS YIELD, SERUM METABOLITE AND ECONOMICS OF PRODUCTION OF GROWING COCKERELS. ... Creatinine concentrations were lower on all the cocoa husk diets compared with the control. Wheat bran can be replaced ...

  8. Discrimination of volatiles of refined and whole wheat bread containing red and white wheat bran using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapirstein, Harry D; Siddhu, Silvi; Aliani, Michel

    2012-11-01

    The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of electronic (E) nose technology to discriminate refined and whole wheat bread made with white or red wheat bran according to their headspace volatiles. Whole wheat flour was formulated with a common refined flour from hard red spring wheat, blended at the 15% replacement level with bran milled from representative samples of one hard red and 2 hard white wheats. A commercial formula was used for breadmaking. Results varied according to the nature of the sample, that is, crust, crumb, or whole slices. Bread crust and crumb were completely discriminated. Crumb of whole wheat bread made with red bran was distinct from other bread types. When misclassified, whole wheat bread crumb with white bran was almost invariably identified as refined flour bread crumb. Using crust as the basis for comparisons, the largest difference in volatiles was between refined flour bread and whole wheat bread as a group. When refined flour bread crust was misclassified, samples tended to be confused with whole white wheat crust. Samples prepared from whole bread slices were poorly discriminated in general. E-nose results indicated that whole wheat bread formulated with white bran was more similar in volatile makeup to refined flour bread compared to whole wheat bread made with red bran. The E-nose appears to be very capable to accommodate differentiation of bread volatiles whose composition varies due to differences in flour or bran type. Consumer preference of bread made using refined flour in contrast to whole wheat flour is partly due to the different aroma of whole wheat bread. This study used an electronic nose to analyze bread volatiles, and showed that whole wheat bread incorporating white bran was different from counterpart bread made using red bran, and was closer in volatile makeup to "white" bread made without bran. Commercial millers and bakers can take advantage of these results to formulate whole wheat flour

  9. Scavenging Activity of Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Wheat Bran

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    Jing Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bran was destarched and deproteinated by α-amylase, protease and amyloglucosidase successively, and further hydrolyzed using Bacillus subtilis xylanases. The yield of enzymatic hydrolysates from wheat bran (EHWB was 1.84 %. The total phenolics were 0.3712 g of ferulic acid equivalents per gram of EHWB. The antioxidant potency of EHWB was evaluated using different assays, such as iron ion chelation, reducing power, scavenging activity against 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and reactive oxygen species under in vitro conditions. EHWB exhibited an effective ferrous ion chelating activity and strong reducing power. It also showed a high DPPH radical scavenging activity (89.4 % at 5.0 mg/mL, which was comparable to that of the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene. EHWB also exerted a marked scavenging effect on ·OH with an EC50 value of 0.46 mg/mL, which was lower than that of mannitol (1.03 mg/mL, a classical hydroxyl radical scavenger, and obvious antioxidant activities toward O2·- and H2O2.

  10. Estimated glycemic index and dietary fiber content of cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Pérez, Faviola; Salazar-García, María Guadalupe; Romero-Baranzini, Ana Lourdes; Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín

    2013-03-01

    The increasing demand for high-fiber products has favored the design of numerous bakery products rich in fiber such as bread, cookies, and cakes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dietary fiber and estimated glycemic index of cookies containing extruded wheat bran. Wheat bran was subjected to extrusion process under three temperature profiles: TP1;(60, 75, 85 and 100 °C), TP2;(60, 80, 100 and 120 °C), and TP3;(60, 80, 110 and 140 °C) and three moisture contents: (15, 23, and 31 %). Cookies were elaborated using extruded wheat bran (30 %), separated into two fractions (coarse and fine). The dietary fiber content of cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran was higher than the controls; C0 (100 % wheat flour) and C1 (30 % of no extruded bran coarse fraction) and C2 (30 % of no extruded bran fine fraction). The higher values of dietary fiber were observed on cookies from treatments 5 (TP1, 31 % moisture content and coarse fraction) and 11 (TP2, 31 % moisture content and coarse fraction). The estimated glycemic index of cookies ranged from 68.54 to 80.16. The dietary fiber content of cookies was increased and the lowest glycemic index corresponded to the cookies elaborated with extruded wheat bran. Cookie made with the treatment 11 had a better dietary fiber content and lower estimated glycemic index.

  11. Effects of expanding on the nutritive value of wheat bran in pig diets

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    M. NÄSI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient digestibility and protein utilization responses in pigs to the expanding process of wheat bran were evaluated. The digestibility and nitrogen balance study was conducted with nine finishing barrows (live weight of 75-93 kg using a two-period reversal design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Wheat bran,untreated or expanded with a Kahl expander at a temperature of 105-110ºC, was included at two levels of 150 or 300 g kg-1 in barley-based diet supplemented with minerals and vitamins and fortified with lysine. The level of wheat bran in the diet had a diminishing effect on organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fibre (NDF, and hemicellulose (HQ digestibilities of the diet and tended to decrease those of crude protein (CP and ash. Expanding of the wheat bran affected a non-significant improvement on ether extract (EE, NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF and HC digestibilities of the diet. Nutrient digestibilities of wheat bran and expanded wheat bran computed by regression were 0.64, 0.67 for OM; 0.70, 0.70 for CP; 0.47, 0.63 for EE; 0.35, 0.40 for NDF and 0.01, 0.16 for ADF, respectively. Feed values of untreated and expanded wheat bran were 11.45 and 12.08 MJ ME kg-1 DM, 7.84 and 8.02 MJ NE kg -1 DM and digestible crude protein 113 and 110 g kg-1 DM respectively. The expanding process had no effect on nitrogen retention or protein utilization parameters measured. Processing of wheat bran with an expander had only a slight improving effect on the nutritive value of bran in pig diets.;

  12. Impact of Enzymatic and Microbial Bioprocessing on Protein Modification and Nutritional Properties of Wheat Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arte, Elisa; Rizzello, Carlo G; Verni, Michela; Nordlund, Emilia; Katina, Kati; Coda, Rossana

    2015-10-07

    Besides providing dietary fiber, wheat bran is a recognized source of protein and is considered a very valuable substitute for other protein-rich sources in the food and feed industry. Nonetheless, several factors affect protein bioavailability, including bran's layered structure. This study showed the influence on the release and protein modification of wheat bran of different bioprocessing methods involving the activation of endogenous enzymes of bran, the addition of an enzyme mixture having carbohydrase activity, and microbial fermentation. Bioprocessing in acidic conditions significantly enhanced the solubilization of protein from wheat bran, reaching the highest value in the treatment where the sole endogenous protease activity was activated. Bioprocessing through controlled fermentation allowed a more intense proteolysis and strongly impacted the in vitro digestibility of proteins. The combined use of starter cultures and cell-wall-degrading enzymes was characterized by the highest increase of phytase activity and total phenols.

  13. Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation by Enzymatic Hydrolysates from Wheat Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Cao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bran, an important by-product of the cereal industry, is rich in potentially health-promoting phenolic compounds. The phenolics are mainly esterified to the cell wall polysaccharides. In our previous paper, wheat bran was destarched and deproteinated by α-amylase, protease and amyloglucosidase successively and further hydrolyzed using Bacillus subtilis xylanases, and the enzymatic hydrolysates from wheat bran (EHWB showed good scavenging activity in vitro. The aim of this study is to further characterize the antioxidant potential of EHWB against various systems, both ex vivo and in vivo, namely, rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation systems induced by Fe2+/H2O2 and Fe3+-adenosine diphosphate (ADP/dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH, copper- and 2,2’-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH-induced human low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation systems, and alloxan-induced in vivo lipid peroxidation in mice. EHWB inhibited lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes induced by Fe2+/H2O2 and Fe3+-ADP/NADPH in a concentration-dependent manner with 90.3 and 87 % inhibition of lipid peroxidation at 50 mg/L, respectively, which were similar to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT at 20 mg/L. The antioxidant potential of EHWB at a concentration ranging from 10 to 20 mg/L in the nonenzymatic system was more effective than in the enzymatic system. EHWB strongly inhibited in vitro copper- and AAPH-mediated oxidation of LDL in a concentration- and time-dependent manner with 52.41 and 63.03 % inhibition at 20 mg/L, respectively, which were similar to that of ascorbate at 10 mg/L. EHWB significantly decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and increased the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD in serum and liver of alloxan-treated mice compared with the control. These results demonstrated that EHWB might be efficient in the protection of

  14. Whole wheat bread: Effect of bran fractions on dough and end-product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of whole-wheat based products is encouraged due to its important nutritional elements that beneficial to human health. However, processing of whole-wheat based products, such as whole-wheat bread, results in poor end-product quality. Bran was postulated as the major problem. In this stud...

  15. Effect of microparticulated wheat bran on the physical properties of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum-Keun; Cho, Ah-Ra; Chun, Yong-Gi; Park, Dong-June

    2013-02-01

    Wheat bran and flour mixtures were used in a bread formulation to improve its quality characteristics. Wheat bran was microparticulated using a jet mill, and this microparticulated wheat bran (MWB) was substituted for a portion of wheat flour. As the MWB content increased, water-holding capacity, hardness and springiness increased while the swelling property decreased slightly. The hardness of bread containing MWB was lower than that made with commercial whole wheat flour (WWF). Bread containing 7% MWB had a higher specific volume (8.3%) than that of WWF bread. Enthalpy of dough decreased with increasing MWB content, and peak viscosity and breakdown decreased with increasing setback. Inner crust structures of bread containing MWB showed a slight reduction in gelatinization and gluten development in comparison with wheat bread. These results indicate that MWB could be used as a diet-enriching bread ingredient while maintaining bread quality.

  16. Partial replacement of fat with wheat bran in formulation of biscuits enriched with herbal blend

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Filipčev Bojana; Nedeljković Nataša; Šimurina Olivera; Sakač Marijana; Pestorić Mladenka; Jambrec Dubravka; Šarić Bojana; Jovanov Pavle

    2017-01-01

    The effects of replacing fat with finely ground wheat bran, at different levels (30, 40, 50%), in biscuit formulation were investigated with respect to dough texture and final biscuit characteristics and nutritional quality...

  17. Effect of the addition of wheat bran stream on dough rheology and bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Banu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The milling by-products have high nutritional value and can be incorporated into white flour. This study was aimed at comparatively examining the rheological behaviour of the doughs made from wheat white flour with different levels (3-30% of bran streams incorporated and from wholewheat. The results indicated significant correlations between the ash content of the wheat bran streams incorporated into flour and Alveograph, Rheofermentograph and Mixolab parameters. The white flour sample with 25% wheat bran streams had the ash content similar to wholewheat, but the dough rheology was improved. The quality of the white flour bread with 25% wheat bran streams was improved compared to the wholemeal bread.

  18. Release of feruloylated oligosaccharides from wheat bran through submerged fermentation by edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chunyan; Wu, Zhiyan; Guo, Hongzhen; Gu, Zhenxin

    2014-07-01

    Wheat bran, a by-product of the flour industry, is believed to be a raw material for the production of feruloylated oligosaccharides (FOs) because of its high content of conjiont ferulic acid (FA). Studies were carried out to identify edible mushrooms that are able to release FOs from wheat bran. All the six tested mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus, Hericium erinaceum, Auricularia auricula, Cordyceps militaris, Agrocybe chaxingu, and Ganoderma lucium) were found to release FOs, and Agrocybe chaxingu had the highest yield, reaching 35.4 µM in wheat bran broth. Enzymes detection showed that these species secreted extracellular enzymes during fermentation, including cellulase and xylanase. Agrocybe chaxingu secreted the significant amount of xylanase (180 mU ml(-1) ), which was responsible for the release of FOs from wheat bran, while Hericium erinaceum secreted FA esterase which could disassemble FOs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Effects of Wheat Bran Extract Containing Arabinoxylan Oligosaccharides on Gastrointestinal Parameters in Healthy Preadolescent Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francois, Isabelle E. J. A.; Lescroart, Olivier; Veraverbeke, Wim S.; Marzorati, Massimo; Possemiers, Sam; Hamer, Henrike; Windey, Karen; Welling, Gjalt W.; Delcour, Jan A.; Courtin, Christophe M.; Verbeke, Kristin; Broekaert, Willem F.

    Objectives: We assessed whether wheat bran extract (WBE) containing arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) elicited a prebiotic effect and modulated gastrointestinal (GI) parameters in healthy preadolescent children upon consumption in a beverage. Methods: This double-blind randomized

  20. Utilization of barley or wheat bran to bioconvert glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wen-Jie; Kim, Min-Ju; Kim, Keun-Sung

    2013-09-01

    This study deals with the utilization of agro-industrial wastes created by barley and wheat bran in the production of a value-added product, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The simple and eco-friendly reaction requires no pretreatment or microbial fermentation steps but uses barley or wheat bran as an enzyme source, glutamate as a substrate, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. The optimal reaction conditions were determined on the basis of the temperatures and times used for the decarboxylation reactions and the initial concentrations of barley or wheat bran, glutamate, and PLP. The optimal reactions produced 9.2 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 92% GABA conversion rate, when barley bran was used and 6.0 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 60% GABA conversion rate, when wheat bran was used. The results imply that barley bran is more efficient than wheat bran in the production of GABA. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Sperathe effects of solid-state fermentation in the functional properties of defatted rice bran and wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Moreira da Silveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of fermented bran produced by Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus sp. in a solid-state fermentation system were determined, with an aim to evaluate their application in food formulation. The defatted rice bran and wheat bran were inoculated with the spores of the cultures and incubated at 30º C for 72 h. Samples were withdrawn at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. Protein content, protein solubility, in-vitro digestibility, gelation and water holding capacity were determined in bran with or without fermentation. Rhizopus sp. increased significantly the protein content (69.0 and 56.0%, respectively, for defatted rice bran and wheat bran; protein solubility (28.5 and 36.2 and water holding capacity (11.4% for wheat bran. When A. oryzae was used all these properties were modified significantly after fermentation.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar as propriedades funcionais de farelo de arroz desengordurado e farelo de trigo, submetidos à fermentação em estado sólido pelos fungos Aspergillus oryzae e Rhizopus sp., para avaliar seu potencial de aplicação em formulações alimentícias. O farelo de arroz desengordurado e o farelo de trigo foram inoculados com esporos de Rhizopus sp. e Aspergillus oryzae (4x10(6 esporos/grama de meio e incubados durante 72 horas a 30º C. Amostras foram coletadas em 0, 24, 48 e 72 horas de fermentação. Foram determinados o conteúdo protéico, a solubilidade protéica, a digestibilidade in-vitro, a capacidade de formação de gel e a capacidade de retenção de água nos farelos fermentados. Quando Rhizopus sp. foi utilizado, as seguintes propriedades aumentaram significativamente: o conteúdo protéico 69,0 e 56,0%, respectivamente, para farelo de arroz e farelo de trigo, a solubilidade protéica (28,5 e 36,2% e a capacidade de retenção de água (11,4% para farelo de trigo. Quando Aspergillus oryzae foi empregado, as propriedades não foram modificadas de maneira significativa pelo processo

  2. Reduced particle size wheat bran is butyrogenic and lowers Salmonella colonization, when added to poultry feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, K; Verspreet, J; Courtin, C M; Haesebrouck, F; Ducatelle, R; Van Immerseel, F

    2017-01-01

    Feed additives, including prebiotics, are commonly used alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters to improve gut health and performance in broilers. Wheat bran is a highly concentrated source of (in)soluble fiber which is partly degraded by the gut microbiota. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of wheat bran as such to reduce colonization of the cecum and shedding of Salmonella bacteria in vivo. Also, the effect of particle size was evaluated. Bran with an average reduced particle size of 280μm decreased levels of cecal Salmonella colonization and shedding shortly after infection when compared to control groups and groups receiving bran with larger particle sizes. In vitro fermentation experiments revealed that bran with smaller particle size was fermented more efficiently, with a significantly higher production of butyric and propionic acid, compared to the control fermentation and fermentation of a larger fraction. Fermentation products derived from bran with an average particle size of 280μm downregulated the expression of hilA, an important invasion-related gene of Salmonella. This downregulation was reflected in an actual lowered invasive potential when Salmonella bacteria were pretreated with the fermentation products derived from the smaller bran fraction. These data suggest that wheat bran with reduced particle size can be a suitable feed additive to help control Salmonella infections in broilers. The mechanism of action most probably relies on a more efficient fermentation of this bran fraction and the consequent increased production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Among these SCFA, butyric and propionic acid are known to reduce the invasion potential of Salmonella bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of cell wall components of wheat bran following hydrothermal pretreatment and fractionation

    OpenAIRE

    Merali, Zara; Collins, Samuel R A; Elliston, Adam; Wilson, David R; K?sper, Andres; Waldron, Keith W

    2015-01-01

    Background Pretreatments are a prerequisite for enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and production of ethanol. They are considered to open up the plant cell wall structure by altering, moving or solubilizing lignin and hydrolyzing a proportion of hemicellulosic moieties. However, there is little information concerning pretreatment-induced changes on wheat bran cell wall polymers and indeed on changes in cell wall phenolic esters in bran or other lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we evaluate polymeri...

  4. The Effects of Wheat Bran Composition on the Production of Biomass-Hydrolyzing Enzymes by Penicillium decumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xianyun; Liu, Ziyong; Qu, Yinbo; Li, Xuezhi

    The effects of the starch, protein, and soluble oligosaccharides contents in wheat bran on the extracellular biomass-hydrolyzing enzymes activities released by Penicillium decumbens mycelia grown in batch fermentations have been examined. The results showed increased starch content correlated directly with an increase in released amylase activity but inversely with the levels of secreted cellulase and xylanase. High amounts of protein in wheat bran also reduced the activities of cellulase, xylanase and protease in the culture medium. The effects of the soluble and insoluble components of wheat bran and cello-oligosaccharides supplements on production of extracellular cellulase and xylanase were compared. The soluble cello-oligosaccharides compositions in wheat bran were proved to be one of the most significant factors for cellulase production. According to the results of this research, determining and regulating the composition of wheat bran used as a fermentation supplement may allow for improved induction of cellulase and xylanase production.

  5. Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction of arabinoxylan from wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Sun, Baoguo; Liu, Yingli; Zhang, Huijuan

    2014-05-01

    Arabinoxylan, the major dietary fibre component of wheat bran, is important from both technological and nutritional points of view. In this study, ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction technology was first employed to extract arabinoxylan from wheat bran. The process for extraction of arabinoxylan was optimised using response surface methodology, employing a five-level, five-variable central composite rotatable design. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: raw material concentration, 50g/l, enzyme dose, 4.5g/l, extraction temperature, 50°C; extraction time, 70min; and ultrasonic power, 180W. Under the above mentioned conditions, the experimental yield was 142.6±0.17mg/g of wheat bran, which is well matched with the predictive yield. Ultrasound increased the efficiency of enzymatic treatment with higher extraction yield. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensory characteristics and consumer liking of sausages with 10% fat and added rye or wheat bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vuholm, Stine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall

    2014-01-01

    and added rye or wheat bran. Sensory descriptive attributes (odor, appearance, texture, and flavor) of rye bran sausage (RBS) and wheat bran sausage (WBS) were evaluated by a trained sensory panel (n = 9). A sausage with wheat flour (WFS) and two commercial 20% (20%S) and 10% (10%S) (w/w) fat sausages were...... the other sausages. RBS was similar to the commercial 10%S with regard to several sensory attributes and liking, whereas WBS was the least juicy, had a higher intensity of cereal odor and flavor, and the lowest liking.......Improving the nutritional profile of sausages through the addition of dietary fiber might affect appetite, sensory characteristics, and liking differently depending on the fiber source. This study investigates the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of sausages with 10% (w/w) fat...

  7. Effect of phytase on digestibility of corn, sorghum and wheat bran by silver catfish (Rhamdia voulezi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altevir Signor

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the digestibility of plant energetic ingredients, corn, sorghum and wheat bran, with and without phytase supplementation, in silver catfish (Rhamdia voulezi. The experimental design was completely randomized, represented by eight treatments, which consisted of the development of a reference diet and a test diet for each ingredient evaluated (corn, sorghum and wheat bran, with and without supplemental phytase. Diets were formulated so as to contain 70% reference feed and 30% test ingredient. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter and crude protein were significantly influenced only in relation to the evaluated ingredients. Phytase influenced the digestibility coefficients of energy and phosphorus, with interaction between food and the enzyme addition. The interaction between these two factors shows that the phytase efficiency is dependent on the type of vegetable ingredient used in the diet. The results suggest the supplementation of phytase for a higher nutrient digestibility of corn, sorghum and wheat bran by silver catifish (R. voulezi.

  8. Isolation and identification of feruloylated arabinoxylan mono- and oligosaccharides from undigested and digested maize and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovemore Nkhata Malunga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Feruloylated arabinoxylan mono- and oligosaccharides (F-AXOS are a subject of interest because of their prebiotic and antioxidant properties. We aimed at isolating and identifying F-AXOS from maize, wheat, wheat bran and wheat aleurone using HPLC and LC-MS/MS. Prior to extraction of F-AXOS, samples were subjected to either simulated gastric fluid with enzymes (gastric or without enzymes (pH or water (aqueous at 37 °C. F-AXOS present in all samples were identified as 5-O-feruloyl-α-L- arabinofuranose and possibly 5-O-feruloyl-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 3-O-β-D-xylopyranose. Their mean content, measured as esterified ferulic acid (FA, was 2.5 times higher in maize (10.33 ± 2.40 μg/g compared to wheat. Digestion under gastric or pH conditions resulted in a two-fold increase in F-AXOS in all samples. The level of F-AXOS produced during gastric or pH condition was positively correlated to the insoluble bound FA content of the sample (R2 = 0.98. 5-O-Feruloyl-α-L- arabinofuranose was the only identifiable F-AXOS released during gastric digestion. Our results suggest feruloyl arabinose is the most abundant form of F-AXOS in maize and wheat.

  9. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum

    2014-01-01

    fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after...... and rye bran added to sausages decreased appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix...

  10. Effect of homogenization and ultrasonication on the physical properties of insoluble wheat bran fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ran; Zhang, Min; Adhikari, Benu; Liu, Yaping

    2015-10-01

    Wheat bran is rich in dietary fibre and its annual output is abundant, but underutilized. Insoluble dietary fibre often influences food quality negatively; therefore, how to improve the physical and chemical properties of insoluble dietary fibre of wheat bran for post processing is a challenge. Insoluble dietary fibre was obtained from wheat bran and micronized using high-pressure homogenization, high-intensity sonication, and a combination of these two methods. The high-pressure homogenization and high-pressure homogenization+high-intensity sonication treatments significantly (pproperties by high-intensity sonication alone was marginal. In most cases, the high-pressure homogenization process was as good as the high-pressure homogenization+high-intensity sonication process in improving the above-mentioned properties; hence, the contribution of high-`intensity sonication in the high-pressure homogenization+high-intensity sonication process was minimal. The best results show that the minimum particle size of wheat bran can reach 9 μm, and the solubility, swelling, water-holding, oil-holding, cation exchange capacities change significantly.

  11. Evaluation of feeding value of forage soybean silage as a substitute for wheat bran in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touno, Eiko; Kaneko, Makoto; Uozumi, Sunao; Kawamoto, Hidenori; Deguchi, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Twelve sheep were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design to evaluate the effect of substituting wheat bran with forage soybean silage in the diet on apparent digestibility and nitrogen balance. Forage soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) was cultivated in a no-till, no-herbicide cropping system with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) as a living mulch. Forage soybean and Italian ryegrass were wilted and ensiled in round bales without additives, respectively. The experimental diets were based on corn silage supplemented with protein sources (tow silages or wheat bran). The crude protein and the acid detergent insoluble protein contents of forage soybean silage were the highest among the protein sources. The apparent digestibility of crude protein and the nitrogen balance did not significantly differ among the diets. In addition, the phytoestrogen content of forage soybean silage was below the level at which animal reproductive performance would be negatively affected. These results suggest that forage soybean silage has comparable feeding value to wheat bran, and can be given at an inclusion level of 17% (dry matter basis) as an alternative protein source to wheat bran without adverse effects on digestion or nitrogen balance in sheep fed a corn silage-based diet. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Biosorption of methyl blue onto tartaric acid modified wheat bran from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Shuhua

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tartaric acid modified wheat bran was utilized as adsorbent to remove methyl blue, a basic dye from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of various experimental parameters such as initial solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage, on dye adsorption. The results showed that the modification of wheat bran by tartaric acid significantly improved its adsorption capacity, and made this material a suitable adsorbent to remove methyl blue. The adsorption capacity of modified wheat bran was about 1.6 times higher than that of unmodified one. The amount of methyl blue adsorbed was found to vary with initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial methyl blue concentration. Kinetics study showed that the overall adsorption rate of methyl blue was illustrated by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich models for the data was tested. Both models adequately described the experimental data of the biosorption of methyl blue. The maximum adsorption capacity for methyl blue calculated from Langmuir model was 25.18 mg/g. The study has shown the effectiveness of modified wheat bran in the removal of methyl blue, and that it can be considered as an attractive alternative to the more expensive technologies used in wastewater treatment.

  13. Effect of replacing wheat bran with spineless cactus plus urea in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding behaviour was not altered by replacing wheat bran with spineless cactus plus urea. Nitrogen retention increased by 0.10 g/day, while plasmatic urea nitrogen increased by 0.20 mg/day for every 1% level of replacement. The maximum production of microbial nitrogen (15.9 g/day) and microbial protein synthesis ...

  14. Impact of bran components on the quality of whole wheat bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole grains contain components, such as dietary fiber, starch, fat, antioxidant nutrients, minerals, vitamin, lignans, and phenolic compounds, which are beneficial to human health. Most of the beneficial components are found in the germ and bran as part of a wheat kernel, which are reduced in the ...

  15. In vitro effect of wheat bran (Triticum aestivum) extract on calcium oxalate urolithiasis crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekkoum, Khaled; Cheriti, Abdelkrim; Taleb, Safia

    2011-10-01

    Urolithiasis can lead to the loss of renal function in some cases. In this study, we tested the inhibiting effect of wheat bran (Triticum aestivum L) extract on calcium oxalate crystallization in a turbidimetric model, by FTIR spectroscopy, and polarized microscopy. The results show that this plant extract has a major inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate crystallization.

  16. Wheat bran decreases aberrant crypt foci, preserves normal proliferation, and increases intraluminal butyrate levels in experimental colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compher, C W; Frankel, W L; Tazelaar, J; Lawson, J A; McKinney, S; Segall, S; Kinosian, B P; Williams, N N; Rombeau, J L

    1999-01-01

    Dietary wheat bran protects against colon cancer, but the mechanism(s) of this effect is not known. Butyrate, produced by colonic bacterial fermentation of dietary polysaccharides, such as wheat bran, induces apoptosis and decreases proliferation in colon cancer cell lines. Whether similar effects occur in vivo is not well defined. We hypothesized that wheat bran's antineoplastic effects in vivo may be mediated in part by butyrate's modulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Male F344 rats were fed wheat bran-supplemented or an isocaloric, isonitrogenous fiber-free diet. Rats were treated with one dose of the carcinogen azoxymethane or vehicle with sacrifice after 5 days (tumor initiation); or two doses (days O and 7) with sacrifice after 56 days (tumor promotion). Study variables included fecal butyrate levels and the intermediate biomarkers of colon carcinogenesis, aberrant crypt foci (ACF), and changes in crypt cell proliferation and apoptosis. During tumor initiation, wheat bran produced greater apoptosis (p = .01), a trend toward less proliferation, and preserved the normal zone of proliferation (p = .01). At tumor promotion, wheat bran decreased the number of ACF (proximal colon, p = .005; distal colon, p = .047) and maintained the normal proliferative zone. The fiber-free diet shifted the zone of proliferation into the premalignant pattern in both studies. Wheat bran produced significantly higher fecal butyrate (p = .01; .004, .00001) levels than the fiber-free diet throughout the tumor promotion study. Wheat bran increased apoptosis and controlled proliferation during tumor initiation and resulted in decreased ACF. Wheat bran's antineoplastic effects occurred early after carcinogen exposure, and were associated with increased fecal butyrate levels.

  17. Effects of cashew nut testa levels as an alternative to wheat bran in gestating sow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lin Hu; Hong, Young Gi; Hong, Jin Su; Jeong, Jae Hark; Han, Young Geol; Kwon, In Hyuk; Kim, Y Y

    2017-12-19

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary cashew nut testa (CNT) as an alternative feed ingredient to wheat bran on reproductive performance, litter performance, milk composition, and blood profiles of gestating sows. Forth multiparous sows (Yorkshire × Landrace) were fed experimental diets starting at 35 days of pregnancy and an initial average body weight (BW) of 211.53 ± 8.86 kg. Each sow was assigned to a treatment based on BW, backfat thickness (BF) and parity with 10 sows per treatment. Treatments were as follows: 1) corn-SBM based diet with 6% of wheat bran (C0); 2) basal diet with 2% of CNT and 4% of wheat bran (C2); 3) basal diet with 4% of CNT and 2% of wheat bran (C4); and 4) basal diet with 6% of CNT (C6). There were no statistically significant differences in BW and BF of gestating sows throughout the experimental period. However, changes in BF (P = 0.09) and the daily feed intake of sows (P = 0.09) tended to linearly increase during the lactation period. The weaning to estrus interval (WEI) showed a quadratic response to CNT treatment (P = 0.02), and the C2 diet showed the shortest WEI. Litter birth weight (P = 0.04) and piglet birth weight (P = 0.06) were linearly decreased with increase in CNT. Furthermore, there had no significant differences in piglet weight and litter weight in 21 day. Insulin concentration at day 70 of gestation was linearly reduced with increasing CNT level in diets (P = 0.03). When 6% CNT replaced wheat bran in gestating sow diets, there were no negative effects on sow performance, but litter birth weight and piglet birth weight were decreased when CNT level increased in gestating sow diets.

  18. Garlic powder and wheat bran as fillers: Their effect on the physicochemical properties of edible biocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fama, Lucia [Physics Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bittante, Ana Monica B.Q.; Sobral, Paulo J.A. [Food Engineering Department, FZEA, University of Sao Paulo, PO Box 23, 13635-900 Pirassununga (SP) (Brazil); Goyanes, Silvia [Physics Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gerschenson, Lia N., E-mail: lia@di.fcen.uba.ar [Industry Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-20

    Biocomposites with two different fillers, garlic and wheat bran, were studied. They were based on cassava starch and contained glycerol as a plasticizer and potassium sorbate as an antimicrobial agent and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The mechanical performance at room and lower temperatures was also studied. SEM micrographies of fractured surfaces of the wheat bran composite films showed some ruptured particles of fiber while fibrils of garlic on the order of nanometers were observed when garlic composite films were studied. Mechanical tests, at room temperature, showed that the addition of wheat bran led to an increment in the storage modulus (E') and hardening and a decrease in Tan {delta}, while the garlic composite showed a diminishing in the E' and hardening and did not produce significant changes in Tan {delta} values when compared with systems without fillers (matrix). In the range between -90 deg. C and 20 deg. C, all the materials studied presented two peaks in the Tan {delta} curve. In the case of the wheat bran composite, both relaxation peaks shifted slightly to higher temperatures, broadened and diminished their intensity when compared with those of the matrix; however garlic composite showed a similar behavior to the matrix. DSC thermograms of aqueous systems showed a slight shift of gelatinization temperature (T{sub gelatinization}) to higher values when the fillers were present. Thermograms of films showed that both, garlic and wheat bran composites, had a lower melting point than the matrix. IR data indicated that interaction between starch and fillers determined an increase in the availability of hydroxyl groups to be involved in a dynamic exchange with water.

  19. Comparative effects in rats of intact wheat bran and two wheat bran fractions on the disposition of the mutagen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, Lynnette R., E-mail: l.ferguson@auckland.ac.nz [Discipline of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Harris, Philip J. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Kestell, Philip [Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Zhu, Shuotun [Discipline of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Munday, Rex; Munday, Christine M. [Agresearch, Ruakura Agricultural Research Centre, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2011-11-01

    Wheat bran protects against mutations and cancer, but contains different plant cell types that are likely to have different protective effects. We previously described the production and chemical characterisation of an aleurone-rich fraction (ARF) and a pericarp-rich fraction (PRF) from wheat grain. We compared these with whole bran (WB), fed to rats as 10% of a high fat AIN-76 diet. All bran-supplemented diets increased faecal bulk, in the order PRF > WB > ARF. PRF increased the activity of NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase only in the forestomach, whereas ARF and WB enhanced levels of glutathione S-transferase in the duodenum. ARF but not PRF was digested and fermented, and also encouraged bacterial growth. Rats were gavaged with the radioactive mutagen {sup 14}C-labelled IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), and effects of the brans on plasma radioactivity measured. Compared with the control diet, all bran-supplemented diets reduced the concentration of radioactivity in plasma, in the order ARF > PRF > WB. All brans increased faecal elimination of radioactivity, but only ARF and PRF enhanced urinary radioactivity. These data suggest that wheat bran may reduce mutation and cancers through direct adsorption and enhanced elimination of a dietary mutagen and/or its metabolites, and that wheat bran enriched in pericarp or aleurone cell walls may exert protective effects through different mechanisms.

  20. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vejrum Sørensen, Karina; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-02-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P importance of food matrix and food processing.

  1. Formulation Optimization of Gluten-Free Functional Spaghetti Based on Maize Flour and Oat Bran Enriched in b-Glucans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Sepielli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work concerns the manufacturing process of gluten-free functional spaghetti based on maize flour and oat bran, enriched with b-glucans (22%. More specifically, the goal of the study was to obtain oat bran-loaded maize spaghetti with sensory properties close to unloaded pasta. To this aim, the study has been organized in two subsequent trials. In the first one, the oat bran amount added to spaghetti was continuously increased until the overall sensory quality of pasta reached the set sensory threshold (oat bran concentration = 20%. The second experimental step was aimed to improve the overall sensory quality of oat bran loaded maize spaghetti. In particular, an attempt was made to increase the sensory quality of spaghetti added with 20% oat bran by means of structuring agents. To this aim, the effects of different kinds of some hydrocolloids and egg white powder on the rheological properties of dough, as well as on quality attributes of pasta were examined. The rheological analysis showed that the addition of hydrocolloids and white egg to the dough enriched with 20% oat bran did not cause any substantial difference in the viscoelastic properties, compared to samples without any structuring agents. The best overall quality for both fresh and dry spaghetti was obtained by the addition of carboxymethylcellulose and chitosan at a concentration of 2%.

  2. Partial replacement of fat with wheat bran in formulation of biscuits enriched with herbal blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipčev Bojana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of replacing fat with finely ground wheat bran, at different levels (30, 40, 50%, in biscuit formulation were investigated with respect to dough texture and final biscuit characteristics and nutritional quality. Fat reduction using wheat bran increased dough hardness but decreased adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and springiness. Biscuit hardness increased and fracturability decreased with increasing fat replacement level. Changes in biscuit colour were detectable; lightness increased whereas yellow tone decreased. Increasing bran level contributed to higher content of protein, fibres and minerals. The achieved calorie reduction spanned over 14.5-16.2%. The dietary fibre content increased 2.1-2.8 times in comparison to the control. Over 30% fat replacement, low sensory scores were obtained. It could be concluded that fat may be replaced in biscuit formulation, up to 30% with wheat bran. These “reduced fat” biscuits had acceptable sensory properties and additional nutritional improvement due to higher fibres and minerals and fewer calories. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31029

  3. Bioprocessing of Wheat Bran in Whole Wheat Bread Increases the Bioavailability of Phenolic Acids in Men and Exerts Antiinflammatory Effects ex Vivo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mateo Anson, N; Aura, A.M; Selinheimo, E; Mattila, I; Poutanen, K; van den Berg, R; Havenaar, R; Bast, A; Haenen, G.R.M.M

    2011-01-01

    ..., and ex vivo antiinflammatory properties. After consumption of a low phenolic acid diet for 3 d and overnight fasting, 8 healthy men consumed 300 g of whole wheat bread containing native bran (control bread...

  4. Separation of polysaccharides from rice husk and wheat bran using solvent system consisting of BMIMOAc and DMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qidong; Li, Weizun; Ju, Meiting; Liu, Le; Chen, Yu; Yang, Qian; Wang, Jingyu

    2015-11-20

    A solvent system consisting of 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI), and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (BMIMOAc) was used to separate polysaccharides from rice husk and wheat bran. The effects of the DMI/BMIMOAc ratios, temperature, and time on the dissolution of rice husk and wheat bran were investigated, and the influence of anti-solvents on the regeneration of polysaccharides-rich material was evaluated. We found that the solvent system is more powerful to dissolve rice husk and wheat bran than pure BMIMOAc, and that polysaccharides-rich material can be effectively separated from the biomass solution. The polysaccharides content of regenerated material from wheat bran can reach as high as 94.4% when ethanol was used as anti-solvents. Under optimized conditions, the extraction rate of polysaccharides for wheat bran can reach as high as 71.8% at merely 50°C. The recycled solvent system exhibited constant ability to separate polysaccharides from rice husk and wheat bran. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Purification and cloning of the two domain glyoxalase I from wheat bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, K.S.; Svendsen, I.; Rasmussen, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    U/mg protein (1U = 1 mu mol S-lactoyl glutathione formed/min). Degenerate primers were designed and used for PCR-RACE-based cloning of the corresponding composite cDNA sequence (AJ243528). The wheat bran glyoxalase I amino acid sequence is very similar to the translated sequence of a RNA transcript...... induced by desiccation of the resurrection grass Sporobulus stapfianus, suggesting a role for glyoxalase in de- or rehydration of plant tissue. The 37 kDa wheat enzyme belongs to a group of monomeric glyoxalases and is composed of two similar halves each representing the full-length human glyoxalase I...

  6. Biosorption of Methyl Blue Onto Tartaric Acid Modified Wheat Bran From Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Yao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tartaric acid modified wheat bran was utilized as adsorbent to remove methyl blue, a basic dye from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of various experimental parameters such as initial solution pH, contact time, initial dye concentration and adsorbent dosage, on dye adsorption. The results showed that the modification of wheat bran by tartaric acid significantly improved its adsorption capacity, and made thismaterial a suitable adsorbent to remove 1.6 times higher than that of unmodified one. The amount of methyl blue adsorbed was found to vary with initial solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial methyl blue concentration. Kinetics study showed that theoverall adsorption rate of methyl blue was illustrated by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The applicability of theLangmuir and Freundlich models for the data was tested. Both models adequately described the experimental data of the biosorption of methyl blue. The maximum adsorption capacity for methyl blue calculated from Langmuir model was 25.18 mg/g. The study has shown the effectiveness of modified wheat bran in the removal of methylblue, and that it can be considered as an attractive alternative to the more expensive technologies used in wastewater treatment.

  7. Characterization of cell wall components of wheat bran following hydrothermal pretreatment and fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merali, Zara; Collins, Samuel R A; Elliston, Adam; Wilson, David R; Käsper, Andres; Waldron, Keith W

    2015-01-01

    Pretreatments are a prerequisite for enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass and production of ethanol. They are considered to open up the plant cell wall structure by altering, moving or solubilizing lignin and hydrolyzing a proportion of hemicellulosic moieties. However, there is little information concerning pretreatment-induced changes on wheat bran cell wall polymers and indeed on changes in cell wall phenolic esters in bran or other lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we evaluate polymeric changes (chemical and physical) as a result of selected hydrothermal pretreatment conditions on destarched wheat bran using controlled polymer extraction methods. Quantification of cell wall components together with soluble oligosaccharides, the insoluble residues and ease of extractability and fractionation of biomass residues were conducted. Pretreatment solubilized selected arabinoxylans and associated cross-linking ferulic and diferulic acids with a concomitant increase in lignin and cellulosic glucose. The remaining insoluble arabinoxylans were more readily extractable in alkali and showed considerable depolymerization. The degree of arabinose substitution was less in xylans released by higher concentrations of alkali. The recalcitrant biomass which remained after pretreatment and alkali extraction contained mostly cellulosic glucose and Klason lignin. Pretreatment generated small but insignificant amounts of yeast-inhibiting compounds such as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural. As such, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the hydrothermally pretreated bran resulted in increased ethanol yields compared to that of the control (97.5% compared to 63% theoretical). Hydrothermal pretreatment of destarched wheat bran resulted in degradation and depolymerization of the hemicellulosic arabinoxylans together with some breakdown of cellulosic glucose. This was accompanied by a significant reduction in the cross-linking phenolic acids such as ferulic and diferulic acids. The

  8. Phytochemical Compositions of Immature Wheat Bran, and Its Antioxidant Capacity, Cell Growth Inhibition, and Apoptosis Induction through Tumor Suppressor Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Jeong Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the phytochemical compositions and antioxidant capacity, cell growth inhibition, and apoptosis induction in extracts of immature wheat bran. Immature wheat bran (IWB was obtained from immature wheat harvested 10 days earlier than mature wheat. The phytochemical compositions of bran extract samples were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. The total ferulic acid (3.09 mg/g and p-coumaric acid (75 µg/g in IWB were significantly higher than in mature wheat bran (MWB, ferulic acid: 1.79 mg/g; p-coumaric acid: 55 µg/g. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC: 327 µM Trolox equivalents (TE/g and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA: 4.59 µM Quercetin equivalents (QE/g of the IWB were higher than those of the MWB (ORAC: 281 µM TE/g; CAA: 0.63 µM QE/g. When assessing cell proliferation, the IWB extracts resulted in the lowest EC50 values against HT-29 (18.9 mg/mL, Caco-2 (7.74 mg/mL, and HeLa cells (8.17 mg/mL among bran extract samples. Additionally, the IWB extracts increased the gene expression of p53 and PTEN (tumor suppressor genes in HT-29 cells, indicating inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis through tumor suppressor genes.

  9. Phytochemical Compositions of Immature Wheat Bran, and Its Antioxidant Capacity, Cell Growth Inhibition, and Apoptosis Induction through Tumor Suppressor Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Jeong; Yoon, Won-Jin; Kim, Sang Sook

    2016-09-27

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the phytochemical compositions and antioxidant capacity, cell growth inhibition, and apoptosis induction in extracts of immature wheat bran. Immature wheat bran (IWB) was obtained from immature wheat harvested 10 days earlier than mature wheat. The phytochemical compositions of bran extract samples were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. The total ferulic acid (3.09 mg/g) and p -coumaric acid (75 µg/g) in IWB were significantly higher than in mature wheat bran (MWB, ferulic acid: 1.79 mg/g; p -coumaric acid: 55 µg/g). The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC: 327 µM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA: 4.59 µM Quercetin equivalents (QE)/g) of the IWB were higher than those of the MWB (ORAC: 281 µM TE/g; CAA: 0.63 µM QE/g). When assessing cell proliferation, the IWB extracts resulted in the lowest EC 50 values against HT-29 (18.9 mg/mL), Caco-2 (7.74 mg/mL), and HeLa cells (8.17 mg/mL) among bran extract samples. Additionally, the IWB extracts increased the gene expression of p53 and PTEN (tumor suppressor genes) in HT-29 cells, indicating inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis through tumor suppressor genes.

  10. Control of Fusarium Head Blight and Accumulation of Deoxynivalenol in Durum Wheat Grain, Semolina and Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pancaldi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of E.B.I. fungicides (bromuconazole, prochloraz and tebuconazole on Fusarium head blight (FHB and on the deoxynivalenol (DON content in grain, semolina and bran were examined in three separate trials carried out in fields near Bologna (Italy on susceptible durum wheat varieties artificially inoculated with Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, responsible for head blight. Bromuconazole, prochloraz and tebuconazole applied in the field reduced FHB incidence and severity significantly by 56 and 73% respectively, and the numbers of kernels infected with F. graminearum and F. culmorum by 66.6%. These fungicides also reduced the DON content in kernels, semolina and bran, compared to the non treated samples. The correlation (r between DON and the incidence of F. graminearum and F. culmorum-infected kernels was 0.90 in the original sample.

  11. Solid-state fermentation of wheat bran by Trichoderma reesei QM9414: Substrate composition changes, C balance, enzyme production, growth and kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.; Sonsbeek, H.M. van; Knol, W.

    1996-01-01

    A description is given of the solid-state fermentation of wheat bran by Trichoderma reesei QM9414 at constant temperature and relative humidity. Glucosamine, the oxygen consumption rate (OCR), the carbon dioxide production rate (CPR), changes in wheat bran composition and the production of four

  12. Decomposition of wheat bran and ispaghula husk in the stomach and the small intestine of healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J R; Bukhave, K; Højgaard, L

    1988-01-01

    Decomposition of dietary fibers in the stomach and small bowel was studied in 13 healthy male volunteers. Liquid control meals were compared with test meals, which in addition contained a source of fiber (wheat bran or ispaghula husk) in random order. Aspirations were collected from the stomach...... for monosaccharides, either free or fiber-bound, by gas-liquid chromatography. Both types of fiber were hydrolyzed in the stomach, but not in the small bowel. Of ispaghula husk, 1-6% was hydrolyzed, as was 5-8% of wheat bran. Intestinal absorption of free arabinose was 85-93%, but excretion of arabinose in the urine...... was not greater than after control meals. For further evaluation of gastric hydrolysis six additional healthy male volunteers were studied by serial aspirations from the antral part of the stomach. Hydrolysis was instantaneous for both fibers, and was significantly more pronounced for wheat bran than...

  13. The adsorption of Cr(VI) on sulphuric acid-treated wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, A; Ozer, D

    2004-06-01

    Wheat bran, a by-product of wheat milling industries, was converted into a cheap and efficient material by treating with sulphuric acid and used for the adsorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. Effects of various parameters such as initial pH of solution, contact time, initial Cr(VI) concentration and temperature were studied. The sulphuric acid-treated wheat bran (STWB) gave the highest adsorption efficiency at pH 1.5. The equilibrium data were fitted better to Langmuir isotherm model compared to Freundlich model at all the temperatures studied. The adsorption capacity increased from 91 to 133 mg gl(-1) with an increase in temperature from 20 degrees C to 50 degrees C. The adsorption process was found to be endothermic and Langmuir isotherm data were evaluated to determine the thermodynamic parameters for the process. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the process was feasible. The results indicated that the chromium removal process by STWB followed first-order rate expression and adsorption rate constants increased with increasing temperature.

  14. Color of whole-wheat foods prepared from a bright-white hard winter wheat and the phenolic acids in its coarse bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongxin; Martin, Joe; Okot-Kotber, Moses; Seib, Paul A

    2011-08-01

    The color of wheat kernels often impacts the color and thereby the value of wheat-based foods. A line of hard white winter wheat (B-W HW) with bright appearing kernels has been developed at the Kansas State Agricultural Research Center. The objective of this study was to compare the color of several foods made from the B-W HW wheat with those of 2 hard white wheat cultivars, Trego and Lakin. The B-W HW kernels showed higher lightness (L*, 57.6) than Trego (55.5) and Lakin (56.8), and the increased lightness was carried over to its bran and whole-wheat flour. Alkaline noodle and bread crumb made from the B-W HW whole-wheat flour showed slightly higher lightness (L*) than those made from Trego and Lakin. The sum of soluble and bound phenolics extracted from the 3 wheat brans, which had not been preextracted to remove lipids, was found to be 17.22 to 18.98 mg/g. The soluble phenolic acids in the brans were principally vanillic, ferulic, and syringic. The bound phenolic acids in the brans were dominated by ferulic, which accounted for 50.1% to 82.2% of total identified bound phenolic acids. Other bound phenolic acids were protocatechuic, caffeic, syringic, trans-cinnamic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, and vanillic. The lightness (L*) values of coarse wheat brans correlated positively with their levels of bound protocatechuic (r = 0.72, P < 0.01) and p-hydroxybenzoic acids (r = 0.75, P < 0.01). © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Enantiomerization and enantioselective bioaccumulation of benalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae from wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongxin; Chen, Jinhui; Wang, Huili; Liu, Chen; Lv, Xiaotian; Li, Jianzhong; Guo, Baoyuan

    2013-09-25

    The enantiomerization and enatioselecive bioaccumulation of benalaxyl by dietary exposure to Tenebrio molitor larvae under laboratory conditions were studied by HPLC-MS/MS. Exposure of enantiopure R-benalaxyl and S-benalaxyl in T. molitor larvae revealed significant enantiomerization with formation of the R enantiomers from the S enantiomers, and vice versa. Enantiomerization was not observed in wheat bran during the period of 21 days. For the bioaccumulation experiment, the enantiomer fraction in T. molitor larvae was maintained approximately at 0.6, whereas the enantiomer fraction in wheat bran was maintained at 0.5; in other words, the bioaccumulation of benalaxyl was enantioselective in T. molitor larvae. Mathematical models for a process of uptake, degradation, and enantiomerization were developed, and the rates of uptake, degradation, and enantiomerization of R-benealaxyl and S-benealaxyl were estimated, respectively. The results were that the rate of uptake of R-benalaxyl (kRa = 0.052 h(-1)) was slightly lower than that of S-benalaxyl (kSa = 0.061 h(-1)) from wheat bran; the rate of degradation of R-benalaxyl (kRd = 0.285 h(-1)) was higher than that of S-benalaxyl (kSd = 0.114 h(-1)); and the rate of enantiomerization of R-benalaxyl (kRS = 0.126 h(-1)) was higher than that of S-benalaxyl (kSR = 0.116 h(-1)). It was suggested that enantioselectivtiy was caused not only by actual degradation and metabolism but also by enantiomerization, which was an important process in the environmental fate and behavior of chiral pesticides.

  16. Rapid screening of wheat bran contaminated by deoxynivalenol mycotoxin using Raman spectroscopy: a preliminary experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Mencaglia, A. A.; De Girolamo, A.; Lippolis, V.; Pascale, M.

    2016-05-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin frequently occurring in cereals and derived products, and regulated in many countries. Raman spectroscopy performed using optical fibers, with excitation at 1064 nm and a dispersive detection scheme, was utilized to analyze wheat bran samples naturally contaminated with DON. A multivariate processing of the spectroscopic data allowed to distinguish two classes of contamination, with DON below and above 400 μg/kg, respectively. Only one highly contaminated sample was misclassified. This preliminary result demonstrates the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a useful analytical tool for the non-destructive and rapid analysis of mycotoxins in food.

  17. Soluble Dietary Fiber Fractions in Wheat Bran and Their Interactions with Wheat Gluten Have Impacts on Dough Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Liu, Rui; Wu, Tao; Wang, Man; Zhang, Min

    2016-11-23

    Six soluble dietary fiber (SDF) fractions were prepared via stepwise ethanol precipitation from natural and fermented wheat bran. The chemical composition, molecular weight distribution, and glycosidic linkage and substitution pattern of each SDF fraction were elucidated by sugar analysis, periodate oxidation and Smith degradation, molecular determination, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The impacts of SDF fractions on the rheological properties and morphologies of doughs were investigated by farinography, rheometry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to clarify the relationship between the microstructural features of SDF fractions and the macroscopic properties of SDF-containing doughs. The interactions between SDF fractions and wheat glutens in doughs were further studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The experimental results indicated that the SDF fraction with an intermediate molecular weight but a higher substitution degree and a larger disubstitution ratio was most compatible with the dough network and beneficial to dough quality.

  18. Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND To increase self-supply of protein and phosphorus (P) in European pig and poultry diets and reduce nitrogen (N) and P excretion, attention is directed to approaches increasing protein and P digestibility of rapeseed, sunflower and faba beans. Wheat bran is rich in enzymes degrading...... and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilization of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a combination of these (RSM/SFM/FB). RESULTS Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all...

  19. [Quality of cookies formulated with extruded rice bran in substitution to wheat flour and cassava starch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Diracy Betânia C L; Soares Soares, Júnior Manoel; Bassinello, Priscila Zaczuk; Santos Siqueira, Beatriz; Koakuzu, Selma Nakamoto

    2009-06-01

    Rice bran is a byproduct resulted from the rice milling process. It corresponds to 8% of the total rice grain. It is an abundant and low-cost product which has high concentration of insoluble fiber, vitamins and minerals, and it is mainly applied for animal feeding and soil fertilizing. The aim of this work was to evaluate the color, the proximate composition and acceptability of the cookies formulated with extruded rice bran (ERB). Completely randomized design was applied using one control and four treatments (12.5%, 25%, 37.5% and 50% of EBR in place of wheat flour and cassava starch). All analyses were performed according to standard methods. The gradual addition of EBR to biscuits influenced its darkening and yellow/red color tendency. Cookies with 50% of ERB had higher contents of protein (7.56 g 100 g(-1)), dietary fiber (5.17 g 100 g(-1)) and ash (3.31 g 100 g(-1)) and lower proportion of carbohydrate (60.78 g 100 g(-1)) than the control. Forty grams of that formulation supplies more than 10% of daily recommended intakes of magnesium, phosphorus and copper. The cookies were well accepted and did not show significant difference (P = 0,05) regarding the appearance, texture and flavor when compared to control. Cookies formulated with 50% of ERB present better nutritional quality than those elaborated without rice bran and have good sensory acceptance.

  20. Reuse of degraded Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. P. Kumm. substrate by supplementation with wheat bran. Quantitative parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Raquel Picornell Buendía

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work was conducted in order to investigate the agronomic feasibility of Pleurotus ostreatus by reusing spent substrates previously in crops of the same mushroom. After the physical and chemical characterization of the substrates, we have evaluated quantitative production parameters in one growing season. As base material, the experiment was arranged in wheat straw (WS and spent Pleurotus substrate (SPS to generate prepared substrates with the participation of the same, alone, and mixed in different proportions with wheat bran (WB. Unsupplemented SPS, supplemented SPS with 600 g of WB, mixture of WS + unsupplemented SPS, and mixture of WS + supplemented SPS with 600 g of WB, are prepared substrates with biological efficiencies (BE ranging between 41 and 66% and an excellent unit weight of sporophores harvested. All correlations established among the germination index (GI, earliness (expressed as days to first harvest, yield components and BE were significant and positive correlation coefficients expressed.

  1. Effect of wheat bran and flaxseed on cadmium effects and retention in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegaro, M G K; Milbradt, B G; Alves, E; Diettrich, T; Kemerich, D M; Hausen, B S; Duarte, F A; Flores, E M M; Dressler, V L; Emanuelli, T

    2011-08-01

    Dietary fiber can affect cadmium (Cd) absorption and toxicity, but the effect appears to depend on the type of dietary fiber. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of dietary sources containing distinct amounts of soluble and insoluble fiber on Cd absorption, accumulation and toxicity in growing rats. The absorption of essential macrominerals (Ca, P and Mg) was also evaluated. Animals received a nutritionally balanced diet with cellulose (cel - control), wheat bran or flaxseed as the fiber source with 0 or 50 mg Cd kg(-1) diet, during 30 days. Cd exposure reduced body weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, epididymal fat relative weight and liver relative weight, and increased plasma alanine aminotransferase activity in all fiber groups. The apparent Cd absorption was similar among Cd-groups, but the flax-Cd group had a higher hepatic and renal Cd concentration. Cd decreased the absorption of Ca and P, and increased Mg absorption in the wheat bran and flaxseed groups, but not in the cel group. Although the different fiber sources investigated had no effect on Cd toxicity, the major soluble fiber source, flaxseed, increased Cd retention. Thus, caution should be taken in the intake of flaxseed by Cd-exposed populations.

  2. Understanding the influence of buckwheat bran on wheat dough baking performance: Mechanistic insights from molecular and material science approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoletti, Miriam; Marti, Alessandra; Marengo, Mauro; Iametti, Stefania; Pagani, M Ambrogina; Renzetti, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    A molecular and material science approach is used to describe the influence of coarse and fine buckwheat bran on wheat dough properties and bread textural quality. Focus is given on (i) gluten solvation and structural arrangements in presence of bran as studied by front-face fluorescence; (ii) thermo-mechanical behavior of dough during heating studied by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and (iii) texture of bread crumb analyzed in terms of a cellular solid. The thermo-mechanical behavior of dough was found to be largely related to starch phase transitions during heating. The use of thermodynamic approaches to biopolymer melting revealed that key transitions such as the onset of starch gelatinization were function of the interplay of water and bran volume fractions in the dough. Front-face fluorescence studies in wheat dough revealed that gluten solvation and structural arrangements were delayed by increasing bran addition level and reduction in particle size, as indicated by the drastic decrease in the protein surface hydrophobicity index. Variations in gluten structure could be strongly related to dough baking performance, i.e. specific volume. With regards to texture, the approach revealed that crumb texture was controlled by variations in density, moisture and bran volume fractions. Overall, this study elucidates a number of physical mechanisms describing the influence of buckwheat bran addition to dough and bread quality. These mechanisms strongly pointed at the influence of bran on water partitioning among the main polymeric components. In the future, these mechanisms should be investigated with bran material of varying source, composition and structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phytase production by Aspergillus oryzae in solid-state fermentation and its applicability in dephytinization of wheat bran [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapna; Singh, Bijender

    2014-08-01

    Aspergillus oryzae SBS50 secreted a high titre of phytase in solid-state fermentation (SSF) using wheat bran at 30 °C after 96 h at the initial substrate to moisture ratio of 1:2 and a water activity of 0.95. The production of phytase increased when wheat bran was supplemented with sucrose and beef extract. Further enhancement in enzyme production was recorded when the substrate was supplemented with the surfactant Triton X-100 (145 U/g of DMB). An overall 29-fold improvement in phytase production was achieved owing to optimization. Under optimized conditions, the mould secreted 9.3-fold higher phytase in SSF as compared to submerged fermentation (SmF). The mesophilic mould also secreted amylase, cellulase (CMCase), pectinase and xylanase along with phytase in SSF. Scanning electron microscopy revealed luxuriant growth of A. oryzae on wheat bran with abundant spores. The enzyme dephytinized wheat bran with concomitant liberation of inorganic phosphate.

  4. Inhibition of starch absorption by dietary fibre. A comparative study of wheat bran, sugar-beet fibre, and pea fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    in H2 excretion occurred in all subjects; the calculated fractions of unabsorbed starch ranged from 4% to 17% (median, 8%). Concurrent ingestion of this bread with either wheat bran, sugar-beet fibre, or pea fibre increased the fraction of unabsorbed starch to 12.5% (5-22%) (p less than 0.05), 12.5% (5...

  5. Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    To increase self-supply of protein and phosphorus (P) in European pig and poultry diets and reduce nitrogen (N) and P excretion, attention is directed to approaches increasing protein and P digestibility of rapeseed, sunflower and faba beans. Wheat bran is rich in enzymes degrading and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilization of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a combination of these (RSM/SFM/FB). Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all mixtures, the more wheat bran was included and the longer the mixtures were fermented. The increase in N (FB > RSM/SFM/FB > SFM > RSM) and protein solubility (RSM/SFM/FB > RSM > SFM > FB) was greatest from day 0 to day 3 and thereafter limited, whereas P solubility increased during the whole period (5 days; FB > RSM/SFM/FB > SFM > RSM). In general, FB showed the highest solubility and highest increase in N and P solubility, while RSM showed the highest protein solubility and RSM/SFM/FB the highest increase in protein solubility. Fermentation of RSM, SFM, FB and RSM/SFM/FB without or with wheat bran uncovers a potential for increased protein and P digestibility and thereby reduced N and P excretion from pigs and poultry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, and swelling behaviors of salt-sensitive maize bran-poly(acrylic acid) superabsorbent hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingyue; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Tianqi; Liu, Mengzhu; Hu, Meijuan; Li, Junfeng

    2014-09-03

    A novel composite hydrogel was prepared via UV irradiation copolymerization of acrylic acid and maize bran (MB) in the presence of composite initiator (2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone and ammonium persulfate) and cross-linker (N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide)). Under the optimized conditions, maize bran-poly(acrylic acid) was obtained (2507 g g(-1) in distilled water and 658 g g(-1) in 0.9 wt % NaCl solution). Effects of granularity, salt concentration, and various cations and anions on water absorbency were investigated. It was found that swelling was extremely sensitive to the ionic strength and cation and anion type. Swelling kinetics and water diffusion mechanism in distilled water were also discussed. Moreover, the product showed excellent water retention capability under the condition of high temperature or high pressure. The salt sensitivity, good water absorbency, and excellent water retention capability of the hydrogels give this intelligentized polymer wide potential applications.

  7. APPLICATION OF OAT, WHEAT AND RYE BRAN TO MODIFY NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF EXTRUDED CORN SNACKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Agnieszka; Polcyn, Anna; Chudy, Sylwia; Michniewicz, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Cereal products constitute the basis of the diet pyramid. While the consumption of such products as bread decreases, the group of food which popularity increase is cereal snacks. Unfortunately, the dietary value of this group of foodstuffs is limited. Thus, different types of cereal bran may be added to the produced snacks to enhance their nutritive value. However, an addition of bran may have an adverse effect on quality attributes of products. Corn grits enriched with 20 and 40% oat, wheat and rye bran was extruded. Basic parameters determining the nutritive value, physical characteristics and sensory attributes of the six produced types of extrudates were measured and compared. Moreover, the effect of additives applied on viscosity of aqueous suspensions of the raw materials and extrudates under controlled conditions was measured using RVA. The dietary value of snacks containing bran depends on the type and quantitative shares of the additives. The content of dietary fibre in produced extrudates ranged from 6.5 to 15.8%, including soluble dietary fibre at 2.1 to 3.7%. With an increase of bran content in extrudates, their expansion decreased, density increased and the colour of extrudates changed (reduced brightness, increased a*, decreased b*). In sensory evaluation the highest acceptability was given to extrudates with a 20% addition of oat bran, while the lowest was given for those with 40% wheat bran. Based on PCA results positive correlations were found between overall desirability and crispiness, porosity, taste, colour and expansion. Negative correlations between desirability and hardness and density of extrudates were observed. The additives and their level also had an effect on changes in viscosity of aqueous suspensions measured using RVA. However, no correlation was found between quality features of extrudates and values of attributes measured in the analysis of viscosity. In the production of corn extruded snacks an addition of oat, wheat and rye bran

  8. Evaluation of Nitrogen Absorption and Use Efficiency in Relay Intercropping of Winter Wheat and Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of nitrogen absorption and use efficiency in relay intercropping for winter wheat and maize, a field experiment was conducted during 2008-2009 at the Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. A randomized block design with three replications was used. Treatments included four combinations of relay intercropping of wheat and maize (three rows of wheat + one row of maize (3:1, three rows of wheat + two rows of maize (3:2, four rows of wheat + two rows of maize (4:2 and six rows of wheat + two rows of maize (6:2 and their monoculture. Results indicated that the effect of relay intercropping on the absorbed nitrogen, nitrogen relative absorption, nitrogen absorption and use efficiency of maize and wheat was significant (p≤0.05. The highest and the lowest nitrogen absorption efficiency of wheat and maize were observed in three rows of wheat + two rows of maize (33.70 and 36.50 kg tissue N content kg-1 soil N and monoculture (14.73 and 19.37 kg tissue N content kg-1 soil N, respectively. Range of nitrogen relative absorption of intercropped wheat and maize were 1.47-1.08 and 0.41-0.54, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency of wheat and maize were 88.62 and 147.33 kg seed N content kg-1 tissue N content, respectively. In general, relay intercropping of winter wheat with maize increased nitrogen absorption and use efficiency.

  9. Impact of Wheat Bran Hydration Properties As Affected by Toasting and Degree of Milling on Optimal Dough Development in Bread Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Pieter J; Bogaerts, Silke; Hemdane, Sami; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-05-11

    The impact of the hydration capacity and hydration rate of wheat bran on optimal bread dough development and loaf volume was investigated using coarse bran, both native as well as after toasting, milling, presoaking, and combinations of the latter. It was found that toasting reduces bran's hydration rate, which, during mixing, results in a temporary excess of water in which dough development takes place inefficiently and hence requires additional time. This mechanism was further substantiated by the observation that delayed dough development can be counteracted by the presoaking of bran. Milling of bran increases its hydration rate and results in faster optimal dough development. Presoaking of nonmilled bran, however, did not result in faster dough development. Smaller bran particles do lead to faster dough development, probably due to increased proper contacts between flour particles. Optimal loaf volumes did not change upon milling and toasting.

  10. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs by dietary fiber extracted from wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The unintentional ingestion of carcinogenic xenobiotic substances leads to the high risk of cancer. Dietary fiber (DF may protect against cancer by sorbing such chemicals. To this end, the sorption of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs to DF extracted from wheat bran (WB was studied. The strong affinity of PAHs to DF and WB indicated the effective binding of PAHs, and their distribution coefficients (Kd positively increased with the increase in hydrophobicity of the PAHs. The DF had much higher Kd values for all PAHs compared to those of the unprocessed WB. The DF extraction process removed hydrophilic residues, such as starch, from WB, and increased the roughness of DF surface. Loss of hydrophilic components from WB to DF led to much higher affinity of DF with PAHs than WB. The results indicate that the DF can effectively sorb and remove xenobiotics, thereby having the potential to lower carcinogenic risk to humans.

  11. Wheat bran extracts: a potent source of natural antioxidants for the stabilization of canola oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Chatha, Shahzad Ali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of wheat (var. Inqalab 91 bran was evaluated following different antioxidant assays using canola oil as the oxidation substrate. The bran samples were extracted with 80% and 100% methanol and acetone. A preliminary assessment of the antioxidant activity of the 80 and 100% acetone and methanolic extracts of wheat bran was done by the measurement of % inhibition of peroxidation in a linoleic acid system, total phenolic contents (TPC and bleachability of β-carotene in the linoleic acid system. Additionally, the canola oil samples were stabilized with crude concentrated extracts and subjected to ambient aging (6 months. The extent of oxidative deterioration was followed by the measurement of peroxide-, p-anisidine-, conjugated dienes-, and trienes- values. The results of ambient stored samples revealed a significant improvement in these oxidation parameters. The overall order of antioxidant activity of the extracts as determined by various antioxidant assays was determined to be; 80% methanolic extract > 100% methanolic extract > 80% acetone extracts . 100% acetone extract. The results of the present comprehensive analysis demonstrate that extracts of the wheat bran indigenous to Pakistan are a viable source of natural antioxidants and might be exploited for commercial and neutraceutical applications.

    En el presente trabajo la actividad antioxidante de diferentes extractos obtenidos con disolventes del salvado de trigo (var. Inqalab 91 fue evaluada mediante diferentes ensayos antioxidantes y aceite de canola como substrato de oxidación. Las muestras de salvado fueron extraídas con metanol y acetona al 80% y al 100%. La evaluación preliminar de la actividad antioxidante de los extractos de metanol y de acetona al 80% y 100% fue hecha mediante la medida del % de inhibición de la peroxidación en un sistema con ácido linoleico, el contenido total de fenoles

  12. Study on the effects of wheat bran incorporation on water mobility and biopolymer behavior during bread making and storage using time-domain1H NMR relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdane, S; Jacobs, P J; Bosmans, G M; Verspreet, J; Delcour, J A; Courtin, C M

    2017-12-01

    Water binding is suggested to be key in the deleterious effect of wheat bran on bread quality. This study investigates water mobility and biopolymer behavior during bran-rich bread making and storage, using 1 H NMR. Coarse, ground, and pericarp-enriched bran were incorporated in bread dough, and their impact on freshly baked and stored bread properties was assessed. Compared to wheat flour control dough, bran incorporation resulted in a progressive immobilization of water during dough resting, which could be linked to changes in evolution of dough height during fermentation and oven rise. This, together with modified starch gelatinization behavior upon baking, can be related with the inferior quality of bran-rich breads. The impact was most pronounced with pericarp-enriched bran. Textural quality during storage was less affected for coarse or ground bran-rich bread compared to wheat flour bread, which could be principally attributed to retardation of amylopectin retrogradation in the presence of bran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of cell wall-degrading enzymes on water-holding capacity and solubility of dietary fibre in rye and wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Karin; Nordlund, Emilia; Tornberg, Eva; Eliasson, Ann-Charlotte; Buchert, Johanna

    2013-03-15

    Rye and wheat bran were treated with several xylanases and endoglucanases, and the effects on physicochemical properties such as solubility, viscosity, water-holding capacity and particle size as well as the chemical composition of the soluble and insoluble fractions of the bran were studied. A large number of enzymes with well-defined activities were used. This enabled a comparison between enzymes of different origins and with different activities as well as a comparison between the effects of the enzymes on rye and wheat bran. The xylanases derived from Bacillus subtilis were the most effective in solubilising dietary fibre from wheat and rye bran. There was a tendency for a higher degree of degradation of the soluble or solubilised dietary fibre in rye bran than in wheat bran when treated with most of the enzymes. None of the enzymes increased the water-holding capacity of the bran or the viscosity of the aqueous phase. The content of insoluble material decreased as the dietary fibre was solubilised by the enzymes. The amount of material that may form a network to retain water in the system was thereby decreased. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Enhancement of water soluble wheat bran polyphenolic compounds using different steviol glucosides prepared by thermostable β-galactosidase

    OpenAIRE

    Hee-jung Lim; Thi Thanh Hanh Nguyen; Nahyun M. Kim; Gha-hyun J. Kim; Kyeonghwan Hwang; Jun-Seong Park; Atsuo Kimura; Doman Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Production of wheat bran (WB) for human consumption is estimated to be about 90 million tons per year. WB contains an abundant source of dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins, and bioactive compounds. WB is a by-product of milling and contains an abundant source of carbohydrate (60%), protein (12%), fat (0.5%), minerals (2%), and bioactive compounds such as phenolic acids, arabinoxylans, flavonoids, caroteinoids alkylresorcinol and phytosterols. These are known for...

  15. Solid fermentation of wheat bran for hydrolytic enzymes production and saccharification content by a local isolate Bacillus megatherium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M; Mohamed, Saleh A; Asiri, Abdullah M; Gomaa, Abu-bakr M; Ibrahim, Ibrahim H; Al-Talhi, Hasan A

    2014-04-24

    For enzyme production, the costs of solid state fermentation (SSF) techniques were lower and the production higher than submerged cultures. A large number of fungal species was known to grow well on moist substrates, whereas many bacteria were unable to grow under this condition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate a highly efficient strain of Bacillus sp utilizing wheat bran in SSF and optimizing the enzyme production and soluble carbohydrates. A local strain Bacillus megatherium was isolated from dung sheep. The maximum production of pectinase, xylanase and α-amylase, and saccharification content (total soluble carbohydrates and reducing sugars) were obtained by application of the B. megatherium in SSF using wheat bran as compared to grasses, palm leaves and date seeds. All enzymes and saccharification content exhibited their maximum production during 12-24 h, at the range of 40-80% moisture content of wheat bran, temperature 37-45°C and pH 5-8. An ascending repression of pectinase production was observed by carbon supplements of lactose, glucose, maltose, sucrose and starch, respectively. All carbon supplements improved the production of xylanase and α-amylase, except of lactose decreased α-amylase production. A little increase in the yield of total reducing sugars was detected for all carbon supplements. Among the nitrogen sources, yeast extract induced a significant repression to all enzyme productivity. Sodium nitrate, urea and ammonium chloride enhanced the production of xylanase, α-amylase and pectinase, respectively. Yeast extract, urea, ammonium sulphate and ammonium chloride enhanced the productivity of reducing sugars. The optimization of enzyme production and sccharification content by B. megatherium in SSF required only adjustment of incubation period and temperature, moisture content and initial pH. Wheat bran supplied enough nutrients without any need for addition of supplements of carbon and nitrogen sources.

  16. Bioprocessing of wheat bran in whole wheat bread increases the bioavailability of phenolic acids in men and exerts antiinflammatory effects ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo Anson, Nuria; Aura, Anna-Marja; Selinheimo, Emilia; Mattila, Ismo; Poutanen, Kaisa; van den Berg, Robin; Havenaar, Robert; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2011-01-01

    Whole grain consumption has been linked to a lower risk of metabolic syndrome, which is normally associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation. The benefits of whole grain are in part related to the inclusion of the bran, rich in phenolic acids and fiber. However, the phenols are poorly bioaccessible from the cereal matrix. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of bioprocessing of the bran in whole wheat bread on the bioavailability of phenolic acids, the postprandial plasma antioxidant capacity, and ex vivo antiinflammatory properties. After consumption of a low phenolic acid diet for 3 d and overnight fasting, 8 healthy men consumed 300 g of whole wheat bread containing native bran (control bread) or bioprocessed bran (bioprocessed bread) in a cross-over design. Urine and blood samples were collected for 24 h to analyze the phenolic acids and metabolites. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity was measured in plasma. Cytokines were measured in blood after ex vivo stimulation with LPS. The bioavailabilities of ferulic acid, vanillic acid, sinapic acid, and 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid from the bioprocessed bread were 2- to 3-fold those from the control bread. Phenylpropionic acid and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid were the main colonic metabolites of the nonbioaccessible phenols. The ratios of pro-:antiinflammatory cytokines were significantly lower in LPS-stimulated blood after the consumption of the bioprocessed bread. In conclusion, bioprocessing can remarkably increase the bioavailability of phenolic acids and their circulating metabolites, compounds which have immunomodulatory effects ex vivo.

  17. Inhibition of starch absorption by dietary fibre. A comparative study of wheat bran, sugar-beet fibre, and pea fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    The effect of dietary fibre on starch absorption was investigated in 8 healthy subjects. Amounts of starch escaping small-bowel absorption was assessed by comparison of breath H2 excretion after test meals and after lactulose (10g). After ingestion of bread made from 100g of wheat flour increases...... in H2 excretion occurred in all subjects; the calculated fractions of unabsorbed starch ranged from 4% to 17% (median, 8%). Concurrent ingestion of this bread with either wheat bran, sugar-beet fibre, or pea fibre increased the fraction of unabsorbed starch to 12.5% (5-22%) (p less than 0.05), 12.5% (5...

  18. Effect of size reduction on colour, hydration and rheological properties of wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatoyin Oladayo ONIPE

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the effect of size reduction of wheat bran (WB on water holding capacity (WHC, water retention capacity (WRC, swelling capacity (SC; rheological and colour properties. Coarse WB exhibited the highest mean values for WHC (6.49 g/g, WRC (5.76 g/g, SC (7.67 g/g and OHC (4.23 g/g, while these values were significantly reduced in fine WB. Size reduction increased lightness of WB as indicated by high L* values (62.65 to 75.80, Hue angle of 74.63 and whiteness index value of 81.42. Increasing WB additions increased water absorption of dough from 63 to 70.2%, while dough stability decreased from 12.5 min to 6.80 min. As coarse WB addition increased from 1 to 15 g extensibility decreased from 419 BU to 283 BU (highest level of addition. A negative correlation (r2 = –0.992 was found between farinograph water absorption and all extensograph indices measured; implying that an increase in water absorption of dough led to a significant decrease in extensibility, maximum resistance and energy recorded for the dough. WB can be used as potential additive in foods like bread/ doughnut with the aim of optimizing their quality parameters such as nutritional and textural properties.

  19. Efficient conversion of pretreated brewer's spent grain and wheat bran by submerged cultivation of Hericium erinaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Niklas; Schabronath, Christoph; Schembecker, Gerhard; Merz, Juliane

    2016-12-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG) and wheat bran (WB) are industrial byproducts that accumulate in millions of tons per year and are typically applied as animal feed. Since both byproducts show a great potential as substrates for fermentation, the approach developed in this study consists of utilizing these lignocellulosic byproducts for biomass production of the medicinal fungus Hericium erinaceus through submerged cultivation. To increase the biological efficiency of the bioconversion, acidic pretreatment was applied yielding a bioconversion of 38.6% for pretreated BSG and 34.8% for pretreated WB. This study shows that the complete degradation of (hemi)cellulose into monosaccharides was not required for an efficient bioconversion. The produced fungal biomass was applied in a second fermentation step to induce the secondary metabolite erinacine C production. Thus, biomass was produced as a functional food ingredient with erinacine C contents of 174.8mg/g for BSG and 99.3mg/g for WB based bioconversions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Lovastatin from the Wheat Bran Obtained after Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchir C. Pansuriya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work is to extract lovastatin with minimum impurity by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2. A strain of Aspergillus terreus UV 1617 was used to produce lovastatin by solid-state fermentation (SSF on wheat bran as a solid substrate. Extraction of lovastatin and its hydroxy acid form was initially carried out using organic solvents. Among the different screened solvents, acetonitrile was found to be the most efficient. SC-CO2 was used for extraction of lovastatin from the dry fermented matter. The effect of supercritical extraction parameters such as the amount of an in situ pretreatment solvent, temperature, pressure, flow rate and contact time were investigated. The maximum recovery of lovastatin was obtained with 5 mL of methanol as an in situ pretreatment solvent for 1.5 g of solid matrix, flow rate of the supercritical solvent 2 L/min, temperature 50 °C, and contact time 155 min at a pressure 300 bar. The lovastatin extract obtained after optimizing the conditions of supercritical fluid extraction was found to have 5-fold more HPLC purity than the organic solvent extract.

  1. Effects of wheat-bran arabinoxylan as partial flour replacer on bread properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegelenberg, Danika; Chimphango, Annie F A

    2017-04-15

    Effects on physical properties of white bread of adding crude (E1) and partially purified (E2) arabinoxylans (AX) from wheat bran to partially replace flour during baking, were investigated to identify optimal dosage. The E1 and E2 had molecular weights of 620,000 and 470,000Da with arabinose to xylose ratio of 0.7 and 0.6, respectively. However, ferulic acid of 1.5mg/100g, was detectable only in E1. The AXs were added to 100g white bread formulae at dosages of 0.8-1.2% with flour removal of 2-3%(w/w). The dough increased water absorption by 2% in the specified dosage range. An optimum dosage of 0.8% with 2.5% flour removal maintained similar weight, volume, height and firmness as standard white bread. At this dosage, AX addition in white bread holds both increased health and economic benefits because of combined roles as soluble dietary fibre and flour replacer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Substitution of wheat bran by corn gluten feed without steep water in cats feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Geraldi Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of substituting wheat bran (WB by corn gluten feed without steep water (CGF in cats feeds regarding the nutritional value of the diet, stool characteristics, time of food passage through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, intestinal gas production and concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA in blood and faeces. Twenty eight cats were distributed in a randomized block design with four treatments (0, 2.6, 5.3 or 8.0% CGF, based on dry matter, substituting for WB and seven replicates. Substitution of WB by CGF decreased (P0.05 the digestibility of other nutrients and apparent metabolizable energy. There was also no effect (P>0.05 on faeces moisture, faecal pH and score, food transit time in the GIT, intestinal gas area and SCFA concentrations in faeces, while blood concentrations of propionate were influenced differently by the different feeds and sampling times (P<0.05. Thus replacement of up to 8% of WB by CGF may be done safely in cats feed.

  3. Comparison of the therapeutic effect of wheat bran, mebeverine and placebo in patients with the irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, W; Weinzierl, M; Schüssler, P; Holl, J

    1986-01-01

    There is no generally accepted treatment in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), probably because of a lack of convincing therapeutic trials. In the present study, 120 outpatients with IBS participated in a prospective randomized therapeutic trial. According to a double-blind design, 40 patients received 400 mg/day mebeverine and 40 patients received a placebo. In an open branch of the trial, 40 patients were treated with 15 g/day wheat bran. The effects of treatment on symptoms were noted after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of therapy. A significantly superior symptomatic effect of bran in comparison to mebeverine and placebo was demonstrated after 12 weeks, but could not be confirmed at the end of the study. There was no significant difference between the symptomatic effect of mebeverine and placebo. The compliance with the therapy was about 80% for 4 weeks, but dropped to about 50% at the end of the trial. This points to a particular difficulty in the management of patients with IBS. The results of this trial suggest that bran and mebeverine are no ideal therapy for patients with IBS but they support the therapeutic use of bran in patients with IBS.

  4. EVALUATION OF GIN WASTE AS A GROWING SUBSTRATE, ENRICHED WITH DIFFERENT VOLUME PERCENTAGE OF THE WHEAT BRAN FOR CULTIVATION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Akhtar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotusostreatus mushroom was cultivated on cotton gin waste amended with wheat bran in order to judge its growth potential. Two substrates (cotton gin waste and wheat bran were employed alone and with different combinations. Experiment consisted of four treatments T0 (100 % cotton gin waste, T1(97% cotton gin waste + 3% wheat bran, T2(94% cotton gin waste + 6% wheat bran and T3(91% cotton gin waste + 9% wheat bran. Data about time needed for commencement of spawn run, time needed for completion of mycelial growth, time needed for initiation of pinheads, time needed for harvesting of 1st, 2nd and 3rd flush, fresh weight of 1st, 2nd and 3rd flush harvested, total yield, pH of mushroom, total soluble solids of mushroom, acidity and ascorbic acid contents, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and total sugars of mushroom, total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of mushroom was recorded. T0 (100 % cotton gin waste performed better as compared to other treatments.

  5. Effects of processing on availability of total plant sterols, steryl ferulates and steryl glycosides from wheat and rye bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Laura; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Rita, Hannu; Aura, Anna-Marja; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Piironen, Vieno

    2007-10-31

    Rye and wheat bran are excellent natural sources of plant sterols in the diet. Their content, however, may vary according to processing. Thermal (roasting and heating in a microwave oven), mechanical (milling and cryogenic grinding), and enzymatic treatments (hydrolysis with xylanase or beta-glucanase or a mixture of these two enzymes) were performed, and their effect on sterol content, extractability of sterols and the characteristic steryl conjugates of cereals (steryl ferulates, steryl glycosides, and acylated steryl glycosides) were studied. Mechanical and enzymatic treatments increased the apparent sterol content, whereas aqueous processing without enzymes hindered the availability of total sterols, especially from rye bran. Changes were also seen in the amounts of steryl conjugates caused by the enzymatic treatments. On the basis of the results of this study, it can be speculated that a combination of fine particle size and enzymatic processing results in optimal sterol availability in cereal processing.

  6. Deoxynivalenol in wheat, maize, wheat flour and pasta: surveys in Hungary in 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tima, Helga; Berkics, Adrienn; Hannig, Zoltán; Ittzés, András; Kecskésné Nagy, Eleonóra; Mohácsi-Farkas, Csilla; Kiskó, Gabriella

    2017-11-23

    Among Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common contaminant in case of cereals and cereal-based foods in Hungary. In this study, Hungarian wheat (n = 305), maize (n = 108), wheat flour (n = 179) and pasta (n = 226) samples were analysed (N = 818). The samples were collected during 2008-2015 in Hungary. Applied methods of analysis were enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and liquid-chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer. Results were compared and evaluated with Hungarian weather data. Among cereal samples, in 2011, wheat was contaminated with DON (overall average ± standard deviation was 2159 ± 2818 µg kg-1), which was above the maximum limit (ML). In case of wheat flour and pasta, no average values above ML were found during 2008-2015, but higher DON contamination could be observed in 2011 as well (wheat flour: 537 ± 573 µg kg-1; pasta: 511 ± 175 µg kg-1).

  7. Production of Clavulanic Acid by Streptomyces clavuligerus in Batch Cultures with Using Wheat Bran as the Source of Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Hosseini Khayat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Microbial biotechnology is considered as one of the most important and profitable branches of industry. In this approach, by using the generator microorganisms, We are able to produce biotechnological products, with higher efficiency. Clavulanic acid is being used in combination with commonly used beta-lactam antibiotics in order to fight against bacterial infections that are resistant to such antibiotics and this product plays a major role in pharmaceutical industry especially in producing Co-Amoxiclav. The fermentation stage plays a major role in producing secondary products. The compositions of fermentation media plays an important role in the titer and productivity of secondary metabolites and the cost of raw materials. Carbon substrate is one of the most important and expensive component of media in this stage. The present research seeks to study the effect of various densities of wheat bran as the natural source of carbon and the cost in producing clavulanic acid. In this research, we used wheat bran, instead of corn oil, as a suitable carbon and energy resource in formulation of fermentation process. The final product was cultivated for a period of 9 days in the temperature of 28 °C and the pH value, biomass, clavulanic acid concentrations (by HPLC and Spectrophotometry and morphology of the strain were studied. The results showed that the clavulanic acid production increased about 12 percent compared to the control medium. Clavulanic acid production was obtained in the fermentation medium containing 17 g/L wheat bran which is 180 mg/L

  8. Bodyweight and carcass characteristics of Somali goats fed hay supplemented with graded levels of peanut cake and wheat bran mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Solomon; Betsha, Simret

    2008-10-01

    The experiment was conducted for ninety days of feeding trial at Haramaya University, Ethiopia using twenty four yearling male Somali goats weighing 20.4 +/- 2.02 (mean +/- SD) with the objectives to evaluate the effect of supplementation of peanut cake and wheat bran mixture (3:1) on body weight (BW) gain and carcass characteristics of Somali goats. The experiment was arranged with six blocks and four treatments in a randomized complete block design. The treatments were ad libitum feeding of hay (T1, control) and supplementation with 200 g (T2), 300 g (T3) and 400 g (T4) peanut cake and wheat bran mixture on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplementation reduced (P < 0.001) hay DM intake, but increased (P < 0.001) total DM intake at 300 g DM (T3) and 400 g DM (T4) level of supplementation compared to the control treatment. Daily BW gain, final BW, empty BW, hot carcass weight and dressing percent were higher (P < 0.001) in the supplemented treatments. Goats on the medium (T3) level of supplementation had significantly heavier (P < 0.001) liver and more muscle deposition, whereas those on hay alone (T1) exhibited heavier bone, head as well as gut contents (P < 0.05). It was concluded that supplementation of Somali goats with the different levels of peanut cake and wheat bran mixture promoted BW gain, dressing percentage and increased the proportion of edible offals. Similarity between the different levels of supplementation used in this study with regard to BW and carcass characteristics favours the use of the low (T2) or medium (T3) level than the high (T4) level of supplementation.

  9. The adsorption of Cd(II) ions on sulphuric acid-treated wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, A; Pirinççi, H B

    2006-09-21

    The adsorption of Cd(II) ions which is one of the most important toxic metals by using sulphuric acid-treated wheat bran (STWB) was investigated. The effects of solution pH and temperature, contact time and initial Cd(II) concentration on the adsorption yield were studied. The equilibrium time for the adsorption process was determined as 4 h. The adsorbent used in this study gave the highest adsorption capacity at around pH 5.4. At this pH, adsorption capacity for an initial Cd(II) ions concentration of 100 mg/L was found to be 43.1 mg/g at 25 degrees C for contact time of 4 h. The equilibrium data were analysed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models to calculate isotherm constants. The maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) which is a Langmuir constant decreased from 101.0 to 62.5 mg/g with increasing temperature from 25 to 70 degrees C. Langmuir isotherm data were evaluated to determine the thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption process. The enthalpy change (deltaH(o)) for the process was found to be exothermic. The free energy change (deltaG(o)) showed that the process was feasible. The kinetic results indicated that the adsorption process of Cd(II) ions by STWB followed first-order rate expression and adsorption rate constant was calculated as 0.0081 l/min at 25 degrees C. It was observed that the desorption yield of Cd(II) was highly pH dependent.

  10. Removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions by sulphuric acid-treated wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, A

    2007-03-22

    Sulphuric acid-treated wheat bran (STWB) was used as an adsorbent to remove Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution. It was observed that the adsorption yield of Pb(II) ions was found to be pH dependent. The equilibrium time for the process was determined as 2h. STWB gave the highest adsorption yield at around pH 6.0. At this pH, adsorption percentage for an initial Pb(II) ions concentration of 100mg/L was found to be 82.8 at 25 degrees C for contact time of 2h. The equilibrium data obtained at different temperatures fitted to the non-linear form of Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson and linear form of Langmuir and Freundlich models. Isotherm constants were calculated and compared for the models used. The maximum adsorption capacity (q(max)) which was obtained linear form of Langmuir model increased from 55.56 to 79.37mg/g with increasing temperature from 25 to 60 degrees C. Similar trend was observed for other isotherm constants related to the adsorption capacity. Linear form of Langmuir isotherm data was evaluated to determine the thermodynamic parameters for the process. Thermodynamic parameters show that adsorption process of Pb(II) ions is an endothermic and more effective process at high temperatures. The pseudo nth order kinetic model was successfully applied to the kinetic data and the order (n) of adsorption reaction was calculated at the range from 1.711 to 1.929. The values of k(ad) were found to be 5.82x10(-4) and 21.81x10(-4)(min(-1))(mg/g)(1-n) at 25 and 60 degrees C, respectively. Activation energy was determined as 29.65kJ/mol for the process. This suggest that the adsorption Pb(II) ions by STWB is chemically controlled.

  11. Use of wheat straw, soybean trash and nitrogen fertiliser for maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of wheat straw, soybean trash and nitrogen fertiliser for maize production in the Kenyan highlands. J R Okalebo, C A Palm, M Gichuru, J O Owuor, C O Othieno, A Munyampundu, R M Muasya, P L Woolmer ...

  12. Determination of Performance of Yearlings Fed with Rations Containing Wheat, Maize and Buckwheat Straws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynel Acar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As well as cereal straw, the use of maize straw in ruminant feeding has been increasing as the feed shortage widens. In addition, cultivation of buckwheat with high straw yield potential is becoming widespread. Thus, performance of 15 female Karya yearlings fed with ration containing wheat, maize or buckwheat straws were compared. The yearlings fed either containing wheat, maize or buckwheat straws in three total mixed rations (30% straw in dry matter that were consisted of, maize silage, concentrate and cracked maize, formulated to provide 150 g daily live weight gain for 21 d. Total mixed rations was prepared based on the nutritive value of wheat straw. Prior to feeding trial yearlings were acclimatized to their respective feed for a period of 14 d. Straws were included in total mixed rations following the chopping at 1-2 cm. Daily live weight gain and dry matter intake of yearlings fed with mixed ration containing wheat, maize or buckwheat straw were 88, 85 and 135 g/d (P=0.10 and 954, 931 and 1078 g/d (P=0.09, respectively. However, crude protein intake of yearlings (g/d fed with the ration containing buckwheat straw 14% higher than yearlings fed with the ration containing wheat or maize straw. It was concluded that performance of yearling fed with ration containing buckwheat straws was superior to performance of yearlings fed with ration containing wheat and maize straw, while performance of yearling fed with ration containing wheat or maize straw was similar.

  13. Digestion of Barley, Maize, and Wheat by Selected Species of Ruminal Bacteria †

    OpenAIRE

    McAllister, Tim A.; Cheng, K.-J.; Rode, Lyle M.; Forsberg, Cecil W.

    1990-01-01

    Differences in the digestion of barley, maize, and wheat by three major ruminal starch-digesting bacterial species, Streptococcus bovis 26, Ruminobacter amylophilus 50, and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens A38, were characterized. The rate of starch digestion in all cereal species was greater for S. bovis 26 than for R. amylophilus 50 or B. fibrisolvens A38. Starch digestion by S. bovis 26 was greater in wheat than in barley or maize, whereas starch digestion by R. amylophilus 50 was greater in barl...

  14. Effects of climate change on yield potential of wheat and maize crops in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Diepen, van C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Yields of winter wheat, silage maize and grain maize in the main arable areas of the European Union (EU) were calculated with a simulation model, WOFOST, using historical weather data and average soil characteristics. The sensitivity of the model to individual weather variables was determined.

  15. Effects of wheat bran extract rich in arabinoxylan oligosaccharides and resistant starch on overnight glucose tolerance and markers of gut fermentation in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Elin V Johansson; Ekström, Linda M N K; Courtin, Christophe M; Delcour, Jan A; Nilsson, Anne C; Björck, Inger M E; Östman, Elin M

    2016-06-01

    Specific combinations of dietary fiber (DF) have been observed to result in improved glucose tolerance at a subsequent standardized breakfast. Arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) are considered as DF with prebiotic potential, but so far no studies have investigated their metabolic effects in humans. This randomized cross-over study evaluated the overnight impact of breads containing AXOS-rich wheat bran extract and resistant starch (RS, Hi-Maize), separately or combined, on glucose tolerance, related metabolic parameters and markers of gut fermentation in healthy subjects. Evening reference and test products were: (1) reference white wheat flour bread (WWB), WWB supplemented with (2) AXOS and RS (WWB + AXOS + RS), (3) an increased content of either AXOS (WWB + hiAXOS) or (4) RS (WWB + hiRS). At the subsequent standardized breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h to monitor glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and GLP-2. Breath hydrogen (H2) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were measured as markers of gut fermentation, and subjective appetite was rated using visual analog scales. Dose-dependent decreases in glucose responses were observed with increased AXOS over the duration of 3 h. Insulin sensitivity index was improved in the morning after the WWB + hiAXOS evening meal. An increase in breath H2 concentration and circulating SCFA was observed in the morning after both evening meals containing AXOS. The present study indicates that AXOS have the potential of improving glucose tolerance in an overnight perspective and suggested mechanisms are improved insulin sensitivity and increased gut fermentation.

  16. Growth Performance, Organ Weights and Some Blood Parameters of Replacement Laying Pullets Fed with Increasing Levels of Wheat Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to determine the growth performance, organ weights, and selected blood parameters of replacement laying pullets (development phase fed increasing levels of wheat bran (WB. A total of 240 70-d-old White Leghorn pullets (Hybrid L33 were evaluated for seven weeks. Birds were assigned to three dietary treatments according to a completely randomized design. Treatments consisted of diets containing 100 (T1, 150 (T2, or 200 g/kg (T3 of WB in partial replacement of corn, with 10 replicates per treatment of eight birds per replicate. Birds fed T2 presented higher body weight (p0.05. Serum concentration of triacylglycerols, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus, hematocrit, or hemoglobin levels were not significantly different (p>0.05 among treatments. These findings indicate a beneficial effect of use of 150 g/kg of wheat bran on the growth performance of pullets during the development phase; however, the inclusion of this cereal up to 200 g/kg had no effect on organ weights and blood parameters.

  17. Organically vs conventionally grown winter wheat: effects on grain yield, technological quality, and on phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of bran and refined flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoncini, Marco; Antichi, Daniele; Silvestri, Nicola; Ciantelli, Giulia; Sgherri, Cristina

    2015-05-15

    Since organic food is widely assumed to have a better nutritional quality than conventional food, our aim was to study the effects of organic vs conventional cropping systems on yield and the phenolic composition of winter wheat cv. 'Bologna'. Although organic wheat yielded less than conventional wheat, mainly due to the nitrogen shortage, and its bread-making quality was lower, the cultivation system did not affect the total amounts of phenolics and phenolic acids. Of the eight phenolic acids identified, only ferulic acid was influenced by the cultivation system. Phenolic composition and quantity were significantly affected by the milling fraction (bran or white flour): phenolics were more concentrated in the bran, which showed the highest antioxidant power. Under the conditions adopted in this study, an organic cropping system can maintain or even increase the health properties of the wheat milled products, provided a reduction in grain yield is accepted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical, microscopic and chemical characterisation of industrial rye and wheat brans from the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal-Eldin, A; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2009-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies show inverse relationship between intake of wholegrain cereals and several chronic diseases. Components and mechanisms behind possible protective effects of wholegrain cereals are poorly understood. Objective: To characterise commercial rye bran preparations, c...

  19. Differentiation of Whole Grain from Refined Wheat (T. aestivum) Flour Using Lipid Profile of Wheat Bran, Germ, and Endosperm with UHPLC-HRAM Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ping; Harnly, James M; Chen, Pei

    2015-07-15

    A comprehensive analysis of wheat lipids from milling fractions of bran, germ, and endosperm was performed using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution accurate-mass multistage mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRAM-MS(n)) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in both positive and negative modes. About 155 lipid compounds, including free fatty acids (FA), oxylipins, alk(en)ylresorcinols (ARs), γ-oryzanol, sphingolipids, triglycerides (TGs), diglycerides (DGs), phospholipids, and galactolipids were characterized from the three milling fractions. Galactolipids and phospholipids were proposed to be potential discriminatory compounds for refined flour, whereas γ-oryzanols, ARs, TGs, and DGs could distinguish whole wheat flour from a refined one based on principal component analysis (PCA).

  20. Health risk assessment and growth characteristics of wheat and maize crops irrigated with contaminated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Emad A; Galal, Tarek M; Elawa, Omar E; Hassan, Loutfy M

    2017-10-02

    The present study evaluated the effect of untreated wastewater irrigation and its health risks in Triticum aestivum (wheat) and Zea mays (maize) cultivated at south Cairo, Egypt. Morphological measurements (stem and root lengths, number of leaves per plant, and dry weights of main organs) as well as soil, irrigation water, and plant analyses for nutrients and heavy metals were conducted in polluted and unpolluted sites. Wastewater irrigations leads to reduction in the morphological traits of the plants and reduced its vegetative biomass and yield production, with more negative impacts on maize than wheat. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Fe in roots and leaves of wheat were above the phytotoxic limits. Conversely, Pb, Cd, and Fe were significantly high and at phytotoxic concentrations in the leaves of maize at polluted site. The present study indicated that wheat plants tend to phytostabilize heavy metals in their roots, while maize accumulates it more in their leaves. Maize and wheat had toxic concentrations of Pb and Cd in their grains under wastewater irrigation. The health risk index showed values > 1 for Pb and Cd in polluted site for both crops, in addition to maize in unpolluted site. Consequently, this will have greatest potential to pose health risk to the consumers.

  1. Effects of replacing wheat bran by pistachio skins on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naserian, A A; Staples, C R; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pistachio skins (PiS) as a replacement of wheat bran on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats. Eight multiparous lactating Saanen goats (55 ± 7.2 days post-partum, 45 ± 2 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments arranged in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were 1) 0 g/kg PiS and 210 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (0PiS), 2) 70 g/kg PiS and 140 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (7PiS), 3) 140 g/kg PiS and 70 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (14PiS) and 4) 210 g/kg PiS and 0 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (21PiS). The trial consisted of four 21-day periods, each composed of 14 days adaptation and 7 days data collection. Dry matter intake (p < 0.05) and crude protein digestibility (p < 0.01) increased linearly with increasing PiS proportions in the diet. Increasing the proportion of PiS in the diet caused a quadratic increase in apparent digestibility of dry matter (p < 0.05), and tended (p = 0.05) to increase quadratically organic matter, and ether extract digestibility. Replacing wheat bran with PiS in the diet had no effects on milk yield, whereas milk fat concentration increased linearly (p < 0.01) with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. As the dietary proportion of PiS increased, ruminal pH tended (p = 0.07) to increase linearly, whereas ammonia-N concentration declined in the rumen. Plasma concentrations of glucose and BUN remained unaffected, whereas triglycerides (p < 0.05) and cholesterol (p < 0.01) concentrations increased linearly with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. It was concluded that PiS based on local ingredients can successfully replace wheat bran in diets of dairy goats without detrimental effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell

  2. Competitive Expression of Endogenous Wheat CENH3 May Lead to Suppression of Alien ZmCENH3 in Transgenic Wheat × Maize Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhu, Qilin; Wang, Haiyan; Xiao, Jin; Xing, Liping; Chen, Peidu; Jin, Weiwei; Wang, Xiu-E

    2015-11-20

    Uniparental chromosome elimination in wheat × maize hybrid embryos is widely used in double haploid production of wheat. Several explanations have been proposed for this phenomenon, one of which is that the lack of cross-species CENH3 incorporation may act as a barrier to interspecies hybridization. However, it is unknown if this mechanism applies universally. To study the role of CENH3 in maize chromosome elimination of wheat × maize hybrid embryos, maize ZmCENH3 and wheat αTaCENH3-B driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were transformed into wheat variety Yangmai 158. Five transgenic lines for ZmCENH3 and six transgenic lines for αTaCENH3-B were identified. RT-PCR analysis showed that the transgene could be transcribed at a low level in all ZmCENH3 transgenic lines, whereas transcription of endogenous wheat CENH3 was significantly up-regulated. Interestingly, the expression levels of both wheat CENH3 and ZmCENH3 in the ZmCENH3 transgenic wheat × maize hybrid embryos were higher than those in the non-transformed Yangmai 158 × maize hybrid embryos. This indicates that the alien ZmCENH3 in wheat may induce competitive expression of endogenous wheat CENH3, leading to suppression of ZmCENH3 over-expression. Eliminations of maize chromosomes in hybrid embryos of ZmCENH3 transgenic wheat × maize and Yangmai 158 × maize were compared by observations on micronuclei presence, by marker analysis using maize SSRs (simple sequence repeats), and by FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) using 45S rDNA as a probe. The results indicate that maize chromosome elimination events in the two crosses are not significantly different. Fusion protein ZmCENH3-YFP could not be detected in ZmCENH3 transgenic wheat by either Western blotting or immnunostaining, whereas accumulation and loading of the αTaCENH3-B-GFP fusion protein was normal in αTaCENH3-B transgenic lines. As ZmCENH3-YFP did not accumulate after AM114 treatment, we speculate that low levels of Zm

  3. Somaclonal variation for disease resistance in wheat and production of dihaploids through wheat x maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshwant R. Mehta

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven wheat cultivars having some degree of resistance to Bipolaris sorokiniana, Magnaporthe grisea or Xanthomonas campestris pv. undulosa (Xcu provided somaclonal variation for disease resistance. Callus induction varied from 69.4 to 100% across the cultivars, whereas regeneration frequency of R1 plants (regenerated plants of first generation varied between 2.7 and 23.1%. Resistance variation in the R2-regenerated second generation plants was observed for B. sorokiniana and M. grisea but not for Xcu. Attempts were made to fix the resistance characteristics of R3-regenerated third generation somaclones through wheat x maize hybrids. Wheat and maize hybridization of seven wheat somaclones yielded 81 embryos. A total of 11,624 somaclone florets were pollinated, of which 8.4% produced haploid embryos across the seven wheat genotypes. Hybrid embryo production varied between 0 and 25%. The somaclones had a constant chromosome number as observed in their original hexaploid wheat genotypes (2n = 6x = 42 whereas the haploid plants had n = 21. Hybrid embryo production and haploid and dihaploid plant production were affected by 2,4-D concentration, but not by the wheat genotype.Sete cultivares de trigo possuindo certo nível de resistência a Bipolaris sorokiniana, Magnaporthe grisea, Xanthomonas campestris pv. undulosa (Xcu, foram usadas para variação somaclonal, a fim de induzir um nível maior de resistência. A freqüência de indução de calos variou entre 69,4 e 100 entre as cultivares, enquanto que, a freqüência de regeneração de plantas R1 variou entre 2,7 e 23,1, dependendo da cultivar. A variação para resistência entre as plantas de R2 foi observada para B. sorokiniana e M. grisea, mas não para Xcu. Procurou-se fixar as características de resistência dos somaclones (R3 através de hibridação com milho. A hibridação entre trigo e milho produziu 81 embriões zigotos. Um total de 11.624 flores de somaclones foram polinizadas, das

  4. Production of beta-galactosidase by Trichoderma reesei FTKO-39 in wheat bran: partial purification of two isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalberto, P R; Massabni, A C; Goulart, A J; Contiero, J; Carmona, E C; Cardello, L; Monti, R

    2006-05-01

    Trichoderma reesei FTKO-39 grown at 35 degrees C for 5 d on wheat bran supplemented with MgCl2 and lactose as the carbon source produced two isozymes of beta-galactosidase: BGT I and BGT II. These isozymes were partially purified on a DEAE-Trisacryl column. Both BGT I and BGT II fractions exhibited optimum activity at 65 degrees C, but the pH optima were 4.0 and 6.5, respectively. The isozymes also showed similar thermal stability. However, BGT I was more stable than BGT II in a pH range of 3.0-10.0. At least two different beta-galactosidases are produced by T. reesei, as revealed by the two bands seen on a 6% polyacrylamide gel stained for activity.

  5. Characteristics of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Wheat Fields with Different Returning Methods of Maize Straws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xin-hua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different returning methods of maize straw on the greenhouse gas emissions from the wheat fields, we explored the greenhouse gas CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions from the wheat fields using static chamber-gas chromatograph technique from December 2013 to May 2014. The experiments set four treatments including no maize straw returning(CK, direct maize straw returning directly(CS, maize straw-rumen-cattle dung returning(CGS and maize straw-mushroom residue returning(CMS, and the four treatments were investigated under the same watering and fertilizing conditions. The results showed that the greenhouse gas emissions from the wheat fields all had distinct seasonal variations and the cumulative emissions of greenhouse gas emissions were different. During the maize growing season, the cumulative emissions of both CO2 and N2O were emitted and in the order of CK >CGS >CS >CMS while the cumulative absorptions of CH4 were in the order of CS >CGS >CK >CMS with the significant difference between different treatments(PCGS >CK >CMS under the different returning methods of maize straw, which indicated that direct straw returning could significantly increase the global warming potential of greenhouse gases from the wheat field, followed by CGS while the straw-mushroom residue returning(CMS could decrease the global warming potential of greenhouse gases from the wheat field. The method of straw-mushroom residue returning should be recommended from the viewpoint of reducing GWP of the greenhouse gas. In all, our study could provide the scientific foundation for the efficiency straw recycle and reducing greenhouse gas emission.

  6. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi, J; Mykkänen, H; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2014-01-01

    .05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.ConclusionsBeneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than......BackgroundRye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism...... were similar between the WGR and BRB + WW periods. When compared to the WW period, postprandial insulin concentration at 120 min was lower (p = 0.023) and the first-phase insulin secretion improved (p = 0.033) only after the WGR period, whereas postprandial concentrations of butyrate (p 

  7. Induction of Glutathione Synthesis and Glutathione Reductase Activity by Abiotic Stresses in Maize and Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Kocsy

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different abiotic stresses (extreme temperatures and osmotic stress on the synthesis of glutathione and hydroxymethylglutathione, on the ratio of the reduced to oxidised forms of these thiols (GSH/GSSG, hmGSH/hmGSSG, and on the glutathione reductase (GR activity was studied in maize and wheat genotypes having different sensitivity to low temperature stress. Cold treatment induced a greater increase in total glutathione (TG content and in GR activity in tolerant genotypes of both species than in sensitive ones. The GSH/GSSG and hmGSH/hmGSSG ratios were increased by this treatment only in the frost-tolerant wheat variety. High-temperature stress increased the TG content and the GSH/GSSG ratio only in the chilling-sensitive maize genotype, but GR activity was greater after this treatment in both maize genotypes. Osmotic stress resulted in a great increase in the TG content in wheat and the GR activity in maize. The amount of total hydroxymethylglutathione increased following all stress treatments. These results indicate the involvement of these antioxidants in the stress responses of wheat and maize.

  8. Global nitrogen budgets in cereals: A 50-year assessment for maize, rice, and wheat production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ladha, J.K.; Tirol-Padre, A.; Reddy, C. K.; K. G. Cassman; Sudhir Verma; Powlson, D. S.; Kessel, C.; Daniel de B. Richter; Debashis Chakraborty; Himanshu Pathak

    2016-01-01

    Industrially produced N-fertilizer is essential to the production of cereals that supports current and projected human populations. We constructed a top-down global N budget for maize, rice, and wheat for a 50-year period (1961 to 2010). Cereals harvested a total of 1551?Tg of N, of which 48% was supplied through fertilizer-N and 4% came from net soil depletion. An estimated 48% (737?Tg) of crop N, equal to 29, 38, and 25?kg?ha?1?yr?1 for maize, rice, and wheat, respectively, is contributed b...

  9. Effect of conventional milling on the nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of wheat types common in Ethiopia and a recovery attempt with bran supplementation in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshe, Genet Gebremedhin; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Zewdu; Gemede, Habtamu Fekadu

    2016-07-01

    The effect of wheat flour refined milling on nutritional and antioxidant quality of hard and soft grown in Ethiopia was evaluated. Bread was prepared with the supplementation of the white wheat flour with different levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 25%) of wheat bran. Whole (100% extraction) and white wheat (68% extraction) flours were analyzed for proximates, minerals, and antioxidants. Results indicated that at a low extraction rate (68%), the protein, fat, fiber, ash, iron, zinc, phosphorous, and antioxidant contents of the samples significantly (P wheat flours, which ranged from 3.34 to 3.49 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalent)/g, was significantly (P whole wheat flours, whose TPC ranged from 7.66 to 8.20 GAE/g). At 50 mg/mL, the DPPH (2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging effect of the wheat extracts decreased in the order of soft whole, hard whole, soft white, and hard white wheat flour, which was 90.39, 89.89, 75.80, and 57.57%, respectively. Moreover, the proximate and mineral contents of the bran-supplemented breads increased significantly (P bread, and the highest values (protein, 12.0 g/100 g; fat, 2.6 g/100 g; fiber, 2.5 g/100 g; ash, 3.3 g/100 g; iron, 4.8 mg/100 g and zinc, 2.33 mg/100 g) were found in 25% bran supplemented bread. The sensory evaluation of bread showed that all the supplementation levels had a mean score above 4 for all preferences on a 7- point hedonic scale. The results indicated that refined milling at 68% extraction significantly reduces the nutritional and antioxidant activity of the wheat flours. Bread of good nutritional and sensory qualities can be produced from 10% and 20% bran supplementations.

  10. Intercropping with wheat lowers nutrient uptake and biomass accumulation of maize, but increases photosynthetic rate of the ear leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Fang; van Ittersum, Martin K; Couëdel, Antoine; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Yajun; van der Putten, Peter E L; Zhang, Lizhen; van der Werf, Wopke

    2018-02-01

    Intercropping is an ancient agricultural practice that provides a possible pathway for sustainable increases in crop yields. Here, we determine how competition with wheat affects nutrient uptake (nitrogen and phosphorus) and leaf traits, such as photosynthetic rate, in maize. In a field experiment, maize was planted as a sole crop, in three different intercrop configurations with wheat (a replacement intercrop and two add-row intercrops), and as a skip-row system with one out of each three maize rows omitted. Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake were determined at flowering and maturity. Specific leaf area, leaf nitrogen concentration, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate of the ear leaf were determined at flowering. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were significantly lower in intercropped maize than in sole maize and skip-row maize at flowering, but these differences were smaller at maturity. At flowering, specific leaf area was significantly greater in intercrops than in skip-row maize. Leaf nitrogen concentration was significantly lower in add-row intercrops than in sole maize, skip-row maize or maize in the replacement intercrop. Leaf chlorophyll content was highest in sole and skip-row maize, intermediate in maize in the replacement intercrop and lowest in maize grown in add-row intercrops. On the contrary, photosynthetic rate was significantly higher in the replacement intercrop than in sole maize, skip-row maize and the intercrop with an additional maize row. The findings indicate that competition with intercropped wheat severely constrained nutrient uptake in maize, while photosynthetic rate of the ear leaf was not negatively affected. Possible mechanisms for higher photosynthesis rate at lower leaf nitrogen content in intercropped maize are discussed.

  11. Effects of sodium alginate bead encapsulation on the storage stability of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) bran oil extracted by supercritical CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello S; Laddomada, Barbara; Mita, Giovanni; Caretto, Sofia

    2012-10-24

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of encapsulation on the storage stability of oil extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide from a micronized durum wheat bran fraction. Wheat bran oil was encapsulated in 2% (w/v) sodium alginate beads. Encapsulated and unencapsulated oil samples were stored at 4 or 25 °C, in daylight or darkness, over 90 days, and, at defined time points, subjected to stability evaluation based on fatty acid hydroperoxide production and tocopherol (α, β, and γ forms), tocotrienol (α, β, and γ forms) and carotenoid (lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene) degradation. The encapsulation of the oil into alginate beads significantly increased stability, optimally when stored at 4 °C, maintaining high levels of isoprenoids and low content of fatty acid hydroperoxides over 30 days of storage.

  12. In vitro fermentation of arabinoxylan oligosaccharides and low molecular mass arabinoxylans with different structural properties from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) bran and psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) seed husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollet, Annick; Van Craeyveld, Valerie; Van de Wiele, Tom; Verstraete, Willy; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2012-02-01

    Ball milling was used for producing complex arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) and low molecular mass arabinoxylans (AX) from wheat bran, pericarp-enriched wheat bran, and psyllium seed husk. The arabinose to xylose ratio of the samples produced varied between 0.14 and 0.92, and their average degree of polymerization (avDP) ranged between 42 and 300. Their fermentation for 48 h in an in vitro system using human colon suspensions was compared to enzymatically produced wheat bran AXOS with an arabinose to xylose ratio of 0.22 and 0.34 and an avDP of 4 and 40, respectively. Degrees of AXOS fermentation ranged from 28% to 50% and were lower for the higher arabinose to xylose ratio and/or higher avDP materials. Arabinose to xylose ratios of the unfermented fractions exceeded those of their fermented counterparts, indicating that molecules less substituted with arabinose were preferably fermented. Xylanase, arabinofuranosidase, and xylosidase activities increased with incubation time. Enzyme activities in the samples containing psyllium seed husk AX or psyllium seed husk AXOS were generally higher than those in the wheat bran AXOS preparations. Fermentation gave rise to unbranched short-chain fatty acids. Concentrations of acetic, propionic, and butyric acids increased to 1.9-2.6, 1.9-2.8, and 1.3-2.0 times their initial values, respectively, after 24 h incubation. Results show that the human intestinal microbiota can at least partially use complex AXOS and low molecular mass AX. The tested materials are thus interesting physiologically active carbohydrates.

  13. Analysis of energy and greenhouse gas balance as indexes for environmental assessment of wheat and maize farming: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Móslem SAMI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the net balance of greenhouse gas (GHG emission and energy of wheat and maize production systems in two farms in Khuzestan province of Iran was assessed. The results showed that totally wheat farming is more efficient than maize farming in terms of energy and CO2-eq indexes. The total energy requirement for maize and wheat farming was 92560.24 MJ ha-1 and 39624.15 MJ ha-1, which caused the emission of 20191.47 and 7541.04 kg CO2-equivalent per hectare in maize and wheat farms respectively. Electricity, fertilizers and fuel were the most important pollutants of environment in terms of energy and gas emission in both farms. Theses inputs consumed 55.52, 22.62 and 6.44 % of total energy of maize and 47.32, 21.19 and 9.01 % of total energy of wheat farm and were responsible for the 88.60, 8.79 and 2.03 % of CO2-equivalent in maize and 86.54, 9.54 and 3.24 % of CO2-equivalent in wheat farms respectively. The results of this study also showed that the enhancement of 60.74 and 27.02 % in energy ratio and 46.06 and 27.87 % in CO2-eq index in maize and wheat farming can be expected using simple improving scenarios.

  14. Replacement of wheat bran with spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill cv Gigante) and urea in the diets of Holstein x Gyr heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo Monteiro, Carolina Corrêa; Silva de Melo, Airon Aparecido; Ferreira, Marcelo Andrade; de Souza Campos, José Mauricio; Rodrigues Souza, Julyana Sena; Dos Santos Silva, Evannielly Thuanny; de Paula Xavier de Andrade, Rafael; da Silva, Emmanuelle Cordeiro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the replacement effect of wheat bran with spineless cactus and urea in heifers. Twenty-four heifers with an average initial weight of 185 ± 13 kg were used in this experiment. Four levels of spineless cactus corrected with urea and ammonium sulfate (9:1) were studied: 0, 33, 66, and 100 % replacement with wheat bran. Samples of feed, orts, and feces were analyzed to estimate the intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Indigestible neutral detergent fiber was used as an internal marker. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design. Dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient intake demonstrated a quadratic effect (P < 0.05). Rumen degradable protein intake increased linearly (P < 0.05). The maximum DM digestibility was estimated to be 0.67 with a 43 % replacement. Crude protein and NDF digestibility increased linearly (P < 0.05). The total body weight gain and average daily gain decreased linearly with the replacement. Thus, it is practical to replace wheat bran with spineless cactus containing urea and ammonium sulfate up to 66 % in sugar cane-based diets.

  15. Wheat Bran Does Not Affect Postprandial Plasma Short-Chain Fatty Acids from 13C-inulin Fermentation in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroover, Lise; Verspreet, Joran; Luypaerts, Anja; Vandermeulen, Greet; Courtin, Christophe M; Verbeke, Kristin

    2017-01-20

    Wheat bran (WB) is a constituent of whole grain products with beneficial effects for human health. Within the human colon, such insoluble particles may be colonized by specific microbial teams which can stimulate cross-feeding, leading to a more efficient carbohydrate fermentation and an increased butyrate production. We investigated the extent to which WB fractions with different properties affect the fermentation of other carbohydrates in the colon. Ten healthy subjects performed four test days, during which they consumed a standard breakfast supplemented with 10 g 13C-inulin. A total of 20 g of a WB fraction (unmodified WB, wheat bran with a reduced particle size (WB RPS), or de-starched pericarp-enriched wheat bran (PE WB)) was also added to the breakfast, except for one test day, which served as a control. Blood samples were collected at regular time points for 14 h, in order to measure 13C-labeled short-chain fatty acid (SCFA; acetate, propionate and butyrate) concentrations. Fermentation of 13C-inulin resulted in increased plasma SCFA for about 8 h, suggesting that a sustained increase in plasma SCFA can be achieved by administering a moderate dose of carbohydrates, three times per day. However, the addition of a single dose of a WB fraction did not further increase the 13C-SCFA concentrations in plasma, nor did it stimulate cross-feeding (Wilcoxon signed ranks test).

  16. Wheat Bran Does Not Affect Postprandial Plasma Short-Chain Fatty Acids from 13C-inulin Fermentation in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroover, Lise; Verspreet, Joran; Luypaerts, Anja; Vandermeulen, Greet; Courtin, Christophe M.; Verbeke, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Wheat bran (WB) is a constituent of whole grain products with beneficial effects for human health. Within the human colon, such insoluble particles may be colonized by specific microbial teams which can stimulate cross-feeding, leading to a more efficient carbohydrate fermentation and an increased butyrate production. We investigated the extent to which WB fractions with different properties affect the fermentation of other carbohydrates in the colon. Ten healthy subjects performed four test days, during which they consumed a standard breakfast supplemented with 10 g 13C-inulin. A total of 20 g of a WB fraction (unmodified WB, wheat bran with a reduced particle size (WB RPS), or de-starched pericarp-enriched wheat bran (PE WB)) was also added to the breakfast, except for one test day, which served as a control. Blood samples were collected at regular time points for 14 h, in order to measure 13C-labeled short-chain fatty acid (SCFA; acetate, propionate and butyrate) concentrations. Fermentation of 13C-inulin resulted in increased plasma SCFA for about 8 h, suggesting that a sustained increase in plasma SCFA can be achieved by administering a moderate dose of carbohydrates, three times per day. However, the addition of a single dose of a WB fraction did not further increase the 13C-SCFA concentrations in plasma, nor did it stimulate cross-feeding (Wilcoxon signed ranks test). PMID:28117694

  17. Hyper production of alkali stable xylanase in lesser duration by Bacillus pumilus SV-85S using wheat bran under solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Sushil; Mittal, Anuradha; Kumar, Davender; Kumar, Lalit; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

    2011-10-01

    High level production of an extracellular cellulase-poor alkali stable xylanase has been conceded from newly isolated Bacillus pumilus SV-85S under solid state fermentation using wheat bran as a substrate. Optimization of the fermentation conditions enhanced the enzyme production to 73,000 ± 1,000 IU/g dry substrate, which was 13.8-fold higher than unoptimized conditions (5,300 IU/g). The enzyme titre was highest after 48 h of incubation at 30°C with 1:3 ratios of substrate to moistening agent using wheat bran as a carbon source. The enzyme could be produced in significant levels by using either tap water or distilled water alone as a moistening agent. An elevated production of xylanase by B. pumilus SV-85S in the presence of wheat bran, a cheap and easily available agro-residue, in shorter duration would apparently reduce the enzyme cost substantially. The enzyme was completely stable over a broad pH (5-11) range and retained 52% of its activity at a temperature of 70°C for 30 min. The desired characteristics of this enzyme together with economic production would be important for its application in paper and pulp industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Shifts in comparative advantages for maize, oat, and wheat cropping under climate change in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2012-01-01

    and the consequences this may have for crop rotations. This paper analyses the impact of climate on cropping shares of maize, oat and wheat on a 50-km square grid across Europe (45–65°N) and provides model-based estimates of the changes in cropping shares in response to changes in temperature and precipitation...... cropping shares of maize, oat and wheat. The observed cropping shares show a south-to-north gradient, where maize had its maximum at 45–55°N, oat had its maximum at 55–65°N, and wheat was more evenly distributed along the latitudes in Europe. Under the projected climate changes, there was a general...... increase in maize cropping shares, whereas for oat no areas showed distinct increases. For wheat, the projected changes indicated a tendency towards higher cropping shares in the northern parts and lower cropping shares in the southern parts of the study area. The present modelling approach represents...

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from a wheat-maize double cropping system with different nitrogen fertilization regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, X.K.; Su, F.; Ju, X.T.; Gao, B.; Oenema, O.; Christie, P.; Huang, B.X.; Jiang, R.F.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report on a two-years field experiment aimed at the quantification of the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from the dominant wheat maize double cropping system in North China Plain. The experiment had 6 different fertilization strategies, including a control treatment,

  20. An analysis of the cost effectiveness of replacing maize with wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing the level of inclusion of agro-industrial by-products in poultry diets formulation that will not adversely affect growth performance but enhancing feed cost reduction have been the major concern of researchers. In this study the cost effectiveness of using wheat offal to replace maize at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 percent ...

  1. Estimation of the Levels of Fe in Wheat and Maize Flour Milled using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is therefore recommended that the commercial milling machine be redesigned with the incorporation of a permanent magnet to minimize or totally eliminate the introduction of Fe fillings into the ground grains and other foodstuffs. Keywords: Commercial milling machine, wheat, maize, contaminants, home blender, grinding ...

  2. Plant morphology, environment, and leaf area growth in wheat and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Leaf area expansion of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) plants, as contrasting representatives of the Gramineae family, was analysed. Seven variables were identified that together completely determine leaf area

  3. Phosphorus flows and use efficiencies in production and consumption of wheat, rice, and maize in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenqi; Ma, Lin; Li, Jianhui; Wang, Fanghao; Sisák, István; Zhang, Fusuo

    2011-08-01

    Increasing fertilizer phosphorus (P) application in agriculture has greatly contributed to the increase of crop yields during the last decades in China but it has also increased P flows in food production and consumption. The relationship between P use efficiency and P flow is not well quantified at national level. In present paper we report on P flows and P use efficiencies in rice, wheat, and maize production in China using the NUFER model. Conservation strategies for P utilization and the impact of these strategies on P use efficiency have been evaluated. Total amounts of P input to wheat, rice, and maize fields were 1095, 1240, and 1128 Gg, respectively, in China, approximately 80% of which was in chemical fertilizers. The accumulation of P annually in the fields of wheat, rice, and maize was 29.4, 13.6, and 21.3 kg ha(-1), respectively. Phosphorus recovered in the food products of wheat, rice, and maize accounted for only 12.5%, 13.5%, and 3.8% of the total P input, or 3.2%, 2.6%, and 0.9% of the applied fertilizer P, respectively. The present study shows that optimizing phosphorus flows and decreasing phosphorus losses in crop production and utilization through improved nutrient management must be considered as an important issue in the development of agriculture in China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Grinding performance of wheat, maize and soybeans in a multicracker system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, M.; Vrij, M.; Zandstra, T.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript presents the effects of a recent technology for particle size reduction using a new approach in which the cracking action of two rows of discs is used. Wheat, maize and full fat soybeans were ground by a multicracker system to study the effects of disc type (ceramic versus steel

  5. Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat, Barley, Maize and Rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holm, Preben Bach

    2011-01-01

    , it is demonstrated that wheat, barley, maize, and rice all possess purple acid phosphatase (PAP) genes that, expressed in Pichia pastoris, give fully functional phytases (PAPhys) with very similar enzyme kinetics. Preformed wheat PAPhy was localized to the protein crystalloid of the aleurone vacuole. Phylogenetic......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) possess significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) possess little or virtually no preformed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during germination. Here...... analyses indicated that PAPhys possess four conserved domains unique to the PAPhys. In barley and wheat, the PAPhy genes can be grouped as PAPhy_a or PAPhy_b isogenes (barley, HvPAPhy_a, HvPAPhy_b1, and HvPAPhy_b2; wheat, TaPAPhy_a1, TaPAPhy_a2, TaPAPhy_b1, and TaPAPhy_b2). In rice and maize, only the b...

  6. Water requirements for wheat and maize under climate change in North Nile Delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouda, S.; Noreldin, T; Abd El-Latif, K.

    2015-07-01

    Determination of water requirements for wheat and maize under climate change is important for policy makers in Egypt. The objectives of this paper were to calculate (i) ETo and (ii) water requirements for wheat and maize crops grown in five governorates (Alexandria, Demiatte, Kafr El-Sheik, El-Dakahlia and El-Behira) located in North Nile Delta of Egypt under current climate and climate change. ECHAM5 climate model was used to develop A1B climate change scenario in 2020, 2030 and 2040. Monthly values of evapotranspiration (ETo) under the different scenarios in these governorates were calculated using Hargreaves-Samani equation (H-S). Then, these values were regressed on ETo values previously calculated by Penman-Monteith equation (P-M) and linear regression (prediction equations were developed for each governorate). The predicted ETo values were compared to the values of ETo calculated by P-M equation and the deviations between them were very low (RMSE/obs=0.04-0.06 mm and R2 =0.96-0.99). Water requirements for wheat and maize were calculated using BISm model under current climate and in 2020, 2030 and 2040. The results showed that average annual ETo would increase by low percentage in 2020 and 2030. However, in 2040 the increase would reach 8%. Water requirements are expected to increase by 2-3% for wheat and by 10-15% for maize, which would result in reduction of the cultivated area. Thus, it is very important to revise and fix the production system of wheat and maize, in terms of the used cultivars, fertilizer and irrigation application to overcome the risk of climate change. (Author)

  7. Inter- and intraspecific variation in leaf economic traits in wheat and maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam R; Hale, Christine E; Cerabolini, Bruno E L; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Craine, Joseph; Gough, William A; Kattge, Jens; Tirona, Cairan K F

    2018-02-01

    Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES) trait variation underpins multiple agroecological processes and many prominent crop yield models. While there are numerous independent studies assessing trait variation in crops, to date there have been no comprehensive assessments of intraspecific trait variation (ITV) in LES traits for wheat and maize: the world's most widespread crops. Using trait databases and peer-reviewed literature, we compiled over 700 records of specific leaf area (SLA), maximum photosynthetic rates ( A max ) and leaf nitrogen (N) concentrations, for wheat and maize. We evaluated intraspecific LES trait variation, and intraspecific trait-environment relationships. While wheat and maize occupy the upper 90th percentile of LES trait values observed across a global species pool, ITV ranged widely across the LES in wheat and maize. Fertilization treatments had strong impacts on leaf N, while plant developmental stage (here standardized as the number of days since planting) had strong impacts on A max ; days since planting, N fertilization and irrigation all influenced SLA. When controlling for these factors, intraspecific responses to temperature and precipitation explained 39.4 and 43.7 % of the variation in A max and SLA, respectively, but only 5.4 % of the variation in leaf N. Despite a long history of domestication in these species, ITV in wheat and maize among and within cultivars remains large. Intraspecific trait variation is a critical consideration to refine regional to global models of agroecosystem structure, function and food security. Considerable opportunities and benefits exist for consolidating a crop trait database for a wider range of domesticated plant species.

  8. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappi, Jenni; Mykkänen, Hannu; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Kirjavainen, Pirkka; Katina, Kati; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Poutanen, Kaisa; Kolehmainen, Marjukka

    2014-11-04

    Rye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Twenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre) during the test periods. A meal test providing 51/33/11 E % from carbohydrates/fat/protein was conducted at the end of each period. Fasting and postprandial plasma samples were analysed for glucose, insulin, and SCFA. Glucose and insulin responses and plasma concentrations of SCFAs to the meal test were similar between the WGR and BRB + WW periods. When compared to the WW period, postprandial insulin concentration at 120 min was lower (p = 0.023) and the first-phase insulin secretion improved (p = 0.033) only after the WGR period, whereas postprandial concentrations of butyrate (p bread periods. Beneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than WGR when compared to WW alone. Postprandially measured glucose metabolism and concentrations of SCFAs provided additional information along with fasting measurements.

  9. Improvement of Fatty Acid Profile and Studio of Rheological and Technological Characteristics in Breads Supplemented with Flaxseed, Soybean, and Wheat Bran Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana B. Osuna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional breads constitute an interesting alternative as vehicle of new essential fatty acids sources. The aim of this study was to improve the fatty acids (FA profile of bakery products, producing breads with low saturated fatty acid (SFA content and with high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content, through partial substitution of wheat flour by other ingredients (soy flour, flax flour, and wheat bran and to analyze the effect of this change on the technological, rheological, and sensorial characteristics of breads. Flaxseed flour (FF, soybeans flour (SF, or wheat bran (WB was used to replace 50, 100, and 150 g kg−1 of wheat flour (WF in breads. FF or SF produced a decrease in monounsaturated and SFA and an increase of PUFA in these breads. Furthermore, breads replaced with FF presented considerable increase in the content of n3 FA, while, SF or WB contributed to rise of linoleic and oleic FA, respectively. The substitution percentage increase of FF, SF, or WB to formulation produced changes in the colour, rheological, textural, and technological characteristics of breads. This replacement resulted in improved lipid profile, being breads with 50 g kg−1 SF, the better acceptance, baking features, and enhanced fatty acid profile.

  10. Low cost bio-sorbent 'wheat bran' for the removal of cadmium from wastewater: kinetic and equilibrium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K K; Singh, A K; Hasan, S H

    2006-05-01

    Novel bio-sorbent wheat bran has been successfully utilized for the removal of cadmium(II) from wastewater. The maximum removal of cadmium(II) was found to be 87.15% at pH 8.6, initial Cd(II) concentration of 12.5 mg l-1 and temperature of 20 degrees C. The effect of different parameters such as contact time, adsorbate concentration, pH of the medium and temperature were investigated. Dynamics of the sorption process were studied and the values of rate constant of adsorption, rate constant of intraparticle diffusion and mass transfer coefficient were calculated. Different thermodynamic parameters viz., changes in standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy have also been evaluated and it has been found that the reaction was spontaneous and exothermic in nature. The applicability of Langmuir isotherm showed of monolayer coverage of the adsorbate on the surface of adsorbent. A generalized empirical model was proposed for the kinetics at different initial concentrations.

  11. Characteristic and mechanism of Th{sup 4+} sorption from nitric acid solutions by rice and wheat bran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monji, Akbar Boveiri [Kharazmi Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Chemistry; Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghoulipour, Vanik [Kharazmi Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Chemistry; Mallah, Mohammad Hassan [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    In line with our previously conducted researches, various instrumental methods were applied to evaluate the adsorption features and mechanism of Th{sup 4+} from highly acidic solution (4M HNO{sub 3}) by rice and wheat bran. Although the results of cation exchange confirmed the existence of ion-exchange interaction in Th{sup 4+} adsorption, it had a trivial contribution in the biosorption process. The presence of Th{sup 4+} ions on the biomass surface was obviously revealed in SEM images and EDS elemental analysis. Moreover, the linkage of C=O, O-H and N-H functional groups on the biomass surface with Th{sup 4+} ions was clearly represented in the ATR-FTIR spectroscopic analysis. Additionally, desorption studies indicated that ammonium oxalate (>81.3%) and ammonium carbonate (>75.4%) were effective in desorbing Th{sup 4+} from the biomass surface due to strong interactions of hard functional groups of C=O with Th{sup 4+}. The overall observations unfold the fact that electrostatic complexation mechanism is dominant between biomass and Th{sup 4+} ions.

  12. Dissipation kinetics of organophosphorus pesticides in milled toasted maize and wheat flour (gofio) during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Curbelo, Miguel Ángel; Socas-Rodríguez, Bárbara; Herrero, Miguel; Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V; Hernández-Borges, Javier

    2017-08-15

    The dissipation/degradation of the pesticides dimethoate, terbufos, disulfoton, and pirimiphos-methyl were evaluated in milled toasted maize and wheat flour (gofio) during three months of storage. Their dissipation kinetics and residual levels were determined, as well as their possible decomposition into some of their main transformation products (disulfoton sulfoxide, terbufos sulfone and disulfoton sulfone). For this purpose, pesticide-free milled toasted maize and wheat samples were spiked with the pesticides, and they were then stored in the darkness at ambient temperature in a closed container to simulate current storage conditions of such packed food. A multiresidue analysis based on the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method was performed for the simultaneous determination of these pesticides and their metabolites. After three months of storage, the dissipation of residues ranged between 34% (pirimiphos-methyl) and 86% (disulfoton) for maize gofio and between 69% (terbufos) and 92% (disulfoton and pirimiphos-methyl) for wheat gofio. The results demonstrated that the degradation was slower in gofio than in wheat gofio and that none of the selected metabolites were detected in any of the samples. Dissipation curves of all studied pesticides fitted to a first-order decay curve in both types of cereals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Physicochemical composition and glycemic index of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Akanbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study entails quality assessment of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat. Quality protein maize and wheat were processed into flours and mixed at various ratios for bread production. The proximate compositions, physical properties, glycemic response, functional and sensory properties of the samples were evaluated using standard methods. The result showed no significant difference (p<0.05 in the proximate composition parameters of the bread samples. The loaf height (2.50 - 3.95 cm, volume (291.00 - 415.00 cm3 and specific volume(1.72 - 2.42 cm3/g decreased significantly with increasing level of quality protein maize, however, loaf length was not affected by the substitution of quality protein maize. The result of the functional properties showed that final viscosity, water absorption and swelling capacity increased with increasing level of quality protein maize. The result of the glycemic response showed that the inclusion of quality protein maize resulted in decline in the blood glucose content (glycemic index of the products. The bread samples were generally acceptable however; bread with 100% wheat was the most preferred. The result of the sensory properties showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05 in the texture and taste of 100% wheat bread and the other samples. The study concluded that substitution of quality protein maize with wheat produced acceptable whole grain loaves that have positive effect on the reduction of blood glucose level.

  14. Life Cycle Assessment on Carbon Footprint of Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Cropping System Based on Survey Data of Gaomi in Shandong Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yong-Chang; LI Yu-e; Jiang, De-Feng; ZOU Xiao-xia

    2017-01-01

    Grain production can generate huge amount of greenhouse gases through raw material production and energy comsumption, nitrogen fertilizer amendment and farming machinery operation. Based questionnaire survey of raw material inputs and management of wheat-maize cropping system in Gaomi, Shandong Province, carbon footprint of grain production was calculated using life cycle assessment methodology. Carbon footprint per unit area of wheat, maize, and winter wheat-summer maize cropping system were...

  15. Global nitrogen budgets in cereals: A 50-year assessment for maize, rice, and wheat production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladha, J. K.; Tirol-Padre, A.; Reddy, C. K.; Cassman, K. G.; Verma, Sudhir; Powlson, D. S.; van Kessel, C.; de B. Richter, Daniel; Chakraborty, Debashis; Pathak, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    Industrially produced N-fertilizer is essential to the production of cereals that supports current and projected human populations. We constructed a top-down global N budget for maize, rice, and wheat for a 50-year period (1961 to 2010). Cereals harvested a total of 1551 Tg of N, of which 48% was supplied through fertilizer-N and 4% came from net soil depletion. An estimated 48% (737 Tg) of crop N, equal to 29, 38, and 25 kg ha-1 yr-1 for maize, rice, and wheat, respectively, is contributed by sources other than fertilizer- or soil-N. Non-symbiotic N2 fixation appears to be the major source of this N, which is 370 Tg or 24% of total N in the crop, corresponding to 13, 22, and 13 kg ha-1 yr-1 for maize, rice, and wheat, respectively. Manure (217 Tg or 14%) and atmospheric deposition (96 Tg or 6%) are the other sources of N. Crop residues and seed contribute marginally. Our scaling-down approach to estimate the contribution of non-symbiotic N2 fixation is robust because it focuses on global quantities of N in sources and sinks that are easier to estimate, in contrast to estimating N losses per se, because losses are highly soil-, climate-, and crop-specific.

  16. Hermetic storage of wheat and maize flour protects against red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan

    Full Text Available Hermetic storage is used to protect grain against insect pests, but its utility is not limited to whole grains. We evaluated hermetically-sealed, polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles for preserving wheat and maize flour against red flour beetle (RFB, Tribolium castaneum, Herbst population growth. Flours infested with RFB and kept in sealed PET bottles experienced much less weight loss over a three-month storage period than infested flour kept in unsealed bottles. RFB populations in wheat flour kept in sealed bottles did not increase, while populations in unsealed bottles grew about 50-fold during the same three-month period. Flour in sealed bottles had lower levels of oxygen and moisture than flour stored in unsealed bottles. Similar trends were observed for oxygen and moisture levels in maize flour held in hermetically sealed bottles. Hermetically-sealed bottles were effective in preventing RFB population growth and preserving maize and wheat flour. Farmers, consumers and food processors can safely store grain flour in hermetic sealed containers.

  17. Global nitrogen budgets in cereals: A 50-year assessment for maize, rice, and wheat production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladha, J K; Tirol-Padre, A; Reddy, C K; Cassman, K G; Verma, Sudhir; Powlson, D S; van Kessel, C; de B Richter, Daniel; Chakraborty, Debashis; Pathak, Himanshu

    2016-01-18

    Industrially produced N-fertilizer is essential to the production of cereals that supports current and projected human populations. We constructed a top-down global N budget for maize, rice, and wheat for a 50-year period (1961 to 2010). Cereals harvested a total of 1551 Tg of N, of which 48% was supplied through fertilizer-N and 4% came from net soil depletion. An estimated 48% (737 Tg) of crop N, equal to 29, 38, and 25 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) for maize, rice, and wheat, respectively, is contributed by sources other than fertilizer- or soil-N. Non-symbiotic N2 fixation appears to be the major source of this N, which is 370 Tg or 24% of total N in the crop, corresponding to 13, 22, and 13 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) for maize, rice, and wheat, respectively. Manure (217 Tg or 14%) and atmospheric deposition (96 Tg or 6%) are the other sources of N. Crop residues and seed contribute marginally. Our scaling-down approach to estimate the contribution of non-symbiotic N2 fixation is robust because it focuses on global quantities of N in sources and sinks that are easier to estimate, in contrast to estimating N losses per se, because losses are highly soil-, climate-, and crop-specific.

  18. Biobleaching of banana fibre pulp using Bacillus subtilis C O1 xylanase produced from wheat bran under solid-state cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimaran, A; Vatsala, T M

    2007-11-01

    A cellulase-free xylanase produced by Bacillus subtilis C 01 from wheat bran under solid-state cultivation was tested for its efficacy in biobleaching of raw banana fibre and banana pulp obtained through a mechanical pulping process. Banana pulp samples treated with crude xylanase (450 nkat g(-1) pulp) resulted in a 19.6% increase in the brightness as compared to untreated pulp. The presence of chromophores, hydrophobic compounds and an increased reducing sugar (10.79 mg g(-1) pulp) quantity in the bleached solution after enzymatic treatment indicated the removal of materials that were absorbed at 237 nm from the banana pulp.

  19. Study of DIC hydrothermal treatment effect on rheological properties of standard maize (SMS), waxy maize (WMS), wheat (WTS) and potato (PTS) starches

    OpenAIRE

    Maache-Rezzoug, Zoulikha; Zarguili, Ikbal; Loisel, Catherine; Doublier, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Standard maize (SMS), waxy maize (WMS), wheat (WTS) and potato (PTS) starches were hydrothermally treated by Instantaneous Controlled Pressure Drop (DIC) process at different pressure levels (1, 2 and 3 bar) corresponding to the temperatures of 100, 122 and 136 C, respectively. The rheological properties and particle size of treated starches under various conditions were compared to the native ones. The results showed for all starches, except for WTS, a reduction of th...

  20. Avaliação física e sensorial de biscoitos tipo cookie adicionados de farelo de trigo e arroz Physical and sensory evaluation of wheat and rice bran cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Feddern

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos elaborar e avaliar biscoitos tipo "cookie" formulados com diferentes concentrações de farelo de trigo ou arroz. Foram elaborados biscoitos: controle (sem farelo e adicionados de 10, 20 e 30% de farelo de arroz, além de 15, 30 e 45% de farelo de trigo. Estes foram avaliados quanto às características físicas (massa, volume aparente, volume específico, diâmetro, espessura e fator de expansão, aceitabilidade quanto a atributos sensoriais (cor, aparência, aroma, crocância, maciez, mastigabilidade e sabor e atitude de compra. As características físicas dos biscoitos formulados com diferentes farelos assemelharam-se às dos respectivos biscoitos controle. Quanto aos atributos sensoriais, o biscoito com 20% de farelo de arroz apresentou todos os atributos iguais ou melhores que o controle, com exceção da mastigabilidade. Os biscoitos elaborados com farelo de trigo não diferiram entre si em quatro dos sete atributos estudados, além de apresentarem melhor aparência e cor do que o controle. O biscoito com 15% de farelo de trigo foi o mais crocante. Quanto à intenção de compra, 32 a 43% e 31 a 46% dos provadores comprariam os biscoitos elaborados com farelo de trigo e farelo de arroz, respectivamente. Portanto, os farelos estudados podem ser adicionados em biscoitos (15% de farelo de trigo e até 20% de farelo de arroz sem prejuízos às características físicas e sensoriais destes, com mercado consumidor potencial.This work aimed at elaborating and evaluating cookies formulated with different concentrations of wheat or rice brans. The cookies were produced substituting 10, 20 and 30% of the wheat flour with rice bran or 15, 30 and 45% of the wheat flour with wheat bran, as well as standard cookies containing no bran. The cookies were evaluated in relation to their physical characteristics (weight, apparent volume, specific volume, diameter, thickness and spread factor, sensory acceptability (color

  1. Contributions of wheat and maize residues to soil organic carbon under long-term rotation in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinzhou; Wang, Xiujun; Xu, Minggang; Feng, Gu; Zhang, Wenju; Yang, Xueyun; Huang, Shaomin

    2015-06-23

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in agro-ecosystem is largely influenced by cropping. However, quantifying the contributions of various crops has been lacking. Here we employed a stable isotopic approach to evaluate the contributions of wheat and maize residues to SOC at three long-term experimental sites in north China. Soil samples were collected from 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100 cm after 13 and 20 years of wheat-maize rotation, and SOC and its stable (13)C composition were determined. Our data showed that the δ(13)C value of SOC varied, on average, from -22.1‰ in the 0-20 cm to -21.5‰ in the 80-100 cm. Carbon input through maize residues ranged from 35% to 68% whereas the contribution of maize residues to SOC (0-40 cm) ranged from 28% to 40%. Our analyses suggested that the retention coefficient was in the range of 8.0-13.6% for maize residues and 16.5-28.5% for wheat residues. The two-fold higher retention coefficient of wheat versus maize residues was due to the differences in the quality of residues and probably also in the temperature during the growing season. Our study highlighted the importance of crop management on carbon sequestration in agricultural lands.

  2. Statistical optimization of culture conditions for milk-clotting enzyme production by bacillus amyloliquefaciens using wheat bran-an agro-industry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weibing; He, Xiaoling; Liu, Hongna; Guo, Huiyuan; Ren, Fazheng; Wen, Pengcheng

    2013-12-01

    In order to improve the production of the milk-clotting enzyme under submerged fermentation, two statistical methods were applied to optimize the culture conditions of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D4 using wheat bran as nutrient source. First, initial pH, agitation speed, and fermentation time were shown to have significant effects on D4 enzyme production using the Plackett-Burman experimental design. Subsequently, optimal conditions were obtained using the Box-Behnken method, which were as follows: initial pH 7.57, agitation speed 241 rpm, fermentation time 53.3 h. Under these conditions, the milk-clotting enzyme production was remarkably enhanced. The milk-clotting enzyme activity reached 1996.9 SU/mL, which was 2.92-fold higher than that of the initial culture conditions, showing that the Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken response surface method are effective to optimize culture conditions. The research can provide a reference for full utilization of wheat bran and the production of milk-clotting enzyme by B. amyloliquefaciens D4 under submerged fermentation.

  3. Combined utilization of nutrients and sugar derived from wheat bran for d-Lactate fermentation by Sporolactobacillus inulinus YBS1-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahuang; Sun, Junfei; Wu, Bin; He, Bingfang

    2017-04-01

    To decrease d-Lactate production cost, wheat bran, a low-cost waste of milling industry, was selected as the sole feedstock. First, the nutrients were recovered from wheat bran by acid protease hydrolysis. Then, cellulosic hydrolysates were prepared from protease-treated samples after acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification. The combined use of nutrients and hydrolysates as nitrogen and carbon sources for fermentation by S. inulinus YB1-5 resulted in d-Lactate levels of 99.5g/L, with an average production efficiency of 1.94g/L/h and a yield of 0.89g/g glucose. Moreover, fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process at 40°C, 20% (w/v) solid loading and 20FPU/g solid cellulase concentration was obtained. d-Lactate concentrations, yield, productivity, and optical purity were 87.3g/L, 0.65g/g glucose, 0.81g/L/h and 99.1%, respectively. This study provided a feasible procedure that can help produce cellulosic d-Lactate using agricultural waste without external nutrient supplementation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A metabolic-based approach to improve xylose utilization for fumaric acid production from acid pretreated wheat bran by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanyi; Huang, Di; Li, Yong; Wen, Jianping; Jia, Xiaoqiang

    2015-03-01

    In this work, wheat bran (WB) was utilized as feedstock to synthesize fumaric acid by Rhizopus oryzae. Firstly, the pretreatment process of WB by dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis undertaken at 100°C for 30min offered the best performance for fumaric acid production. Subsequently, through optimizing the seed culture medium, a suitable morphology (0.55mm pellets diameter) of R. oryzae was obtained. Furthermore, a metabolic-based approach was developed to profile the differences of intracellular metabolites concentration of R. oryzae between xylose (the abundant sugar in wheat bran hydrolysate (WBH)) and glucose metabolism. The xylitol, sedoheptulose 7-phosphate, ribulose 5-phosphate, glucose 6-phosphate, proline and serine were responsible for fumaric acid biosynthesis limitation in xylose fermentation. Consequently, regulation strategies were proposed, leading to a 149% increase in titer (up to 15.4g/L). Finally, by combinatorial regulation strategies the highest production was 20.2g/L from WBH, 477% higher than that of initial medium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis of biogenic silicon/silica (Si/SiO2) nanocomposites from rice husks and wheat bran through various microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Taranjot; Pal Singh, Gurwinder; Kaur, Gurneet; Kaur, Sukhvir; Gill, Prabhjot Kaur

    2016-08-01

    Biosilification is an economically viable, energy saving and green approach for the commercial scale synthesis of oxide nanomaterials. The room temperature synthesis of oxide nanocomposites from cost effective agro-based waste is a particular example of biosilification. In this study, synthesis of Si/SiO2 nanocomposites from inexpensive agro-based waste material i.e. rice husks (RH) and wheat bran (WB) has been carried out by means of various eukaryotic microorganisms, i.e. Actinomycete, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma sp. and Penicillium sp., under ambient conditions. The XRD diffrectrograms represents that the synthesized nanomaterials exhibits silicon, amorphous silica and other crystal arrays such as cristobalite, trydimite and quartz, depending upon the type microorganism and time period used for extraction. All of the aforesaid microorganism bio transformed the naturally occurring amorphous silica to crystalline structures within the period of 24 h. However, the Actinomycete and Trichoderma sp. took 48 h in case of rice husks for biotransformation of naturally occurring plant silica to crystalline nanocomposite. While in case of wheat bran, Actinomycete and Trichoderma sp. took 24 h for biotransformation. The extracted nanocomposites exhibits band edge in the range 230-250 nm and blue emission. The procedure described in study can be used for commercial level production of Si/SiO2 nanocomposites from agro based waste materials.

  6. Ammonia volatilization from nitrogen fertilizers in no-till wheat and maize in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Viero

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crop residues on the soil surface of no-till systems can intensify ammonia volatilization from N fertilizers applied to cereal crops. This study assessed the magnitude of N losses through ammonia volatilization from urea applied to no-till winter (wheat and summer crops (maize on a Typic Hapludox in the south-central region of Paraná, southern Brazil. In addition, the potential of alternative N sources (urea with urease inhibitor, liquid fertilizer, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate and different urea managements (fertilizer applied in the morning or afternoon were evaluated. Two experiments with maize and wheat were carried out for two years, arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. Nitrogen volatilization losses were assessed with a semi-open static collector until 21 days after fertilization. In winter, the losses were low (<5.5 % of applied N for all N sources, which were not distinguishable, due to the low temperatures. In the summer, volatilization rates from urea were higher than in the winter, but did not exceed 15 % of applied N. The main factor decreasing N losses in the summer was the occurrence of rainfall in the first five days after fertilization. Urea with urease inhibitor, nitrate and ammonium sulfate were efficient to decrease ammonia volatilization in maize, whereas the application time (morning or afternoon had no influence.

  7. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w was evaluated in combination with high-methylated pectin (HM-pectin added at levels of 1 to 3% (w/w according to a full factorial design. Addition of pectin to cassava flour made it possible to bake bread with acceptable bread quality even at concentration as high as 40%. In addition to cassava concentration, the type of cassava flour had the biggest effect on bread quality. With high level of cassava, bread with roasted cassava had a higher volume compared with sun-dried and fermented. The pectin level had a significant effect on improving the volume in high level roasted cassava bread. Crumb firmness similar to wheat bread could be obtained with sun-dried and roasted cassava flours. Roasted cassava bread was the only bread with crust colour similar to wheat bread.

  8. PROTEIN COMPLEX OF WHEAT, BUCKWHEAT AND MAIZE IN RELATION TO CELIAC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Chňapek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereals are the most wide spread and very important plants utilized as a food source for mankind and for animals where they play role in energetical metabolism and proteosynthesis. Cereals contain proteins with unique properties. These properties allow us to produce leavened bread. Technological characteristic of cereal grain is determined by quantity and quality of storage proteins which represent alcohol soluble prolamins and glutenins soluble in acids and basis solutions. Celiac disease is one of the most frequent food intolerance caused by cereal storage proteins. Therapy consists of strict diet without consumptions of cereals or gluten. Pseudocereals are very perspective groups of plants in gluten free diet, due to absence of celiac active proteins, but on the other hand, flour from pseudocereals is not very suitable for baking. There are a lot of analytical methods applicable for detection of celiac active proteins in cereal and pseudocereal grain. Electrophoretical and immunochemical methods are the most utilized. Genotypes of wheat and maize were homogeneous and singlelined in contrast with genotypes of buckwheat. Average content of HMW-GS was highest in genotypes of bread wheat and lowest in buckwheat varieties. A celiac active fraction of storage proteins (LMW-GS and gliadins was detected at the highest content level in wheat genotypes. Genotypes of buckwheat and maize showed similar low content of this protein fraction. Presence of residual albumins and globulins in buckwheat varieties showed the highest value.

  9. Aroma of wheat porridge and bread-crumb is influenced by the wheat variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard; Hansen, Åse Solvej; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2015-01-01

    evaluation, from these eight were selected for bread evaluation. Porridge and bread results were compared. Variations were found in both evaluations. Five odour- and nine flavour descriptors were found to be common to both wheat porridge and bread. The results for two descriptors: "cocoa" and "oat porridge......" were correlated between the wheat porridge and bread samples. Analysis of whole-meal and low-extraction samples revealed that the descriptors "malt", "oat-porridge", "øllebrød", "cocoa" and "grain" mostly characterized wheat bran, while descriptors for "maize", "bean-shoots", "chamomile", "umami...

  10. Water requirements for wheat and maize under climate change in North Nile Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiha Ouda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of water requirements for wheat and maize under climate change is important for policy makers in Egypt. The objectives of this paper were to calculate (i ETo and (ii water requirements for wheat and maize crops grown in five governorates (Alexandria, Demiatte, Kafr El-Sheik, El-Dakahlia and El-Behira located in North Nile Delta of Egypt under current climate and climate change. ECHAM5 climate model was used to develop A1B climate change scenario in 2020, 2030 and 2040. Monthly values of evapotranspiration (ETo under the different scenarios in these governorates were calculated using Hargreaves-Samani equation (H-S. Then, these values were regressed on ETo values previously calculated by Penman-Monteith equation (P-M and linear regression (prediction equations were developed for each governorate. The predicted ETo values were compared to the values of ETo calculated by P-M equation and the deviations between them were very low (RMSE/obs=0.04-0.06 mm and R2 =0.96-0.99. Water requirements for wheat and maize were calculated using BISm model under current climate and in 2020, 2030 and 2040. The results showed that average annual ETo would increase by low percentage in 2020 and 2030. However, in 2040 the increase would reach 8%. Water requirements are expected to increase by 2-3% for wheat and by 10-15% for maize, which would result in reduction of the cultivated area. Thus, it is very important to revise and fix the production system of wheat and maize, in terms of the used cultivars, fertilizer and irrigation application to overcome the risk of climate change. Additional key words: Triticum spp; Zea mays; Penman-Monteith equation; Hargreaves-Samani equation; BISm model; ECHAM5 climate model; A1B climate change scenario. Abbreviations used: BISm (basic irrigation scheduling model; CCAFS (Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security; ETo (evapotranspiration; H-S (Hargreaves & Samani; Kc (crop coefficient; PI (percentage of increase; P

  11. Energy performance of sprinkler irrigated maize, wheat and sunflower in Vigia irrigation district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Sandra; Rodrigues, Goncalo Caleia; Paredes, Paula; Pereira, Luis S. [Centro de Engenharia dos Biossistemas (CEER/ISA), Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: lspereira@isa.utl.pt

    2008-07-01

    The energy potential of a crop may be evaluated through life cycle assessment methodologies. These refer to the computation of the crop's energy balance and other related indicators, such as the energy ratio and the energetic efficiency, that may be used as to assess how a given irrigated crop may be used for production of biofuel. This study concerns sprinkler irrigated sunflower, wheat and maize crops using data relative to the campaign of 2007 in the Vigia Irrigation District, Alentejo. A model was developed and various scenarios were considered. The modelling results lead to the conclusion that the maize crop is the most efficient in producing energy and sunflower is the least one for all the alternative scenarios considered. (author)

  12. Screening Cereals Quality by Electronic Nose: the Example of Mycotoxins Naturally Contaminated Maize and Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnoli, Anna; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni; Cheli, Federica

    2009-05-01

    Mycotoxins represent an heterogeneous group of toxic compounds from fungi metabolism. Due to the frequent occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals commodities the develop of cost/effective screening methods represent an important topic to ensure food and feed safety. In the presented study a commercial electronic nose constituted by ten MOS (Metal Oxide Sensors) was applied to verify the possibility of discriminating between mycotoxins contaminated and non-contaminated cereals. The described analytical approach was able to discriminate contaminated and non-contaminated samples both in the case of aflatoxins infected maize and deoxynivalenol infected durum wheat samples. In the case of maize data two sensors from the array revealed a partial relation with the level of aflatoxins. These results could be promising for a further improvement of electronic nose application in order to develop a semi-quantitative screening approach to mycotoxins contamination.

  13. Enhancement of water soluble wheat bran polyphenolic compounds using different steviol glucosides prepared by thermostable β-galactosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-jung Lim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Production of wheat bran (WB for human consumption is estimated to be about 90 million tons per year. WB contains an abundant source of dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins, and bioactive compounds. WB is a by-product of milling and contains an abundant source of carbohydrate (60%, protein (12%, fat (0.5%, minerals (2%, and bioactive compounds such as phenolic acids, arabinoxylans, flavonoids, caroteinoids alkylresorcinol and phytosterols. These are known for health promoting properties such as controlling glycemic index, reducing plasma cholesterol level, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic activities. Several terpene glycosides such as mogroside V, paenoiflorin, geniposide, rubusoside (Ru, stevioside (Ste, rebaudioside A (RebA, steviol monoside, and stevioside glucoside have been discovered to enhance the solubility of a number of pharmaceutically and medically important compounds that normally show poor solubility in water. Context and purpose of this study: In this study, in order to increase soluble extraction of polyphenol compounds of WB using Ru, the expression of β-galactosidase from Thermus thermophilus (T. thermophilus was optimized using different E. coli hosts and a different concentration of lactose inducer rather than of isopropyl-1- thio-β-D-galactopyranoside (IPTG for industrial production. Additionally, the effect of different steviol glucosides (Ru, Ste, RebA, and SG on the enhancement of polyphenol compounds extraction from wheat bran was studied. Results: β-galactosidase from T. thermophilus was used for the specific conversion of stevioside (Ste to rubusoside (Ru with 92% productivity. The enzyme was optimized to be expressed in E. coli. With 7 mM lactose, the β-galactosidase activity expressed was 34.3, 14.2, or 34.4 ± 0.5 U/mL in E. coli BL21(DE3pLysS, Rosetta(DE3pLysS, or BL21(DE3 at 37°C, and 9.8 ± 0.2, 7.0 ± 0.5, or 7.4 ± 0.2 U/mL at 28°C respectively. The expression of

  14. Row Ratios of Intercropping Maize and Soybean Can Affect Agronomic Efficiency of the System and Subsequent Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitao Zhang

    Full Text Available Intercropping is regarded as an important agricultural practice to improve crop production and environmental quality in the regions with intensive agricultural production, e.g., northern China. To optimize agronomic advantage of maize (Zea mays L. and soybean (Glycine max L. intercropping system compared to monoculture of maize, two sequential experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 was to screening the optimal cropping system in summer that had the highest yields and economic benefits, and Experiment 2 was to identify the optimum row ratio of the intercrops selected from Experiment 1. Results of Experiment 1 showed that maize intercropping with soybean (maize || soybean was the optimal cropping system in summer. Compared to conventional monoculture of maize, maize || soybean had significant advantage in yield, economy, land utilization ratio and reducing soil nitrate nitrogen (N accumulation, as well as better residual effect on the subsequent wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crop. Experiment 2 showed that intercropping systems reduced use of N fertilizer per unit land area and increased relative biomass of intercropped maize, due to promoted photosynthetic efficiency of border rows and N utilization during symbiotic period. Intercropping advantage began to emerge at tasseling stage after N topdressing for maize. Among all treatments with different row ratios, alternating four maize rows with six soybean rows (4M:6S had the largest land equivalent ratio (1.30, total N accumulation in crops (258 kg ha(-1, and economic benefit (3,408 USD ha(-1. Compared to maize monoculture, 4M:6S had significantly lower nitrate-N accumulation in soil both after harvest of maize and after harvest of the subsequent wheat, but it did not decrease yield of wheat. The most important advantage of 4M:6S was to increase biomass of intercropped maize and soybean, which further led to the increase of total N accumulation by crops as well as economic benefit. In conclusion

  15. Expression of the Maize Dof1 Transcription Factor in Wheat and Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Pamela A.; Quach, Truyen; Sato, Shirley; Ge, Zhengxiang; Nersesian, Natalya; Changa, Taity; Dweikat, Ismail; Soundararajan, Madhavan; Clemente, Tom E.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen is essential for plant growth and development. Improving the ability of plants to acquire and assimilate nitrogen more efficiently is a key agronomic parameter that will augment sustainability in agriculture. A transcription factor approach was pursued to address improvement of nitrogen use efficiency in two major commodity crops. To this end, the Zea mays Dof1 (ZmDof1) transcription factor was expressed in both wheat (Triticum aestivum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) either constitutively, UBI4 promoter from sugarcane, or in a tissue specific fashion via the maize rbcS1 promoter. The primary transcription activation target of ZmDof1, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), is observed in transgenic wheat events. Expression ZmDof1 under control of the rbcs1 promoter translates to increase in biomass and yield components in wheat. However, constitutive expression of ZmDof1 led to the down-regulation of genes involved in photosynthesis and the functional apparatus of chloroplasts, and an outcome that negatively impacts photosynthesis, height, and biomass in wheat. Similar patterns were also observed in sorghum transgenic events harboring the constitutive expression cassette of ZmDof1. These results indicate that transcription factor strategies to boost agronomic phenotypic outcomes in crops need to consider expression patterns of the genetic elements to be introduced. PMID:28424717

  16. Enhanced yields and soil quality in a wheat-maize rotation using buried straw mulch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhibin; Liu, Hui; Wan, Shuixia; Hua, Keke; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Wang, Daozhong; He, Chuanlong; Guo, Xisheng

    2017-08-01

    Straw return may improve soil quality and crop yields. In a 2-year field study, a straw return method (ditch-buried straw return, DB-SR) was used to investigate the soil quality and crop productivity effects on a wheat-corn rotation system. This study consisted of three treatments, each with three replicates: (1) mineral fertilisation alone (CK0); (2) mineral fertilisation + 7500 kg ha-1 wheat straw incorporated at depth of 0-15 cm (NPKWS); and (3) mineral fertilisation + 7500 kg ha-1 wheat straw ditch buried at 15-30 cm (NPKDW). NPKWS and NPKDW enhanced crop yield and improved soil biotical properties compared to mineral fertilisation alone. NPKDW contributed to greater crop yields and soil nutrient availability at 15-30 cm depths, compared to NPKWS treatment. NPKDW enhanced soil microbial activity and bacteria species richness and diversity in the 0-15 cm layer. NPKWS increased soil microbial biomass, bacteria species richness and diversity at 15-30 cm. The comparison of the CK0 and NPKWS treatments indicates that a straw ditch buried by digging to the depth of 15-30 cm can improve crop yields and soil quality in a wheat-maize rotation system. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Feeding of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp as sole supplements in high-forage diets emphasizes the potential of dairy cattle for human food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2016-02-01

    Besides the widely discussed negative environmental effects of dairy production, such as greenhouse gas emissions, the feeding of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs to dairy cows is another important sustainability concern. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a complete substitution of common cereal grains and pulses with a mixture of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp in a high-forage diet on cow performance, production efficiency, feed intake, and ruminating behavior, as well as on net food production potential. Thirteen multiparous and 7 primiparous mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a change-over design with 7-wk periods. Cows were fed a high-forage diet (grass silage and hay accounted for 75% of the dry matter intake), supplemented with either a cereal grain-based concentrate mixture (CON), or a mixture of wheat bran and dried sugar beet pulp (WBBP). Human-edible inputs were calculated for 2 different scenarios based on minimum and maximum potential recovery rates of human-edible energy and protein from the respective feedstuffs. Dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents were 3.0 and 44.1% for WBBP, compared with 10.8 and 38.2% in CON, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect milk production, milk composition, feed intake, or total chewing activity. However, chewing index expressed in minutes per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber ingested was 12% lower in WBBP compared with CON. In comparison to CON, the human-edible feed conversion efficiencies for energy and protein, defined as human-edible output per human-edible input, were 6.8 and 5.3 times higher, respectively, in WBBP under the maximum scenario. For the maximum scenario, the daily net food production (human-edible output minus human-edible input) increased from 5.4 MJ and 250 g of crude protein per cow in CON to 61.5 MJ and 630 g of crude protein in the WBBP diet. In conclusion, our data suggest

  18. Lengthening of the growing season in wheat and maize producing regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Mueller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human-induced increases in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations have led to rising global temperatures. Here we investigate changes in an annual temperature-based index, the growing season length, defined as the number of days with temperature above 5 °C. We show that over extratropical regions where wheat and maize are harvested, the increase in growing season length from 1956 to 2005 can be attributed to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Our analyses also show that climate change has increased the probability of extremely long growing seasons by a factor of 25, and decreased the probability of extremely short growing seasons. A lengthening of the growing season in regions with these mostly rain-fed crops could improve yields, provided that water availability does not become an issue. An expansion of areas with more than 150 days of growing season into the northern latitudes makes more land potentially available for planting wheat and maize. Furthermore, double-cropping can become an alternative to current practices in areas with very long growing seasons which are also shown to increase with a warming climate. These results suggest that there is a strong impact of anthropogenic climate change on growing season length. However, in some regions and with further exacerbated climate change, high temperatures may already be or may become a limiting factor for plant productivity.

  19. Obese Mice Fed a Diet Supplemented with Enzyme-Treated Wheat Bran Display Marked Shifts in the Liver Metabolome Concurrent with Altered Gut Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer, Dorothy A.; Piccolo, Brian D.; Marco, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enzyme-treated wheat bran (ETWB) contains a fermentable dietary fiber previously shown to decrease liver triglycerides (TGs) and modify the gut microbiome in mice. It is not clear which mechanisms explain how ETWB feeding affects hepatic metabolism, but factors (i.e., xenometabolites...... steatosis. Methods: Five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice fed a 45%-lard based fat diet supplemented with ETWB (20% wt:wt) or rapidly digestible starch (control) (n = 15/group) for 10 wk were characterized by using a multi-omics approach. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to identify variables that were...... strong discriminators between the ETWB and control groups. Results: Body weight and liver TGs were decreased by ETWB feeding (by 10% and 25%, respectively; P P

  20. Soil physical characteristics and yield of wheat and maize as affected by mulching materials and sowing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahid Hussain Shah, Anwar-Ul-Hassan, Abdul Ghafoor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil physical degradation due to agriculture activity is a pressing issue in Pakistan causing reduction in crop yields. The study was conducted to assess the effects of two sowing methods and two mulching materials on soil physical characteristics and yields of wheat and maize during 2008-10 at Faisalabad, Pakistan. Results showed that Bed sowing method along with wheat straw mulch increased Leaf Area Index of wheat by 5 to 16%, and of maize by 4 to 14% compared with other treatments. This treatment also produced maximum 1000-grain weight (50.5 g of wheat and maize (439.2g as compared to flat sowing method where no mulch was applied. The highest grain yields of wheat (5017 kg ha-1 and maize (10.6 Mg ha-1 were recorded in Bed sowing + wheat straw mulch plots. Bed sowing alone decreased bulk density by 4% at 0-15 cm soil depth and 13.7% less soil penetration resistance (788.2 kPa was noted. About 23.0% higher soil organic carbon contents (4.2 g kg-1 at 0-15 cm soil depth, 39.1% higher field saturated hydraulic conductivity (24.3 mm hr-1 and 14.2% higher infiltration rate (58.5 mm hr-1 were recorded compared to flood irrigated flat sowing. Furrow irrigated raised bed technique was found to be environment friendly in combination with farm manure compared to wheat straw having enhanced soil organic carbon contents.

  1. Statistical optimization of medium components for milk-clotting enzyme production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D4 using wheat Bran-an agro-industry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weibing; He, Xiaoling; Liu, Hongna; Guo, Huiyuan; Ren, Fazheng; Gao, Weidong; Wen, Pengcheng

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, two statistical methods were applied to optimize medium components to improve the production of the milk-clotting enzyme by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D4. First, wheat bran juice, skim milk powder, and Na2HPO4 were shown to have significant effects on D4 enzyme production using the Plackett-Burman experimental design. Subsequently, an optimal medium was obtained using the Box-Behnken method, which consisted of 3.31 g/l of skim milk powder, 5.0 g/l of sucrose, 0.1 g/l of FeSO4·7H2O, 0.1 g/l of MgSO4·7H2O, 0.1 g/l of MnSO4·2H2O, 0.1 g/l of ZnSO4·7H2O, 1.52 g/l of Na2HPO4, and 172.45 g/l of wheat bran juice. With this optimal medium, the milk-clotting enzyme production was remarkably enhanced. The milk-clotting enzyme activity reached 3,326.7 SU/ml after incubation of 48 h, which was 1.76-fold higher than that of the basic medium, showing that the Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken response surface method are effective to optimize medium components, and B. amyloliquefaciens D4 possessed a high rennet-producing capacity in the optimal medium.

  2. Potential of fungal antagonists for biocontrol of toxigenic Fusarium spp. in wheat and maize through competition in crop debris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luongo, L.; Galli, M.; Corazza, L.; Meekes, E.T.M.; Haas, de B.H.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Köhl, J.

    2005-01-01

    Pathogenic Fusarium spp. cause head blight in wheat or ear rot in maize leading to yield losses and also a reduction in quality due to mycotoxin contamination of the grain. Infected crop residues are the main inoculum source for epidemics. Saprophytic fungi, obtained from cereal tissues or necrotic

  3. Carbon budget of a winter-wheat and summer-maize rotation cropland in the North China plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yuying; Hu, Chunsheng; Dong, Wenxu; Li, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Yuming; Qin, Shuping; Oenema, Oene

    2015-01-01

    Crop management exerts a strong influence on the agroecosystem carbon (C) budget. From October 2007 to October 2008, the net C budget of an intensive winter-wheat and summer-maize double cropping system in the North China Plain (NCP) was investigated in a long-term field experiment with crop

  4. Real-time weed detection, decision making and patch spraying in maize, sugarbeet, winter wheat and winter barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, R; Christensen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    with weed infestation levels higher than the economic weed threshold; a review of such work is provided. This paper presents a system for site-specific weed control in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including...

  5. Evaluation of the Agronomic Impacts on Yield-Scaled N2O Emission from Wheat and Maize Fields in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenling Gao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary crop production faces dual challenges of increasing crop yield while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas emission. An integrated evaluation of the mitigation potential of yield-scaled nitrous oxide (N2O emission by adjusting cropping practices can benefit the innovation of climate smart cropping. This study conducted a meta-analysis to assess the impact of cropping systems and soil management practices on area- and yield-scaled N2O emissions during wheat and maize growing seasons in China. Results showed that the yield-scaled N2O emissions of winter wheat-upland crops rotation and single spring maize systems were respectively 64.6% and 40.2% lower than that of winter wheat-rice and summer maize-upland crops rotation systems. Compared to conventional N fertilizer, application of nitrification inhibitors and controlled-release fertilizers significantly decreased yield-scaled N2O emission by 41.7% and 22.0%, respectively. Crop straw returning showed no significant impacts on area- and yield-scaled N2O emissions. The effect of manure on yield-scaled N2O emission highly depended on its application mode. No tillage significantly increased the yield-scaled N2O emission as compared to conventional tillage. The above findings demonstrate that there is great potential to increase wheat and maize yields with lower N2O emissions through innovative cropping technique in China.

  6. Effect of bioprocessing of wheat bran in wholemeal wheat breads on the colonic SCFA production in vitro and postprandial plasma concentrations in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.; Havenaar, R.; Vaes, W.; Coulier, L.; Venema, K.; Selinheimo, E.; Bast, A.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The health benefits of whole grain consumption can be partly attributed to the inclusion of the bran or outer-layers of the grain rich in dietary fibre. Fibre is fermented in the colon, leading to the production of beneficial metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). The effect of five

  7. Bioprocessing of wheat bran in whole wheat bread increases the bioavailability of phenolic acids in men and exerts antiinflammatory effects ex vivo 1-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.; Aura, A.-M.; Selinheimo, E.; Mattila, I.; Poutanen, K.; Berg, R. van den; Havenaar, R.; Bast, A.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Whole grain consumption has been linked to a lower risk of metabolic syndrome, which is normally associated with a lowgrade chronic inflammation. The benefits of whole grain are in part related to the inclusion of the bran, rich in phenolic acids and fiber. However, the phenols are poorly

  8. Optimizing the nitrogen application rate for maize and wheat based on yield and environment on the Northern China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yitao; Wang, Hongyuan; Lei, Qiuliang; Luo, Jiafa; Lindsey, Stuart; Zhang, Jizong; Zhai, Limei; Wu, Shuxia; Zhang, Jingsuo; Liu, Xiaoxia; Ren, Tianzhi; Liu, Hongbin

    2017-10-17

    Optimizing the nitrogen (N) application rate can increase crop yield while reducing the environmental risks. However, the optimal N rates vary substantially when different targets such as maximum yield or maximum economic benefit are considered. Taking the wheat-maize rotation cropping system on the North China Plain as a case study, we quantified the variation of N application rates when targeting constraints on yield, economic performance, N uptake and N utilization, by conducting field experiments between 2011 and 2013. Results showed that the optimal N application rate was highest when targeting N uptake (240kgha(-1) for maize, and 326kgha(-1) for wheat), followed by crop yield (208kgha(-1) for maize, and 277kgha(-1) for wheat) and economic income (191kgha(-1) for maize, and 253kgha(-1) for wheat). If environmental costs were considered, the optimal N application rates were further reduced by 20-30% compared to those when targeting maximum economic income. However, the optimal N rate, with environmental cost included, may result in soil nutrient mining under maize, and an extra input of 43kgNha(-1) was needed to make the soil N balanced and maintain soil fertility in the long term. To obtain a win-win situation for both yield and environment, the optimal N rate should be controlled at 179kgha(-1) for maize, which could achieve above 99.5% of maximum yield and have a favorable N balance, and at 202kgha(-1) for wheat to achieve 97.4% of maximum yield, which was about 20kgNha(-1) higher than that when N surplus was nil. Although these optimal N rates vary on spatial and temporal scales, they are still effective for the North China Plain where 32% of China's total maize and 45% of China's total wheat are produced. More experiments are still needed to determine the optimal N application rates in other regions. Use of these different optimal N rates would contribute to improving the sustainability of agricultural development in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  9. Estimating the impacts of warming trends on wheat and maize in China from 1980 to 2008 based on county level data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Tianyi; Huang, Yao

    2013-01-01

    This study estimated the past warming impacts on wheat and maize from 1980 to 2008 based on data from 2339 counties in China, providing a finer portrait of climatic effects than earlier assessments...

  10. Reduced irrigation increases the water use efficiency and productivity of winter wheat-summer maize rotation on the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqi; Zhang, Yinghua; Zhang, Rui; Li, Jinpeng; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Shunli; Wang, Zhimin

    2017-11-08

    The groundwater table has fallen sharply over the last 30years on the North China Plain, resulting in a shortage of water for winter wheat irrigation. Reducing irrigation may be an important strategy to maintain agricultural sustainability in the region; however, few studies have evaluated the transition from conventional irrigation management practices to reduced irrigation management practices in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation system. Here, we compare the yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency of winter wheat-summer maize rotation under conventional irrigation and reduced irrigation on the North China Plain from 2012 to 2015. Reducing irrigation decreased the yield but increased the water use efficiency and significantly advanced the harvest date of winter wheat. As a result, the summer maize sowing date advanced significantly, and the flowering date subsequently advanced 2-8days, thus extending the summer maize grain-filling stage. Therefore, the yield and water use efficiency of summer maize were higher under reduced irrigation than conventional irrigation, which compensated for the winter wheat yield loss under reduced irrigation. In addition, under reduced irrigation from 2012 to 2015, the yield and water use efficiency advantage of the winter wheat-summer maize rotation ranged from 0.0 to 9.7% and from 4.1 to 14.7%, respectively, and water consumption and irrigated water decreased by 20-61mm and 150mm, respectively, compared to conventional irrigation. Overall, the reduced irrigation management practice involving no irrigation after sowing winter wheat, and sowing summer maize on June 7 produced the most favorable grain yield with superb water use efficiency in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation. This study indicates that reducing irrigation could be an efficient means to cope with water resource shortages while maintaining crop production sustainability on the North China Plain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Mixture design of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch for optimization of gluten free bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, Camino M; Merino, Cristina; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Gluten-free bread production requires gluten-free flours or starches. Rice flour and maize starch are two of the most commonly used raw materials. Over recent years, gluten-free wheat starch is available on the market. The aim of this research was to optimize mixtures of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch using an experimental mixture design. For this purpose, dough rheology and its fermentation behaviour were studied. Quality bread parameters such as specific volume, texture, cell structure, colour and acceptability were also analysed. Generally, starch incorporation reduced G* and increased the bread specific volume and cell density, but the breads obtained were paler than the rice flour breads. Comparing the starches, wheat starch breads had better overall acceptability and had a greater volume than maize-starch bread. The highest value for sensorial acceptability corresponded to the bread produced with a mixture of rice flour (59 g/100 g) and wheat starch (41 g/100 g).

  12. Farmland Rental and Productivity of Wheat and Maize: An Empirical Study in Gansu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of farmland rental markets in China raises questions about the association of farmland rental and agricultural productivity. Although this issue has been extensively studied, the majority of studies have focused on yields and technical efficiency, with input use and cost efficiency receiving little attention. This study aimed to determine the statistical association of wheat and maize farmers’ farmland rental behaviors (renting land, not renting land and renting out land and input use, and the consequent association of farmers’ farmland rental behaviors and cost efficiency. For this purpose, the linear regression model and stochastic frontier model were employed, based on a survey data of 419 wheat and maize farmers in 25 villages in five counties of Gansu Province, China. The study found that farmland rental enhanced productivity and sustainability of agriculture through transferring farmland from households with less productivity to those with high productivity, and it was also helpful to reducing the consumption of fertilizers and chemicals in agricultural production. The results suggest that replacing labor with machines is an important way to reduce production costs, and households specializing in agricultural production use more rational amounts of fertilizers and chemicals than those with low productivity. Thus, the machinery purchase policy in China should continue to give great benefit to farmers. In addition, the machinery purchase subsidization policy has achieved satisfactory results in China, and it could be a good reference for other developing countries. However, some efficiency loss was found in households that rented out their land, and policy makers need to pay some attention to these households.

  13. Development of spectrophotometric method for iron determination in fortified wheat and maize flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira E Silva, Ana Flávia; de Castro, Whocely Victor; de Andrade, Frank Pereira

    2018-03-01

    The determination of iron in fortified foods is mandatory by many global regulatory agencies. However, the spectroscopic techniques require elevated investments limiting their applicability especially in developing countries. Therefore, simple, viable and analytical methods with sufficient sensitivity can become an alternative. In this work, a sensitive, simple and viable spectrophotometry method to determine iron in wheat and maize flours was developed following a cloud point extraction (CPE) procedure. The analyte was first complexed with 2-(5-Bromine-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Br-PADAP) in the presence of the surfactant octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). For the CPE optimization the variables: pH of the medium, stoichiometry of the complex, surfactant, and salt concentrations were evaluated. Linearity in the analytical blank was obtained by using the square root of absorbance (Abs) in order to adjust the residues of the curve. The precision was lower than 5% and the accuracy ranged from 97 to 101%. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.004μgmL-1 and 0.01μgmL-1, respectively. The method was applied to investigate the content of iron in 14 brands of fortified flours. The concentrations of iron varied from 0.435 to 3.62mg/100g and 0.570 to 3.15mg/100g in wheat and maize flour, respectively. The content of iron in all brands investigated in this study was approximately 10-fold lower than the value required by (ANVISA). The amount of iron in fortified foods was satisfactorily determined by using a simple, sensitive, and low cost spectrophotometric method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of bran pre-hydration on functional characteristics and bread baking quality of bran and flour blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of bran pre-hydration on the composition and bread baking quality was determined using bran and flour of two wheat varieties. Bran was hydrated in sodium acetate buffer (50 mM, pH 5.3) to 50% moisture at 25 or 55°C for 1.5 or 12 h. The soluble sugar content in bran increased with pre-hydr...

  15. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  16. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-20

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  17. Projected Climate Impacts to South African Maize and Wheat Production in 2055: A Comparison of Empirical and Mechanistic Modeling Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Lyndon D.; Beukes, Hein; Bradley, Bethany A.; Debats, Stephanie R.; Oppenheimer, Michael; Ruane, Alex C.; Schulze, Roland; Tadross, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Crop model-specific biases are a key uncertainty affecting our understanding of climate change impacts to agriculture. There is increasing research focus on intermodel variation, but comparisons between mechanistic (MMs) and empirical models (EMs) are rare despite both being used widely in this field. We combined MMs and EMs to project future (2055) changes in the potential distribution (suitability) and productivity of maize and spring wheat in South Africa under 18 downscaled climate scenarios (9 models run under 2 emissions scenarios). EMs projected larger yield losses or smaller gains than MMs. The EMs' median-projected maize and wheat yield changes were 3.6% and 6.2%, respectively, compared to 6.5% and 15.2% for the MM. The EM projected a 10% reduction in the potential maize growing area, where the MM projected a 9% gain. Both models showed increases in the potential spring wheat production region (EM = 48%, MM = 20%), but these results were more equivocal because both models (particularly the EM) substantially overestimated the extent of current suitability. The substantial water-use efficiency gains simulated by the MMs under elevated CO2 accounted for much of the EMMM difference, but EMs may have more accurately represented crop temperature sensitivities. Our results align with earlier studies showing that EMs may show larger climate change losses than MMs. Crop forecasting efforts should expand to include EMMM comparisons to provide a fuller picture of crop-climate response uncertainties.

  18. Effect of physicochemical parameters on the polygalacturonase of an Aspergillus sojae mutant using wheat bran, an agro-industrial waste, via solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Hande; Tari, Canan

    2016-08-01

    Polygalacturonases (PGs) are valuable enzymes of the food industry; therefore it is of great importance to discover new and GRAS PG-producing microbial strains. In this study, PG enzyme produced from a high PG activity producer mutant Aspergillus sojae using wheat bran at the flask scale under pre-optimized conditions of solid-state fermentation (SSF) was biochemically characterized. The crude PG enzyme showed optimum activity in the pH range 4.0-5.0 and was stable in the pH range 3.0-7.0. The optimum temperature for the PG was 40 °C and it retained 99% of its activity at 50 °C. The mutant A. sojae PG could preserve more than 50% of its stability between 25 and 50 °C, both for 30 and 60 min, and was found to be stable in the presence of most of the tested compounds and metal ions. The inactivation energy (Ed ) was determined as 125.3 kJ mol(-1) . The enthalpy (ΔH*), free energy (ΔG*) and entropy (ΔS*) of inactivation were found to be stable with increasing temperature. The mutant A. sojae PG could be suitable for the clarification (depectinization) of orange and grape juices and wine. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification. PMID:25815522

  20. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Lade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64% and COD (88% of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%, NADH-DCIP reductase (264% and laccase (275% proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification.

  1. Pea fiber and wheat bran fiber show distinct metabolic profiles in rats as investigated by a 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangmang Liu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of pea fiber (PF and wheat bran fiber (WF supplementation in rat metabolism. Rats were assigned randomly to one of three dietary groups and were given a basal diet containing 15% PF, 15% WF, or no supplemental fiber. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics. PF significantly increased the plasma levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate, and myo-inositol as well as the urine levels of alanine, hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylacetyglycine, and α-ketoglutarate. However, PF significantly decreased the plasma levels of isoleucine, leucine, lactate, and pyruvate as well as the urine levels of allantoin, bile acids, and trigonelline. WF significantly increased the plasma levels of acetone, isobutyrate, lactate, myo-inositol, and lipids as well as the urine levels of alanine, lactate, dimethylglycine, N-methylniconamide, and α-ketoglutarate. However, WF significantly decreased the plasma levels of amino acids, and glucose as well as the urine levels of acetate, allantoin, citrate, creatine, hippurate, hydroxyphenylacetate, and trigonelline. Results suggest that PF and WF exposure can promote antioxidant activity and can exhibit common systemic metabolic changes, including lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, glycogenolysis and glycolysis metabolism, protein biosynthesis, and gut microbiota metabolism. PF can also decrease bile acid metabolism. These findings indicate that different fiber diet may cause differences in the biofluid profile in rats.

  2. Obese Mice Fed a Diet Supplemented with Enzyme-Treated Wheat Bran Display Marked Shifts in the Liver Metabolome Concurrent with Altered Gut Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Dorothy A; Piccolo, Brian D; Marco, Maria L; Kim, Eun Bae; Goodson, Michael L; Keenan, Michael J; Dunn, Tamara N; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Adams, Sean H; Martin, Roy J

    2016-12-01

    Enzyme-treated wheat bran (ETWB) contains a fermentable dietary fiber previously shown to decrease liver triglycerides (TGs) and modify the gut microbiome in mice. It is not clear which mechanisms explain how ETWB feeding affects hepatic metabolism, but factors (i.e., xenometabolites) associated with specific microbes may be involved. The objective of this study was to characterize ETWB-driven shifts in the cecal microbiome and to identify correlates between microbial changes and diet-related differences in liver metabolism in diet-induced obese mice that typically display steatosis. Five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice fed a 45%-lard-based fat diet supplemented with ETWB (20% wt:wt) or rapidly digestible starch (control) (n = 15/group) for 10 wk were characterized by using a multi-omics approach. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to identify variables that were strong discriminators between the ETWB and control groups. Body weight and liver TGs were decreased by ETWB feeding (by 10% and 25%, respectively; P gut bacteria community shifts in C57BL/6J mice. It is proposed that these changes may elicit gut-derived signals that reach the liver via enterohepatic circulation, ultimately affecting host liver metabolism in a manner that mimics, in part, the fasting state. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Effect of Irrigation to Winter Wheat on the Radiation Use Efficiency and Yield of Summer Maize in a Double Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Quanqi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In north China, double cropping of winter wheat and summer maize is a widely adopted agricultural practice, and irrigation is required to obtain a high yield from winter wheat, which results in rapid aquifer depletion. In this experiment conducted in 2001-2002, 2002-2003, and 2004-2005, we studied the effects of irrigation regimes during specific winter wheat growing stage with winter wheat and summer maize double cropping systems; we measured soil moisture before sowing (SMBS, the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR capture ratio, grain yield, and the radiation use efficiency (RUE of summer maize. During the winter wheat growing season, irrigation was applied at the jointing, heading, or milking stage, respectively. The results showed that increased amounts of irrigation and irrigation later in the winter wheat growing season improved SMBS for summer maize. The PAR capture ratio significantly (LSD, P<0.05 increased with increased SMBS, primarily in the 3 spikes leaves. With improved SMBS, both the grain yield and RUE increased in all the treatments. These results indicate that winter wheat should be irrigated in later stages to achieve reasonable grain yield for both crops.

  4. Inhibition of starch absorption by dietary fibre. A comparative study of wheat bran, sugar-beet fibre, and pea fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, O; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1989-01-01

    The effect of dietary fibre on starch absorption was investigated in 8 healthy subjects. Amounts of starch escaping small-bowel absorption was assessed by comparison of breath H2 excretion after test meals and after lactulose (10g). After ingestion of bread made from 100g of wheat flour increases......-20%) (p less than 0.01), and 12% (5-27%) (p less than 0.01), respectively. Bread made from 100 g of low-gluten wheat flour only escaped small-bowel absorption in three subjects with a maximal fraction of 6% (p less than 0.05). All three fibres decreased mouth-to-caecum transit time. We conclude...

  5. Soil Influences Colonization of Root-Associated Fungal Endophyte Communities of Maize, Wheat, and Their Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Bokati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Root-associated fungal endophytes are vital component of root microbiome as some mitigate their host’s abiotic and biotic stress. We characterized root-associated fungal endophytes in cereal grains and their progenitors grown on two different soil-types. We aimed at determining how clay and desert soil affects the colonization of root fungal community. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were employed to identify endophytes that successfully colonized greenhouse-grown host plants. The Internal Transcriber Spacer region of fungal ribosomal DNA was utilized for identification purposes. This study revealed soil as a prominent factor influencing the composition of microfungal communities inhabiting the roots of maize (Zea mays subsp. mays and its conspecific progenitor, teosinte (Zea mays subsp. parviglumis. Similar results were found in wheat (Triticum aestivum subsp. aestivum and its progenitor (Triticum monococcum subsp. monococcum. The multidimensional comparisons of Morisita-Horn similarity values of fungal colonists of various host plant taxa indicated that soil plays a primary role in shaping the root fungal community; a secondary effect was plant host identity, even when the plant host is a conspecific. Future studies focused on characterizing root endophytes in other cereal grains, and studying the effect of edaphic factors on fungal colonization, can ultimately contribute to crop productivity.

  6. Optimization of extraction of β-endoglucanase from the fermented bran of Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, M. Subhosh; Viswanath, Buddolla; Reddy, B. Rajasekhar

    2010-01-01

    A local isolate of Aspergillus niger was cultivated under optimal growth conditions on wheat bran in solid state fermentation. β-endoglucanase from fermented bran was separately extracted with different solvents to test recovery of enzyme. Among solvents tested, distilled water served the best leachate. Conditions were further optimized with this leachate. Two washes of fermented bran with the leachate for 30 min each under shaking conditions in a ratio of 1 g of wheat bran: 4 ml of distilled...

  7. Optimization of extraction of β-endoglucanase from the fermented bran of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, M Subhosh; Viswanath, Buddolla; Reddy, B Rajasekhar

    2010-10-01

    A local isolate of Aspergillus niger was cultivated under optimal growth conditions on wheat bran in solid state fermentation. β-endoglucanase from fermented bran was separately extracted with different solvents to test recovery of enzyme. Among solvents tested, distilled water served the best leachate. Conditions were further optimized with this leachate. Two washes of fermented bran with the leachate for 30 min each under shaking conditions in a ratio of 1 g of wheat bran: 4 ml of distilled water together yielded maximum recovery of 16.7 U/g of wheat bran.

  8. Effects of supplementation of Farta sheep fed hay with sole or mixtures of noug seed meal and wheat bran on feed intake, digestibility and body weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishaw, Fentie; Melaku, Solomon

    2008-12-01

    Digestibility and feeding trials for 10 and 90 days were conducted using 25 yearling Farta rams with a mean body weight (BW) of 16.8 +/- 0.17 kg (mean +/- SD) to study the effects of supplementation with sole or mixtures of noug seed meal (NSM) and wheat bran (WB) on feed intake, digestibility and BW change in Farta sheep fed hay. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design. The sheep were arranged in five blocks based on initial BW, and the five treatments were assigned randomly to each animal in a block. The five treatments comprised of ad libitum hay (control, T1) and ad libitum hay plus daily supplementation of 300 g dry matter (DM) sole WB (T2), 2WB:1NSM (T3), 1WB:2NSM (T4) and sole NSM (T5). Supplementation increased total DM (P < 0.01) and crude protein (CP) (P < 0.001) intake and promoted daily BW gain (P < 0.001). Non- supplemented sheep consumed more (P < 0.01) hay DM compared to the supplemented treatments, except T2. Among supplemented sheep, T5 had higher (P < 0.001) CP intake than the other treatments. Supplementation improved (P < 0.001) the digestibility of CP. Lack of statistical differences in daily BW gain between the different supplements used in this study suggests that sheep producers can use the different feed supplements considered in this study depending on their availability in the order of T4, T5, T3 and T2, respectively.

  9. Responses of Nitrogen Utilization and Apparent Nitrogen Loss to Different Control Measures in the Wheat and Maize Rotation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhengping; Liu, Yanan; Li, Yingchun; Abawi, Yahya; Wang, Yanqun; Men, Mingxin; An-Vo, Duc-Anh

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and excessive application rates can decrease crop yield and increase N loss into the environment. Field experiments were carried out to understand the effects of N fertilizers on N utilization, crop yield and net income in wheat and maize rotation system of the North China Plain (NCP). Compared to farmers’ N rate (FN), the yield of wheat and maize in reduction N rate by 21–24% based on FN (RN) was improved by 451 kg ha-1, N uptakes improved by 17 kg ha-1 and net income increased by 1671 CNY ha-1, while apparent N loss was reduced by 156 kg ha-1. The controlled-release fertilizer with a 20% reduction of RN (CRF80%), a 20% reduction of RN together with dicyandiamide (RN80%+DCD) and a 20% reduction of RN added with nano-carbon (RN80%+NC) all resulted in an improvement in crop yield and decreased the apparent N losses compared to RN. Contrasted with RN80%+NC, the total crop yield in RN80%+DCD improved by 1185 kg ha-1, N uptake enhanced by 9 kg ha-1 and net income increased by 3929 CNY ha-1, while apparent N loss was similar. Therefore, a 37–39% overall decrease in N rate compared to farmers plus the nitrification inhibitor, DCD, was effective N control measure that increased crop yields, enhanced N efficiencies, and improved economic benefits, while mitigating apparent N loss. There is considerable scope for improved N use effieincy in the intensive wheat -maize rotation of the NCP. PMID:28228772

  10. Current irrigation practices in the central United States reduce drought and extreme heat impacts for maize and soybean, but not for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyi; Lin, Xiaomao; Sassenrath, Gretchen F

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we assessed the adaptive effects of irrigation on climatic risks for three crops (maize, soybean, and wheat) at the regional scale from 1981 to 2012 in the Central US. Based on yields of 183 counties for maize, 121 for soybean and 101 for wheat, statistical models were developed for irrigated, rainfed and county-level yields. Results show that irrigation has a statistically significant effect on abating detrimental climate impacts, specifically drought and extreme heat, in maize and soybean but not in wheat. On average, irrigation reduces the negative influences of extreme heat by around 7.2% for maize and 5.0% for soybean yields for each additional 10 degree-days above the optimal temperature for each crop. This is approximately two-thirds of the negative effects of extreme heat under rainfed management. The remaining third of the yield reduction is caused by heat damage that cannot be alleviated by irrigation. No significant differences were detected between county yields and irrigated yields for maize and soybean, suggesting that the existing irrigation practices were reasonably efficient. Efforts to mitigate future climate risks for these two crops should focus on improving the heat sensitivity contributing to the yield losses from heat damage. In contrast, the existing irrigation does not improve the resilience of wheat to climate risks. Both increased temperature and drought were critical to wheat production, which was potentially caused by relatively poor irrigation supplies for wheat. Further enhancement of wheat yield may be possible through improved irrigation management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Upscaling plot-scale soil respiration in winter wheat and summer maize rotation croplands in Julu County, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ni; Wang, Li; Guo, Yiqiang; Niu, Zheng

    2017-02-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) data from 45 plots were used to estimate the spatial patterns of Rs during the peak growing seasons of winter wheat and summer maize in Julu County, North China, by combining satellite remote sensing data, field-measured data, and a support vector regression (SVR) model. The observed Rs values were well reproduced by the model at the plot scale, with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.31 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 and a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.73. No significant difference was detected between the prediction accuracy of the SVR model for winter wheat and summer maize. With forcing from satellite remote sensing data and gridded soil property data, we used the SVR model to predict the spatial distributions of Rs during the peak growing seasons of winter wheat and summer maize rotation croplands in Julu County. The SVR model captured the spatial variations of Rs at the county scale. The satellite-derived enhanced vegetation index was found to be the most important input used to predict Rs. Removal of this variable caused an RMSE increase from 0.31 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 to 0.42 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Soil properties such as soil organic carbon (SOC) content and soil bulk density (SBD) were the second most important factors. Their removal led to an RMSE increase from 0.31 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 to 0.37 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. The SVR model performed better than multiple regression in predicting spatial variations of Rs in winter wheat and summer maize rotation croplands, as shown by the comparison of the R2 and RMSE values of the two algorithms. The spatial patterns of Rs are better captured using the SVR model than performing multiple regression, particularly for the relatively high and relatively low Rs values at the center and northeast study areas. Therefore, SVR shows promise for predicting spatial variations of Rs values on the basis of remotely sensed data and gridded soil property data at the county scale.

  12. Functional properties of pasta enriched with variable cereal brans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurkirat; Sharma, Savita; Nagi, H P S; Dar, Basharat N

    2012-08-01

    To explore the potentiality of cereal brans for preparation of fiber enriched pasta, various cereal brans (Wheat, Rice, Barley and Oat) were added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 per cent to durum wheat semolina. The effect of cereal bran enrichment on the colour, cooking, sensory quality and shelf life of enriched pasta was assessed at ambient temperature. Pasta prepared with added fiber at 25 per cent level had the highest protein and dietary fiber content as compared to control. Enrichment with variable fiber sources improved the brightness of pasta, as colour of pasta enhanced significantly. Addition of cereal brans resulted an increase in the water absorption and cooking losses of pasta. This effect was dependent on the level and type of cereal brans. Significant correlation (r = 0.80) was obtained between water absorption and volume expansion in all types of bran enriched pasta. At 25 per cent level of supplementation, maximum solids were leached into cooking water. Bran enriched pasta required less cooking time for complete gelatinization of starch. Increasing level of cereal brans had significantly affected the overall acceptability of enriched pasta. Cooking quality of pasta remained constant during storage. Non significant effect of storage was found on water activity, free fatty acids. Enriched pasta (15 per cent level of wheat, rice and oat bran and 10 per cent barley bran) was highly acceptable upto 4 months of storage with respect to quality.

  13. Rational Phosphorus Application Facilitates the Sustainability of the Wheat/Maize/Soybean Relay Strip Intercropping System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxue Chen

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L./maize (Zea mays L./soybean (Glycine max L. relay strip intercropping (W/M/S system is commonly used by the smallholders in the Southwest of China. However, little known is how to manage phosphorus (P to enhance P use efficiency of the W/M/S system and to mitigate P leaching that is a major source of pollution. Field experiments were carried out in 2011, 2012, and 2013 to test the impact of five P application rates on yield and P use efficiency of the W/M/S system. The study measured grain yield, shoot P uptake, apparent P recovery efficiency (PRE and soil P content. A linear-plateau model was used to determine the critical P rate that maximizes gains in the indexes of system productivity. The results show that increase in P application rates aggrandized shoot P uptake and crops yields at threshold rates of 70 and 71.5 kg P ha-1 respectively. With P application rates increasing, the W/M/S system decreased the PRE from 35.9% to 12.3% averaged over the three years. A rational P application rate, 72 kg P ha-1, or an appropriate soil Olsen-P level, 19.1 mg kg-1, drives the W/M/S system to maximize total grain yield while minimizing P surplus, as a result of the PRE up to 28.0%. We conclude that rational P application is an important approach for relay intercropping to produce high yield while mitigating P pollution and the rational P application-based integrated P fertilizer management is vital for sustainable intensification of agriculture in the Southwest of China.

  14. Soil carbon fractions under maize-wheat system: effect of tillage and nutrient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, S; Manjaiah, K M; Pal, Sharmistha; Singh, A K

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic carbon plays a major role in sustaining agroecosystems and maintaining environmental quality as it acts as a major source and sink of atmospheric carbon. The present study aims to assess the impact of agricultural management practices on soil organic carbon pools in a maize-wheat cropping system of Indo-Gangetic Plains, India. Soil samples from a split plot design with two tillage systems (bed planting and conventional tillage) and six nutrient treatments (T1 = control, T2 = 120 kg urea-N ha(-1), T3 = T2 (25 % N substituted by FYM), T4 = T2 (25 % N substituted by sewage sludge), T5 = T2 + crop residue, T6 = 100 % organic source (50 % FYM + 25 % biofertilizer + 25 % crop residue) were used for determining the organic carbon pools. Results show that there was a significant improvement in Walkley and Black carbon in soil under integrated and organic nutrient management treatments. KMnO4-oxidizable carbon content of soil varied from 0.63 to 1.50 g kg(-1) in soils and was found to be a better indicator for monitoring the impact of agricultural management practices on quality of soil organic carbon than microbial biomass carbon. Tillage and its interaction were found to significantly influence only those soil organic carbon fractions closely associated with aggregate stability viz, labile polysaccharides and glomalin. The highest amount of C4-derived carbon was found to be in plots receiving recommended doses of N as urea (29 %) followed by control plots (25 %). The carbon management index ranged between 82 to 195 and was better in integrated nutrient sources than ones receiving recommended doses of nutrients through mineral fertilizers alone.

  15. Physiological characteristics and metabolomics of transgenic wheat containing the maize C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene under high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xueli; Xu, Weigang; Zhang, Jianzhou; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Mingzhong; Hu, Lin; Wang, Huiwei; Dong, Haibin; Li, Yan

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, two transgenic wheat lines, PC27 and PC51, containing the maize PEPC gene and its wild-type (WT) were used as experimental material to study the effects of high temperature on their photosynthetic physiological characteristics and metabolome. The results showed that transgenic wheat lines had higher photosynthetic rate (P n) than WT under non-stress treatment (NT) and high temperature stress treatment (HT), and more significantly under HT. The change trends of F v/F m, Ф PSII, and q P were similar to P n, whereas that of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was the opposite. Compared with WT, no differences in chlorophyll content between the transgenic wheat and WT were observed under NT, but two transgenic lines had relatively higher contents than WT under HT. The change trends of Chlorophyll a/b radio, the decreased values of F m, Wk, and Vj, and the activity of the antioxidant enzyme were consistent with the chlorophyll content. Compared with WT, transgenic wheat lines exhibited lower rate of superoxide anion production, H2O2 and malondialdehyde content under HT, and no significant differences were observed under NT. The expression pattern of the ZmPEPC gene and wheat endogenous photosynthesis-related genes were in agreement with that of P n. Compared with WT, about 13 different metabolites including one organic acid, six amino acids, four sugars, and two polyols were identified under NT; 25 different metabolites including six organic acids, 12 amino acids, four sugars, and three polyols were identified under HT. Collectively, our results indicate that ZmPEPC gene can enhance photochemical and antioxidant enzyme activity, upregulate the expression of photosynthesis-related genes, delay degradation of chlorophyll, change contents of proline and other metabolites in wheat, and ultimately improves its heat tolerance.

  16. Characteristics and Gradations of Cultivated Land Fertility for Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Rotation System in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XUE Yan-dong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available North China area is playing a significant role in grain production in China. Winter wheat-summer maize rotation is a major cropping system in this region. Based on the database of county cultivated land survey of soil fertility in Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China, total 23 862 samples were selected, 17 945 evaluation units were taken from the superposition of soil map, landuse map and administrative map. 11 evaluation indicators, including precipitation, accumulated temperature, top layer thickness, texture, organic matter, available P, available K, available Zn, salinity and irrigation capacity, were used to evaluate the gradation of the cultivated land fertility. The results showed that the fertility grades from first to sixth of the cultivated land for winter wheat-summer maize rotation system in North China accounted for 11.29%, 19.30%, 28.06%, 21.57%, 11.99% and 7.80%, respectively, and the overall cultivated land fertility upgraded in comparison with the second soil survey. The concentrations of soil organic matter, available P, available K were increasing significantly. In conclusion, this study will provide some basic information and scientific insights into specifically practical fertilization and soil improvement, scientific layout of crop production and adjustment of agricultural structure to promote cultivated land production capacity.

  17. Determination of zearalenone in barley, maize and wheat flour, polenta, and maize-based baby food by immunoaffinity column cleanup with liquid chromatography: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Susan J; Anderson, Sharron; Brereton, Paul; Wood, Roger; Damant, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was performed on behalf of the UK Food Standards Agency to evaluate the effectiveness of an affinity column cleanup liquid chromatography (LC) method for the determination of zearalenone (ZON) in a variety of cereals and cereal products at proposed European regulatory limits. The test portion is extracted with acetonitrile:water. The sample extract is filtered, diluted, and applied to an affinity column. The column is washed, and ZON is eluted with acetonitrile. ZON is quantified by reversed-phase LC with fluorescence detection. Barley, wheat and maize flours, polenta, and a maize-based baby food naturally contaminated, spiked, and blank (very low level) were sent to 28 collaborators in 9 European countries and 1 collaborator in New Zealand. Participants were asked to spike test portions of all samples at a ZON concentration equivalent to 100 microg/kg. Average recoveries ranged from 91-111%. Based on results for 4 artificially contaminated samples (blind duplicates) and 1 naturally contaminated sample (blind duplicate), the relative standard deviation for repeatability (RSDr) ranged from 6.9-35.8%, and the relative standard deviation for reproducibility (RSDR) ranged from 16.4-38.2%. The method showed acceptable within- and between-laboratory precision for all 5 matrixes, as evidenced by HorRat values <1.7.

  18. Annual variation in δ13C values of maize and wheat: Effect on estimates of decadal scale soil carbon turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Tolstrup; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hansen, Elly Møller

    2011-01-01

    On sites where C4-plants have replaced C3-plants, changes in soil δ13C allow the turnover of C3- and C4-derived C to be separated. Studies of decadal scale turnover of soil C following conversion to C4-plants generally lack δ13C values for previous C4-residue inputs and assume that estimates of C4...... in maize inputs. The δ13C of both maize and wheat decreased with time, but the rate of change and annual variations were considerably larger for wheat than for maize. Maize as well as wheat δ13C was best related to year (probably reflecting a decrease in atmospheric δ13C) and the water balance during...... to centuries, the subtle but consistent changes in plant and soil δ13C need to be accounted for. The variability in δ13C in wheat grains suggest that the use of any fixed δ13C value for C3-residues in estimates of C turnover in soils on which C4-plants have been replaced by C3-plants can be associated...

  19. Sustainability of European winter wheat- and maize-based cropping systems: Economic, environmental and social ex-post assessment of conventional and IPM-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiadis, V.P.; Dachbrodt-saaydeh, S.; Kudsk, P.; Colnenne-David, C.; Leprince, F.; Holb, I.J.; Kierzek, R.; Furlan, L.; Loddo, D.; Melander, B.; Jørgensen, L.N.; Newton, A.C.; Toque, C.; Dijk, van W.; Lefebvre, M.; Benezit, M.; Sattin, M.

    2017-01-01

    In order to ensure higher sustainability of winter wheat and maize production in Europe, cropping systems featuring different levels of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) need to be tested in the field and validated for their sustainability before being adopted by farmers. However, the sustainability

  20. Long-term effects of manure and inorganic fertilizers on yield and soil fertility for a winter wheat-maize system in Jiangsu, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, J.; Hengsdijk, H.; Dai, T.; Boer, de W.; Qi, J.; Cao, W.

    2006-01-01

    Winter wheat-maize rotations are dominant cropping systems on the North China Plain, where recently the use of organic manure with grain crops has almost disappeared. This could reduce soil fertility and crop productivity in the long run. A 20-year field experiment was conducted to 1) assess the

  1. Life Cycle Assessment on Carbon Footprint of Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Cropping System Based on Survey Data of Gaomi in Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Yong-chang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Grain production can generate huge amount of greenhouse gases through raw material production and energy comsumption, nitrogen fertilizer amendment and farming machinery operation. Based questionnaire survey of raw material inputs and management of wheat-maize cropping system in Gaomi, Shandong Province, carbon footprint of grain production was calculated using life cycle assessment methodology. Carbon footprint per unit area of wheat, maize, and winter wheat-summer maize cropping system were 5 183.33, 3 778.09 kg CO2-eq·hm-2 and 8 961.42 kg CO2-eq·hm-2, carbon footprint per unit grain yield were 0.69, 0.40 kg CO2-eq·kg-1 and 0.53 kg CO2-eq·kg-1, carbon footprint per unit net present value were 1.82, 0.40 kg CO2-eq·yuan-1 and 0.44 kg CO2-eq·yuan-1, respectively. Greenhouse gas(GHG emission of winter wheat-summer maize cropping system mainly came from nitrogen fertilizer production(48.30% and nitrogen fertilizer application(12.04%, irrigation electricity consumption(12.94% and machinery oil consumption(11.20%. Optimizing the application of fertilizer, reducing the amount of nitrogen fertilizer and saving water irrigation were important ways to realize the clean production.

  2. Nitrous oxide flux in maize and wheat cropped soils in the central region of Mexico during El nino year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longoria Ramirez, R. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Carbajal Benitez, G.; Mar Morales, B.E.; Ruiz Suarez, G. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-10-01

    Emissions of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were measured in agricultural lands used for farming wheat and maize during 1998 in the states of Hidalgo and Tlaxcala in Mexico. In an irrigated wheat field (El Tenhe, Hidalgo), an average flux of -10.85 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - N m{sup -}2 h{sup -}1 was obtained for the total cycle (155 days between December and May). There, high negative values were observed with Water Fill Porous Space (WFPS) close to 70%. The average flux of the complete cycle (269 days between March and December) in an irrigated maize field (El Progreso, Hidalgo) was 37.43 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - N m{sup -}2 h{sup -}1. In this case, more insignificant negative fluxes were found with WFPS close to 45% or less. These last results may have been influenced by the strong El Nino, which occurred in the middle of 1998. Twenty once percent of the measurements in the state of Hidalgo showed soil acting as a nitrous oxide sink. The samples from Tlaxcala showed that these fields acted as emitters. In the rain fed fields in the state of Tlaxcala, an average flux of 121 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - N m{sup -}2 h{sup -}1 was obtained for the wheat field. The farming season lasted 142 days, from July to December. In addition, for the maize field the averaged flux was 285.61 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - Nm{sup -}2h-1. The farming season lasted 246 days, from April to December. [Spanish] En 1998 se midieron las emisiones de oxido nitroso (N{sub 2}O) de suelos agricolas para cultivar trigo y maiz en los estados de Hidalgo y Tlaxcala, en Mexico. Para un campo irrigado de trigo (El Tenhe, Hidalgo), se obtuvo un flujo promedio de -10.85 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - N m{sup -}2 h{sup -}1 para el ciclo total (155 dias entre diciembre y mayo). En este caso se observaron valores negativos elevados en el espacio poroso relleno de agua (VFPS, pos sus siglas en ingles), cercanos a 70%. El flujo promedio para el ciclo completo (269 dias entre marzo y diciembre) en un campo irrigado de maiz fue de 37.43 {mu}g N{sub 2}O - N m

  3. Three-year measurements of nitrous oxide emissions from cotton and wheat-maize rotational cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyan; Yao, Zhisheng; Wang, Kai; Zheng, Xunhua

    2014-10-01

    The remarkable expansion of fertilization and irrigation may stimulate nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from cropping systems in northern China. High-resolution measurements were conducted in irrigated cotton and wheat-maize rotational systems in Shanxi Province, P.R. China, between 2007 and 2010 (three year-round crop cycles, hereinafter referred to as Y1, Y2 and Y3) to investigate the impacts of natural inter-annual variations and agricultural management on annual N2O emissions and direct emission factors (EFs). Overall, N2O emissions fluctuated diurnally, seasonally and inter-annually in the fertilized treatments. The hourly N2O fluxes closely followed the daily air temperature patterns. The daily mean fluxes corresponded to these hourly fluxes, which were observed between 09:00-10:00 and 19:00-20:00. An optimized sampling protocol could improve the reliability of discrete measurements when estimating cumulative emissions. The N2O emissions for the fertilized treatments were 2.7 ± 0.2 (Y1) and 1.6 ± 0.1 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (Y2) from the cotton field and 6.2 ± 0.4 (Y1), 4.5 ± 0.3 (Y2) and 4.5 ± 0.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (Y3) from the wheat-maize field. Peak N2O emissions after fertilization and irrigation/rainfall lasted one to three weeks and accounted for 16-55% of the annual emissions. Leaching losses were estimated at 10.4 ± 3.0 (Y1) and 12.5 ± 3.4 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (Y2), which accounted for 16-17% of the fertilizer-N applied to the cotton field. Annual N2O emissions did not increase with increasing fertilization rates or water inputs because significant amounts of fertilizer-N were lost through leaching. Background emissions amounted to one-third to one-half of the total N2O emissions from the fertilized treatments. The direct EFs were 2.2 ± 0.3% (Y1) and 0.9 ± 0.2% (Y2) in the cotton field and 1.3 ± 0.2% (Y1), 0.8 ± 0.1% (Y2) and 0.7 ± 0.1% (Y3) in the wheat-maize field. The large inter-annual variations in N2O emissions and direct EFs emphasize the importance of

  4. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2014-01-01

    supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments......Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role...... in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW...

  5. Effects of butyrate on the insulin homeostasis of chickens kept on maize- or wheat-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcsár, Anna; Mátis, Gábor; Molnár, Andor; Petrilla, Janka; Husvéth, Ferenc; Huber, Korinna; Dublecz, Károly; Neogrády, Zsuzsanna

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of butyrate as a feed supplement on the expression of insulin signalling proteins as potent regulators of metabolism and growth in Ross 308 broiler chickens fed maize- or wheat-based diets. Both diets were supplemented with non-protected butyrate (1.5 and 3.0 g/kg of diet, respectively) or with protected butyrate (0.2 g/kg of diet); the diet of the control groups was prepared without any additives (control). On day 42 of life, systemic blood samples were drawn for analyses of glucose and insulin concentrations, and tissue samples (liver, gastrocnemius muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue) were taken for Western blotting examinations. The expression of key insulin signalling proteins (IRβ, PKCζ and mTOR) was assessed by semiquantitative Western blotting from the tissues mentioned. The type of diet had a remarkable influence on the insulin homeostasis of chickens. The wheat-based diet significantly increased IRβ and mTOR expression in the liver as well as mTOR and PKCζ expression in the adipose tissue when compared to animals kept on a maize-based diet. IRβ expression in the liver was stimulated by the lower dose of non-protected butyrate as well, suggesting the potential of butyrate as a feed additive to affect insulin sensitivity. Based on the results obtained, the present study shows new aspects of nutritional factors by comparing the special effects of butyrate as a feed additive and those of the cereal type, presumably in association with dietary non-starch polysaccharide- (NSP-) driven enteric shortchain fatty acid release including butyrate, influencing insulin homeostasis in chickens. As the tissues of chickens have physiologically lower insulin sensitivity compared to mammals, diet-associated induction of the insulin signalling pathway can be of special importance in improving growth and metabolic health.

  6. Effects of cell wall degrading enzymes on carbohydrate fractions and metabolites in stomach and ileum of pigs fed wheat bran based diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Inborr, J.; Bakker, J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Pigs were fed diets containing 40 heat bran incubated with a water:acetic acid mixture (control, C) and a cellulase (Cel-i) or xylanase (Xyl-i) preparation or with addition of the cellulase (Cel-a) or xylanase (Xyl-a) preparation immediately before feeding. Stomach and ileal samples were analysed

  7. Farelo de trigo na alimentação de poedeiras semipesadas na fase de recria Wheat bran in growing phase laying hens feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Magalhães Araujo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de farelo de trigo (FT na ração sobre o desempenho de frangas semipesadas nas fases de recria 1 (7 a 14 semanas de idade e recria 2 (15 a 19 semanasde idade e seu efeito residual durante a fase inicial de produção de ovos. Foram utilizadas 160 frangas Lohmann Brown distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro níveis de FT na ração: 0 (controle, 10, 20 e 30%, que resultaram em quatro tratamentos, com cinco repetições de oito aves na fase de recria 1. Ao completarem 14 semanas, as aves foram transferidas para gaiolas de arame galvanizado, redistribuídas em seis repetições de seis aves. Utilizaram-se 144 aves e descartaram-se, aleatoriamente, quatro aves por tratamento, constituindo a fase de recria 2. A adição de FT diminuiu linearmente o peso vivo final e o ganho de peso, resultando em reduções de 1,15 e 0,03 g, respectivamente, para cada 1% de inclusão de FT na ração. O consumo de água aumentou de forma quadrática e cresceu, em valores absolutos, com o aumento de 0 a 30% de farelo de trigo. A cada aumento de 1% de FT na ração, a idade das aves ao primeiro ovo elevou aproximadamente 0,6 dia e o peso do ovo em 0,22 g. A inclusão de farelo de trigo na ração reduz a taxa de crescimento de frangas, atrasa o início da postura, mas melhora o peso inicial dos ovos em relação a dietas à base de milho e de farelo de soja.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of the wheat bran (WB in the ration on egg brown chicken (Lohmann Brown performance in the growing phase 1 (7 to 19 week of age and growing phase 2 (15 to 19 week of age and its residual effects on initial egg production. One hundred-sixty chickens were allotted to a completely randomized design with four level of WB in the ration: 0 (control, 10, 20 and 30%, that resulted in four treatments, with five replicates of eight birds in the growing phase 1. At the

  8. Comprehensive analysis of degradation and accumulation of ametryn in soils and in wheat, maize, ryegrass and alfalfa plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ma, Li Ya; Lu, Yi Chen; Jiang, Shuang Shuang; Wu, Hong Jin; Yang, Hong

    2017-06-01

    Ametryn is a selective herbicide belonging to the triazine family and widely used for killing annual grasses or weeds in China and other parts of the world. However, reports on its environmental risk assessment with regard to soil and crop contamination are limited. In this study, accumulation of ametryn in wheat, maize, ryegrass and alfalfa crops along with ametryn residues in the soil planted with the plants were comparatively investigated. Soil enzyme activities and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), as well as antioxidant and degradation enzyme activities in plant tissues were measured. The maximum accumulation of ametryn was found in shoots and roots of wheat and alfalfa. Ryegrass had the maximum ametryn translocation factor (TF) from roots to shoots, with more than three times over the other crops. The ametryn residue in ryegrass-planted soil was much lower than that in soil planted with others. The residual content of ametryn in crop-planted soils was ordered as rhizosphere soilsoilsoildegradation of the herbicide. Thus, ryegrass was shown to have a relatively strong ability to remove ametryn from ametryn-contaminated soil and its plant tissues as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Aflatoxins and fumonisin contamination of marketed maize, maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among marketed products, maize bran (used for animal feed) was the most contaminated (2.4 μg/kg aflatoxin and 1 mg/kg fumonisin), followed by whole maize in market stalls (1.9 μg/kg aflatoxin and 0.4 mg/kg fumonisin) and then maize flour (1.4 μg/kg aflatoxin and 0.3 mg/kg fumonisin). Un-marketed maize sorted out by ...

  10. Effect of age of growing turkeys on digesta viscosity and nutrient digestibility of maize, wheat, barley and oats fed as such or with enzyme supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palander, Samu; Näsi, Matti; Järvinen, Sari

    2005-06-01

    The effects of age of growing turkeys and beta-glucanase-xylanase activity-containing feed enzyme supplementation on digestibility and feeding value of pelleted maize, wheat, barley and oats were investigated in growing turkeys using excreta collection and ileal sampling by slaughter. Excreta were collected and turkeys were slaughtered at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age. Viscosity of jejuno-duodenal digesta, caecal volatile fatty acid concentration, ileal crude protein digestibility, total tract fat digestibility and AMEN were assayed using titanium dioxide as an indigestible marker. The highest viscosities were observed in barley and wheat. Viscosity of wheat, barley and oats digesta decreased while caecal volatile fatty acid concentration, fat digestibility and AMEN increased with age. Ileal crude protein digestibility was highest in wheat and lowest in barley. Ileal crude protein digestibility significantly declined with age in most feeding treatments. Enzyme reduced digesta viscosity most efficiently in wheat and barley and improved ileal crude protein digestibility, total tract fat digestibility and AMEN in wheat, barley and oats, but interactions occurred, the effect of enzyme on viscosity being the most remarkable for wheat and barley and for the young birds.

  11. SEWAGE SLUDGE EFFECTS ON POTATO, WINTER WHEAT AND MAIZE YIELD CULTIVATED IN ROTATION, AND SOIL PROPERTY MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Lixandru

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sewage sludge as phosphorus and nitrogen amendment for cambic chernozem soils in comparison with inorganic fertilizers (NH4NO3 and KCl. The experiment reported here were conducted during 10 years in two rotation: 1 potato – winter wheatmaize, and 2 maize – potato – winter wheat. Sewage sludge rates applied in potato was 65, 130 and 195 t/ha respectively, and in maize 30, 60 and 90 t/ha, sewage sludge rates applied alone or in combination with N and K as mineral fertilizers. The results led to the following conclusions: 1 The air-dried sewage sludge from plot Iaşi contained about 200 kg organic matter, 6 kg N, 8 kg P, 2 kg K, 30 kg Ca and 10 kg soluble salts in 1000 kg. The heavy metals content was under the maximum limits allowable, excepting Zn which was found between 4140 and 5378 ppm Zn. 2 At potato crops resulted in an yield increase of 100 kg tubers for one ton sewage sludge in case of rate of 65 t/ha, at higher rates the yield increase being lower. Annual rainfall had a significant influence on yield increase. 3 The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge was of 8.5 % at a rate of 65 t/ha and 2.5 % at a rate of 195 t/ha. From 100 kg N as mineral fertilizer, potato used 30 % and produced 60 kg tubers/1 kg N applied in soil. The yield increase at 1 kg N from sewage sludge was of 17 kg tubers at a rate of 65 t/ha. Therefore, the nitrogen efficiency from mineral fertilizer was about three times higher compared to N from sewage sludge. 4 Applied in maize crop, resulted an yield increase of 23.2 kg grains for 1 ton sewage sludge at a rate of 30 t/ha and only 13.2 kg/1 t at a rates 90 t/ha. By comparing to manure, the yield increased was lower. The nitrogen utilization from sewage sludge by maize was of 11 % at 3o t/ha and 6.6 % at 90 t/ha. From mineral fertilizer, maize used 25.9 % of 100 kg N/ha. 5 Residual effect of sewage sludge in second year in wheat crop was of 7

  12. Desenvolvimento in vitro de Agaricus brasiliensis em meios suplementados com diferentes farelos In vitro development of Agaricus brasiliensis in media supplemented with different brans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Pastorini Donini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O cogumelo Agaricus brasiliensis normalmente é cultivado em meios à base de batata ou composto orgânico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento in vitro da linhagem ABL 97/11 de A. brasiliensis, cultivada em meio à base de composto suplementado com diferentes concentrações de farelos de milho, trigo, arroz e soja, à temperatura constante de 28ºC. Avaliou-se, diariamente, o diâmetro da colônia e obteve-se, aos seis dias de cultivo, a massa miceliana. A adição de farelos de soja ou arroz não favorece o desenvolvimento in vitro de A. brasiliensis. O meio de cultura suplementado com 20% de farelo de trigo apresenta as maiores massa miceliana e velocidade de crescimento, comparado aos meios suplementados com outros farelos, na mesma concentração. Na concentração de 10% de farelo, o milho promove a maior velocidade de crescimento do cogumelo.The mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis is usually grown in potato-based or compost media. The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vitro development of the strain ABL 97/11 of A. brasiliensis grown in culture medium supplemented with brans of maize, wheat, rice and soybean, in different concentrations. Cultivation was performed under constant temperature of 28ºC. Diameter of the colony was evaluated daily and after six days of cultivation, mycelial mass was obtained. The addition of soybean or rice brans did not favor the development in vitro of A. brasiliensis. The largest averages of mycelial mass and growth rate are obtained in medium containing 20% of wheat bran. The medium containing 10% of maize corn presents the highest growth rate among the different media under the same bran concentration.

  13. Rice bran oil an alternate bakery shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amarjeet; Jassal, Vishaldeep; Thind, S S; Aggarwal, Poonam

    2012-02-01

    Studies were carried out to replace bakery shortening with refined rice bran oil in bread preparation. Physico-chemical properties of bakery shortening and rice bran oil were studied. Rice bran oil was found to have a higher content of essential fatty acid linoleic acid (34.98%) as compared to that of bakery shortening (5.14%). Chemical composition of wheat flour used was also evaluation. Bread samples were prepared by replacing bakery shortening with rice bran oil at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels. Breads were examined for bread making quality i.e. loaf weight, loaf height, loaf volume and specific volume and organoleptic quality i.e. appearance, crust colour, crumb colour, aroma, texture, taste and overall acceptability on a 9 point hedonic scale. Statistical analysis regarding bread making quality and organoleptic quality of bread revealed that bread making and organoleptic quality of breads prepared after replacing bakery shortening with rice bran oil at 50% level varied significantly from that of control. Statistically significant variations were observed in the texture of breads prepared with shortening from that prepared after replacing bakery shortening with rice bran oil at 50% level.

  14. Provitamin A retention and sensory acceptability of amahewu, a non-alcoholic cereal-based beverage made with provitamin A-biofortified maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awobusuyi, Temitope D; Siwela, Muthulisi; Kolanisi, Unathi; Amonsou, Eric O

    2016-03-15

    Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Amahewu is a popular southern African lactic acid fermented non-alcoholic maize-based beverage, which is deficient in vitamin A. In this study, provitamin A retention and sensory acceptability of amahewu processed using provitamin A-biofortified maize and three types of inoculums during fermentation (malted maize, wheat bran and Lactobacillus starter culture) were investigated. The total provitamin A content of amahewu samples, estimated as β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and α-carotene content, ranged from 3.3 to 3.8 g kg(-1) (dry weight). Provitamin A was substantially retained (79- 90% β-carotene equivalent) in amahewu after fermentation. Amahewu samples prepared with added starter cultures had the lowest retention of provitamin A. Consumers (approx. 69%) liked provitamin A-biofortified amahewu either moderately or very much. Principal component analysis of amahewu sensory data showed that 71% of variation was due to maize types and 18% of variation could be due to the inoculum used during fermentation. Amahewu samples prepared using provitamin A-biofortified maize were slightly more liked (mean score: 7.0 ± 1.2) compared to those of white maize reference samples. The use of starter culture combined with either malted maize or wheat bran as inoculum during fermentation improved the taste and aroma of amahewu and hence its acceptability. Provitamin A is substantially retained in amahewu after fermentation. The slightly high acceptability of amahewu prepared using provitamin A-biofortified maize compared to that of white maize thus suggests that fermented product like amahewu can potentially be used to deliver provitamin A to vulnerable individuals. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of maize, rapeseed, sugar beet and wheat for biofuels. NUTS-2 report from the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Te Buck, S.; Neeft, J.

    2010-06-15

    The objective of this report is to provide a list of provinces in The Netherlands in which typical greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of agricultural raw materials can be expected to be lower than or equal to the emissions reported under the heading 'Disaggregated default values for cultivation' in part D of Annex V to the Renewable Energy Directive (Directive 2009/28/EG). This list was made for four crops which are grown in The Netherlands and which are or might become raw materials for biofuel production: grain maize, winter rape seed, sugar beet and winter wheat. Agricultural data were collected by Wageningen University and Research centre (WUR) and published in a background report. The current report gives a summary of those data. Relative to the agricultural data from which the RED Annex V default values were calculated, yields, diesel use in machinery, N-fertiliser plus manure applications and N2O emissions in The Netherlands are in general (much) higher. Based on these agricultural data, greenhouse gas emissions were calculated using a publicly available Excel calculation tool. The results from these calculations were compared with the disaggregated default values for cultivation in part D of Annex V of the Renewable Energy Directive.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity, root colonization, and soil alkaline phosphatase activity in response to maize-wheat rotation and no-tillage in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junli; Yang, Anna; Zhu, Anning; Wang, Junhua; Dai, Jue; Wong, Ming Hung; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-07-01

    Monitoring the effects of no-tillage (NT) in comparison with conventional tillage (CT) on soil microbes could improve our understanding of soil biochemical processes and thus help us to develop sound management strategies. The objective of this study was to compare the species composition and ecological function of soil arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi during the growth and rotation of crops under NT and CT. From late June 2009 to early June 2010, 32 topsoil (0-15 cm) samples from four individual plots per treatment (CT and NT) were collected at both the jointing and maturation stages of maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from a long-term experimental field that was established in an Aquic Inceptisol in North China in June 2006. The AM fungal spores were isolated and identified and then used to calculate species diversity indices, including the Shannon- Wiener index (H'), Evenness (E), and Simpson's index (D). The root mycorrhizal colonization and soil alkaline phosphatase activity were also determined. A total of 34 species of AM fungi within nine genera were recorded. Compared with NT, CT negatively affected the soil AM fungal community at the maize sowing stage, leading to decreases in the average diversity indices (from 2.12, 0.79, and 0.82 to 1.79, 0.72, and 0.74 for H', E, and D, respectively), root mycorrhizal colonization (from 28% to 20%), soil alkaline phosphatase activity (from 0.24 to 0.19 mg/g/24 h) and available phosphorus concentration (from 17.4 to 10.5 mg/kg) at the maize jointing stage. However, reductions in diversity indices of H', E, and D were restored to 2.20, 0.81, and 0.84, respectively, at the maize maturation stage. CT should affect the community again at the wheat sowing stage; however, a similar restoration in the species diversity of AM fungi was completed before the wheat jointing stage, and the highest Jaccard index (0.800) for similarity in the species composition of soil AM fungi between CT and NT was recorded at

  17. Stable isotope evidences for identifying crop water uptake in a typical winter wheat-summer maize rotation field in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Fadong; Ai, Zhipin; Li, Jing; Gu, Congke

    2017-11-09

    Better managing agricultural water resources, which are increasingly stressed by climate change and anthropogenic activities, is difficult, particularly because of variations in water uptake patterns associated with crop type and growth stage. Thus, the stable isotopes δ18O and δ2H were employed to investigate the water uptake patterns of a summer maize (Zea mays L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation system in the North China Plain. Based on the soil water content, soil layers were divided into four groups (0-20cm, 20-40cm, 40-120cm, and 120-200cm) using a hierarchical cluster analysis. The main soil layer of water uptake for summer maize was from 0-20cm at the trefoil (77.8%) and jointing (48.6%) stages to 20-40cm at the booting (33.6%) and heading (32.6%) stages, became 40-120cm at the silking (32.0%) and milking (36.7%) stages, and then returned to 0-20cm at the mature (35.0%) and harvest (52.4%) stages. Winter wheat most absorbed water from the 0-20cm soil water at the wintering (86.6%), seedling (83.7%), jointing (45.2%), booting (51.4%), heading (28.8%), and mature (67.8%) stages, but it was 20-40cm at the flowering (34.8%) and milking (25.2%) stages. The dry root weight density was positively correlated with the contributions of the water uptake for winter wheat. However, no similar correlation was found in summer maize. Regression analysis indicated that the soil volumetric water content (SVWC) was negatively correlated with the contribution of the water uptake (CWU) for summer maize (CWU=-0.91×SVWC+57.75) and winter wheat (CWU=-2.03×SVWC+92.73). These different responses to water uptake contributions suggested that a traditional irrigation event should be postponed from the booting to flowering stage of winter wheat. This study provides insights into crop water uptake and agricultural water management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling potential freshwater ecotoxicity impacts due to pesticide use in biofuel feedstock production: the cases of maize, rapeseed, salix, soybean, sugar cane, and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordborg, Maria; Cederberg, Christel; Berndes, Göran

    2014-10-07

    The inclusion of ecotoxicity impacts of pesticides in environmental assessments of biobased products has long been hampered by methodological challenges. We expanded the pesticide database and the regional coverage of the pesticide emission model PestLCI v.2.0, combined it with the impact assessment model USEtox, and assessed potential freshwater ecotoxicity impacts (PFEIs) of pesticide use in selected biofuel feedstock production cases, namely: maize (Iowa, US, two cases), rapeseed (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany), Salix (South Central Sweden), soybean (Mato Grosso, Brazil, two cases), sugar cane (São Paulo, Brazil), and wheat (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany). We found that PFEIs caused by pesticide use in feedstock production varied greatly, up to 3 orders of magnitude. Salix has the lowest PFEI per unit of energy output and per unit of cultivated area. Impacts per biofuel unit were 30, 750, and 1000 times greater, respectively, for the sugar cane, wheat and rapeseed cases than for Salix. For maize genetically engineered (GE) to resist glyphosate herbicides and to produce its own insecticidal toxin, maize GE to resist glyphosate, soybeans GE to resist glyphosate and conventional soybeans, the impacts were 110, 270, 305, and 310 times greater than for Salix, respectively. The significance of field and site-specific conditions are discussed, as well as options for reducing negative impacts in biofuel feedstock production.

  19. Genes controlling plant growth habit in Leymus (Triticeae): maize barren stalk1 (ba1), rice lax panicle, and wheat tiller inhibition (tin3) genes as possible candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Parminder; Larson, Steven R; Shaun Bushman, B; Wang, Richard R-C; Mott, Ivan W; Hole, David; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Gong, George; Liu, Lei

    2008-11-01

    Leymus cinereus and L. triticoides are large caespitose and rhizomatous perennial grasses, respectively. Previous studies detected quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling rhizome spreading near the viviparous1 (vp1) gene markers on linkage groups LG3a and LG3b in two families, TTC1 and TTC2, derived from Leymus triticoides x Leymus cinereus hybrids. The wheat tiller inhibition gene (tin3) is located on Triticum monococcum chromosome 3 A(m)L near vp1. Triticeae group 3 is reportedly collinear with rice chromosome 1, which also contains the maize barren stalk1 and rice lax branching orthogene near vp1. However, previous studies lacked cross-species markers for comparative mapping and showed possible rearrangements of Leymus group 3 in wheat-Leymus racemosus chromosome addition lines. Here, we developed expressed sequence tag (EST) markers from Leymus tiller and rhizomes and mapped sequences aligned to rice chromosome 1. Thirty-eight of 44 informative markers detected loci on Leymus LG3a and LG3b that were collinear with homoeologous sequences on rice chromosome 1 and syntenous in homoeologous group 3 wheat-Leymus and wheat-Thinopyrum addition lines. A SCARECROW-like GRAS-family transcription factor candidate gene was identified in the Leymus EST library, which aligns to the Leymus chromosome group 3 growth habit QTL and a 324-kb rice chromosome 1 region thought to contain the wheat tin3 gene.

  20. Growth response of maize plants (Zea mays L.) to wheat and lentil pre-cropping and to indigenous mycorrhizal in field soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almaca, A.; Ortas, I.

    2010-07-01

    The presence of indigenous mycorrhizal fungi may have significant effects on the growth and on the root morphology of plants, under arid and semi arid soil conditions. Lentil and wheat are the traditional crops grown in Southeastern Turkey. In this study soil samples from the Harran plain were collected from the 0-15 cm surface layer under wheat or lentil crop residues and used in a pot experiment carried out under greenhouse conditions with four levels of P fertilization: 0, 20, 40 and 80 mg kg{sup -}1 soil as Ca(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. Half of the soil batches were submitted to a heating treatment (80 degree centigrade, 2 h). The maize variety PX-9540 was grown in the pots for 57 days. At harvest, plant dry weight, root length, P and Zn concentrations in plant tissues were measured and the extent of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was determined. Results showed that maize plants grown in soils where lentil had been previously cultivated grew better than those grown after wheat cultivation. In both cases, P concentration in plant tissues increased with increased P fertilization. There were no significant differences in root AMF colonization between soils with different crop sequences, nor with soils submitted to high temperature. Previous crops had a significant influence on the growth of plants that could be related to differences in the indigenous mycorrhizas inoculum potential and efficacy that can promote P uptake and benefit plant growth. (Author) 29 refs.

  1. Evaluation of the CropSyst Model during Wheat-Maize Rotations on the North China Plain for Identifying Soil Evaporation Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP is a major grain production zone that plays a critical role in ensuring China's food supply. Irrigation is commonly used during grain production; however, the high annual water deficit [precipitation (P minus evapotranspiration (ET] in typical irrigated cropland does not support double cropping systems (such as maize and wheat and this has resulted in the steep decline in the water table (~0.8 m year−1 at the Luancheng station that has taken place since the 1970s. The current study aimed to adapt and check the ability of the CropSyst model (Suite-4 to simulate actual evapotranspiration (ETa, biomass, and grain yield, and to identify major evaporation (E losses from winter wheat (WW and summer maize (SM rotations. Field experiments were conducted at the Luancheng Agro-ecosystem station, NCP, in 2010–2011 to 2012–2013. The CropSyst model was calibrated on wheat/maize (from weekly leaf area/biomass data available for 2012–2013 and validated onto measured ETa, biomass, and grain yield at the experimental station from 2010–2011 to 2011–2012, by using model calibration parameters. The revalidation was performed with the ETa, biomass, grain yield, and simulated ETa partition for 2008–2009 WW [ETa partition was measured by the Micro-lysimeter (MLM and isotopes approach available for this year]. For the WW crop, E was 30% of total ETa; but from 2010–11 to 2013, the annual average E was ~40% of ETa for the WW and SM rotation. Furthermore, the WW and SM rotation from 2010–2011 to 2012–2013 was divided into three growth periods; (i pre-sowing irrigation (PSI; sowing at field capacity to emergence period (EP, (ii EP to canopy cover period (CC and (iii CC to harvesting period (HP, and E from each growth period was ~10, 60, and 30%, respectively. In general, error statistics such as RMSE, Willmott's d, and NRMSE in the model evaluation for wheat ETa (maize ETa were 38.3 mm, 0.81, and 9.24% (31.74 mm, 0.73, and 11

  2. Evaluation of the CropSyst Model during Wheat-Maize Rotations on the North China Plain for Identifying Soil Evaporation Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umair, Muhammad; Shen, Yanjun; Qi, Yongqing; Zhang, Yucui; Ahmad, Ayesha; Pei, Hongwei; Liu, Meiying

    2017-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is a major grain production zone that plays a critical role in ensuring China's food supply. Irrigation is commonly used during grain production; however, the high annual water deficit [precipitation (P) minus evapotranspiration (ET)] in typical irrigated cropland does not support double cropping systems (such as maize and wheat) and this has resulted in the steep decline in the water table (~0.8 m year−1 at the Luancheng station) that has taken place since the 1970s. The current study aimed to adapt and check the ability of the CropSyst model (Suite-4) to simulate actual evapotranspiration (ETa), biomass, and grain yield, and to identify major evaporation (E) losses from winter wheat (WW) and summer maize (SM) rotations. Field experiments were conducted at the Luancheng Agro-ecosystem station, NCP, in 2010–2011 to 2012–2013. The CropSyst model was calibrated on wheat/maize (from weekly leaf area/biomass data available for 2012–2013) and validated onto measured ETa, biomass, and grain yield at the experimental station from 2010–2011 to 2011–2012, by using model calibration parameters. The revalidation was performed with the ETa, biomass, grain yield, and simulated ETa partition for 2008–2009 WW [ETa partition was measured by the Micro-lysimeter (MLM) and isotopes approach available for this year]. For the WW crop, E was 30% of total ETa; but from 2010–11 to 2013, the annual average E was ~40% of ETa for the WW and SM rotation. Furthermore, the WW and SM rotation from 2010–2011 to 2012–2013 was divided into three growth periods; (i) pre-sowing irrigation (PSI; sowing at field capacity) to emergence period (EP), (ii) EP to canopy cover period (CC) and (iii) CC to harvesting period (HP), and E from each growth period was ~10, 60, and 30%, respectively. In general, error statistics such as RMSE, Willmott's d, and NRMSE in the model evaluation for wheat ETa (maize ETa) were 38.3 mm, 0.81, and 9.24% (31.74 mm, 0.73, and 11

  3. Yield-scaled N2O emissions were effectively reduced by biochar amendment of sandy loam soil under maize - wheat rotation in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yuhui; Chen, Zengming; Müller, Christoph; Zaman, Monhammad M.; Kim, Donggill; Yu, Hongyan; Ding, Weixin

    2017-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that the addition of biochar to soil has potential to mitigate climate change and increase soil fertility by enhancing carbon (C) storage. However, the effect of biochar on yield and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from upland fields remains unclear. In this study, a one-year field experiment was conducted in an area of calcareous fluvo-aquic soil to assess and quantify the effect of maize straw biochar in reducing N2O loss during 2014-2015 in the North China Plain. Eight treatments were designed as follows: no nitrogen (N) fertilizer (control, CK); biochar application at rates of 3 (B3), 6 (B6) and 12 (B12) t ha-1; chemical fertilizer (NPK) application at 200 kg N ha-1 (F); and fertilizer plus biochar application at rates of 3 (FB3), 6 (FB6) and 12 (FB12) t ha-1. Crop yield, N2O fluxes, soil mineral N concentrations, and soil auxiliary parameters were measured following the application of treatments during each season. During the maize growing season, N2O emission was 0.57 kg N2O-N ha-1 under CK treatment, and increased to 0.88, 0.93 and 1.10 kg N2O-N ha-1 under B3, B6 and B12, respectively. In contrast, N2O emissions were significantly reduced by 31.4-39.9% (P effect of fertilizer and biochar on N2O emissions (P biochar had no effect on N2O emissions regardless of the fertilizer regime. Biochar application did not affect maize yield; however, a significant increase in wheat yield of 16.6-25.9% (P biochar rate of 12 t ha-1 with fertilization. Overall, under maize cropping, N2O emissions per unit yield of grain, biomass, grain N and biomass N (yield-scaled N2O emissions) were significantly reduced by 32.4-39.9% under FB compared with F treatment, regardless of the biochar application rate. Biochar did not affect yield-scaled N2O emissions in wheat. Decreased soil bulk density with biochar is suggested to reduce the denitrification potential and N2O emissions; while increased retention capacity of fertilizer N in biochar-added soil

  4. Monitoring temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon decomposition under maize-wheat cropping systems in semi-arid India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, S; Manjaiah, K M; Mayadevi, M R; Singh, A K

    2016-08-01

    Long-term storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) is essential for sustainability of agricultural ecosystems and maintaining overall environment quality as soils contain a significant part of global carbon stocks. In this study, we attempted to explain the carbon mineralization and temperature sensitivity of SOC in maize-wheat systems, a common cropping system in the semi-arid regions of India. Soil samples(0-0.15 m) from long-term experimental plots laid in split plot design with two tillage systems (conventional tillage and bed planting) and six nutrient management treatments (T 1 = control, T 2 = 120 kg urea-N/ha, T 3 = T2 (25 % N substituted by farmyard manure (FYM)), T 4 = T 2 (25 % N substituted by sewage sludge), T 5 = T 2 + crop residue, T 6 = 100 % recommended doses of N through organic source - 50 % FYM + 25 % biofertilizer + 25 % crop residue) were incubated at different temperatures (25, 30, 35, and 40 °C) to determine the thermal sensitivity parameters associated with carbon mineralization. Earlier reports suggest a selective preservation of C3-derived carbon fractions over C4 in the SOC pool, and this is the first instance where δ (13)C signatures (C4-derived carbon) were used as a qualitative measure to assess thermal sensitivity of SOC pools in the maize-wheat crop rotation systems of semi-arid India. Among the nutrient management treatments, mineral fertilizers were found to add more C4-derived carbon to the SOC pool in both the tillage systems but shows less promise in SOC stability as indicated by their lower activation energies (Ea) (14.25 kJ mol(-1)). Conventional tillage was found to mineralize 18.80 % (T 1-control at 25 °C) to 29.93 % carbon (T 3-mineral fertilizer + FYM at 40 °C) during the 150 days of incubation which was significantly higher than bed planting system (14.90 % in T 1-control at 25 °C and 21.99 % in T 6-100% organic sources at 40 °C). Organic manures, especially FYM (19

  5. Assessing biogeochemical effects and best management practice for a wheat-maize cropping system using the DNDC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, F.; Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Wang, K.; Zhou, Z.; Deng, J.

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary agriculture is shifting from a single-goal to a multi-goal strategy, which in turn requires choosing best management practice (BMP) based on an assessment of the biogeochemical effects of management alternatives. The bottleneck is the capacity of predicting the simultaneous effects of different management practice scenarios on multiple goals and choosing BMP among scenarios. The denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model may provide an opportunity to solve this problem. We validated the DNDC model (version 95) using the observations of soil moisture and temperature, crop yields, aboveground biomass and fluxes of net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3) from a wheat-maize cropping site in northern China. The model performed well for these variables. Then we used this model to simulate the effects of management practices on the goal variables of crop yields, NO emission, nitrate leaching, NH3 volatilization and net emission of greenhouse gases in the ecosystem (NEGE). Results showed that no-till and straw-incorporated practices had beneficial effects on crop yields and NEGE. Use of nitrification inhibitors decreased nitrate leaching and N2O and NO emissions, but they significantly increased NH3 volatilization. Irrigation based on crop demand significantly increased crop yield and decreased nitrate leaching and NH3 volatilization. Crop yields were hardly decreased if nitrogen dose was reduced by 15% or irrigation water amount was reduced by 25%. Two methods were used to identify BMP and resulted in the same BMP, which adopted the current crop cultivar, field operation schedules and full straw incorporation and applied nitrogen and irrigation water at 15 and 25% lower rates, respectively, than the current use. Our study indicates that the DNDC model can be used as a tool to assess biogeochemical effects of management alternatives and identify BMP.

  6. Replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in the diet of lactating dairy cows: Feed intake, milk production and cow condition responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Ruairi P; Staines, Martin vH

    2017-08-01

    This research paper describes the effect of partially replacing wheat with maize grain and canola meal on milk production and body condition changes in early lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows consuming a grass silage-based diet over an 83-d period. Two groups of 39 cows were stratified for age, parity, historical milk yield and days in milk (DIM), and offered one of two treatment diets. The first treatment (CON) reflected a typical diet used by Western Australian dairy producers in summer and comprised (kg DM/cow per d); 8 kg of annual ryegrass silage, 6 kg of crushed wheat (provided once daily in a mixed ration), 3·6 kg of crushed lupins (provided in the milking parlour in two daily portions) and ad libitum lucerne haylage. The second treatment diet (COMP) was identical except the 6 kg of crushed wheat was replaced by 6 kg of a more complex concentrate mix (27% crushed wheat, 34% maize grain and 37% canola meal). Lucerne haylage was provided independently in the paddock to all cows, and no pasture was available throughout the experiment. The COMP group had a greater mean overall daily intake (22·5 vs 20·4 kg DM/cow) and a higher energy corrected milk (ECM) yield (29·2 vs 27·1 kg/cow; P = 0·047) than the CON cows. The difference in overall intake was caused by a higher daily intake of lucerne haylage in COMP cows (4·5 vs 2·3 kg DM/cow). The CON group had a higher concentration of milk fat (42·1 vs 39·3 g/kg; P = 0·029) than COMP cows. Milk protein yield was greater in COMP cows (P < 0·021); however, milk fat yield was unaffected by treatment. It is concluded that partially replacing wheat with canola meal and maize grain in a grass silage-based diet increases voluntary DMI of conserved forage and consequently yields of ECM and milk protein.

  7. Effects of bran, shorts and feed flour by ultra-fine grinding on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat bran, shorts and feed flour are rich in dietary fiber and micronutrients. The effects of ultra-fine ground bran, shorts and feed flour on rheological characteristics of dough and bread qualities were investigated. Water absorption and dough development time gradually increased while mixing tolerance index and dough ...

  8. Characterization of modified high-amylose maize starch-α-naphthol complexes and their influence on rheological properties of wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Wang, Ya-Jane

    2013-05-01

    Amylose can form inclusion complexes with diverse small molecules. Modified starch has different and unique properties compared with its native counterpart. In this study, chemically/enzymatically modified high-amylose maize starches were used to make inclusion complexes with α-naphthol, and the physical properties of complexes and their influences on the rheology of wheat starch were characterized. The results showed that modification of starch had little influence on the wide angle X-ray diffraction pattern of complex (eightfold single helix), but did so on the complexation index and precipitation yield. Inclusion complexes with chemically modified starch showed a lower range of thermostability and recrystallization temperatures. Addition of complex considerably influenced the rheological properties of wheat starch, and the effect was dependent on the type of modified starch used. It may be concluded that starch inclusion complexes, with a range of properties and potential food applications, may be feasibly prepared by using diverse modified high-amylose maize starches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Acclimation of biochemical and diffusive components of photosynthesis in rice, wheat and maize to heat and water deficit: implications for modeling photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alejandro Perdomo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the combined effects of heat stress, increased vapor pressure deficit (VPD and water deficit on the physiology of major crops needs to be better understood to help identifying the expected negative consequences of climate change and heat waves on global agricultural productivity. To address this issue, rice, wheat and maize plants were grown under control temperature (CT, 25°C, VPD 1.8 kPa, and a high temperature (HT, 38°C, VPD 3.5 kPa, both under well-watered (WW and water deficit (WD conditions. Gas-exchange measurements showed that, in general, WD conditions affected the leaf conductance to CO2, while growth at HT had a more marked effect on the biochemistry of photosynthesis. When combined, HT and WD had an additive effect in limiting photosynthesis. The negative impacts of the imposed treatments on the processes governing leaf gas-exchange were species-dependent. Wheat presented a higher sensitivity while rice and maize showed a higher acclimation potential to increased temperature. Rubisco and PEPC kinetic constants determined in vitro at 25°C and 38°C were used to estimate Vcmax, Jmax and Vpmax in the modeling of C3 and C4 photosynthesis. The results here obtained reiterate the need to use species-specific and temperature-specific values for Rubisco and PEPC kinetic constants for a precise parameterization of the photosynthetic response to changing environmental conditions in different crop species.

  10. Influence of gelatinization on the extraction of phenolic acids from wheat fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) concentration quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913 µg/g) w...

  11. Developed Maize Varieties in Nigeria.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, the most important cereals are sorghum, millet, rice, maize and wheat (Wudiri, 1999). Of all these cereals, maize. remains the most popularly grown and consumed in all- ecological zones of the country. I. The major chemical constituent of the maize kernel is carbohydrate which accounts for 72-73% of the Kernel.

  12. Bran as a source of dietary fiber in oatmeal cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vratanina, D; Zabik, M E

    1980-07-01

    A panel of 1,542 Michigan consumers found oatmeal cookies in which 50 per cent of the flour was replaced with ground red or white wheat bran and a control cookie similarly acceptable. Cookie buying habits, consumer awareness of dietary fiber, and their methods of increasing it were cross-tabulated with demographic data.

  13. Influence of the nitrate concentration and source in the incorporation of 14{sub C}O2 by the RuBP-carboxylase from wheat (triticum aestivum) and maize (zea mays); Influencia de la concentracion y fuente de nitrogeno en la incorporacion de 14{sub C}O2 por la RuBp-carboxilasa de trigo (triticum aewtivum) y maiz (zea mays)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saez Angulo, R. M.; Gines Diaz, M. J.; Garcia Pineda, M. D.

    1982-07-01

    The effect of the concentration and source of nitrogen in the culture media has been studied regarding its influence in the activity of the RuBP-carboxylase from wheat and maize during the first month of development. Wheat and maize has been chosen as plants representatives of two different types of CO{sub 2} assimilation: C3 and M- respectively. Plants have been grown in hydroponic media and under temperature, humidity and nutrient salts control. A negative effect of NH{sub 4} has been observed in the enzymatic activity of wheat seedlings, being this effect more remarkable as NH{sub 4} concentration increases and as long the time of treatment. In our experimental conditions the most favorable source of nitrogen has been N0{sub 3}NH{sub 4}. The specific activity of the enzyme from wheat is about four times higher than in maize, even it decreases with time. This decreasing has not been observed in maize, with the exception of total absence of nitrogen in the media. We have not seen significant differences between the two photo periods which have been tested. Also, no differences have been found in the enzyme activities at the different NO{sub 3}NH{sub 4} concentrations assayed, and it seems that RuBP-carboxylase metabolism is only affected in the case of absolute stress. (Author) 20 refs.

  14. Effect of broiler breeder feeding programme and feeder space change at photostimulation using maize- or wheat-based diets on broiler progeny growth performance and leg health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio-Balcazar, P; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Wineland, M J; Osborne, J; Brake, J

    2015-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diet type, maternal feeding programme at 29 weeks of age and breeder feeder space change at photostimulation on broiler progeny performance and leg health at 6 weeks of age. 2. Fast-feathering Cobb 500 broiler breeders were fed on either maize- or wheat-based diets that had been formulated to have similar nutrient composition during growing and layer phases. Two feeding programmes, fast or flow, were used from 14 to 29 weeks of age. At 22 weeks, 69 females from each pen were placed in a layer house where feeder space was either similar to that in rearing (6.3 to 6.5 cm/female) or was increased from 6.3 to 8.4 cm/female. Eggs produced at 32 and 44 weeks of age were collected and incubated for two broiler experiments. A total of 16 male and 16 female one-d-old chicks were placed in floor pens in two experiments, respectively, with 6 and 4 replicate pens. Broiler gait scores and leg problem prevalence were evaluated at 6 weeks of age. 3. Data were analysed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design with diet type, feeding programme and feeder space change as main factors. 4. The wheat diet increased the probability of observing crooked toes in broiler progeny compared to the use of maize, but only when breeders were fed according to the fast feeding programme and given similar feeder space as during rearing. 5. Breeders given more feeder space in the laying period produced progeny with more locomotion problems compared with those provided similar feeder space, but only when maize was used and the slow feeding programme was applied to the breeders. 6. The maternal feeding programme interacted with other factors to influence progeny leg health, but it did not solely influence walking ability or leg problems of progeny. 7. In conclusion, an increased probability of observing walking impairment of broiler progeny was detected when breeders were given greater feeder space at photostimulation rather than no change and fed

  15. Analysis of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) harboring a maize (Zea mays L.) gene for plastid EF-Tu: segregation pattern, expression and effects of the transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianming; Ristic, Zoran

    2010-06-01

    We previously reported that transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) carrying a maize (Zea mays L.) gene (Zmeftu1) for chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factor, EF-Tu, displays reduced thermal aggregation of leaf proteins, reduced injury to photosynthetic membranes (thylakoids), and enhanced rate of CO(2) fixation following exposure to heat stress (18 h at 45 degrees C) [Fu et al. in Plant Mol Biol 68:277-288, 2008]. In the current study, we investigated the segregation pattern and expression of the transgene Zmeftu1 and determined the grain yield of transgenic plants after exposure to a brief heat stress (18 h at 45 degrees C). We also assessed thermal aggregation of soluble leaf proteins in transgenic plants, testing the hypothesis that increased levels of EF-Tu will lead to a non-specific protection of leaf proteins against thermal aggregation. The transgenic wheat displayed a single-gene pattern of segregation of Zmeftu1. Zmeftu1 was expressed, and the transgenic plants synthesized and accumulated three anti-EF-Tu cross-reacting polypeptides of similar molecular mass but different pI, suggesting the possibility of posttranslational modification of this protein. The transgenic plants also showed better grain yield after exposure to heat stress compared with their non-transgenic counterparts. Soluble leaf proteins of various molecular masses displayed lower thermal aggregation in transgenic than in non-transgenic wheat. The results suggest that overexpression of chloroplast EF-Tu can be beneficial to wheat tolerance to heat stress. Moreover, the results also support the hypothesis that EF-Tu contributes to heat tolerance by acting as a molecular chaperone and protecting heat-labile proteins from thermal aggregation in a non-specific manner.

  16. The effect of rolled barley, sodium hydroxide-treated wheat or maize cob silage on digestive enzymes activity in the alimentary tract of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moharrey, A.; Hymøller, Lone; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2017-01-01

    In the present study digestive enzyme activities were studied in the rumen, intestine and faeces of dairy cows fed rations differing in starch source. Three total mixed rations were prepared for dairy cows with maize cob silage (MCS), sodium hydroxide-treated wheat (SHW) or rolled barley as starch...... energy for lipolytic bacteria. So, the enzymes activities in the different parts of the digestive tract were not affected by the different starch sources....... barley (~25% of DM). Samples from different parts of the digestive tract (rumen, duodenum, ileum) and faeces were collected and enzymatic activities of α-amylase, protease and lipase as well as their products content in fresh samples were estimated. When MCS replaced barley or SHW, it resulted in lower...

  17. Effects of nitrification inhibitors (DCD and DMPP) on nitrous oxide emission, crop yield and nitrogen uptake in a wheat-maize cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Wang, K.; Zheng, X.

    2013-04-01

    The application of nitrification inhibitors together with ammonium-based fertilizers is proposed as a potent method to decrease nitrous oxide (N2O) emission while promoting crop yield and nitrogen use efficiency in fertilized agricultural fields. To evaluate the effects of nitrification inhibitors, we conducted year-round measurements of N2O fluxes, yield, aboveground biomass, plant carbon and nitrogen contents, soil inorganic nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon contents and the main environmental factors for urea (U), urea + dicyandiamide (DCD) and urea + 3,4-dimethylpyrazol phosphate (DMPP) treatments in a wheat-maize rotation field. The cumulative N2O emissions were calculated to be 4.49 ± 0.21, 2.93 ± 0.06 and 2.78 ± 0.16 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for the U, DCD and DMPP treatments, respectively. Therefore, the DCD and DMPP treatments significantly decreased the annual emissions by 35% and 38%, respectively (p < 0.01). The variations of soil temperature, moisture and inorganic nitrogen content regulated the seasonal fluctuation of N2O emissions. When the emissions presented clearly temporal variations, high-frequency measurements or optimized sampling schedule for intermittent measurements would likely provide more accurate estimations of annual cumulative emission and treatment effect. The application of nitrification inhibitors significantly increased the soil inorganic nitrogen content (p < 0.01); shifted the main soil inorganic nitrogen form from nitrate to ammonium; and tended to increase the dissolved organic carbon content, crop yield, aboveground biomass and nitrogen uptake by aboveground plant. The results demonstrate the roles the nitrification inhibitors play in enhancing yield and nitrogen use efficiency and reducing N2O emission from the wheat-maize cropping system.

  18. Effect of extrusion processing on the soluble and insoluble fiber, and phytic acid contents of cereal brans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualberto, D G; Bergman, C J; Kazemzadeh, M; Weber, C W

    1997-01-01

    The health benefits associated with dietary fiber have resulted in it now being used in virtually all food product categories, including many products which are manufactured using extrusion processing. The objective of the present study was to determine if extrusion processing affected phytic acid, and soluble and insoluble fiber contents. The effect of screw speeds of 50, 70, and 100% of maximum rotations per minute (% MRPM) on these components was investigated. A BI-EX Model DNDG-62/20D co-rotating intermeshing self-cleaning twin-screw extruder, manufactured by Bühlerag, CH-9240, Uzwil, Switzerland, was used to process wheat, oat and rice brans. It was found that extrusion did not affect the insoluble fiber content of wheat bran; however, a decrease in this component was observed in rice and oat brans. The effect on rice bran insoluble fiber was greatest at screw speeds of 50 and 70% MRPM. This occurred in oat bran at 50% MRPM. Soluble fiber content increased in all brans after extrusion, except ER100. For oat and rice bran soluble fibers, the greatest increase occurred at 50 and 70% MRPM, while for wheat bran this occurred at 70 and 100% MRPM. Extrusion did not affect the phytate content of the cereal brans.

  19. Inhibition of hyaluronidase activity by select sorghum brans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bralley, Eve; Greenspan, Phillip; Hargrove, James L; Hartle, Diane K

    2008-06-01

    Hyaluronidase hydrolyzes glycosaminoglycans, including hyaluronan, in the extracellular matrix during tissue remodeling. Hyaluronidase activity increases in chronic inflammatory conditions, e.g., inflammatory joint disease. In this study, we tested the ability of ethanolic extracts (1:9 [wt/vol] of 50% ethanol) of bran from six cultivated varieties of Sorghum bicolor to inhibit hyaluronidase activity in vitro in comparison to extracts of wheat and rice bran. Each extract inhibited hyaluronidase activity with this order of potency: Sumac > Shanqui Red > Black > Mycogen > Fontanelle > White sorghum. Extracts of wheat and rice bran had weak inhibitory activities relative to the high phenolic sorghum brans. Hyaluronidase inhibition correlated positively with total phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant power values for each bran extract. Inhibition was not only due to condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) because the Black sorghum cultivar lacks condensed tannins but has abundant anthocyanins and other polyphenols. Since hyaluronidase activity is important in conditions such as osteoarthritis and skin aging, these sorghum varieties deserve consideration for functional foods and beverages, and for nutraceutical and cosmeceutical ingredients.

  20. Nitrate leaching in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation on a calcareous soil as affected by nitrogen and straw management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Ju, Xiaotang; Yang, Hao

    2017-02-01

    Nitrate leaching is one of the most important pathways of nitrogen (N) loss which leads to groundwater contamination or surface water eutrophication. Clarifying the rates, controlling factors and characteristics of nitrate leaching is the pre-requisite for proposing effective mitigation strategies. We investigated the effects of interactions among chemical N fertilizer, straw and manure applications on nitrogen leaching in an intensively managed calcareous Fluvo-aquic soil with winter wheat-summer maize cropping rotations on the North China Plain from October 2010 to September 2013 using ceramic suction cups and seepage water calculations based on a long-term field experiment. Annual nitrate leaching reached 38-60 kg N ha-1 from conventional N managements, but declined by 32-71% due to optimum N, compost manure or municipal waste treatments, respectively. Nitrate leaching concentrated in the summer maize season, and fewer leaching events with high amounts are the characteristics of nitrate leaching in this region. Overuse of chemical N fertilizers, high net mineralization and nitrification, together with predominance of rainfall in the summer season with light soil texture are the main controlling factors responsible for the high nitrate leaching loss in this soil-crop-climatic system.

  1. Screening of plant and fungal metabolites in wheat, maize and animal feed using automated on-line clean-up coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ebru; Godula, Michal; Stroka, Joerg; Senyuva, Hamide

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of plant and fungal metabolites can occur in cereals and feed but only a limited number of target compounds are sought. This screening method is using a database of over 600 metabolites to establish contamination profiles in food and feed. Extracts were injected directly into an automated turbulent flow sample clean-up system, coupled to a liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometer (Orbitrap). Compound identification criteria for database searching were defined and the approach was validated by spiking plant and fungal metabolites into cereals and feed. A small survey of market samples (15) and quality control materials (9) of maize, wheat and feed was conducted using this method. Besides regulated and known secondary metabolites, fumiquinazoline F, fusarochromanone and dihydrofusarubin were identified for the first time in samples of maize and oats. This method enables clean-up of crude extracts within 18min and screening and confirmation of a wide range of different compound classes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Digestion of Starch Granules from Maize, Potato and Wheat by Larvae of the the Yellow Mealworm, Tenebrio molitor and the Mexican Bean Weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, Elaine A.; Carneiro, Cíntia N. B.; DaMatta, Renato A.; Samuels, Richard I.; Silva, Carlos P.

    2009-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy images were taken of starch granules from different sources following exposure in vivo and in vitro to gut α-amylases isolated from Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Zabrotes subfasciatus Boheman (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). One α-amylase was isolated from whole larval midguts of T. molitor using non-denaturing SDS-PAGE, while two other α-amylase fractions were isolated from whole larval midguts of Z. subfasciatus using hydrophobic interaction chromatography., Digested starch granules from larvae fed on maize, potato or wheat were isolated from midgut contents. Combinations of starch granules with isolated α-amylases from both species showed similar patterns of granule degradation. In vitro enzymatic degradation of maize starch granules by the three different α-amylase fractions began by creating small holes and crater-like areas on the surface of the granules. Over time, these holes increased in number and area resulting in extensive degradation of the granule structure. Granules from potato did not show formation of pits and craters on their surface, but presented extensive erosion in their interior. For all types of starch, as soon as the interior of the starch granule was reached, the inner layers of amylose and amylopectin were differentially hydrolyzed, resulting in a striated pattern. These data support the hypothesis that the pattern of starch degradation depends more on the granule type than on the α-amylase involved. PMID:19619014

  3. Assessing nitrogen flow in production and utilization cycle of wheat and maize as a tool to monitor N loss in Iran - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.16039

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooholla Moradi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing resource use efficiency is crucial for enhancement of agricultural productions and reducing environmental hazards. For this purpose, improvement of Nitrogen use efficiency is an effective approach. Not only N loss occurs in field but also in processing course of food utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate N loss and efficiency from production to consumption for wheat and maize. For this purpose, data for the amount of applied nitrogen, acreage, yields, amount of returned residue were collected and a proportion of N allocated to different source of food or feed was also traced. Results showed that total N harvested by wheat and maize were 387 and 81.7 kt and N use efficiency for the same crops were 25 and 60%, respectively. Efficiency of N harvested by the crops was different based on the path used. Total N use efficiency in food production cycle for wheat and maize were 14.2 and 7.6%, respectively. Higher efficiency of N was observed in plant food production compared with animal feed. In general, N use efficiency in plant food production system was about 13 times higher than that of feed. For decreasing N loss in food production system, efficiency should be increased in the field and processing courses.  

  4. Treatment of germinated wheat to increase levels of GABA and IP6 catalyzed by endogenous enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    We found that the levels of bioactive products from wheat can be increased dramatically by manipulating germination conditions and taking advantage of the activity of endogenous enzymes. The yield of phytic acid (IP(6)) from wheat germinated in the presence of high, controlled levels of dissolved oxygen (188 +/- 28 mg/100 g wheat) was almost three times greater than that from wheat germinated with no supplemental oxygen (74 +/- 10 mg/100 g wheat). The yield of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from wheat germinated in the presence of uncontrolled levels of dissolved oxygen was 18 +/- 3 times greater than that from nonsupplemented wheat (1 mg/100 g wheat). The concentration of GABA was much greater in wheat germ than in whole wheat, and the yield of GABA from wheat germ processed with supplemental water (163 +/- 7 mg/100 g wheat germ) was notably greater than that from wheat germ processed with no supplemental water (100 +/- 2 mg/100 g wheat germ). In contrast, IP(6) was more concentrated in wheat bran, and the yield of IP(6) from wheat bran processed with supplemental water (3100 +/- 12 mg/100 g wheat bran) was notably higher than that from wheat bran processed with no supplemental water (2420 +/- 13 mg/100 g wheat bran). We conclude that the large amount of GABA extracted from wheat germ is likely due to high glutamate decarboxylase activity and low aminotransferase activity and that the large amount of IP(6) extracted from wheat bran is likely due to high levels of tyrosinase activity. Our findings indicate that bioactive molecules such as GABA and IP(6) can be successfully mass-produced by taking advantage of endogenous enzymatic activities.

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions and stocks of soil carbon and nitrogen from a 20-year fertilised wheat-maize intercropping system: A model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xubo; Xu, Minggang; Liu, Jian; Sun, Nan; Wang, Boren; Wu, Lianhai

    2016-02-01

    Accurate modelling of agricultural management impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and the cycling of carbon and nitrogen is complicated due to interactions between various processes and the disturbance caused by field management. In this study, a process-based model, the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum System (SPACSYS), was used to simulate the effects of different fertilisation regimes on crop yields, the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (SN) stocks from 1990 to 2010, and soil CO2 (2007-2010) and N2O (2007-2008) emissions based on a long-term fertilisation experiment with a winter-wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) and summer-maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping system in Eutric Cambisol (FAO) soil in southern China. Three fertilisation treatments were 1) unfertilised (Control), 2) chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK), and 3) NPK plus pig manure (NPKM). Statistical analyses indicated that the SPACSYS model can reasonably simulate the yields of wheat and maize, the evolution of SOC and SN stocks and soil CO2 and N2O emissions. The simulations showed that the NPKM treatment had the highest values of crop yields, SOC and SN stocks, and soil CO2 and N2O emissions were the lowest from the Control treatment. Furthermore, the simulated results showed that manure amendment along with chemical fertiliser applications led to both C (1017 ± 470 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1)) and N gains (91.7 ± 15.1 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) in the plant-soil system, while the Control treatment caused a slight loss in C and N. In conclusion, the SPACSYS model can accurately simulate the processes of C and N as affected by various fertilisation treatments in the red soil. Furthermore, application of chemical fertilisers plus manure could be a suitable management for ensuring crop yield and sustaining soil fertility in the red soil region, but the ratio of chemical fertilisers to manure should be optimized to reduce C and N losses to the environment. Copyright © 2015

  6. Study on Effect of alfalfa, ryegrass and wheat middlings contents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    微软用户

    2013-03-13

    Mar 13, 2013 ... When the proportion of alfalfa, ryegrass and wheat bran in dietary was more than 18%, the apparent nutrient digestive ratios decreased. The current study indicates that the feasible proportion of alfalfa, ryegrass and wheat bran in diet in geese was 18%. Key words: Fibre, goose, growth performance, ...

  7. CHOICE OF EFFICIENT METHOD OF ADDING FLOUR FROM BUCKWHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the production of functional bakery products for therapeutic and preventive nutrition is of current importance. The problem of providing the population with functional products can be solved by enriching the recipes with vitamins, dietary fiber, micro and macronutrients. At the chair of "Technology of baking, confectionery, pasta and grain processing" of Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies the recipe of no-salt bread from mixture of baker’s first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat with adding buckwheat bran flour, that increases the nutrition value of the product, has been developed. Flour from buckwheat bran is characterized by a high-scale balance of the content of essential amino acids, good digestibility, rich in vitamins (especially B vitamins, PP, dietary fiber, minerals (potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron. The use of buckwheat flour from the bran in bread production stimulates the creation of favorable intestinal microflora, normalizes blood sugar level, and excretes toxins, toxic salts and heavy metals from the body. We have conducted a research on how to make the rational choice of method of adding buckwheat bran flour enricher into dough from a mixture of first grade wheat flour and whole-grain wheat, compressed yeast and potable water, thus ensuring high and stable physical and chemical characteristics and the quality of the end product. Also, we have discovered that the bakery product prepared on tight sponge with addition of enricher has much better organoleptical properties in comparison with the others. Bread is characterized by a pleasant taste and flavour, elastic porous crumb. It has been found that the consumption of 100 g of a mixture of no-salt bread from first grade wheat flour and whole-grain with adding buckwheat bran flour will provide enough daily intake of protein 10.7%, fat 1.5%, carbohydrates 10.4% dietary fiber 16.3%, amino acids 2.5 14.0%. No-salt bread is recommended to people

  8. IMPORTANCE OF MAIZE CROPPING

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Dhary Yousif EL-JUBOURI

    2012-01-01

    The Corn, wheat and rice together are the main crops. It is a plant that responds well to chemical and organic fertilization and the irrigation. But compliance is sensitive to optimum sowing time and integrated control of weeds, pests and diseases (2). The maize is the most important plant product, from the point of view commercially and is used primarily as fodder. The maize is an important source of vegetable oil and has many applications in industry, the manufacture of diverse items: cosme...

  9. Impacts of biochar addition on soil dissolved organic matter characteristics in a wheat-maize rotation system in Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Afeng; Zhou, Xu; Li, Ming; Wu, Haiming

    2017-11-01

    Biochar amendment in soil has the potential to sequester carbon, improve soil quality and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in agriculture, but the impact of biochar amendments on dissolved organic matter (DOM) properties of soils in the fertilized agro-ecosystem has received little research attention. This study performed a long-term field experiment to assess the influence of biochar amendments (different addition rate: 4 t ha-1 and 8 t ha-1) on DOM characteristics in soils in wheat-maize rotation system in Loess Plateau of China by exploiting fluorescence excitation-emission spectrophotometry and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC). Our results showed that the content of soil DOM was significantly influenced by the addition of biochar, and the higher biochar addition markedly increased the mean concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (from 83.99 mg kg-1 to 144.27 mg kg-1) in soils under the same fertilizer application. Three identified fluorescent components (fulvic acid-like, humic acid-like and tryptophan-like) were found, and fluorescence intensity of those components (especially humic-like material) was enhanced with the increasing DOC in the biochar treatments but the composition of DOM was not changed. These findings would be beneficial to understand the biochar's effects and processes in decreasing GHG emissions from soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Crop water productivity under increasing irrigation capacities in Romania. A spatially-explicit assessment of winter wheat and maize cropping systems in the southern lowlands of the country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Improved water use efficiency in agriculture is a key issue in terms of sustainable management and consumption of water resources in the context of peoples' increasing food demands and preferences, economic growth and agricultural adaptation options to climate variability and change. Crop Water Productivity (CWP), defined as the ratio of yield (or value of harvested crop) to actual evapotranspiration or as the ratio of yield (or value of harvested crop) to volume of supplied irrigation water (Molden et al., 1998), is a useful indicator in the evaluation of water use efficiency and ultimately of cropland management, particularly in the case of regions affected by or prone to drought and where irrigation application is essential for achieving expected productions. The present study investigates the productivity of water in winter wheat and maize cropping systems in the Romanian Plain (49 594 sq. km), an important agricultural region in the southern part of the country which is increasingly affected by drought and dry spells (Sandu and Mateescu, 2014). The scope of the analysis is to assess the gains and losses in CWP for the two crops, by considering increased irrigated cropland and improved fertilization, these being the most common measures potentially and already implemented by the farmers. In order to capture the effects of such measures on agricultural water use, the GIS-based EPIC crop-growth model (GEPIC) (Williams et al., 1989; Liu, 2009) was employed to simulate yields, seasonal evapotranspiration from crops and volume of irrigation water in the Romanian Plain for the 2002 - 2013 interval with focus on 2007 and 2010, two representative years for dry and wet periods, respectively. The GEPIC model operates on a daily time step, while the geospatial input datasets for this analysis (e.g. climate data, soil classes and soil parameters, land use) were harmonized at 1km resolution grid cell. The sources of the spatial data are mainly the national profile agencies

  11. Determination of fusarium mycotoxins in wheat, maize and animal feed using on-line clean-up with high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, E; Mittendorf, K; Stroka, J; Senyuva, H

    2013-01-01

    An automated method involving on-line clean-up and analytical separation in a single run using TurboFlow™ reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer has been developed for the simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol, T2 toxin, HT2 toxin, zearalenone and fumonisins B1 and B2 in maize, wheat and animal feed. Detection was performed in full scan mode at a resolution of R = 100,000 full width at half maximum with high energy collision cell dissociation for the determination of fragment ions with a mass accuracy below 5 ppm. The extract from homogenised samples, after blending with a 0.1% aqueous mixture of 0.1% formic acid/acetonitrile (43:57) for 45 min, was injected directly onto the TurboFlow™ (TLX) column for automated on-line clean-up followed by analytical separation and accurate mass detection. The TurboFlow™ column enabled specific binding of target mycotoxins, whereas higher molecular weight compounds, like fats, proteins and other interferences with different chemical properties, were removed to waste. Single laboratory method validation was performed by spiking blank materials with mycotoxin standards. The recovery and repeatability was determined by spiking at three concentration levels (50, 100 and 200% of legislative limits) with six replicates. Average recovery, relative standard deviation and intermediate precision values were 71 to 120%, 1 to 19% and 4 to 19%, respectively. The method accuracy was confirmed with certified reference materials and participation in proficiency testing.

  12. Rye bran bread intake elevates urinary excretion of ferulic acid in humans, but does not affect the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, H.; Tetens, I.; Let, Mette Bruni

    2004-01-01

    . The subjects ingested rye bran enriched breads equivalent to similar to 10.2 mg ferulic acid per day. Results The urinary excretion of ferulic acid averaged similar to 4.8 mg per day during intervention with rye bran breads and similar to 1.9 mg per day on the control breads (P = 0.002). Rye bran intervention......Background Rye bread contributes an important part of the whole grain intake in the Scandinavian diet. Ferulic acid is the major phenolic compound in rye bran and is an antioxidant in vitro and may, therefore, contribute to cardioprotective effects of whole grain consumption. Aim of study Firstly...... women after a dietary intake of rye bran or an inert wheat bran (control) in a crossover study (2 x 6 weeks with 4 weeks washout). The potential antioxidative effect of the rye bran intervention was investigated by measuring low-density lipoprotein (LDL) susceptibility to copper oxidation ex vivo...

  13. Efeito das fibras dos farelos de trigo e aveia sobre o perfil lipídico no sangue de ratos (Rattus norvegicus wistar Effect of wheat and oat bran fibers on the lipid profile of mouse (Rattus novergicus wistar blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Mendes da Silva

    2003-12-01

    éricos.This work aimed to determine the effects of oat and wheat bran fibers on the lipid profile in the blood of wistar mouse (Rattus novergicus. This work used 48 animals, which were randomly distributed and divided into eight groups. During a period of six days, the animals received a pattern diet for adapting to the experiment. After this period, the animals received different diets for 63 days. The diets were composed of 5, 10, and 15% of oat bran and 1% of cholesterol. Other three diests were composed of 5, 10, and 15% of wheat bran as fiber source and 1% of cholesterol. There was two control groups, being the first exempt of cholesterol and with 5% of cellulose as fiber source, and the second having 1% of cholesterol. After 63 days feeding the experimental diets, the animals were submitted to analyses for cholesterol in the blood, HDL, LDL, VLDL, and triacylglicerol. The mice fed with oatmeal at 5, 10, and 15% presented a significant reduction of serum cholesterol relative to the control group containing 1% of cholesterol and to those fed with 1% cholesterol. The HDL levels were higher in groups fed with oatmeal and 15% of wheat meal than in those fed wheat meal at 5 and 10%. In spite of that, there was no statistical difference relative to the control groups and those fed with oat brans. The LDL concentrations were lower in the treatments with 10 and 15% relative to the control containing cholesterol and to the treatments with wheat meal. Triacylglicerol levels were significantly lower in animals fed with 15% oatmeal and wheat meal relative to all other treatments. It follows that the lipid profile may be improved with the addition of oat bran to the diet and that wheat meal influences only the levels of serum triacylglicerol.

  14. Semisolid meal enriched in oat bran decreases plasma glucose and insulin levels, but does not change gastrointestinal peptide responses or short-term appetite in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juvonen, Kristiina R.; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Lyly, Marika

    2011-01-01

    male/15 female, aged 23.3 +/- 0.85y) participated in the study. Isoenergetic and isovolumic (1250 kJ, 300 g) puddings with different insoluble and soluble DF content were tested in a randomised order: pudding with 1) no added fibre, 2) 10 g wheat bran DF, 3) 10 g oat bran DF and 4) combination...

  15. Micronised bran-enriched fresh egg tagliatelle: Significance of gums addition on pasta technological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Esparza, M E; Raga, A; González-Martínez, C; Albors, A

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the work was to produce fibre-enriched fresh pasta based on micronised wheat bran and durum wheat semolina with appropriate techno-functional properties. Wheat semolina was replaced with fine particle size (50% below 75 µm) wheat bran - up to 11.54% (w/w). A Box-Behnken design with randomised response surface methodology was used to determine a suitable combination of carboxymethylcellulose, xanthan gum and locust bean gum to improve pasta attributes: minimum cooking loss, maximum values for water gain and swelling index, as well as better colour and texture characteristics before and after cooking. The proximate chemical composition of wheat semolina and bran was determined and the microstructure of uncooked pasta was observed as well. From the response surface methodology analysis, it is recommended to use: (i) xanthan gum over 0.6% w/w as it led to bran-enriched pasta with a better developed structure and superior cooking behaviour, (ii) a combination of xanthan gum (0.8% w/w) and carboxymethylcellulose (over 0.6% w/w) to enhance uncooked pasta yellowness.

  16. HYDRUS Simulation of Sustainable Brackish Water Irrigation in a Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Rotation System in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangkang He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater resources in the North China Plain (NCP are near depletion due to the unceasing overexploitation of deep groundwater, by far the most significant source of freshwater in the region. To deal with the deepening freshwater crisis, brackish water (rich but largely unused water in agriculture is increasingly being used in irrigation in the region. However, inappropriate irrigation with brackish water could lead to soil salinization and cropland degradation. To evaluate such negative impacts, the HYDRUS-1D model was used to simulate soil salt transport and accumulation under 15 years of irrigation with brackish water. The irrigation scenarios included brackish water irrigation during the wintering and jointing stages of winter wheat and then freshwater irrigation just before the sowing of summer maize. Freshwater irrigation was done to leach out soil salts, which is particularly vital in dry years. For the littoral region of the plain, HYDRUS-ID was used to simulate the irrigated cropping system stated above for a total period of 15 years. The results showed that it was feasible to use brackish water twice in one year, provided freshwater irrigation was performed before sowing summer maize. Freshwater irrigation, in conjunction with precipitation, leached out soil salts from the 100 cm root-zone depth. The maximum salt accumulation was in the 160–220 cm soil layer, which ensured that root-zone soil was free of restrictive salinity for crop growth. Precipitation was a critical determinant of the rate and depth leaching of soil salt. Heavy rainfall (>100 mm caused significant leaching of soluble salts in the 0–200 cm soil profile. Salt concentration under brackish water irrigation had no significant effect on the variations in the trend of soil salt transport in the soil profile. The variations of soil salinity were mainly affected by hydrological year type, for which the buried depth of soil salt was higher in wet years than in dry years

  17. Methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide fluxes in soil profile under a winter wheat-summer maize rotation in the North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Wang

    Full Text Available The production and consumption of the greenhouse gases (GHGs methane (CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O in soil profile are poorly understood. This work sought to quantify the GHG production and consumption at seven depths (0-30, 30-60, 60-90, 90-150, 150-200, 200-250 and 250-300 cm in a long-term field experiment with a winter wheat-summer maize rotation system, and four N application rates (0; 200; 400 and 600 kg N ha(-1 year(-1 in the North China Plain. The gas samples were taken twice a week and analyzed by gas chromatography. GHG production and consumption in soil layers were inferred using Fick's law. Results showed nitrogen application significantly increased N2O fluxes in soil down to 90 cm but did not affect CH4 and CO2 fluxes. Soil moisture played an important role in soil profile GHG fluxes; both CH4 consumption and CO2 fluxes in and from soil tended to decrease with increasing soil water filled pore space (WFPS. The top 0-60 cm of soil was a sink of atmospheric CH4, and a source of both CO2 and N2O, more than 90% of the annual cumulative GHG fluxes originated at depths shallower than 90 cm; the subsoil (>90 cm was not a major source or sink of GHG, rather it acted as a 'reservoir'. This study provides quantitative evidence for the production and consumption of CH4, CO2 and N2O in the soil profile.

  18. The effect of simple nitrogen fertilizer recommendation strategies on product carbon footprint and gross margin of wheat and maize production in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nan; Feike, Til; Back, Hans; Xiao, Haifeng; Bahrs, Enno

    2015-11-01

    Overuse of nitrogen (N) fertilizer constitutes the major issue of current crop production in China, exerting a substantial effect on global warming through massive emission of greenhouse gas (GHG). Despite the ongoing effort, which includes the promotion of technologically sophisticated N management schemes, farmers' N rates maintain at excessive rates. Therefore the current study tests three simple and easily to apply N fertilizer recommendation strategies, which could be implemented on large scale through the existing agricultural advisory system of China, at comparatively low cost. Building on a detailed crop production dataset of 65 winter wheat (WW) and summer maize (SM) producing farm households of the North China Plain, scenario analysis is applied. The effects of the three N strategies under constant and changing yield levels on product carbon footprint (PCF) and gross margin (GM) are determined for the production condition of every individual farm household. The N fixed rate strategy realized the highest improvement potential in PCF and GM in WW; while the N coefficient strategy performed best in SM. The analysis furthermore revealed that improved N management has a significant positive effect on PCF, but only a marginal and insignificant effect on GM. On the other side, a potential 10% yield loss would have only a marginal effect on PCF, but a detrimental effect on farmers' income. With farmers currently applying excessive N rates as "cheap insurance" against potential N limitation, it will be of vital importance to avoid any yield reductions (caused by N limitation) and respective severe financial losses, when promoting and implementing advanced fertilization strategies. To achieve this, it is furthermore recommended to increase the price of fertilizer, improve the agricultural extensions system, and recognize farmers' fertilizer related decision-making processes as key research areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term manure amendments and chemical fertilizers enhanced soil organic carbon sequestration in a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize (Zea mays L.) rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuiqing; Huang, Shaomin; Li, Jianwei; Guo, Doudou; Lin, Shan; Lu, Guoan

    2017-06-01

    The carbon sequestration potential is affected by cropping system and management practices, but soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential under fertilizations remains unclear in north China. This study examined SOC change, total C input to soil and, via integration of these estimates over years, carbon sequestration efficiency (CSE, the ratio of SOC change over C input) under no fertilization (control), chemical nitrogen fertilizer alone (N) or combined with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NP, NK, PK and NPK), or chemical fertilizers combined with low or high (1.5×) manure input (NPKM and 1.5NPKM). Results showed that, as compared with the initial condition, SOC content increased by 0.03, 0.06, 0.05, 0.09, 0.16, 0.26, 0.47 and 0.68 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) under control, N, NK, PK, NP, NPK, NPKM and 1.5NPKM treatments respectively. Correspondingly, the C inputs of wheat and maize were 1.24, 1.34, 1.55, 1.33, 2.72, 2.96, 2.97 and 3.15 Mg ha(-1) year(-1) respectively. The long-term fertilization-induced CSE showed that about 11% of the gross C input was transformed into SOC pool. Overall, this study demonstrated that decade-long manure input combined with chemical fertilizers can maintain high crop yield and lead to SOC sequestration in north China. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Phylogeny in defining model plants for lignocellulosic ethanol production: a comparative study of Brachypodium distachyon, wheat, maize, and Miscanthus x giganteus leaf and stem biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Meineke

    Full Text Available The production of ethanol from pretreated plant biomass during fermentation is a strategy to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuels. However, biomass conversion is mainly limited by the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall. To overcome recalcitrance, the optimization of the plant cell wall for subsequent processing is a promising approach. Based on their phylogenetic proximity to existing and emerging energy crops, model plants have been proposed to study bioenergy-related cell wall biochemistry. One example is Brachypodium distachyon, which has been considered as a general model plant for cell wall analysis in grasses. To test whether relative phylogenetic proximity would be sufficient to qualify as a model plant not only for cell wall composition but also for the complete process leading to bioethanol production, we compared the processing of leaf and stem biomass from the C3 grasses B. distachyon and Triticum aestivum (wheat with the C4 grasses Zea mays (maize and Miscanthus x giganteus, a perennial energy crop. Lambda scanning with a confocal laser-scanning microscope allowed a rapid qualitative analysis of biomass saccharification. A maximum of 108-117 mg ethanol·g(-1 dry biomass was yielded from thermo-chemically and enzymatically pretreated stem biomass of the tested plant species. Principal component analysis revealed that a relatively strong correlation between similarities in lignocellulosic ethanol production and phylogenetic relation was only given for stem and leaf biomass of the two tested C4 grasses. Our results suggest that suitability of B. distachyon as a model plant for biomass conversion of energy crops has to be specifically tested based on applied processing parameters and biomass tissue type.

  1. Phylogeny in defining model plants for lignocellulosic ethanol production: a comparative study of Brachypodium distachyon, wheat, maize, and Miscanthus x giganteus leaf and stem biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meineke, Till; Manisseri, Chithra; Voigt, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    The production of ethanol from pretreated plant biomass during fermentation is a strategy to mitigate climate change by substituting fossil fuels. However, biomass conversion is mainly limited by the recalcitrant nature of the plant cell wall. To overcome recalcitrance, the optimization of the plant cell wall for subsequent processing is a promising approach. Based on their phylogenetic proximity to existing and emerging energy crops, model plants have been proposed to study bioenergy-related cell wall biochemistry. One example is Brachypodium distachyon, which has been considered as a general model plant for cell wall analysis in grasses. To test whether relative phylogenetic proximity would be sufficient to qualify as a model plant not only for cell wall composition but also for the complete process leading to bioethanol production, we compared the processing of leaf and stem biomass from the C3 grasses B. distachyon and Triticum aestivum (wheat) with the C4 grasses Zea mays (maize) and Miscanthus x giganteus, a perennial energy crop. Lambda scanning with a confocal laser-scanning microscope allowed a rapid qualitative analysis of biomass saccharification. A maximum of 108-117 mg ethanol·g(-1) dry biomass was yielded from thermo-chemically and enzymatically pretreated stem biomass of the tested plant species. Principal component analysis revealed that a relatively strong correlation between similarities in lignocellulosic ethanol production and phylogenetic relation was only given for stem and leaf biomass of the two tested C4 grasses. Our results suggest that suitability of B. distachyon as a model plant for biomass conversion of energy crops has to be specifically tested based on applied processing parameters and biomass tissue type.

  2. Effect of Bioprocessing on the In Vitro Colonic Microbial Metabolism of Phenolic Acids from Rye Bran Fortified Breads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koistinen, Ville M; Nordlund, Emilia; Katina, Kati

    2017-01-01

    Cereal bran is an important source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids. We aimed to study the phenolic acid metabolism of native and bioprocessed rye bran fortified refined wheat bread and to elucidate the microbial metabolic route of phenolic acids. After incubation...... in an in vitro colon model, the metabolites were analyzed using two different methods applying mass spectrometry. While phenolic acids were released more extensively from the bioprocessed bran bread and ferulic acid had consistently higher concentrations in the bread type during fermentation, there were only....... In addition, we provide expansion to the known metabolic pathways of phenolic acids....

  3. [Effect of long-term shallow tillage and straw returning on soil potassium content and stratification ratio in winter wheat/summer maize rotation system in Guanzhong Plain, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiang-lan; Li, Xiu-shuang; Wang, Shu-juan; Li, Shuo; Li, You-bing; Tian, Xiao-hong

    2015-11-01

    Soil stratified sampling method and potassium chemical fractionation analysis were used to investigate effects of long-term shallow tillage and straw returning on soil K contents and stratification ratios in winter wheat/summer maize rotation system in Guanzhong Plain of Northwest China. The results showed that after 13-year continuous shallow tillage and straw returning, surface accumulation and stratification effect obviously occurred for soil available K (SAK) and non-exchangeable K (NEK), which was particularly remarkable for SAK and its fractions. Serious depletion of SAK occurred in 15-30 cm soil layer, and the SAK value was lower than the critical value of soil potassium deficiency. Meanwhile, significant differences were found between SR1 and SR2 values of SAK and its fractions, SR was obtained by values of topsoil layer (0-5 cm) divided by corresponding values of lower soil layers (5-15 cm layer, SR1, or 15-30 cm layer, SR2). However, no significant difference was observed between SR values of NEK and mineral K. In conclusion, returning of all straw over 10 years in the winter wheat/summer maize rotation system contributed greatly to maintaining soil K pool balance, while special attention should be paid to the negative effects of surface accumulation and stratification of SAK on soil K fertility.

  4. Wheat Breeding Technologies for a Shifting Global Climate

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset will contain phenotypic observations of a large number of wheat genotypes evaluated in 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 at the International Maize and Wheat...

  5. Measurements of VOC fluxes by dynamic plant and soil chambers in wheat and maize crop near Paris with a PTR-Qi-TOF-MS: Quantification and response to environmental and physiological drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga-Gomez, Lais; Boissard, Christophe; Ciuraru, Raluca; Lafouge, Florence; Zurfluh, Olivier; Buysse, Pauline; Decuq, Céline; Fanucci, Olivier; Gueudet, Jean-Christophe; Gros, Valérie; Sarda, Roland; Zannoni, Nora; Loubet, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere as precursors of secondary pollutants such as ozone and organic aerosols. A large variety of VOC are exchanged between plants (BVOC) and the atmosphere. Their fluxes are strongly dependent on environmental factors (temperature, light, biotic and abiotic stress) and vary greatly among plant species. Only few studies focused on BVOC emissions by agricultural plants and were mostly carried in North America. However, agricultural lands occupy 51% of the total country area in France, with wheat being one of the most important crop. We used a PTR-Qi-TOF-MS (national instrument within the ANAEE-France framework) and dynamic chambers to measure BVOC emissions from plant and soil compartments of a wheat and a maize crop near Paris (FR-GRI ICOS site). More than 700 masses were detected thanks to the resolution and sensitivity of this new instrument. We analyze the emission response to light, temperature and stomatal aperture in order to explain the mechanisms of BVOC exchanges by wheat plants. We investigate the emission differences between soil and plant compartment, and between wheat and maize crops. Acetone (m/z 59.049) was the predominant volatile compound in the emissions from wheat. Both methanol (m/z 33.033) and acetaldehyde (m/z 45.033) were also quite abundantly emitted but were less than half the acetone emissions. Other masses detected in relative importance in this study were m/z 63.026 (possible DMS), m/z 93.033 (not identified), m/z 69.069 (isoprene), m/z 57.069 (not identified), m/z 83.085 (possible green leaf volatiles), m/z 73.064 (methyl ethyl ketone). Their emissions were around 7 times smaller than the emissions of acetone. On the other hand we observed a deposition for, mainly, m/z 75.044 (hydroxyacetone) and m/z 61.028 (acetic acid). Methanol presented both positive and negative fluxes witch could indicate either emission or absorption of this compound by the

  6. Breeding value of primary synthetic wheat genotypes for grain yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    To introduce new genetic diversity into the bread wheat gene pool from its progenitor, Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmalh, 33 primary synthetic hexaploid wheat genotypes (SYN) were crossed to 20 spring bread wheat (BW) cultivars at the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Center. Modified single...

  7. Nutritive improvement of instant fried noodles with oat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawladda Tiangpook

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Instant fried noodles have become one of the food products regularly consumed among people of all socioeconomic levels in both urban and rural areas. Oat bran is rich in β-glucan, a soluble fiber in oat. The objective of this study was to utilize oat bran, produced from dehulled oats by dry milling and cooking extrusion to improve the nutritional quality of wheat noodle and to evaluate the noodle quality. Three types of oat bran concentrate (OBC: OBCXF, OBCXEF, OBC native were used to replace wheat flour in noodle production, each type at the levels of 5, 10, and 15% (w/w. The experimental design was 3×3 factorial randomized complete block design. The flours and products were analyzed for moisture, protein, fat, β- glucan, RVA and color. The texture of the products was determined using texture analyzer and sensory test. Protein contents of OBCXF, XEF, native and wheat flour were 22.05, 23.21, 22.00 and 13.16%, respectively. OBC β-glucan content was 16-17%. Increasing the amount of various OBC in the mixes caused the increase in protein content and β-glucan in the products. The texture of the noodles with 5% replacement with OBC was not significantly different from that of wheat noodle. The tensile force was in the range of 17.10-17.96 g. The sensory acceptability of the noodles replaced with 5-10% OBC was not significantly different from wheat noodle (p<0.05. Noodle with 10% OBC-XEF had the highest scores in texture, elasticity and accept- ability. Thus, instant fried noodle having its wheat partially replaced with 10-15% OBC contained β-glucan in the range of 0.80-1.27 g/serving (50 g, which met the FDA approved health claim which requires 0.75 g/ serving, and contained dietary fiber in the range of 3.0-4.5 g/serving. By using 10-15% OBC in the formulation, it was possible to satisfactorily make instant fried noodles.

  8. Farelo de trigo e complexo enzimático na alimentação de poedeiras semipesadas na fase de produção Wheat bran and enzymatic complex in the feeding of laying hens in the production phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Magalhães Araujo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de farelo de trigo (FT na ração com ou sem a suplementação de um complexo enzimático (CE sobre o desempenho e a produção de ovos de frangas semipesadas na fase de produção. Foram utilizadas 288 frangas Lohmann Brown, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 × 2, composto de quatro níveis de farelo de trigo (0, 3, 6 e 9% na ração e da suplementação de complexo enzimático (0 ou 100 g/100 kg de ração, com oito tratamentos e seis repetições de seis aves. O complexo enzimático continha as enzimas beta-galactosidase, galactomananase, xilanase e alfa-glucanase. O consumo de ração, o peso vivo final, a produção de ovos, o peso e a massa de ovos e a conversão por massa e por dúzia de ovos não foram afetados pela inclusão do farelo de trigo nas rações. A gravidade específica da casca dos ovos piorou com o aumento dos níveis de farelo de trigo nas dietas. Nenhuma característica foi afetada pela adição do complexo enzimático na ração, com exceção do peso do ovo, que melhorou de 62,74 para 64,28 g. Recomenda-se o uso de até 9% de farelo de trigo em rações para poedeiras em produção. A adição de alfa-galactosidase, galactomananase, xilanase e alfa-glucanase aumenta o peso dos ovos.The study was carried out with the objective to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of the wheat bran (WB with or without supplementation of an enzymatic complex (EC on the performance of semi-heavy hens in the egg-production phase. A total of 288 Lohmann Brown pullets were used, distributed to a completely randomized design in 4 × 2 factorial arrangement, composed by four WB levels (0, 3, 6 and 9% in the ration and enzymatic complex supplementation (0 or 100g/100 kg diet, with eight treatments and six replicates of six birds. The enzymatic complex contained the enzymes beta-galactosidase, galactomananase, xilanase and alpha

  9. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Thomassen, Anne-Marie; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD......The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates...... phytase increased ATTD of P in the dry-fed diet, but not in the soaked diet. The higher ATTD of P for BDS compared with BDD resulted from the degradation of 54% of the phytate in BDS by wheat and barley phytases during soaking. On the other hand, soaking of BDS+phy did not increase ATTD of P significantly...

  10. Maize Arabinoxylan Gels as Protein Delivery Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Martínez-López

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The laccase induced gelation of maize bran arabinoxylans at 2.5% (w/v in the presence of insulin or β-lactoglobulin at 0.1% (w/v was investigated. Insulin and β-lacto-globulin did not modify either the gel elasticity (9 Pa or the cross-links content (0.03 and 0.015 mg di- and triferulic acids/mg arabinoxylan, respectively. The protein release capability of the gel was also investigated. The rate of protein release from gels was dependent on the protein molecular weight. The apparent diffusion coefficient was 0.99 × 10-7 and 0.79 × 10-7 cm2/s for insulin (5 kDa and β-lactoglobulin (18 kDa, respectively. The results suggest that maize bran arabinoxylan gels can be potential candidates for the controlled release of proteins.

  11. Effect of cereal brans on Lentinula edodes growth and enzyme activities during cultivation on forestry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E M; Machuca, A; Milagres, A M F

    2005-01-01

    To develop strategies for increasing the growth of Lentinula edodes in eucalyptus residues. To this end, we have examined the effects of cereal brans additions on production of mycelial biomass and enzymes. Three isolates of the mushroom shiitake, L. edodes (Berk. Pegler), were evaluated for enzyme and ergosterol production on eucalyptus residue supplemented with 5, 10, 15 and 20% (w/w) of soya, wheat or rice brans. Nitrogen imput on eucalyptus residues accelerated mycelial growth by supplying the L. edodes with this limiting nutrient. High levels of enzymes activities were produced in eucalyptus residues supplemented by soya bran. Comparison of cellulose and xylanase production with manganese peroxidase (MnP) at 20% soya bran indicated that hydrolytic enzymes, but oxidative enzymes were reduced. Mycelial growth measurements revealed that eucalyptus residues supplemented with cereal brans supported fast growth of L. edodes, indicating that mycelium extension is related to the bioavailability of nitrogen. The type and concentration of nutrient supplement has a considerable effect both on substrate colonization and on the type of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes produced. These characteristics may be useful for mushroom growing. Lentinula edodes is commercially important for edible mushroom production and supplements which enhance growth and enzymes production might also be beneficial for mushroom yields.

  12. Brans-Dicke Wormhole Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Amrita; Nigmatzyanov, Ilnur; Izmailov, Ramil; Nandi, Kamal K.

    2009-01-01

    A basic constraint to be satisfied by Brans class I solution for being a traversible wormhole is derived. It is argued that the solution could be a wormhole analogue of the Horowitz-Ross naked black hole. It is further demonstrated that the wormhole is traversible only "in principle", but not in practice. Using a recently proposed measure of total gravitational energy inside a static wormhole configuration, it is shown that the wormhole contains repulsive gravity required for the defocussing ...

  13. Effects of kernel weight and source-limitation on wheat grain yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRmohammadi

    2012-02-09

    Feb 9, 2012 ... Global warming as a result of climate change negatively affects wheat grain yield, which ... harvesting of previous crops like rice or maize, plant machine deficiency or ..... Since wheat is a temperate crop, its productivity ...

  14. Genes controlling plant growth habit in Leymus (Triticeae): maize barren stalk1 (ba1), rice lax panicle, and wheat tiller inhibition (tin3) genes as possible candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parminder Kaur; Steven R. Larson; B. Shaun Bushman; Richard R.-C. Wang; Ivan W. Mott; David Hole; Jyothi Thimmapuram; George Gong; Lei Liu

    2008-01-01

    Leymus cinereus and L. triticoides are large caespitose and rhizomatous perennial grasses, respectively. Previous studies detected quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling rhizome spreading near the viviparous1 (vp1) gene markers on linkage groups LG3a and LG3b in two families, TTC1 and TTC2, derived from Leymus triticoides x Leymus cinereus hybrids. The wheat tiller...

  15. Cookies enriched with psyllium or oat bran lower plasma LDL cholesterol in normal and hypercholesterolemic men from Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A L; Romero, J E; Galaviz, S; Fernandez, M L

    1998-12-01

    Psyllium and oat bran have been shown to lower plasma LDL cholesterol levels in different populations. Hypercholesterolemia is prevalent in the Northern part of Mexico and might be associated to dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle. Sedentary normal (cholesterol220 mg/dL) (n=30) men from the Northern part of Mexico aged 20 to 45 years of age participated in an 8-week study to determine the effects of dietary soluble fiber, either psyllium or oat bran, in lowering plasma LDL cholesterol in this population. Fiber was administered by feeding the subjects an amount of cookies (100 g) equivalent to 1.3 or 2.6 g/day of soluble fiber from psyllium or oat bran, respectively. Subjects were randomly allocated to three groups: a control group consuming cookies with wheat bran, a known source of fiber with no cholesterol lowering effects, psyllium, or oat bran. Food frequency questionnaires indicated that subjects from the three groups had similar intakes of foods classified as hypercholesterolemic (p>0.05). Plasma LDL cholesterol concentrations were reduced by an average of 22.6 and 26% in the psyllium and oat bran groups (p<0.001) while a non-significant reduction of 8.4% was observed in the hypercholesterolemic individuals from the control group. No effects on plasma HDL or triglycerides levels were observed among the three dietary treatments except for hypercholesterolemic individuals supplemented with oat bran where a 28% reduction in plasma triglycerides was observed after 8 weeks (p<0.01). These results indicate that psyllium and oat bran are efficacious in lowering plasma LDL cholesterol in both normal and hypercholesterolemic individuals from this population.

  16. Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane

    This thesis concerns enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran arabinoxylan. The work has focused on understanding the composition and structure of corn bran with specific interest in arabinoxylan with the main purpose of targeting enzymatic hydrolysis for increased yields. Corn bran has been used...... as a model substrate because it represents a readily available agroindustrial side product with upgrading potentials. Corn bran originates from the wet-milling process in corn starch processing, is the outmost layers of the corn kernel and is particularly rich in pentose monosaccharides comprising the major...... components of arabinoxylan. Corn bran is one of the most recalcitrant cereal byproducts with arabinoxylans of particular heterogeneous nature. It is also rich in feruloyl derived substitutions, which are responsible for extensive cross-linking between arabinoxylan molecules and thereby participate...

  17. Biomarker of whole grain wheat intake associated lower BMI in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids in the bran fraction of some whole grains (wheat, rye and barley). Plasma AR reflect recent intake of these whole grains. We examined the cross-sectional associations between plasma AR (measured by LCMS/ MS), whole wheat intake, and body mass index (BMI) in ...

  18. Studies on the glycemic response of wheat at various level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    was dehulled to remove the bran and germs using pestle and mortar. The dehulled grains were milled into powder form with a hammer mill. This powder was called dehulled wheat flour. Durum wheat spaghetti (commercially prepared) was also ground into flour for uniformity, using harmer mill. It was unpacked and placed ...

  19. Development of a doubled haploid system for wheat through wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty wheat genotypes were crossed with six maize varieties. The haploid embryos were rescued and cultured for plant regeneration and subsequently treated with colchicines for chromosome doubling. Half-diallel crosses were made in a cage and greenhouse and the embryos were cultured in the laboratory under ...

  20. [Changes of China agricultural climate resources under the background of climate change. IV. Spatiotemporal change characteristics of agricultural climate resources in sub-humid warm-temperate irrigated wheat-maize agricultural area of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-juan; Yang, Xiao-guang; Wang, Wen-feng

    2011-04-01

    Based on the 1961-2007 observation data from 66 meteorological stations in the sub-humid and warm-temperate irrigated wheat-maize agricultural area of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal change characteristics of agro-climate resources for chimonophilous and thermophilic crops in the area in 1961-1980 and 1981-2007. The analyzed items included the length of temperature-defined growth season and the active accumulative temperature, sunshine hours, precipitation, reference evapotranspiration, and aridity index during the temperature-defined growth season. With climate warming, the length of temperature-defined growth season of chimonophilous and thermophilic crops in the area in 1981-2007 extended by 7. 4 d and 6. 9 d, and the > or = 0 degrees C and > or = 10 degrees C accumulative temperature increased at a rate of 4.0-137.0 and 1.0-142.0 degrees C d (10 a)(-1), respectively, compared with those in 1961-1980. The sunshine hours during the temperature-defined growth season of the crops decreased markedly; and the precipitation during the temperature-defined growing season decreased in most parts of the area, being obvious in Hebei and north Shandong Province, but increased in north Anhui and southeast Henan Province. In most parts of the area, the reference evapotranspiration of chimonophilous and thermophilic crops during their temperature-defined growth season decreased, and the aridity index increased.

  1. Genes controlling plant growth habit in Leymus (Triticeae): maize barren stalk1 (ba1), rice lax panicle, and wheat tiller inhibition (tin3) genes as possible candidates.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Paraminder; Larson, Steven R; Bushman, B.S.; Wang, Richard R; Mott, Ivan W; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Gong, George; Liu, Lei

    2008-01-01

    Leymus cinereus and L. triticoides are large caespitose and rhizomatous perennial grasses, respectively. Previous studies detected quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling rhizome spreading near the viviparous1 (vp1) gene markers on linkage groups LG3a and LG3b in two families, TTC1 and TTC2, derived from Leymus triticoides x Leymus cinereus hybrids. The wheat tiller inhibition gene (tin3) is located on Triticum monococcum chromosome 3 A(m)L near vp1. Triticeae group 3 is reportedly collinea...

  2. Alveoli size and acceptance of white bread enriched with cassava bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Luis Castiglioni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that solid and liquid residues are generated in the cassava processing, the present study aimed at using cassava bran to make bread. After a physico-chemical and microbiological analysis of cassava bran samples, five bread formulations, with substitution of wheat flour (WF by dry cassava bran (DCB between 0% and 20%, were evaluated by analyzing the mean diameter of the dough alveoli, image and acceptance test. The cassava bran presented a high moisture content (89.1 g 100 g-1. Thus, to use it in a safe way, concerning the microbiological aspect, the residue was dried, in order to provide a proper storage, before making the bread. The DCB samples showed no Bacillus cereus, thermotolerant coliforms and Salmonella sp. From the image analysis, it was found that the replacement of WF by DCB negatively affected the dough rise, being possible to suggest a model to describe the size variation of the breads alveoli, depending on the ingredients substitution level. The formulation with a 10% substitution of WF by DCB showed the best sensorial acceptability. It was possible to conclude that the use of DCB for making white bread is viable, from a technological, microbiological and sensorial point of view, and that it can improve economic and environmental aspects of industries that produce cassava starch.

  3. Optimization of extraction parameters for recovery of a-amylase from the fermented bran of Bacillus circulans GRS313

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palit Soumen

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of alpha-amylase in the solid state fermentation of wheat bran by Bacillus circulans GRS313 was optimized. Among various solvents tested, maximum extraction was achieved when 2.5% (v/v glycerol was added. The optimum conditions for extraction were 2.5 hrs soaking time at 30° C under recirculation and agitated condition, which yielded 590 U/g bran of enzyme activity. Whereas under stationary soaking condition the activity of the enzyme was 439.58U/g bran. With repeated wash under the above optimum conditions showed that 600 U/g and 184.2 U/g of enzyme extracted in the 1st and 2nd washes respectively and only 36.84 U/g was recovered in the 3rd wash

  4. Mass Inflation in Brans-Dicke gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Avelino, P. P.; Hamilton, A. J. S.; Herdeiro, C. A. R.

    2009-01-01

    A detailed non-linear analysis of the internal structure of spherical, charged black holes that are accreting scalar matter is performed in the framework of the Brans-Dicke theory of gravity. We choose the lowest value of the Brans-Dicke parameter that is compatible with observational constraints. First, the homogeneous approximation is used. It indicates that mass inflation occurs and that the variations of the Brans-Dicke scalar inside the black hole, which could in principle be large in th...

  5. The compressive strength of wheat endosperm: Analysis of endosperm 'bricks'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The material properties of wheat grain endosperm are central to its processing and end-use quality. The preparation of geometrically-defined endosperm specimens free of bran, germ, and pigment strand can facilitate the objective study of endosperm material properties. This study was conducted to c...

  6. Nutrient absorbtion of weeds in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczky, E; Kismányoky, A; Nagy, P; Németh, T

    2008-01-01

    Our study was carried out in Hungary at Keszthely, in 2007. The effect of different cultivation methods: no-till drill, disk tillage, conventional tillage (ploughing) and five increasing N doses were studied on the weediness. The bi-factorial trial was arranged in split plot design with four replications. Crop rotation: winter wheat-winter wheat-maize-maize. The seeding of maize was 23rd of April in 2007. The weed survey was made with Balázs-Ujvárosi coenological method on the 17th of May. In the experiment were found 21 weed species. We collected all plants of every weed species by plots. The sample area was 1 m2. Furthermore five maize plants per plot were sampled on the 22nd of May. Maize was at 3-4 leaves stage. For reason of competition studies no herbicides were applied on sampling sites. The aerial parts of weeds and maize plants were collected, and the fresh and dry matter weight was measured. We analyzed in detail, the occurrence of weed species, and the biomass production of weeds in comparison with maize. The effect of different cultivation methods markedly demonstrated the weed cover, the number of perennial and annual weeds and the number of occurring weed species.

  7. Maize Residue as a Viable Substrate for Farm Scale Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abena O. Adjapong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the search for alternatives to sawdust as growing media in commercial mushroom cultivation, three organic substrates obtainable as crop residue, maize husk, maize cob, and maize stalk, with each being supplemented with rice bran, were evaluated as growth media for the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Kummer. For the tested alternatives to sawdust, the harvested weight of fruiting bodies that sprouted on a kilogram maize husk media per crop (32.99 g was the highest. Sawdust media supported significantly (P<0.001 heavier fruiting bodies (42.18 than the maize residues. The peak mushroom harvests for the various substrates were obtained between the first and seventh fruiting body flushes. The biological efficiency of the substrates, which measured usable nutrients indicated that maize stalk supplemented with rice bran, was 39% compared to that of the sawdust media (60%. The maize husk media and the maize cob media had biological efficiencies of 32% and 9.5%, respectively. These results indicate that two of the tested growing media (maize stalk or husk produced mushrooms with yield characteristics that were comparable to the well-used sawdust in the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. The environmental and economic parameters involved in the use and carting of sawdust make these on-farm crop residues a viable alternative for mushroom cultivation in especially nonforest zones of Ghana.

  8. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaabjerg, K; Thomassen, A-M; Poulsen, H D

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD+phy), BDD soaked for 24 h at 20°C before feeding (BDS) and BDS with microbial phytase (BDS+phy). Supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of DM and crude protein (N×6.25) by 2 and 3 percentage units (P<0.0001; P<0.001), respectively. The ATTD of P was affected by the interaction between microbial phytase and soaking (P=0.02). This was due to a greater increase in ATTD of P by soaking of the diet containing solely plant phytase compared with the diet supplemented with microbial phytase: 35%, 65%, 44% and 68% for BDD, BDD+phy, BSD and BSD+phy, respectively. As such, supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of P in the dry-fed diet, but not in the soaked diet. The higher ATTD of P for BDS compared with BDD resulted from the degradation of 54% of the phytate in BDS by wheat and barley phytases during soaking. On the other hand, soaking of BDS+phy did not increase ATTD of P significantly compared with BDD+phy despite that 76% of the phytate in BDS+phy was degraded before feeding. In conclusion, soaking of BDS containing solely plant phytase provided a great potential for increasing ATTD of P. However, this potential was not present when microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet) was supplemented, most likely because soaking of BDS+phy for 24 h at 20°C did not result in a complete degradation of phytate before feeding.

  9. USING RICE BRAN IN LAYING HEN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H ERSIN SAMLI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is an energy and protein rich ingredient used in poultry feeding. To balance energy and protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rice bran on performance and egg quality during peak production of a commercial White laying strain of 22 week of age. Dietary treatments were consisted by inclusion of rice bran at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels. Each treatment had 6 reps in which 12 birds were randomly assigned in wired fl oor battery cages equipped with nipple drinkers and through feeders. Layers accessed to feed and water freely. Lighting regimen was adjusted to 16h light/8h dark. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that rice bran could be included up to 10% without any adverse affect on laying performance, egg quality and digestive organs.

  10. Can wheat bran mitigate malnutrition and enteric pathogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child malnutrition is a complex global problem, of which lack of food is only one component. Enteric pathogens and malnutrition work in a cyclic manner to depress a child’s intestinal immunity, while decreasing nutrient absorption. This cycle leads to stunting, wasting, and death. Often malnourished...

  11. Adsorption of cellulase on cereal brans: a simple functional model from response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sergio F. da Silva

    1980-11-01

    Full Text Available A functional model based on Langmuirian adsorption as a limiting mechanism was proposed to explain the effect of cellulase during the enzymatic pretreatment of bran, conducted prior to extraction of proteins, by wet alkaline process from wheat and buckwheat bran materials. The proposed model provides a good fit (r = 0.99 for the data generated thru predictive model taken from the response surface methodology, permitting calculation of a affinity constant (b and capacity constant (k, for wheat bran (b = 0.255 g/IU and k = 17.42% and buckwheat bran (b = 0.066g/IUand k = 78.74%.Modelo funcional baseado na adsorção de Langmuir como mecanismo limitante proposto para explicar o efeito da celulase durante o pré-tratamento enzimático de farelos, visando à extração de proteínas, através do método alcalino-úmido. O referido modelo ajusta se muito bem (r = 0,99 aos dados gerados com base em modelo preditivo obtido da metodologia da superfície de resposta. Pode-se calcular a constante de afinidade (b e a constante de capacidade (k para o farelo de trigo e farelo de trigo mourisco (sarraceno, usando uma equação análoga à isoterma de adsorção de Langmuir. Os resultados indicaram que o farelo de trigo mourisco apresenta uma capacidade mais alta para adsorver celulase e, conseqüentemente,'pode-se esperar uma resposta maior ao pré-tratamento com esta enzima.

  12. Biscuit bran for feeding lactating sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Corassa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biscuit bran can be alternatively used as a partial or total substitute for conventional ingredients, however, it is necessary to evaluate the impact of its inclusion. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the inclusion of biscuit bran in diets of lactating sows. A total of 16 lactating sows was used in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and each sow being considered an experimental unit. Treatments consisted of inclusions of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of biscuit bran composed by 50% of cream and salt and water crackers and 50% of buttered, chocolate and related biscuits. The weight, weight loss and weight variation, at the end of the lactation period, did not differ statistically for the different biscuit bran inclusion levels. Treatments did not affect the ration consumption, milk yield and bacon thickness of sows or the litter performance. The economic analysis showed better values for diets containing 20% and 30% of biscuit bran. It was concluded that the inclusion of biscuit bran was viable up to 30%, in diets for lactating sows, without affecting the sow and litter performance.

  13. Coverage of Large-Scale Food Fortification of Edible Oil, Wheat Flour, and Maize Flour Varies Greatly by Vehicle and Country but Is Consistently Lower among the Most Vulnerable: Results from Coverage Surveys in 8 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J; Friesen, Valerie M; Jungjohann, Svenja; Garrett, Greg S; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Myatt, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Background: Large-scale food fortification (LSFF) of commonly consumed food vehicles is widely implemented in low- and middle-income countries. Many programs have monitoring information gaps and most countries fail to assess program coverage. Objective: The aim of this work was to present LSFF coverage survey findings (overall and in vulnerable populations) from 18 programs (7 wheat flour, 4 maize flour, and 7 edible oil programs) conducted in 8 countries between 2013 and 2015. Methods: A Fortification Assessment Coverage Toolkit (FACT) was developed to standardize the assessments. Three indicators were used to assess the relations between coverage and vulnerability: 1 ) poverty, 2 ) poor dietary diversity, and 3 ) rural residence. Three measures of coverage were assessed: 1 ) consumption of the vehicle, 2 ) consumption of a fortifiable vehicle, and 3 ) consumption of a fortified vehicle. Individual program performance was assessed based on the following: 1 ) achieving overall coverage ≥50%, 2) achieving coverage of ≥75% in ≥1 vulnerable group, and 3 ) achieving equity in coverage for ≥1 vulnerable group. Results: Coverage varied widely by food vehicle and country. Only 2 of the 18 LSFF programs assessed met all 3 program performance criteria. The 2 main program bottlenecks were a poor choice of vehicle and failure to fortify a fortifiable vehicle (i.e., absence of fortification). Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of sound program design and routine monitoring and evaluation. There is strong evidence of the impact and cost-effectiveness of LSFF; however, impact can only be achieved when the necessary activities and processes during program design and implementation are followed. The FACT approach fills an important gap in the availability of standardized tools. The LSFF programs assessed here need to be re-evaluated to determine whether to further invest in the programs, whether other vehicles are appropriate, and whether other approaches

  14. "Determination the best cereal substitute for wheat in wheat allergic children "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiasy Esfahany Z "

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food allergy is one of the most important among other allergic diseases. Although it is less prevalent in adult but in infants it’s prevalence was reported as much as 8 percent. In part, wheat is one of the six main food allergens in infant and in other part there is extensive cross reactivity between the cereals. Therefore the aim of this study is selection of the best food substitute for wheat among other cereals. Materials and Methods: 24 patients with definitive diagnosis of type one hypersensitivity reaction to wheat were entered in this study. Skin prick test and serum specific IgE (Eliza with 6 members of cereals family (wheat, barley, oat, Rye-Rice & Corn were performed for them and open food challenge test was also done with three more available of the cereals (corn, Rice, barley in our food culture and so comparison between allergenicity of wheat flour and wheat bran with skin prick test were done. Results: The Skin prick tests (SPTs were positive in 66.7 percent for Barley, 100 percent for wheat bran and 80-100 percent for other cereals. The results of specific IgE for wheat, Barley were positive in 94.5 percent, 68 percent, 39 percent of patients respectively and the results for other cereals were positive in less than 11 percent of cases. The results of food challenge test, for barley were positive in 60 percent of cases and for Rice and Corn were negative in all cases. Conclusion: In the base of food challenge test as the gold standard test, the best food substitute for wheat sensitive patient between other cereals, were Corn and Rice respectively. It is important to emphasis that will be needed to perform oral food challenge in hospital with complete emergency equipment before introducing any other cereals as food substitute for wheat, specially Barley.

  15. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Soy sauce Starch (gelatinized starch, modified starch, modified food starch, vegetable starch) Surimi Some Unexpected Sources of Wheat Ale Asian dishes can feature wheat flour flavored and shaped ...

  16. Maize and resistant starch enriched breads reduce postprandial glycemic responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brites, Carla M; Trigo, Maria J; Carrapiço, Belmira; Alviña, Marcela; Bessa, Rui J

    2011-04-01

    White wheat bread is a poor source of dietary fiber, typically containing less than 2%. A demand exists for the development of breads with starch that is slowly digestible or partially resistant to the digestive process. The utilization of maize flour and resistant starch is expected to reduce the release and absorption of glucose and, hence, lower the glycemic index of bread. This study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that a diet of maize bread, as produced and consumed in Portugal, would have beneficial metabolic effects on rats compared to white wheat bread. We also hypothesized that the effect of resistant starch on glycemic response could be altered by the use of different formulations and breadmaking processes for wheat and maize breads. Resistant starch (RS) was incorporated into formulations of breads at 20% of the inclusion rate of wheat and maize flours. Assays were conducted with male Wistar rats (n = 36), divided into four groups and fed either wheat bread, RS-wheat bread, maize bread, and RS-maize bread to evaluate feed intake, body weight gain, fecal pH, and postprandial blood glucose response (glycemic response). Blood triglycerides, total cholesterol concentrations, and liver weights were also determined. The maize bread group presented higher body weight gain and cholesterol level, lower fecal pH, and postprandial blood glucose response than the wheat bread group. The RS-wheat bread group showed significant reductions in feed intake, fecal pH, postprandial blood glucose response, and total cholesterol. The RS-maize group displayed significant reductions of body weight gain, fecal pH, and total cholesterol levels; however, for the glycemic response, only a reduction in fasting level was observed. These results suggest that maize bread has a lower glycemic index than wheat bread, and the magnitude of the effect of RS on glycemic response depends of type of bread. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maize, tropical (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assem, Shireen K

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important food crop globally after wheat and rice. In sub-Saharan Africa, tropical maize has traditionally been the main staple of the diet; 95 % of the maize grown is consumed directly as human food and as an important source of income for the resource-poor rural population. The biotechnological approach to engineer biotic and abiotic traits implies the availability of an efficient plant transformation method. The production of genetically transformed plants depends both on the ability to integrate foreign genes into target cells and the efficiency with which plants are regenerated. Maize transformation and regeneration through immature embryo culture is the most efficient system to regenerate normal transgenic plants. However, this system is highly genotype dependent. Genotypes adapted to tropic areas are difficult to regenerate. Therefore, transformation methods used with model genotypes adapted to temperate areas are not necessarily efficient with tropical lines. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the method of choice since it has been first achieved in 1996. In this report, we describe a transformation method used successfully with several tropical maize lines. All the steps of transformation and regeneration are described in details. This protocol can be used with a wide variety of tropical lines. However, some modifications may be needed with recalcitrant lines.

  18. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of bread and cracker products made from red or white wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challacombe, Carolyn A; Seetharaman, Koushik; Duizer, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    Whole grain consumption is being promoted due to a number of associated health benefits. However, whole grain consumption is below recommendations possibly due to the presence of characteristic flavors that consumers find unacceptable. The objective of this study was to investigate the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of products made from commercial whole grain flours produced from red or white wheats, and with fine or coarse bran particle sizes. Descriptive analysis and consumer acceptance panels were used to characterize both low (cracker) and intermediate (bread) moisture products made with the flours. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to correlate the descriptive and consumer data. Sensory differences in whole grain products made from red or white wheat with small or large bran particles sizes and product moisture contents were observed. Bran particle size had a greater effect on the sensory properties of the whole grain products, particularly within the cracker; conversely bran particle size had little influence on consumer acceptance. Red wheat products were found to be more acceptable than the white wheat products. However, a number of color × bran particle interactions were observed in both the descriptive and consumer data. PLS regression demonstrated that consumers could be divided into groupings based upon certain attributes and characteristics. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Fusarium spp. associated with head blight of wheat in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat is caused by numerous Fusarium species, including trichothecene-producers. In South Africa, FHB is mostly associated with irrigated wheat rotated with maize. Twenty symptomatic wheat heads were collected from four cultivars each in irrigated fields in the Northern...

  20. Study on genetic diversity in Pakistani wheat varieties using simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is a grass species, cultivated world wide. Globally, it is the most important human food grain and ranks second in total production as a cereal crop behind maize. Genetic diversity evaluation of germplasm is the basis of improvement in wheat. In the present study genetic diversity of 10 ...

  1. Genetic divergence in selected durum wheat genotypes of Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat of both the tetraploid (Triticum durum Desf.) and hexaploid (Triticum aestivum L.), is the most important cereal crop in Ethiopia, ranking third in total production (17%) next to maize (Zea mays L.) and tef (CSA, 2002). Wheat covers a total arable land of 110,434 ha with average productivity of about 8.4 qt ha-1, which is ...

  2. genetic divergence in selected durum wheat genotypes of ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Wheat of both the tetraploid (Triticum durum Desf.) and hexaploid (Triticum aestivum L.), is the most important cereal crop in Ethiopia, ranking third in total production (17%) next to maize (Zea mays L.) and tef (CSA, 2002). Wheat covers a total arable land of 110,434 ha with average productivity of about 8.4 qt ha-1, which is ...

  3. BRS 331 – Early cycle double-haploid wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Scheeren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The wheat cultivar ‘BRS 331’ was developed by Embrapa. It results from an interspecific cross between wheat and maize by double-hapolid method. ‘BRS 331’ shows solid stem in the base of the plant, short leaves and super-early cycle to maturity. It is classified as bread wheat in all of the regions that is recommended in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and Santa Catarina, Brazil.

  4. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and non-starch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat, and co-products from these grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, N. A.; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn...... bran), and 2 coproducts from the flour milling industry (wheat middlings and wheat bran). Results indicated that grains contained more starch and less NSP compared with grain coproducts. The concentration of soluble NSP was low in all ingredients. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made...

  5. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... References Wheat allergy. American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. http://www.acaai.org/allergist/allergies/Types/food- ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/wheat-allergy/basics/definition/CON-20031834 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions ...

  6. MAIZE POPULATIONS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-06-17

    Jun 17, 2003 ... African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 11. No. 3, pp. 151-161, 2003 ... Maize is the principal staple food crop produced .... for adaptation to specific ecologies, for yield potential ... drought stress in Mexico (Bola_os and Edmeades,.

  7. Romanian maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes; Balint, Borbala

    This research aims at shedding empirical light on the relative efficiency of small-scale maize producers in Romania. Farmers in transition countries still face heavily distorted price systems resulting from imperfect market conditions and socioeconomic and institutional constraints. To capture...

  8. Utilization of noodle waste as replacement for maize in the diets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize is a major source of energy. It is expensive because of competition between man, animal and a strong demand for it by the manufacturing/industrial sector. Noodle waste (NW) (a by-product from the wheat noodle processing industry) which attracts little/ almost zero cost was used to replace the maize fraction of the ...

  9. FREE PHENOL CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WINTER WHEAT IN SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kosík

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the free phenol content and antioxidant activity of winter wheat white flour, whole grain flour and bran in ecological and integrated farming system. The experiment was established on a scientific research base Dolná Malanta in western Slovakia during the years 2009 - 2011. Free phenol content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu’s method and antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging method. Whole grain flour and bran had higher content of free phenols in ecological farming system. Antioxidant activity was not affected by farming systems. The content of free phenols and antioxidant activity was affected by growing year and forecrop. Fertilisation had no effect on the content of free phenols and antioxidant activity. White flour contain two times less free phenols and antioxidant activity than whole grain flour. The highest free phenol content and antioxidant activity was determined in wheat bran.

  10. Studies on the effect of brown rice and maize flour on the quality of bread

    OpenAIRE

    M.Z. Islam; M. Shams

    2011-01-01

    Breads were prepared with various combinations of maize, brown rice and wheat flours in the basic formulation of bread. The baking properties and chemical composition of bread were evaluated and analysed, respectively. The bread volume decreased, where as bread weight and moisture content increased with the increasing level of maize and brown rice flour. The crumb and crust colour of breads were improved with addition of 8% maize and 8% brown rice flour in bread formulation. The protein conte...

  11. Rice bran: a novel functional ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Mian Kamran; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Khan, Saima Hafiz

    2014-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East and South Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the West Indies. It provides more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by the human. It is the second leading cereal crop and staple food of half of the world's population. It is grown in at least 114 countries with global production of 645 million tons; share of Asian farmers is about 90% of the total produce. Rice bran, brown outer layer of rice kernel, is mainly composed of pericarp, aleurone, subaleurone layer, and germ. It contains appreciable quantities of nutrients like protein, fat, and dietary fiber. Furthermore, it contains substantial amount of minerals like K, Ca, Mg, and Fe. Presence of antioxidants like tocopherols, tocotrienols, and γ-oryzanol also brighten prospects of rice bran utilization for humans as functional ingredient to mitigate the life-threatening disorders. Moreover, in the developing countries, budding dilemma of food crisis, arising due to lower crop yields and escalating population, needs to utilize each pent of available resources. To provide enough food to all people, there is the holistic approach of using the by-products generated during food processing and preparations. Rice is being processed in well-established industry, but the major apprehension is the utilization of its by-products; rice bran (5-8%) and polishing (2-3%) that are going as waste. Rice processing or milling produces several streams of materials including milled rice, bran, and husk. In developing countries, rice bran is considered as a by-product of the milling process and commonly used in animal feed or discarded as a waste. The potential of producing rice bran at the global level is 29.3 million tons annually, whereas the share of Pakistan is worked out to be 0.5 million tons. In present paper, attempt has been made to highlight the significance of these valuable but

  12. Production of milk-clotting enzyme by Bacillus subtilis B1 from wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three strains, Bacillus subtilis B1, B. subtilis B18 and Bacillus thuringiensis B12, were screened from wheat bran to produce milk-clotting enzyme. Among them, B. subtilis B1 exhibited considerable milkclotting activity with low proteolytic activity. After response surface methodology optimization, milkclotting activity was ...

  13. Economic efficiency of the maize grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mariana Dincu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, was calculated and the level of profitability for several levels of production for grain maize cultivation. We chose corn because it is one of the most important forage crops, we could say even the largest, occupying third place among cultivated plants worldwide. Along with wheat and barley, the food is the biggest part of the population in the world, directly or converted to animal products. Maize can be used in animal feed in various forms. The most used is corn grain, which is characterized by a very high nutritional value, this product is properly regarded as a feed concentrate. Culture of maize have been designed two levels of production: 4000 kg / ha and 6000 kg / ha.

  14. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J

    2011-06-01

    Two trials using lactating Holstein cows were conducted to evaluate effects of a diet containing oriental mustard bran on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk components, and organoleptic properties. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows (24 multiparous and 10 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 50 d) were used in a switchback design to determine the lactational response and organoleptic quality of milk when the diet contained 8% oriental mustard bran (MB) versus a control diet (CON). Mustard bran replaced a portion of soybean meal and all the beet pulp in the CON diet. Milk yields were greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, no differences were found in DMI, 3.5% fat- (FCM) or solids-corrected milk. Milk components and components production were not affected by treatment. Milk organoleptic qualities were not affected by diet. In experiment 2, 22 lactating cows (16 multiparous and 6 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 21 d) were assigned randomly within parity to receive MB or CON from wk 4 to 19 postpartum in a randomized complete block design. Cows were fed CON wk 1 to 3 postpartum. The MB diet contained the same ingredients as the CON, except sunflower seed and a portion of soybean meal were replaced with mustard bran. Milk and components data were collected during wk 3 postpartum and used as covariates to adjust treatment means. Intake was greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, daily milk, 3.5% FCM, and solids-corrected milk yields were not different between diets. Milk components and component yields were not affected by treatment. Milk urea concentration was less for cows fed the MB diet. Although cows fed the MB diet had greater DMI, this was not translated into a higher milk 3.5% FCM/DMI production efficiency ratio. During experiment 2, many cows fed MB experienced minor to severe hemolysis with bloody urine. This hemolysis believed to be caused by the S-methyl-cysteine sulfoxide contained in mustard bran could have affected milk production efficiency

  15. Tracing transgenic maize as affected by breadmaking process and raw material for the production of a traditional maize bread, broa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Telmo J R; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2013-05-01

    Broa is a maize bread highly consumed and appreciated, especially in the north and central zones of Portugal. In the manufacturing of broa, maize flour and maize semolina might be used, besides other cereals such as wheat and rye. Considering the needs for genetically modified organism (GMO) traceability in highly processed foods, the aim of this work was to assess DNA degradation, DNA amplification and GMO quantification along breadmaking process of broa. DNA degradation was noticed by its decrease of integrity after dough baking and in all parts of bread sampling. The PCR amplification results of extracted DNA from the three distinct maize breads (broa 1, 2 and 3) showed that sequences for maize invertase gene and for events MON810 and TC1507 were easily detected with strong products. Real-time PCR revealed that quantification of GMO was feasible in the three different breads and that sampling location of baked bread might have a limited influence since the average quantitative results of both events after baking were very close to the actual values in the case of broa 1 (prepared with maize semolina). In the other two maize breads subjected to the same baking treatment, the contents of MON810 maize were considerably underestimated, leading to the conclusion that heat-processing was not the responsible parameter for that distortion, but the size of particle and mechanical processing of raw maize play also a major role in GMO quantification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biomechanical properties of wheat grains: the implications on milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourston, James E; Ignatz, Michael; Reith, Martin; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard; Steinbrecher, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Millennia of continuous innovation have driven ever increasing efficiency in the milling process. Mechanically characterizing wheat grains and discerning the structure and function of the wheat bran layers can contribute to continuing innovation. We present novel shear force and puncture force testing regimes to characterize different wheat grain cultivars. The forces endured by wheat grains during the milling process can be quantified, enabling us to measure the impact of commonly applied grain pretreatments, such as microwave heating, extended tempering, enzyme and hormone treatments on grains of different 'hardness'. Using these methods, we demonstrate the importance of short tempering phases prior to milling and identify ways in which our methods can detect differences in the maximum force, energy and breaking behaviours of hard and soft grain types. We also demonstrate for the first time, endosperm weakening in wheat, through hormone stratification on single bran layers. The modern milling process is highly refined, meaning that small, cultivar specific, adjustments can result in large increases in downstream profits. We believe that methods such as these, which enable rapid testing of milling pretreatments and material properties can help to drive an innovation process that has been core to our industrial efforts since prehistory. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Production of haploid plants from ten hybrids of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. through wide hybridization with maize (Zea mays L. Producción de plantas haploides a partir de 10 híbridos de trigo para pan (Triticum aestivum L. mediante hibridación interespecífica con maíz (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Torres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to obtain haploid plants of bread wheat through wide hybridization with maize. The experimental material included ten bread wheat hybrids (female parent and one population of maize (pollen donor. Two assays were carried out in two different seasons (summer and winter. Wheat spikes were manually emasculated, each spike was pollinated twice with fresh pollen of maize and a solution of 2,4-D (100 mg l-1 was sprayed on pollinated florets and injected in the upper internode. Fifteen and 21 days after pollination caryopses were removed and surface sterilized. Embryos were cultured in tubes containing B5 medium. The ten hybrid combinations produced caryopses, but only eight of these hybrids produced embryos and, in six of them, the recovered embryos developed into haploid plantlets. The results showed that there is genotypic influence of the wheat parents on the percentage of haploid embryo formation, in accordance with the results obtained by other authors. Regardless of the genotype, the sowing season and the harvest date, 69.4% of the pollinated flowers gave place to the formation of caryopses, 5.5% of these caryopses developed into presumably haploid embryos (for their morphological phenotypes and 26.1 % of the recovered embryos developed into haploid plantlets.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue obtener plantas haploides de trigo para pan mediante hibridación interespecífica con maíz. Se utilizaron 10 híbridos de trigo para pan (madre y una población de maíz (donante de polen; se llevaron a cabo dos ensayos en distintas estaciones de cultivo. Cada espiga de trigo fue emasculada manualmente y polinizada dos veces con polen fresco de maíz; las flores polinizadas se pulverizaron con una solución de 2,4-D (100 mg l-1, la que también se inyectó en la base de la espiga. Las semillas se cosecharon a los 15 y 21 días posteriores a la polinización. Los embriones recuperados se colocaron en tubos conteniendo medio de

  18. Eat Wheat!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  19. Brans-Dicke classical cosmology in Einstein frame and metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ghaffarnejad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pauli (or Einstein frame is used to study the Brans-Dicke gravity theory, minimally coupled with dilatonic Brans-Dicke scalar field, whose solutions involve degenerate metrics. Some of these solutions exhibit transitions from an Euclidean domain to a Lorentzian space-time corresponding to a spatially flat Robertson-Walker cosmology.

  20. Rice bran water extract attenuates pancreatic abnormalities in high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    U,. Thawornchinsombut. S,. Pannangpetch P. Rice bran protein hydrolysates improve insulin resistance and decrease pro- inflammatory cytokine gene expression in rats fed a high carbohydrate-high fat diet. Nutrients 2015; 7(8): 6313-. 6329. 20. Kim SM, Rico CW, Lee SC, Kang MY. Modulatory effect of rice bran and phytic ...

  1. Density Perturbations in the Brans-Dicke Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, J. P.; Fabris, J. C.; Goncalves, S. V. B.

    1996-01-01

    We analyse the fate of density perturbation in the Brans-Dicke Theory, giving a general classification of the solutions of the perturbed equations when the scale factor of the background evolves as a power law. We study with details the cases of vacuum, inflation, radiation and incoherent matter. We find, for the a negative Brans-Dicke parameter, a significant amplification of perturbations.

  2. Comparison of triticale cultivars with maize grain for finishing lambs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grains from five triticale cultivars on the South African market ... enriched whole grain mixtures for feedlot lambs, although their FCR ... wheat or maize. McCloy et al. (1971) and Reddy et al. (1975), on the other hand, reported that triticale depressed animal perform- ance. Results obtained by sheep piroducers in the winter ...

  3. Studies on food preferences of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Mots. to different crops in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela Devi Sharma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food preference by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky was studied on seven different crops and varieties including maize, wheat and rice. They were maize cultivars namely Arun-2, Manakamana-4, Deuti, buckwheat local cultivar, wheat cultivar namely Annapurna-1, polished rice-Radha 4 and unshelled rice cultivar Mansuli under storage condition at Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal from June 2013 to February 2014 . The hosts were tested using completely randomized design with three replications and were laid in free-choice and no-choice conditions. The maximum number of grain loss was recorded in wheat followed by polished rice respectively. Similarly, the highest weight loss was recorded in polished rice followed by Wheat in both conditions. F1 progeny emergence of weevil was highest in wheat followed by polished rice in free-choice and in no choice conditions, the highest progeny were emerged from polished rice followed by wheat. The lowest numbers of weevils emerged from rice in both conditions. Maximum germination losses were recorded in wheat (24.33% and lowest in Arun-2 (9.67. The rice showed a relatively higher preference to maize weevil under storage condition.

  4. Total Phenolic and Yellow Pigment Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Durum Wheat Milling Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bin Xiao; Chiremba, Constance; Pozniak, Curtis J; Wang, Kun; Nam, Shin

    2017-10-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of total yellow pigments, total phenolic compounds, and their antioxidant activities in various durum wheat milling fractions. Carotenoid composition of yellow pigment extract was also examined using UPLC. The ABTS radical scavenging activity of the milling fractions decreased in the order of short bran/bran > feed flour > flour/semolina in both total phenolic and total yellow pigment extracts. Yellow pigments extracts from bran, short bran, and feed flour exhibited 5.6-15.4% higher antioxidant activity than those of total phenolic extracts from the corresponding milling fractions. The UPLC results showed a non-carotenoid peak at Rt 0.47 min which was present in fractions of the grain outer layers but absent in semolina and flour. This peak absorbed in the UV range of 271 to 327 nm. These observations suggest that the unknown peak could be composed of phenolic compounds co-extracted in their free form with carotenoids in the polar water-saturated butanol solvent. The compounds in this peak could result in overestimation of carotenoid content and antioxidant activity in bran, short bran and feed flour as the peak contributed to 18.3-26.0% of total carotenoids if it was taken into account.

  5. Total Phenolic and Yellow Pigment Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Durum Wheat Milling Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xiao Fu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of total yellow pigments, total phenolic compounds, and their antioxidant activities in various durum wheat milling fractions. Carotenoid composition of yellow pigment extract was also examined using UPLC. The ABTS radical scavenging activity of the milling fractions decreased in the order of short bran/bran > feed flour > flour/semolina in both total phenolic and total yellow pigment extracts. Yellow pigments extracts from bran, short bran, and feed flour exhibited 5.6–15.4% higher antioxidant activity than those of total phenolic extracts from the corresponding milling fractions. The UPLC results showed a non-carotenoid peak at Rt 0.47 min which was present in fractions of the grain outer layers but absent in semolina and flour. This peak absorbed in the UV range of 271 to 327 nm. These observations suggest that the unknown peak could be composed of phenolic compounds co-extracted in their free form with carotenoids in the polar water-saturated butanol solvent. The compounds in this peak could result in overestimation of carotenoid content and antioxidant activity in bran, short bran and feed flour as the peak contributed to 18.3–26.0% of total carotenoids if it was taken into account.

  6. Manganese peroxidase of Agaricus bisporus: grain bran-promoted production and gene characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankinen, Pauliina; Hildén, Kristiina; Aro, Nina; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja; Hatakka, Annele

    2005-01-01

    The main manganese peroxidase (MnP) isoenzyme of Agaricus bisporus ATCC 62459 produced in lignocellulose-containing cultures was isolated, cloned and sequenced. In liquid medium, where MnP was previously detected only in trace amounts, the production of MnP was enhanced by rye and wheat bran supplements. The pI (3.25) and N-terminal amino acid sequence (25 aa) of the enzyme from bran-containing cultures were identical to those reported from compost-isolated MnP1. MnP1 is a 328-aa long polypeptide preceded by a 26-aa leader peptide. The nucleotide sequence and putative amino acid sequence of MnP1 reveal its similarity to Pleurotus ostreatus MnP3 (62.5%), Lepista irina versatile peroxidase (VP) (61.8%) and Pleurotus eryngii VPs VPL2 and VPL1 (61.9% and 61.2%, respectively). The intron-exon structure resembles that of P. ostreatus MnP1 and P. eryngii VPL1. Despite the sequence similarity to VPs, in the A. bisporus MnP1 sequence, alanine (A163) is present instead of tryptophane (W164), distinguishing it from the veratryl alcohol oxidising P. eryngii VPLs. The MnP sequence can be used as a tool to examine the pattern of ligninolytic gene expression during the growth and fruiting of A. bisporus to optimise compost composition, fungal growth and mushroom production.

  7. Occurrence of mycotoxins in spelt and common wheat grain and their products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankevičienė, Audronė; Jablonskytė-Raščė, Danutė; Maikštėnienė, Stanislava

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming does not allow the use of conventional mineral fertilizers and crop protection products. As a result, in our experiments we chose to grow different species of cereals and to see how cereal species affect mycotoxin accumulation. This study describes the occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) and T-2/HT-2 toxin in a survey of spelt and common wheat and their bran as well as flour. The analysis was conducted using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The concentrations of DON, ZEA and T-2/HT-2 in Triticum spelta and T. aestivum were influenced by species, cereal type and year interaction. The highest concentrations of these mycotoxins were found in spelt grain with glumes, in spelt glumes and in spring wheat. These results show significantly higher concentrations of Fusarium toxins in glumes than in dehulled grain, which indicates the possible protective effect of spelt wheat glumes. The lowest DON, ZEA and T-2/HT-2 concentrations were determined in spelt grain without glumes. The research shows that it is potentially risky to produce bran from grain in which mycotoxin concentrations are below limits by European Union Regulation No. 1881/2006, since the concentration of mycotoxins in bran can be several times higher than that in grain. As a result, although bran is a dietary product characterised by good digestive properties, it can become a harmful product that can cause unpredictable health damage.

  8. Analysis of diallel crosses between six varieties of durum wheat in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    $$)9

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... through the use of a diallel cross between six varieties, including two Algerian genotypes and four French ... Key words: Diallel cross, durum wheat, heterosis, genetics, general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA). ..... maize and embryo rescue in durum wheat. Genome 42:338-342.

  9. Use of bran fractions and debranned kernels for the development of pasta with high nutritional and healthy potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccoritti, Roberto; Taddei, Federica; Nicoletti, Isabella; Gazza, Laura; Corradini, Danilo; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Martini, Daniela

    2017-06-15

    The quality of pasta produced with debranning products (bran fractions, BF, and debranned kernels, DK) of durum wheat was investigated by evaluating their total antioxidant capacity, occurrence of nutritional and bioactive compounds, and sensory properties. Two pasta samples, produced with BF-enriched semolina (BF pasta) or only with micronized DK (DK pasta), respectively, were compared with pasta made with traditional semolina (control pasta). BF pasta and DK pasta displayed significantly higher content of bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds and dietary fibre, than control pasta, to a different extent for the diverse compounds. The present study indicates that the debranning process allows to produce pasta with a high content of healthy compounds and minimal effects on sensory properties, using only the natural endowment of durum wheat. This approach is suitable to produce cereal-based foods with the potential nutritional and health benefits of partially refined cereals and limitation of their main drawbacks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Wheat genomics comes of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uauy, Cristobal

    2017-04-01

    Advances in wheat genomics have lagged behind other major cereals (e.g., rice and maize) due to its highly repetitive and large polyploid genome. Recent technological developments in sequencing and assembly methods, however, have largely overcome these barriers. The community now moves to an era centred on functional characterisation of the genome. This includes understanding sequence and structural variation as well as how information is integrated across multiple homoeologous genomes. This understanding promises to uncover variation previously hidden from natural and human selection due to the often observed functional redundancy between homoeologs. Key functional genomic resources will enable this, including sequenced mutant populations and gene editing technologies which are now available in wheat. Training the next-generation of genomics-enabled researchers will be essential to ensure these advances are quickly translated into farmers' fields. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of student’s t statistic as a phenotype of relative consumption preference of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole-grain wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) products provide essential nutrients to humans, but bran attributes may hinder consumption. Differences in grain attributes including flabor/aroma can be indentified using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) as a model system. A potential application of this mo...

  12. Rheological properties and bread quality of frozen yeast-dough with added wheat fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Vivian; Ragaee, Sanaa M; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M

    2017-01-01

    The rheological characteristics of frozen dough are of great importance in bread-making quality. The effect of addition of commercial wheat aleurone and bran on rheological properties and final bread quality of frozen dough was studied. Wheat aleurone (A) and bran (B) containing 240 g kg-1 and 200 g kg-1 arabinoxylan (AX), respectively, were incorporated into refined wheat flour at 150 g kg-1 substitution level (composite A and B, respectively). Dough samples of composite A and B in addition to two reference dough samples, refined flour (ref A) and whole wheat flour (ref B) were stored at -18°C for 9 weeks. Frozen stored composite dough samples contained higher amounts of bound water, less freezable water and exhibited fewer modifications in gluten network during frozen storage based on data from differential scanning calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Bread made from composite frozen dough had higher loaf volume compared to ref A or ref B throughout the storage period. The incorporation of wheat fiber into refined wheat flour produced dough with minimum alterations in its rheological properties during 9 weeks of frozen storage compared to refined and 100% wheat flour dough samples. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Watery eyes Wheat allergy Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  14. Ammonium sulphate on maize crops under no tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anita Gonçalves da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to evaluate the management of N and S (as ammonium sulphate fertilization under no-tillage system on the components of maize productivity and on N and S accumulation in the crop, as well as to evaluate the minimum value of the Nitrogen Sufficiency Index (NSI 0.95 as an indicator for side dressing requirements. The experiment had a completely randomized block design with six treatments and four replications carried out in Red Latosol dystrophic soil (Hapludox, in Campo Mourão, Paraná State, where the following treatments in summer growth maize were applied: T1- 120 kg ha-1 N in seeding; T2- 120 kg ha-1 N in side dressing; T3- 40 kg ha-1 N in seeding and 80 kg ha-1 N in side dressing; T4- 30 kg ha-1 N in seeding and 90 kg ha-1 N in side dressing, monitored by a chlorophyll meter using the Nitrogen Sufficiency Index (NSI; T5- 120 kg ha-1 N anticipated in wheat seeding; T6- without nitrogen fertilization. NSI was determined by the relationship between the leaf chlorophyll index (ICF average of T4 plants and that one in the plot fertilized with 120 kg ha-1 N at the maize seed sowing (T1. During two years, ammonium sulphate was applied to the maize crop after wheat under no tillage system. In the first year, with adequate rainfall, the maize yield was similar to the one in which the complete ammonium sulphate dose application was done in maize seeding and side dressing. The anticipated fertilization to wheat seed sowing resulted in maize yield without difference from the parceled form. In the second year, with irregular rainfall, all treatments with N were similar and they increased maize yield compared to that without N fertilization. NSI of 0.95 was not efficient to evaluate maize N requirements in side dressing, and resulted in lower maize yield. N was accumulated mainly in the grains unlike S that accumulated in the plant shoots; both were highly correlated to maize productivity.

  15. Gastrointestinal implications in pigs of wheat and oat fractions. 1. Digestibility and bulking properties of polysaccharides and other major constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach Knudsen, K E; Hansen, I

    1991-03-01

    The present work was undertaken to study the gastrointestinal effects of wheat and oat dietary fibre (DF) using 40-50 kg pigs cannulated in the terminal ileum. The variables studied were: chemical characteristics of the DF, ileal and faecal digestibility of nutrients and bulking properties of polysaccharides and other major constituents. The wheat products studied included refined wheat flour and wheat fractions rich in the following botanical components: aleurone, pericarp/testa and bran. The oat products used were rolled oats and oat bran. The products varied considerably in DF content (g/kg dry matter) and composition; non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and Klason lignin content ranged from 34 and 1 g/kg respectively in wheat flour, to 465 and 92 g/kg in pericarp/testa. The main NSPs in the wheat were arabinoxylans (AX) (64-69%) and cellulose (15-31%) and in oats mixed linked beta(1----3; 1----4-D-glucans (beta-glucans; 46-63%) and AX (28-32%). The lowest content of soluble NSP was found in the lignified wheat fractions (bran and pericarp/testa) and the highest in oat bran. Eight diets were produced using the wheat and oat products and studied in two series of experiments using wheat flour as the DF-depleted control. The diets in Expt 1 were based on wheat flour and three iso-DF enriched diets prepared by adding DF from the fractions rich in wheat aleurone, pericarp/testa or bran. In Expt 2, oat bran was added to wheat flour to achieve the same DF intake level as in Expt 1. This series also included diets based on rolled oats and rolled oats plus oat bran. Starch was almost completely digested in the small intestine (0.97-1.00). However, there was a tendency to a slightly lower digestibility of oat starch compared with wheat starch. The recovery of wheat NSP in ileal digesta was 82-104% compared with 64-66% for oats. The low recovery of NSP in oat diets was primarily due to the low recovery of beta-glucans (25-36%). In the large intestine NSP and starch residues

  16. Production of wheat doubled haploids by pollination with Job's tears (Coix lachryma-jobi. L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, K; Tsujimoto, H

    2001-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) haploids were produced by crossing with Job's tears (Coix lachryma-jobi L.) as the pollen parent. Pollination was followed by 2,4-D treatment, detached tiller culture, and embryo culture, as described for maize pollination. The frequency of embryo formation was similar to that obtained by crossing wheat with maize pollen. Job's tears is a perennial plant which forms several stalks and its pollen can be collected throughout the year when the plant is maintained in a controlled environment. Our results indicate that Job's tears can be used as the pollen parent for wheat crosses for haploid production without requiring synchronization of flowering dates.

  17. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  18. "Omics" of maize stress response for sustainable food production: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fangping; Yang, Le; Tai, Fuju; Hu, Xiuli; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Maize originated in the highlands of Mexico approximately 8700 years ago and is one of the most commonly grown cereal crops worldwide, followed by wheat and rice. Abiotic stresses (primarily drought, salinity, and high and low temperatures), together with biotic stresses (primarily fungi, viruses, and pests), negatively affect maize growth, development, and eventually production. To understand the response of maize to abiotic and biotic stresses and its mechanism of stress tolerance, high-throughput omics approaches have been used in maize stress studies. Integrated omics approaches are crucial for dissecting the temporal and spatial system-level changes that occur in maize under various stresses. In this comprehensive analysis, we review the primary types of stresses that threaten sustainable maize production; underscore the recent advances in maize stress omics, especially proteomics; and discuss the opportunities, challenges, and future directions of maize stress omics, with a view to sustainable food production. The knowledge gained from studying maize stress omics is instrumental for improving maize to cope with various stresses and to meet the food demands of the exponentially growing global population. Omics systems science offers actionable potential solutions for sustainable food production, and we present maize as a notable case study.

  19. Classification of whole wheat flour using a dimensionless number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehn, Georgia Ane Raquel; Steel, Caroline Joy

    2017-11-01

    The rheological standards currently used for classifying refined wheat flour for technological quality of bread are also used for whole wheat flours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rheological and technological behavior of different whole wheat flours, as well as pre-mixes of refined wheat flour with different replacement levels of wheat bran, to develop a dimensionless number that assigns a numerical scale using results of rheological parameters to solve this problem. Through farinograph and extensograph results, most whole wheat flours evaluated presented parameters recommended for bread making, according to the current classification. However, the specific volume of breads elaborated with these flours was not suitable, that is, the rheological analyses were not able to predict the specific volume of pan bread. The development of the Sehn-Steel dimensionless number allowed establishing a classification of whole wheat flours as "suitable" (Sehn-Steel dimensionless number between 62 and 200) or "unsuitable" for the production of pan bread (Sehn-Steel dimensionless number lower than 62). Moreover, an equation that can predict the specific volume of whole pan bread through this dimensionless number was developed.

  20. Molecular characterization of wheat allergens specifically recognized by patients suffering from wheat-induced respiratory allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahr, S; Constantin, C; Mari, A; Scheiblhofer, S; Thalhamer, J; Ebner, C; Vrtala, S; Mittermann, I; Valenta, R

    2012-04-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an important allergen source responsible for various clinical manifestations of allergy (i.e. food allergy, pollen allergy, respiratory allergy to flour-Baker's asthma). The objective of this study was the molecular and immunological characterization of new recombinant wheat allergens and to evaluate their usefulness for the diagnosis of allergy to wheat. A T. aestivum cDNA library was constructed and screened with serum IgE from patients suffering from wheat allergy to identify cDNAs coding for new wheat allergens. The allergen-encoding cDNAs were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. IgE reactivity of recombinant proteins was analysed in RAST-based, non-denaturing dot blot experiments and by ELISA with sera from wheat allergic patients and their allergenic activity was assessed in basophil degranulation experiments. We report the molecular characterization, recombinant expression and purification of five wheat allergens, a thioredoxin h isoform, glutathione transferase, 1-Cys-peroxiredoxin, profilin and dehydrin. Homologous proteins were identified by sequence comparisons in various plants. 1-Cys-peroxiredoxin appeared to be the most relevant of the newly identified wheat allergens according to prevalence of IgE recognition and results from basophil degranulation experiments. It showed IgE cross-reactivity with seed proteins from barley, rye, rice, maize, soy, oat and spelt. 1-Cys-peroxiredoxin, glutathione transferase and dehydrin were mainly recognized by patients with baker's asthma but not wheat-induced food allergy. The characterized recombinant wheat allergens may be useful for the development of serological tests which allow the discrimination of different clinical manifestations of wheat allergy. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Direct Sowing of Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Alföldi, Thomas; Böhler, Daniel; Dierauer, Hansueli; Hegglin, Django; Böhler, Josef; Breiter, Hanspeter

    2015-01-01

    In organic farming, the plough is generally used in maize cultivation because it provides a simple way to control weed. Unfortunately, regarding soil erosion, compaction and runoff, ploughing is especially harmful in maize cultivation. Direct sowing of maize could largely solve these problems. The video presents the technique of direct sowing of maize, for example in a field of rolled field pea. In the last years, FiBL tests have shown that under optimal conditions, the direct s...

  2. foreign exchange rationing and wheat markets in ethiopia1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    In spite of remarkable growth in Ethiopia's agricultural production and overall real incomes (GDP/capita) from 2004/05 to 2008/09, prices of major cereals. (teff, maize, wheat and sorghum) have fluctuated sharply in both nominal and real terms. International prices of cereals also fluctuated widely, particularly between 2006 ...

  3. Identification of vernalization responsive genes in the winter wheat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YALAN FENG1,2,3,4

    Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, ... polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and the expression change over the time was investigated for the top 11 genes with ... qRT-PCR validated changes in the expression of 18 DEGs that were detected by RNA-seq.

  4. High protein complementation with high fiber substrates for oyster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural residues have been world widely accepted for oyster mushroom culture. In this study, we used wheat straw, barley straw, maize stem residue, and lawn residue as substrates coupled with wheat bran, rice bran and soybean powder as complements for the growth of Pleurotus florida and Pleurotus ostreatus as ...

  5. Comparative impact of genetically modified and non modified maize (Zea mays L.) on succeeding crop and associated weed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Ahmed, Naseer; Ullah, Faizan; Shinwari, Zabta Khan; Bano, Asghari

    2016-04-01

    This research work documents the comparative impact of genetically modified (GM) (insect resistance) and non modified maize (Zea mays L.) on growth and germination of succeeding crop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and associated weed (Avena fatua L.). The aqueous extracts of both the GM and non-GM maize exhibited higher phenolic content than that of methanolic extracts. Germination percentage and germination index of wheat was significantly decreased by GM methanolic extract (10%) as well as that of non-GM maize at 3% aqueous extract. Similarly germination percentage of weed (Avena fatua L.) was significantly reduced by application of 3% and 5% methanolic GM extracts. All extracts of GM maize showed non-significant effect on the number of roots, root length and shoot length per plant but 5% and 10% methanolic extracts of non-GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of wheat seedling. Similarly, 10% methanolic extract of GM maize significantly increased the number of roots per plant of weed seedling. Methanolic extracts of GM and non-GM maize (3% and 5%) significantly decreased the protease activity in wheat as compared to untreated control. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Microbial Ennoblement of Millet Bran for Animal Feed Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of inclusion of yeast and groundnut cake in millet bran on body weight gain was determined in six weanling male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) of average weight 71.8g. The rats fed with millet bran supplemented with yeast (YT) had an initial weight of 77.8g and a final weight of 142.3g (11.01% increase).

  7. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.; Sharma, H. K.; Sengar, G.

    2012-11-01

    Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): sunflower oil (SnF) and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF) in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil. (Author) 23 refs.

  8. Maize earworm attack as influenced by varying maize spatial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of spatial arrangement and maize population in maize-soybean mixture on maize earworm attack was studied at Nsukka, Nigeria for four years, 1997-2000. The treatment consisted of three maize population densities of 40,000, 60,000 and 80,000 plants ha-1, and three row-arrangements of maize: soybean ...

  9. Pushing Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between these varia......This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between...

  10. Difference in postprandial GLP-1 response despite similar glucose kinetics after consumption of wheat breads with different particle size in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli

    2017-01-01

    and metabolic response after their consumption. METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers participated in a randomized, crossover study, consuming (13)C-enriched breads with different structures; a control bread (CB) made from wheat flour combined with wheat bran, and a kernel bread (KB) where 85 % of flour....... Interestingly, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response was much lower after KB compared to CB (iAUC, P

  11. Effect of incorporation of corn byproducts on quality of baked and extruded products from wheat flour and semolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Savita; Gupta, Jatinder Pal; Nagi, H P S; Kumar, Rakesh

    2012-10-01

    The effect of blending level (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) of corn bran, defatted germ and gluten with wheat flour on the physico-chemical properties (protein, crude fiber, phosphorus, iron and calcium), baking properties of bread, muffins and cookies, and extrusion properties of noodles and extruded snacks prepared from semolina were examined. Blending of wheat flour and corn byproducts significantly increased the protein, crude fiber, phosphorus, iron and calcium contents. Breads from gluten blends had higher loaf volume as compared to bran and germ breads. Among corn byproducts, gluten cookies were rated superior with respect to top grain. Muffins from germ blends and gluten blends had higher acceptability scores than the bran muffins. Blending of corn bran, defatted germ and gluten at 5 and 10% with wheat flour resulted in satisfactory bread, cookie, and muffin score. Quality of noodles was significantly influenced by addition of corn byproducts and their levels. Corn byproducts blending had significant influence on cooking time, however, gruel solid loss affected non-significantly in case of noodles. Expansion ratio and density of extruded snacks was affected non significantly by blending source and blending level. However, significant effect was observed on amperage, pressure, yield and overall acceptability of extruded snacks. Acceptable extruded products (noodles and extruded snacks) could be produced by blending corn byproducts with semolina upto 10% level.

  12. Maize Prolamins Could Induce a Gluten-Like Cellular Immune Response in Some Celiac Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Calderón de la Barca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an autoimmune-mediated enteropathy triggered by dietary gluten in genetically prone individuals. The current treatment for CD is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. However, in some CD patients following a strict gluten-free diet, the symptoms do not remit. These cases may be refractory CD or due to gluten contamination; however, the lack of response could be related to other dietary ingredients, such as maize, which is one of the most common alternatives to wheat used in the gluten-free diet. In some CD patients, as a rare event, peptides from maize prolamins could induce a celiac-like immune response by similar or alternative pathogenic mechanisms to those used by wheat gluten peptides. This is supported by several shared features between wheat and maize prolamins and by some experimental results. Given that gluten peptides induce an immune response of the intestinal mucosa both in vivo and in vitro, peptides from maize prolamins could also be tested to determine whether they also induce a cellular immune response. Hypothetically, maize prolamins could be harmful for a very limited subgroup of CD patients, especially those that are non-responsive, and if it is confirmed, they should follow, in addition to a gluten-free, a maize-free diet.

  13. Maize prolamins could induce a gluten-like cellular immune response in some celiac disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Sánchez, Juan P; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco; de la Barca, Ana M Calderón

    2013-10-21

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune-mediated enteropathy triggered by dietary gluten in genetically prone individuals. The current treatment for CD is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. However, in some CD patients following a strict gluten-free diet, the symptoms do not remit. These cases may be refractory CD or due to gluten contamination; however, the lack of response could be related to other dietary ingredients, such as maize, which is one of the most common alternatives to wheat used in the gluten-free diet. In some CD patients, as a rare event, peptides from maize prolamins could induce a celiac-like immune response by similar or alternative pathogenic mechanisms to those used by wheat gluten peptides. This is supported by several shared features between wheat and maize prolamins and by some experimental results. Given that gluten peptides induce an immune response of the intestinal mucosa both in vivo and in vitro, peptides from maize prolamins could also be tested to determine whether they also induce a cellular immune response. Hypothetically, maize prolamins could be harmful for a very limited subgroup of CD patients, especially those that are non-responsive, and if it is confirmed, they should follow, in addition to a gluten-free, a maize-free diet.

  14. Maize Prolamins Could Induce a Gluten-Like Cellular Immune Response in Some Celiac Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Sánchez, Juan P.; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco; Calderón de la Barca, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune-mediated enteropathy triggered by dietary gluten in genetically prone individuals. The current treatment for CD is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. However, in some CD patients following a strict gluten-free diet, the symptoms do not remit. These cases may be refractory CD or due to gluten contamination; however, the lack of response could be related to other dietary ingredients, such as maize, which is one of the most common alternatives to wheat used in the gluten-free diet. In some CD patients, as a rare event, peptides from maize prolamins could induce a celiac-like immune response by similar or alternative pathogenic mechanisms to those used by wheat gluten peptides. This is supported by several shared features between wheat and maize prolamins and by some experimental results. Given that gluten peptides induce an immune response of the intestinal mucosa both in vivo and in vitro, peptides from maize prolamins could also be tested to determine whether they also induce a cellular immune response. Hypothetically, maize prolamins could be harmful for a very limited subgroup of CD patients, especially those that are non-responsive, and if it is confirmed, they should follow, in addition to a gluten-free, a maize-free diet. PMID:24152750

  15. The ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction of rice bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoei, Maryam; Chekin, Fereshteh

    2016-03-01

    In this work, aqueous extraction of rice bran oil was done without and with ultrasound pretreatment. Key factors controlling the extraction and optimal operating conditions were identified. The highest extraction efficiency was found at pH=12, temperature of 45°C, agitation speed of 800rpm and agitation time of 15min, ultrasound treatment time of 70min and ultrasound treatment temperature of 25°C. Moreover, extraction yields were compared to ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction and Soxhlet extraction. The results showed that the yield of rice bran oil at ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was close to the yield of oil extracted by hexane Soxhlet extraction. This result implied that the yield of rice bran oil was significantly influenced by ultrasound. With regard to quality, the oil extracted by ultrasound-assisted aqueous process had a lower content of free fatty acid and lower color imparting components than the hexane-extracted oil. Also, effect of parboiling of paddy on hexane and ultrasound-assisted aqueous extraction was studied. Both extraction methods gives higher percentage of oil from par boiled rice bran compared with raw rice bran. This may be due to the fact that parboiling releases the oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Catch crop in maize

    OpenAIRE

    Dierauer, Hansueli; Siegrist, Franziska; Weidmann, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Outcome: • Reduction of soil erosion, given a good development. • Suppression of seed-propagated weeds. • Better load-carrying capacity of the soil during harvest. • Fixation of nitrogen thanks to the legumes, and utilisation of nutrients in the soil after maize harvest. • Grazing possible immediately after maize harvest. Inconveniences: • Competition for water in the case of severe drought. • Cost of seeds. How to proceed: • Sow the maize at the beginning of M...

  17. Fumonisin B1 and beauvericin accumulation in wheat kernels after seed-borne infection with Fusarium proliferatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Guo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium proliferatum is a fungal pathogen causing ear rot of maize. The fungus infects a range of other plants but the economic impact of these diseases has not been established. Recently, F. proliferatum and its mycotoxin fumonisin were found in wheat grains. Here we report that seed-borne infection of wheat with F. proliferatum resulted in systemic colonization of wheat plants and contamination of wheat grains with fumonisins and beauvericin. F. proliferatum strains originating from different hosts were able to infect wheat via seeds. Colonization of wheat plants with the fungus was highest in the stems, followed by leaves; one third of the strains reached kernels, causing accumulation of fumonisins and beauvericin to 15–55 µg kg-1. The results show that seed-borne infection of wheat with F. proliferatum can lead to contamination of wheat kernels with mycotoxins fumonisins and beauvericin.  

  18. Development and characterization of emulsions containing purple rice bran and brown rice oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of this study were to characterize purple rice bran oil (PRBO) as extracted from the bran, and to produce and characterize a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil. An emulsion was prepared using PRBO (10%), sodium caseinate (5%) and water (85%). The mixture was sonicated followed ...

  19. Distribution of T-2 and HT-2 toxins in milling fractions of durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Michelangelo; Haidukowski, Miriam; Lattanzio, Veronica Maria Teresa; Silvestri, Marco; Ranieri, Roberto; Visconti, Angelo

    2011-10-01

    The effect of processing on mycotoxin content in milling fractions has been investigated in 10 samples of durum wheat contaminated with T-2 and HT-2 toxins at levels ranging from 97 to 5,954 μg/kg (sum of T-2 and HT-2 toxins). Either naturally contaminated samples or samples artificially inoculated with Fusarium sporotrichioides under field conditions were used. A method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with immunoaffinity column cleanup was validated in-house for the simultaneous analysis of both toxins in a variety of matrices, including uncleaned wheat, cleaned wheat, screenings, bran, red dog, fine middlings, and semolina. Mean recoveries from samples spiked with T-2 and HT-2 toxins at levels of 100 μg/kg ranged from 85 to 107%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 14%. The milling process led to an increase of T-2 and HT-2 toxin contents up to 13- and 5-fold in screenings and bran, respectively, compared with occurrence in the uncleaned wheat; however, an overall reduction of T-2 and HT-2 toxins by 54% (RSD, 20%) and 89% (RSD, 3%) was observed in cleaned wheat and in semolina, respectively.

  20. Rice brans, rice bran oils, and rice hulls: composition, food and industrial uses, and bioactivities in humans, animals, and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2013-11-13

    Rice plants produce bioactive rice brans and hulls that have been reported to have numerous health-promoting effects in cells, animals, and humans. The main objective of this review is to consolidate and integrate the widely scattered information on the composition and the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects of rice brans from different rice cultivars, rice bran oils derived from rice brans, rice hulls, liquid rice hull smoke derived from rice hulls, and some of their bioactive compounds. As part of this effort, this paper also presents brief summaries on the preparation of health-promoting foods including bread, corn flakes, frankfurters, ice cream, noodles, pasta, tortillas, and zero-trans-fat shortening as well as industrial products such bioethanol and biodiesel fuels. Also covered are antibiotic, antiallergic, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, cardiovascular, allelochemical, and other beneficial effects and the mechanisms of the bioactivities. The results show that food-compatible and safe formulations with desirable nutritional and biological properties can be used to develop new multifunctional foods as well as bioethanol and biodiesel fuel. The overlapping aspects are expected to contribute to a better understanding of the potential impact of the described health-promoting potential of the rice-derived brans, oils, and hulls in food and medicine. Such an understanding will enhance nutrition and health and benefit the agricultural and industrial economies.

  1. Influence of time of auxin application on wheat haploid embrio formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Slaven

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid interspecies zygote appears after crosses between wheat and maize Zygote derived after usual self-fertilization in wheat is dividing by mitotic divisions into embryo. However, interspecies zygote aborts soon. Auxin treatment is widely used to promote its development. Growth hormones auxins have stimulative ortoxic effects on plant tissue sin relation to its concentration and the time of application. In this paper the effect of time of auxin dicamba application on embryo in wheat x maize crosses was investigated. Chromosomes of pollen donor parent are eliminated quickly in cells of such embryos and they become haploid. It was concluded that for the production of haploid embryos the best time for auxin application is one day after pollination with maize.

  2. Aspects of a supersymmetric Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catena, R.

    2006-11-15

    We consider a locally supersymmetric theory where the Planck mass is replaced by a dynamical superfield. This model can be thought of as the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Brans-Dicke theory (MSBD). The motivation that underlies this analysis is the research of possible connections between Dark Energy models based on Brans-Dicke-like theories and supersymmetric Dark Matter scenarios. We find that the phenomenology associated with the MSBD model is very different compared to the one of the original Brans-Dicke theory: the new scalar and fermionic degrees of freedom do not couple to matter in a universal metric way, i.e. they can not be removed from the matter sector by a Weyl rescaling of the metric. This feature could make the minimal supersymmetric extension of the BD idea phenomenologically inconsistent. (orig.)

  3. Chemical and nutritional values of maize and maize products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical and nutritional values of maize and maize products obtained from selected markets in Kaduna. ... Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences ... Maize and maize products in selected grain markets within Kaduna, Nigeria, were obtained and investigated for proximate and mineral composition analysis using ...

  4. Phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of wheat species: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leváková Ľudmila

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (genus Triticum is considered to be an important source of polyphenols, plant secondary metabolites with numerous health-promoting effects. Many phytochemicals are responsible for the high antioxidant activity of whole grain products. However, there is a lack of information about composition of phenolic acids and their concentrations in different Triticum species. Despite the fact that the increased consumption of whole grain cereals and whole grain-based products has been closely related to reduced risk of chronic diseases, bioactive compounds found in whole grain cereals have not achieved as much attention as the bioactive compounds in vegetables and fruits. Recent studies have revealed that the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of whole grain cereals have been regularly undervalued in the literature, because they contain more polyphenols and other phytochemicals than was reported in the past. Phenolic acids represent a large group of bioactive compounds in cereals. These compounds play a significant role in the possible positive effects of the human diet rich in whole grain cereals, especially in wheat and provide health benefits associated with demonstrably diminished risk of chronic disease development. Ferulic acid, the primary and the most abundant phenolic acid contained in wheat grain, is mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity of wheat, particularly bran fraction. In this paper, selected phenolic compounds in wheat, their antioxidant activity and health benefits related to consumption of whole grain cereals are reviewed.

  5. Maize Genetic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter describes the resources held at the Maize Genetics Cooperation • Stock Center in detail and also provides some information about the North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, IA, Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo (CIMMYT) in Mexico, and the N...

  6. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure and Ancestral Origin of Australian Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Joukhadar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of wheat into Australia by the First Fleet settlers, germplasm from different geographical origins has been used to adapt wheat to the Australian climate through selection and breeding. In this paper, we used 482 cultivars, representing the breeding history of bread wheat in Australia since 1840, to characterize their diversity and population structure and to define the geographical ancestral background of Australian wheat germplasm. This was achieved by comparing them to a global wheat collection using in-silico chromosome painting based on SNP genotyping. The global collection involved 2,335 wheat accessions which was divided into 23 different geographical subpopulations. However, the whole set was reduced to 1,544 accessions to increase the differentiation and decrease the admixture among different global subpopulations to increase the power of the painting analysis. Our analysis revealed that the structure of Australian wheat germplasm and its geographic ancestors have changed significantly through time, especially after the Green Revolution. Before 1920, breeders used cultivars from around the world, but mainly Europe and Africa, to select potential cultivars that could tolerate Australian growing conditions. Between 1921 and 1970, a dependence on African wheat germplasm became more prevalent. Since 1970, a heavy reliance on International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT germplasm has persisted. Combining the results from linkage disequilibrium, population structure and in-silico painting revealed that the dependence on CIMMYT materials has varied among different Australian States, has shrunken the germplasm effective population size and produced larger linkage disequilibrium blocks. This study documents the evolutionary history of wheat breeding in Australia and provides an understanding for how the wheat genome has been adapted to local growing conditions. This information provides a guide for industry to

  7. New isotopic evidence of lead contamination in wheat grain from atmospheric fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Chen, Tongbin; Lei, Mei; Zhou, Xiaoyong; Huang, Qifei; Ma, Chuang; Gu, Runyao; Guo, Guanghui

    2015-10-01

    Crops could accumulate trace metals by soil-root transfer and foliar uptake from atmospheric fallout, and an accurate assessment of pollution sources is a prerequisite for preventing heavy metal pollution in agricultural products. In this study, we examined Pb isotope rates to trace the sources of Pb in wheat grain grown in suburbs. Results showed that, even in zones with scarcely any air pollution spots, atmospheric fallout was still a considerable source of Pb accumulation in wheat. The concentration of Pb in wheat grain has poor correlation with that in farm soil. The Pb concentration in wheat grains with dust in bran coat was significantly higher than that in wheat grains, which indicates that Pb may accumulate by foliar uptake. The Pb isotope rate has obvious differences between the soil and atmospheric fallout, and scatter ratio is significantly closer between the wheat grain and atmospheric fallout. Atmospheric fallout is a more significant source of Pb concentration in wheat grains than in soil. As far as we know, this is the first study on the main sources of lead in grain crop (wheat) samples with isotope. This study aims to improve our understanding of the translocation of foliar-absorbed metals to nonexposed parts of plants.

  8. Caracterização de compostos nitrogenados presentes em farelos fermentados em estado sólido Characterization of nitrogenated compounds in solid state fermented bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Moreira da Silveira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Farelo de arroz desengordurado e farelo de trigo foram submetidos à fermentação em estado sólido pelos fungos Rhizopus sp. e Aspergillus oryzae, visando a obtenção de um produto enriquecido em proteínas, reaproveitando um subproduto da indústria beneficiadora de cereais. Os farelos fermentados obtidos foram caracterizados quanto aos seus compostos nitrogenados. Foi determinado o conteúdo protéico, de aminoácidos totais e digeríveis e de metionina disponível. Os maiores aumentos nos teores protéicos dos farelos foram observados com o microrganismo Rhizopus sp.. Os teores de aminoácidos totais, aminoácidos digeríveis e metionina disponíveis foram aumentados nos farelos fermentados por ambos os fungos, sendo que o escore químico, após 72 horas, variou entre 37,5 e 54,3%.Defatted rice bran and wheat bran were subjected to solid-state fermentation by the fungi Rhizopus sp. and Aspergillus oryzae to increase their nutritional value, especially their protein content. The fermented bran was analyzed to determine the protein, total amino acids, digestible amino acids and disposable methionine content. The highest increase in protein content in fermented bran occurred with the use of Rhizopus sp., while total amino acids, digestible amino acids and available methionine increased with both fungi. After 72 hours of fermentation the chemical score varied from 37.5 to 54.3%.

  9. Dietary fibre enrichment from defatted rice bran by dry fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jue; Suo, Geng; Wit, de Martin; Boom, Remko M.; Schutyser, Maarten A.I.

    2016-01-01

    Defatted rice bran is excellent source of dietary fibre. The mostly used lab-scale method to extract dietary fibre is not very efficient; dry fractionation is a more energy efficient alternative at larger scale. Three separation routes were studied: two-step electrostatic separation, sieving and

  10. Rice bran phytochemicals and dietary colon chemoprevention teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growing body of evidence supports that dietary rice bran exhibits gastrointestinal cancer control and prevention activity using carcinogen induced animal models and human colon cancer cell lines. Our laboratory has recently reported metabolomic differences in rice from globally and genetically dis...

  11. Optimization of biodiesel production from rice bran oil via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... The lipase-catalyzed transesterification of rice bran oil and methanol for biodiesel production in hexane was investigated. The effects of different hexane weight ratio, methanol molar ratio, reaction temperature and immobilized lipase dosage on the total conversion were systematically analyzed by response ...

  12. Optimization of biodiesel production from rice bran oil via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lipase-catalyzed transesterification of rice bran oil and methanol for biodiesel production in hexane was investigated. The effects of different hexane weight ratio, methanol molar ratio, reaction temperature and immobilized lipase dosage on the total conversion were systematically analyzed by response surface ...

  13. Ensiling of elephant grass with soybean hulls or rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    India Joelma Gatass Monteiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal was to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation pattern of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Roxo silage with different levels of soybean hulls or rice bran. Two trials were conducted, comprising of a completely randomized design, with four replicates each. Treatments consisted on the addition of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% of soybean hulls or rice bran to unwilted green elephant grass forage. Large PVC silos were used adopting a density of 600 kg of green mass m-3. The silos were opened 40 days after ensiling. The results revealed that the inclusion of 10% soybean hulls increased elephant grass forage dry matter (DM content to 31%, but did not alter the water soluble carbohydrate (WSC content or buffering capacity. The resultant silages exhibited good fermentation patterns in terms of pH (less than 3.97 and NH3-N (4.07% total N levels. The inclusion of rice bran increased both DM and WSC content in the forage, improving the fermentation pattern of silages (P < 0.05. This too was verified by a pH lower than 3.92 and a maximum NH3-N of 4.23% of the total N. The inclusion of 10% rice bran to the elephant grass improved the nutritional value of the forage to be ensiled and, hence, of the produced silage.

  14. Some Physco-thermal properties of Rice Bran | Obetta | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of these properties were combined for study on their effect on thermal conductivity which was one of the thermal properties studied. Mean values of the thermal conductivity determined ranged from 0.2456 to 0.5764 W/m oC depending on the moisture content of the raw rice bran and the variety. The two major varieties ...

  15. Optimization of Rice Bran Fermentation Conditions Enhanced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rice bran fermentation conditions for extraction of protein concentrate was enhanced by the use of baker's yeast at optimized conditions using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design with three independent variables: fermentation temperature (25 to 35oC), yeast concentration (1 to 5%) and ...

  16. Physicochemical and sensory profile of rice bran roasted in microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Costa Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, chemical, and sensory changes in bran from three rice cultivars according to microwave roasting time. This study analyzed three rice cultivars, BRS Sertaneja (S, BRS Primavera (P, and IRGA 417 (I determining the color parameters (L*, a*, and b * at 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 minutes of roasting time. After applying the difference from control test, the rice brans with different characteristics aroma and flavor were selected: S and P roasted for 9 and 15 minutes and IRGA 417 roasted for 9, 12, and 15 minutes. These samples were characterized by Free-Choice Profile descriptive sensory analysis, and their chemical composition was also determined. The longer the roasting process, the higher the roasted flavor intensity and aroma. The IRG 417 cultivar roasted for 12 minutes showed a sweeter flavor and aroma. After roasting, the brans remained rich in protein and lipid and presented higher fiber content and lower reducing sugar and phytic acid content. Microwave roasting for 12 minutes can be a viable option for improving the sensory functional and nutritional characteristics of the rice bran considering its use in food products.

  17. The influence of the forerunner plant and the irrigation on some quality indicators of the wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L. in their growth conditions on the acid soils in the North-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana ARDELEAN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper sustains the importance of the forerunner plant concerning the quality of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and is based on the research carried out during 2006-2008 on a long term trial placed on the brown luvic (acid soils from Oradea in 1990. In non-irrigating and irrigating conditions as well the smallest protein, wet gluten and dry gluten values were obtained in wheat mono-crop; the values increased in the forerunner plant, wheat-maize and the biggest values were registered in the forerunner plant, wheat-maize-soybean.

  18. Viruses infecting maize

    OpenAIRE

    Krstić, Branka; Stanković, Ivana; Bulajić, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Over 40 plant viruses has been known to cause diseases of maize, but economically the most important yield looses, which in certain years can be total, are caused by viruses from Potyvirus genera, known to be aphid-transmitted in a non-persistant maner. The most important viruses, pathogens of maize, sugar cane and sorghum are considered to be Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), and Johnsongrass mosaic virus (JGMV). In Serbia, the prese...

  19. Transcriptome analysis of embryo maturation in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Keat Thomas; Requesens, Deborah Vicuna; Devaiah, Shivakumar P; Johnson, Daniel; Huang, Xiuzhen; Howard, John A; Hood, Elizabeth E

    2013-02-04

    Maize is one of the most important crops in the world. With the exponentially increasing population and the need for ever increased food and feed production, an increased yield of maize grain (as well as rice, wheat and other grains) will be critical. Maize grain development is understood from the perspective of morphology, hormone responses, and storage reserve accumulation. This includes various studies on gene expression during embryo development and maturation but a global study of gene expression of the embryo has not been possible until recently. Transcriptome analysis is a powerful new tool that can be used to understand the genetic basis of embryo maturation. We undertook a transcriptomic analysis of normal maturing embryos at 15, 21 and 27 days after pollination (DAP), of one elite maize germplasm line that was utilized in crosses to transgenic plants. More than 19,000 genes were analyzed by this method and the challenge was to select subsets of genes that are vitally important to embryo development and maturation for the initial analysis. We describe the changes in expression for genes relating to primary metabolic pathways, DNA synthesis, late embryogenesis proteins and embryo storage proteins, shown through transcriptome analysis and confirmed levels of transcription for some genes in the transcriptome using qRT-PCR. Numerous genes involved in embryo maturation have been identified, many of which show changes in expression level during the progression from 15 to 27 DAP. An expected array of genes involved in primary metabolism was identified. Moreover, more than 30% of transcripts represented un-annotated genes, leaving many functions to be discovered. Of particular interest are the storage protein genes, globulin-1, globulin-2 and an unidentified cupin family gene. When expressing foreign proteins in maize, the globulin-1 promoter is most often used, but this cupin family gene has much higher expression and may be a better candidate for foreign gene

  20. Response of some crops grown in rotation with wheat to the residues of sulfonylurea herbicides in Khuzestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Poorazar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maize and mungbean rotational responses to sulfonylurea herbicides applied on wheat at the previous year were investigated in two separated experiments at Ahvaz in 2006 and 2007. In the first experiment, 10 treatments of herbicides applied to wheat at the year before planting, and after wheat harvesting, the maize crop was planted. Treatments consisted of Chevaliar (idosulfosulfuron + mesosulfuron at 0.4L/ha, Apyrus (sulfosulfuron at 28, 42, 56 and 68 g/ha, megaton (chlorsulfuron at 20 g/ha, bromicide + topic ("bromoxynil + MCPA"+ clodinafop-propargyl at 1.5+0.8 L/ha, Total (sulfosulfuron +mesosulfuron at 45 g/ha, atlantis (idosulfuron + mesosulfuron at 1.5 L/ha and non-treated control. The second experiment was the same as the first one, but the rotational crop following wheat was mungbean. Grain yield, biological yield and harvest index of rotational crops were analyzed. According to the result, when mungbean and maize were planted in rotation with wheat, residues of megaton and apyrus at 56 and 68 g/ha, had the most negative impacts on their yields. So that yield reduction were 37%, 24% and 21% in mungbean and 36%, 10% and 17% in maize, respectively. Therefore, it is needed to pay more attention to the response of rotational crops following wheat to residues of sulfonylurea herbicides in soil.

  1. Using Defatted Rice Bran as a Bioadsorbent for Carrying Tea Catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meng; Yang, Ya-Ping; Jin, Jing; Huang, Long-Yue; Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2015-10-01

    The potential of rice bran as a bioabsorbent for tea catechins was examined. Defatted rice bran had the highest adsorption capacity for tea catechins and the best selectivity for (-)-epigallocatechin gallate over total catechins among water-washed rice bran and untreated rice bran. The adsorption characteristics of tea catechins onto defatted rice bran were determined over a range of concentration (0.5 to 2.5 g/L) and temperatures (10, 25, and 45 °C). The adsorption of tea catechins onto defatted rice bran showed excellent fitness with the pseudo-second-order model at different temperature. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich models adequately describe the isothermal adsorption of tea catechins onto defatted rice bran. The adsorption of total catechins on rice bran decreased from 10 to 25 °C, whereas was greatly enhanced at 45 °C. The adsorption system of bioadsorbent with multiconstituents may not be as simple as the single-force-driving adsorption system. Protein and cellulose are the main contributors to the adsorption of tea catechins on defatted rice bran. Rice bran is regarded as a good fibre source that can be added to various food products and health supplements, which is a potential biocarrier for bioactives. Our study showed that defatted rice bran had a high affinity for tea catechins but caffeine, and provided a promising way for selective enrichment of catechins on defatted rice bran under practical condition. Protein and cellulose are the main contributors to the adsorption of tea catechins on defatted rice bran. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. A rapid and efficient method for assessing pathogenicity of ustilago maydis on maize and teosinte lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Suchitra; Smith, Shavannor M

    2014-01-03

    Maize is a major cereal crop worldwide. However, susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens is the primary constraint to increasing productivity. U. maydis is a biotrophic fungal pathogen and the causal agent of corn smut on maize. This disease is responsible for significant yield losses of approximately $1.0 billion annually in the U.S.(1) Several methods including crop rotation, fungicide application and seed treatments are currently used to control corn smut(2). However, host resistance is the only practical method for managing corn smut. Identification of crop plants including maize, wheat, and rice that are resistant to various biotrophic pathogens has significantly decreased yield losses annually(3-5). Therefore, the use of a pathogen inoculation method that efficiently and reproducibly delivers the pathogen in between the plant leaves, would facilitate the rapid identification of maize lines that are resistant to U. maydis. As, a first step toward indentifying maize lines that are resistant to U. maydis, a needle injection inoculation method and a resistance reaction screening method was utilized to inoculate maize, teosinte, and maize x teosinte introgression lines with a U. maydis strain and to select resistant plants. Maize, teosinte and maize x teosinte introgression lines, consisting of about 700 plants, were planted, inoculated with a strain of U. maydis, and screened for resistance. The inoculation and screening methods successfully identified three teosinte lines resistant to U. maydis. Here a detailed needle injection inoculation and resistance reaction screening protocol for maize, teosinte, and maize x teosinte introgression lines is presented. This study demonstrates that needle injection inoculation is an invaluable tool in agriculture that can efficiently deliver U. maydis in between the plant leaves and has provided plant lines that are resistant to U. maydis that can now be combined and tested in breeding programs for improved disease resistance.

  3. Maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Bronwyn; Warnberg, Katey; Main, Marcy; Wang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is an effective method for introducing genes into maize. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol for genetic transformation of the maize genotype Hi II. Our starting plant material is immature embryos cocultivated with an Agrobacterium strain carrying a standard binary vector. In addition to step-by-step laboratory transformation procedures, we include extensive details in growing donor plants and caring for transgenic plants in the greenhouse.

  4. Cereal Crops Are not Created Equal: Wheat Consumption Associated with Obesity Prevalence Globally and Regionally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenpeng You

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cereals have been extensively advocated as the beneficial food group in terms of body weight management, but each staple cereal crop may contribute in different ways. Studies of the association between wheat availability and risk of obesity are controversial. This study aimed to test the global and regional association between wheat availability as reported by FAO and obesity prevalence at a population level. FAO does not distinguish between whole grain wheat and refined wheat. Methods: Population-specific data from 170 countries on prevalence of obesity, availabilities of mixed cereals, wheat, rice, maize, meat, sugar, fat, soy and calories and GDP are obtained from the UN agencies. All variables were measured as per capita per day (or per year. Each country is treated as an individual subject. SPSS v. 22 is used to analyse these data for all the 170 countries and official country groupings (regions using non parametric and parametric correlations, including partial correlation analysis. Results: Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis showed that obesity prevalence is positively associated with wheat availability (r = 0.500, p < 0.001, but is inversely associated with availabilities of total cereals (r = -0.132, p = 0.087, rice (r = -0.405, p < 0.001 and maize (r = -0.227, p = 0.004. These associations remain in partial correlation model when we keep availabilities of meat, fat, sugar, soy, caloric intake and GDP statistically constant. Overall, positive associations between wheat availability and obesity prevalence remain in different regions. Maize and mixed cereal availabilities do not show independent associations with the obesity prevalence. Conclusions: Our study suggests that wheat availability is an independent predictor of the obesity prevalence both worldwide and with special regard to the regions of Africa, Americas and Asia. Future studies should distinguish between possible influence of whole grain and ultra

  5. Technological properties of bakers' yeasts in durum wheat semolina dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Virgilio; Longo, Chiara; Damigella, Arcangelo; Raspagliesi, Domenico; Spina, Alfio; Palumbo, Massimo

    2010-04-01

    Properties of 13 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different sources (traditional sourdoughs, industrial baking yeasts etc.) were studied in dough produced with durum wheat (Sicilian semolina, variety Mongibello). Durum wheat semolina and durum wheat flour are products prepared from grain of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) by grinding or milling processes in which the bran and germ are essentially removed and the remainder is comminuted to a suitable degree of fineness. Acidification and leavening properties of the dough were evaluated. Strains isolated from traditional sourdoughs (DSM PST18864, DSM PST18865 and DSM PST18866) showed higher leavening power, valuable after the first and second hours of fermentation, than commercial baking yeasts. In particular the strain DSM PST 18865 has also been successfully tested in bakery companies for the improvement of production processes. Baking and staling tests were carried out on five yeast strains to evaluate their fermentation ability directly and their resistance to the staling process. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP) was used to investigate genetic variations in the yeast strains. This study showed an appreciable biodiversity in the microbial populations of both wild and commercial yeast strains.

  6. Quantitative analysis of phytate globoids isolated from wheat bran and characterization of their sequential dephosphorylation by wheat phytase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohn, Lisbeth; Josefsen, Lone; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    parameters were quantified by ICP-MS. The main components of the globoids were phytic acid (40% w/w), protein (46% w/w), and several minerals, in particular, K > Mg > Ca > Fe (in concentration order). Investigation of enzyme kinetics revealed that Km and V-max decreased by 29 and 37%, respectively, when pure...

  7. Magnetic point sources in three dimensional Brans-Dicke gravity theories

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Oscar J. C.; Lemos, Jose' P. S.

    2002-01-01

    We obtain geodesically complete spacetimes generated by static and rotating magnetic point sources in an Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory of the Brans-Dicke type in three dimensions (3D). The theory is specified by three fields, the dilaton, the graviton and the electromagnetic field, and two parameters, the cosmological constant and the Brans-Dicke parameter, w. When the Brans-Dicke parameter is infinity, our solution reduces to the magnetic counterpart of the BTZ solution, while the w=0 case...

  8. Alkylresorcinols in selected Polish rye and wheat cereals and whole-grain cereal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulawinek, Mariola; Jaromin, Anna; Kozubek, Arkadiusz; Zarnowski, Robert

    2008-08-27

    The alkylresorcinol content and homologue composition in selected Polish rye and wheat cultivars and selected whole-grain cereal products were determined in this study. Cereal grains and whole-grain cereal products were extracted with acetone, whereas bread types were extracted with hot 1-propanol. The average alkylresorcinol content in tested rye (approximately 1100 mg/kg DM) and wheat (approximately 800 mg/kg DM) grains harvested in Poland was within the range previously reported in Swedish and Finnish samples. The total alkylresorcinol content in tested cereal products available on the Polish market varied from very low levels in barley grain-based foods up to 3000 mg/kg DM in wheat bran. The total alkylresorcinol content in 14 bread samples extracted with hot 1-propanol varied from approximately 100 mg/kg DM in whole bread made with honey up to approximately 650 mg/kg DM in whole-rye bread. Calculated ratios of C17:0 to C21:0 homologues, a useful parameter previously used to distinguish between rye and wheat cereals and their derived products, was about 1.2-1.4 in rye products, about 0.2 in wheat products, and varied between 0.2 and 0.6 in cereal-derived products containing a mixture of whole rye and/or wheat. The data set obtained were subsequently compared using cluster and principal component analysis, which allowed the tested cereal products to be classified into two major groups consisting of whole-rye or whole-wheat products, respectively. On the basis of that approach, mixed cereal products containing rye and wheat bran or whole rye and wheat flour were grouped between those two well-defined clusters. Our work not only provides a detailed examination of alkylresorcinols in selected Polish rye and wheat cultivars and selected whole-grain cereal products, but also demonstrates that this type of analysis accompanied by the use of proper statistical algorithms offers an objective way to evaluate the quality of whole-grain rye and/or wheat and their derived

  9. Unified dark fluid in Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Sunil K. [Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Dhenkanal, Odisha (India); Behera, Dipanjali [Government College of Engineering, Department of Physics, Kalahandi, Odisha (India); Mishra, Bivudutta [Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, Department of Mathematics, Hyderabad (India)

    2015-04-01

    Anisotropic dark energy cosmological models are constructed in the frame work of generalised Brans-Dicke theory with a self-interacting potential. A unified dark fluid characterised by a linear equation of state is considered as the source of dark energy. The shear scalar is considered to be proportional to the expansion scalar simulating an anisotropic relationship among the directional expansion rates. The dynamics of the universe in the presence of a unified dark fluid in anisotropic background have been discussed. The presence of an evolving scalar field makes it possible to get an accelerating phase of expansion even for a linear relationship among the directional Hubble rates. It is found that the anisotropy in expansion rates does not affect the scalar field, the self-interacting potential, but it controls the non-evolving part of the Brans-Dicke parameter. (orig.)

  10. Production of pregelatinised maize starch compared with maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregelatinised maize starch was prepared from evaporating to dryness 8%w/v of maize starch mucilage and pulverising it. Its physicochemical properties were compared with maize starch powder. Its higher and tapped densities resulted in lower Carr's index. Its higher particle flow rate lower angle of reponse could render it ...

  11. How are arbuscular mycorrhizal associations related to maize growth performance during short-term cover crop rotation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Masao; Takahashi, Yuichi; Gunji, Kento; Isobe, Katsunori

    2017-07-31

    Better cover crop management options aiming to maximize the benefits of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to subsequent crops are largely unknown. We investigated the impact of cover crop management methods on maize growth performance and assemblages of AMF colonizing maize roots in a field trial. The cover crop treatments comprised Italian ryegrass, wheat, brown mustard and fallow in rotation with maize. The diversity of AMF communities among cover crops used for maize management was significantly influenced by the cover crop and time course. Cover crops did not affect grain yield and aboveground biomass of subsequent maize but affected early growth. A structural equation model indicated that the root colonization, AMF diversity and maize phosphorus uptake had direct strong positive effects on yield performance. AMF variables and maize performance were related directly or indirectly to maize grain yield, whereas root colonization had a positive effect on maize performance. AMF may be an essential factor that determines the success of cover crop rotational systems. Encouraging AMF associations can potentially benefit cover cropping systems. Therefore, it is imperative to consider AMF associations and crop phenology when making management decisions. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Brans-Dicke type teleparallel scalar-tensor theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salti, Mustafa; Aydogdu, Oktay; Yanar, Hilmi; Binbay, Figen

    2017-11-01

    The teleparallel alternative of general relativity which is based on torsion instead of curvature is considered as the gravitational sector to explore the dark universe. Inspired from the well-known Brans-Dicke gravity, here, we introduce a new proposal for the galactic dark energy effect. The new model includes a scalar field with self-interacting potential and a non-minimal coupling between the gravity and scalar field. Additionally, we analyze the idea via the Noether symmetry approach and thermodynamics.

  13. Species composition and density of weeds in a wheat crop depending on the soil tillage system in crop rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yankov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The investigation was carried out in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, General Toshevo on slightly leached chernozem soil type. For the purposes of this investigation, variants from a stationary field experiment initiated in 1987 and based on various soil tillage tools and operations were analyzed. The species composition and density of weeds were followed in a wheat crop grown after grain maize using the following soil tillage systems: plowing at 24 – 26 cm (for maize – disking at 10 – 12 cm (for wheat; cutting at 24 – 26 cm (for maize – cutting at 8 – 10 cm (for wheat; disking at 10 – 12 cm (for maize – disking at 10 – 12 cm (for wheat; no-tillage (for maize – no-tillage (for wheat.Weed infestation was read at the fourth rotation since the initiation of the trial. The observations were made in spring before treatment of the crop with herbicides. The soil tillage system had a significant effect on the species composition and density of weeds in the field with wheat grown after previous crop maize. The long-term alternation of plowing with disking in parallel with the usage of chemicals for weed control lead to lower weed infestation of the weed crop. The lower weed density after this soil tillage system was not related to changes in the species composition and the relative percent of the individual species in the total weed infestation. The long-term application in crop rotation of systems without turning of the soil layer and of minimal and no-tillage increased the amount of weeds. The reason is the greater variability of weed species which typically occur after shallow soil tillage.

  14. Comparative utilization of biodegraded and undegraded rice husk in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... maize and wheat bran unlike legume seeds which are presently not being consumed by man and ... has been well documented. Unlike RH, rice bran is less fibrous and higher in protein and oil con- ..... Laplace JP, Beatrice DV, Perez JM, Henry Y, Sylive G, Suawant D. (1989). Associative Effects between ...

  15. Proteomics of wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat is a major food crop grown on more than 215 million hectares of land throughout the world. Wheat flour provides an important source of protein for human nutrition and is used as a principal ingredient in a wide range of food products, largely because wheat flour, when mixed with water, has un...

  16. Wheat and gluten intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busink-van den Broeck, Hetty; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Brouns, F.

    2016-01-01

    With this White Paper, the current state of scientific knowledge on human disorders related to gluten and wheat is presented, with reference to other grains such as spelt, barley, rye, and oats. Backgrounds are described of coeliac disease (gluten intolerance), wheat allergies and any kind of wheat

  17. Complex enzyme hydrolysis releases antioxidative phenolics from rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Ruifen; Wei, Zhencheng; Deng, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Juan; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-01-01

    In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of rice bran were analyzed following successive treatment by gelatinization, liquefaction and complex enzyme hydrolysis. Compared with gelatinization alone, liquefaction slightly increased the total amount of phenolics and antioxidant activity as measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Complex enzyme hydrolysis significantly increased the total phenolics, flavonoids, FRAP and ORAC by 46.24%, 79.13%, 159.14% and 41.98%, respectively, compared to gelatinization alone. Furthermore, ten individual phenolics present in free or soluble conjugate forms were also analyzed following enzymatic processing. Ferulic acid experienced the largest release, followed by protocatechuic acid and then quercetin. Interestingly, a major proportion of phenolics existed as soluble conjugates, rather than free form. Overall, complex enzyme hydrolysis releases phenolics, thus increasing the antioxidant activity of rice bran extract. This study provides useful information for processing rice bran into functional beverage rich in phenolics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antigravity in F( R) and Brans-Dicke theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, V. K.; Karagiannakis, N.

    2014-12-01

    We study antigravity in F( R)-theory originating scalar-tensor theories and also in Brans-Dicke models without cosmological constant. For the F( R) theory case, we obtain the Jordan frame antigravity scalar-tensor theory by using a variant of the Lagrange multipliers method and we numerically study the time dependent effective gravitational constant. As we shall demonstrate in detail by using some viable F( R) models, although the initial F( R) models have no antigravity, their scalar-tensor counterpart theories might or not have antigravity, a fact mainly depending on the parameter that characterizes antigravity. Similar results hold true in the Brans-Dicke model, which we also studied numerically. In addition, regarding the Brans-Dicke model we also found some analytic cosmological solutions. Since antigravity is an unwanted feature in gravitational theories, our findings suggest that in the case of F( R) theories, antigravity does not occur in the real world described by the F( R) theory, but might occur in the Jordan frame scalar-tensor counterpart of the F( R) theory, and this happens under certain circumstances. The central goal of our study is to present all different cases in which antigravity might occur in modified gravity models.

  19. Mixed colonies of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae cooperatively degrading wheat bran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benoit-Gelber, I.; Gruntjes, T; Vinck, A.; van Veluw, G.J.; Wösten, Han A B; Boeren, Sjef; Vervoort, J J M; de Vries, R P

    In both natural and man-made environments, microorganisms live in mixed populations, while in laboratory conditions monocultures are mainly used. Microbial interactions are often described as antagonistic, but can also be neutral or cooperative, and are generally associated with a metabolic change

  20. Impact of wheat bran derived arabinoxylanoligosaccharides and associated ferulic acid on dough and bread properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelders, Jeroen; Dornez, Emmie; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-07-23

    The impact of arabinoxylanoligosaccharides (AXOS) with varying bound or free ferulic acid (FA) content on dough and bread properties was studied in view of their prebiotic and antioxidant properties. AXOS with an FA content of 0.1-1.7% caused an increase in dough firmness with increasing AXOS concentration. AXOS with a high FA content (7.2%), on the contrary, resulted in an increase in dough extensibility and a decrease in resistance to extension, similar to that for free FA, when added in levels up to 2%. Higher levels resulted in unmanageable dough. A limited impact on dough gluten network formation was observed. These results suggest that for highly feruloylated AXOS, the FA-mediated dough softening supersedes the firming effect displayed by the carbohydrate moiety of AXOS. The impact of the different AXOS on bread volume, however, was minimal. Furthermore, AXOS in bread were not engaged in covalent cross-linking and significantly increased its antioxidant capacity.

  1. Effect of replacing wheat bran with spineless cactus plus urea in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esnart Mukumbo

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... Palma forrageira e ureia na alimentação de vacas leiteiras. EDUFRPE, Recife, Brasil. 40 pp. (in Portuguese). González, F.H.D., Barcellos, J.O., Ospina, H. & Ribeiro, L.A.O., 2000. Perfil Metabólico em ruminantes: seu uso em nutrição e doenças nutricionais. Gráfica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande ...

  2. Cell wall degrading enzymes in Trichoderma asperellum grown on wheat bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Lasse; Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2015-01-01

    degrading enzymes and strong secretion ability of this genus. Here we report extensive transcriptome analysis of plant cell wall degrading enzymes in T. asperellum. The production of cell wall degrading enzymes by T. asperellum was tested on a range of cellulosic materials under various conditions. When T...

  3. Mixed colonies of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae cooperatively degrading wheat bran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benoit-Gelber, I.; Gruntjes, T.; Vinck, A.; Veluw, van J.G.; Wösten, H.A.B.; Boeren, S.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Vries, de R.P.

    2017-01-01

    In both natural and man-made environments, microorganisms live in mixed populations, while in laboratory conditions monocultures are mainly used. Microbial interactions are often described as antagonistic, but can also be neutral or cooperative, and are generally associated with a metabolic change

  4. Pilot study using wheat bran to mitigate malnutrition and enteric pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2015, 4.9 million children under the age of five died from infectious, neonatal, or nutritional conditions. Malnourished children have an increased susceptibility to enteric pathogens and diarrhea, which flush commensal bacteria from the intestines. Commensal bacteria in the intestines regulate n...

  5. Nitrogen efficiency in wheat yield through the biopolymer hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela T. W De Mamann

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen use efficiency in wheat biomass and grain yields can be favored by the biopolymer hydrogel. The objective of the study was to analyze the use of the biopolymer hydrogel applied to the seed in the optimization of fertilizer-N on wheat biomass and grain yields, under different conditions of agricultural year and succession systems of high and reduced release of residual-N. In the study, two experiments were conducted, with different farming systems, soybean/wheat and maize/wheat, one to quantify the biomass yield rate and the other to determine grain yield. The experiments were conducted in the years 2014 and 2015, in a randomized block design with four replicates in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme, corresponding to hydrogel doses (0, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha-1 added in the groove along with the seed and N fertilizer rates (0, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha-1, applied as top-dressing. It is possible to improve the fertilizer-N efficiency by wheat using the biopolymer hydrogel for the production of biomass and grains. The highest wheat yield per kilogram of N supplied is obtained with 30 and 60 kg ha-1 of hydrogel, regardless of the year and succession system.

  6. Do massive Brans-Dicke theories of gravitation imitate Brans-Dicke theories with nonzero divergence of energy-momentum tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, L. L.

    1974-01-01

    Acharya and Hogan (1973) have introduced a massive scalar field into the usual Brans-Dicke (1961) theory of gravitation. Formally they obtain certain field equations. The assumption of a nonzero divergence for T mu nu (or equivalently the introduction of sources) formally imitates a massive Brans-Dicke and satisfies the condition of Acharya and Hogan that the theory be indistinguishable with the classical test of the Einstein theory. Although it was shown elsewhere that the modified Brans-Dicke theory agrees with the classical test under certain conditions, there were no specified limits on omega, a similar circumstance discovered by Acharya and Hogan for the massive scalar field.

  7. Syneresis and chemical characteristics of fermented rice extract with probiotic bacteria and waxy maize starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassia Kiss Firmino Dourado COSTA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to elaborate fermented extracts using rice bran and broken rice grains (proportion 8:92 with probiotic bacteria and different concentrations of waxy maize starch (WMS in order to obtain products with low level of syneresis and desirable physical-chemical characteristics, and to evaluate the content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and chemical composition of the extract selected and flavored with strawberry aroma and strawberry syrup. A randomized design was used with five treatments (0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 g 100 g–1 of WMS and four replications. The fermented rice extract had increased soluble solids (from 12.97 to 14.23 °Brix and total acidity (from 0.29 to 0.30 g 100 g–1, whereas total soluble sugars (from 9.24 to 8.73 g 100 g–1 and syneresis (from 10.16 to 0.99 g 100 g–1 decreased with gradual increments of waxy maize starch. The fermented rice extract containing 12 g 100 g–1 WMS reduced the syneresis by 89% compared to the control without waxy maize starch. The fermented rice extract with 12 g 100 g-1 of waxy maize starch flavored with strawberry aroma and strawberry syrup shows high nutritional value, antioxidant capacity, content of total phenolic compounds, and marketing potential, particularly for consumers with special needs, such as those allergic to lactose or soybean proteins, as an alternative food ready for consumption.

  8. A historical assessment of sources and uses of wheat varietal innovations in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charity R. Nhemachena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We undertook a historical review of wheat varietal improvements in South Africa from 1891 to 2013, thus extending the period of previous analyses. We identified popular wheat varieties, particularly those that form the basis for varietal improvements, and attempted to understand how policy changes in the wheat sector have affected wheat varietal improvements in the country over time. The empirical analysis is based on the critical review of information from policies, the varieties bred and their breeders, the years in which those varieties were bred, and pedigree information gathered from the journal Farming in South Africa, sourced mainly from the National Library of South Africa and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT database. A database of the sources and uses of wheat varietal innovations in South Africa was developed using information from the above sources. The data, analysed using trend and graphical analysis, indicate that, from the 1800s, wheat varietal improvements in the country focused on adaptability to the production area, yield potential and stability and agronomic characteristics (e.g. tolerance to diseases, pests and aluminium toxicity. An analysis of the sources of wheat varietal improvements during the different periods indicates that wheat breeding was driven initially by individual breeders and agricultural colleges. The current main sources of wheat varietal improvements in South Africa are Sensako, the Agricultural Research Council’s Small Grain Institute (ARC–SGI and Pannar. The structural changes in the agricultural sector, particularly the establishment of the ARC–SGI and the deregulation of the wheat sector, have helped to harness the previously fragmented efforts in terms of wheat breeding. The most popular varieties identified for further analysis of cost attribution and the benefits of wheat varietal improvements were Gariep, Elands and Duzi.

  9. "New" seed in "old" China : impact of CIMMYT Collaborative Programme on maize breeding in South-Western China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Y.

    1998-01-01

    China is the most populated country with the most limited amount of arable land per head of the population in the world. Development and distribution of modern varieties of the three staples, rice, wheat and maize, to insure national food security, have been the core tasks and first

  10. Alteration of biomass composition in response to changing substrate particle size and the consequences for enzymatic hydrolysis of corn bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Corn bran is a by-product from corn starch processing. This work examined the effects of changing substrate particle size on enzymatic hydrolysis of both raw and pretreated destarched corn bran. The biomass composition of the corn bran varied between particle size fractions: The largest particles...

  11. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Malekian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.001. Saturated fatty acids concentration decreased linearly (P<0.01, while unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.05. The concentration of α-tocopherol in sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.01. Also, antioxidant activity increased linearly in sausages in response to added rice bran (P<0.01. The cholesterol concentration of sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran.

  12. Heavy metals screening of rice bran oils and its relation to composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice bran oil contains beneficial compounds that contribute to the high stability of the oil itself, as well as the health of consumers. As a result, rice bran oil has been growing in popularity and is now widely used in many countries. However, concerns have surfaced in recent years related to the ...

  13. Ohmic heating as a pre-treatment in solvent extraction of rice bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Gopu Raveendran; Divya, V R; Prasannan, Liji; Habeeba, V; Prince, M V; Raghavan, G S V

    2014-10-01

    Rice bran, which is one of the major by products of paddy contain high quality proteins and edible oil apart from fibre, ash and NFE (nitrogen free extract). The existing solvent extraction method employs n-hexane as the most viable solvent for the extraction of oil from rice bran. But the high cost and scarce availability of n-hexane resulted in uneconomical extraction of rice bran oil. In this study, rice bran was ohmically heated for different time periods(1, 2 and 3 min) with different current values (5, 15 and 20 A) and with different concentration of sodium chloride (1 M, 0.1 M and 0.01 M) as conducting medium. The ohmically heated rice bran was subjected to extraction studies. Ohmic heating of rice bran of paddy varieties Red Triveni and Basmati reduced the extraction time by nearly 75 % and 70 % respectively and gave a maximum quantity of oil extracted when compared to bran, which was not ohmically heated. From the experiments with varying concentrations, residence time of ohmic heating and currents, it was found that ohmically heating the rice bran with 1 M sodium chloride solution and with a current value of 20 A for 3 min gave maximum oil extraction with minimum extraction time.

  14. Bioactive compounds in pigmented rice bran inhibit growth of human cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice bran contains both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants. Our previous studies have shown that pigmented rice cultivars contained several-fold higher total phenolic concentrations and antioxidant capacities than non-pigmented cultivars. We investigated three rice brans (purple, red and light-...

  15. Effect of rice bran on the quality of vermicompost produced from food waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Pourzamani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study showed that composting and vermicomposting process can be used as a potential tool for bio convert rice bran and food waste. However, it is suggested that the rice bran can be amended with food waste to ensure better quality of vermicompost.

  16. Dietary rice bran supplementation prevents salmonella colonization differentially across varieties and by priming intestinal immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The global burden of enteric dysfunction and diarrhoeal disease remains a formidable problem that requires novel interventions. This study investigated the immune-modulatory capacity of bran across rice varieties with phytochemical differences. 129SvEvTac mice were fed a 10% rice bran or control die...

  17. Tilted Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model in Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, D. D.; Shahare, S. P.; Dagwal, V. J.

    2018-02-01

    Tilted Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model in Brans-Dicke theory for perfect fluid has been investigated. The general solution of field equations in Brans-Dicke theory for the combined scalar and tensor field are obtained by using power law relation. Also, some physical and geometrical parameters are obtained and discussed.

  18. Temperatures and the growth and development of maize and rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, Berta; Rasmussen, Anton; Porter, John Roy

    2014-01-01

    crops for the key physiological processes such as leaf initiation, shoot growth and root growth and for the most susceptible phenological phases such as sowing to emergence, anthesis and grain filling. Our summary shows that cardinal temperatures are conservative between studies and are seemingly well...... defined in all three crops. Anthesis and ripening are the most sensitive temperature stages in rice as well as in wheat and maize. We call for further experimental studies of the effects of transgressing threshold temperatures so such responses can be included into crop impact and adaptation models....

  19. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and their effect on maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrkovački Nastasija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-living soil bacteria beneficial to plant growth are usually referred to as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, capable of promoting plant growth by colonizing the plant root. Application of PGPR to increase the yield is limited by variability among the results obtained in the laboratory, in greenhouse and field. Rhizobacteria that promote plant growth (PGPR participate in interactions with plants (rice, wheat, maize, sugarcane, sugar beet, cotton and significantly increase their vegetative growth and yield. Apart from Azotobacter and Azospirillum, PGPR also include Acetobacter, Azoarcus and several species of Enterobacteriaceae (Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, and Pseudomonas. PGPR represent an alternative to plant growth enhancement chemicals.

  20. Starch facilitates enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat gluten can be hydrolyzed by either using (vital) wheat gluten or directly from wheat flour. This study investigates the influence of the presence of starch, the main component of wheat, on enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis. Wheat gluten present in wheat flour (WFG) and vital wheat gluten (VWG)

  1. ONTO MAIZE COB

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BAFFA

    substrate has been promising, and this lead to its choice for this work. The work of Igwe and .... surface by monolayer sorption without interaction between the adsorbed molecules (Bansal et ... Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Table 1: Thermodynamic Parameters for the Adsorption of the various Metal ions onto Maize Cob.

  2. Chemical composition and effects of micronized corn bran on iron bioavailability in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Irineu de Oliveira Junior

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The degermination of corn grains by dry milling generates 5% of a fibrous residue. After segregation and micronization, corn bran becomes a potential source of dietary fiber consumption. However, its effect on iron bioavailability has not been reported in the literature. The objective of the present study was to determine the nutritional composition of corn bran and its effects on iron bioavailability using the hemoglobin depletion-repletion method in rats. The animals were divided into two groups: cellulose (control and corn bran (experimental. The bran had high content of total dietary fiber, especially the insoluble fraction, and low phytate content. Hemoglobin uptake did not differ between groups at the end of repletion period, and the iron relative bioavailability value of the corn bran diet was 104% in comparison to that of the control group. The product evaluated proved to be a potential source of dietary fiber and it showed no negative effects on iron bioavailability.

  3. Quality Characteristics of Tteokgalbi with Black Rice Bran and Organic Acid to Substitute Synthetic Caramel Colorant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Kyung; Hong, Seung-Hee; Ku, Su-Kyung; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Choi, Hee-Don; Park, Jong-Dae; Park, Kwoan-Sik; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the quality characteristics of Tteokgalbi with 1% (w/w) black rice bran only (T1), or with black rice bran and one of the following four types of organic acid: ascorbic acid (T2), citric acid (T3), tartaric acid (T4), or maleic acid (T5) as a substitute for caramel colorant. Tteokgalbi with only black rice bran showed the highest (p0.05). All the treated samples with any one of the four organic acids showed lower pH than controls (p0.05). The results reported in this study show that Tteokgalbi with black rice bran and any one of the four organic acids listed above not only improved quality characteristics in cooking loss, WHC, lipid oxidation but also could successfully replace the synthetic caramel colorant. Overall, the most satisfactory results were obtained by adding black rice bran and ascorbic acid.

  4. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) synthesis of Lactobacillus in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, Lai Quoc; Ngan, Tran Thi Kim; Nu, Nguyen Thi Xuan

    2017-09-01

    This research focused on the synthesis of GABA by Lactobacillus bacteria in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract without adding glutamate. Two strains of Lactobacillus were investigated into capacity of GABA synthesis. Result indicates that, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 exhibited the higher capacity of GABA synthesis in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract than that of Lactobacillus plantarum VTCC - B - 890. Total dissolved solid (TDS), free amino acids (AA) and reducing sugar (RS) contents in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract with two strains also significantly decreased. At pH 5 and 9 %w/w of TDS content in defatted rice bran extract, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 accumulated 2,952 ppm of GABA in 24 hours of fermentation. The result implies that fermentation with Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 can be applied for GABA production from defatted rice bran extract.

  5. Discrimination of red and white rice bran from Indonesia using HPLC fingerprint analysis combined with chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Aryani; Rafi, Mohamad; Darusman, Latifah K

    2017-04-15

    HPLC fingerprint analysis combined with chemometrics was developed to discriminate between the red and the white rice bran grown in Indonesia. The major component in rice bran is γ-oryzanol which consisted of 4 main compounds, namely cycloartenol ferulate, cyclobranol ferulate, campesterol ferulate and β-sitosterol ferulate. Separation of these four compounds along with other compounds was performed using C18 and methanol-acetonitrile with gradient elution system. By using these intensity variations, principal component and discriminant analysis were performed to discriminate the two samples. Discriminant analysis was successfully discriminated the red from the white rice bran with predictive ability of the model showed a satisfactory classification for the test samples. The results of this study indicated that the developed method was suitable as quality control method for rice bran in terms of identification and discrimination of the red and the white rice bran. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Structure stabilization in starch-quinoa bran doughs: The role of water availability and gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föste, Maike; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas

    2017-10-15

    Bran is a promising ingredient for nutritional fortification in starch-based dough systems. However its incorporation is a technological challenge favoring a shift in dough functionality. The objective of this study was to elucidate the impact of bran on baking performance independent of dough firmness and start of gelatinization. Therefore, corn starch was replaced by quinoa bran (10% to 50%) and water addition (80-110g/100g flour) was standardized on a fixed complex shear modulus (G*) and start of gelatinization (TOnset) based on a corn starch reference dough. A destabilizing effect by bran particles was counteracted in corn starch dough by adjusting the water content up to 110 g/100g flour. Moreover, a negative correlation between TOnset and loaf volume was determined (r=- 0.9042), thus an early TOnset should be aspired in order to prevent gas release and to stabilize corn starch- quinoa bran dough. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra, R.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO: sunflower oil (SnF and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil.

    Se analizaron diversos parámetros físico-químicos para la evaluación de mezclas de aceites en diferentes proporciones que incluyen: aceite de salvado de arroz físícamente refinado (PRBO: aceite de girasol (SNF y las mezclas PRBO: aceite de cártamo (SAF en diferentes proporciones. La cuantificación de la presencia del aceite de salvado de arroz en las mezclas se llevó a cabo por diferentes métodos, como cromatografía de gases (GC, cromatografía líquida (HPLC, ultrasonidos y métodos basados en otros parámetros f

  8. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  9. WheatGenome.info: A Resource for Wheat Genomics Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kaitao

    2016-01-01

    An integrated database with a variety of Web-based systems named WheatGenome.info hosting wheat genome and genomic data has been developed to support wheat research and crop improvement. The resource includes multiple Web-based applications, which are implemented as a variety of Web-based systems. These include a GBrowse2-based wheat genome viewer with BLAST search portal, TAGdb for searching wheat second generation genome sequence data, wheat autoSNPdb, links to wheat genetic maps using CMap and CMap3D, and a wheat genome Wiki to allow interaction between diverse wheat genome sequencing activities. This portal provides links to a variety of wheat genome resources hosted at other research organizations. This integrated database aims to accelerate wheat genome research and is freely accessible via the web interface at http://www.wheatgenome.info/ .

  10. Investigations on Fusarium spp. and their mycotoxins causing Fusarium ear rot of maize in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shala-Mayrhofer, Vitore; Varga, Elisabeth; Marjakaj, Robert; Berthiller, Franz; Musolli, Agim; Berisha, Defrime; Kelmendi, Bakir; Lemmens, Marc

    2013-01-01

    After wheat, maize (Zea mays L.) is the second most important cereal crop in Kosovo and a major component of animal feed. The purpose of this study was to analyse the incidence and identity of the Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize kernels in Kosovo in 2009 and 2010, as well as the mycotoxin contamination. The disease incidence of Fusarium ear rot (from 0.7% to 40% diseased ears) on maize in Kosovo is high. The most frequently Fusarium spp. identified on maize kernels were Fusarium subglutinans, F. verticillioides/F. proliferatum and F. graminearum. Maize kernel samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS and found to be contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON), DON-3-glucoside, 3-acetyl-DON, 15-acetyl-DON, zearalenone, zearalenone-14-sulphate, moniliformin, fumonisin B1 and fumonisin B2. This is the first report on the incidence and identification of Fusarium species isolated from naturally infected maize as well as the mycotoxin contamination in Kosovo.

  11. Oxalate oxidases and differentiating surface structure in wheat: germins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, B G

    2000-07-01

    Oxalate oxidases (OXOs) have been found to be concentrated in the surface tissues of wheat embryos and grains: germin is concentrated in root and leaf sheaths that surround germinated embryos; pseudogermin (OXO-psi) is concentrated in the epidermis and bracts that 'encircle' mature grains. Most strikingly, the epidermal accumulation of OXO-psi was found to presage the transition of a delicate 'skin', similar to the fragile epidermis of human skin, into the tough shell (the miller's 'beeswing') that is typical of mature wheat grains. A narrow range of oxalate concentration (1--2 mM) in the hydrated tissues of major crop cereals (barley, maize, oat, rice, rye and wheat) contrasted with wide variations in their OXO expression, e.g. cold-tolerant and cold-sensitive varieties of maize have similar oxalate contents but the former was found to contain approx. 20-fold more germin than did the latter. Well-known OXOs in sorghum, a minor cereal, and beet, a dicotyledon, were found to have little antigenic relatedness to the germins, but the beet enzyme did share some of the unique stability properties that are peculiar to the germin-like OXOs that are found only in the major crop cereals. Their concentration in surface structures of domesticated wheat suggests a biochemical role for germin-like OXOs: programmed cell death in surface tissues might be a constitutive as well as an adaptive form of differentiation that helps to produce refractory barriers against tissue invasion by predators. Incidental to the principal investigation, and using an OXO assay (oxalate-dependent release of CO(2)) that did not rely on detecting H(2)O(2), which is often fully degraded in cell extracts, it was found that OXO activity in soluble extracts of wheat was manifested only in standard solution assays if the extract was pretreated in a variety of ways, which included preincubation with pepsin or highly substituted glucuronogalactoarabinoxylans (cell-wall polysaccharides).

  12. Milling technological experiments to reduce Fusarium toxin contamination in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véha A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine 4 different DON-toxin-containing (0.74 - 1.15 - 1.19 - 2.14 mg/kg winter wheat samples: they were debranned and undebranned, and we investigated the flour’s and the by-products’ (coarse, fine bran toxin content changes. SATAKE lab-debranner was used for debranning and BRABENDER lab-mill for the milling process. Without debranning, two sample flours were above the DON toxin limit (0.75 mg/kg, which are waste. By minimum debranning (and minimum debranning mass loss; 6-8%, our experience with whole flour is that the multi-stage debranning measurement significantly reduces the content of the flour’s DON toxin, while the milling by-products, only after careful consideration and DON toxin measurements, may be produced for public consumption and for feeding.

  13. Dynamical complexity of the Brans-Dicke cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrycyna, Orest; Szydłowski, Marek

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics of the Brans-Dicke theory with a quadratic scalar field potential function and barotropic matter is investigated. The dynamical system methods are used to reveal complexity of dynamical evolution in homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models. The structure of phase space crucially depends on the parameter of the theory ωBD as well as barotropic matter index wm. In our analysis these parameters are treated as bifurcation parameters. We found sets of values of these parameters which lead to generic evolutional scenarios. We show that in isotropic and homogeneous models in the Brans-Dicke theory with a quadratic potential function the de Sitter state appears naturally. Stability conditions of this state are fully investigated. It is shown that these models can explain accelerated expansion of the Universe without the assumption of the substantial form of dark matter and dark energy. The Poincare construction of compactified phase space with a circle at infinity is used to show that phase space trajectories in a physical region can be equipped with a structure of a vector field on nontrivial topological closed space. For ωBD < -3/2 we show new types of early and late time evolution leading from the anti-de Sitter to the de Sitter state through an asymmetric bounce. In the theory without a ghost we find bouncing solutions and the coexistence of the bounces and the singularity. Following the Peixoto theorem some conclusions about structural stability are drawn.

  14. On the action of the complete Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofinas, Georgios [University of the Aegean, Research Group of Geometry, Dynamical Systems and Cosmology, Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, Karlovassi, Samos (Greece); Tsoukalas, Minas [Bogazici University, Physics Department, Istanbul (Turkey); National Technical University of Athens, Physics Division, Athens (Greece)

    2016-12-15

    Recently the most general completion of Brans-Dicke theory has appeared with energy exchanged between the scalar field and ordinary matter, given that the equation of motion for the scalar field keeps the simple wave form of Brans-Dicke. This class of theories contain undetermined functions, but there exist only three theories which are unambiguously determined from consistency. Here, for the first such theory, the action of the vacuum theory is found, which arises as the limit of the full matter theory. A symmetry transformation of this vacuum action in the Jordan frame is found which consists of a conformal transformation of the metric together with a redefinition of the scalar field. Since the general family of vacuum theories is parametrized by an arbitrary function of the scalar field, the action of this family is also found. As for the full theory with matter the action of the system is only found when the matter Lagrangian vanishes on-shell, as for example for pressureless dust. Due to the interaction, the matter Lagrangian is non-minimally coupled either in the Jordan or the Einstein frame. (orig.)

  15. Production of beta-carotene-enriched rice bran using solid-state fermentation of Rhodotorula glutinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roadjanakamolson, M; Suntornsuk, W

    2010-03-01

    This work was aimed at utilizing rice bran as a substrate for beta-carotene production by Rhodotorula glutinis DM 28 under optimized conditions of solid-state fermentation. The biomass and beta-carotene content of Rhodotorula glutinis DM 28 grown on rice bran as a sole substrate under solid-state fermentation were 54 g/kg rice bran and 1.65 mg/kg rice bran, respectively. Its biomass and beta-carotene content, however, could be improved by 60% and 30%, respectively, using the Central Composite Design for the optimization of its cultivation conditions. The optimized conditions obtained were a pH of 5, a moisture content of 70% (w/w), and a carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of 4. Under these conditions, rice bran containing R. glutinis DM 28 had nutritional values of beta-carotene, protein, and fat higher than those of rice bran alone. Yeast-grown rice bran could be suitable, therefore, to use as a beta-carotene-enriched supplement in animal feeds.

  16. Bioactive compounds and antioxidative activity of colored rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The profiles of bioactive compounds (including phenolics and flavonoids in free and bound fractions, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, vitamin E, and γ-oryzanol of outer and inner rice bran from six colored rice samples collected from local markets were investigated. Proanthocyanidins could only be detected in red rice bran but not in black rice bran. The free fraction of the extracts dominated the total phenolics (72–92% and the total flavonoids (72–96% of colored rice bran. Most of the phenolic acids (83–97% in colored rice bran were present in the bound form. Protocatechualdehyde was identified for the first time in the bound fraction of red rice bran by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The antioxidative activities of the free fraction of the colored rice bran were attributed to the proanthocyanidins in red colored rice and anthocyanins in black rice, while that of the bound fraction was mainly due to the phenolic acids.

  17. Shiitake (lentinula edodes production on a sterilized bagasse substrate enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Ivan Henrique

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was performed to evaluate the biological efficiency (BE, mean mushroom weight (MMW, mean number of mushroom (MNM and mushroom quality of Shiitake [ Lentinula edodes (Berk. Pegler] when grown on a sterilized substrate composed by sugarcane bagasse enriched with rice bran and sugarcane molasses. The proportions of rice bran were 0, 15, 20, 25 and 30% (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse; and the concentrations of sugarcane molasses were 0, 30 and 60 g/kg (dry weight/dry weight of bagasse plus rice bran. Four flushes were obtained during the production cycle, providing 3 accumulated productions which were used for production analysis. The substrate supplemented with 25 and 30% rice bran yielded the highest BE (98.42 and 99.84%, respectively, about 230 days after spawning and MNM and initially produced a lower MMW than the substrates supplemented with 15 and 20% rice bran. Any amount of rice bran added to the sugarcane bagasse improved mushroom quality, with the best production of marketable mushrooms obtained by the addition of 15% rice bran. The largest amount of sugarcane molasses (60 g/kg increased BE (90.3 and 23.6%, on first and second accumulated productions, respectively and MNM and no quantity affected mushroom quality.

  18. Dietary rice bran promotes resistance to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium colonization in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ajay

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary rice bran consists of many bioactive components with disease fighting properties; including the capacity to modulate the gut microbiota. Studies point to the important roles of the gut microbiota and the mucosal epithelium in the establishment of protection against enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella. The ability of rice bran to reduce the susceptibility of mice to a Salmonella infection has not been previously investigated. Therefore, we hypothesized that the incorporation of rice bran into the diet would inhibit the colonization of Salmonella in mice through the induction of protective mucosal responses. Results Mice were fed diets containing 0%, 10% and 20% rice bran for one week prior to being orally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We found that mice consuming the 10 and 20% rice bran diets exhibited a reduction in Salmonella fecal shedding for up to nine days post-infection as compared to control diet fed animals (p Lactobacillus spp. in rice bran fed mice (p Salmonella entry into mouse small intestinal epithelial cells. Conclusions Increasing rice bran consumption represents a novel dietary means for reducing susceptibility to enteric infection with Salmonella and potentially via induction of native Lactobacillus spp.

  19. Farmer preferences for Milpa diversity and genetically modified maize in Mexico: A latent class approach

    OpenAIRE

    Birol, Ekin; Villalba, Eric Rayn; Smale, Melinda

    2007-01-01

    "Maize, the second most globally important staple crop after wheat, originated in Mexico, where it is typically grown as part of a set of associated crops and practices called the milpa system. This ancient mode of production is practiced today in ways that vary by cultural context and agro-environment. Milpas generate private economic value, in terms of food security, diet quality and livelihoods, for the two-million farm households who manage them. Furthermore, milpas generate public econom...

  20. Maize Cob Board (MCB)

    OpenAIRE

    HERRERAS GADEA, ALBERTO

    2010-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis is giving an overview of light wood composites materials, to compare some of these materials, which are already in the trade, with the MCB board. The MCB boards use the sandwich technology as the Honeycomb panel, gluing a core layer between two surface layers. This board uses maize for the core layer, putting the small cobs cylinders in vertical position between two surface layers of HDF by gluing. The technical characteristics from MCB board are comparable with Honeycomb...

  1. Intragenic modification of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeraya, Erika V; Sánchez-de-Jiménez, Estela

    2016-11-20

    The discovery of plant DNA recombination techniques triggered the development of a wide range of genetically modified crops. The transgenics were the first generation of modified plants; however, these crops were quickly questioned due to the artificial combination of DNA between different species. As a result, the second generation of modified plants known as cisgenic and/or intragenic crops arose as an alternative to genetic plant engineering. Cisgenic and/or intragenic crops development establishes the combination of DNA from the plant itself or related species avoiding the introduction of foreign genetic material, such as selection markers and/or reporter genes. Nowadays it has been made successful cisgenic and/or intragenic modifications in crops such as potato and apple. The present study shows the possibility of reaching similar approach in corn plants. This research was focused on achieve intragenic overexpression of the maize Rubisco activase (Rca) protein. The results were compared with changes in the expression of the same protein, in maize plants grown after 23 cycles of conventional selection and open field planting. Experimental evidence shows that maize intragenic modification is possible for increasing specific gene expression, preserving plant genome free of foreign DNA and achieving further significant savings in time and man labor for crop improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Milling and Cooking Processes on the Deoxynivalenol Content in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo Kushiro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin is a natural-occuring mycotoxin mainly produced by Fusarium graminearum, a food-borne fungi widely distributed in crops and it is one of the most important mycotoxins in wheat and wheat-based foods and feeds. DON affects animal and human health causing diarrhea, vomiting, gastro-intestinal inflammation, and immunomodulation. Since the rate of the occurrence of DON in wheat is high, effective procedures to remove or eliminate DON from food products is essential to minimize exposures in those who consume large amounts of wheat. Cleaning prior to milling reduced to some extent the concentration of DON in final products. Since DON is distributed throughout the kernels, with higher content in the outer skin, milling is also effective in reducing the DON levels of wheat-based foods if bran and shorts are removed before thermal cooking. DON is water-soluble and cooking with larger amounts of water lowers DON content in products such as spaghetti and noodles. During baking or heating, DON is partially degraded to DON-related chemicals, whose toxicological effects are not studied well. This paper reviews the researches on the effects of milling and cooking on the DON level and discusses the perspectives of further studies.

  3. MAIZE-TEF RELAY INTERCROPPINC AS AFFECTED BY MAIZE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In intercrop combinations, the amount of light reaching to the shorter component is reduced depending on the density of the components, canopy architecture and relative time of sowing. In a maize-bean intercropping, Gardiner and. Craker( 198 l ) indicated thatat low ( I 3,000 plants ha“) and hi gh (55.000 plants ha") maize ...

  4. Cosmological implications of a supersymmetric extension of the Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catena, R.

    2007-09-15

    In the Brans-Dicke theory the Planck mass is replaced by a dynamical scalar field. We consider here the supersymmetric analogous of this mechanism replacing in the supergravity Lagrangian the Planck mass with a chiral superfield. This analysis is motivated by the research of possible connections between supersymmetric Dark Matter scenarios and Dark Energy models based on Brans-Dicke-like theories. We find that, contrary to the original Brans-Dicke theory, in its supersymmetric analogous the gravitational sector does not couple to the matter sector in a universal metric way. As a result, violations of the weak equivalence principle could be present in such a scenario. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of various substrates and supplements for biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different substrates namely wheat straw (Triticum aestivum), maize stover (Zea mays L), thatch grass (Hyparrhenia filipendula) and oil/protein rich supplements (maize bran, cottonseed hull [Gossypium hirsutum]) on biological efficiency of two oyster mushroom ...

  6. Surveillance of fumonisins in UK maize-based foods and other cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S; Hazel, C M; Winterton, A G; Gleadle, A E

    1997-01-01

    A survey has been carried out to determine the levels of fumonisins in a variety of maize-based foods and cereals available in the UK. The fate of fumonisins during commercial processing of maize was also assessed at each stage of the process. Fumonisins were not detected in samples of barley, wheat, soya, oats, rice, corn syrup or oil, corn-on-the-cob, corn-fed chicken or wheat flour tortilla. Despite detectable fumonisin contamination in samples of the original maize, fumonisins were not detected in samples of the food products obtained from commercial maize processing. Low levels were detected in samples of tacos and in some foods containing corn-based thickeners, such as instant semolina pudding and instant custard powder. Approximately 78% of corn snack samples contained fumonisins (11-220 micrograms/kg), while 24% of breakfast cereals contained total fumonisins at between 11 and 194 micrograms/kg. Although none of the ready-made popcorn samples contained detectable levels of fumonisins, 46% of popping corn samples and microwaveable popcorn contained fumonisins at 14-784 micrograms/kg. The highest levels of fumonisins were detected in samples of polenta with concentrations ranging from 16 to 2124 micrograms/kg. Overall, fumonisins were detected in 26% (76) of the 291 retail samples analysed.

  7. maize cob losses and their effects on the poverty status of maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This study analysed fresh maize cob losses and its effect on the poverty status of maize farmers in Edo State,. Nigeria. The specific objectives were to estimate the physical and financial amount of fresh maize cob losses experienced by maize farmers, examine the effect of fresh maize cob losses on the ...

  8. PERFORMANCE OF PWANI HYBRID MAIZE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-05-14

    May 14, 1993 ... ABSTRACT. New maize hybrids require specific agronomic recommendations, especially when currently available recommendations are for a low yield potential, open pollinated cultivar. A study was conducted to investigate the performance of a new maize cultivar, Pwani Hybrid I (PHI) at different nitrogen ...

  9. Maize variety and method of production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauly, Markus; Hake, Sarah; Kraemer, Florian J

    2014-05-27

    The disclosure relates to a maize plant, seed, variety, and hybrid. More specifically, the disclosure relates to a maize plant containing a Cal-1 allele, whose expression results in increased cell wall-derived glucan content in the maize plant. The disclosure also relates to crossing inbreds, varieties, and hybrids containing the Cal-1 allele to produce novel types and varieties of maize plants.

  10. pH catalyzed pretreatment of corn bran for enhanced enzymatic arabinoxylan degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jane; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Corn bran is mainly made up of the pericarp of corn kernels and is a byproduct stream resulting from the wet milling step in corn starch processing. Through statistic modeling this study examined the optimization of pretreatment of corn bran for enzymatic hydrolysis. A low pH pretreatment (pH 2......, 150°C, 65min) boosted the enzymatic release of xylose and glucose and maximized biomass solubilization. With more acidic pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis the total xylose release was maximized (at pH 1.3) reaching ∼50% by weight of the original amount present in destarched corn bran......, but the enzyme catalyzed xylose release was maximal after pretreatment at approx. pH 2. The total glucose release peaked after pretreatment of approx. pH 1.5 with an enzymatic release of approx. 68% by weight of the original amounts present in destarched corn bran. For arabinose the enzymatic release...

  11. In vitro fermentation patterns of rice bran components by human gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole grain rice is a rich source of fiber, nutrients, and phytochemicals that may promote gastrointestinal health, but such beneficial components are typically removed with the bran during polishing. Soluble feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (FAXO) and polyphenolics (RBPP) isolated from ri...

  12. Protein and carbohydrate fractionation of Piata palisadegrass silage of brans from biodiesel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Soares Epifanio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the protein and carbohydrate fractionation of Piata palisadegrass silage of brans from biodiesel industry. The experiment was developed in the Federal Institute of Goiás State, Campus Rio Verde, with a completely randomized experimental design, four replications, in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme, with four oleaginous brans (cotton, sunflower, soybean and canola and four levels of inclusion (0, 5, 10 and 15%. The results showed that brans from biodiesel industry are good sources of additives for ensiling thePiata palisadegrass, by considerably improving fractions of proteins and carbohydrates. However, the soybean meal proved to be more efficient by having higher fractions of proteins and carbohydrates A+B1 and lower fractions C, compared with other additives. It is recommended the addition of 15% of brans for providing better nutritional value of silage.

  13. Testing Brans-Dicke gravity using the Einstein telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Yu, Jiming; Liu, Tan; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Anzhong

    2017-06-01

    Gravitational radiation is an excellent field for testing theories of gravity in strong gravitational fields. The current observations on the gravitational-wave (GW) bursts by LIGO have already placed various constraints on the alternative theories of gravity. In this paper, we investigate the possible bounds which could be placed on the Brans-Dicke gravity using GW detection from inspiraling compact binaries with the proposed Einstein Telescope, a third-generation GW detector. We first calculate in detail the waveforms of gravitational radiation in the lowest post-Newtonian approximation, including the tensor and scalar fields, which can be divided into the three polarization modes, i.e., "plus mode," "cross mode," and "breathing mode." Applying the stationary phase approximation, we obtain their Fourier transforms, and derive the correction terms in amplitude, phase, and polarization of GWs, relative to the corresponding results in general relativity. Imposing the noise level of the Einstein Telescope, we find that the GW detection from inspiraling compact binaries, composed of a neutron star and a black hole, can place stringent constraints on the Brans-Dicke gravity. The bound on the coupling constant ωBD depends on the mass, sky position, inclination angle, polarization angle, luminosity distance, redshift distribution, and total observed number NGW of the binary systems. Taking into account all the burst events up to redshift z =5 , we find that the bound could be ωBD≳1 06×(NGW/1 04)1/2. Even for the conservative estimation with 1 04 observed events, the bound is still more than one order tighter than the current limit from Solar System experiments. So, we conclude that the Einstein Telescope will provide a powerful platform to test alternative theories of gravity.

  14. Effects of different levels of dried tomato pomace on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-10-30

    Oct 30, 2012 ... calcium and 0.45% phosphorus (Jafari et al., 2006). The ... Literature review ... effects of adding DTP in diet on laying diet performance and egg quality have ..... pomace as an alternative to wheat bran in maize or wheat based.

  15. Static and rotating electrically charged black holes in three-dimensional Brans-Dicke gravity theories

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Oscar J. C.; Lemos, Jose' P. S.

    2001-01-01

    We obtain static and rotating electrically charged black holes of a Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory of the Brans-Dicke type in (2+1)-dimensions. The theory is specified by three fields, the dilaton, the graviton and the electromagnetic field, and two parameters, the cosmological constant and the Brans-Dicke parameter. It contains eight different cases, of which one distinguishes as special cases, string theory, general relativity and a theory equivalent to four dimensional general relativity ...

  16. Glucose obtained from rice bran by ultrasound-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Cristine Kuhn; Marcio Antonio Mazutti; Edson Luiz Foletto; Valéria Dal Prá; Eduardo Zimmermann; Matheus Souza; Vitória Segabinazzi Foletto; Tanisa Paula Silveira Maleski; Felipe Cavalheiro Lunelli; Pâmela Sfalcin

    2015-01-01

    In this work ultrasound-assisted solid-state enzymatic hydrolysis of rice bran to obtain fermentable sugars was investigated. For this purpose, process variables such as temperature, enzyme concentration and moisture content were evaluated during the enzymatic hydrolysis with and without ultrasound irradiation. The enzyme used is a blend of amylases derived from genetically modified strains of Trichoderma reesei. Kinetic of the enzymatic hydrolysis of rice bran at the constant-reaction rate p...

  17. Water requirements and management of maize under drip and sprinkler irrigation. 1999 annual report for Agricultural Technology Utilization and Transfer (ATUT) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the second year of this project, research continued at Ismailia, Egypt on irrigation management of maize, fava bean, wheat, and alfalfa. Research at Bushland, Texas, continued on alfalfa and grass reference evapotranspiration (ET), means of estimating those values from Bowen ratio meterological m...

  18. Water requirements and management of maize under drip and sprinkler irrigation. 2000 annual report for Agricultural Technology Utilization and Transfer (ATUT) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research at Ismailia, Egypt, focused on irrigation management of maize, fava bean, wheat, and alfalfa. In 1998, the two weighing lysimeters at Ismailia were recalibrated successfully with precision of 0.01 mm; and a state-of-the-art time domain reflectometry (TDR) system for soil water balance measu...

  19. Plants for human health: Stable isotope approaches to assess the vitamin A value of biofortified Golden Rice and high beta-carotene maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin A deficiency is a major public health problem, especially in populations of the developing world where staple foods, such as rice, wheat, and maize, make up a significant portion of daily caloric intake. Seeds of these crops contain little to no provitamin A carotenoids (e.g., beta-carotene...

  20. Making bread with sourdough improves mineral bioavailability from reconstituted whole wheat flour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Hubert W; Duclos, Virgile; Coudray, Charles; Krespine, Virginie; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Messager, Arnaud; Demigné, Christian; Rémésy, Christian

    2003-06-01

    We compared the effects of different kinds of bread fermentation on mineral bioavailability. Wistar rats were fed one of the following experimental diets for 21 d: control, reconstituted whole wheat flour (white flour plus bran), yeast bread, and sourdough bread. The apparent mineral absorption and intestinal fermentation were measured in each animal. Phytate contents in yeast and sourdough bread were lower than in reconstituted whole wheat flour (-52% and -71%, respectively). Total cecal pool of short-chain fatty acids, in particular the butyrate pool, was significantly increased by the ingestion of unrefined products. Calcium homeostasis was not modified by these nutritional conditions, whereas magnesium absorption was significantly greater in rats fed the control and sourdough diets than in those consuming whole wheat flour and yeast bread. Magnesium kidney excretion was slightly stimulated by sourdough bread. Compared with the control diet, iron balance was significantly reduced by reconstituted whole wheat flour diet. Yeast bread making counteracted the deleterious effects of whole wheat on iron absorption, whereas sourdough bread making enhanced iron absorption. Further, liver and plasma iron and transferrin saturation levels were lower in rats adapted to the flour diet than in other groups. Zinc absorption was strongly depressed in the presence of unprocessed reconstituted whole wheat flour in the diet, but yeast fermentation afforded a zinc assimilation comparable to the control diet, whereas the sourdough bread led to maximal zinc absorption. Copper absorption increased significantly when rats were fed the sourdough bread, whereas unprocessed whole flour depressed copper absorption (-41% versus control diet). Mineral bioavailability from reconstituted whole wheat flour can be improved by bread making. Although yeast fermentation minimizes the unfavorable effects of phytic acid, sourdough bread is a better source of available minerals, especially magnesium

  1. Parametric optimization of rice bran oil extraction using response surface methodology

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    Ahmad Syed W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Use of bran oil in various edible and nonedible industries is very common. In this research work, efficient and optimized methodology for the recovery of rice bran oil has been investigated. The present statistical study includes parametric optimization, based on experimental results of rice bran oil extraction. In this study, three solvents, acetone, ethanol and solvent mixture (SM [acetone: ethanol (1:1 v/v] were employed in extraction investigations. Response surface methodology (RSM, an optimization technique, was exploited for this purpose. A five level central composite design (CCD consisting four operating parameter, like temperature, stirring rate, solvent-bran ratio and contact time were examined to optimize rice bran oil extraction. Experimental results showed that oil recovery can be enhanced from 71% to 82% when temperature, solvent-bran ratio, stirring rate and contact time were kept at 55°C, 6:1, 180 rpm and 45 minutes, respectively while fixing the pH of the mixture at 7.1.

  2. Parigi, Quai Branly. Il dialogo delle nature e delle culture Quai Branly, Paris: The dialogue between natures and cultures

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    Isabella Pezzini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quai Branly (Museo Nazionale delle Arti e Civilt dAfrica, dAsia, dOceania e delle Americhe a Parigi, inaugurato nel 2006, analizzato da un punto di vista semiotico come un grande dispositivo di riconoscimento e di comunicazione culturale, nelle sue diverse componenti: architettonica, paesaggistica, di allestimento. Si tratta di uno spazio che si vuole fortemente innovativo, e che investe nellintegrazione fra la collezione e le nuove tecnologie della comunicazione. Il museo vuole affermare il valore della diversit delle culture, e costruire uno spazio di possibile dialogo fra di loro, oltre che di esposizione esemplare di artefatti eccezionali. Non solo museo ma anche centro per linsegnamento e la ricerca, nonch spazio a disposizione di diversi pubblici potenziali, compreso quello alla ricerca di intrattenimento: dunque un nuovo museo nel pieno senso del termine.Quai Branly (Africa, Asia, Oceania and Americas Arts and Civilization National Museum in Paris, opened in 2006 is analyzed from a semiotic point of view as a great device for cultural recognition and communication in its different components - architectural, landscape and exhibitions display. Its about a space that builds itself as innovative and that invests on the integration among collections and new communication technologies. The museum aims to state the value of cultures diversity and build a space for possible dialogues among them - besides the exhibition of exceptional artifacts copies. Not only the museum - but also a center for teaching and researching, - the space is available for several potential audiences, including that one that searches for entertainment: therefore, a new museum on its definitions strict sense.

  3. Effect of water migration between arabinoxylans and gluten on baking quality of whole wheat bread detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Kang, Ji; Wang, Li; Li, Zhen; Wang, Ren; Chen, Zheng Xing; Hou, Gary G

    2012-07-04

    A new method, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique characterized by T(2) relaxation time, was developed to study the water migration mechanism between arabinoxylan (AX) gels and gluten matrix in a whole wheat dough (WWD) system prepared from whole wheat flour (WWF) of different particle sizes. The water sequestration of AX gels in wheat bran was verified by the bran fortification test. The evaluations of baking quality of whole wheat bread (WWB) made from WWF with different particle sizes were performed by using SEM, FT-IR, and RP-HPLC techniques. Results showed that the WWB made from WWF of average particle size of 96.99 μm had better baking quality than those of the breads made from WWF of two other particle sizes, 50.21 and 235.40 μm. T(2) relaxation time testing indicated that the decreased particle size of WWF increased the water absorption of AX gels, which led to water migration from the gluten network to the AX gels and resulted in inferior baking quality of WWB.

  4. The chemical weed control of maize culture in the Danube meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poienaru, S; Sarpe, N; Sarpe, I

    2005-01-01

    In the world, maize covers about 150 million hectares, following close to rice and wheat. (Balteanu 2000) In Romania, maize culture covers an area of more than 3,500,000 hectares from the overall arable soil, being cultivated in all Romanian districts. Chemical weed control took the greatest extension in the world, at the same time with the synthesis of Atrazine, in 1956, in the laboratories of J.R. Geigy Company, as a super-selective herbicide for the maize culture. This is why many researchers from all continents studied weed control of maize culture, using Atrazine together with other 50 herbicides synthesized until 2004. In the embanked meadow of the Danube, from the 500,000 hectares of arable soil, the maize covers the greatest area. For this reasons, the chemical weed control was granted a great attention by using different herbicides based on Atrazine, Alachlor, Acetochlor, Butilat, Pendimethalin, Dicamba, 2,4-D. At the same time, in the experiments from the Danube Meadow, the authors also studied the efficiency of some combined herbicides: Butizin, Magnific, Guardian Extra is Tazastomp.

  5. Improvement of yield of the edible and medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes on wheat straw by use of supplemented spawn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigoberto Gaitán-Hernández

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research evaluated the interactions of two main factors (strain / types of spawn on various parameters with the purpose to assess its effect on yield and biochemical composition of Lentinula edodes fruiting bodies cultivated on pasteurized wheat straw. The evaluation was made with four strains (IE-40, IE-105, IE-124 and IE-256. Different types of spawns were prepared: Control (C (millet seed, 100%, F1 (millet seed, 88.5%; wheat bran, 8.8%; peat moss, 1.3%; and CaS0(4, 1.3% and F2 (the same formula as F1, but substituting the wheat bran with powdered wheat straw. Wheat straw was pasteurized by soaking it for 1 h in water heated to 65 °C. After this the substrate (2 kg wet weight was placed in polypropylene bags. The bags were inoculated with each spawn (5% w/w and incubated in a dark room at 25 °C. A proximate analysis of mature fruiting bodies was conducted. The mean Biological Efficiency (BE varied between 66.0% (C-IE-256 and 320.1% (F1-IE-124, with an average per strain of 125.6%. The highest mean BE was observed on spawn F1 (188.3%, significantly different from C and F2. The protein content of fruiting bodies was high, particularly in strain IE-40-F1 (17.7%. The amount of fat varied from 1.1 (F1-IE-40 to 2.1% (F2-IE-105 on dry matter. Carbohydrates ranged from 58.8% (F1-IE-40 to 66.1% (F1-IE-256. The energy value determined ranged from 302.9 kcal (F1-IE-40 to 332.0 kcal (F1-IE-256. The variability on BE observed in this study was significantly influenced by the spawn's formulation and genetic factors of the different strains.

  6. Improvement of yield of the edible and medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes on wheat straw by use of supplemented spawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Hernández, Rigoberto; Cortés, Norberto; Mata, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The research evaluated the interactions of two main factors (strain / types of spawn) on various parameters with the purpose to assess its effect on yield and biochemical composition of Lentinula edodes fruiting bodies cultivated on pasteurized wheat straw. The evaluation was made with four strains (IE-40, IE-105, IE-124 and IE-256). Different types of spawns were prepared: Control (C) (millet seed, 100%), F1 (millet seed, 88.5%; wheat bran, 8.8%; peat moss, 1.3%; and CaS04, 1.3%) and F2 (the same formula as F1, but substituting the wheat bran with powdered wheat straw). Wheat straw was pasteurized by soaking it for 1 h in water heated to 65 °C. After this the substrate (2 kg wet weight) was placed in polypropylene bags. The bags were inoculated with each spawn (5% w/w) and incubated in a dark room at 25 °C. A proximate analysis of mature fruiting bodies was conducted. The mean Biological Efficiency (BE) varied between 66.0% (C-IE-256) and 320.1% (F1-IE-124), with an average per strain of 125.6%. The highest mean BE was observed on spawn F1 (188.3%), significantly different from C and F2. The protein content of fruiting bodies was high, particularly in strain IE-40-F1 (17.7%). The amount of fat varied from 1.1 (F1-IE-40) to 2.1% (F2-IE-105) on dry matter. Carbohydrates ranged from 58.8% (F1-IE-40) to 66.1% (F1-IE-256). The energy value determined ranged from 302.9 kcal (F1-IE-40) to 332.0 kcal (F1-IE-256). The variability on BE observed in this study was significantly influenced by the spawn’s formulation and genetic factors of the different strains. PMID:25242929

  7. The Genetic Basis of Composite Spike Form in Barley and 'Miracle-Wheat'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursarebani, Naser; Seidensticker, Tina; Koppolu, Ravi; Trautewig, Corinna; Gawroński, Piotr; Bini, Federica; Govind, Geetha; Rutten, Twan; Sakuma, Shun; Tagiri, Akemi; Wolde, Gizaw M; Youssef, Helmy M; Battal, Abdulhamit; Ciannamea, Stefano; Fusca, Tiziana; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Pozzi, Carlo; Börner, Andreas; Lundqvist, Udda; Komatsuda, Takao; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Uauy, Cristobal; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Rossini, Laura; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    Inflorescences of the tribe Triticeae, which includes wheat (Triticum sp. L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are characterized by sessile spikelets directly borne on the main axis, thus forming a branchless spike. 'Compositum-Barley' and tetraploid 'Miracle-Wheat' (T. turgidum convar. compositum (L.f.) Filat.) display noncanonical spike-branching in which spikelets are replaced by lateral branch-like structures resembling small-sized secondary spikes. As a result of this branch formation 'Miracle-Wheat' produces significantly more grains per spike, leading to higher spike yield. In this study, we first isolated the gene underlying spike-branching in 'Compositum-Barley,' i.e., compositum 2 (com2). Moreover, we found that COM2 is orthologous to the branched head(t) (bh(t)) locus regulating spike branching in tetraploid 'Miracle-Wheat.' Both genes possess orthologs with similar functions in maize BRANCHED SILKLESS 1 (BD1) and rice FRIZZY PANICLE/BRANCHED FLORETLESS 1 (FZP/BFL1) encoding AP2/ERF transcription factors. Sequence analysis of the bh(t) locus in a collection of mutant and wild-type tetraploid wheat accessions revealed that a single amino acid substitution in the DNA-binding domain gave rise to the domestication of 'Miracle-Wheat.' mRNA in situ hybridization, microarray experiments, and independent qRT-PCR validation analyses revealed that the branch repression pathway in barley is governed through the spike architecture gene Six-rowed spike 4 regulating COM2 expression, while HvIDS1 (barley ortholog of maize INDETERMINATE SPIKELET 1) is a putative downstream target of COM2. These findings presented here provide new insights into the genetic basis of spike architecture in Triticeae, and have disclosed new targets for genetic manipulations aiming at boosting wheat's yield potential. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the…

  9. The wheat chloroplastic proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa; Cho, Kun; Choi, Jong-Soon; Bae, Kwang-Hee; Komatsu, Setsuko; Uozumi, Nobuyuki; Woo, Sun Hee

    2013-11-20

    With the availability of plant genome sequencing, analysis of plant proteins with mass spectrometry has become promising and admired. Determining the proteome of a cell is still a challenging assignment, which is convoluted by proteome dynamics and convolution. Chloroplast is fastidious curiosity for plant biologists due to their intricate biochemical pathways for indispensable metabolite functions. In this review, an overview on proteomic studies conducted in wheat with a special focus on subcellular proteomics of chloroplast, salt and water stress. In recent years, we and other groups have attempted to understand the photosynthesis in wheat and abiotic stress under salt imposed and water deficit during vegetative stage. Those studies provide interesting results leading to better understanding of the photosynthesis and identifying the stress-responsive proteins. Indeed, recent studies aimed at resolving the photosynthesis pathway in wheat. Proteomic analysis combining two complementary approaches such as 2-DE and shotgun methods couple to high through put mass spectrometry (LTQ-FTICR and MALDI-TOF/TOF) in order to better understand the responsible proteins in photosynthesis and abiotic stress (salt and water) in wheat chloroplast will be focused. In this review we discussed the identification of the most abundant protein in wheat chloroplast and stress-responsive under salt and water stress in chloroplast of wheat seedlings, thus providing the proteomic view of the events during the development of this seedling under stress conditions. Chloroplast is fastidious curiosity for plant biologists due to their intricate biochemical pathways for indispensable metabolite functions. An overview on proteomic studies conducted in wheat with a special focus on subcellular proteomics of chloroplast, salt and water stress. We have attempted to understand the photosynthesis in wheat and abiotic stress under salt imposed and water deficit during seedling stage. Those studies

  10. MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF Fusarium SPECIES AND THEIR PATHOGENICITY FOR WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Poštić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available From the root and lower stem parts of weeds and plant debris of maize, wheat, oat and sunflower we isolated 300 isolates of Fusarium spp. and performed morphological and molecular identification. With molecular identification using AFLP method we determined 14 Fusarium species: F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. concolor, F. crookwellense, F. equiseti, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, F. semitectum, F. solani, F. sporotrichioides, F. subglutinans, F. venenatum and F. verticillioides.By comparing results of morphological and molecular identification we found out that determination of 16,7% isolates was incorrect. Out of 300 isolates identified with molecular methods, 50 did not belong to the species determined with morphological determination.With pathogenicity tests of 30 chosen Fusarium isolates we determined that many of them were pathogenic to wheat and maize seedlings and to wheat heads. The most pathogenic were isolates of F. graminearum from A. retroflexus, A. theophrasti and C. album, F. venenatum from maize debris and and A. theophrasti, F. crookwellense from A. lappa. Antifungal influence of 11 essential oils on mycelia growth and sporulation of chosen Fusarium isolates determined that essential oils of T. vulgaris, P. anisum and E. caryophyllus had the strongest effect on mycelial growth. Influence of essential oils on sporulation was not statistically significant.

  11. High resolution gas chromatography analysis of rice bran oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fengxiang; Lin, Qinlu; Chen, Xu; Wei, Xiaojun

    To assess the nutritional value and safety quality of rice bran oil (RBO) ,fatty acids of RBO from 15 species rice come from Hunan Province were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). Crude RBOs were extracted by hexane 3-times using a solvent-to-rice bran ratio of 3:1 (w/w) at 40°C and composition of RBOs was analyzed by HRGC. The result showed that main fatty acids of 15 kinds of RBO include myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (C18:3), arachidic acid (C20:0), arachidonic acid (C20:1). It is strange that arachidonic acid (C20:1) is not listed in Chinese standard of RBO (GB11192-2003), and it exists in our samples of RBO. The average value of linolenic acid in RBOs is 1.6304% (range from 1.2425% to 2.131%), and it showed higher level comparing with Chinese standard that linolenic acid is less than 1.0%. The average value of USFA and SFA are 76.81% (range 75.96% to 82.06% ) and 20.15% (range 13.72% to 23.06%) respectively, and USFA content is close to olive oil (83.75%), peanut oil (81.75%) and soybean oil (85.86%). USFA in Jingyou 13 RBO is the highest content. The ratio of USFA to SFA content is 4:1 (range from 3.32 to 5.98:1). The ratio of SFA: MUFA: PUFA of 15 RBOs is 1: 2.2: 1.8, and ω6/ω3 ratio is 21.69 (range from16.54 to 27.28) and it is close to the 26:1 which is reported to be helpful to increase SOD activity. The oleic acid /linoleic acid ratio of 15 RBOs is 1.23:1 (rang from 1.04:1 to 1.42:1). Our data analyzed composition of RBOs from 15 species rice of China and will provide new evidence to revise RBO standard. It also helps us to assess nutritional value of RBOs and identify different RBOs from various species rice and places of origin.

  12. Nutritional composition of rice bran submitted to different stabilization procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aparecida dos Santos Conceição Faria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to inactivate enzymatic deterioration, whole rice bran samples were subjected to two stabilization methods. Changes in nutritional value in terms of, concerning chemical composition, minerals and fatty acid content, were evaluated to supplement existing data and promote the utilization of rice bran in the human diet. The following homemade heat treatments were applied: roasting on a conventional stove or heating in a microwave oven. Based on the results, the different heating methods affected sample composition, since the levels of some nutrients of treated samples showed significant changes (pA fim de inativar a deterioração enzimática, as amostras de farelo de arroz foram submetidas a dois métodos de estabilização. As mudanças do valor nutricional, no que se refere a composição química, os minerais e o conteúdo de ácidos graxos, foram avaliadas para adicionar mais informações aos dados existentes e promover a utilização de farelo de arroz na dieta humana. Os seguintes tratamentos caseiros por calor foram aplicados: torra em forno convencional ou de aquecimento em forno de micro-ondas. Com base nos resultados, os diferentes métodos de aquecimento afetaram a composição das amostras, já que os níveis de alguns nutrientes mostraram alterações significativas (p <0,05, comparado com as amostras cruas correspondentes. O farelo de arroz tratado em fogão convencional forneceu produtos com menos umidade (5,14 ± 0,10 g/100 g e nutrientes, tais como: de sódio 11,8%; ácido palmítico 9,9% e ácido esteárico 8,1%. O procedimento de forno de micro-ondas resultou em melhor preservação dos nutrientes, com teor de umidade um pouco maior (6,28 ± 0,10 g/100 g, o que parece ser uma ferramenta prática e rápida no tratamento térmico caseiro para o farelo de arroz.

  13. Breeding of maize types with specific traits at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje

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    Pajić Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is primarily grown as an energy crop, but the use of different specific versions, such as high-oil maize, high-lysine maize, waxy maize, white-seeded maize, popping maize and sweet maize, is quite extensive. Speciality maize, due to its traits and genetic control of these traits, requires a particular attention in handling breeding material during the processes of breeding. It is especially related to prevention of uncontrolled pollination. In order to provide successful selection for a certain trait, the following specific procedures in evaluation of the trait are necessary: the estimation of a popping volume and flake quality in popping maize; the determination of sugars and harvest maturity in sweet maize; the determination of oil in selected samples of high-oil maize types, and so forth. Breeding programmes for speciality maize, except high-amylose maize, have been implemented at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, Belgrade, for the last 45 years. A great number of high-yielding sweet maize hybrids, popping maize, high-oil and high-lysine, flint and white-seeded maize hybrids were developed during this 45-year period. Auspicious selection and breeding for these traits is facilitated by the abundant genetic variability and technical and technological possibilities necessary for successful selection.

  14. Impact of organic amendments on soil carbon sequestration, water use efficiency and yield of irrigated wheat

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    Shehzadi, S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Soil organic carbon (SOC plays critical role in terrestrial carbon (C cycling and is central to preserving soil quality, food security and environmental protection in agroecosystem. The prevailing soil and climatic conditions of cultivated and irrigated soils in warm semi-arid areas favor the rapid decomposition, mineralization and loss of SOC to the atmosphere which contribute to global warming. One potential strategy to address this C loss is the addition of organic amendments. Objectives. To investigate the effect of four contrasting organic wastes with and without NPK mineral fertilizer on SOC retention, water use efficiency (WUE and wheat yield in irrigated wheat-maize cropping system. Method. A 2-year field experiment was conducted using four organic wastes included municipal solid waste (MSW, farm yard manure (FYM, sugar industry waste (filter cake and maize cropping residues. All wastes were applied at 3 t C·ha-1 alone and with a full or half dose of NPK mineral fertilizer. Results. On average, among organic wastes as sole treatment, highest SOC content in the 0-15 cm layer was recorded in filter cake (6.5 t·ha-1 and MSW (5.9 t·ha-1. Addition of NPK fertilizer along with organic wastes, improved the SOC contents with the highest SOC (7.7 t·ha-1 by filter cake + full NPK treatment followed by the MSW + NPK (6.9 t·ha-1. On average, maximum wheat grain WUE (18 kg·ha-1·mm-1 and grain yield (4.8 t·ha-1 were obtained by MSW + full NPK treatment followed by filter cake + NPK. Conclusions. These results indicate that the targeted addition of organic wastes (filter cake or MSW have the best potential for improving SOC retention, WUE and wheat yield in irrigated maize-wheat cropping system.

  15. Growth-inhibitory effects of pigmented rice bran extracts and three red bran fractions against human cancer cells: Relationships to composition and antioxidative activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the phenolic, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin content of three brown, purple, and red rice brans isolated from different rice varieties using HPLC-PDA with the aid of 27 standards of known structure and by matching unknown peaks to a spectral library of known compounds. DPPH and ORA...

  16. Behavioural responses of wheat stem sawflies to wheat volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Piesik; D. K. Weaver; J. B. Runyon; M. Buteler; G. E. Peck; W. L. Morrill

    2008-01-01

    1) Adult wheat stem sawflies Cephus cinctus, pests of cultivated cereals that also infests wild grasses, migrate into wheat fields where they oviposit in elongating, succulent stems. 2) Volatiles released by wheat plants at susceptible stages were analyzed to determine potential semiochemical compounds. Seven major compounds were identified and...

  17. Ribosome Profiling in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotewutmontri, Prakitchai; Stiffler, Nicholas; Watkins, Kenneth P; Barkan, Alice

    2018-01-01

    Ribosome profiling (also known as Ribo-seq) provides a genome-wide, high-resolution, and quantitative accounting of mRNA segments that are occupied by ribosomes in vivo. The method has been used to address numerous questions in bacteria, yeast, and metazoa, but its application to questions in plant biology is just beginning. This chapter provides a detailed protocol for profiling ribosomes in plant leaf tissue. The method was developed and optimized with maize, but it has been used successfully with Arabidopsis and tobacco as well. The method captures ribosome footprints from the chloroplast and cytosol in the same preparation, but it is not optimal for detecting the footprints of mitochondrial ribosomes. The protocol is robust and simpler than many of the methods reported previously for ribosome profiling in plants.

  18. Comparison of the levels of bioactive benzoxazinoids in different wheat and rye fractions and the transformation of these compounds in homemade foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanwir, Fariha; Fredholm, Maria; Gregersen, Per L.

    2013-01-01

    Benzoxazinoids are important phytochemicals found in wheat and rye that are associated with plant resistance against pathogens, and recent studies have emphasized the potential health-promoting role of these compounds i.e. anti-cancer, anti-allergy and anti-inflammation. Accordingly, an understan......Benzoxazinoids are important phytochemicals found in wheat and rye that are associated with plant resistance against pathogens, and recent studies have emphasized the potential health-promoting role of these compounds i.e. anti-cancer, anti-allergy and anti-inflammation. Accordingly....... The analysis of seed fractions obtained from the milling of wheat and rye showed significantly higher concentrations of these bioactive compounds in the germ than in the other fractions, i.e. the bran and endosperm. Di-hexoses of 2,4-dihydroxy-1, 4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA-glc-hexose) and 2-hydroxy-1, 4...

  19. Expression of globulin-2, a member of the cupin superfamily of proteins with similarity to known food allergens, is increased under high temperature regimen during wheat grain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty-three expressed sequence tags (ESTs)from the US spring wheat Butte 86 were identified that encode proteins similar to a globulin-2 protein from maize embryos. The ESTs assembled into three contigs, two of which include the entire coding region for the mature protein. The encoded proteins co...

  20. Self-similar chameleon Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinchón, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we study the chameleon Jordan-Brans-Dicke (JBD) cosmological models under the hypothesis of self-similarity. Since there are several ways to define the matter Lagrangian for a perfect fluid: L m =- ρ and L m = γρ, we show that they bring us to obtain two completely different cosmological models. In the first approach, L m =- ρ, there is ordinary matter conservation, while in the second approach, L m = γρ, we get matter creation processes. We deduce for each approach the behaviour of each physical quantity, under the self-similar hypothesis, by employing the Lie group method. The results are quite general and valid for any homogeneous geometry (FRW, Bianchi types, etc.). As example, we calculate exact solutions for each approach by considering the case of a Bianchi II geometry. In this way we can determine the exact behaviour of each physical quantity and in particular of G eff and U (the potential that mimics the cosmological constant).We compare the solutions with the obtained ones in the framework of the usual JBD models.