WorldWideScience

Sample records for wetland ssf-cw systems

  1. Effect of physico-chemical pretreatment on the removal efficiency of horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselles-Osorio, Aracelly [Environmental Engineering Division, Hydraulics, Coastal and Environmental Engineering Department, Technical University of Catalonia, c/Jordi Girona 1-3, Modul D-1, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Biology, Atlantic University, Km 7 Higway Old Colombia Port, Barranquilla (Colombia); Garcia, Joan [Environmental Engineering Division, Hydraulics, Coastal and Environmental Engineering Department, Technical University of Catalonia, c/Jordi Girona 1-3, Modul D-1, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: joan.garcia@upc.edu

    2007-03-15

    In this study, we tested the effect of a physico-chemical pretreatment on contaminant removal efficiency in two experimental horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs). One SSF CW was fed with settled urban wastewater, whereas the other with the same wastewater after it had undergone a physico-chemical pretreatment. The SSF CWs were operated with three different hydraulic retention times. During the experiments the effluent concentrations of COD, ammonia N and sulfate were very similar, and, therefore, the physico-chemical pretreatment did not improve the quality of the effluents. COD removal efficiency (as percentage or mass surface removal rate) was slightly greater in the SSF CW fed with pretreated wastewater. Ammonia N removal efficiency was, in general, similar in both SSF CWs and very high (80-90%). At the end of the experiments it was observed that in the SSF CW fed with settled wastewater the hydraulic conductivity decreased by a 20%. - A physico-chemical pretreatment may help to reduce the risk of clogging of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.

  2. Effect of physico-chemical pretreatment on the removal efficiency of horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caselles-Osorio, Aracelly; Garcia, Joan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of a physico-chemical pretreatment on contaminant removal efficiency in two experimental horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (SSF CWs). One SSF CW was fed with settled urban wastewater, whereas the other with the same wastewater after it had undergone a physico-chemical pretreatment. The SSF CWs were operated with three different hydraulic retention times. During the experiments the effluent concentrations of COD, ammonia N and sulfate were very similar, and, therefore, the physico-chemical pretreatment did not improve the quality of the effluents. COD removal efficiency (as percentage or mass surface removal rate) was slightly greater in the SSF CW fed with pretreated wastewater. Ammonia N removal efficiency was, in general, similar in both SSF CWs and very high (80-90%). At the end of the experiments it was observed that in the SSF CW fed with settled wastewater the hydraulic conductivity decreased by a 20%. - A physico-chemical pretreatment may help to reduce the risk of clogging of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands

  3. Design configurations affecting flow pattern and solids accumulation in horizontal free water and subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedescoll, A; Sidrach-Cardona, R; Sánchez, J C; Carretero, J; Garfi, M; Bécares, E

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different horizontal constructed wetland (CW) design parameters on solids distribution, loss of hydraulic conductivity over time and hydraulic behaviour, in order to assess clogging processes in wetlands. For this purpose, an experimental plant with eight CWs was built at mesocosm scale. Each CW presented a different design characteristic, and the most common CW configurations were all represented: free water surface flow (FWS) with different effluent pipe locations, FWS with floating macrophytes and subsurface flow (SSF), and the presence of plants and specific species (Typha angustifolia and Phragmites australis) was also considered. The loss of the hydraulic conductivity of gravel was greatly influenced by the presence of plants and organic load (representing a loss of 20% and c.a. 10% in planted wetlands and an overloaded system, respectively). Cattail seems to have a greater effect on the development of clogging since its below-ground biomass weighed twice as much as that of common reed. Hydraulic behaviour was greatly influenced by the presence of a gravel matrix and the outlet pipe position. In strict SSF CW, the water was forced to cross the gravel and tended to flow diagonally from the top inlet to the bottom outlet (where the inlet and outlet pipes were located). However, when FWS was considered, water preferentially flowed above the gravel, thus losing half the effective volume of the system. Only the presence of plants seemed to help the water flow partially within the gravel matrix. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantifying greenhouse gas sources and sinks in managed wetland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen M Ogle; Patrick Hunt; Carl Trettin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides methodologies and guidance for reporting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sinks at the entity scale for managed wetland systems. More specifically, it focuses on methods for managed palustrine wetlands.1 Section 4.1 provides an overview of wetland systems and resulting GHG emissions, system boundaries and temporal scale, a summary of the...

  5. Removal of antibiotics from urban wastewater by constructed wetland optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijosa-Valsero, María; Fink, Guido; Schlüsener, Michael P; Sidrach-Cardona, Ricardo; Martín-Villacorta, Javier; Ternes, Thomas; Bécares, Eloy

    2011-04-01

    Seven mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands (CWs), differing in their design characteristics, were set up in the open air to assess their efficiency to remove antibiotics from urban raw wastewater. A conventional wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was simultaneously monitored. The experiment took place in autumn. An analytical methodology including HPLC-MS/MS was developed to measure antibiotic concentrations in the soluble water fraction, in the suspended solids fraction and in the WWTP sludge. Considering the soluble water fraction, the only easily eliminated antibiotics in the WWTP were doxycycline (61±38%) and sulfamethoxazole (60±26%). All the studied types of CWs were efficient for the removal of sulfamethoxazole (59±30-87±41%), as found in the WWTP, and, in addition, they removed trimethoprim (65±21-96±29%). The elimination of other antibiotics in CWs was limited by the specific system-configuration: amoxicillin (45±15%) was only eliminated by a free-water (FW) subsurface flow (SSF) CW planted with Typha angustifolia; doxycycline was removed in FW systems planted with T. angustifolia (65±34-75±40%), in a Phragmites australis-floating macrophytes system (62±31%) and in conventional horizontal SSF-systems (71±39%); clarithromycin was partially eliminated by an unplanted FW-SSF system (50±18%); erythromycin could only be removed by a P. australis-horizontal SSF system (64±30%); and ampicillin was eliminated by a T. angustifolia-floating macrophytes system (29±4%). Lincomycin was not removed by any of the systems (WWTP or CWs). The presence or absence of plants, the vegetal species (T. angustifolia or P. australis), the flow type and the CW design characteristics regulated the specific removal mechanisms. Therefore, CWs are not an overall solution to remove antibiotics from urban wastewater during cold seasons. However, more studies are needed to assess their ability in warmer periods and to determine the behaviour of full-scale systems. Copyright

  6. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  7. Stochastic modeling of wetland-groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertassello, Leonardo Enrico; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Park, Jeryang; Jawitz, James W.; Botter, Gianluca

    2018-02-01

    Modeling and data analyses were used in this study to examine the temporal hydrological variability in geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), as influenced by hydrologic connectivity to shallow groundwater, wetland bathymetry, and subject to stochastic hydro-climatic forcing. We examined the general case of GIWs coupled to shallow groundwater through exfiltration or infiltration across wetland bottom. We also examined limiting case with the wetland stage as the local expression of the shallow groundwater. We derive analytical expressions for the steady-state probability density functions (pdfs) for wetland water storage and stage using few, scaled, physically-based parameters. In addition, we analyze the hydrologic crossing time properties of wetland stage, and the dependence of the mean hydroperiod on climatic and wetland morphologic attributes. Our analyses show that it is crucial to account for shallow groundwater connectivity to fully understand the hydrologic dynamics in wetlands. The application of the model to two different case studies in Florida, jointly with a detailed sensitivity analysis, allowed us to identify the main drivers of hydrologic dynamics in GIWs under different climate and morphologic conditions.

  8. Biotic development comparisons of a wetland constructed to treat mine water drainage with a natural wetland system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, H.J.; Hummer, J.W.; Lacki, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Using 5-yr of baseline data from a constructed wetland, the authors compared the biotic changes in this wetland to conditions in a natural wetland to determine if biotic development patterns were similar. The constructed wetland was built in 1985 to treat a coal mine discharge and was planted with broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia) within the three-cell, 0.26 ha wetland. Species richness in permanent quadrants of the constructed wetland declined over the study period, while cattail coverage increased. Plant species composition diversified at the edges, with several species becoming established. The constructed wetland deepened and expanded slightly in area coverage during the study period. The constructed wetland supported herptofaunal communities that appeared more stable through time than those of the natural wetland and sustained a rudimentary food chain dependent upon autotrophic algal populations. Despite fundamental differences in substrate base, morphology, and water flow patterns, biotic trends for the constructed wetland coincided with succession-like patterns at the natural wetland. They suggest that further shifts in the biotic composition of the constructed wetland are likely, but the system should continue to persist if primary production meets or exceeds the microbial metabolic requirements necessary to treat mine drainage

  9. Wetlands as energy-dissipating systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, J.; Květ, Jan; Rejšková, A.; Brom, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 12 (2010), s. 1299-1305 ISSN 1367-5435 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : wetlands * vegetation * energy fluxes * primary production * landscape management Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2010 http://www.springerlink.com/content/y5t4750647q84553/

  10. Differences in Fish, Amphibian, and Reptile Communities Within Wetlands Created by an Agricultural Water Recycling System in Northwestern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Establishment of a water recycling system known as the wetland-reservoir subirrigation system (WRSIS) results in the creation of wetlands adjacent to agricultural fields. Each WRSIS consists of one wetland designed to process agricultural chemicals (WRSIS wetlands) and one wetland to store subirriga...

  11. Wetland harvesting systems -- developing alternatives for sustainable operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Rummer; Bryce J. Stokes; Alvin Schilling

    1997-01-01

    Wetland forests represent some of the most productive forest lands in the Southeast. They are also an environmentally sensitive ecotype which presents unique problems for forest operations. Sustaining active management in these areas will require systems which can operate on weak soil conditions without adversely affecting soil properties or stand regeneration. The...

  12. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and downflow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh Tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The e...

  13. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and down flow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The ...

  14. Habitat quality assessment of two wetland treatment systems in Mississippi: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, L.S.

    1992-12-01

    The use of wetland treatment systems (WTS), or constructed wetlands, for treating municipal wastewater is increasing in the United States, but little is known about the ability of these systems to duplicate or sustain wetland functions. The pilot study was designed to examine methods and the usefulness of various wetland indicators for assessing the wildlife habitat quality in six WTS sites throughout the United States. The report focusses on two Mississippi sites, one located near Collins, and one near Ocean Springs.

  15. Application of a constructed wetland system for polluted stream remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Y. T.; Chiang, P. C.; Yang, J.; Chen, S. H.; Kao, C. M.

    2014-03-01

    In 2010, the multi-function Kaoping River Rail Bridge Constructed Wetland (KRRBW) was constructed to improve the stream water quality and rehabilitate the ecosystem of the surrounding environment of Dashu Region, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. The KRRBW consists of five wetland basins with a total water surface area of 15 ha, a total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10.1 days at a averaged flow rate of 14 740 m3/day, and an averaged water depth of 1.1 m. The influent of KRRBW coming from the local drainage systems containing untreated domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastewaters. Based on the quarterly investigation results of water samples taken in 2011-2012, the overall removal efficiencies were 91% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 75% for total nitrogen (TN), 96% for total phosphorus (TP), and 99% for total coliforms (TC). The calculated first-order decay rates for BOD, TN, TP, NH3-N, and TC ranged from 0.14 (TN) to 0.42 (TC) 1/day. This indicates that the KRRBW was able to remove organics, TC, and nutrients effectively. The high ammonia/nitrate removal efficiency indicates that nitrification and denitrification processes occurred simultaneously in the wetland system, and the detected nitrite concentration confirmed the occurrence of denitrification/nitrification. Results from sediment analyses reveal that the sediment contained high concentrations of organics (sediment oxygen demand = 1.9-5.2 g O2/m2 day), nutrients (up to 15.8 g total nitrogen/kg of sediment and 1.48 g total phosphorus/kg of sediment), and metals (up to 547 mg/kg of Zn and 97 mg/kg of Cu). Appropriate wetland management strategies need to be developed to prevent the release of contaminants into the wetland system. The wetland system caused the variations in the microbial diversities and dominant microbial bacteria. Results show the dominant nitrogen utilization bacteria including Denitratisoma oestradiolicum, Nitrosospira sp., Nitrosovibrio sp., D. oestradiolicum, Alcaligenes sp

  16. Wetlands and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Smardon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This editorial provides an overview of the special issue “Wetlands and Sustainability”. In particular, the special issue contains a review of Paul Keddy’s book “Wetland Ecology” with specific reference to wetland sustainability. It also includes papers addressing wetland data acquisition via radar and remote sensing to better understand wetland system dynamics, hydrologic processes linked to wetland stress and restoration, coastal wetlands land use conflict/management, and wetland utilization for water quality treatment.

  17. Constructed Wetland Treatment Systems For Water Quality Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory implemented a constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) in 2000 to treat industrial discharge and stormwater from the Laboratory area. The industrial discharge volume is 3,030 m 3 per day with elevated toxicity and metals (copper, zinc and mercury). The CWTS was identified as the best treatment option based on performance, capital and continuing cost, and schedule. A key factor for this natural system approach was the long-term binding capacity of heavy metals (especially copper, lead, and zinc) in the organic matter and sediments. The design required that the wetland treat the average daily discharge volume and be able to handle 83,280 m 3 of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. The design allowed all water flow within the system to be driven entirely by gravity. The CWTS for A-01 outfall is composed of eight one-acre wetland cells connected in pairs and planted with giant bulrush to provide continuous organic matter input to the system. The retention basin was designed to hold stormwater flow and to allow controlled discharge to the wetland. The system became operational in October of 2000 and is the first wetland treatment system permitted by South Carolina DHEC for removal of metals. Because of the exceptional performance of the A-01 CWTS, the same strategy was used to improve water quality of the H-02 outfall that receives discharge and stormwater from the Tritium Area of SRS. The primary contaminants in this outfall were also copper and zinc. The design for this second system required that the wetland treat the average discharge volume of 415 m 3 per day, and be able to handle 9,690 m 3 of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. This allowed the building of a system much smaller than the A-01 CWTS. The system became operational in July 2007. Metal removal has been excellent since water flow through the treatment systems began, and performance improved with the maturation of the vegetation during the first season of

  18. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TREATMENT SYSTEMS FOR WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.

    2010-07-19

    The Savannah River National Laboratory implemented a constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) in 2000 to treat industrial discharge and stormwater from the Laboratory area. The industrial discharge volume is 3,030 m{sup 3} per day with elevated toxicity and metals (copper, zinc and mercury). The CWTS was identified as the best treatment option based on performance, capital and continuing cost, and schedule. A key factor for this natural system approach was the long-term binding capacity of heavy metals (especially copper, lead, and zinc) in the organic matter and sediments. The design required that the wetland treat the average daily discharge volume and be able to handle 83,280 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. The design allowed all water flow within the system to be driven entirely by gravity. The CWTS for A-01 outfall is composed of eight one-acre wetland cells connected in pairs and planted with giant bulrush to provide continuous organic matter input to the system. The retention basin was designed to hold stormwater flow and to allow controlled discharge to the wetland. The system became operational in October of 2000 and is the first wetland treatment system permitted by South Carolina DHEC for removal of metals. Because of the exceptional performance of the A-01 CWTS, the same strategy was used to improve water quality of the H-02 outfall that receives discharge and stormwater from the Tritium Area of SRS. The primary contaminants in this outfall were also copper and zinc. The design for this second system required that the wetland treat the average discharge volume of 415 m{sup 3} per day, and be able to handle 9,690 m{sup 3} of stormwater runoff in a 24 hour period. This allowed the building of a system much smaller than the A-01 CWTS. The system became operational in July 2007. Metal removal has been excellent since water flow through the treatment systems began, and performance improved with the maturation of the vegetation during

  19. Can terraced pond wetland systems improve urban watershed water quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Ho, M.; Flanagan, N. E.; Richardson, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Properly built constructed wetlands are a more economic and efficient way of wastewater treatment compared with traditional methods, although their mechanisms are far from completely understood. As part of the Stream and Wetland Assessment Management Park (SWAMP), which is aimed to improve the water quality of downstream and thereby enhance watershed ecosystem services, a terraced three-pond wetland system was created near Duke University in 2014. This project is expected to promote the retention and settling of pollutants and sediment before runoffs enter downstream flow. The goal of this study is to examine: (1) whether a terraced pond wetland system improves water quality, during both baseline (low flow) and storm events (high flow), which increases pollutant inputs; and (2) how this system functions to remove pollutants, namely what components of this system (plant, soil or water) increase or decrease the level of pollutants. By analyzing a dataset consisting of more than four-year monthly samplings from Pond 1 (first pond in the system) and Pond 3 (last pond in the system), we found that the pond system has reduced total suspended solids (TSS) but only when elevated inputs occur. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is closely related to temperature and macrophytes growth; whereas acidity (pH), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) did not show retention in the early stages of the system development. This system reaches its optimum for reducing TSS at the second pond, but the third pond has important effects on DO, pH, TN and TP. A monitoring in 2017 shows this pond system significantly reduces TSS while increasing dissolved oxygen and neutralizing pH after a storm event; although greater variations incurred within the system as time progresses after storm, overall retention function remained valid. Retention of the pollutants is primarily accomplished by the settling process, which occurs in stilled waterbody of the ponds and by the filtration of macrophytes. We

  20. Spatial relationships of levees and wetland systems within floodplains of the Wabash Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, E. N.; Morrison, R. R.; Nardi, F.; Annis, A.; Dong, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Given the unique biogeochemical, physical, and hydrologic services provided by floodplain wetlands, proper management of river systems should include an understanding of how floodplain modifications influences wetland ecosystems. The construction of levees can reduce river-floodplain connectivity, yet it is unclear how levees affect wetlands within a river system, let alone the cumulative impacts within an entire watershed. This paper explores spatial relationships between levee and floodplain wetland systems in the Wabash basin, United States. We used a hydrogeomorphic floodplain delineation technique to map floodplain extents and identify wetlands that may be hydrologically connected to river networks. We then spatially examined the relationship between levee presence, wetland area, and other river network attributes within discrete HUC-12 sub-basins. Our results show that cumulative wetland area is relatively constant in sub-basins that contain levees, regardless of maximum stream order within the sub-basin. In sub-basins that do not contain levees, cumulative wetland area increases with maximum stream order. However, we found that wetland distributions around levees can be complex, and further studies on the influence of levees on wetland habitat may need to be evaluated at finer-resolution spatial scales.

  1. Analysis of complex wetland ecological system: Effect of harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Kumar Thakur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied interaction among diffusive phytoplankton, zooplankton and fish population with Beddington-DeAngelis type functional response for the zooplankton and Holling type III for fish. The stability analysis of the model system with diffusion and without diffusion has been analyzed. The conditions for Maximum sustainable yield and Optimal harvesting policy for non-spatial model have been discussed. Our study may be helpful to improve and manage ecosystem services provided by wetlands on an agricultural landscapes include fisheries, water conservation, climate change and many more.

  2. Prairie Pothole Region wetlands and subsurface drainage systems: Key factors for determining drainage setback distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian; Wiltermuth, Mark T.

    2018-01-01

    Use of agricultural subsurface drainage systems in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America continues to increase, prompting concerns over potential negative effects to the Region's vital wetlands. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service protects a large number of wetlands through conservation easements that often utilize standard lateral setback distances to provide buffers between wetlands and drainage systems. Because of a lack of information pertaining to the efficacy of these setback distances for protecting wetlands, information is required to support the decision making for placement of subsurface drainage systems adjacent to wetlands. We used qualitative graphical analyses and data comparisons to identify characteristics of subsurface drainage systems and wetland catchments that could be considered when assessing setback distances. We also compared setback distances with catchment slope lengths to determine if they typically exclude drainage systems from the catchment. We demonstrated that depth of a subsurface drainage system is a key factor for determining drainage setback distances. Drainage systems located closer to the surface (shallow) typically could be associated with shorter lateral setback distances compared with deeper systems. Subsurface drainage systems would be allowed within a wetland's catchment for 44–59% of catchments associated with wetland conservation easements in North Dakota. More specifically, results suggest that drainage setback distances generally would exclude drainage systems from catchments of the smaller wetlands that typically have shorter slopes in the adjacent upland contributing area. For larger wetlands, however, considerable areas of the catchment would be vulnerable to drainage that may affect wetland hydrology. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service easements are associated with > 2,000 km2 of wetlands in North Dakota, demonstrating great potential to protect these systems from drainage depending on policies for installing

  3. Treatment Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Dotro, Gabriela; Langergraber, Günter; Molle, Pascal; Nivala, Jaime; Puigagut, Jaume; Stein, Otto; Von Sperling, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Overview of Treatment Wetlands; Fundamentals of Treatment Wetlands; Horizontal Flow Wetlands; Vertical Flow Wetlands; French Vertical Flow Wetlands; Intensified and Modified Wetlands; Free Water Surface Wetlands; Other Applications; Additional Aspects.

  4. Benefits of using a Social-Ecological Systems Approach to Conceptualize and Model Wetlands Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using a social-ecological systems (SES) perspective to examine wetland restoration helps decision-makers recognize interdependencies and relations between ecological and social components of coupled systems. Conceptual models are an invaluable tool to capture, visualize, and orga...

  5. "Wetlands: Water Living Filters?",

    OpenAIRE

    Dordio, Ana; Palace, A. J.; Pinto, Ana Paula

    2008-01-01

    Human societies have indirectly used natural wetlands as wastewater discharge sites for many centuries. Observations of the wastewater depuration capacity of natural wetlands have led to a greater understanding of the potential of these ecosystems for pollutant assimilation and have stimulated the development of artificial wetlands systems for treatment of wastewaters from a variety of sources. Constructed wetlands, in contrast to natural wetlands, are human-made systems that are designed, bu...

  6. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Scrub-Shrub and Wetlands, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_scrub-shrub_wetland_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) scrub-shrub and wetlands data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system,...

  7. Tidal wetlands of the Yaquina and Alsea River estuaries, Oregon: Geographic Information Systems layer development and recommendations for National Wetlands Inventory revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Laura S.; Reusser, Deborah A.; Janousek, Christopher N.

    2013-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) layers of current, and likely former, tidal wetlands in two Oregon estuaries were generated by enhancing the 2010 National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data with expert local field knowledge, Light Detection and Ranging-derived elevations, and 2009 aerial orthophotographs. Data were generated for two purposes: First, to enhance the NWI by recommending revised Cowardin classifications for certain NWI wetlands within the study area; and second, to generate GIS data for the 1999 Yaquina and Alsea River Basins Estuarine Wetland Site Prioritization study. Two sets of GIS products were generated: (1) enhanced NWI shapefiles; and (2) shapefiles of prioritization sites. The enhanced NWI shapefiles contain recommended changes to the Cowardin classification (system, subsystem, class, and/or modifiers) for 286 NWI polygons in the Yaquina estuary (1,133 acres) and 83 NWI polygons in the Alsea estuary (322 acres). These enhanced NWI shapefiles also identify likely former tidal wetlands that are classified as upland in the current NWI (64 NWI polygons totaling 441 acres in the Yaquina estuary; 16 NWI polygons totaling 51 acres in the Alsea estuary). The former tidal wetlands were identified to assist strategic planning for tidal wetland restoration. Cowardin classifications for the former tidal wetlands were not provided, because their current hydrology is complex owing to dikes, tide gates, and drainage ditches. The scope of this project did not include the field evaluation that would be needed to determine whether the former tidal wetlands are currently wetlands, and if so, determine their correct Cowardin classification. The prioritization site shapefiles contain 49 prioritization sites totaling 2,177 acres in the Yaquina estuary, and 39 prioritization sites totaling 1,045 acres in the Alsea estuary. The prioritization sites include current and former (for example, diked) tidal wetlands, and provide landscape units appropriate for basin

  8. Integrated constructed wetland systems: design, operation, and performance of low-cost decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, L L; Bailey, E; Jansen, P; Houke, L; Smith, S

    2007-01-01

    Several different types of constructed wetland systems are being used as decentralized treatment systems including surface-flow, subsurface-flow, vertical-flow, and hybrid systems. Archetypical wetland systems have design strengths and weaknesses, and therefore it should be possible to design combined (integrated) systems to optimize a number of important treatment processes. This study provides comparative efficacy data for two integrated wetland treatment systems (IWTS) designed to enhance treatment of medium strength wastewater generated from a pilot-scale intensive fish farm. Results from the twenty eight months study included consistently high removal of COD (84% +) and ammonia nitrogen (93%) in both systems. Initially, phosphorus removal was also high (>90%) in both systems, but removal efficacy declined significantly over time. Nitrate removal was significantly better in the system that provided sequential aerobic and anoxic environments. Short hydraulic retention times coupled with sustained removal of COD and ammonia indicate that the ReCip components could be a least-cost wastewater treatment technology in the decentralized market sector.

  9. Microbial activities in a vertical-flow wetland system treating sewage sludge with high organic loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R. Y.; Perissol, C.; Baldy, V.; Bonin, G.; Korboulewsky, N.

    2009-07-01

    The rhizosphere is the most active zone in treatment wetlands where take place physicochemical and biological processes between the substrate, plants, microorganisms, and contaminants. Microorganisms play the key role in the mineralisation of organic matter. substrate respiration and phosphatase activities (acid and alkaline) were chosen as indicators of microbial activities, and studied in a vertical-flow wetland system receiving sewage sludge with high organic loads under the Mediterranean climate. (Author)

  10. Design and Implement a System of Wastewater Treatment Based on Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Martha L. Dominínguez-Patiño; Antonio Rodríguez-Martínez; Luis A. Jasso-Castillo

    2012-01-01

    The wetlands are considered as a natural passive cleaning of waste water. Is a process characterizes by its simplicity of operation, low or zero-energy consumption and low waste production. These consist of shallow ponds planted with plants. The processes of decontamination are performed simultaneously by its physical, chemical and biological properties. The objectives of this work are design and implement a system of artificial wetlands as an alternative method for treating waste water produ...

  11. Twenty years experience with constructed wetland systems in Denmark - what did we learn?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Hans; Schierup, Hans-Henrik; Arias, Carlos Alberto

    2007-01-01

    , the reeds do not increase the hydraulic conductivity of cohesive soils as much as necessary to secure sub-surface flow. Operation needs of soil-based reed beds are low and normally restricted to emptying of the sedimentation tank, cleaning of the distribution system and mowing of the grass around the system...... wetland systems are either compact vertical flow systems which provide good nitrification, willow systems with no discharge or restored wetland systems for nitrate removal. If efficient removal of phosphorus is required, this is achieved by chemical precipitation in the sedimentation tank....

  12. Fluorescence tracers as a reference for pesticide transport in wetland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Jens; Passeport, Elodie; Tournebize, Julien

    2010-05-01

    Two different fluorescent tracers, Uranine (UR) and Sulforhodamine (SRB), were injected as a pulse into surface flow wetlands. Tracer breakthrough curves were used to document hydraulic efficiencies, peak attenuation and retention capacities of completely different wetland systems. The tracers were used as a reference to mimic photolytic decay (UR) and sorption (SRB) of contaminants, since a real herbicide (Isoproturon, IPU) was injected in parallel to UR and SRB. Analysis costs limited IPU sampling frequency and single samples deviated from the tracer breakthrough curves. Still, a parallel behavior of IPU and SRB could be observed in totally different wetland systems, including underground passage through drainage lines. Similar recovery rates for IPU and SRB confirmed this observation. Hence, SRB was found to be an appropriate reference tracer to mimic the behavior of mobile pesticides (low KOC, without degradation) in wetland systems and the obtained wetland characteristics for SRB may serve as an indication for contaminant retention. Owing to the properties of IPU, the obtained results should be treated as worst case scenarios for highly mobile pesticides. A comparison of six different wetland types suggested that non-steady wetland systems with large variation in water level may temporally store relatively large amounts of tracers (contaminants), partly in areas that are not continuously saturated. This may lead to an efficient attenuation of peak concentrations. However, when large parts of these systems are flushed by natural storm events, tracers (contaminants) may be re-mobilized. In steady systems vegetation density and water depth were found to be the most important factors for tracer/contaminant retention. Illustrated by SRB, sorption on sediments and vegetation was a quick, almost instantaneous process which lead to considerable tracer losses even at high flow velocities and short contact times. Shallow systems with dense vegetation appeared to be the

  13. Wetlands as early warning (eco)systems for water resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a case study which investigated impacts of a change in catchment land use from natural grassland to commercial forestry on the hydrological regime and distribution of vegetation in a small hillslope seepage wetland near Nottingham Road in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands. Hydrological modelling was ...

  14. The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.-F.; Jing, S.-R.; Lee, D.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetlands improved water qualities and consequently increased the shrimp growth and survival in a recirculating system. - A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 , 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO 2 -N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO 3 -N, 68%). Phosphate (PO 4 -P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO 3 -N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (P≤0.05) lower than those in a control aquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (P≤0.05) in BOD 5 , TAN and NO 2 -N was found between the two systems. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8±1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (P≤0.01) exceeded those in the CAS (2.3±1.5 g/shrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system

  15. The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.-F.; Jing, S.-R.; Lee, D.-Y

    2003-05-01

    Constructed wetlands improved water qualities and consequently increased the shrimp growth and survival in a recirculating system. - A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO{sub 2}-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO{sub 4}-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO{sub 3}-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (P{<=}0.05) lower than those in a control aquaculture system (CAS) that simulated static pond culture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (P{<=}0.05) in BOD{sub 5}, TAN and NO{sub 2}-N was found between the two systems. At the end of the study, the harvest results showed that shrimp weight and survival rate in the RAS (3.8{+-}1.8 g/shrimp and 90%) significantly (P{<=}0.01) exceeded those in the CAS (2.3{+-}1.5 g/shrimp and 71%). This study concludes that constructed wetlands can improve the water quality and provide a good culture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system.

  16. Quantifying Spatially Integrated Floodplain and Wetland Systems for the Conterminous US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, C.; D'Amico, E.; Wing, O.; Bates, P. D.

    2017-12-01

    Wetlands interact with other waters across a variable connectivity continuum, from permanent to transient, from fast to slow, and from primarily surface water to exclusively groundwater flows. Floodplain wetlands typically experience fast and frequent surface and near-surface groundwater interactions with their river networks, leading to an increasing effort to tailor management strategies for these wetlands. Management of floodplain wetlands is contingent on accurate floodplain delineation, and though this has proven challenging, multiple efforts are being made to alleviate this data gap at the conterminous scale using spatial, physical, and hydrological floodplain proxies. In this study, we derived and contrasted floodplain extents using the following nationally available approaches: 1) a geospatial-buffer floodplain proxy (Lane and D'Amico 2016, JAWRA 52(3):705-722, 2) a regionalized flood frequency analysis coupled to a 30m resolution continental-scale hydraulic model (RFFA; Smith et al. 2015, WRR 51:539-553), and 3) a soils-based floodplain analysis (Sangwan and Merwade 2015, JAWRA 51(5):1286-1304). The geospatial approach uses National Wetlands Inventory and buffered National Hydrography Datasets. RFFA estimates extreme flows based on catchment size, regional climatology and upstream annual rainfall and routes these flows through a hydraulic model built with data from USGS HydroSHEDS, NOAA, and the National Elevation Dataset. Soil-based analyses define floodplains based on attributes within the USDA soil-survey data (SSURGO). Nearly 30% (by count) of U.S. freshwater wetlands are located within floodplains with geospatial analyses, contrasted with 37% (soils-based), and 53% (RFFA-based). The dichotomies between approaches are mainly a function of input data-layer resolution, accuracy, coverage, and extent, further discussed in this presentation. Ultimately, these spatial analyses and findings will improve floodplain and integrated wetland system extent

  17. Environmental effect of constructed wetland as biofuel production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong

    2017-04-01

    Being as a renewable energy, biofuel has attracted worldwide attention. Clean biofuel production is an effective way to mitigate global climate change and energy crisis. Biofuel may offer a promising alternative to fossil fuels, but serious concerns arise about the adverse greenhouse gas consequences from using nitrogen fertilizers. Waste-nitrogen recycling is an attractive idea. Here we advocate a win-win approach to biofuel production which takes advantage of excessive nitrogen in domestic wastewater treated via constructed wetland (CW) in China. This study will carry on environmental effect analysis of CW as a biomass generation system through field surveys and controllable simulated experiments. This study intends to evaluate net energy balance, net greenhouse effect potential and ecosystem service of CW as biomass generation system, and make comparation with traditional wastewater treatment plant and other biofuel production systems. This study can provide a innovation mode in order to solve the dilemma between energy crops competed crops on production land and excessive nitrogen fertilizer of our traditional energy plant production. Data both from our experimental CWs in China and other researches on comparable CWs worldwide showed that the biomass energy yield of CWs can reach 182.3 GJ ha-1 yr-1, which was two to eight times higher than current biofuel-production systems. Energy output from CW was ˜137% greater than energy input for biofuel production. If CWs are designed with specific goal of biofuel production, biofuel production can be greatly enhanced through the optimization of N supply, hydraulic structures, and species selection in CWs. Assuming that 2.0 Tg (1 Tg = 1012 g) waste nitrogen contained in domestic wastewater is treated by CWs, biofuel production can account for 1.2% of national gasoline consumption in China. The proportion would increase to 6.7% if extra nitrogen (9.5 Tg) from industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff was included

  18. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Seminatural Wetlands and Activated Sludge Wastewater-Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Ilda; Franco, Daniel; Piccioni, Enrico; Favero, Laura; Mattiuzzo, Erika; Zanetto, Gabriele

    2008-01-01

    A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to evaluate the competitiveness of seminatural Free Water Surface (FWS) wetlands compared to traditional wastewater-treatment plants. Six scenarios of the service costs of three FWS wetlands and three different wastewater-treatment plants based on active sludge processes were compared. The six scenarios were all equally effective in their wastewater-treatment capacity. The service costs were estimated using real accounting data from an experimental wetland and by means of a market survey. Some assumptions had to be made to perform the analysis. A reference wastewater situation was established to solve the problem of the different levels of dilution that characterize the inflow water of the different systems; the land purchase cost was excluded from the analysis, considering the use of public land as shared social services, and an equal life span for both seminatural and traditional wastewater-treatment plants was set. The results suggest that seminatural systems are competitive with traditional biotechnological systems, with an average service cost improvement of 2.1-fold to 8-fold, according to the specific solution and discount rate. The main improvement factor was the lower maintenance cost of the seminatural systems, due to the self-regulating, low artificial energy inputs and the absence of waste to be disposed. In this work, only the waste-treatment capacity of wetlands was considered as a parameter for the economic competitiveness analysis. Other goods/services and environmental benefits provided by FWS wetlands were not considered.

  19. Integration of treatment wetlands as sustainable wastewater management systems for small communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahab, M.F.; Surampalli, R.Y. [Univ. of Nebraski-Lincoln, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2002-06-15

    This paper discuses the applicability as well as the integration of the constructed wetlands technology within the environmental infrastructure in small communities. To that end, a case study involving the use of Constructed wetlands (CW) for waste management in the Nebraska plains is presented. CW systems have been shown to be effective treatment alternatives in resource-limited small communities; and hence, can contribute to improving the economic well-being and the sustainability of many small communities. The paper specifically discusses the performance of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands systems used as the wastewater treatment process for a small community in eastern Nebraska and outlines operational experience gained through five years of plant operation. The results show that effective and sufficient CW seasonal removals of TSS, VSS, CBOD{sub 5}, COD, and fecal coliform were achieved. Wastewater temperatures seemed to affect CBOD{sub 5} and COD removal rates. Nitrogen and phosphorus reductions were not as effective and varied seasonally, as well as with wastewater temperature. The addition of a sand filter, to aid in further nitrification and disinfection following CW treatment, markedly improved the performance of the wetlands system. After a few years of operation, the performance of the system was dampened by apparent clogging and subsequent eruption of wastewater at the head-end of the treatment cells. While clogging was partially caused by biomass build-up in the wetlands substrate, visual observations suggest that excessive vegetation and relaxed maintenance may also be responsible. (author)

  20. Integration of treatment wetlands as sustainable wastewater management systems for small communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahab, M.F.; Surampalli, R.Y.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discuses the applicability as well as the integration of the constructed wetlands technology within the environmental infrastructure in small communities. To that end, a case study involving the use of Constructed wetlands (CW) for waste management in the Nebraska plains is presented. CW systems have been shown to be effective treatment alternatives in resource-limited small communities; and hence, can contribute to improving the economic well-being and the sustainability of many small communities. The paper specifically discusses the performance of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands systems used as the wastewater treatment process for a small community in eastern Nebraska and outlines operational experience gained through five years of plant operation. The results show that effective and sufficient CW seasonal removals of TSS, VSS, CBOD 5 , COD, and fecal coliform were achieved. Wastewater temperatures seemed to affect CBOD 5 and COD removal rates. Nitrogen and phosphorus reductions were not as effective and varied seasonally, as well as with wastewater temperature. The addition of a sand filter, to aid in further nitrification and disinfection following CW treatment, markedly improved the performance of the wetlands system. After a few years of operation, the performance of the system was dampened by apparent clogging and subsequent eruption of wastewater at the head-end of the treatment cells. While clogging was partially caused by biomass build-up in the wetlands substrate, visual observations suggest that excessive vegetation and relaxed maintenance may also be responsible. (author)

  1. A decision support system for adaptive real-time management ofseasonal wetlands in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.; Hanna, W. Mark

    2001-10-16

    This paper describes the development of a comprehensive flow and salinity monitoring system and application of a decision support system (DSS) to improve management of seasonal wetlands in the San Joaquin Valley of California. The Environmental Protection Agency regulates salinity discharges from non-point sources to the San Joaquin River using a procedure known as the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) to allocate the assimilative capacity of the River for salt among watershed sources. Management of wetland sources of salt load will require the development of monitoring systems, more integrative management strategies and coordination with other entities. To obtain local cooperation the Grassland Water District, whose primary function is to supply surface water to private duck clubs and managed wetlands, needs to communicate to local landowners the likely impacts of salinity regulation on the long term health and function of wildfowl habitat. The project described in this paper will also provide this information. The models that form the backbone of the DSS develop salinity balances at both a regional and local scale. The regional scale concentrates on deliveries to and exports from the Grasland Water District while the local scale focuses on an individual wetland unit where more intensive monitoring is being conducted. The design of the DSS is constrained to meet the needs of busy wetland managers and is being designed from the bottom up utilizing tools and procedures familiar to these individuals.

  2. Modelling carbon cycle in boreal wetlands with the Earth System Model ECHAM6/MPIOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzieh, Robert J.; Brovkin, Victor; Kleinen, Thomas; Raivonen, Maarit; Sevanto, Sanna

    2010-05-01

    Wetlands of the northern high latitudes provide excellent conditions for peat accumulation and methanogenesis. High moisture and low O2 content in the soils lead to effective preservation of soil organic matter and methane emissions. Boreal Wetlands contain about 450 PgC and currently constitute a significant natural source of methane (CH4) even though they cover only 3% of the global land surface. While storing carbon and removing CO2 from the atmosphere, boreal wetlands have contributed to global cooling on millennial timescales. Undisturbed boreal wetlands are likely to continue functioning as a net carbon sink. On the other hand these carbon pools might be destabilised in future since they are sensitive to climate change. Given that processes of peat accumulation and decay are closely dependent on hydrology and temperature, this balance may be altered significantly in the future. As a result, northern wetlands could have a large impact on carbon cycle-climate feedback mechanisms and therefore play an important role in global carbon cycle dynamics. However global biogeochemistry models used for simulations of CO2 dynamics in past and future climates usually neglect carbon cycle in wetlands. We investigate the potential for positive or negative feedbacks to the climate system through fluxes of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) with the general circulation model ECHAM6/MPIOM. A generic model of peat accumulation and decay has been developed and implemented into the land surface module JSBACH. We consider anaerobic biogeochemical processes which lead to formation of thick organic soils. Furthermore we consider specific wetland plant functional types (PFTs) in our model such as vascular plants (sedges) which impact methane transport and oxidation processes and non vascular plants (sphagnum mosses) which are promoting peat growth. As prototypes we use the modelling approaches by Frolking et al. (2001) as well as Walter & Heimann (2001) for the peat dynamics, and the

  3. Modelling Holocene carbon accumulation and methane emissions of boreal wetlands – an Earth system model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Schuldt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the Last Glacial Maximum, boreal wetlands have accumulated substantial amounts of peat, estimated at 180–621 Pg of carbon. Wetlands have significantly affected the atmospheric greenhouse gas composition in the past and will play a significant role in future changes of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations. In order to investigate those changes with an Earth system model, biogeochemical processes in boreal wetlands need to be accounted for. Thus, a model of peat accumulation and decay was developed and included in the land surface model JSBACH of the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM. Here we present the evaluation of model results from 6000 yr BP to the pre-industrial period. Over this period of time, 240 Pg of peat carbon accumulated in the model in the areas north of 40° N. Simulated peat accumulation rates agree well with those reported for boreal wetlands. The model simulates CH4 emissions of 49.3 Tg CH4 yr−1 for 6000 yr BP and 51.5 Tg CH4 yr−1 for pre-industrial times. This is within the range of estimates in the literature, which range from 32 to 112 Tg CH4 yr−1 for boreal wetlands. The modelled methane emission for the West Siberian Lowlands and Hudson Bay Lowlands agree well with observations. The rising trend of methane emissions over the last 6000 yr is in agreement with measurements of Antarctic and Greenland ice cores.

  4. Design and Implement a System of Wastewater Treatment Based on Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L. Dominínguez-Patiño

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The wetlands are considered as a natural passive cleaning of waste water. Is a process characterizes by its simplicity of operation, low or zero-energy consumption and low waste production. These consist of shallow ponds planted with plants. The processes of decontamination are performed simultaneously by its physical, chemical and biological properties. The objectives of this work are design and implement a system of artificial wetlands as an alternative method for treating waste water produced from the Faculty of Chemistry Science and Engineering that allow to reduce the costs of operation, knowing the degree of water pollution to determine how efficient the wetland and, finally improve the health and environmental conditions of the irrigation water. So the first step was to know the degree of water pollution and quantity to determine the wetland process variables. The second step was to determine the kind of plants that allow reducing the water contaminants. The Manning formula was applied to evaluate the free flow and Darcy’s equation for the surface flow by wetlands. A micro-scale prototype was design and built based on buckets. The absorption capacity of several plants (Bacopa monnieri, Nephrolepis exaltata,Tradescantia zebrine was determined. Also we use a natural filter consisting of Tezontle (first layer, sand (second layer, gravel (third layer, sand (fourth layer, Tezontle (fifth layer, gravel (sixth layer, sand (seventh layer and, organic substrate (eighth layer. A wetland decreases more than 60% the cost compared to a water purification plant as everything is based biodegradable materials and not using any energy or sophisticated equipment to water filtration. Wetlands not only help to purify the water, but also help the conservation of flora and fauna that is dependent on wet conditions, as only biodegradable materials are used there is no pollution to the ground, helping the conservation of the environment. Today we are

  5. Introducing a boreal wetland model within the Earth System model framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzieh, R. J.; Brovkin, V.; Reick, C.; Kleinen, T.; Raddatz, T.; Raivonen, M.; Sevanto, S.

    2009-04-01

    Wetlands of the northern high latitudes with their low temperatures and waterlogged conditions are prerequisite for peat accumulation. They store at least 25% of the global soil organic carbon and constitute currently the largest natural source of methane. These boreal and subarctic peat carbon pools are sensitive to climate change since the ratio of carbon sequestration and emission is closely dependent on hydrology and temperature. Global biogeochemistry models used for simulations of CO2 dynamics in the past and future climates usually ignore changes in the peat storages. Our approach aims at the evaluation of the boreal wetland feedback to climate through the CO2 and CH4 fluxes on decadal to millennial time scales. A generic model of organic matter accumulation and decay in boreal wetlands is under development in the MPI for Meteorology in cooperation with the University of Helsinki. Our approach is to develop a wetland model which is consistent with the physical and biogeochemical components of the land surface module JSBACH as a part of the Earth System model framework ECHAM5-MPIOM-JSBACH. As prototypes, we use modelling approach by Frolking et al. (2001) for the peat dynamics and the wetland model by Wania (2007) for vegetation cover and plant productivity. An initial distribution of wetlands follows the GLWD-3 map by Lehner and Döll (2004). First results of the modelling approach will be presented. References: Frolking, S. E., N. T. Roulet, T. R. Moore, P. J. H. Richard, M. Lavoie and S. D. Muller (2001): Modeling Northern Peatland Decomposition and Peat Accumulation, Ecosystems, 4, 479-498. Lehner, B., Döll P. (2004): Development and validation of a global database of lakes, reservoirs and wetlands. Journal of Hydrology 296 (1-4), 1-22. Wania, R. (2007): Modelling northern peatland land surface processes, vegetation dynamics and methane emissions. PhD thesis, University of Bristol, 122 pp.

  6. Pollutant swapping: greenhouse gas emissions from wetland systems constructed to mitigate agricultural pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    Diffuse (non-point) water pollution from agricultural land continues to challenge water quality management, requiring the adoption of new land management practices. The use of constructed agricultural wetlands is one such practice, designed to trap multiple pollutants mobilised by rainfall prior to them reaching receiving water. Through capturing and storing pollutants in bottom sediments, it could be hypothesised that the abundance of nutrients stored in the anoxic conditions commonly found in these zones may lead to pollutant swapping. Under these circumstances, trapped material may undergo biogeochemical cycling to change chemical or physical form and thereby become more problematic or mobile within the environment. Thus, constructed agricultural wetlands designed to mitigate against one form of pollution may in fact offset the created benefits by 'swapping' this pollution into other forms and pathways, such as through release to the atmosphere. Pollutant swapping to the atmosphere has been noted in analogous wetland systems designed to treat municipal and industrial wastewaters, with significant fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O being recorded in some cases. However the small size, low level of engineering and variable nutrient/sediment inputs which are features of constructed agricultural wetlands, means that this knowledge is not directly transferable. Therefore, more information is required when assessing whether a wetland's potential to act as hotspot for pollution swapping outweighs its potential to act as a mitigation tool for surface water pollution. Here we present results from an on-going monitoring study at a trial agricultural wetland located in small a mixed-use catchment in Cumbria, UK. Estimates were made of CH4, CO2 and N2O flux from the wetland surface using adapted floating static chambers, which were then directly compared with fluxes from an undisturbed riparian zone. Results indicate that while greenhouse gas flux from the wetland may be

  7. Transfer of tracers and pesticides in lab scale wetland systems: the role of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, R.; Imfeld, G.; Lange, J.

    2012-04-01

    between the vegetated and the non-vegetated column. In a second phase, vegetation transpiration progressively increased, as inferred from lower volumes of effluent water in the vegetated system. Overall, the behavior of pesticides and tracers, as inferred from the BTC's, were similar. This suggests that fluorescent tracers may be used as a reference for pesticides when studying the surface-groundwater interface. Both pesticides and tracers showed larger recovery rates (UR: 81.7 to 78.6%; SRB: 65.6 to 55.9%; IPU: 76.6 to 79.7%; MTX: 39.5 to 37.5%) and lower retention in the vegetated system. We attribute this finding to preferential flow paths along plant roots. Overall, our study suggests that wetland vegetation and rhizosheric processes may have a dual role in wetland pollutant transfer: while wetland vegetation may enhance retention and bio-degradation of contaminants in surface water, it may also generate preferential flow paths and hence facilitate pollutant transfer to groundwater. Acknowledgment: This study has been funded by the European Union (INTERREG) in the framework of the PhytoRet Project.

  8. Intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal in a novel electrolysis-integrated tidal flow constructed wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Xinxin; Wu, Shubiao; Zhang, Yansheng; Dong, Renjie

    2014-08-01

    A novel electrolysis-integrated tidal flow constructed wetland (CW) system was developed in this study. The dynamics of intensified nitrogen and phosphorus removal and that of hydrogen sulphide control were evaluated. Ammonium removal of up to 80% was achieved with an inflow concentration of 60 mg/L in wetland systems with and without electrolysis integration. Effluent nitrate concentration decreased from 2 mg/L to less than 0.5 mg/L with the decrease in current intensity from 1.5 mA/cm(2) to 0.57 mA/cm(2) in the electrolysis-integrated wetland system, thus indicating that the current intensity of electrolysis plays an important role in nitrogen transformations. Phosphorus removal was significantly enhanced, exceeding 95% in the electrolysis-integrated CW system because of the in-situ formation of a ferric iron coagulant through the electro-dissolution of a sacrificial iron anode. Moreover, the electrolyzed wetland system effectively inhibits sulphide accumulation as a result of a sulphide precipitation coupled with ferrous-iron electro-dissolution and/or an inhibition of bacterial sulphate reduction under increased aerobic conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relation of streams, lakes, and wetlands to groundwater flow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Thomas C.

    Surface-water bodies are integral parts of groundwater flow systems. Groundwater interacts with surface water in nearly all landscapes, ranging from small streams, lakes, and wetlands in headwater areas to major river valleys and seacoasts. Although it generally is assumed that topographically high areas are groundwater recharge areas and topographically low areas are groundwater discharge areas, this is true primarily for regional flow systems. The superposition of local flow systems associated with surface-water bodies on this regional framework results in complex interactions between groundwater and surface water in all landscapes, regardless of regional topographic position. Hydrologic processes associated with the surface-water bodies themselves, such as seasonally high surface-water levels and evaporation and transpiration of groundwater from around the perimeter of surface-water bodies, are a major cause of the complex and seasonally dynamic groundwater flow fields associated with surface water. These processes have been documented at research sites in glacial, dune, coastal, mantled karst, and riverine terrains. Résumé Les eaux de surface sont parties intégrantes des systèmes aquifères. Les eaux souterraines interagissent avec les eaux de surface dans presque tous les types d'environnements, depuis les petits ruisseaux, les lacs et les zones humides jusqu'aux bassins versants des vallées des grands fleuves et aux lignes de côte. Il est en général admis que les zones topographiquement hautes sont des lieux de recharge des aquifères et les zones basses des lieux de décharge, ce qui est le cas des grands systèmes aquifères régionaux. La superposition de systèmes locaux, associés à des eaux de surface, à l'organisation régionale d'écoulements souterrains résulte d'interactions complexes entre les eaux souterraines et les eaux de surface dans tous les environnements, quelle que soit la situation topographique régionale. Les processus

  10. Connectivity of streams and wetlands to downstream waters: An integrated systems framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Scott G.; Wigington, Parker J.; Schoefield, Kate A.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Golden, Heather E.

    2018-01-01

    Interest in connectivity has increased in the aquatic sciences, partly because of its relevance to the Clean Water Act. This paper has two objectives: (1) provide a framework to understand hydrological, chemical, and biological connectivity, focusing on how headwater streams and wetlands connect to and contribute to rivers; and (2) briefly review methods to quantify hydrological and chemical connectivity. Streams and wetlands affect river structure and function by altering material and biological fluxes to the river; this depends on two factors: (1) functions within streams and wetlands that affect material fluxes; and (2) connectivity (or isolation) from streams and wetlands to rivers that allows (or prevents) material transport between systems. Connectivity can be described in terms of frequency, magnitude, duration, timing, and rate of change. It results from physical characteristics of a system, e.g., climate, soils, geology, topography, and the spatial distribution of aquatic components. Biological connectivity is also affected by traits and behavior of the biota. Connectivity can be altered by human impacts, often in complex ways. Because of variability in these factors, connectivity is not constant but varies over time and space. Connectivity can be quantified with field‐based methods, modeling, and remote sensing. Further studies using these methods are needed to classify and quantify connectivity of aquatic ecosystems and to understand how impacts affect connectivity.

  11. Wastewater treatment in a compact intensified wetland system at the Badboot: a floating swimming pool in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oirschot, D; Wallace, S; Van Deun, R

    2015-09-01

    The Badboot (Dutch for swimming pool boat) is a floating swimming pool located in the city center of Antwerp in Belgium. The overall design consists of a recycled ferry boat that serves as a restaurant and next to that a newly built ship that harbours an Olympic size swimming pool, sun decks, locker rooms with showers, and a party space. A major design goal of the project was to make the ship as environmentally friendly as possible. To avoid discharge of contaminated waste water in the Antwerp docks, the ship includes onsite treatment of wastewater in a compact constructed wetland. The treatment wetland system was designed to treat wastewater from visitor locker rooms, showers, toilets, two bars, and the wastewater from the restaurant kitchen. Due to the limited space on board the ship, only 188 m(2) could be allocated to a wetland treatment system. As a result, part of the design included intensification of the wetland treatment process through the use of Forced Bed Aeration, which injects small quantities of air in a very uniform grid pattern throughout the wetland with a mechanical air compressor. The system was monitored between August 2012 and March 2013 (with additional sampling in the autumn of 2014). Flows and loads to the wetland were highly variable, but removal efficiency was extremely high; 99.5 % for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 88.6 % for total nitrogen and 97.2 % for ammonia. The treatment performance was assessed using a first-order, tanks-in-series model (the P-k-C* model) and found to be roughly equivalent to similar intensified wetlands operating in Germany. However, treatment performance was substantially better than data reported on passive wetlands, likely as a result of intensification. Even with mechanically assisted aeration, the total oxygen delivered to the treatment wetlands was insufficient to support conventional nitrification and denitrification, so it is likely that alternate nitrogen removal pathways, such as anammox, are

  12. Iron oxides stimulate microbial monochlorobenzene in situ transformation in constructed wetlands and laboratory systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Marie; Wolfram, Diana; Birkigt, Jan; Ahlheim, Jörg; Paschke, Heidrun; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nijenhuis, Ivonne

    2014-01-01

    Natural wetlands are transition zones between anoxic ground and oxic surface water which may enhance the (bio)transformation potential for recalcitrant chloro-organic contaminants due to the unique geochemical conditions and gradients. Monochlorobenzene (MCB) is a frequently detected groundwater contaminant which is toxic and was thought to be persistent under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, to date, no degradation pathways for anoxic MCB removal have been proven in the field. Hence, it is important to investigate MCB biodegradation in the environment, as groundwater is an important drinking water source in many European countries. Therefore, two pilot-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands, planted and unplanted, were used to investigate the processes in situ contributing to the biotransformation of MCB in these gradient systems. The wetlands were fed with anoxic MCB-contaminated groundwater from a nearby aquifer in Bitterfeld, Germany. An overall MCB removal was observed in both wetlands, whereas just 10% of the original MCB inflow concentration was detected in the ponds. In particular in the gravel bed of the planted wetland, MCB removal was highest in summer season with 73 ± 9% compared to the unplanted one with 40 ± 5%. Whereas the MCB concentrations rapidly decreased in the transition zone of unplanted gravel to the pond, a significant MCB removal was already determined in the anoxic gravel bed of the planted system. The investigation of hydro-geochemical parameters revealed that iron and sulphate reduction were relevant redox processes in both wetlands. In parallel, the addition of ferric iron or nitrate stimulated the mineralisation of MCB in laboratory microcosms with anoxic groundwater from the same source, indicating that the potential for anaerobic microbial degradation of MCB is present at the field site. - Highlights: • MCB removal in anoxic gravel bed of a planted and an unplanted constructed wetland was accompanied by iron

  13. Iron oxides stimulate microbial monochlorobenzene in situ transformation in constructed wetlands and laboratory systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Marie; Wolfram, Diana; Birkigt, Jan [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Ahlheim, Jörg [Department of Groundwater Remediation, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Paschke, Heidrun [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Richnow, Hans-Hermann [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Nijenhuis, Ivonne, E-mail: ivonne.nijenhuis@ufz.de [Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-02-01

    Natural wetlands are transition zones between anoxic ground and oxic surface water which may enhance the (bio)transformation potential for recalcitrant chloro-organic contaminants due to the unique geochemical conditions and gradients. Monochlorobenzene (MCB) is a frequently detected groundwater contaminant which is toxic and was thought to be persistent under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, to date, no degradation pathways for anoxic MCB removal have been proven in the field. Hence, it is important to investigate MCB biodegradation in the environment, as groundwater is an important drinking water source in many European countries. Therefore, two pilot-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands, planted and unplanted, were used to investigate the processes in situ contributing to the biotransformation of MCB in these gradient systems. The wetlands were fed with anoxic MCB-contaminated groundwater from a nearby aquifer in Bitterfeld, Germany. An overall MCB removal was observed in both wetlands, whereas just 10% of the original MCB inflow concentration was detected in the ponds. In particular in the gravel bed of the planted wetland, MCB removal was highest in summer season with 73 ± 9% compared to the unplanted one with 40 ± 5%. Whereas the MCB concentrations rapidly decreased in the transition zone of unplanted gravel to the pond, a significant MCB removal was already determined in the anoxic gravel bed of the planted system. The investigation of hydro-geochemical parameters revealed that iron and sulphate reduction were relevant redox processes in both wetlands. In parallel, the addition of ferric iron or nitrate stimulated the mineralisation of MCB in laboratory microcosms with anoxic groundwater from the same source, indicating that the potential for anaerobic microbial degradation of MCB is present at the field site. - Highlights: • MCB removal in anoxic gravel bed of a planted and an unplanted constructed wetland was accompanied by iron

  14. Wetland Flow and Salinity Budgets and Elements of a Decision Support System toward Implementation of Real-Time Seasonal Wetland Salinity Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Ortega, R.; Rahilly, P.; Johnson, C.B.

    2011-12-17

    The project has provided science-based tools for the long-term management of salinity in drainage discharges from wetlands to the San Joaquin River. The results of the project are being used to develop best management practices (BMP) and a decision support system to assist wetland managers adjust the timing of salt loads delivered to the San Joaquin River during spring drawdown. Adaptive drainage management scheduling has the potential to improve environmental compliance with salinity objectives in the Lower San Joaquin River by reducing the frequency of violation of Vernalis salinity standards, especially in dry and critically dry years. The paired approach to project implementation whereby adaptively managed and traditional practices were monitored in a side-by-side fashion has provided a quantitative measure of the impacts of the project on the timing of salt loading to the San Joaquin River. The most significant accomplishments of the project has been the technology transfer to wetland biologists, ditch tenders and water managers within the Grasslands Ecological Area. This “learning by doing” has build local community capacity within the Grassland Water District and California Department of Fish and Game providing these institutions with new capability to assess and effectively manage salinity within their wetlands while simultaneously providing benefits to salinity management of the San Joaquin River.

  15. Economic valuation of selected direct and indirect use values of the Makgadikgadi wetland system, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlhogile, Tshepo; Arntzen, Jaap; Mabiza, Collin; Mano, Reneth

    Economic valuation of wetlands aims to investigate public preferences for changes in the state of the wetland and the natural resources it constitutes in monetary terms. It provides a means of quantifying the direct and indirect benefits that people derive from wetlands. In addition, it informs management planning and practice about resource options, optimal allocation and also provides information for conservation of the resource. The Makgadikgadi wetland is a unique system that mostly consists of dry pans during most of the year. This study aimed at estimating the value of groundwater recharge and community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) activities within the Makgadikgadi wetland and how these goods and services contribute to the local and national economy. The study used the Total Economic Valuation approach, which considers both the direct and indirect use values of the resource. In essence, the study concentrated on one direct use value (use of resources through CBNRM) and one indirect use value (groundwater recharge). With regard to CBNRM, three community-based organisations (CBOs) were selected for the study and static and dynamic cost-benefit models for these CBOs were developed. The groundwater recharge value was largely determined through desktop review and interviews with stakeholders. The results indicate a small positive contribution of CBOs towards the economy of Botswana and a high potential for communities to derive substantial benefits from the projects because currently benefits realised by communities are limited. CBOs involved in joint venture partnerships with tourism and hunting enterprises benefit more from utilising the wetland’s resources. Groundwater recharge often occurs in areas away from the physical location of the wetland and may not be easily attributable to the wetland. However, the study assessed the value taking into consideration the various sectors which rely on the groundwater resource. The groundwater recharge

  16. Bacteriophage Technique for Assessing Viral Removal in Constructed Wetland and Detention Pond Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Yousefi, CM Davies, HJ Bavor

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Constructed wetland and detention pond as a treatment system was applied for stormwater management in two adjacent areas in western Sydney. F-specific RNA and somatic coliphages were used as a model for assessing two systems for removal of viral pollution, fate, behavior and survival of viruses in the sediment. Water samples were collected weekly in sterile containers and sediment samples were collected three times using a box dredge sampler via a boat at the inlet, middle and outlet areas of the systems. F-specific RNA coliphages were enumerated using the double layer plaque assay (ISO 1995 with Salmonella typhimurium WG49 as a host. Survival test continued 28 d for each sub-sample. Viral removal in constructed wetland was more effective than the detention pond system. Survival of somatic coliphages in the inlet and middle of the systems was similar. Slope of declining for outlet of two systems was very slow and completely stable in whole of test duration. Constructed wetland may offer an attractive alternative to stormwater management for reducing the load of disease-causing viruses to the receiving waters.

  17. Hydraulic and hydrological aspects of an evapotranspiration-constructed wetland combined system for household greywater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Fernando Jorge C Magalhães; Sobrinho, Teodorico Alves; Steffen, Jorge L; Arias, Carlos A; Paulo, Paula L

    2018-05-12

    Constructed wetlands systems demand preliminary and primary treatment to remove solids present in greywater (GW) to avoid or reduce clogging processes. The current paper aims to assess hydraulic and hydrological behavior in an improved constructed wetland system, which has a built-in anaerobic digestion chamber (AnC), GW is distributed to the evapotranspiration and treatment tank (CEvaT), combined with a subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetland (SSHF-CW). The results show that both the plants present in the units and the AnC improve hydraulic and volumetric efficiency, decrease short-circuiting and improve mixing conditions in the system. Moreover, the hydraulic conductivity measured on-site indicates that the presence of plants in the system and the flow distribution pattern provided by the AnC might reduce clogging in the SSHF-CW. It is observed that rainfall enables salt elimination, thus increasing evapotranspiration (ET), which promotes effluent reduction and enables the system to have zero discharge when reuse is unfeasible.

  18. Prioritizing Wetlands for Waterbirds in a Boom and Bust System: Waterbird Refugia and Breeding in the Murray-Darling Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Bino

    Full Text Available Dryland rivers have considerable flow variability, producing complex ecosystems, processes, and communities of organisms that vary over space and time. They are also among the more vulnerable of the world's ecosystems. A key strategy for conservation of dryland rivers is identifying and maintaining key sites for biodiversity conservation, particularly protecting the quantity and quality of flow and flooding regimes. Extreme variability considerably challenges freshwater conservation planning. We systematically prioritised wetlands for waterbirds (simultaneously for 52 species, across about 13.5% of the Murray-Darling Basin (1,061,469 km2, using a 30-year record of systematic aerial surveys of waterbird populations. Nine key wetlands in this area, primarily lakes, floodplains, and swamps, consistently contributed to a representation target (80% of total abundances of all 52 waterbird species. The long temporal span of our data included dramatic availability (i.e., booms and scarcity (i.e., busts of water, providing a unique opportunity to test prioritisation at extremes of variation. These extremes represented periods when waterbirds were breeding or concentrating on refugia, varying wetland prioritisation. In dry years, important wetlands for waterbirds were riverine and lacustrine (12 wetlands but this changed in wet years to lacustrine and palustrine (8 wetlands. Such variation in ecosystem condition substantially changes the relative importance of individual wetlands for waterbirds during boom and bust phases. Incorporating this variability is necessary for effective conservation of Murray-Darling Basin waterbirds, with considerable generality for other similarly variable systems around the world.

  19. Prioritizing Wetlands for Waterbirds in a Boom and Bust System: Waterbird Refugia and Breeding in the Murray-Darling Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bino, Gilad; Kingsford, Richard T; Porter, John

    2015-01-01

    Dryland rivers have considerable flow variability, producing complex ecosystems, processes, and communities of organisms that vary over space and time. They are also among the more vulnerable of the world's ecosystems. A key strategy for conservation of dryland rivers is identifying and maintaining key sites for biodiversity conservation, particularly protecting the quantity and quality of flow and flooding regimes. Extreme variability considerably challenges freshwater conservation planning. We systematically prioritised wetlands for waterbirds (simultaneously for 52 species), across about 13.5% of the Murray-Darling Basin (1,061,469 km2), using a 30-year record of systematic aerial surveys of waterbird populations. Nine key wetlands in this area, primarily lakes, floodplains, and swamps, consistently contributed to a representation target (80%) of total abundances of all 52 waterbird species. The long temporal span of our data included dramatic availability (i.e., booms) and scarcity (i.e., busts) of water, providing a unique opportunity to test prioritisation at extremes of variation. These extremes represented periods when waterbirds were breeding or concentrating on refugia, varying wetland prioritisation. In dry years, important wetlands for waterbirds were riverine and lacustrine (12 wetlands) but this changed in wet years to lacustrine and palustrine (8 wetlands). Such variation in ecosystem condition substantially changes the relative importance of individual wetlands for waterbirds during boom and bust phases. Incorporating this variability is necessary for effective conservation of Murray-Darling Basin waterbirds, with considerable generality for other similarly variable systems around the world.

  20. Wetland areas: Natural water treatment systems. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search. [Dual use wildlife refuges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the dual use of wetland areas as both water treatment systems and wildlife refuges. The ability of salt marshes, tidal flats, marshlands, and bogs to absorb and filter natural and synthetic wastes is examined. Topics include the effects of individual pollutants; environmental factors; species diversity; the cleansing ability of wetland areas; and the handling of sewage, industrial and municipal wastes, agricultural runoff, accidental spills, and flooding. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Wetlands Restoration Definitions and Distinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological restoration is a valuable endeavor that has proven very difficult to define. The term indicates that degraded and destroyed natural wetland systems will be reestablished to sites where they once existed. But, what wetland ecosystems are we talki

  2. Effectiveness of a model constructed wetland system containing Cyperus papyrus in degrading diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbowo, Danni Gathot; Choesin, Devi Nandita

    2014-03-01

    Synergism between wetland systems and the provision of degrading bacterial inoculum is now being developed for the recovery of areas polluted waters of pollutants. In connection with the frequent cases of diesel oil pollution in the waters of Indonesia, we need a way of water treatment as an efficient. In this study conducted a series of tests to develop an construcred wetland design that can effectively degrade diesel oil. Tested five systems: blanko (A), substrated, without bacterial inoculums, and vegetation (B); with the addition of inoculum (C); subsrated and vegetated (D); substrated and vegetated with the addition of inoculum (E). Vegetation used in this study is Cyperus papyrus because it has the ability to absorb pollutants. Inoculum used was Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes which is a bacteria degrading organic compounds commonly found in water. To measure the effectiveness of the system, use several indicators to see the degradation of pollutants, namely changes in viscosity, surface tension of pollutants, and the emergence of compound degradation. Based on the results of the study can be determined that the substrated and vegetated system with Cyperus papyrus inoculum (E) was considered the most capable of degrading diesel oil due to the large changes in all parameters. In the system E, 40.6% increase viscosity, surface tension decreased 32.7%, the appearance of degradation compounds with relatively 3614.7 points, and increased to 227.8% TDS. In addition the environmental conditions in the system E also supports the growth of vegetation and degrading microbes.

  3. Determination of dominant biogeochemical processes in a contaminated aquifer-wetland system using multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez-Cazull, S. E.; McGuire, J.T.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Voytek, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Determining the processes governing aqueous biogeochemistry in a wetland hydrologically linked to an underlying contaminated aquifer is challenging due to the complex exchange between the systems and their distinct responses to changes in precipitation, recharge, and biological activities. To evaluate temporal and spatial processes in the wetland-aquifer system, water samples were collected using cm-scale multichambered passive diffusion samplers (peepers) to span the wetland-aquifer interface over a period of 3 yr. Samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, methane, and a suite of organic acids resulting in a large dataset of over 8000 points, which was evaluated using multivariate statistics. Principal component analysis (PCA) was chosen with the purpose of exploring the sources of variation in the dataset to expose related variables and provide insight into the biogeochemical processes that control the water chemistry of the system. Factor scores computed from PCA were mapped by date and depth. Patterns observed suggest that (i) fermentation is the process controlling the greatest variability in the dataset and it peaks in May; (ii) iron and sulfate reduction were the dominant terminal electron-accepting processes in the system and were associated with fermentation but had more complex seasonal variability than fermentation; (iii) methanogenesis was also important and associated with bacterial utilization of minerals as a source of electron acceptors (e.g., barite BaSO4); and (iv) seasonal hydrological patterns (wet and dry periods) control the availability of electron acceptors through the reoxidation of reduced iron-sulfur species enhancing iron and sulfate reduction. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of metal removal by square Wetland System with Eleocharis SP. using SR-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avelino Neto, Sebastiao; Moreira, Silvana

    2007-01-01

    The pollution of the water resources for metals, results of different economic activities. The objective of the present study was to use the SR-TXRF technique to evaluate the performance of Wetland system cultivated with Eleocharis sp. installed at FEAGRI-UNICAMP, in the metal removal. The metals analyzed were Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Pb. Samples of the wastewater in the exit, Eleocharis sp. leaf and medium boulder were collected during 20 weeks consecutively. The system was operated with different outflows and hydraulic detention times (HDT) as: 600 L.day -1 (HDT 2 days), 400 L.day-1 (HDT 3 days), 300 L.day -1 (HDT 4 days) and 200 L.day -1 (HDT 6 days). The main source of metal removal was medium boulder with efficiency varying 30.1% for Cr and 98.9% for Pb, independent of the hydraulic detention time (HDT) used. The efficiency of the wetland in the Cr removal varied between 39.6 and 98.7%, and for Mn was higher than 81.6%. For Fe the performance was higher than 70.6% and for Cu the efficiency varied between 88.4 and 99.7 %, while for Pb the variation was 67.5 to 98.4 %. The wetland system with Eleocharis sp were in agreement with CONAMA legislation concern to Fe, Cu and Zn removal and for HDT of 2, 3, 4 and 6 days (HDT), moreover for Mn was necessary 4 and 6 days (HDT) and for Cr and Pb 6 days (HDT). (author)

  5. Study of metal removal by square Wetland System with Eleocharis SP. using SR-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelino Neto, Sebastiao; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mails: savneto@bol.com.br; silvana@fec.unicamp.br

    2007-07-01

    The pollution of the water resources for metals, results of different economic activities. The objective of the present study was to use the SR-TXRF technique to evaluate the performance of Wetland system cultivated with Eleocharis sp. installed at FEAGRI-UNICAMP, in the metal removal. The metals analyzed were Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Pb. Samples of the wastewater in the exit, Eleocharis sp. leaf and medium boulder were collected during 20 weeks consecutively. The system was operated with different outflows and hydraulic detention times (HDT) as: 600 L.day{sup -1} (HDT 2 days), 400 L.day-1 (HDT 3 days), 300 L.day{sup -1} (HDT 4 days) and 200 L.day{sup -1} (HDT 6 days). The main source of metal removal was medium boulder with efficiency varying 30.1% for Cr and 98.9% for Pb, independent of the hydraulic detention time (HDT) used. The efficiency of the wetland in the Cr removal varied between 39.6 and 98.7%, and for Mn was higher than 81.6%. For Fe the performance was higher than 70.6% and for Cu the efficiency varied between 88.4 and 99.7 %, while for Pb the variation was 67.5 to 98.4 %. The wetland system with Eleocharis sp were in agreement with CONAMA legislation concern to Fe, Cu and Zn removal and for HDT of 2, 3, 4 and 6 days (HDT), moreover for Mn was necessary 4 and 6 days (HDT) and for Cr and Pb 6 days (HDT). (author)

  6. Uncertainty quantification of surface-water/groundwater exchange estimates in large wetland systems using Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.; Metz, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Most watershed studies include observation-based water budget analyses to develop first-order estimates of significant flow terms. Surface-water/groundwater (SWGW) exchange is typically assumed to be equal to the residual of the sum of inflows and outflows in a watershed. These estimates of SWGW exchange, however, are highly uncertain as a result of the propagation of uncertainty inherent in the calculation or processing of the other terms of the water budget, such as stage-area-volume relations, and uncertainties associated with land-cover based evapotranspiration (ET) rate estimates. Furthermore, the uncertainty of estimated SWGW exchanges can be magnified in large wetland systems that transition from dry to wet during wet periods. Although it is well understood that observation-based estimates of SWGW exchange are uncertain it is uncommon for the uncertainty of these estimates to be directly quantified. High-level programming languages like Python can greatly reduce the effort required to (1) quantify the uncertainty of estimated SWGW exchange in large wetland systems and (2) evaluate how different approaches for partitioning land-cover data in a watershed may affect the water-budget uncertainty. We have used Python with the Numpy, Scipy.stats, and pyDOE packages to implement an unconstrained Monte Carlo approach with Latin Hypercube sampling to quantify the uncertainty of monthly estimates of SWGW exchange in the Floral City watershed of the Tsala Apopka wetland system in west-central Florida, USA. Possible sources of uncertainty in the water budget analysis include rainfall, ET, canal discharge, and land/bathymetric surface elevations. Each of these input variables was assigned a probability distribution based on observation error or spanning the range of probable values. The Monte Carlo integration process exposes the uncertainties in land-cover based ET rate estimates as the dominant contributor to the uncertainty in SWGW exchange estimates. We will discuss

  7. Studies on sustainability of simulated constructed wetland system for treatment of urban waste: Design and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, A K; Bankoti, N S; Rai, U N

    2016-03-15

    New system configurations and wide range of treatability make constructed wetland (CW) as an eco-sustainable on-site approach of waste management. Keeping this view into consideration, a novel configured three-stage simulated CW was designed to study its performance efficiency and relative importance of plants and substrate in purification processes. Two species of submerged plant i.e., Potamogeton crispus and Hydrilla verticillata were selected for this study. After 6 months of establishment, operation and maintenance of simulated wetland, enhanced reduction in physicochemical parameters was observed, which was maximum in the planted CW. The percentage removal (%) of the pollutants in three-stage mesocosms was; conductivity (60.42%), TDS (67.27%), TSS (86.10%), BOD (87.81%), NO3-N (81.28%) and PO4-P (83.54%) at 72 h of retention time. Submerged macrophyte used in simulated wetlands showed a significant time dependent accumulation of toxic metals (p ≤ 0.05). P. crispus accumulated the highest Mn (86.36 μg g(-1) dw) in its tissue followed by Cr (54.16 μg g(-1) dw), Pb (31.56 μg g(-1) dw), Zn (28.06 μg g(-1) dw) and Cu (25.76 μg g(-1) dw), respectively. In the case of H. verticillata, it was Zn (45.29), Mn (42.64), Pb (22.62), Cu (18.09) and Cr (16.31 μg g(-1) dw). Thus, results suggest that the application of simulated CW tackles the water pollution problem more efficiently and could be exploited in small community level as alternative and cost effective tools of phytoremediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Zooplankton diversity of a protected and vulnerable wetland system in southern South America (Llancanelo area, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sabina D’Ambrosio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In arid regions, climatic conditions exert a great control on the aquatic systems present, but recent changes in climate have produced an enhanced salinization of the aquatic environments located there. Consequently, a major reduction in biodiversity would be expected in those wetlands that were originally fresh water. Salinity is a principal cause of reduced biodiversity particularly in zooplankton because few of those species can adapt to the salt pressure of saline environments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to gain essential information on the diversity of aquatic invertebrates in Llancanelo basin by focussing the analysis on the zooplankton community and exploring seasonal and spatial differences in the zooplankton assemblages of this vulnerable wetland system within an arid region of Argentina. Seasonal samples were taken at nine sites in the basin (a shallow lake, 4 springs, streams, and the Malargüe River. A total of 45 species were identified. The zooplankton abundance in the lake displayed a clear seasonal contrast and was higher than that recorded in the springs and lotic environments. Boeckella poopoensis, Fabrea salina, and Brachionus plicatilis predominated in the lake, indicating their halophilia. The presence of the crustaceans Alona sp., Macrocyclops albidus, and Paracyclops fimbriatus was restricted to the springs; whereas Notholca labis and Notholca squamula were found only in running water. The zooplankton species richness in the Llancanelo area is low because of both the salt content in the lake and the irregularity of freshwater entry in all locations during the annual cycle.

  9. Emergy and Economic Evaluations of Four Fruit Production Systems on Reclaimed Wetlands Surrounding the Pearl River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare a traditional tropical fruit cultivation system, for bananas, and three newly introduced fruit cultivation systems, for papaya, guava and wampee, on reclaimed wetlands of the Pearl River Estuary, China. The evaluations...

  10. Constructed wetlands : the Canadian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, S.; Champagne, P. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Large volumes of wastewater from livestock and production facilities must be treated to minimize the contamination of waterways in agricultural areas. This paper investigated the use of constructed wetlands as a lower-cost and efficient method of treating agricultural wastewaters. The study found that while constructed wetlands required limited maintenance, temperature dependency of the constructed wetlands systems is a limiting factor in their widespread implementation. Lower operating temperatures are only overcome by constructing larger wetlands systems, which require a substantial amount of land. The Canadian climate poses significant challenges to the implementation of constructed wetlands, which become inoperative during winter months. Plants and bacteria normally become dormant or die during winter months, which can create a lag in wetland treatment during the initial months of operation in the Spring. Snowmelt and added rainfall in the Spring can also create a high flow within the wetland cells, as many constructed wetlands rely on runoff as a feed source. Washout of bacteria can occur. Wastewater storage systems or further engineering of the wetlands may be required. It was concluded that insulating wetland cells will maintain a warmer operating temperature, while the addition of an aeration system will increase the treatment efficiency of the wetland during winter months. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  11. Keeping wetlands wet in the western United States: adaptations to drought in agriculture-dominated human-natural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downard, Rebekah; Endter-Wada, Joanna

    2013-12-15

    Water is critical to protecting wetlands in arid regions, especially in agriculture-dominated watersheds. This comparative case study analyzes three federal wildlife refuges in the Bear River Basin of the U.S. West where refuge managers secured water supplies by adapting to their local environmental context and their refuge's relationship to agriculture in being either irrigation-dependent, reservoir-adjacent or diked-delta wetlands. We found that each refuge's position confers different opportunities for securing a water supply and entails unique management challenges linked to agricultural water uses. Acquiring contextually-appropriate water rights portfolios was important for protecting these arid region wetlands and was accomplished through various strategies. Once acquired, water is managed to buffer wetlands against fluctuations caused by a dynamic climate and agricultural demands, especially during droughts. Management plans are responsive to needs of neighboring water users and values of the public at large. Such context-specific adaptations will be critical as the West faces climate change and population growth that threaten wetlands and agricultural systems to which they are linked. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Distribution, source identification, and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in wetland soils of a river-reservoir system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoliang; Xiong, Ziqian; Liu, Hui; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2017-01-01

    The majority of rivers in the world have been dammed, and over 45,000 large reservoirs have been constructed for multiple purposes. Riparian and reservoir shorelines are the two most important wetland types in a dammed river. To date, few studies have concerned the heavy metal pollution in wetland soils of these river-reservoir systems. In this study, we measured the concentrations of ten heavy metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn) in surface soils collected from riparian and reservoir shorelines along the Han River in different seasons. Our results found that the Co, Cu, and Ni concentrations in riparian wetlands were significantly lower than those in reservoir shorelines. In riparian wetlands, only soil Sr concentration significantly increased after summer and autumn submergence. Multivariate statistical analyses demonstrated that Ba and Cd might originate from industrial and mining sources, whereas Sr and Mn predominantly originated from natural rock weathering. The ecological risk assessment analysis indicated that both riparian and reservoir shorelines along the Han River in China exhibited a moderate ecological risk in soil heavy metals. The upper Han River basin is the water resource area of China's Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project. Therefore, to control the contamination of heavy metals in wetland soils, more efforts should be focused on reducing the discharge of mining and industrial pollutants into the riparian and reservoir shorelines.

  13. Detecting changes in wetland morphology using a geographic information system: Historical database application at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christel-Rose, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    New policies regarding the ''no net loss'' of wetlands has presented resource managers and GIS analysts with a challenging ecological application. Historical aerial photography provides a temporal record of conditions over time. Access to temporal data sources is beneficial when appraising wetland gain and loss because man-made disturbances can have both short and long term effects on wetland communities. This is particularly true when trying to assess the existing communities for the specific purpose of restoration and reclamation of the ecologic structure and function of the community prior to a disturbance. Remediation efforts can be optimized when definitive documentation exists of the original communities. The Geographic Information System (GIS) is a powerful tool for integrating these data sets and performing spatial and temporal analyses in support of ecological applications

  14. Performance of a constructed wetland-pond system for treatment and reuse of wastewater from campus buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lin, Hsien-Te

    2006-11-01

    A constructed wetland-pond system consisting of two free-water-surface-flow (FWS) wetland cells, a scenic pond, and a slag filter in series was used for reclamation of septic tank effluent from a campus building. The results show that FWS wetlands effectively removed major pollutants under a hydraulic loading rate between 2.1 and 4.2 cm/d, with average efficiencies ranging from 74 to 78% for total suspended solids, 73 to 88% for 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, 42 to 49% for total nitrogen, 34 to 70% for total phosphorous, 64 to 79% for total coliforms, and 90 to 99.9% for Escherichia coli. After passing through the scenic pond and slag filter, the reclaimed water was used for landscape irrigation. There were a variety of ornamental plants and aquatic animals established in the second FWS cell and scenic pond with good water quality, thus enhancing landscape and ecology amenity in campuses.

  15. Ecological benefits of passive wetland treatment systems designed for acid mine drainage: With emphasis on watershed restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCleary, E.C.; Kepler, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Western Pennsylvania has been a large source of coal for much of the US since the late 1800's. During the extraction of the coal resources, acid mine drainage (AMD) often resulted. AMD from abandoned discharges has effectively rendered thousands of kilometers of streams lifeless in the Appalachian coal region. Restoration of these streams has been limited in previous years primarily because of the lack of cost-effective treatment for AMD. Conventional treatment can treat AMD effectively but is costly to operate and maintain and is effective only when receiving human attention. Passive wetland treatment systems have proven to be the only realistic AMD treatment strategy, in terms of watershed restoration activities. If ecosystem health is the reason for implementing effluent standards then it can be reasonably argued that passive wetland treatment systems supply the most effective overall treatment, even if they do not meet one or more of the current effluent standards. Recent advancements in passive wetland treatment system technology have provided a management tool that could be used to treat the majority of AMD discharges cost-effectively, and when used strategically could reasonably be employed to restore the thousands of kilometers of AMD-affected streams in the coal regions of Appalachia. Secondary benefits that have been observed with passive wetland treatment systems suggest that these systems may be providing for accelerated ecological recovery independent of regulated effluent standards

  16. The System Nobody Sees: Irrigated Wetland Management and Alpaca Herding in the Peruvian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Verzijl, A.; Guerrero Quispe, S.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, attention in regional, national, and international water governance arenas has focused on high-altitude wetlands. However, existing local water management practices in these wetlands are often overlooked. This article looks at the irrigation activities of alpaca herders in the community of Ccarhuancho in the Central Andes of Peru. For more than two centuries, they have been constructing small-scale irrigation canals to maintain and expand the local wetlands, called bofedales. Th...

  17. Performance of a pilot showcase of different wetland systems in an urban setting in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, B S; He, Q H; Sim, C H

    2015-01-01

    The Alexandra Wetlands, part of PUB's Active, Beautiful, Clean Waters (ABC Waters) Programme, showcase a surface flow wetland, an aquatic pond and a sub-surface flow wetland on a 200 m deck built over an urban drainage canal. Water from the canal is pumped to a sedimentation basin, before flowing in parallel to the three wetlands. Water quality monitoring was carried out monthly from April 2011 to December 2012. The order of removal efficiency is sub-surface flow (81.3%) >aquatic pond (58.5%) >surface flow (50.7%) for total suspended solids (TSS); sub-surface (44.9%) >surface flow (31.9%) >aquatic pond (22.0%) for total nitrogen (TN); and surface flow (56.7%) >aquatic pond (39.8%) >sub-surface flow (5.4%) for total phosphorus (TP). All three wetlands achieved the Singapore stormwater treatment objectives (STO) for TP removal, but only the sub-surface flow wetland met the STO for TSS, and none met the STO for TN. Challenges in achieving satisfactory performance include inconsistent feed water quality, undesirable behaviour such as fishing, release of pets and feeding of animals in the wetlands, and canal dredging during part of the monitoring period. As a pilot showcase, the Alexandra Wetlands provide useful lessons for implementing multi-objective wetlands in an urban setting.

  18. Potential Application of Shallow Bed Wetland Roof systems for green urban cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, X. T.

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the growth, nutrient uptake, domestic wastewater treatment, green (leaf) area and heat reduction of four shallow subsurface flow wetland roof (WR) systems with four different new local plants. Selected species included Cyperus Javanicus Hot (WR1), Eleusine Indica (L.) Gaertn (WR2), Struchium Sparganophorum (L.) Kuntze (WR3) and Kyllinga Brevifolia Rottb (WR4). These systems were operated during 61 days at hydraulic loading rates of 353 - 403 m3/ha.day. The biomass growth of 4.9-73.7g fresh weight/day, and 0.8-11.4 g dry weight/day were observed. The nutrient accumulation according to dry biomass achieved 0.25-2.14% of total nitrogen (TN) and 0.13-1.07% of total phosphorus (TP). The average COD, TN and TP removal was 61-79%; 54-81% and 62-83%, which corresponding to 27-33 kg COD/ha.day, 10-14 kg TN/ha.day and 0.4-0.5 kg TP/ha.day, respectively. The WR4 system achieved the highest COD and TN removal among the WRs. The TP removal efficiency showed an insignificant difference for the systems. Consequently, the treated water quality complied with the Vietnam standard limits (QCVN 14:2008, level B). The green area of the four plants varied between 63-92 m2 green leaf/m2 WR. The WR4 was the highest green area. Moreover, the results also showed the temperature under the flat roof was 1-3°C lower than that of the ambient air. In summary, wetland roof is a promising technology, which not only owns the effective domestic wastewater treatment capacity, but also contributes to green urban with several above benefits.

  19. PERFORMANCE OF A SURFACE FLOW CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM USED TO TREAT SECONDARY EFFLUENT AND FILTER BACKWASH WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Vidales-Contreras

    2011-05-01

    The performance of a surface flow wetland system used to treat activated sludge effluent and filter backwash water from a tertiary treatment facility was evaluated. Samples were collected before and after vegetation removal from the system which consists of two densely vegetated settling basins (0.35 ha, an artificial stream, and a 3-ha surface flow wetland. Bulrush (Scripus spp. and cattail (Typha domingensis were the dominant plant species. The average inflow of chlorinated secondary effluent during the first two months of the actual study was 1.9  m3 min-1 while the inflow for backwash water treatment ranged from 0.21 to 0.42 m3 min-1. The system was able to reduce TSS and BOD5 to tertiary effluent standards; however, monitoring of chloride concentrations revealed that wetland evapotranspiration is probably enriching pollutant concentrations in the wetland outflow. Coliphage removal from the filter backwash was 97 and 35% during 1999 and 2000, respectively. However, when secondary effluent entered the system, coliphage removal averaged 65%. After vegetation removal, pH and coliphage density increased significantly (p

  20. Wetland-based passive treatment systems for gold ore processing effluents containing residual cyanide, metals and nitrogen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R; Ordóñez, A; Loredo, J; Younger, P L

    2013-10-01

    Gold extraction operations generate a variety of wastes requiring responsible disposal in compliance with current environmental regulations. During recent decades, increased emphasis has been placed on effluent control and treatment, in order to avoid the threat to the environment posed by toxic constituents. In many modern gold mining and ore processing operations, cyanide species are of most immediate concern. Given that natural degradation processes are known to reduce the toxicity of cyanide over time, trials have been made at laboratory and field scales into the feasibility of using wetland-based passive systems as low-cost and environmentally friendly methods for long-term treatment of leachates from closed gold mine tailing disposal facilities. Laboratory experiments on discrete aerobic and anaerobic treatment units supported the development of design parameters for the construction of a field-scale passive system at a gold mine site in northern Spain. An in situ pilot-scale wetland treatment system was designed, constructed and monitored over a nine-month period. Overall, the results suggest that compost-based constructed wetlands are capable of detoxifying cyanidation effluents, removing about 21.6% of dissolved cyanide and 98% of Cu, as well as nitrite and nitrate. Wetland-based passive systems can therefore be considered as a viable technology for removal of residual concentrations of cyanide from leachates emanating from closed gold mine tailing disposal facilities.

  1. Treating runoff in the construction and operational phases of a greenfield development using floating wetland treatment systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, Christopher; Lucke, Terry; Boogaard, Floris; Schwammberger, Peter

    Floating wetland treatment systems (FWTS) are an innovative stormwater treatment technology currently being trialled on a larger scale in Australia. FWTS provide support for selected plant species to remove pollutants from stormwater discharged into a water body. The plant roots provide large

  2. An accidental resource: the social ecological system framework applied to small wetlands in Sierran foothill oak woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy V. Hruska; Lynn Huntsinger; Jose L. Oviedo

    2015-01-01

    An ongoing study of the small wetlands in the northern Sierra Nevada foothill oak woodlands that provide habitat for the state-threatened California black rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus) offers an example of the way that the social ecological systems (SES) framework can be used to analyze a natural resource problem. At the outset, it was...

  3. Relationships between structure and function: System structure matters whether you are in a wetland or a college classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sarah Elizabeth

    interviews. There was also evidence that the studio structure may help promote epistemological growth via "sneaky learning" and an expanded role of peers. The studies in Part I show that differences in structure affect function in freshwater wetland systems and the studies in Part II show that structure affects function in an undergraduate introductory soil science course. Thus, system structure matters whether you are in a wetland or a college classroom.

  4. Using ion and isotope characterization to design a frame of protection of a wetland system (Massif Central, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, Agnès; Négrel, Philippe; Millot, Romain; Bertin, Clotilde

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-pronged approach demonstrated its effectiveness to improve wetland knowledge. • Chemical and multi-isotopic approaches trace water and dissolved-element fluxes. • Water volume flowing out of the peatland through the Fouragettes stream is negligible. • At least three strong groundwater fluxes supply water to the peatland. - Abstract: The bio-diversity (vegetation and fauna) of peatlands, like all wetland ecosystems, is very fragile as it requires specific wet conditions. Over the past 20 years, increasing efforts have been made to restore degraded wetlands, to re-create new wetlands where they were lost, and to sustainably manage for multiple benefits. However, actions to restore and preserve wetlands require an in-depth knowledge of the water cycle in the system. We used chemical and multi-isotopic approaches, combined with hydrological tools (measuring potentiometric levels and spring discharge), for tracing the water and dissolved-element fluxes in the Narces de la Sauvetat peatland (Central France) and for better understanding of water budget components involved in this ecosystem. This multi-pronged approach clearly demonstrated its effectiveness for improving our understanding of the hydrological functioning of this wetland ecosystem. The two main results are that: (1) The water volume flowing out of the peatland through the Fouragettes stream is often negligible; and (2) At least three strong groundwater fluxes with distinct chemical and isotopic signatures supply water to the peatland. This new understanding will help decision makers maintain the water balance of the peatland, which is essential for the preservation of this fragile ecosystem

  5. Performance of hybrid subsurface constructed wetland system for piggery wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Inoue, T; Kato, K; Harada, J; Izumoto, H; Wu, D; Sakuragi, H; Ietsugu, H; Sugawara, Y

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate performance of a hybrid constructed wetland (CW) built for high organic content piggery wastewater treatment in a cold region. The system consists of four vertical and one horizontal flow subsurface CWs. The wetland was built in 2009 and water quality was monitored from the outset. Average purification efficiency of this system was 95±5, 91±7, 89±8, 70±10, 84±15, 90±6, 99±2, and 93±16% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), ammonium-N (NH4-N), total phosphorus (TP), total coliform (T. Coliform), and suspended solids (SS), respectively during August 2010-December 2013. Pollutant removal rate was 15±18 g m(-2) d(-1), 49±52 g m(-2) d(-1), 6±4 g m(-2) d(-1), 7±5 g m(-2) d(-1), and 1±1 g m(-2) d(-1) for BOD5, COD, TN, NH4-N, and TP, respectively. The removal efficiency of BOD5, COD, NH4-N, and SS improved yearly since the start of operation. With respect to removal of TN and TP, efficiency improved in the first three years but slightly declined in the fourth year. The system performed well during both warm and cold periods, but was more efficient in the warm period. The nitrate increase may be attributed to a low C/N ratio, due to limited availability of carbon required for denitrification.

  6. The System Nobody Sees: Irrigated Wetland Management and Alpaca Herding in the Peruvian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, A.; Guerrero Quispe, S.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, attention in regional, national, and international water governance arenas has focused on high-altitude wetlands. However, existing local water management practices in these wetlands are often overlooked. This article looks at the irrigation activities of alpaca herders in the

  7. Regional paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic settings of wetland/lacustrine depositional systems in the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic), Western Interior, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, S.P.; Turner, C.E.

    2004-01-01

    During deposition of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, water that originated as precipitation in uplands to the west of the Western Interior depositional basin infiltrated regional aquifers that underlay the basin. This regional groundwater system delivered water into the otherwise dry continental interior basin where it discharged to form two major wetland/lacustrine successions. A freshwater carbonate wetland/lacustrine succession formed in the distal reaches of the basin, where regional groundwater discharged into the Denver-Julesburg Basin, which was a smaller structural basin within the more extensive Western Interior depositional basin. An alkaline-saline wetland/lacustrine complex (Lake T'oo'dichi') formed farther upstream, where shallower aquifers discharged into the San Juan/Paradox Basin, which was another small structural basin in the Western Interior depositional basin. These were both wetlands in the sense that groundwater was the major source of water. Input from surface and meteoric water was limited. In both basins, lacustrine conditions developed during episodes of increased input of surface water. Inclusion of wetlands in our interpretation of what had previously been considered largely lacustrine systems has important implications for paleohydrology and paleoclimatology. The distal carbonate wetland/lacustrine deposits are well developed in the Morrison Formation of east-central Colorado, occupying a stratigraphic interval that is equivalent to the "lower" Morrison but extends into the "upper" Morrison Formation. Sedimentologic, paleontologic, and isotopic evidence indicate that regional groundwater discharge maintained shallow, hydrologically open, well oxygenated, perennial carbonate wetlands and lakes despite the semi-arid climate. Wetland deposits include charophyte-rich wackestone and green mudstone. Lacustrine episodes, in which surface water input was significant, were times of carbonate and siliciclastic deposition in scarce deltaic

  8. Evaluation of Organic Matter Removal Efficiency and Microbial Enzyme Activity in Vertical-Flow Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoling Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, enzyme activities and their relationships to organics purification were investigated in three different vertical flow constructed wetlands, namely system A (planting Pennisetum sinese Roxb, system B (planting Pennisetum purpureum Schum., and system C (no plant. These three wetland systems were fed with simulation domestic sewage at an influent flow rate of 20 cm/day. The results showed that the final removal efficiency of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD in these three systems was 87%, 85% and 63%, respectively. Planting Pennisetum sinese Roxb and Pennisetum purpureum Schum. could improve the amount of adsorption and interception for organic matter in the substrate, and the amount of interception of organic matter in planting the Pennisetum sinese Roxb system was higher than that in planting the Pennisetum purpureum Schum. system. The activities of enzymes (urease, phosphatase and cellulase in systems A and B were higher than those in system C, and these enzyme activities in the top layer (0–30 cm were significantly higher than in the other layers. The correlations between the activities of urease, phosphatase, cellulase and the COD removal rates were R = 0.815, 0.961 and 0.973, respectively. It suggests that using Pennisetum sinese Roxb and Pennisetum purpureum Schum. as wetland plants could promote organics removal, and the activities of urease, phosphatase and cellulase in those three systems were important indicators for COD purification from wastewater. In addition, 0–30 cm was the main function layer. This study could provide a theoretical basis for COD removal in the wetland system and supply new plant materials for selection.

  9. Decision analysis of mitigation and remediation of sedimentation within large wetland systems: a case study using Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy L.; Eash, Josh D.; Knutsen, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Sedimentation has been identified as an important stressor across a range of wetland systems. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has the responsibility of maintaining wetlands within its National Wildlife Refuge System for use by migratory waterbirds and other wildlife. Many of these wetlands could be negatively affected by accelerated rates of sedimentation, especially those located in agricultural parts of the landscape. In this report we document the results of a decision analysis project designed to help U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service staff at the Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge (herein referred to as the Refuge) determine a strategy for managing and mitigating the negative effects of sediment loading within Refuge wetlands. The Refuge’s largest wetland, Agassiz Pool, has accumulated so much sediment that it has become dominated by hybrid cattail (Typha × glauca), and the ability of the staff to control water levels in the Agassiz Pool has been substantially reduced. This project consisted of a workshop with Refuge staff, local and regional stakeholders, and several technical and scientific experts. At the workshop we established Refuge management and stakeholder objectives, a range of possible management strategies, and assessed the consequences of those strategies. After deliberating a range of actions, the staff chose to consider the following three strategies: (1) an inexpensive strategy, which largely focused on using outreach to reduce external sediment inputs to the Refuge; (2) the most expensive option, which built on the first option and relied on additional infrastructure changes to the Refuge to increase management capacity; and (3) a strategy that was less expensive than strategy 2 and relied mostly on existing infrastructure to improve management capacity. Despite the fact that our assessments were qualitative, Refuge staff decided they had enough information to select the third strategy. Following our qualitative assessment, we discussed

  10. The flower and the butterfly constructed wetland system at Koh Phi Phi - system design and lessons learned during implementation and operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Hans; Koottatep, Thammarat; Fryd, Ole

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, a constructed wetland system was implemented on the tourist island of Koh Phi Phi in Southern Thailand. This paper presents the process of planning, designing and implementing the system and discusses the performance and operational issues 3 years after implementation. The system is an i...

  11. A Portable, Low-Power Analyzer and Automated Soil Flux Chamber System for Measuring Wetland GHG Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Nick; Kim-Hak, David; McArthur, Gordon

    2017-04-01

    Preservation and restoration of wetlands has the potential to help sequester large amounts of carbon due to the naturally high primary productivity and slow turnover of stored soil carbon. However, the anoxic environmental conditions present in wetland soils are also the largest natural contributor to global methane emissions. While it is well known that wetlands are net carbon sinks over long time scales, given the high global warming potential of methane, the short-term balances between C uptake and storage and loss as CO2 and CH4 need to be carefully considered when evaluating the climate effects of land-use change. It is relatively difficult to measure methane emissions from wetlands with currently available techniques given the temporally and spatially sporadic nature of the processes involved (methanogenesis, methane oxidation, ebullition, etc.). For example, using manual soil flux chambers can often only capture a portion of either the spatial or temporal variability, and often have other disadvantages associated with soil atmosphere disturbance during deployment in these relatively compressible wetland soils. Automated chamber systems offer the advantage of collecting high-resolution time series of gaseous fluxes while reducing some human and method induced biases. Additionally, new laser-based analyzers that can be used in situ alongside automated chambers offer a greater minimum detectable flux than can be achieved using alternative methods such as Gas Chromatography. Until recently these types of automated measurements were limited to areas that had good power coverage, as laser based systems were power intensive and could not easily be supplemented with power from field-available sources such as solar. Recent advances in laser technology has reduced the power needed and made these systems less power intensive and more field portable in the process. Here we present data using an automated chamber system coupled to a portable laser based greenhouse gas

  12. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from dairy wastewater using constructed wetlands systems operating in batch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Rocha Bastos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a study conducted for a period of seven months on the effectiveness of constructed wetland systems for the treatment of dairy wastewater aiming at removing, nitrogen and phosphorus. Six experimental systems were assembled with a net volume of 115 L using HDPE tanks, with length/width ratio of 2:1. In three of the systems, gravel 0 was used as substrate, while gravel 0 and sand was used in the three others, in the percentage of 80% and 20%, respectively. The systems were operated in batch cycles of 48 hours, applying 7.5 L of influent per cycle. Four of the experimental units were cultivated, and two kept as controls. The selected species chosen were the macrophytes, Typha domingensis and Hedychium coronarium. The removal efficiency concerning nitrogen compounds showed to be quite promising with values ranging from 29.4 to 73.4%, while phosphorus removal from the beds was lower, reaching efficiencies between 18.61 and 34.3%, considered good values, since the removal of these substances is quite difficult through conventional treatment.

  13. Wetland Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefit...

  14. Fate of redox-sensitive elements in two different East-African wetland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasner, Björn; Fiedler, Sabine

    2017-04-01

    We expect that an intensified cropping alters soil pH and Eh, and negatively affects the production potential of wetlands. Therefore, we investigated the redox-conditions in combination with the fate of different redox-sensitive elements in two prototypical wetland systems that show a high potential for food production in East-Africa. While the floodplains (observed near Ifakara, Kilombero District/Tanzania) serve as major crop producing areas in the region, the Inland Valleys (observed in Namulonge, Central District/Uganda) show a high potential for future production. Both systems have been divided into three positions; the fringe near to the slope, the center near to the river and the middle in between these two positions. In order to get a better understanding of the two systems we installed continuously measuring redox-electrodes in three different positions within both systems. Additionally, the fate of mineral elements was measured using ion-exchange resins with an installation period of 3-4 months. At the Tanzanian field sites the Eh-potential shows one major dry period with moderately reducing to well drained conditions in all sampling depths (10, 30, and 50 cm below ground) in all three positions during the measuring period from March 2015 to Dec 2016. Starting with the rains the Eh-potential drops from 700 mV (in 10 and 30 cm depth) to reducing conditions at all three sites - with intermediate brakes in the middle and fringe positions, showing that there has been no rain during these periods. At the Ugandan field sites the Eh-potential shows more fluctuations during the measuring period, especially in the center position in 2015 ( 750 to -200 mV in 30 and 50 cm depth). Having just the Eh-potential from the first 30 cm below ground it is not really possible to differentiate between dry- and rainy-seasons at the sites. The fate of redox-sensitive elements (Fe, Mn, and P) does not always correlate with the overall Eh-conditions (median) of the installation

  15. Using terrestrial laser scanning in inventorying of a hybrid constructed wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obroślak, Radomir; Mazur, Andrzej; Jóźwiakowski, Krzysztof; Dorozhynskyy, Oleksandr; Grzywna, Antoni; Rybicki, Roman; Nieścioruk, Kamil; Król, Żanna; Gabryszuk, Justyna; Gajewska, Magdalena

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this paper was to evaluate the possibility of using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) for inventorying of a hybrid constructed wetland (CW) wastewater treatment plant. The object under study was a turtle-shaped system built in 2015 in Eastern Poland. Its main purpose is the treatment of wastewater from the Museum and Education Centre of Polesie National Park. The study showed that the CW system had been built in compliance with the technical documentation, as differences between values obtained from the object and those given in the design project (max. ± 20 cm for situation and ±5 cm for elevation) were within the range defined by the legislator. It was also shown that the results were sufficiently precise to be used for as-built surveying of the aboveground elements of the CW system. The TLS technique can also be employed to analyse quantitative changes in object geometry arising during long-term use (e.g. landmass slides or erosion), the identification of which can help in selecting the hot-spots at risk of damage and thus restore the object to its original state as well as prevent new changes.

  16. Identification and classification of inland wetlands in Tamaulipas through remote sensing and geographic information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilver Enrique Salinas Castillo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to identify and classify artificial and natural inland wetlands in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, important for migratory aquatic birds. Historically, efforts nave been focused on natural coastal wetlands or specific water bodies located in highlands; however, these surveys have not reflected the dramatic changes in landscape due to farming development in northem Mexico in the Iatest decades. Agricultural fieids and dams associated to them provide food, water and shelterto many migratory birds and other species, a fact not well documented. Factors that may influence the use of wetlands were analyzed, including surface area, associated vegetation and proximity to agricultural fieids. The inventory of inland wetlands was based on the analysis of seven 2000 Landsat ETM satellite imagery and field data gathered from 261 sites surveyed in 2001. Baseline maps were created and GIS analyses were undertaken to classify these water bodies. More than 23 000 inland wetlands were identified, and the information derived from this study will be assist in the development of programs to manage and protect wetlands of importance for migratory aquatic birds in Tamaulipas.

  17. National Wetlands Inventory Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear wetland features (including selected streams, ditches, and narrow wetland bodies) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National...

  18. The use of vertical constructed wetland and ultrasound in aquaponic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivograd Klemenčič, A; Griessler Bulc, T

    2015-01-01

    Treatment performance, fish production, crop plant biomass production, water consumption, and water use efficiency of a pilot aquaponic system for small-scale land-based cyprinid fish farms were evaluated. The system consisted of a 36 m(3) Pond A with an initial carp load of 0.6 kg/m(3); of a treatment chain with a lamellar settler, a roughing filter, a vertical constructed wetland filled with expanded clay and planted with tomatoes; and of a low power ultrasound unit installed in the corner of the pond. The average circulation of the water in the system was 1.2 times per day. Pond A was compared with Pond B of the same dimensions and fish load but with no treatment chain or ultrasound. The treatment chain was efficient in mass removal of total suspended solids , biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, NH4-N, total nitrogen, and total phosphorous (57, 49, 35, 42, 31, and 25 %, respectively). Negative removal of NO3-N, NO2-N, and PO4-P indicated the need for the introduction of additional hydroponic beds in the system. Pond A had markedly lower nutrient concentrations compared with Pond B. Fish body weight increase and specific growth rate in Pond A were higher than in Pond B (102.6 %, 72.1 %; 0.19 %/day, 0.14 %/day, respectively) indicating better rearing conditions in Pond A. Tomato biomass production was high. Water use efficiency was higher in Pond A compared with Pond B (0.31 kg of produced fish/m(3) inflow water and 0.22 kg of produced fish/m(3) inflow water, respectively). The presented aquaponic system could be useful for semi-natural fish farming with fish loads up to 2 kg/m(3).

  19. Performance of hybrid constructed wetland systems for treating septic tank effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li-hua; Liu, Wen; Zhu, Xi-zhen; Ma, Mei; Huang, Xi-hua; Xia, Yan-yang

    2006-01-01

    The integrated wetland systems were constructed by combining horizontal-flow and vertical-flow bed, and their purification efficiencies for septic tank effluent were detected when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 1 d, 3 d, 5 d under different seasons. The results showed that the removal efficiencies of the organics, phosphorus were steady in the hybrid systems, but the removal efficiency of total nitrogen was not steady due to high total nitrogen concentration in the septic tank effluent. The average removal rates of COD (chemical oxygen demand) were 89%, 87%, 83%, and 86% in summer, autumn, winter and spring, respectively, and it was up to 88%, 85%, 73%, and 74% for BOD5 (5 d biochemical oxygen demand) removal rate in four seasons. The average removal rates of TP (total phosphorous) could reach up to 97%, 98%, 95%, 98% in four seasons, but the removal rate of TN (total nitrogen) was very low. The results of this study also indicated that the capability of purification was the worst in winter. Cultivating with plants could improve the treated effluent quality from the hybrid systems. The results of the operation of the horizontal-flow and vertical-flow cells (hybrid systems) showed that the removal efficiencies of the organics, TP and TN in horizontal-flow and vertical-flow cells were improved significantly with the extension of HRT under the same season. The removal rate of 3 d HRT was obviously higher than that of 1 d HRT, and the removal rate of 5 d HRT was better than that of 3 d HRT, but the removal efficiency was not very obvious with the increment of HRT. Therefore, 3 d HRT might be recommended in the actual operation of the hybrid systems for economic and technical reasons.

  20. Performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland system for treating simulated ash basin water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Lane; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H

    2009-05-01

    A pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) was designed and built to decrease the concentration and toxicity of constituents of concern in ash basin water from coal-burning power plants. The CWTS was designed to promote the following treatment processes for metals and metalloids: precipitation as non-bioavailable sulfides, co-precipitation with iron oxyhydroxides, and adsorption onto iron oxides. Concentrations of Zn, Cr, Hg, As, and Se in simulated ash basin water were reduced by the CWTS to less than USEPA-recommended water quality criteria. The removal efficiency (defined as the percent concentration decrease from influent to effluent) was dependent on the influent concentration of the constituent, while the extent of removal (defined as the concentration of a constituent of concern in the CWTS effluent) was independent of the influent concentration. Results from toxicity experiments illustrated that the CWTS eliminated influent toxicity with regard to survival and reduced influent toxicity with regard to reproduction. Reduction in potential for scale formation and biofouling was achieved through treatment of the simulated ash basin water by the pilot-scale CWTS.

  1. Efficiency of a Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetland Treatment System in an Arid Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Albalawneh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and treatment efficiency of the Horizontal Sub-Surface Flow Constructed Wetland treatment system (HSF-CW in an arid climate. Seventeen sub-surface, horizontal-flow HSF-CW units have been operated for approximately three years to improve the quality of partially-treated municipal wastewater. The studied design parameters included two sizes of volcanic tuff media (i.e., fine or coarse, two different bed dimensions (i.e., long and short, and three plantation types (i.e., reed, kenaf, or no vegetation as a control. The effluent Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solid (TSS, and phosphorus from all of the treatments were significantly lower as compared to the influent and demonstrated a removal efficiency of 55%, 51%, 67%, and 55%, respectively. There were significant increases in Electrical Conductivity (EC, sulfate, and calcium in the effluent of most HSF-CWs due to evaporative concentration and mineral dissolution from the media. The study suggests that unplanted beds with either fine or coarse media are the most suitable combinations among all of the studied designs based on their treatment efficiency and less water loss in arid conditions.

  2. An expert system model for mapping tropical wetlands and peatlands reveals South America as the largest contributor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbricht, Thomas; Roman-Cuesta, Rosa Maria; Verchot, Louis; Herold, Martin; Wittmann, Florian; Householder, Ethan; Herold, Nadine; Murdiyarso, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Wetlands are important providers of ecosystem services and key regulators of climate change. They positively contribute to global warming through their greenhouse gas emissions, and negatively through the accumulation of organic material in histosols, particularly in peatlands. Our understanding of wetlands' services is currently constrained by limited knowledge on their distribution, extent, volume, interannual flood variability and disturbance levels. We present an expert system approach to estimate wetland and peatland areas, depths and volumes, which relies on three biophysical indices related to wetland and peat formation: (1) long-term water supply exceeding atmospheric water demand; (2) annually or seasonally water-logged soils; and (3) a geomorphological position where water is supplied and retained. Tropical and subtropical wetlands estimates reach 4.7 million km 2 (Mkm 2 ). In line with current understanding, the American continent is the major contributor (45%), and Brazil, with its Amazonian interfluvial region, contains the largest tropical wetland area (800,720 km 2 ). Our model suggests, however, unprecedented extents and volumes of peatland in the tropics (1.7 Mkm 2 and 7,268 (6,076-7,368) km 3 ), which more than threefold current estimates. Unlike current understanding, our estimates suggest that South America and not Asia contributes the most to tropical peatland area and volume (ca. 44% for both) partly related to some yet unaccounted extended deep deposits but mainly to extended but shallow peat in the Amazon Basin. Brazil leads the peatland area and volume contribution. Asia hosts 38% of both tropical peat area and volume with Indonesia as the main regional contributor and still the holder of the deepest and most extended peat areas in the tropics. Africa hosts more peat than previously reported but climatic and topographic contexts leave it as the least peat-forming continent. Our results suggest large biases in our current understanding of

  3. Organic Carbon and Trace Element Cycling in a River-Dominated Tidal Coastal Wetland System (Tampa Bay, FL, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R. P.; Smoak, J. M.; Engelhart, S. E.; Powell, C. E.; Chappel, A. R.; Gerlach, M. J.; Kemp, A.; Breithaupt, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    Tampa Bay is the largest open water, river-fed estuary in Florida (USA), and is characterized by the presence of both mangrove and salt marsh ecosystems. Both coastal wetland systems, and small rivers such as the ones draining into Tampa Bay have historically been underestimated in terms of their role in the global carbon and elemental cycles. Climate change and sea-level rise (SLR) are major threats in Tampa Bay and stand to disrupt hydrologic cycles, compromising sediment accumulation and the rate of organic carbon (OC) burial. This study evaluates organic carbon content, sediment accumulation, and carbon burial rates in salt marsh and mangrove ecosystems, along with measurements of fluxes of dissolved OC (DOC) and trace elements in the water column of the Little Manatee River (LMR) in Tampa Bay. The characterization of OC and trace elements in tidal rivers and estuaries is critical for quantitatively constraining these systems in local-to-regional scale biogeochemical budgets, and provide insight into biogeochemical processes occurring with the estuary and adjacent tidal wetlands. Material fluxes of DOC and trace elements were tied to discharge irrespective of season, and the estuarine habitats removed 15-65% of DOC prior to export to Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Thus, material is available for cycling and burial within marsh and mangrove peats, however, LMR mangrove peats have higher OC content and burial rates than adjacent salt marsh peats. Sedimentary accretion rates in LMR marshes are not currently keeping pace with SLR, thus furthering the rapid marsh-to-mangrove conversions that have been seen in Tampa Bay over the past half-century. Additionally, wetlands in Tampa Bay tend to have a lower rate of carbon burial than other Florida tidal wetlands, demonstrating their high sensitivity to climate change and SLR.

  4. Comparison of Four Nitrate Removal Kinetic Models in Two Distinct Wetland Restoration Mesocosm Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. Messer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the kinetic model that best fit observed nitrate removal rates at the mesocosm scale in order to determine ideal loading rates for two future wetland restorations slated to receive pulse flow agricultural drainage water. Four nitrate removal models were investigated: zero order, first order decay, efficiency loss, and Monod. Wetland mesocosms were constructed using the primary soil type (in triplicate at each of the future wetland restoration sites. Eighteen mesocosm experiments were conducted over two years across seasons. Simulated drainage water was loaded into wetlands as batches, with target nitrate-N levels typically observed in agricultural drainage water (between 2.5 and 10 mg L−1. Nitrate-N removal observed during the experiments provided the basis for calibration and validation of the models. When the predictive strength of each of the four models was assessed, results indicated that the efficiency loss and first order decay models provided the strongest agreement between predicted and measured NO3-N removal rates, and the fit between the two models were comparable. Since the predictive power of these two models were similar, the less complicated first order decay model appeared to be the best choice in predicting appropriate loading rates for the future full-scale wetland restorations.

  5. Synergistic wetland treatment of sewage and mine water: pollutant removal performance of the first full-scale system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Paul L; Henderson, Robin

    2014-05-15

    Wetland systems are now well-established unit processes in the treatment of diverse wastewater streams. However, the development of wetland technology for sewage treatment followed an entirely separate trajectory from that for polluted mine waters. In recent years, increased networking has led to recognition of possible synergies which might be obtained by hybridising approaches to achieve co-treatment of otherwise distinct sewage and mine-derived wastewaters. As polluted discharges from abandoned mines often occur in or near the large conurbations to which the former mining activities gave rise, there is ample scope for such co-treatment in many places worldwide. The first full-scale co-treatment wetland anywhere in the world receiving large inflows of both partially-treated sewage (∼100 L s(-)(1)) and mine water (∼300 L s(-1)) was commissioned in Gateshead, England in 2005, and a performance evaluation has now been made. The evaluation is based entirely on routinely-collected water quality data, which the operators gather in fulfillment of their regulatory obligations. The principal parameters of concern in the sewage effluent are suspended solids, BOD5, ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N) and phosphate (P); in the mine water the only parameter of particular concern is total iron (Fe). Aerobic treatment processes are appropriate for removal of BOD5, NH4-N and Fe; for the removal of P, reaction with iron to form ferric phosphate solids is a likely pathway. With these considerations in mind, the treatment wetland was designed as a surface-flow aerobic system. Sample concentration level and daily flow rate date from April 2007 until March 2011 have been analyzed using nonparametric statistical methods. This has revealed sustained, high rates of absolute removal of all pollutants from the combined wastewater flow, quantified in terms of differences between influent and effluent loadings (i.e. mass per unit time). In terms of annual mass retention rates, for instance

  6. Effectiveness of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Using a Bio-Hedge Water Hyacinth Wetland System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Valipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available onstructed wetland applications have been limited by a large land requirement and capital investment. This study aimed to improve a shallow pond water hyacinth system by incorporating the advantages of engineered attached microbial growth technique (termed Bio-hedge for on-site domestic wastewater treatment. A laboratory scale continuous-flow system consists of the mesh type matrix providing an additional biofilm surface area of 54 m2/m3. Following one year of experimentation, the process showed more stability and enhanced performance in removing organic matter and nutrients, compared to traditional water hyacinth (by lowering 33%–67% HRT and facultative (by lowering 92%–96% HRT ponds. The wastewater exposed plants revealed a relative growth rate of 1.15% per day, and no anatomical deformities were observed. Plant nutrient level averaged 27 ± 1.7 and 44 ± 2.3 mg N/g dry weight, and 5 ± 1.4 & 9±1.2 mg P/g dry weight in roots and shoots, respectively. Microorganisms immobilized on Bio-hedge media (4.06 × 107 cfu/cm2 and plant roots (3.12 × 104 cfu/cm were isolated and identified (a total of 23 strains. The capital cost was pre-estimated for 1 m3/d wastewater at 78 US$/m3inflow and 465 US$/kg BOD5 removed. This process is a suitable ecotechnology due to improved biofilm formation, reduced footprint, energy savings, and increased quality effluent.

  7. Performance of the constructed wetland systems in pollutants removal from hog wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallison da Silva Freitas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a constructed wetland systems (CWS for pollutants removal, in mono crop and multi crop with three different species of plants, originated from hog wastewater treatment (HW. Therefore, 5 CWS of 24.0 m x 1.1 m x 0.7 m were constructed, sealed with a membrane of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and filled with 0.4 m of small gravel. In CWS1, CWS2 and CWS3 grown to cattail (Typha latifolia L., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb. and Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon dactylon Pers., respectively. In the bed of CWS4 was planted at 1st third Alternanthera, cattail, in the 2nd third and tifton-85 grass and in the 3rd third of. The CWS5 was not planted and it was used as control. After passing through a filter filled with crushed bagasse of sugar cane, the HW was applied to the CWS in a flow of 0.8 m3 d-1, which corresponded to a hydraulic detention time of 4.8 days. According to the results it was shown that the five CWS(s had statistically nearly the same removal of pollutants, and the average removal efficiency of TSS, COD, BOD and Zn, were 91, 89, 86 and 94%, respectively. Also high removals were obtained concerning the ST, N-total, NH4+ and P-total, with average values of 62, 59, 52 and 50%, respectively. The plants in all planted CWS worked in a similar way maintaining the system efficiency and the non cultivated CWS presented analogous capacity of pollutants removal when compared to the cultivated CWS(s.

  8. Wise use of wetlands: current state of protection and utilization of Chinese wetlands and recommendations for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanxia; Yao, Yong; Ju, Meiting

    2008-06-01

    Wetland protection and utilization sometimes appear to be in conflict, but promoting the wise use of wetlands can solve this problem. All countries face the challenge of sustainable development of wetlands to a greater or lesser extent, but the problem is especially urgent in developing countries, such as China, that want to accelerate their economic development without excessive environmental cost. Chinese wetlands contribute greatly to economic development, but improper use of these natural resources has endangered their existence. It is thus necessary to provide scientific guidance to managers and users of wetlands. In this paper, we analyze the present status of Chinese wetland protection and utilization, and discuss problems in six categories: a lack of public awareness of the need for wetland protection; insufficient funding for wetland protection and management; an imperfect legal system to protect wetlands; insufficient wetland research; lack of coordination among agencies and unclear responsibilities; and undeveloped technologies related to wetland use and protection. The wise use of Chinese wetlands will require improvements in four main areas: increased wetland utilization research, scientific management of wetland utilization, improved laws and regulations to protect wetlands, and wider dissemination of wetland knowledge. Based on these categories, we propose a framework for the optimization of wetland use by industry to provide guidance for China and other countries that cannot sacrifice economic benefits to protect their wetlands.

  9. Industry and forest wetlands: Cooperative research initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, J.P.; Lucier, A.A.; Haines, L.W.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989 the forest products industry responded to a challenge of the National Wetlands Policy Forum to initiate a cooperative research program on forest wetlands management organized through the National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI). The objective is to determine how forest landowners can manage wetlands for timber production while protecting other wetland functions such as flood storage, water purification, and food chain/wildlife habitat support. Studies supported by the NCASI in 9 states are summarized. Technical support on wetland regulatory issues to member companies is part of the research program. Since guidelines for recognizing wetlands for regulatory proposed have changed frequently, the NCASI has recommend an explicit link between wetland delineation and a classification system that considers difference among wetland types in vegetation, soils, hydrology, appearance, landscape position, and other factors. 16 refs

  10. Application of Remote Sensing/ GIS in Monitoring Typha spp. Invasion and Challenges of Wetland Ecosystems Services in Dry Environment of Hadejia Nguru Wetland System Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Salako

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although, the threat posed by Typha invasion to wetland utilization has been widely acknowledged in Hadejia Nguru wetland, yet little or no monitoring has been done to quantify the extent and time analysis of the threat. Remote sensing and GIS techniques were used in this study to monitor the Spatio-temporal dynamics of Typha spp. invasion in the dry environment of Hadejia Nguru Wetlands of NE Nigeria. Satellites images of Band 1, 2, 3, and 4 from Landsat ETM+ were acquired between 2003 and 2015 and natural color from GeoEye-1 in 2016 where image classification, change detection and spatial statistics were performed. To evaluate the impact of Typha grass on the livelihood of the people, a field investigation involving administration of 200 questionnaires was conducted among the two major wetland users: the farmers and the fishermen. The result from the RS/GIS revealed that Typha grass recorded an astronomical growth of 1013 % between 2003 and 2009 and another incremental of 32 % in 2015. The ANOVA test on land cover change in 2003, 2009 and 2015 showed a significant variation in land cover and use changes at p<0.05. The findings from field survey showed that Typha grass accounted for 70% decrease in land available for farmland and subsequent reduction in crop output by 90%. It also accounted for 80% reduction in total fish caught as compared to non Typha infested land and open water. Strategic and selective weeding by mechanical and manual techniques was therefore suggested as control measures to save the wetland ecosystem and wetland users livelihood.

  11. Hydrologic connectivity between geographically isolated wetlands and surface water systems: A review of select modeling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather E. Golden; Charles R. Lane; Devendra M. Amatya; Karl W. Bandilla; Hadas Raanan Kiperwas Kiperwas; Christopher D. Knightes; Herbert. Ssegane

    2014-01-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIW), depressional landscape features entirely surrounded by upland areas, provide a wide range of ecological functions and ecosystem services for human well-being. Current and future ecosystem management and decision-making rely on a solid scientific understanding of how hydrologic processes affect these important GIW services and...

  12. Study of Geochemical System in Constructed Wetland Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, V.

    2015-12-01

    People have recognized that the human activities lead to the degradation of the environment, and constructed wetland is one of the well-known technologies for water treatment. In constructed wetland, complicated processes should be considered such as redox reactions, acid-base reactions, adsorption-desorption between water and sediment and biochemical reactions associated with plant and microorganism. In this study, most of inorganic components were analyzed and principal component analysis (PCA) was followed for depicting the controlling biochemical reaction in the constructed wetland. The results could be a guide to operate the constructed wetland. The constructed wetland in this study is located in Taoyuan County, north Taiwan. It's a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland composed of ten cells. The water in wetland was pumped from Nankan River, which collects wastewater from Hwaya technology park, Linkou, Guishan and Nankan industrial zone. The water of inflow and outflow from each cell were collected for analyzing inorganic components with ICP-MS and IC. In general, the results show that water quality had dramatically changed in the first three cells and became stable in the following seven cells. In this study, PCA extracted two major factors (PCs), which can respectively explain 52.76%(PC1)and 28.32%(PC2)of variance of water quality data. PC1 separates samples of the first three cells from those of the other following cells. It is believed that there was another pollution source involved in the 4th cell because PC1 is characterized by high loadings of most of trace heavy metals. On the other hand, the hydrochemistry of water mainly evolve along PC2 axis. PC2 is composed of Fe, Mn, NH4, dissolved oxygen, pH, etc with high loadings. These chemical components are predominately controlled by redox reactions. Moreover, the deep water from the 4th cell contains high concentrations of many heavy metals, especially Cu and Ga. This confirms the

  13. Fringe wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Fringe wetlands are characterized by the dominance of few species, a clear species zonation, synchrony of ecological processes with episodic events, and simplicity in the structure of vegetation. The structure and ecosystem dynamics of fringe forested wetlands are presented with emphasis on saltwater wetlands because they have been studied more than freshwater ones. The study areas were Caribbean and Florida mangroves. Fringe wetlands are found on the water edge of oceans, inland estuaries, and lakes. Water motion in the fringe is bi-directional and perpendicular to the forest and due mostly to tidal energy in oceanic and estuarine fringes. in lakes, water moves in and out of the fringe under the influence of wind, waves, or seiches. some fringe forests are occasionally flushed by terrestrial runoff or aquifer discharge. In contrast, fringe forests located on small offshore islands or steep coastal shroes are isolated from terrestrial runoff or aquifer discharge, and their hydroperiod is controlled by tides and waves only. Literature reviews suggest that ecosystem parameters such as vegetation structure, tree growth, primary productivity, and organic matter in sediments respond proportionally to hydrologic energy. Human activity that impacts on fringe forested wetlands include harvesting of trees, oil pollution and eutrophication. 72 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs

  14. The effects of flow-path modification on water-quality constituent retention in an urban stormwater detention pond and wetland system, Orlando, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gain, W.S.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in constituent retention in a wet stormwater-detention pond and wetland system in Orlando, Florida, were evaluated following the 1988 installation of a flow barrier which approximately doubled the flow path and increased detention time in the pond. The pond and wetland were arranged in series so that stormwater first enters the pond and overflows into the wetland before spilling over to the regional stream system. Several principal factors that contribute to constituent retention were examined, including changes in pond-water quality between storms, stormwater quality, and pond-water flushing during storms. A simple, analytical pond-water mixing model was used as the basis for interpreting changes in retention efficiencies caused by pond modification. Retention efficiencies were calculated by a modified event-mean concentration efficiency method using a minimum variance unbiased estimator approach. The results of this study generally support the hypothesis that changes in the geometry of stormwater treatment systems can significantly affect the constituent retention efficiency of the pond and wetland system. However, the results also indicate that these changes in efficiency are caused not only by changes in residence time, but also by changes in stormwater mixing and pond water flushing during storms. Additionally, the use of average efficiencies as indications of treatment effectiveness may fail to account for biases associated with sample distribution and independent physical properties of the system, such as the range and concentrations of constituents in stormwater inflows and stormwater volume. Changes in retention efficiencies varied among chemical constituents and were significantly different in the pond and wetland. Retention efficiency was related to inflow concentration for most constituents. Increased flushing of the pond after modification caused decreases in retention efficiencies for constituents that concentrate in the pond between storms

  15. Hydrologic Education and Undergraduate Research in a Passive Wetland Treatment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrick, K. C.; Lohr, L.

    2012-12-01

    Legacy coal mine drainage has been found to impair surface water throughout southwestern Pennsylvania. Though few of our incoming students know what "acid mine drainage" is, nearly all have seen the orange streams and seeps that are its most obvious characteristic. On the other end of the spectrum, our geology majors are typically finding jobs in the oil and gas industry related to shale gas, or in environmental fields especially related to local and regional surface water. To take advantage of their early familiarity with local stream impacts and the likelihood they will have to deal with mine effluent during their post-academic careers, we have leveraged a local passive wetland treatment system to bring a relevant, real-life scenario into the classroom and lab. Moraine State Park, in western PA, is centered on Lake Arthur, an artificial reservoir of Muddy Creek. The park, particularly the lake, is a destination for recreational visitors, including boating and fishing enthusiasts. There is concern among visitors and park administrators about the health of the local streams and the lake. The area has been extensively undermined, with most coal mines sealed prior to the damming of the reservoir. One such instance of these sealed mine ports failed along one of the many embayments of Lake Arthur and a passive treatment system was installed. It was used as an example of the environmental impacts to the area for park guests, with an access road and signage. However, at this time, the three-pond system may be failing, five years beyond its projected life span and showing signs of stress and downstream contamination. Though the system is small, it provides a robust opportunity for hydrologic and geochemical analyses. We have used the pond system extensively for undergraduate research. Over the past five years, a Master's thesis was completed, and numerous undergraduate projects followed. Students have measured precipitate thickness and deposition rates, endeavored to

  16. Performance assessment and microbial diversity of two pilot scale multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, A O; Miranda-CasoLuengo, Raul; Imtiaz, Mehreen; Zhao, Y Q; Meijer, Wim G

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the performance and diversity of microbial communities in multi-stage sub-surface flow constructed wetland systems (CWs). Our aim was to assess the impact of configuration on treatment performance and microbial diversity in the systems. Results indicate that at loading rates up to 100gBOD5/(m(2)·day), similar treatment performances can be achieved using either a 3 or 4 stage configuration. In the case of phosphorus (P), the impact of configuration was less obvious and a minimum of 80% P removal can be expected for loadings up to 10gP/(m(2)·day) based on the performance results obtained within the first 16months of operation. Microbial analysis showed an increased bacterial diversity in stage four compared to the first stage. These results indicate that the design and configuration of multi-stage constructed wetland systems may have an impact on the treatment performance and the composition of the microbial community in the systems, and such knowledge can be used to improve their design and performance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Beneficial effects on water management of simple hydraulic structures in wetland systems: the Vallevecchia case study, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, G M; Bonato, M; Smania, D; Barausse, A; Comis, C; Palmeri, L

    2011-01-01

    Conflicting water uses in coastal zones demand integrated approaches to achieve sustainable water resources management, protecting water quality while allowing those human activities which rely upon aquatic ecosystem services to thrive. This case study shows that the creation and simple management of hydraulic structures within constructed wetlands can markedly reduce the non-point pollution from agriculture and, simultaneously, benefit agricultural activities, particularly during hot and dry periods. The Vallevecchia wetland system is based on a reclaimed 900 ha-large drainage basin in Northern Italy, where droughts recently impacted agriculture causing water scarcity and saltwater intrusion. Rainwater and drained water are recirculated inside the system to limit saltwater intrusion, provide irrigation water during dry periods and reduce the agricultural nutrient loads discharged into the bordering, eutrophic Adriatic Sea. Monitoring (2003-2009) of water quality and flows highlights that the construction (ended in 2005) of a gated spillway to control the outflow, and of a 200,000 m3 basin for water storage, dramatically increased the removal of nutrients within the system. Strikingly, this improvement was achieved with a minimal management effort, e.g., each year the storage basin was filled once: a simple management of the hydraulic structures would greatly enhance the system efficiency, and store more water to irrigate and limit saltwater intrusion.

  18. Microbiology of wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Watersaturated soil and sediment ecosystems (i.e. wetlands) are ecologically as well as economically important systems due to their high productivity, their nutrient (re)cycling capacities and their prominent contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions. Being on the transition between

  19. Water RATs (Resilience, Adaptability, and Transformability in Lake and Wetland Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance H. Gunderson

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The lakes in the northern highlands of Wisconsin, USA, the lakes and wetlands of Kristianstads Vattenrike in southern Sweden, and the Everglades of Florida, USA, provide cases that can be used to compare the linkages between ecological resilience and social dynamics. The erosion of ecological resilience in aquatic and wetland ecosystems is often a result of past management actions and is manifest as a real or perceived ecological crisis. Learning is a key ingredient in response to the loss of ecological resilience. Learning is facilitated through networks that operate in distinct arenas and are structured for dialogue, synthesis, and imaginative solutions to chart alternative futures. The networks also help counter maladaptive processes such as information control or manipulation, bureaucratic inertia, or corruption. The networks help create institutional arrangements that provide for more learning and flexibility and for the ability to change. Trust and leadership appear to be key elements for adaptability and transformability.

  20. An approach to hydrogeological modeling of a large system of groundwater-fed lakes and wetlands in the Nebraska Sand Hills, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Nathan R.; Zlotnik, Vitaly A.; Rowe, Clinton M.

    2018-05-01

    The feasibility of a hydrogeological modeling approach to simulate several thousand shallow groundwater-fed lakes and wetlands without explicitly considering their connection with groundwater is investigated at the regional scale ( 40,000 km2) through an application in the semi-arid Nebraska Sand Hills (NSH), USA. Hydraulic heads are compared to local land-surface elevations from a digital elevation model (DEM) within a geographic information system to assess locations of lakes and wetlands. The water bodies are inferred where hydraulic heads exceed, or are above a certain depth below, the land surface. Numbers of lakes and/or wetlands are determined via image cluster analysis applied to the same 30-m grid as the DEM after interpolating both simulated and estimated heads. The regional water-table map was used for groundwater model calibration, considering MODIS-based net groundwater recharge data. Resulting values of simulated total baseflow to interior streams are within 1% of observed values. Locations, areas, and numbers of simulated lakes and wetlands are compared with Landsat 2005 survey data and with areas of lakes from a 1979-1980 Landsat survey and the National Hydrography Dataset. This simplified process-based modeling approach avoids the need for field-based morphology or water-budget data from individual lakes or wetlands, or determination of lake-groundwater exchanges, yet it reproduces observed lake-wetland characteristics at regional groundwater management scales. A better understanding of the NSH hydrogeology is attained, and the approach shows promise for use in simulations of groundwater-fed lake and wetland characteristics in other large groundwater systems.

  1. Comparison of simple, small, full-scale sewage treatment systems in Brazil: UASB-maturation ponds-coarse filter; UASB-horizontal subsurface-flow wetland; vertical-flow wetland (first stage of French system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sperling, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between three simple sewage treatment lines involving natural processes: (a) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor-three maturation ponds in series-coarse rock filter; (b) UASB reactor-horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland; and (c) vertical-flow constructed wetlands treating raw sewage (first stage of the French system). The evaluation was based on several years of practical experience with three small full-scale plants receiving the same influent wastewater (population equivalents of 220, 60 and 100 inhabitants) in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The comparison included interpretation of concentrations and removal efficiencies based on monitoring data (organic matter, solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, coliforms and helminth eggs), together with an evaluation of practical aspects, such as land and volume requirements, sludge production and handling, plant management, clogging and others. Based on an integrated evaluation of all aspects involved, it is worth emphasizing that each system has its own specificities, and no generalization can be made on the best option. The overall conclusion is that the three lines are suitable for sewage treatment in small communities in warm-climate regions.

  2. A Preliminary Investigation of Wastewater Treatment Efficiency and Economic Cost of Subsurface Flow Oyster-Shell-Bedded Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chuan Hsu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a preliminary investigation of wastewater treatment efficiency and economic cost of the oyster-shell-bedded constructed wetlands (CWs compared to the conventional gravel-bedded CW based on field monitoring data of water quality and numerical modeling. Four study subsurface (SSF CWs were built to receive wastewater from Taipei, Taiwan. Among these sites, two are vertical wetlands, filled with bagged- (VA and scattered- (VB oyster shells, and the other two horizontal wetlands were filled with scattered-oyster shells (HA and gravels (HB. The BOD, NO3−, DO and SS treatment efficiency of VA and VB were higher than HA and HB. However, VA was determined as the best option of CW design due to its highest cost-effectiveness in term of BOD removal (only 6.56 US$/kg as compared to VB, HA and HB (10.88–25.01 US$/kg. The results confirmed that oyster shells were an effective adsorption medium in CWs. Hydraulic design and arrangement of oyster shells could be important in determining their treatment efficiency and cost-effectiveness. A dynamic model was developed to simulate substance transmissions in different treatment processes in the CWS using AQUASIM 2.1 based on the water quality data. Feasible ranges of biomedical parameters involved were determined for characterizing the importance of different biochemical treatment processes in SSF CWs. Future work will involve extending the experimental period to confirm the treatment efficiency of the oyster-shell-bedded CW systems in long-term operation and provide more field data for the simulated model instead of the literature values.

  3. Preliminary Analysis of the Role of Wetlands and Rivers in the Groundwater Discharge of the Guarani Aquifer System in NE Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, L.; Rodriguez, L.; Manzano, M.; Valladares, A.; Agarwaal, P.; Araguas, L.

    2011-01-01

    The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is a transboundary aquifer occupying parts of Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina, covering some 1200000 km''2. The location and magnitude of recharge and the magnitude of regional discharges are uncertain. Regional groundwater flow modeling suggests that some discharge may occur through selected reaches of the Parana and Uruguay rivers and their tributaries, and perhaps, through the Ibera wetland system within Argentina. Preliminary findings of hydrochemical and isotopic sampling and analysis from surface water and groundwater in the Southern GAS region, studying the role of rivers and wetlands in the aquifer discharge and revising the conceptual model, are presented.

  4. Optimization of operating parameters of hybrid vertical down-flow constructed wetland systems for domestic sewerage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhujian; Zhang, Xianning; Cui, Lihua; Yu, Guangwei

    2016-09-15

    In this work, three hybrid vertical down-flow constructed wetland (HVDF-CW) systems with different compound substrates were fed with domestic sewage and their pollutants removal performance under different hydraulic loading and step-feeding ratio was investigated. The results showed that the hydraulic loading and step-feeding ratio were two crucial factors determining the removal efficiency of most pollutants, while substrate types only significantly affected the removal of COD and NH4(+)-N. Generally, the lower the hydraulic loading, the better removal efficiency of all contaminants, except for TN. By contrast, the increase of step-feeding ratio would slightly reduce the removal rate of ammonium and TP but obviously promoted the TN removal. Therefore, the optimal operation of this CWs could be achieved with low hydraulic loading combined with 50% of step-feeding ratio when TN removal is the priority, whereas medium or low hydraulic loading without step-feeding would be suitable when TN removal is not taken into consideration. The obtained results in this study can provide us with a guideline for design and optimization of hybrid vertical flow constructed wetland systems to improve the pollutants removal from domestic sewage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Leachate treatment system using constructed wetlands, Town of Fenton sanitary landfill, Broome County, New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Municipal sanitary landfills generate leachate that New York State regulations require to be collected and treated to avoid contaminating surface water and groundwater. One option for treating leachate is to haul it to municipal wastewater treatment facility. This option may be expensive, may require excessive energy for transportation, and may require pretreatment to protect the receiving facility`s processes. An alternative is on-site treatment and discharge. Personnel from the Town of Fenton, New York; Hawk Engineering, P.C.; Cornell University; and Ithaca College designed, built, and operated a pilot constructed wetland for treating leachate at the Town of Fenton`s municipal landfill. The system, consisting of two overland flow beds and two subsurface flow beds has been effective for 18 months in reducing levels of ammonia (averaging 85% removal by volatilization and denitrification) and total iron (averaging 95% removal by precipitation and sedimentation), two key constituents of the Fenton landfill`s leachate. The system effects these reductions with zero chemical and energy inputs and minimal maintenance. A third key constituent of the leachate, manganese, apparently passes through the beds with minimal removal. Details and wetland considerations are described.

  6. The emergence of treatment wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, S.

    1998-01-01

    Judging by the growing number of wetlands built for wastewater treatment around the world, this natural technology seems to have firmly established roots. After almost 30 years of use in wastewater treatment, constructed treatment wetlands now number over 500 in Europe and 600 in North America. Marsh-type surface flow systems are most common in North America, but subsurface flow wetlands, where wastewater flows beneath the surface of a gravel-rock bed, predominate in Europe. The inexpensive, low maintenance technology is in high demand in Central America, Eastern Europe, and Asia. New applications, from nitrate-contaminated ground water to effluent from high-intensity livestock operations, are also increasing. But in the United States, treatment-wetland technology has not yet gained national regulatory acceptance. Some states and EPA regions are eager to endorse them, but others are wary of this nontraditional method of treating wastewater. In part, this reluctance exists because the technology is not yet completely understood. Treatment wetlands also pose a potential threat to wildlife attracted to this new habitat -an ecosystem exposed to toxic compounds. New efforts are under way, however, to place the technology onto firmer scientific and regulatory ground. Long-term demonstration and monitoring field studies are currently probing the inner workings of wetlands and their water quality capabilities to provide better data on how to design more effective systems. A recent study of US policy and regulatory issues surrounding treatment wetlands has recommended that the federal government actively promote the technology and clear the regulatory roadblocks to enable wider use. Proponents argue that the net environmental benefits of constructed wetlands, such as restoring habitat and increasing wetlands inventory, should be considered. 8 refs., 6 photos

  7. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  8. National Wetlands Inventory Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland area features mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National Wetlands Inventory is a national program sponsored by the US Fish and...

  9. Associations between the molecular and optical properties of dissolved organic matter in the Florida Everglades, a model coastal wetland system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Sasha; Jaffe, Rudolf; Cawley, Kaelin; Dittmar, Thorsten; Stubbins, Aron

    2015-11-01

    Optical properties are easy-to-measure proxies for dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition, source and reactivity. However, the molecular signature of DOM associated with such optical parameters remains poorly defined. The Florida coastal Everglades is a subtropical wetland with diverse vegetation (e.g., sawgrass prairies, mangrove forests, seagrass meadows) and DOM sources (e.g., terrestrial, microbial and marine). As such, the Everglades is an excellent model system from which to draw samples of diverse origin and composition to allow classically-defined optical properties to be linked to molecular properties of the DOM pool. We characterized a suite of seasonally- and spatially-collected DOM samples using optical measurements (EEM-PARAFAC, SUVA254, S275-295, S350-400, SR, FI, freshness index and HIX) and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Spearman’s rank correlations between FTICR-MS signal intensities of individual molecular formulae and optical properties determined which molecular formulae were associated with each PARAFAC component and optical index. The molecular families that tracked with the optical indices were generally in agreement with conventional biogeochemical interpretations. Therefore, although they represent only a small portion of the bulk DOM pool, absorbance and fluorescence measurements appear to be appropriate proxies for the aquatic cycling of both optically-active and associated optically-inactive DOM in coastal wetlands.

  10. Associations between the molecular and optical properties of dissolved organic matter in the Florida Everglades, a model coastal wetland system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha eWagner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Optical properties are easy-to-measure proxies for dissolved organic matter (DOM composition, source and reactivity. However, the molecular signature of DOM associated with such optical parameters remains poorly defined. The Florida coastal Everglades is a subtropical wetland with diverse vegetation (e.g., sawgrass prairies, mangrove forests, seagrass meadows and DOM sources (e.g., terrestrial, microbial and marine. As such, the Everglades is an excellent model system from which to draw samples of diverse origin and composition to allow classically-defined optical properties to be linked to molecular properties of the DOM pool. We characterized a suite of seasonally- and spatially-collected DOM samples using optical measurements (EEM-PARAFAC, SUVA254, S275-295, S350-400, SR, FI, freshness index and HIX and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS. Spearman’s rank correlations between FTICR-MS signal intensities of individual molecular formulae and optical properties determined which molecular formulae were associated with each PARAFAC component and optical index. The molecular families that tracked with the optical indices were generally in agreement with conventional biogeochemical interpretations. Therefore, although they represent only a small portion of the bulk DOM pool, absorbance and fluorescence measurements appear to be appropriate proxies for the aquatic cycling of both optically-active and associated optically-inactive DOM in coastal wetlands.

  11. Evaluation of the seasonal performance of a water reclamation pond-constructed wetland system for removing emerging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Víctor; Salvadó, Victòria

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of a full-scale reclamation pond-constructed wetland (CW) system to eliminate 27 emerging contaminants (i.e. pharmaceuticals, sunscreen compounds, fragrances, antiseptics, fire retardants, pesticides, and plasticizers) and the seasonal occurrence of these contaminants is studied. The compounds with the highest concentrations in the secondary effluent are diclofenac, caffeine, ketoprofen, and carbamazepine. The results show that the constructed wetland (61%) removes emerging contaminants significantly more efficiently than the pond (51%), presumably due to the presence of plants (Phragmites and Thypa) as well as the higher hydraulic residence time (HRT) in the CW. A greater seasonal trend to the efficient removal of these compounds is observed in the pond than in the CW. The overall mass removal efficiency of each individual compound ranged from 27% to 93% (71% on average), which is comparable to reported data in advanced treatments (photo-fenton and membrane filtration). The seasonal average content of emerging contaminants in the river water (2488 ng L(-1)) next to the water reclamation plant is found to be higher than the content in the final reclaimed water (1490 ng L(-1)), suggesting that the chemical quality of the reclaimed water is better than available surface waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nitrogen dynamics model for a pilot field-scale novel dewatered alum sludge cake-based constructed wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J L G; Zhao, Y Q; Hu, Y S; Babatunde, A O; Zhao, X H

    2015-01-01

    A model simulating the effluent nitrogen (N) concentration of treated animal farm wastewater in a pilot on-site constructed wetland (CW) system, using dewatered alum sludge cake (DASC) as wetland substrate, is presented. The N-model was developed based on the Structural Thinking Experiential Learning Laboratory with Animation software and is considering organic nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen (NH3) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) as the major forms of nitrogen involved in the transformation chains. Ammonification (AMM), ammonia volatilization, nitrification (NIT), denitrification, plant uptake, plant decaying and uptake of inorganic nitrogen by algae and bacteria were considered in this model. pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, precipitation, solar radiation and nitrogen concentrations were considered as forcing functions in the model. The model was calibrated by observed data with a reasonable agreement prior to its applications. The simulated effluent detritus nitrogen, NH4-N, NO3-N and TN had a considerably good agreement with the observed results. The mass balance analysis shows that NIT accounts for 65.60%, adsorption (ad) (11.90%), AMM (8.90%) followed by NH4-N (Plants) (5.90%) and NO3-N (Plants) (4.40%). The TN removal was found 52% of the total influent TN in the CW. This study suggested an improved overall performance of a DASC-based CW and efficient N removal from wastewater.

  13. Engineered wetlands : an innovative environmental solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, S.; Davis, B.M. [Jacques Whitford NAWE, White Bear Lake, MN (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Engineered wetlands are now considered as an emerging technology for the in situ remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and waters. Engineered wetlands incorporate a horizontal subsurface flow gravel bed reactor lined with impermeable liners, and are equipped with forced bed aeration systems in order to enhance oxygen delivery to the wetland's aerobic micro-organisms. The wetlands typically emphasize specific characteristics of wetland ecosystems to improve treatment capacities. This article discussed an engineered wetlands installed at a set of pipeline terminals as well as at a former British Petroleum (BP) refinery. The pipeline terminal generated contact wastewater containing BTEX and ammonia, and a subsurface engineered wetland was built in 1998. To date, the 16,000{sup 2} foot wetland has treated a flow-equalized input of approximately 1.5 m{sup 3} per day of contaminants. At the refinery, a wetland treatment system was designed to treat 6000 m{sup 3} of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The treatment site consists of a golf course, river front trails, and a white water kayak course. A cascade aeration system was used for iron oxidation and air-stripping. A soil matrix biofilter was used for passive gas phase benzene removal, as well as for the removal of ferric hydroxide precipitates. It was concluded that engineered wetlands can offer long-term solutions to site remediation challenges. 1 fig.

  14. Engineered wetlands : an innovative environmental solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.; Davis, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Engineered wetlands are now considered as an emerging technology for the in situ remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and waters. Engineered wetlands incorporate a horizontal subsurface flow gravel bed reactor lined with impermeable liners, and are equipped with forced bed aeration systems in order to enhance oxygen delivery to the wetland's aerobic micro-organisms. The wetlands typically emphasize specific characteristics of wetland ecosystems to improve treatment capacities. This article discussed an engineered wetlands installed at a set of pipeline terminals as well as at a former British Petroleum (BP) refinery. The pipeline terminal generated contact wastewater containing BTEX and ammonia, and a subsurface engineered wetland was built in 1998. To date, the 16,000 2 foot wetland has treated a flow-equalized input of approximately 1.5 m 3 per day of contaminants. At the refinery, a wetland treatment system was designed to treat 6000 m 3 of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The treatment site consists of a golf course, river front trails, and a white water kayak course. A cascade aeration system was used for iron oxidation and air-stripping. A soil matrix biofilter was used for passive gas phase benzene removal, as well as for the removal of ferric hydroxide precipitates. It was concluded that engineered wetlands can offer long-term solutions to site remediation challenges. 1 fig

  15. Reducing surface water total and methyl mercury concentrations and bioavailability using a coagulation-wetland system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, T. E.; Fleck, J.; Henneberry, Y. K.; Stumpner, E. B.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Bachand, P.; Randall, P.

    2013-12-01

    With the recent passage of laws regulating concentrations and loads of mercury (Hg) in surface waters, there is a need to develop management practices that will reduce the export of Hg from both point and non-point sources. Coagulation with metal based salts to remove particles and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from solution is a practice commonly employed by drinking water utilities. Because dissolved Hg is associated with particles and DOM, it follows that Hg should also be removed during the coagulation process and end up associated with the organo-metal precipitate, termed flocculate (floc). The effectiveness of iron- and aluminum-based coagulants for removing both inorganic and methyl mercury (IHg and MeHg, respectively) from solution was demonstrated in laboratory studies conducted on agricultural drainage waters of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta: dissolved concentrations of MeHg decreased by 80% while IHg decreased by 97% following coagulation. To test the field application of this technology, samples were collected from the inflows and outflows of wetland treatment cells constructed in the central Delta of California. This replicated field experiment includes three replicates each of three inflow waters treatments: (1) iron sulfate addition, (2) polyaluminum chloride addition, and (3) untreated controls. Water entering and exiting the nine treatment cells was sampled approximately monthly over a 1-year period for total Hg and MeHg in both the dissolved and particulate aqueous phases. Initial results confirm that coagulant addition is removing Hg (total and methyl, particulate and dissolved) from solution and sequestering it in the floc. Seasonal effects on DOM concentration and other factors appear to effect whether passage through the wetland cells alters surface water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and Hg concentrations. Related studies will examine whether the presence of the floc affects the production and fate of MeHg within the wetland cells. If

  16. Tropical Wetlands as Carbon Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. B.; Saunders, M.

    2007-12-01

    This presentation focuses on the tropical wetlands of sub-Saharan Africa. These are an understudied ecosystem in which large emergent grasses and sedges normally dominate and which have the potential to sequester significant amounts of carbon. Measurements of Net Primary Production of these wetlands show that they are some of the highest values recorded for any ecosystem. We have used eddy covariance to measure Net Ecosystem Exchange of pristine and disturbed wetlands and show that pristine systems can have sink strengths as strong as tropical forests while disturbed systems that have been reclaimed for agricultural purposes have a very much reduced carbon sink activity and may be net carbon sources. The management issues surrounding the use of these wetlands illustrate a direct conflict between the production of food crops for the local population and the maintenance of carbon sequestration as an ecosystem service.

  17. Kansas Playa Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the distribution, areal extent, and morphometry of playa wetlands throughout western Kansas. Playa wetlands were...

  18. Tidal-Fluvial and Estuarine Processes in the Lower Columbia River: II. Water Level Models, Floodplain Wetland Inundation, and System Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay, David A.; Borde, Amy B.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    2016-04-26

    Spatially varying water-level regimes are a factor controlling estuarine and tidal-fluvial wetland vegetation patterns. As described in Part I, water levels in the Lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) are influenced by tides, river flow, hydropower operations, and coastal processes. In Part II, regression models based on tidal theory are used to quantify the role of these processes in determining water levels in the mainstem river and floodplain wetlands, and to provide 21-year inundation hindcasts. Analyses are conducted at 19 LCRE mainstem channel stations and 23 tidally exposed floodplain wetland stations. Sum exceedance values (SEVs) are used to compare wetland hydrologic regimes at different locations on the river floodplain. A new predictive tool is introduced and validated, the potential SEV (pSEV), which can reduce the need for extensive new data collection in wetland restoration planning. Models of water levels and inundation frequency distinguish four zones encompassing eight reaches. The system zones are the wave- and current-dominated Entrance to river kilometer (rkm) 5; the Estuary (rkm-5 to 87), comprised of a lower reach with salinity, the energy minimum (where the turbidity maximum normally occurs), and an upper estuary reach without salinity; the Tidal River (rkm-87 to 229), with lower, middle, and upper reaches in which river flow becomes increasingly dominant over tides in determining water levels; and the steep and weakly tidal Cascade (rkm-229 to 234) immediately downstream from Bonneville Dam. The same zonation is seen in the water levels of floodplain stations, with considerable modification of tidal properties. The system zones and reaches defined here reflect geological features and their boundaries are congruent with five wetland vegetation zones

  19. Assessing Interactions of Multiple Agrichemicals by Using Bacterial Assemblages in a Wetland Mesocosm System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Libman

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Agrichemicals may enter wetlands located adjacent to or downstream from agricultural fields. We investigated the individual and interactive effects of three agrichemicals [atrazine, chlorpyrifos, and monosodium acid methanearsonate (MSMA] and methyl mercury on abundance and heterotrophic potential of wetland heterotrophic bacteria assemblages. We used a factorial experimental design, in which chemicals were introduced in all possible combinations to 66 500-liter mesocosms at the Biological Field Station of the University of Mississippi. Methyl mercury was added to bring the total mercury (HG concentration to 0.4 mg/Kg wet weight at the sediment surface. Atrazine, chlorpyrifos, and MSMA were added at concentrations of 192, 51, and 219μg/L, respectively. Over 32 days of exposure, microbial heterotrophic activity was sensitive to only the interactive effect of HG*ATR*CPF in the sediments and only CPF in the water. Total bacterial numbers did not exhibit any significant treatment effects. Therefore, the effects of agrichemicals were reflected on cell-specific bacterial heterotrophic activity rather than bacterial population size.

  20. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Eke, Paul Emeka

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  1. Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensteel, B.A.; Trettin, C.C.

    1993-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation

  2. Working group report on wetlands and wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teels, B.

    1991-01-01

    The results and conclusions of a working group held to discuss the state of knowledge and knowledge gaps concerning climatic change impacts on wetlands and wildlife are presented. Prairie pothole wetlands are extremely productive and produce ca 50% of all ducks in North America. The most productive, and most vulnerable to climate change, are small potholes, often less than one acre in area. Changes in water regimes and land use will have more impact on wildlife than changes in temperature. There are gaps in knowledge relating to: boreal wetlands and their wildlife, and response to climate; wetland inventories that include the smallest wetlands; coordinated schemes for monitoring status and trends of wetlands and wildlife; and understanding of ecological relationships within wetlands and their wildlife communities. Recommendations include: coordinate and enhance existing databases to provide an integrated monitoring system; establish research programs to increase understanding of ecological relationships within wetland ecosystems; evaluate programs and policies that affect wetlands; and promote heightened public awareness of general values of wetlands

  3. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  4. Impact of heavy metal toxicity and constructed wetland system as a tool in remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usharani, B; Vasudevan, N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review is to throw light upon the global concern of heavy metal-contaminated sites and their remediation through an ecofriendly approach. Accumulated heavy metals in soil and water bodies gain entry through the food chain and pose serious threat to all forms of life. This has engendered interest in phytoremediation techniques where hyperaccumulators are used. Constructed wetland has a pivotal role and is a cost-effective technique in the remediation of heavy metals. Metal availability and mobility are influenced by the addition of chelating agents, which enhance the availability of metal uptake. This review helps in identifying the critical knowledge gaps and areas to enhance research in the future to develop strategies such as genetically engineered hyperaccumulators to attain an environment devoid of heavy metal contamination.

  5. Treatment of wastewater with the constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, R.; Olivares, S.

    2003-01-01

    Constructed wetland is an environmental sound, actual and economic solution for the treatment of wastewater. The use of these constructed wetlands increased in the last few years, principally in developed countries. However there is not much information about the performance of these biological systems in tropical and subtropical climates. In these review the state of art of these technology is given, and also the advantage of the use of the constructed wetland for the wastewater treatment in our country

  6. Remote sensing techniques and geographic information systems for wetland conservation and management: monitoring scrub encroachment in Biebrza National Park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, A.M.; Piórkowski, H.; Bartoszuk, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Biebrza National Park in Poland is one of the most precious wetland areas in Europe. It was established in 1993 and designated Ramsar site in 1995. Despite its protection status, the open wetland landscape is currently being threatened by the encroachment of shrubs and trees, assumed to have a

  7. Improved Mapping of Riparian Wetlands Using Reach Topography (ECOSERV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian wetlands provide a suite of ecosystems services including floodwater retention, biogeochemical processing, and habitat provisioning. However in one mid-Atlantic watershed the National Wetlands Inventory was shown to underrepresent these systems by greater than 50%. These...

  8. Improved Mapping of Riparian Wetlands Using Reach Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian wetlands provide a suite of ecosystems services including floodwater retention, biogeochemical processing, and habitat provisioning. However in one mid-Atlantic watershed the National Wetlands Inventory was shown to underrepresent these systems by greater than 50%. These...

  9. Wetland Polygons, California, 2016, California Aquatic Resources Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This feature class contains polgon features depicting wetlands that are standardized to a common wetland classification system (CARI) and provide additional source...

  10. Elements of an environmental decision support system for seasonal wetland salt management in a river basin subjected to water quality regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-06-01

    Seasonally managed wetlands in the Grasslands Basin on the west-side of California's San Joaquin Valley provide food and shelter for migratory wildfowl during winter months and sport for waterfowl hunters during the annual duck season. Surface water supply to these wetlands contain salt which, when drained to the San Joaquin River during the annual drawdown period, can negatively impact water quality and cause concern to downstream agricultural riparian water diverters. Recent environmental regulation, limiting discharges salinity to the San Joaquin River and primarily targeting agricultural non-point sources, now also targets return flows from seasonally managed wetlands. Real-time water quality management has been advocated as a means of continuously matching salt loads discharged from agricultural, wetland and municipal operations to the assimilative capacity of the San Joaquin River. Past attempts to build environmental monitoring and decision support systems (EDSS's) to implement this concept have enjoyed limited success for reasons that are discussed in this paper. These reasons are discussed in the context of more general challenges facing the successful implementation of a comprehensive environmental monitoring, modelling and decision support system for the San Joaquin River Basin.

  11. From one marsh to another, changing swamps - Exercise of reflexivity within the water and territories system: wetland renaturation / restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Alain; Chauvelon, Philippe; Boutron, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    agriculture in this valley and a challenge for this activity (cereals, beef, fodder production, olive ...) against the maintenance of the drainage system (pump stations, dykes etc..). The relict marsh is privately owned, quite unaccessible and often unknown by the public and the fifty years of agricultural conversion into polders have partially helped oversight the original nature of the ancient "marais des Baux". The purpose of this work will be, through an interdisciplinary approach to propose evolution scenarios but also, and especially in the concern of governance that will protect Wetlands without forgetting the human and economic issues. These scenarios will have to be done in a sake of sustainable development in which both, actors and nature, will win. This project aims to bring new knowledge for better governance of territories and water-related uses with a view to preserve wetlands. The construction of prospective models will take into account the assumptions of future scenarios for social water resource demand. The response of ecosystems and territories with this request will determine its relevance in this environmentally acceptable approach for the maintenance, improvement or renaturation of "natural environments" and especially wetlands. This project is financed by French Environment Ministry program "Eaux et Territoires" .

  12. Ohio Uses Wetlands Program Development Grants to Protect Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wetland water quality standards require the use of ORAM score to determine wetland quality. OEPA has also used these tools to evaluate wetland mitigation projects, develop performance standards for wetland mitigation banks and In Lieu Fee programs an.

  13. A Carbon Monitoring System Approach to US Coastal Wetland Carbon Fluxes: Progress Towards a Tier II Accounting Method with Uncertainty Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, L.; Holmquist, J. R.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Byrd, K. B.; Callaway, J.; Crooks, S.; Drexler, J. Z.; Feagin, R. A.; Ferner, M. C.; Gonneea, M. E.; Kroeger, K. D.; Megonigal, P.; Morris, J. T.; Schile, L. M.; Simard, M.; Sutton-Grier, A.; Takekawa, J.; Troxler, T.; Weller, D.; Woo, I.

    2015-12-01

    Despite their high rates of long-term carbon (C) sequestration when compared to upland ecosystems, coastal C accounting is only recently receiving the attention of policy makers and carbon markets. Assessing accuracy and uncertainty in net C flux estimates requires both direct and derived measurements based on both short and long term dynamics in key drivers, particularly soil accretion rates and soil organic content. We are testing the ability of remote sensing products and national scale datasets to estimate biomass and soil stocks and fluxes over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. For example, the 2013 Wetlands Supplement to the 2006 IPCC GHG national inventory reporting guidelines requests information on development of Tier I-III reporting, which express increasing levels of detail. We report progress toward development of a Carbon Monitoring System for "blue carbon" that may be useful for IPCC reporting guidelines at Tier II levels. Our project uses a current dataset of publically available and contributed field-based measurements to validate models of changing soil C stocks, across a broad range of U.S. tidal wetland types and landuse conversions. Additionally, development of biomass algorithms for both radar and spectral datasets will be tested and used to determine the "price of precision" of different satellite products. We discuss progress in calculating Tier II estimates focusing on variation introduced by the different input datasets. These include the USFWS National Wetlands Inventory, NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program, and combinations to calculate tidal wetland area. We also assess the use of different attributes and depths from the USDA-SSURGO database to map soil C density. Finally, we examine the relative benefit of radar, spectral and hybrid approaches to biomass mapping in tidal marshes and mangroves. While the US currently plans to report GHG emissions at a Tier I level, we argue that a Tier II analysis is possible due to national

  14. Applicability of a septic tank/engineered wetland coupled system in the treatment and recycling of wastewater from a small community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuligwe, Stephen E

    2005-01-01

    A septic tank (ST)/engineered wetland coupled system used to treat and recycle wastewater from a small community in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania was monitored to assess its performance. The engineered wetland system (EWS) had two parallel units each with two serial beds packed with different sizes of media and vegetated differently. The larger-sized medium bed was upstream and was planted with Phragmites (reeds) and the smaller-sized medium bed was downstream and was planted with Typha (cattails). The ST/EWS coupled system was able to remove ammonia by an average of 60%, nitrate by 71%, sulfate by 55%, chemical oxygen demand by 91%, and fecal coliform as well as total coliform by almost 100%. The effluent from the ST/EWS coupled system is used for irrigation. Notably, users of the recycled irrigation water do not harbor any negative feelings about it. This study demonstrates that it is possible to treat and recycle domestic wastewater using ST/ EWS coupled systems. The study also brings attention to the fact that an ST/EWS coupled system has operation and maintenance (O&M) needs that must be fulfilled for its effectiveness and acceptability. These include removal of unwanted weeds, harvesting of wetland plants when the EWS becomes unappealingly bushy, and routine repair.

  15. Wonderful Wetlands: An Environmental Education Curriculum Guide for Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King County Parks Div., Redmond, WA.

    This curriculum guide was designed to give teachers, students, and society a better understanding of wetlands in the hope that they learn why wetlands should be valued and preserved. It explores what is meant by wetlands, functions and values of wetlands, wetland activities, and wetland offerings which benefit animal and plant life, recreation,…

  16. Development of an indicator to monitor mediterranean wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Antonio; Abdul Malak, Dania; Guelmami, Anis; Perennou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are sensitive ecosystems that are increasingly subjected to threats from anthropogenic factors. In the last decades, coastal Mediterranean wetlands have been suffering considerable pressures from land use change, intensification of urban growth, increasing tourism infrastructure and intensification of agricultural practices. Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques are efficient tools that can support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands on large scales and over long periods of time. The study aims at developing a wetland indicator to support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands using these techniques. The indicator makes use of multi-temporal Landsat images, land use reference layers, a 50m numerical model of the territory (NMT) and Corine Land Cover (CLC) for the identification and mapping of wetlands. The approach combines supervised image classification techniques making use of vegetation indices and decision tree analysis to identify the surface covered by wetlands at a given date. A validation process is put in place to compare outcomes with existing local wetland inventories to check the results reliability. The indicator´s results demonstrate an improvement in the level of precision of change detection methods achieved by traditional tools providing reliability up to 95% in main wetland areas. The results confirm that the use of RS techniques improves the precision of wetland detection compared to the use of CLC for wetland monitoring and stress the strong relation between the level of wetland detection and the nature of the wetland areas and the monitoring scale considered.

  17. Design and performance of the constructed wetland wastewater treatment system at Phillips High School, Bear Creek, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    A constructed wetlands waste water treatment system has been constructed at Phillips High School, Bear Creek, Alabama, to polish the effluent from the school's extended aeration package treatment plant. The project is a demonstration of innovative technology under the Congressionally appropriated Bear Creek Floatway projects. Construction was completed in August 1988 at a cost of $36,266. Monitoring results for the period October 1988 through July 1989 reveal that the system has been very effective in polishing the effluent from the package treatment plant. The effectiveness is attributed primarily to maintenance of an overall oxidizing environment within the gravel substrate. Average monthly removals during the first year of operation exceeded 90 percent for BOD, TSS, organic nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, and fecal coliforms. Average removal percentages ranged in the 80s for ammonia and total nitrogen and in the 70s for nitrate + nitrite nitrogen and dissolved BOD. The prevalence of oxidizing conditions is probably the result of low carbonaceous demand, the low inlet hydraulic loading rate, and the combination of the shallow gravel depth and the excellent plant coverage and root depths during the first year of operation. 11 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Effect of reversal of the flow direction on hydrodynamic characteristics and plants cultivated in constructed wetland systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheila Corrêa Ferres Baptestini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of reversal of the flow direction, when used the surface flow as an operating criteria, on hydrodynamic characteristics and plants grown in horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland systems (HSF-CWs. For this purpose, six HSF-CWs were used: two non-cultivated (HSF-CWs 1 and 4, two cultivated with Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon spp. (HSF-CWs 2 and 5 and two cultivated with Alternanthera (Alternanthera philoxeroides (HSF-CWs 3 and 6. It was made a reversal in the flow direction of the HSF-CWs 1, 2 and 3. The reversal of the wastewater flow direction was performed when the superficial flow of the wastewater applied (SF reached 50% of the length of the HSF-CWs. There was a single reversal for each system, on different dates. Reversing the flow direction promoted distinction on the dry matter yield of Tifton 85 grass. This was not observed in HSF-CWs cultivated with Alternanthera. The reversal of the wastewater flow direction promoted, in principle, the extinction of the SF advance in the HSF-CWs, but did not prevent its return. Waiting for the SF to reach 50% of the length was not the best criterion for reversing the flow direction.

  19. Nutrient uptake from liquid digestate using ornamental aquatic macrophytes (Canna indica, Iris pseudacorus, Typha latifolia) in a constructed wetland system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediviani, W.; Priadi, C. R.; Moersidik, S. S.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia has implemented energy recovery from organic (food) waste by anaerobic digestion method, but the digestate was commonly treated only by composting, and still as a separated treatment (not integrated into a resource recovery system). Whilst not getting any pretreatment, the digestate was disposed to the environment and then act as a pollutant. Yet it contains nutrients which could be recovered as a nutrient source for plants. The study was about how ornamental aquatic macrophytes could uptake nitrogen from liquid digestate in a constructed wetland method. Canna indica, Iris pseudacorus, and Typha latifolia were the experimented ornamental aquatic macrophytes used to uptake the nutrient (nitrogen—N) from liquid digestate. The study showed that the highest N uptake was done by C. indica (25.1%) which has the highest biomass increment as well (80.5%). Effluent quality improvement also shown by N removal by C. indica (68.5—76.4% TN), I. pseudacorus (61.8—71.3% TN), and T. latifolia (61.6—74.5%). This research proved that C. indica has the performance for the N uptake, best N removal efficiency, with a great growth rate as well. This system using C. indica could also improve the water quality of the effluent and add the aesthetic of environment.

  20. Analysis of wetland change in the Songhua River Basin from 1995 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, L H; Jiang, W G; Liu, Y H; Luo, Z L; He, X H

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands in the Songhua River Basin in both 1995 and 2008 were mapped from land use/land cover maps generated from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. These maps were then divided into two categories, i.e. artificial wetland and natural wetland. From 1995 to 2008, the total area of wetland in the Songhua River Basin increased from 93 072.3 km 2 to 99 179.6 km 2 a net increase of 6107.3 km 2 . The area of natural wetland decreased by 4043.7 km 2 while the area of artificial wetland increased by 10 166.2 km 2 . Swamp wetland and paddy field wetland became the dominant wetlands and the swamp wetland in the east of the Heilong River system and the north of the Wusuli River system disappeared, being transformed into paddy field wetland. The diversity of wetland landscape is worsening and the distribution of wetland landscape is becoming more unbalanced; the fragmentation of natural wetland has intensified whereas the patch connectivity of artificial wetland has increased. Changes in natural wetlands were primarily caused by climate and socio-economic changes, while changes in artificial wetland were mainly caused by the growth of population and gross domestic product

  1. Why are wetlands important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, comparable to rain forests and coral reefs. An immense variety of species of microbes, plants, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish, and mammals can be part of a wetland ecosystem.

  2. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  3. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  4. VSWI Wetlands Advisory Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset represents the DEC Wetlands Program's Advisory layer. This layer makes the most up-to-date, non-jurisdictional, wetlands mapping avaiable to the public...

  5. Optimization of high-rate TN removal in a novel constructed wetland integrated with microelectrolysis system treating high-strength digestate supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Luchen; He, Keli; Wu, Shubiao; Sun, Hao; Wang, Yanfei; Huang, Xu; Dong, Renjie

    2016-08-01

    The potential of high-rate TN removal in three aerated horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands to treat high-strength anaerobic digestate supernatant was evaluated. Different strategies of intermittent aeration and effluent recirculation were applied to compare their effect on nitrogen depuration performance. Additional glucose supply and iron-activated carbon based post-treatment systems were established and examined, respectively, to further remove nitrate that accumulated in the effluents from aerated wetlands. The results showed that intermittent aeration (1 h on:1 h off) significantly improved nitrification with ammonium removal efficiency of 90% (18.1 g/(m(2)·d)), but limited TN removal efficiency (53%). Even though effluent recirculation (a ratio of 1:1) increased TN removal from 53% to 71%, the effluent nitrate concentration was still high. Additional glucose was used as a post-treatment option and further increased the TN removal to 82%; however, this implementation caused additional organic pollution. Furthermore, the iron-activated carbon system stimulated with a microelectrolysis process achieved greater than 85% effluent nitrate removal and resulted in 86% TN removal. Considering the high TN removal rate, aerated constructed wetlands integrated with a microelectrolysis-driven system show great potential for treating high-strength digestate supernatant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Brookside Farm Wetland Ecosystem Treatment (WET System: A Low-Energy Methodology for Sewage Purification, Biomass Production (Yield, Flood Resilience and Biodiversity Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian C. Abrahams

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater from domestic developments, farms and agro-industrial processing can be sources of pollution in the environment; current wastewater management methods are usually machine-based, and thus energy consuming. When Permaculture Principles are used in the creation of water purification and harvesting systems, there can be multiple environmental and economic benefits. In the context of energy descent, it may be considered desirable to treat wastewater using minimal energy. The constructed wetland design presented here is a low-entropy system in which wastewater is harvested and transformed into lush and productive wetland, eliminating the requirement for non-renewable energy in water purification, and also maximising benefits: biodiversity, flood resilience and yield. In permaculture design, the high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds in sewage are viewed as valuable nutrients, resources to be harvested by a constructed wetland ecosystem and converted into useful yield. Similarly, rainwater runoff is not viewed as a problem which can cause flooding, but as a potential resource to be harvested to provide a yield. This paper presents a case study, with both water quality and productivity data, from Brookside Farm UK, where the use of Permaculture Design Principles has created a combined wastewater management and purification system, accepting all site water.

  7. Preliminary Analysis of the Role of Wetlands and Rivers in the Groundwater Discharge of the Guarani Aquifer System in NE Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, L., E-mail: lvives@faa.unicen.edu.ar [Instituto de Hidrologia de Llanuras, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Azul (Argentina); Rodriguez, L. [Centro de Estudios Hidroambientales, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Hidricas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe (Argentina); Manzano, M. [Escuela de Ingenieria de Caminos y de Minas, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Cartagena (Spain); Valladares, A. [Subsecretaria de Recursos Hidricos (Argentina); Aggarwal, P. K.; Araguas Araguas, L. [International Atomic Energy Angency, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-15

    The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is the largest aquifer in South America. Previous regional hydrochemical and isotopic studies suggested that discharge may occur at wetlands and reaches of the Parana and Uruguay Rivers. Preliminary findings of a project aimed at verifying the discharge hypothesis on the southern GAS region are presented. The hydrochemical- isotopic composition of 17 samples from surface and groundwater in that area were analysed. Some waters showed chemical facies and isotopic (stable isotope and carbon-14) signatures similar to the formerly identified as GAS+pre-GAS formations. Admixtures between modern and GAS+pre-GAS waters were found at depths between less than 100 m and 200 m. A 96 m deep well located near the Ibera lagoon showed chemical and isotopic composition indicating presence of GAS waters. The hydraulic gradient favours upward flow near the wetlands, but surface waters seem to originate from local recharge. Investigations continue, incorporating {sup 222}Rn and new sampling sites. (author)

  8. An approach to regional wetland digital elevation model development using a differential global positioning system and a custom-built helicopter-based surveying system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.W.; Desmond, G.B.; Henkle, C.; Glover, R.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate topographic data are critical to restoration science and planning for the Everglades region of South Florida, USA. They are needed to monitor and simulate water level, water depth and hydroperiod and are used in scientific research on hydrologic and biologic processes. Because large wetland environments and data acquisition challenge conventional ground-based and remotely sensed data collection methods, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) adapted a classical data collection instrument to global positioning system (GPS) and geographic information system (GIS) technologies. Data acquired with this instrument were processed using geostatistics to yield sub-water level elevation values with centimetre accuracy (??15 cm). The developed database framework, modelling philosophy and metadata protocol allow for continued, collaborative model revision and expansion, given additional elevation or other ancillary data. ?? 2012 Taylor & Francis.

  9. Structural and functional loss in restored wetland ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moreno-Mateos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are among the most productive and economically valuable ecosystems in the world. However, because of human activities, over half of the wetland ecosystems existing in North America, Europe, Australia, and China in the early 20th century have been lost. Ecological restoration to recover critical ecosystem services has been widely attempted, but the degree of actual recovery of ecosystem functioning and structure from these efforts remains uncertain. Our results from a meta-analysis of 621 wetland sites from throughout the world show that even a century after restoration efforts, biological structure (driven mostly by plant assemblages, and biogeochemical functioning (driven primarily by the storage of carbon in wetland soils, remained on average 26% and 23% lower, respectively, than in reference sites. Either recovery has been very slow, or postdisturbance systems have moved towards alternative states that differ from reference conditions. We also found significant effects of environmental settings on the rate and degree of recovery. Large wetland areas (>100 ha and wetlands restored in warm (temperate and tropical climates recovered more rapidly than smaller wetlands and wetlands restored in cold climates. Also, wetlands experiencing more (riverine and tidal hydrologic exchange recovered more rapidly than depressional wetlands. Restoration performance is limited: current restoration practice fails to recover original levels of wetland ecosystem functions, even after many decades. If restoration as currently practiced is used to justify further degradation, global loss of wetland ecosystem function and structure will spread.

  10. Performance of the constructed wetland system for the treatment of water from the corumbataí river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kleiber Pessoa Borges

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the constructed wetland system for the treatment of water from the Corumbataí river simulated on a laboratory scale. The parameters analyzed at different points of the system were ammonia, biochemical demand for oxygen (BDO, chemical demand for oxygen (CDO, chlorides, apparent color, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, potassium (K, silicon (Si, total phosphorous, total coliforms and Escherichia coli, total dissolved solids (TDS, turbidity, and macrophyte biomass. The results demonstrated that this alternative water treatment system was effective in removing the microorganisms (total coliforms and E. coli, among other parameters analyzed, for varying periods of the treatment, promoting notable improvement in the quality of the water treated from the Corumbataí River.Na intenção de reduzir nutrientes e microrganismos das águas de rio, foi estudado um processo alternativo de tratamento, como o sistema construído de áreas alagadas (CWs, em escala de laboratório. Os parâmetros analisados em diferentes pontos do sistema utilizado foram amônia, demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO, demanda química de oxigênio (DQO, cloretos, cor aparente, condutividade, oxigênio dissolvido, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na, potassium (K, silicium (Si, fósforo total, coliformes totais e Escherichia coli, sólidos totais dissolvidos (TDS, turbidez e biomassa da macrófita. Os resultados demonstraram que este sistema alternativo de tratamento de água do rio Corumbataí foi eficiente na remoção dos microrganismos: coliformes totais e Escherichia coli dentre outros parâmetros analisados, em diferentes tempos de tratamento, promovendo melhoria acentuada na qualidade da água tratada.

  11. Observations On Some Upper Amazonian Wetlands of Southeastern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Householder, J. E.; Muttiah, R.; Khanal, S.

    2007-05-01

    Upper Amazonian wetlands represent little studied, poorly understood, and grossly under protected systems. Scientific investigation of Amazonian wetlands is in its infancy; nor is there much known about their ecological services. Regionally, wetlands form a ubiquitous and significant component of floodplain habitat fed by perennial springs as well as overland runoff. Locally, wetland vegetation forms bewilderingly complex vegetation mosaics that seem to be governed by local topography and hydrology. Drawing upon intensive field campaigns and remotely sensed imagery, we summarize the results and experiences gathered in wetlands of southeastern Peru.

  12. Effect of Substrate, Feeding Mode and Number of Stages on the Performance of Hybrid Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Herrera-Melián

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid constructed wetland mesocosm has been used for the treatment of raw urban wastewater. The first stage was a mulch-based, subsurface, horizontal flow constructed wetland (HF. The HF achieved good removals of COD (61%; 54 g/m2·day and Total Suspended Solids (84%; 29 g/m2·day. The second stage was composed of vertical flow constructed wetlands (VF that were employed to study the effect of substrate (gravel vs. mulch, feeding mode (continuous vs. intermittent and the number of stages (1 vs. 2 on performance. High hydraulic and organic surface loadings (513–583 L/m2·day and 103–118 g/m2·day of COD were applied to the reactors. The mulch was more efficient than gravel for all the parameters analyzed. The continuous feeding allowed a 3 to 6-fold reduction of the surface area required.

  13. Is wetland mitigation successful in Southern California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, D. L.; Rademacher, L. K.

    2004-12-01

    Wetlands perform many vital functions within their landscape position; they provide unique habitats for a variety of flora and fauna and they act as treatment systems for upstream natural and anthropogenic waste. California has lost an estimated 91% of its wetlands. Despite the 1989 "No Net Loss" policy and mitigation requirements by the regulatory agencies, the implemented mitigation may not be offsetting wetlands losses. The "No Net Loss" policy is likely failing for numerous reasons related to processes in the wetlands themselves and the policies governing their recovery. Of particular interest is whether these mitigation sites are performing essential wetlands functions. Specific questions include: 1) Are hydric soil conditions forming in mitigation sites; and, 2) are the water quality-related chemical transformations that occur in natural wetlands observed in mitigation sites. This study focuses on success (or lack of success) in wetlands mitigation sites in Southern California. Soil and water quality investigations were conducted in wetland mitigation sites deemed to be successful by vegetation standards. Observations of the Standard National Resource Conservation Service field indicators of reducing conditions were made to determine whether hydric soil conditions have developed in the five or more years since the implementation of mitigation plans. In addition, water quality measurements were performed at the inlet and outlet of these mitigation sites to determine whether these sites perform similar water quality transformations to natural wetlands within the same ecosystem. Water quality measurements included nutrient, trace metal, and carbon species measurements. A wetland location with minimal anthropogenic changes and similar hydrologic and vegetative features was used as a control site. All sites selected for study are within a similar ecosystem, in the interior San Diego and western Riverside Counties, in Southern California.

  14. Modelling Hydrological Processes in Created Freshwater Wetlands:an Integrated System Approach%人工淡水湿地的水文过程模拟:综合系统法(摘要)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立; 威廉·杰·米奇

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates hydrologic processes of four different flow-through created freshwater wetlands in Ohio, USA, by use of several versions of a simple daily mass-balance water budget model.The model includes surface inflows and outflows, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and groundwater seepage. We calibrated the daily water budget for two experimental wetlands that had pumped inflow during 1999 and validated it during 2000 - 2002 on the same basins. The coefficient of prediction efficiency is 0.70 and the modelled hydroperiod followed observed water depths during the calibration period well. The average retention time in the calibration year 1999 was 4.4 - 4.6 days. The model was applied to a 3-ha created riparian wetland that receives river flooding. Results illustrated that this wetland has developed a hydroperiod with more than sufficient flooding to ensure that it will meet the hydrologic criteria of a formal jurisdictional wetland definition in the USA. Water budget predictions for a stormwater wetland provided useful design information for hydroperiod and hydrologic dynamics prior to the construction of that system. The model was simulated for average, dry, and wet years. An integrated systems approach was developed using a STELLA 7.0 with its capabilities of dynamicinterface level control (e. g. buttons and switches) features.

  15. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of…

  16. Design-a-wetland: a tool for generating and assessing constructed wetland designs for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casaril, Carolina J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: The hydrological cycle is a key cycle affected by current and predicted climate change. Wetlands are one of the key ecosystems within the hydrological cycle and could contribute significantly in facing the challenges of climate change, such as water shortage. The impact of wetlands on greenhouse gas emissions is much debated and, conversely, the impact of climate change on wetlands also raises many questions. There have been many attempts to harness and integrate the natural capacities of wetlands into constructed systems. These systems are especially designed for multiple purposes. They can be used for wastewater treatment and reuse, and have the potential to increase sustainability by changing land and water use practices. This project generates a 'Design-A-Wetland' prototype model, designed to facilitate decision-making in the creation of constructed wetlands. Constructed wetlands are specifically tailored to their end use; water treatment fish and fowl habitat, flood buffer zones, or sequestration of greenhouse gases. This project attempts to answer the following questions: Can a single integrated decision model be created for the design and assessment of artificial wetlands, provided either entry or exit standards are known and specified?; Can the elements of a system of interfacing the model with public consultation be specified?; The project identifies model schematics and lays the groundwork for modelling suited to the wide variety of inputs required for decision making

  17. Treatment of high organic content wastewater from food-processing industry with the French vertical flow constructed wetland system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paing, J; Serdobbel, V; Welschbillig, M; Calvez, M; Gagnon, V; Chazarenc, F

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the treatment performances of a full-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands designed to treat wastewater from a food-processing industry (cookie factory), and to study the influence of the organic loading rate. The full-scale treatment plant was designed with a first vertical stage of 630 m², a second vertical stage of 473 m² equipped with a recirculation system and followed by a final horizontal stage of 440 m². The plant was commissioned in 2011, and was operated at different loading rates during 16 months for the purpose of this study. Treatment performances were determined by 24 hour composite samples. The mean concentration of the raw effluent was 8,548 mg.L(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), 4,334 mg.L(-1) biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and 2,069 mg.L(-1) suspended solids (SS). Despite low nutrients content with a BOD5/N/P ratio of 100/1.8/0.5, lower than optimum for biological degradation (known as 100/5/1), mean removal performances were very high with 98% for COD, 99% for BOD5 and SS for the two vertical stages. The increasing of the organic load from 50 g.m(-2).d(-1) COD to 237 g.m(-2).d(-1) COD (on the first stage) did not affect removal performances. The mean quality of effluent reached French standards (COD < 125 mg.L(-1), BOD5 < 25 mg.L(-1), SS < 35 mg.L(-1)).

  18. Distinguishing biogeochemical processes influencing phosphorus dynamics in oxidizing and desiccating mud deposits from a freshwater wetland system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saaltink, R.M.; Dekker, S.C.; Wassen, M.J.; Griffioen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Focus and aim: Currently, lake Markermeer (680 km2) provides poor environmental conditions for the development of flora and fauna due to a thick fluffy layer that prevails at the lake’s bed. To improve the conditions in the lake, large wetlands will be built from this fluffy layer, possibly mixed

  19. A Preliminary System Dynamics Model of a Constructed Wetland for the Mitigation of Metals in USAF Storm Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Cultivated Land Grassland 0 500 1000 1500 2000 (Technology Review, 1994:23) The Scientific American article continues with the benefits provided by...34 Ecotoxicology and Wetland Ecosystems: Current Understanding and Future Needs," Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Volume 12, pp 2209-2224, 1993

  20. Restoration of Natural and Semi-Natural Wetland Systems in Central Europe : Progress and Predictability of Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klötzli, Frank; Grootjans, Ab P.

    2001-01-01

    After almost 40 years of experience in wetland restoration in Central Europe in which vegetation changes have been monitored by means of permanent plots or vegetation maps, some light can be shed on the intrinsic dynamics of such ecosystems, showing the limits of restoration and constraints in its

  1. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity

  2. Geographically isolated wetlands: Rethinking a misnomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Cohen, Matthew J.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie G.; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Walls, Susan

    2015-01-01

    We explore the category “geographically isolated wetlands” (GIWs; i.e., wetlands completely surrounded by uplands at the local scale) as used in the wetland sciences. As currently used, the GIW category (1) hampers scientific efforts by obscuring important hydrological and ecological differences among multiple wetland functional types, (2) aggregates wetlands in a manner not reflective of regulatory and management information needs, (3) implies wetlands so described are in some way “isolated,” an often incorrect implication, (4) is inconsistent with more broadly used and accepted concepts of “geographic isolation,” and (5) has injected unnecessary confusion into scientific investigations and discussions. Instead, we suggest other wetland classification systems offer more informative alternatives. For example, hydrogeomorphic (HGM) classes based on well-established scientific definitions account for wetland functional diversity thereby facilitating explorations into questions of connectivity without an a priori designation of “isolation.” Additionally, an HGM-type approach could be used in combination with terms reflective of current regulatory or policymaking needs. For those rare cases in which the condition of being surrounded by uplands is the relevant distinguishing characteristic, use of terminology that does not unnecessarily imply isolation (e.g., “upland embedded wetlands”) would help alleviate much confusion caused by the “geographically isolated wetlands” misnomer.

  3. The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS reg-sign): Completely-Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) formulations for the wetland pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.P.; van der Aa, N.G.F.M.; Whelan, G.

    1997-06-01

    The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) is a physics-based environmental analysis code integrating source-term, fate, and exposure models for concentration, dose, or risk endpoints. Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, MEPAS is designed for site-specific assessments using readily available information. Endpoints are computed for chemical and radioactive pollutants. For human health impacts, risks are computed for radioactive and hazardous carcinogens, and hazard quotients for noncarcinogens. This system has wide applicability to environmental problems using air, groundwater, surface-water, overland, wetland, and exposure models. MEPAS enables users to simulate release of contaminants from a source; transport of contaminants through the air, groundwater, surface-water, overland, or wetland pathways; and transfer of contaminants through food chains and exposure pathways to the exposed individual or population. Whenever available and appropriate, guidance and/or models from the US Environmental Protection Agency, International Commission on Radiological Protection, and National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements were used to facilitate compatibility and acceptance. Although based on relatively standard transport and exposure computation approaches, MEPAS uniquely integrated these approaches into a single system, providing a consistent basis for evaluating health impacts for a large number of problems and sites. Implemented on a desktop computer, a user-friendly platform allows the user to define the problem, input the required data, and execute the appropriate models. This document describes the mathematical formulations for the Completely-Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) component of MEPAS as applied to the wetland pathway

  4. Wetland Surface Water Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    .... Temporary storage includes channel, overbank, basin, and groundwater storage. Water is removed from the wetland through evaporation, plant transpiration, channel, overland and tidal flow, and groundwater recharge...

  5. The Legal Structure of Taiwan’s Wetland Conservation Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Yuan Su

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In July of 2013, Taiwan passed its Wetland Conservation Act and will begin the implementation of the Act on 2 February 2015. With this Act, Taiwan has become the second Asian country to have specific legislation on wetland conservation and protection. This new law enables the society to achieve sustainable utilization on wetland ecological services. The core concepts of the Wetland Conversation Act include biological diversity conservation and wise use of wetland resources. Special political circumstances prevent Taiwan from registering its wetlands as a conservation priority under the Ramsar Convention. This new law allows the government to evaluate and assign a specific area as a “Wetland of Importance.” Under this status, any development activities within the designated area shall be prohibited unless the developer prepares a usage plan for review. The usage plan and the original usage of the natural resources within the wetland area shall also follow the “wise use” principle to protect the wetland and biological service system. However, this new law does not provide clear separation between the two different “wise use” standards. If the development is deemed necessary, new law provides compensation mitigation measures to extend the surface of the wetland and provides additional habitats for various species. Wetland conservation and management rely heavily on systematic research and fundamental data regarding Taiwan’s wetlands. Determining how to adopt these scientific methodologies and transfer them into enforceable mechanisms is a sizeable challenge for both biologists and lawyers as the Wetland Conservation Act creates many legal norms without clarifying definitions. This article will review the current wetland regulations from the legal perspective and provide suggestions for enforcement in the future.

  6. Methylmercury in water, sediment, and invertebrates in created wetlands of Rouge Park, Toronto, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, Kathleen A.; Xie Qun; Mitchell, Carl P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of hectares of wetlands are created annually because wetlands provide beneficial ecosystem services. Wetlands are also key sites for production of the bioaccumulative neurotoxin methylmercury (MeHg), but little is known about MeHg production in created systems. Here, we studied methylmercury in sediment, water, and invertebrates in created wetlands of various ages. Sediment MeHg reached 8 ng g −1 in the newest wetland, which was significantly greater than in natural, control wetlands. This trend was mirrored in several invertebrate taxa, whose concentrations reached as high as 1.6 μg g −1 in the newest wetland, above levels thought to affect reproduction in birds. The MeHg concentrations in created wetland invertebrate taxa generally decreased with increasing wetland age, possibly due to a combination of deeper anoxia and less organic matter accumulation in younger wetlands. A short-term management intervention and/or improved engineering design may be necessary to reduce the mercury-associated risk in newly created wetlands. - Highlights: ► Investigated methylmercury accumulation in created wetland ecosystems. ► Concentrations and bioaccumulation significantly elevated in new created wetlands. ► Short-term effect may be due to deeper anoxia, less organic matter in new wetlands. ► Intervention or improved design required to reduce short-term ecological risk. - Sediment methylmercury concentrations and bioaccumulation in many invertebrate taxa are significantly elevated in newly created wetlands.

  7. A paddy eco-ditch and wetland system to reduce non-point source pollution from rice-based production system while maintaining water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yujiang; Peng, Shizhang; Luo, Yufeng; Xu, Junzeng; Yang, Shihong

    2015-03-01

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution from agricultural drainage has aroused widespread concerns throughout the world due to its contribution to eutrophication of water bodies. To remove nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from agricultural drainage in situ, a Paddy Eco-ditch and Wetland System (PEDWS) was designed and built based on the characteristics of the irrigated rice district. A 2-year (2012-2013) field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of this system in Gaoyou Irrigation District in Eastern China. The results showed that the reduction in water input in paddy field of the PEDWS enabled the maintenance of high rice yield; it significantly increased irrigation water productivity (WPI), gross water productivity (WPG), and evapotranspiration water productivity (WPET) by 109.2, 67.1, and 17.6%, respectively. The PEDWS dramatically decreased N and P losses from paddy field. Compared with conventional irrigation and drainage system (CIDS), the amount of drainage water from PEDWS was significantly reduced by 56.2%, the total nitrogen (TN) concentration in drainage was reduced by 42.6%, and thus the TN and total phosphorus (TP) losses were reduced by 87.8 and 70.4%. PEDWS is technologically feasible and applicable to treat nutrient losses from paddy fields in situ and can be used in similar areas.

  8. Working group report on wetlands, wildlife and fisheries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltby, L.

    1990-01-01

    A workshop was held to discuss the impacts of climatic change on wetlands, wildlife and fisheries. Impacts that could occur as a result of climatic change include: sea level rise affecting coastal wetlands by inundation, erosion and saltwater intrusion; temperature rise/moisture balance changes on other wetlands; lake level changes affecting shoreline wetlands; vegetation species/community modification of biological systems; and changes in values derived from wetlands impacting socio-economic systems. The Great Lakes shoreline is considered to be at high risk, and it is predicted that there will be profound effects on the ecological and socio-economic value of the Great Lakes wetlands. Presentations were given on wildlife as biological indicators, modelling the effects of climate warming on the stream habitats of brook trout, and the effects of an altered water regime on Great Lakes coastal wetlands. It was concluded that a fundamental research program of an interdisciplinary nature be established to determine current linkages of climatic variables to the function, distribution and productivity of wetlands and associated fish and wildlife resources. A national wetlands monitoring network should be established to trace the influence of climatic variables on wetlands and fish, to identify environmental indicators for reporting and to complement other monitoring programs

  9. Restoration of Natural and Semi-Natural Wetland Systems in Central Europe: Progress and Predictability of Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Klötzli, Frank; Grootjans, Ab P.

    2001-01-01

    After almost 40 years of experience in wetland restoration in Central Europe in which vegetation changes have been monitored by means of permanent plots or vegetation maps, some light can be shed on the intrinsic dynamics of such ecosystems, showing the limits of restoration and constraints in its manipulation. Sometimes such constraints in the restoration process can be identified, mostly being constraints in nutrient availability or in the water regime, but unexpected changes can also be th...

  10. Driving forces behind the construction of an eco-compensation mechanism for wetlands in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhai

    2016-09-01

    This research revealed important driving forces behind the construction of an eco-compensation mechanism for wetlands (DFEMW) in China. Using China's provincial panel data from 1978 to 2008, a fixed-effects model was used to analyze the impacts of agricultural production systems on wetlands. We identified three DFEMW as follows: the change of wetland resources and protection measures in China; declaration and implementation of the provincial Wetland Protection Ordinance; and wetland degradation by agricultural production systems, which necessitated the establishment of a wetland eco-compensation mechanism. In addition to the DFEMW, a significant positive correlation between wetland area and both rural population and gross agricultural production was identified, in addition to a negative correlation with chemical fertilizer usage, reservoir storage capacity, and irrigation area. The underlying reasons for the serious degradation and inadequate protection of wetlands were market failure and government failure; these were the driving forces behind the need to establish a wetland eco-compensation mechanism. From a governmental perspective, it has been difficult to rectify market failures in resource distribution and thus to prevent wetland degradation. Factors include conflicts of interest, lack of investment, effective special laws, a simple means to protect wetlands, and a multidisciplinary management system. Therefore, the key factor is the coordination of interest relationships between those who utilize wetlands and those who seek to minimize wetland degradation and effectively protect wetlands.

  11. Forested wetland habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberstein, Jamie A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennish, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    A forested wetland (swamp) is a forest where soils are saturated or flooded for at least a portion of the growing season, and vegetation, dominated by trees, is adapted to tolerate flooded conditions. A tidal freshwater forested wetland is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity of soil porewater less than 0.5 g/l. It is known locally as tidal várzea in the Amazon delta, Brazil. A tidal saltwater forested wetland (mangrove forest) is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity often exceeding 3 g/l and reaching levels that can exceed seawater. Mangrove ecosystems are composed of facultative halophytes that generally experience better growth at moderate salinity concentrations.

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Mississippi: WETLANDS (Wetland Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing coastal wetlands classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) classification system for...

  13. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Depression Wetlands in the Upper Des Plaines River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Wetlands and Coastal Ecology Branch; Dr. David J. Tazik, Chief, Eco- system Evaluation and Engineering Division; and Dr. Edwin A. Theriot, Direc- tor, EL...wetlands (Euliss and Mushet 1996, Azous and Horner 2001, Bhaduri et al. 1997) and nutrient loading into those wetlands. The overall LU score is...Euliss, N. H., and Mushet , D. M. (1996). “Water-level fluctuation in wetlands as a function of landscape condition in the prairie pothole region

  14. Development of a Macroinvertebrate - based Index of Biotic Integrity (M-IBI for Colombo-Sri Jayawardhanapura Canal System (A new approach to assess stream/ wetland health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nilakarawasam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates have been identified as excellent indicators of stream (wetland health as they respond rapidly to environmental changers and provide short to medium term pollution history records. Current study was aimed to develop a Macroinvertebrate-based Index of Biotic Integrity (M-IBI to monitor stream health of Colombo-Sri Jayawardhanapura canal system. Macroinvertebrates were sampled using a D-framed kick net from ten stations during the period of Nov 2008 to June 2009. Habitat characteristics and some water quality parameters also recorded. For the index development, those ten stations were grouped into two as ’Reference’ and ‘Degraded’ based on their habitat characteristics and some water quality parameters. Then 41vcandidate metrics were nominated for statistical analysis process. After considering their sensitivity to stream impairment, ability of showing exceptionally strong discrimination between reference and degraded sites and less redundancy, ten candidate metrics were selected for M-IBI development. Validity of the index was tested with a new independent data set. Scores acquired for these data set were positively correlated with DO values (r = 0.578. That concluded the potential of using M-IBI developed for biological monitoring and improving biotic integrity of streams and wetlands.

  15. Testing of man-made overland-flow and wetlands systems for the treatment of discharged waters from oil and gas production operations in Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caswell, P.C.; Gelb, D.; Marinello, S.A.; Emerick, J.C.; Cohen, R.R.H.

    1992-01-01

    The quality of produced and discharged waters is of increasing concern as the overall quality of potable waters within many regions of the country becomes a critical issue. The impact of discharged waters on the downstream water quality, as well as the flora and fauna within a discharge zone, is dependent on the quality of the water ultimately released into the system. In many regions of the country, discharge permits are being re-evaluated and sometimes recalled due to the actual and perceived impact upon surface and subsurface waters, particularly those providing water utilized by the human population. The engineering, design and testing of a system to treat produced waters from oil operations in Wyoming is addressed in this study. This work was designed and performed by students and faculty in the Environmental Science and Engineering and Petroleum Engineering departments at the Colorado School of Mines. The system consists of overland flow units and a constructed wetlands unit. The system units can be independently evaluated. The water is drawn from active settling ponds above the test site. Produced waters are actively being discharged into the drainage basin. Waters flowing through the test units are likewise discharged after treatment. The system has been operational since June, 1991 and monthly sampling and testing will continue through March, 1992. Initial results having been very promising. Aeration, precipitation and bacterial activity in the overland flow and wetland units appears to nearly eliminate the sulfide problem present and significantly reduce the released radium concentration. These are the constituents of major concern although testing for other chemicals of concern, including hydrocarbon content is also analyzed

  16. Relating groundwater to seasonal wetlands in southeastern Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalbeck, J.D.; Reed, D.M.; Hunt, R.J.; Lambert, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, drier types of wetlands have been difficult to characterize and are not well researched. Nonetheless, they are considered to reflect the precipitation history with little, if any, regard for possible relation to groundwater. Two seasonal coastal wetland types (wet prairie, sedge meadow) were investigated during three growing seasons at three sites in the Lake Michigan Basin, Wisconsin, USA. The six seasonal wetlands were characterized using standard soil and vegetation techniques and groundwater measurements from the shallow and deep systems. They all met wetland hydrology criteria (e.g., water within 30 cm of land surface for 5% of the growing season) during the early portion of the growing season despite the lack of appreciable regional groundwater discharge into the wetland root zones. Although root-zone duration analyses did not fit a lognormal distribution previously noted in groundwater-dominated wetlands, they were able to discriminate between the plant communities and showed that wet prairie communities had shorter durations of continuous soil saturation than sedge meadow communities. These results demonstrate that the relative rates of groundwater outflows can be important for wetland hydrology and resulting wetland type. Thus, regional stresses to the shallow groundwater system such as pumping or low Great Lake levels can be expected to affect even drier wetland types. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  17. Detecting wetland changes in Shanghai, China using FORMOSAT and Landsat TM imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Bo; Zhou, Yun-xuan; Thom, Ronald M.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Yuan, Qing

    2015-07-14

    Understanding the state of wetland ecosystems and their changes at the national and local levels is critical for wetland conservation, management, decision-making, and policy development practices. This study analyzed the wetlands in Shanghai, a province-level city, using remote sensing, image processing, and geographic information systems (GIS) techniques based on the Chinese national wetland inventory procedure and standards. FORMOSAT imagery acquired in 2012 and Navy nautical charts of the Yangtze estuarine area were used in conjunction with object-oriented segmentation, expert interpretation, and field validation to determine wetland status. Landsat imagery from 1985, 1995, 2000, 2003 and 2013 as well as social-economic data collected from 1985 to 2013 were used to further assess wetland changes. In 2013, Shanghai contained 376,970.6 ha of wetlands, and 78.8% of all wetlands were in marine or estuarine systems. Estuarine waters comprised the single largest wetland category. Between the first national wetland inventory in 2003 and the second national wetland inventory in 2013, Shanghai lost 50,519.13 ha of wetlands, amounting to a mean annual loss rate of 1.2% or an 11.8% loss over the decade. Declines were proportionately higher in marine and estuarine wetlands, with an annual loss of 1.8%, while there was a sharp increase of 1882.6% in constructed water storage areas for human uses. Diking, filling, impoundment and reclamation, which are all attributable to the economic development and urbanization associated with population increases, were the major factors that explained the gain and loss of wetlands. Additional factors affecting wetland losses and gains include sediment trapping by the hydropower system, which reduces supply to the estuary and erodes wetlands, and sediment trapping by the jetties, spur dikes, and diversion bulwark associated with a navigation channel deepening project, which has the converse effect, increasing saltmarsh wetland area at

  18. Use of created cattail ( Typha) wetlands in mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobberteen, Ross A.; Nickerson, Norton H.

    1991-11-01

    In order to balance pressures for land-use development with protection of wetland resources, artificial wetlands have been constructed in an effort to replace lost ecosystems. Despite its regulatory appeal and prominent role in current mitigation strategies, it is unclear whether or not created systems actually compensate for lost wetland resources. Mitigation predictions that rely on artificial wetlands must be analyzed critically in terms of their efficacy. Destruction of wetlands due to burial by coal fly ash at a municipal landfill in Danvers, Massachusetts, USA, provided an opportunity to compare resulting growth of created cattail ( Typha) marshes with natural wetland areas. Once the appropriate cattail species was identified for growth under disturbed landfill conditions, two types of artificial wetlands were constructed. The two systems differed in their hydrologic attributes: while one had a surface water flow characteristic of most cattail wetlands, the second system mimicked soil and water conditions found in naturally occurring floating cattail marshes. Comparison of plant growth measurements for two years from the artificial systems with published values for natural cattail marshes revealed similar structure and growth patterns. Experiments are now in progress to investigate the ability of created cattail marshes to remove and accumulate heavy metals from polluted landfill leachate. Research of the type reported here must be pursued aggressively in order to document the performance of artificial wetlands in terms of plant structure and wetland functions. Such research should allow us to start to evaluate whether artificial systems actually compensate for lost wetlands by performing similar functions and providing the concomitant public benefits.

  19. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs. The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed.

  20. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yozzo, David

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  1. Principles of Wetland Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    the return of a degraded ecosystem to a close approximation of its remaining natural potential - is experiencing a groundswell of support across the United States. The number of stream, river, lake, wetland and estuary restoration projects grows yearly

  2. Wetland Groundwater Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Greg

    1993-01-01

    This technical note summarizes hydrologic and hydraulic (H AND H) processes and the related terminology that will likely be encountered during an evaluation of the effect of ground-water processes on wetland function...

  3. Artificial wetland for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias I, Carlos A; Brix, Hans

    2003-01-01

    The development of constructed wetland technology for wastewater treatment has gone a long way and from an experimental and unknown empirical method, which was capable of handling wastewater a sound technology was developed. Thanks to research, and the work of many public and private companies that have gather valuable operation information, constructed wetland technology has evolved to be a relievable, versatile and effective way to treat wastewater, run off, handle sludge and even improve environmental quality and provide recreation sites, while maintaining low operation and maintenance costs, and at the same time, producing water of quality that can meet stringent regulations, while being and environmental friendly solution to treat waste-waters. Constructed wetlands can be established in many different ways and its characteristics can differ greatly, according to the user needs, the geographic site and even the climatic conditions of the area. The following article deals with the general characteristics of the technology and the physical and chemical phenomena that govern the pollution reduction with in the different available systems

  4. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  5. Review of Constructed Subsurface Flow vs. Surface Flow Wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HALVERSON, NANCY

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to use existing documentation to review the effectiveness of subsurface flow and surface flow constructed wetlands in treating wastewater and to demonstrate the viability of treating effluent from Savannah River Site outfalls H-02 and H-04 with a subsurface flow constructed wetland to lower copper, lead and zinc concentrations to within National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit limits. Constructed treatment wetlands are engineered systems that have been designed and constructed to use the natural functions of wetlands for wastewater treatment. Constructed wetlands have significantly lower total lifetime costs and often lower capital costs than conventional treatment systems. The two main types of constructed wetlands are surface flow and subsurface flow. In surface flow constructed wetlands, water flows above ground. Subsurface flow constructed wetlands are designed to keep the water level below the top of the rock or gravel media, thus minimizing human and ecological exposure. Subsurface flow wetlands demonstrate higher rates of contaminant removal per unit of land than surface flow (free water surface) wetlands, therefore subsurface flow wetlands can be smaller while achieving the same level of contaminant removal. Wetlands remove metals using a variety of processes including filtration of solids, sorption onto organic matter, oxidation and hydrolysis, formation of carbonates, formation of insoluble sulfides, binding to iron and manganese oxides, reduction to immobile forms by bacterial activity, and uptake by plants and bacteria. Metal removal rates in both subsurface flow and surface flow wetlands can be high, but can vary greatly depending upon the influent concentrations and the mass loading rate. Removal rates of greater than 90 per cent for copper, lead and zinc have been demonstrated in operating surface flow and subsurface flow wetlands. The constituents that exceed NPDES limits at outfalls H-02 a nd H

  6. Interannual variability in the extent of wetland-stream connectivity within the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie Vanderhoof; Laurie Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The degree of hydrological connectivity between wetland systems and downstream receiving waters can be expected to influence the volume and variability of stream discharge. The Prairie Pothole Region contains a high density of depressional wetland features, a consequence of glacial retreat. Spatial variability in wetland density, drainage evolution, and precipitation...

  7. Contribution of wetland agriculture to farmers' livelihood in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabahungu, N.L.; Visser, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes factors that contribute to the livelihood of smallholder farmers living in the vicinity of the Cyabayaga and Rugeramigozi wetlands. Three tools were used: 1) focus group discussion 2) formal surveys and 3) Monitoring for Quality Improvement (MONQI). Farming systems in wetlands

  8. An inventory of wetlands in the East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-01

    An inventory of wetlands within the floodplain of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee was conducted during October, 1991 through May, 1992 for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the US Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville District. About 15 miles of EFPC channel and 500 acres of its floodplain are contaminated with mercury and other contaminants released from the Y-12 Plant on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. The wetland inventory will serve as baseline information for DOE`s remedial action planning and National Environmental Policy Act compliance efforts related to the contamination. In order to provide broad wetland determinations beyond which future wetland definitions are unlikely to expand, the 1989 Federal Manual for Identifying And Delineating Jurisdictional Wetlands was utilized. Using the manual`s methodology in a contaminated system under the approved health and safety plan presented some unique problems, resulting in intrusive sampling for field indicators of hydric soils being accomplished separately from observation of other criteria. Beginning with wetland areas identified on National Wetland Inventory Maps, the entire floodplain was examined for presence of wetland criteria, and 17 wetlands were identified ranging from 0.01 to 2.81 acres in size. The majority of wetlands identified were sized under 1 acre. Some of the wetlands identified were not delineated on the National Wetland Inventory Maps, and much of the wetland area delineated on the maps did not meet the criteria under the 1989 manual.

  9. Multi-source water pollution in a highly anthropized wetland system associated with the estuary of Huelva (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barba-Brioso, C.; Fernandez-Caliani, J.C.; Miras, A.; Cornejo, J.; Galan, E.

    2010-01-01

    Major ions, nutrients, trace elements and pesticides distribution were studied in a coastal wetland heavily impacted by human development in Spain. Past land use has altered the local hydrodynamics leading to the partitioning of the ecosystem into a tideland subject to marine influence, and an artificial freshwater reservoir created by stream impoundment. The tideland stretch is flooded twice a day with a heavy metal plume that emerges from the mine-polluted estuary of Huelva and propagates landward depicting the same dispersal trend of major seawater ions. Additionally, the tidal channel receives acid discharges from industrial point sources that contribute to metal enhancement. The impounded area and stream tributaries are affected by agrochemicals runoff (nitrate, phosphate, pendimethalin, simazine, diuron and therbuthylazine) from surrounding agricultural lands. The tidal regime plays a crucial role in the transport and dispersion of pollutants, except in the artificial reservoir where freshwater exhibits a seasonal mineralization pattern.

  10. Impacts of Embankment System on Natural Wetlands and Sustainable Water Resources Development in the Northwest Region of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, M.; Rahman, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    In the Northwest region of Bangladesh, the Chalan Beel is one of the largest Beel ("Beel" refers to natural wetland) in Bangladesh. Polder C (an area surrounded by embankment) of Chalan Beel area consists of 50% natural wetland of the region. Historically, the area was rich with fish, flora and fauna, and agricultural resources. Both flood and drainage congestion have been identified as major problems existing in the project area. Farmers are badly affected by the sudden onrush of floodwater through the embankment breaches, public cuts and incomplete hydraulic structures during the rainy season. The floodwater damages B. Aman and late Boro paddy by 10% and washes away housing settlements. Sometimes water gets scarce in polder C in dry season that is unfavorable for the crop. Loss of crops and fishery affects the economy strongly. The polder was not according to master plan and with lack of operation and maintenance. Instead of improving the livelihood in the study area the embankment arises detrimental effect on the people. This paper focuses mainly the impact of the embankments on hydrology, fishery, agriculture and socio-economic condition in polder C at Chalan Beel area. Present conditions are compared with the natural conditions existed in the last decades. Finally, the paper gives some recommendations for further sustainable water resources management. It is estimated that the natural wetland loss is about 10%. The analysis shows that the river or channel cross-sections are reduced by ca. 2 m and water level is increasing with time in the rivers along the polder due to confinement effect and siltation. It appears from the study that due to this confinement effect and siltation effect, flood and drainage problems are increasing and consequently, the area is affected in every year to a great extent. At present, cross sections of natural canals are not working properly and back water flow from Hurasagar River creates drainage congestion. About 20% of fish

  11. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  12. Metro Multnomah Wetlands - Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project characterizes wetlands use by juvenile salmonids and other fishes in the Multnomah Channel Marsh Natural...

  13. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - MO 2012 East West Gateway Wetlands (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Cowardin’s Classification of Wetlands and Deep Water Habitats of the United States (http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/wetlands/classwet/index.htm), together with...

  14. Alfred pilot wetland to treat municipal lagoon effluent - case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crolla, A.; Kinsley, C.

    2002-01-01

    A constructed wetland demonstration system has been built to polish the municipal lagoon effluent from the village of Alfred. The treatment lagoons have an annual discharge in the spring and have currently reached maximum capacity; inhibiting further population growth or expansion of the local agri-food industries. The demonstration wetland system is designed to treat 15% of the municipal lagoon influent, that is, 155 m 3 /day or 23,250 m 3 /year. A three year monitoring program (2000-2002) was put in place to evaluate the wetland as a cost effective means to treat municipal lagoon wastewater for the village of Alfred. The 2000 and 2001 monitoring seasons have been completed, and the 2002 monitoring season will operate between June and October 2002. At the completion of the three year monitoring program the Alfred wetland system will be evaluated for its ability to polish the municipal lagoon effluent to meet the Spring/Summer/Fall discharge criteria, set by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE), for the receiving water body (Azatica Brook). As phosphorus is the most difficult element to remove down to MOE guidelines, the Alfred research wetland includes slag phosphorus adsorption filters and a vegetated filter as phosphorus polishing systems. Once the wetland system is approved by the MOE, the village of Alfred will be able to increase its capacity for municipal wastewater treatment. Constructed wetlands are still considered innovative systems in Ontario and government ministries (MOE, OMAFRA) are insisting upon 3-4 years of monitoring data for each constructed wetland system established. There is a clear need for monitoring data to be gathered on established systems, and for this data to be evaluated with the goal of developing reliable design guidelines. Ultimately this should result in having constructed wetlands recognised as viable wastewater treatment options in Ontario. With fewer grant programs for rural municipalities, cost effective systems such

  15. Utilizing NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Data to Determine Ideal Planting Locations for Wetland Tree Species in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reahard, Ross; Arguelles, Maria; Strong, Emma; Ewing, Michael; Kelly, Chelsey

    2012-01-01

    St. Bernard Parish, in southeast Louisiana, is rapidly losing coastal forests and wetlands due to a combination of natural and anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. subsidence, saltwater intrusion, low sedimentation, nutrient deficiency, herbivory, canal dredging, levee construction, spread of invasive species, etc.). After Hurricane Katrina severely impacted the area in 2005, multiple Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have worked not only on rebuilding destroyed dwellings, but on rebuilding the ecosystems that once protected the citizens of St. Bernard Parish. Volunteer groups, NGOs, and government entities often work separately and independently of each other and use different sets of information to choose the best planting sites for coastal forests. Using NASA EOS, NRCS soil surveys, and ancillary road and canal data in conjunction with ground truthing, the team created maps of optimal planting sites for several species of wetland trees to aid in unifying these organizations, who share a common goal, under one plan. The methodology for this project created a comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS) to help identify suitable planting sites in St. Bernard Parish. This included supplementing existing elevation data using LIDAR data and classifying existing land cover in the study area from ASTER multispectral satellite data. Low altitude AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery was used to assess the health of vegetation over an area near the intersection of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet Canal (MRGO) and Bayou la Loutre. Historic extent of coastal forests was mapped using aerial photos from USGS collected between 1952 and 1956. The final products demonstrated the utility of combining NASA EOS with other geospatial data in assessing, monitoring, and restoring of coastal ecosystems in Louisiana. This methodology also provides a useful template for other ecological forecasting and coastal restoration applications.

  16. Wetland Program Development Grants (WPDGs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Wetland Grant Database (WGD) houses grant data for Wetland Program Development Grants (created by EPA in 1990 under the Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3)...

  17. Wetland Restoration and Sediment Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — In 2008, Minnesota’s Private Lands Program and Wetland Management Districts began to compare different methods of restoring prairie pothole wetlands to see if there...

  18. Wetlands: The changing regulatory landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Protection of wetlands became a national issue in 1988 when President George Bush pledged no net loss of wetlands in the US under his open-quotes environmental presidency.close quotes As wetlands became a national issue, the job of protecting them became an obligation for many groups, including hydro-power developers. Now, when a site selected for development includes an area that may be classified as a wetland, the developer quickly discovers the importance of recognizing and protecting these natural habitats. Federal legislation severely limits development of wetland, and most states increase the restrictions with their own wetlands regulations. The difficulty of defining wetlands complicates federal and state enforcement. Land that appears to be dry may in fact be classified as a wetland. So, even if a site appears dry, potential hydro developers must confirm whether or not any jurisdictional wetlands are present. Regulated lands include much more than marshes and swamps. Further complicating the definition of wetlands, a recent court decision found that even artificially created wetlands, such as man-made ponds, may be subject to regulation. Hydro developers must be aware of current regulatory requirements before they consider development of any site that may contain wetlands. To be certain that a site is open-quotes buildableclose quotes from the standpoint of wetlands regulation, a developer must verify (with the help of state agencies) that the property does not contain any jurisdictional wetlands. If it does, the regulatory process before development becomes much more complicated. For the short term, uncertainty abounds and extreme caution is in order. Because the regulatory process has become so complex and an agreeable definition of wetlands so elusive, the trend among the Corps and collaborating agencies is to constrict nationwide permits in favor of narrowing the jurisdictional definition of wetlands

  19. ``Living off the land'': resource efficiency of wetland wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Odum, H. T.; Brown, M. T.; Alling, A.

    Bioregenerative life support technologies for space application are advantageous if they can be constructed using locally available materials, and rely on renewable energy resources, lessening the need for launch and resupply of materials. These same characteristics are desirable in the global Earth environment because such technologies are more affordable by developing countries, and are more sustainable long-term since they utilize less non-renewable, imported resources. Subsurface flow wetlands (wastewater gardens™) were developed and evaluated for wastewater recycling along the coast of Yucatan. Emergy evaluations, a measure of the environmental and human economic resource utilization, showed that compared to conventional sewage treatment, wetland wastewater treatment systems use far less imported and purchased materials. Wetland systems are also less energy-dependent, lessening dependence on electrical infrastructure, and require simpler maintenance since the system largely relies on the ecological action of microbes and plants for their efficacy. Detailed emergy evaluations showed that wetland systems use only about 15% the purchased emergy of conventional sewage systems, and that renewable resources contribute 60% of total emergy used (excluding the sewage itself) compared to less than 1% use of renewable resources in the high-tech systems. Applied on a larger scale for development in third world countries, wetland systems would require 1/5 the electrical energy of conventional sewage treatment (package plants), and save 2/3 of total capital and operating expenses over a 20-year timeframe. In addition, there are numerous secondary benefits from wetland systems including fiber/fodder/food from the wetland plants, creation of ecosystems of high biodiversity with animal habitat value, and aesthestic/landscape enhancement of the community. Wetland wastewater treatment is an exemplar of ecological engineering in that it creates an interface ecosystem to handle

  20. Estimating environmental conditions affecting protozoal pathogen removal in surface water wetland systems using a multi-scale, model-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Miles E; Hogan, Jennifer; Smith, Woutrina A; Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Hardin, Dane; Shapiro, Karen; Los Huertos, Marc; Conrad, Patricia A; Dominik, Clare; Watson, Fred G R

    2014-09-15

    Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii are waterborne protozoal pathogens distributed worldwide and empirical evidence suggests that wetlands reduce the concentrations of these pathogens under certain environmental conditions. The goal of this study was to evaluate how protozoal removal in surface water is affected by the water temperature, turbidity, salinity, and vegetation cover of wetlands in the Monterey Bay region of California. To examine how protozoal removal was affected by these environmental factors, we conducted observational experiments at three primary spatial scales: settling columns, recirculating wetland mesocosm tanks, and an experimental research wetland (Molera Wetland). Simultaneously, we developed a protozoal transport model for surface water to simulate the settling columns, the mesocosm tanks, and the Molera Wetland. With a high degree of uncertainty expected in the model predictions and field observations, we developed the model within a Bayesian statistical framework. We found protozoal removal increased when water flowed through vegetation, and with higher levels of turbidity, salinity, and temperature. Protozoal removal in surface water was maximized (~0.1 hour(-1)) when flowing through emergent vegetation at 2% cover, and with a vegetation contact time of ~30 minutes compared to the effects of temperature, salinity, and turbidity. Our studies revealed that an increase in vegetated wetland area, with water moving through vegetation, would likely improve regional water quality through the reduction of fecal protozoal pathogen loads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Global warming and prairie wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poiani, K.A.; Johnson, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns and waterfowl habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model

  2. Wetland soils, hydrology and geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Rhett Jackson; James A. Thompson; Randall K. Kolka

    2014-01-01

    The hydrology, soils, and watershed processes of a wetland all interact with vegetation and animals over time to create the dynamic physical template upon which a wetland's ecosystem is based (Fig. 2.1). With respect to many ecosystem processes, the physical factors defining a wetland environment at any particular time are often treated as independent variables,...

  3. Human wetland dependency and socio-economic evaluation of wetland functions through participatory approach in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malabika Biswas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are an important source of natural resources upon which rural economies depend. They have increasingly been valuable for their goods and services, and the intrinsic ecological value they provide to local populations, as well as people living outside the periphery of the wetlands. Stakeholders' participation is essential to the protection and preservation of wetlands because it plays a very important role economically as well as ecologically in the wetland system. The objective of this study was to determine whether gender, educational status, mouzas (which are constituents of a block according to the land reform of the West Bengal Government in India, and wetland functions have any influence on the annual income of the local community. Considering a floodplain wetland in rural India, the focus was extended to recognize the pattern of wetland functions according to the nature of people's involvement through cluster analysis of the male and female populations. Using the statistical software R-2.8.1, an ANOVA (analysis of variance table was constructed. Since the p value (significance level was lower than 0.05 for each case, it can be concluded that gender, educational status, mouzas, and wetland functions have a significant influence on annual income. However, S-PLUS-2000 was applied to obtain a complete scenario of the pattern of wetland functions, in terms of involvement of males and females, through cluster analysis. The main conclusion is that gender, educational status, mouzas, and wetland functions have significant impacts on annual income, while the pattern of occupation of the local community based on wetland functions is completely different for the male and female populations.

  4. Predictive modelling of wetland occurrence in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Hiestermann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The global trend of transformation and loss of wetlands through conversion to other land uses has deleterious effects on surrounding ecosystems, and there is a resultant increasing need for the conservation and preservation of wetlands. Improved mapping of wetland locations is critical to achieving objective regional conservation goals, which depends on accurate spatial knowledge. Current approaches to mapping wetlands through the classification of satellite imagery typically under-represents actual wetland area; the importance of ancillary data in improving accuracy in mapping wetlands is therefore recognised. In this study, we compared two approaches Bayesian networks and logistic regression to predict the likelihood of wetland occurrence in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Both approaches were developed using the same data set of environmental surrogate predictors. We compared and verified model outputs using an independent test data set, with analyses including receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve (AUC. Both models performed similarly (AUC>0.84, indicating the suitability of a likelihood approach for ancillary data for wetland mapping. Results indicated that high wetland probability areas in the final model outputs correlated well with known wetland systems and wetland-rich areas in KwaZulu-Natal. We conclude that predictive models have the potential to improve the accuracy of wetland mapping in South Africa by serving as valuable ancillary data.

  5. The ecological value of constructed wetlands for treating urban runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratz, S; Young, T; Cuevas-Arellano-, H; Kumar, R; Ambrose, R F; Suffet, I H

    2007-01-01

    The Sweetwater Authority's urban runoff diversion system (URDS) comprises constructed wetlands on a hillside between the town of Spring Valley and the Sweetwater Reservoir, California, USA. The URDS were designed to divert dry-weather and first-flush urban runoff flows from the Sweetwater reservoir. However, these constructed wetlands have developed into ecologically valuable habitat. This paper evaluates the following ecological questions related to the URDS: (1) the natural development of the species present and their growth pattern; (2) the biodiversity and pollutant stress on the plants and invertebrates; and (3) the question of habitat provided for endangered species. The URDS wetlands are comprised primarily of rush (Scirpus spp.) and cattails (Typha spp.). This vegetative cover ranged from 39-78% of the area of the individual wetland ponds. Current analyses of plant tissues and wetland sediment indicates the importance of sediment sorption for metals and plant uptake of nutrients. Analyses of URDS water following runoff events show the URDS wetlands do reduce the amount of nutrients and metals in the water column. Invertebrate surveys of the wetland ponds revealed lower habitat quality and environmental stress compared to unpolluted natural habitat. The value of the wetlands as wildlife habitat is constrained by low plant biodiversity and pollution stress from the runoff. Since the primary Sweetwater Authority goal is to maintain good water quality for drinking, any secondary utilization of URDS habitat by species (endangered or otherwise) is deemed an added benefit.

  6. Conceptual hierarchical modeling to describe wetland plant community organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, A.M.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Allen, T.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    Using multivariate analysis, we created a hierarchical modeling process that describes how differently-scaled environmental factors interact to affect wetland-scale plant community organization in a system of small, isolated wetlands on Mount Desert Island, Maine. We followed the procedure: 1) delineate wetland groups using cluster analysis, 2) identify differently scaled environmental gradients using non-metric multidimensional scaling, 3) order gradient hierarchical levels according to spatiotem-poral scale of fluctuation, and 4) assemble hierarchical model using group relationships with ordination axes and post-hoc tests of environmental differences. Using this process, we determined 1) large wetland size and poor surface water chemistry led to the development of shrub fen wetland vegetation, 2) Sphagnum and water chemistry differences affected fen vs. marsh / sedge meadows status within small wetlands, and 3) small-scale hydrologic differences explained transitions between forested vs. non-forested and marsh vs. sedge meadow vegetation. This hierarchical modeling process can help explain how upper level contextual processes constrain biotic community response to lower-level environmental changes. It creates models with more nuanced spatiotemporal complexity than classification and regression tree procedures. Using this process, wetland scientists will be able to generate more generalizable theories of plant community organization, and useful management models. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2009.

  7. Evaluating the significance of wetland restoration scenarios on phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Fariborz; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Adhikari, Umesh; Elahi, Behin; Abouali, Mohammad; Herman, Matthew R; Martinez-Martinez, Edwin; Calappi, Timothy J; Rohn, Bridget G

    2017-05-01

    Freshwater resources are vital for human and natural systems. However, anthropogenic activities, such as agricultural practices, have led to the degradation of the quality of these limited resources through pollutant loading. Agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs), such as wetlands, are recommended as a valuable solution for pollutant removal. However, evaluation of their long-term impacts is difficult and requires modeling since performing in-situ monitoring is expensive and not feasible at the watershed scale. In this study, the impact of natural wetland implementation on total phosphorus reduction was evaluated both at the subwatershed and watershed levels. The study area is the Saginaw River Watershed, which is largest watershed in Michigan. The phosphorus reduction performances of four different wetland sizes (2, 4, 6, and 8 ha) were evaluated within this study area by implementing one wetland at a time in areas identified to have the highest potential for wetland restoration. The subwatershed level phosphorus loads were obtained from a calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. These loads were then incorporated into a wetland model (System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis IntegratioN-SUSTAIN) to evaluate phosphorus reduction at the subwatershed level and then the SWAT model was again used to route phosphorus transport to the watershed outlet. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the spatial impact of wetland size and placement on phosphorus reduction. Overall, the performance of 2 ha wetlands in total phosphorus reduction was significantly lower than the larger sizes at both the subwatershed and watershed levels. Regarding wetland implementation sites, wetlands located in headwaters and downstream had significantly higher phosphorus reduction than the ones located in the middle of the watershed. More specifically, wetlands implemented at distances ranging from 200 to 250 km and 50-100 km from the outlet had the

  8. China's coastal wetlands: conservation history, implementation efforts, existing issues and strategies for future improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhigao; Sun, Wenguang; Tong, Chuan; Zeng, Congsheng; Yu, Xiang; Mou, Xiaojie

    2015-06-01

    China has approximately 5.80×10(6)ha coastal wetlands by 2014, accounting for 10.82% of the total area of natural wetlands. Healthy coastal wetland ecosystems play an important role in guaranteeing the territory ecological security and the sustainable development of coastal zone in China. In this paper, the natural geography and the past and present status of China's coastal wetlands were introduced and the five stages (1950s-1970s, 1980s-1991, 1992-2002, 2003-2010 and 2011-present) of China's coastal wetlands conservation from the foundation of the People's Republic in 1949 to present were distinguished and reviewed. Over the past decades, China has made great efforts in coastal wetland conservation, as signified by the implementation of coastal wetland restoration projects, the construction of coastal wetland nature reserves, the practice of routine ecological monitoring and two national wetland surveys, the promulgation of local wetland conservation statutes and specific regulations, the coordination mechanism to enhance management capacity, the wide development of coastal wetland research and public participation, and the extensive communication to strengthen international cooperation. Nonetheless, six major issues recently emerged in China's coastal wetland conservation are evidently existed, including the increasing threats of pollution and human activities, the increasing adverse effects of threaten factors on ecosystem function, the increasing threats of coastal erosion and sea-level rising, the insufficient funding for coastal wetlands conservation, the imperfect legal and management system for coastal wetlands, and the insufficient education, research and international cooperation. Although the threats and pressures on coastal wetlands conservation are still apparent, the future of China's coastal wetlands looks promising since the Chinese government understands that the sustainable development in coastal zone requires new attitudes, sound policies and

  9. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ..., consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our... FXRS1265066CCP0] Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District, SD; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

  10. Hydrological, Physical, and Chemical Functions and Connectivity of Non‐Floodplain Wetlands to Downstream Waters: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    We reviewed the scientific literature on non‐floodplain wetlands (NFWs), freshwater wetlands typically located distal to riparian and floodplain systems, to determine hydrological, physical, and chemical functioning and stream and river network connectivity. We assayed the ...

  11. Spatial patterns of DOC concentration and DOM optical properties in a Brazilian tropical river-wetland system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmagro, Higo J.; Johnson, Mark S.; de Musis, Carlo R.; Lathuillière, Michael J.; Graesser, Jordan; Pinto-Júnior, Osvaldo B.; Couto, Eduardo G.

    2017-08-01

    The Cerrado (savanna) and Pantanal (wetland) biomes of Central Western Brazil have experienced significant development activity in recent decades, including extensive land cover conversion from natural ecosystems to agriculture and urban expansion. The Cuiabá River transects the Cerrado biome prior to inundating large areas of the Pantanal, creating one of the largest biodiversity hot spots in the world. We measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the optical absorbance and fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from 40 sampling locations spanning Cerrado and Pantanal biomes during wet and dry seasons. In the upper, more agricultural region of the basin, DOC concentrations were highest in the rainy season with more aromatic and humified DOM. In contrast, DOC concentrations and DOM optical properties were more uniform for the more urbanized middle region of the basin between wet and dry seasons, as well as across sample locations. In the lower region of the basin, wet season connectivity between the river and the Pantanal floodplain led to high DOC concentrations, a fourfold increase in humification index (HIX) (an indicator of DOM humification), and a 50% reduction in the spectral slope (SR). Basin-wide, wet season values for SR, HIX, and FI (fluorescence index) indicated an increasing representation of terrestrially derived DOM that was more humified. Parallel factor analysis identified two terrestrially derived components (C1 and C2) representing 77% of total fluorescing DOM (fDOM). A third, protein-like fDOM component increased markedly during the wet season within the more urban-impacted region.

  12. Engineered wetlands for on-site groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.; Davis, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Engineered wetlands have been touted as an emerging technology for the in situ remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and water. They incorporate a horizontal subsurface flow gravel bed reactor lined with impermeable liners, and are equipped with forced bed aeration systems that enhance oxygen delivery to the wetland's aerobic micro-organisms. Engineered wetlands generally emphasize specific characteristics of wetland ecosystems to improve treatment capacities. Design parameters include biodegradation rate coefficients, flowrate, hydraulic residence time plus influent and required effluent concentrations. This paper described the installation of an engineered wetland system at a former British Petroleum (BP) refinery in Wyoming where a pipeline terminal generated contact wastewater containing benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and ammonia. The wetland treatment system was designed to treat 6000 m 3 of contaminated ground water per day and has been in operation since May 2003. It was concluded that engineered wetlands can offer long-term solutions to site remediation challenges. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  13. Fish utilisation of wetland nurseries with complex hydrological connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Davis

    Full Text Available The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year (ii interrupted peristence (iii delayed recruitment (iv facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting 'facultative wetland resident' group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the 'interrupted persistence' group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the 'facultative wetland resident' and 'delayed recruitment group', and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the 'delayed recruitment' group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological

  14. The geomorphology of wetlands in drylands: Resilience, nonresilience, or …?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooth, Stephen

    2018-03-01

    Over the last decade, much attention has focused on wetland resilience to disturbances such as extreme weather events, longer climate change, and human activities. In geomorphology and cognate disciplines, resilience is defined in various ways and has physical and socioeconomic dimensions but commonly is taken to mean the ability of a system to (A) withstand disturbance, (B) recover from disturbance, or (C) adapt and evolve in response to disturbance to a more desirable (e.g., stable) configuration. Most studies of wetland resilience have tended to focus on the more-or-less permanently saturated humid region wetlands, but whether the findings can be readily transferred to wetlands in drylands remains unclear. Given the natural climatic variability and overall strong moisture deficit characteristic of drylands, are such wetlands likely to be more resilient or less resilient? Focusing on wetlands in the South African drylands, this paper uses existing geomorphological, sedimentological, and geochronological data sets to provide the spatial (up to 50 km2) and temporal (late Quaternary) framework for an assessment of geomorphological resilience. Some wetlands have been highly resilient to environmental (especially climate) change, but others have been nonresilient with marked transformations in channel-floodplain structure and process connectivity having been driven by natural factors (e.g., local base-level fall, drought) or human activities (e.g., channel excavation, floodplain drainage). Key issues related to the assessment of wetland resilience include channel-floodplain dynamics in relation to geomorphological thresholds, wetland geomorphological 'life cycles', and the relative roles of natural and human activities. These issues raise challenges for the involvement of geomorphologists in the practical application of the resilience concept in wetland management. A key consideration is how geomorphological resilience interfaces with other dimensions of resilience

  15. Adaptation Tipping Points of a Wetland under a Drying Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Nanda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands experience considerable alteration to their hydrology, which typically contributes to a decline in their overall ecological integrity. Wetland management strategies aim to repair wetland hydrology and attenuate wetland loss that is associated with climate change. However, decision makers often lack the data needed to support complex social environmental systems models, making it difficult to assess the effectiveness of current or past practices. Adaptation Tipping Points (ATPs is a policy-oriented method that can be useful in these situations. Here, a modified ATP framework is presented to assess the suitability of ecosystem management when rigorous ecological data are lacking. We define the effectiveness of the wetland management strategy by its ability to maintain sustainable minimum water levels that are required to support ecological processes. These minimum water requirements are defined in water management and environmental policy of the wetland. Here, we trial the method on Forrestdale Lake, a wetland in a region experiencing a markedly drying climate. ATPs were defined by linking key ecological objectives identified by policy documents to threshold values for water depth. We then used long-term hydrologic data (1978–2012 to assess if and when thresholds were breached. We found that from the mid-1990s, declining wetland water depth breached ATPs for the majority of the wetland objectives. We conclude that the wetland management strategy has been ineffective from the mid-1990s, when the region’s climate dried markedly. The extent of legislation, policies, and management authorities across different scales and levels of governance need to be understood to adapt ecosystem management strategies. Empirical verification of the ATP assessment is required to validate the suitability of the method. However, in general we consider ATPs to be a useful desktop method to assess the suitability of management when rigorous ecological data

  16. The Effect of the Hydraulic Retention Time on the Performance of an Ecological Wastewater Treatment System: An Anaerobic Filter with a Constructed Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Merino-Solís

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work assesses the performance of a municipal pilot wastewater treatment system employing an up-flow anaerobic filter (UAF followed by a horizontal subsurface constructed wetland (HSSCW. This pilot scale demonstration project was implemented in a zone with subtropical climate in order to protect Lake Chapala from wastewater loads that are discharged by small communities in the Lake’s vicinity. The filters were filled with tezontle as the media for biofilm support and the HSSCW was planted with two ornamental plants species, Canna hybrids and Strelitzia reginae. The experiment evaluated three hydraulic retention times (HRT of 18, 28 and 38 h in the UAF, which corresponds to two, three and four days in HSSCW over 66 weeks. The mean efficiencies found for the complete system were 80% and 90% of BOD, 80% and 86% of COD, 30% and 33% of Ntot and between 24% and 44% of Ptot. It was possible to remove almost 80% of organic matter in 18 h in the UAF while the HSSCW reached 30% of removal for Ntot in a HRT of three days. As expected, the UAF was responsible for removing most of the organic matter and the HSSCW removed most of the nitrogen.

  17. Abundance of Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in Adirondack Mountain shrub wetlands and its influence on inorganic nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiernan, B.D.; Hurd, T.M.; Raynal, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of the nitrogen-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa, influences the concentration of inorganic nitrogen in surface waters in the Adirondack Mountain region of northern New York. - The purpose of this research was to determine the abundance of the nitrogen-fixing shrub, Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (speckled alder), in shrub wetlands of the Adirondack Mountain region of New York State and to determine whether its abundance affects the concentration or accumulation of inorganic nitrogen in wetland substrates. Alder/willow wetlands are the second most common wetland type in the Adirondack region. The Adirondack Park Agency's digital GIS database of wetland types was used to determine the areal extent of alder/willow wetlands in the Adirondacks. Randomly selected wetlands were sampled to determine the size and abundance of alder. Alder densities averaged ∼7000 stems ha -1 and alder was present in 75% of the wetlands. As an indication of short-term accumulation of NO 3 - and NH 4 + in wetland substrates, ion exchange resins were used to sample ground water in high and low alder density wetlands as well as from wetlands lacking alder and dominated by conifers. Additionally, NO 3 - and NH 4 + concentrations in ground water samples were measured. NH 4 + accumulation levels from exchange resins were low for all wetland types while groundwater NH 4 + concentration was highest in the low-density alder sites. Wetlands with high alder density had approximately six times higher NO 3 - accumulation than other wetlands. Substrate groundwater NO 3 - concentrations in wetlands of high-density alder exceeded by three times levels in low or no alder wetlands, showing the importance of alder to local N budgets. To assess the recovery of shrub wetlands from acidification, future studies should determine the fate of fixed N in wetland systems

  18. A preliminary analysis of water chemistry of the Mkuze Wetland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-01-01

    Jan 1, 2002 ... The Mkuze Wetland System in northern KwaZulu-Natal constitutes an ... water, groundwater, pan and reed swamp sites, as well as a rainwater sample. ... runoff that drains catchments, whereas aquatic ecosystems are.

  19. THE USE OF UAS FOR ASSESSING AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS IN AN WETLAND IN TANZANIA IN THE DRY- AND WET-SEASON FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND PROVIDING GROUND TRUTH FOR TERRA-SAR X DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-P. Thamm

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the assessment of the vegetation and the land use systems of the Malinda Wetland in the Usambara Mountains in Tanzania with the parachute UAS (unmanned aerial system SUSI 62. The area of investigation was around 8 km2. In two campaigns, one in the wet season and one in the dry season, approximately 2600 aerial photos of the wetland were taken using the parachute UAS SUSI 62; of these images, ortho-photos with a spatial resolution of 20 cm x 20 cm, were computed with an advanced block bundle approach. The block bundles were geo-referenced using control points taken with differential GPS. As well a digital surface model (DSM of the wetland was created out of the UAS photos. Using the ortho-photos it is possible to assess the different land use systems; the differences in the phenology of the vegetation between wet and dry season can be investigated. In addition, the regionalisation of bio mass samples on smaller test plots was possible. The ortho-photos and the DSM derived from the UAS proved to be a valuable ground truth for the interpretation of Terra-SAR X images. The campaigns demonstrated that SUSI 62 was a suitable, robust tool to obtain the valuable information under harsh conditions.

  20. Accommodating state shifts within the conceptual framework of the wetland continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; McKenna, Owen; LaBaugh, James W.; Euliss, Ned H.; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2018-01-01

    The Wetland Continuum is a conceptual framework that facilitates the interpretation of biological studies of wetland ecosystems. Recently summarized evidence documenting how a multi-decadal wet period has influenced aspects of wetland, lake and stream systems in the southern prairie-pothole region of North America has revealed the potential for wetlands to shift among alternate states. We propose that incorporation of state shifts into the Wetland Continuum, as originally proposed or as modified by Hayashi et al., is a relatively simple matter if one allows for shifts of wetlands along the horizontal, groundwater axis of the framework under conditions of extreme and sustained wet or dry conditions. We suggest that the ease by which state shifts can be accommodated within both the original and modified frameworks of the Wetland Continuum is a testament to the robustness of the concept when it is related to the alternative-stable-state concept.

  1. Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in cold climate - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo; Zhang, Dong Qing; Dong, Jian Wen; Tan, Soon Keat

    2017-07-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been successfully used for treating various wastewaters for decades and have been identified as a sustainable wastewater management option worldwide. However, the application of CW for wastewater treatment in frigid climate presents special challenges. Wetland treatment of wastewater relies largely on biological processes, and reliable treatment is often a function of climate conditions. To date, the rate of adoption of wetland technology for wastewater treatment in cold regions has been slow and there are relatively few published reports on CW applications in cold climate. This paper therefore highlights the practice and applications of treatment wetlands in cold climate. A comprehensive review of the effectiveness of contaminant removal in different wetland systems including: (1) free water surface (FWS) CWs; (2) subsurface flow (SSF) CWs; and (3) hybrid wetland systems, is presented. The emphasis of this review is also placed on the influence of cold weather conditions on the removal efficacies of different contaminants. The strategies of wetland design and operation for performance intensification, such as the presence of plant, operational mode, effluent recirculation, artificial aeration and in-series design, which are crucial to achieve the sustainable treatment performance in cold climate, are also discussed. This study is conducive to further research for the understanding of CW design and treatment performance in cold climate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Bacterial carbon utilization in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, Alexandra; Langergraber, Günter; Watzinger, Andrea; Haberl, Raimund; Kirschner, Alexander K T

    2008-03-01

    Subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands with intermittent loading are considered as state of the art and can comply with stringent effluent requirements. It is usually assumed that microbial activity in the filter body of constructed wetlands, responsible for the removal of carbon and nitrogen, relies mainly on bacterially mediated transformations. However, little quantitative information is available on the distribution of bacterial biomass and production in the "black-box" constructed wetland. The spatial distribution of bacterial carbon utilization, based on bacterial (14)C-leucine incorporation measurements, was investigated for the filter body of planted and unplanted indoor pilot-scale constructed wetlands, as well as for a planted outdoor constructed wetland. A simple mass-balance approach was applied to explain the bacterially catalysed organic matter degradation in this system by comparing estimated bacterial carbon utilization rates with simultaneously measured carbon reduction values. The pilot-scale constructed wetlands proved to be a suitable model system for investigating microbial carbon utilization in constructed wetlands. Under an ideal operating mode, the bulk of bacterial productivity occurred within the first 10cm of the filter body. Plants seemed to have no significant influence on productivity and biomass of bacteria, as well as on wastewater total organic carbon removal.

  3. Coastal Wetlands Protection Act: Case of Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River

    OpenAIRE

    Latif Gürkan KAYA

    2007-01-01

    Coastal wetlands, being important components of estuarine and coastal systems, stand for all publicly owned lands subject to the ebb and flow of the tide. They are below the watermark of ordinary high tide. The coastal wetlands contain a vital natural resource system. The coastal wetlands resource system, unless impossible, to reconstruct or rehabilitate once adversely affected by human. In the USA, the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) river states (i.e. Georgia, Alabama and Florida) ha...

  4. Halophyte filters as saline treatment wetlands; Applicators and constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Gaag, J.J.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.; Slim, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Purification of wastewater rich in nutrients and organic pollutants is essential for the protection of receiving waters and to enable water reuse. This report investigates the possibilities and constraints of constructed wetlands for treatment of slightly saline wastewater from aquaculture systems. As the body of literature for saline treatment wetlands is relatively small, the reports starts with a summary of processes in freshwater systems. It is then explained that these processes are also...

  5. The protected areas system in Brazil as a baseline condition for wetlands management and fish conservancy: the example of the Pantanal National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla N. M. Polaz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Considering the need for the Brazilian government to develop tools for environmental monitoring for biodiversity conservancy purposes in the national protected areas system, this paper focuses on determining reference site metrics (or baselines for adapting the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI based on the fish assemblages in the Pantanal National Park (PNP. The habitats in the PNP were grouped into four categories: main rivers, corixos (channels connecting the floodplain, permanent bays, and temporary bays. Fish samplings were performed at 12 points during the dry season (Oct-Nov 2010 and 2011. 146 fish species were identified from the total 18,954 individuals collected with standardized fishing gear. There was no association between the structure of the fish assemblage and categories, suggesting a theory on homogeneity of habitats. The final IBIPNP consists of nine metrics, most of them were framed in excellent class, some in fair, and none in poor. There was no significant difference in IBIPNP scores between the two sampled years. This approach provides a direct application for wetland management purposes.

  6. Biodegradation and kinetics of organic compounds and heavy metals in an artificial wetland system (AWS) by using water hyacinths as a biological filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Mendoza-Pérez, J A; Tabla-Hernandez, J; Martínez-Tavera, E; Monroy-Mendieta, M M

    2018-01-02

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to absorb organic compounds (potassium hydrogen phthalate, sodium tartrate, malathion, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), and piroxicam). For the aforementioned purpose, an artificial wetland system (AWS) was constructed and filled with water hyacinth collected from the Valsequillo Reservoir, Puebla, Mexico. Potassium hydrogen phthalate and sodium tartrate were measured in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD). The present study indicated that the water hyacinths absorbed nearly 1.8-16.6 g of COD kg -1 dm (dry mass of water hyacinth), while the absorbance efficiency of BOD was observed to be 45.8%. The results also indicated that the maximum absorbance efficiency of malathion, 2,4-D, and piroxicam was observed to be 67.6%, 58.3%, and 99.1%, respectively. The kinetics of organic compounds fitted different orders as malathion followed a zeroth-order reaction, while 2,4-D and piroxicam followed the first-order reactions. Preliminary assessment of absorption of heavy metals by the water hyacinth in the AWS was observed to be (all values in mg g -1 ) 7 (Ni), 13.4 (Cd), 16.3 (Pb), and 17.5 (Zn) of dry biomass, thus proving its feasibility to depurate wastewater.

  7. Agricultural runoff pollution control by a grassed swales coupled with wetland detention ponds system: a case study in Taihu Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinhui; Zhao, Yaqian; Zhao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    The performance of a field grassed swales (GSs) coupled with wetland detention ponds (WDPs) system was monitored under four typical rainfall events to assess its effectiveness on agricultural runoff pollution control in Taihu Basin, China. The results indicated that suspended solids (SS) derived from the flush process has significant influence on pollution loads in agricultural runoff. Determination of first flush effect (FFE) indicated that total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) exhibited moderate FFE, while chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) showed weak FFE. Average removal efficiencies of 83.5 ± 4.5, 65.3 ± 6.8, 91.6 ± 3.8, and 81.3 ± 5.8 % for TSS, COD, TN, and TP were achieved, respectively. The GSs played an important role in removing TSS and TP and acted as a pre-treatment process to prevent clogging of the subsequent WDPs. Particle size distributions (PSDs) analysis indicated that coarse particles larger than 75 μm accounted for 80 % by weight of the total particles in the runoff. GSs can effectively reduce coarse particles (≥75 μm) in runoff, while its removal efficiency for fine particles (runoff pollution control.

  8. Ecological and Landscape Drivers of Neonicotinoid Insecticide Detections and Concentrations in Canada's Prairie Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Anson R; Michel, Nicole L; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Morrissey, Christy A

    2015-07-21

    Neonicotinoids are commonly used seed treatments on Canada's major prairie crops. Transported via surface and subsurface runoff into wetlands, their ultimate aquatic fate remains largely unknown. Biotic and abiotic wetland characteristics likely affect neonicotinoid presence and environmental persistence, but concentrations vary widely between wetlands that appear ecologically (e.g., plant composition) and physically (e.g., depth) similar for reasons that remain unclear. We conducted intensive surveys of 238 wetlands, and documented 59 wetland (e.g., dominant plant species) and landscape (e.g., surrounding crop) characteristics as part of a novel rapid wetland assessment system. We used boosted regression tree (BRT) analysis to predict both probability of neonicotinoid analytical detection and concentration. BRT models effectively predicted the deviance in neonicotinoid detection (62.4%) and concentration (74.7%) from 21 and 23 variables, respectively. Detection was best explained by shallow marsh plant species identity (34.8%) and surrounding crop (13.9%). Neonicotinoid concentration was best explained by shallow marsh plant species identity (14.9%) and wetland depth (14.2%). Our research revealed that plant composition is a key indicator and/or driver of neonicotinoid presence and concentration in Prairie wetlands. We recommend wetland buffers consisting of diverse native vegetation be retained or restored to minimize neonicotinoid transport and retention in wetlands, thereby limiting their potential effects on wetland-dependent organisms.

  9. Coastal wetlands, sea level, and the dimensions of geomorphic resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2018-03-01

    Geomorphic system resilience is often perceived as an intrinsic property of system structure and interactions but is also related to idiosyncratic place and history factors. The importance of geographical and historical circumstances makes it difficult to generate categorical statements about geomorphic resilience. However, network-based analyses of system structure can be used to determine the dynamical stability (= resilience) based on generally applicable relationships and to determine scenarios of stability or instability. These provide guidelines for assessing place and history factors to assess resilience. A model of coastal wetlands is analyzed, based on interactions among relative sea level, wetland surface elevation, hydroperiod, vegetation, and sedimentation. The system is generally (but not always) dynamically unstable and non-resilient. Because of gradients of environmental factors and patchy distributions of microtopography and vegetation, a coastal wetland landscape may have extensive local variations in stability/resilience and in the key relationships that trigger instabilities. This is illustrated by a case study where dynamically unstable fragmentation is found in two nearby coastal wetlands in North Carolina's Neuse River estuary-Otter Creek Mouth and Anderson Creek. Neither is keeping pace with relative sea level rise, and both show unstable state transitions within the wetland system; but locally stable relationships exist within the wetland systems.

  10. Sustainable wetland management and support of ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Loren M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Brinson, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    This article is a follow-up on a previous piece in the National Wetlands Newsletter in which we outlined problems associated with a static, local approach to wetland management versus an alternative that proposes a temporal and geomorphic approach (Euliss et al. 2009). We extend that concept by drawing on companion papers recently published in the journal Wetlands (Euliss et al. 2008, Smith et al. 2008). Here we highlight reasons for the failure of many managed wetlands to provide a suite of ecosystem services (e.g., carbon storage, diodiversity, ground-water recharge, contaminant filtering, floodwater storage). Our principal theme is that wetland management is best approached by giving consideration to the hydrogeomorphic processes that maintain productive ecosystems and by removing physical and social impediments to those processes. Traditional management actions are often oriented toward maintaining static conditions in wetlands without considering the temporal cycles that wetlands need to undergo or achieve productivity for specific groups of wildlife, such as waterfowl. Possibly more often, a manager's ability to influence hydrogeomorphic processes is restricted by activities in surrounding watersheds. These could be dams, for example, which do not allow management of flood-pulse processes essential to productivity of riparian systems. In most cases, sediments and nutrients associated with land use in contributing watersheds complicate management of wetlands for a suite of services, including wildlife. Economic or policy forces far-removed from a wetland often interact to prevent occurrence of basic ecosystem processes. Our message is consistent with recommendation of supply-side sustainability of Allen et al. (2002) in which ecosystems are managed "for the system that produces outputs rather than the outputs themselves."

  11. Modeling the climatic and subsurface stratigraphy controls on the hydrology of a Carolina Bay wetland in South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Timothy J. Callahan; Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Carl C. Trettin

    2006-01-01

    Restoring depressional wetlands or geographically isolated wetlands such as cypress swamps and Carolina bays on the Atlantic Coastal Plains requires a clear understanding of the hydrologic processes and water balances. The objectives of this paper are to (1) test a distributed forest hydrology model, FLATWOODS, for a Carolina bay wetland system using seven years of...

  12. Modeling the climatic and subsurface stratigraphy controls on the hydrology of a Carolina bay wetland in South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Timothy J. Callahan; Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Carl C. Trettin

    2006-01-01

    Restoring depressional wetlands or geographically isolated wetlands such as cypress swamps and Carolina bays on the Atlantic Coastal Plains requires a clear understanding of the hydrologic processes and water balances. The objectives of this paper are to (1) test a distributed forest hydrology model, FLATWOODS, for a Carolina bay wetland system using seven years of...

  13. 40 CFR 258.12 - Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degraded wetlands or creation of man-made wetlands); and (5) Sufficient information is available to make a... expansions shall not be located in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following...

  14. Wetland and waterbody restoration and creation associated with mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Published and unpublished reports are reviewed and the strategies and techniques used to facilitate the establishment of wetlands and waterbodies during mine reclamation are summarized. Although the emphasis is on coal, phosphate, and sand and gravel operations, the methods are relevant to other types of mining and mitigation activities. The following key points should receive attention during planning and mitigation processes: (1) development of site-specific objectives that are related to regional wetland trends; (2) integration of wetland mitigation plans with mining operations and reclamation at the beginning of any project; (3) wetland designs that mimic natural systems and provide flexibility for unforeseen events; (4) assurance that basin morphometry and control of the hydrologic regime are properly addressed before considering other aspects of a project; and (5) identification of mandatory monitoring as a known cost. Well-designed studies that use comparative approaches are needed to increase the database on wetland restoration technology. Meanwhile, regional success criteria for different classes of wetlands need to be developed by consensus agreement among professionals. The rationale for a particular mitigation strategy must have a sound, scientific basis if the needs of mining industries are to be balanced against the necessity of wetland operation. 93 refs., 3 figs

  15. Wetlands - an underestimated economic resource?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gren, I.M.; Soederqvist, T.

    1996-01-01

    Wetlands are producing several valuable resources like fish, potential for recreation, water cleaning etc. These resources, and methods for assigning an economic value to them, are discussed in this article. Swedish and foreign empirical studies of the economic value of wetlands are reviewed. This review shows that socioeconomic estimates of the value of wetlands risk to be misleading if the direct and indirect values are not properly accounted for. 37 refs

  16. Subsurface Treatment of Domestic Wastewater Using Single Domicile Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseltyne, T.; Steer, D.; Fraser, L.

    2001-05-01

    Analysis of one year of input versus output water quality monitoring data from nine household wastewater treatment wetlands in western Ohio indicates that these systems substantially reduce effluent loads delivered to the local watershed. Overall performance as measured by output water quality improvement varies widely between the nine systems despite their close proximity and identical design. These three-cell systems (septic tank with 2 subsurface wetland cells) are found to reduce biological oxygen demand (BOD) 70-98%, fecal coliform 60-99.9%, NH3 29-97%, Phosphorus 21-99.9% and total suspended solids (TSS) up to 97%. NO3/NO2 readings were only taken at the second wetland cell, but show that NO3/NO2 levels are at 0.005-5.01 mg/l and well below the USEPA standards for discharge from a wetland. On average, the pH of the wastewater increases from 6.6 at the septic tank to 8.7 at the wetland output. Nearly all the monitoring data indicate clear decreases in nutrient loads and bacteria though individual systems are found to non-systematically fail to meet EPA discharge guidelines for one or more of the monitored loads. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates a decrease in overall efficiency of the wetlands in April that may be related to seasonal factors. These systems will be monitored for the next three years in order to relate changing performance trends to seasonal variability.

  17. Morphology of a Wetland Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurmu; Andrle

    1997-11-01

    / Little attention has been paid to wetland stream morphology in the geomorphological and environmental literature, and in the recently expanding wetland reconstruction field, stream design has been based primarily on stream morphologies typical of nonwetland alluvial environments. Field investigation of a wetland reach of Roaring Brook, Stafford, Connecticut, USA, revealed several significant differences between the morphology of this stream and the typical morphology of nonwetland alluvial streams. Six morphological features of the study reach were examined: bankfull flow, meanders, pools and riffles, thalweg location, straight reaches, and cross-sectional shape. It was found that bankfull flow definitions originating from streams in nonwetland environments did not apply. Unusual features observed in the wetland reach include tight bends and a large axial wavelength to width ratio. A lengthy straight reach exists that exceeds what is typically found in nonwetland alluvial streams. The lack of convex bank point bars in the bends, a greater channel width at riffle locations, an unusual thalweg location, and small form ratios (a deep and narrow channel) were also differences identified. Further study is needed on wetland streams of various regions to determine if differences in morphology between alluvial and wetland environments can be applied in order to improve future designs of wetland channels.KEY WORDS: Stream morphology; Wetland restoration; Wetland creation; Bankfull; Pools and riffles; Meanders; Thalweg

  18. Coastal Wetlands Protection Act: Case of Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Gürkan KAYA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal wetlands, being important components of estuarine and coastal systems, stand for all publicly owned lands subject to the ebb and flow of the tide. They are below the watermark of ordinary high tide. The coastal wetlands contain a vital natural resource system. The coastal wetlands resource system, unless impossible, to reconstruct or rehabilitate once adversely affected by human. In the USA, the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF river states (i.e. Georgia, Alabama and Florida have variation in the structure and the function of their wetland program affecting the ACF river basins' wetlands. Although some states have no special wetlands program, they have permits and water quality certification for these areas. Some state programs affect state agencies while local government implements other programs.

  19. Treatment of wastewater and restoration of aquatic systems through an eco-technology based constructed treatment wetlands - a successful experience in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billore, S K; Sharma, J K; Singh, N; Ram, H

    2013-01-01

    In the last couple of decades constructed wetlands (CWs) have drawn considerable interest in Central India. CWs offer an effective means of integrating wastewater treatment and resource enhancement, often at competitive cost in comparison to conventional wastewater treatments, with additional benefits of Green Urban Landscaping and wildlife habitat. This paper describes treatment performances and the design of some Sub Surface Flow CWs (SSFCW) and Artificial Floating Islands (AFIs) in Central India. Central Indian CWs show significant pollution reduction load for total suspended solids (TSS) (62-82%), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (40-75%), NH(4)-N (67-78%) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) (59-78%). Field scale SSFCWs installed so far in Central India are rectangular, earthen, single/multiple celled having similar depths of 0.60-0.90 m, hydraulic retention capacity 18-221 m(3) with effective size 41.8-1,050 m(2). The major components of CWs incorporate puddled bottom/side walls, sealed with impermeable low-density polyethylene, a bed of locally available river gravel planted with Phragmites karka, and an inlet distribution and outlet collection system. A new variant on CWs are AFIs working under hydroponics. The field scale experimental AFIs installed in-situ in a slowly flowing local river were composed of hollow bamboo, a bed of coconut coir, floating arrangements and Phragmites karka as nutrient stripping plant species. The AFIs polish the aquatic system by reducing 46.6% of TSS, 45-55% of NH(4)-N, 33-45% of NO(3)-N, 45-50% of TKN and 40-50% of BOD. The study established that there is a need for further research and sufficient data to assist the development of CWs by instilling confidence in policymakers, planners and in the public.

  20. 2011 Summary: Coastal wetland restoration research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wiley, Michael J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Czayka, Alex; Dominguez, Andrea; Doty, Susan; Eggleston, Mike; Green, Sean; Sweetman, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) projects currently taking place in Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide a unique opportunity to study ecosystem response to management actions as practitioners strive to improve wetland function and increase ecosystem services. Through a partnership between the U.S. Geological Survey – Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Ducks Unlimited, a GLRI-funded project has reestablished the hydrologic connection between an intensively managed impounded wetland (Pool 2B) and Crane Creek, a small Lake Erie tributary, by building a water-control structure that was opened in the spring of 2011. The study site is located within the USFWS Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge (ONWR) and lies within the boundaries of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-designated Maumee River Area of Concern. The broad objective of the project is to evaluate how hydrologically reconnecting a previously diked wetland impacts fish, mollusks, and other biota and affects nutrient transport, nutrient cycling, water quality, flood storage, and many other abiotic conditions. The results from this project suggest large system-wide benefits from sustainable reestablishment of lake-driven hydrology in this and other similar systems. We comprehensively sampled water chemistry, fish, birds, plants, and invertebrates in Crane Creek coastal wetlands, Pool 2A (a reference diked wetland), and Pool 2B (the reconnected wetland) in 2010 and 2011 to: 1) Characterize spatial and seasonal patterns for these parameters. 2) Examine ecosystem response to the opening of a water-control structure that allows fish passage Our sampling efforts have yielded data that reveal striking changes in water quality, hydrology, and fish assemblages in our experimental unit (2B). Prior to the reconnection, the water chemistry in pools 2A and 2B were very similar. Afterwards, we found that the water chemistry in reconnected Pool 2B was more

  1. Wetland plant influence on sediment ecosystem structure and trophic function

    OpenAIRE

    Whitcraft, Christine René

    2007-01-01

    Vascular plants structure wetland ecosystems. To examine mechanisms behind their influence, plants were studied under different scenarios of change: experimental manipulation of cover, invasion, and response to flushing regimes. I tested the hypothesis that wetland plants alter benthic communities through modification of abiotic factors, with cascading effects on microalgae and invertebrate communities. Major plant effects were observed in all systems studied, but the magnitude of, mechanisms...

  2. The use of artificial wetlands to treat greenhouse effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Lévesque, Vicky; Dorais, Martine; Gravel, Valérie; Ménard, Claudine; Antoun, Hani; Rochette, Philippe; Roy, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    Untreated greenhouse effluents or leak solution constitute a major environmental burden because their nitrate and phosphate concentrations may induce eutrophication. Artificial wetlands may offer a low cost alternative treatment of greenhouse effluents and consequently improve the sustainability of greenhouse growing systems. The objectives of this study were to 1) characterize the efficiency of different types of wetland to reduce ion content of greenhouse tomato effluent, and 2) improve the...

  3. Characteristics of biosolids from sludge treatment wetlands for agricultural reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggetti, Enrica; Ferrer, Ivet; Nielsen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Sludge treatment wetlands (STW) consist of constructed wetlands systems specifically developed for sludge treatment over the last decades. Sludge dewatering and stabilisation are the main features of this technology, leading to a final product which may be recycled as an organic fertiliser or soi...... legal limits for land application of the sludge. Our results suggest that biosolids from the studied STW can be valorised in agriculture, especially as soil conditioner....

  4. Assessment of nutrient removal in vegetated and unvegetated gravel bed mesocosm treatment wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, J.M.; Werker, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are being considered more frequently as an option for wastewater treatment around the world. However, widespread application of this technology requires further understanding of the system performance. Such knowledge is necessary to develop improved models, better characterize the essential treatment processes and improve the reliability in performance. The goal of achieving predictable levels of wastewater amelioration with minimal performance variability is an essential part of securing regulatory approval for treatment wetland systems. Laboratory mesocosms or unit-wetlands are being utilized and novel in-situ calibration methods are being applied to reference and compare kinetics of wastewater contaminant transformations. Tracer studies are being applied to reference plant and biofilm development within and between mesocosms with respect to carbon and nitrogen. Through detailed characterization of these unit wetlands, aspects of nutrient removal are being systematically examined. This paper will highlight the unit-wetland approach and experimental results juxtaposed the relevant literature surrounding wetland treatment of wastewater. (author)

  5. Storm event-scale nutrient attenuation in constructed wetlands experiencing a Mediterranean climate: A comparison of a surface flow and hybrid surface-subsurface flow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adyel, Tanveer M; Oldham, Carolyn E; Hipsey, Matthew R

    2017-11-15

    Among different Water Sensitive Urban Design options, constructed wetlands (CWs) are used to protect and restore downstream water quality by attenuating nutrients generated by stormwater runoff. This research compared the nutrient attenuation ability during a diverse population of storm events of two CWs: (a) a hybrid CW with multiple alternating surface flow (SF) and laterite-based subsurface flow (SSF) compartments, and (b) a single stage SF CW. Within-storm variability, nutrient concentrations were assessed at 2 to 3-h intervals at both the main inlet and outlet of each CW. Dissolved oxygen concentrations of the surface waters were also monitored at 10-min intervals using high frequency in situ sensors. Nutrient loads into the CWs were observed to be higher when a high rainfall event occurred, particularly after longer antecedent dry conditions. Longer hydraulic retention times promoted higher attenuation at both sites. However, the relative extent of nutrient attenuation differed between the CW types; the mean total nitrogen (TN) attenuation in the hybrid and SF CW was 45 and 48%, respectively. The hybrid CW attenuated 67% total phosphorus (TP) loads on average, while the SF CW acted as a net TP source. Periodic storm events transitioned the lentic CW into a lotic CW and caused riparian zone saturation; it was therefore hypothesized that such saturation of organic matter rich-riparian zones led to release of TP in the system. The hybrid CW attenuated the released TP in the downstream laterite-based SSF compartments. Diel oxygen metabolism calculated before and after the storm events was found to be strongly correlated with water temperature, solar exposure and antecedent dry condition during the pre-storm conditions. Furthermore, the SF CW showed a significant relationship between overall nutrient load attenuation and the change in oxygen metabolism during the storm perturbation, suggesting oxygen variation could be a useful proxy indicator of CW function

  6. Roofvogels in de Nederlandse wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Cornelis; Beemster, Nicolaas; Zijlstra, Menno; van Eerden, M; Daan, Serge

    1995-01-01

    Roofvogels in de Nederlandse wetlands (1995). C. Dijkstra, N. Beemster, M. Zijlstra, M. van Eerden, S. Daan RWS, RDIJ, Flevobericht nr. 381. ISBN 90-369-1147-8. Dit Flevobericht vormt de eindrapportage van het onderzoeksproject " De betekenis van grootschalige wetlands voor roofvogels". De verwerkte

  7. Carbon Storage in US Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in US wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. ...

  8. Carbon dynamics in wetland restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, K.; Ciborowski, J.; Gardner-Costa, J.; Slama, C. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada); Daly, C.; Hornung, J. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Dixon, G.; Farwell, A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Foote, L.; Frederick, K.; Roy, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Smits, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Wytrykush, C. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study focused on the reclamation of wetland ecosystems impacted by oil sands development in the boreal wetlands. Although these wetlands play an important role in global carbon balance, their ecosystem function is compromised by direct and regional anthropogenic disturbance and climate change. Large oil sand mining areas that require reclamation generate substantial quantities of extraction process-affected materials. In order to determine if the reclaimed wetlands were restored to equivalent ecosystem function, this study evaluated carbon flows and food web structure in oil sands-affected wetlands. The purpose was to determine whether a prescribed reclamation strategy or topsoil amendment accelerates reclaimed wetland development to produce self-sustaining peatlands. In addition to determining carbon fluxes, this study measured compartment standing stocks for residual hydrocarbons, organic substrate, bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, biofilm, macrophytes, detritus, zoobenthos and aquatic-terrestrial exports. Most biotic 28 compartments differed between oil-sands-affected and reference wetlands, but the difference lessened with age. Macroinvertebrate trophic diversity was lower in oil sands-affected wetlands. Peat amendment seemed to speed convergence for some compartments but not others. These results were discussed in the context of restoration of ecosystem function and optimization of reclamation strategies.

  9. Detecting Emergence, Growth, and Senescence of Wetland Vegetation with Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa L. Gallant

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands provide ecosystem goods and services vitally important to humans. Land managers and policymakers working to conserve wetlands require regularly updated information on the statuses of wetlands across the landscape. However, wetlands are challenging to map remotely with high accuracy and consistency. We investigated the use of multitemporal polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR data acquired with Canada’s Radarsat-2 system to track within-season changes in wetland vegetation and surface water. We speculated, a priori, how temporal and morphological traits of different types of wetland vegetation should respond over a growing season with respect to four energy-scattering mechanisms. We used ground-based monitoring data and other ancillary information to assess the limits and consistency of the SAR data for tracking seasonal changes in wetlands. We found the traits of different types of vertical emergent wetland vegetation were detected well with the SAR data and corresponded with our anticipated backscatter responses. We also found using data from Landsat’s optical/infrared sensors in conjunction with SAR data helped remove confusion of wetland features with upland grasslands. These results suggest SAR data can provide useful monitoring information on the statuses of wetlands over time.

  10. [Wetland landscape pattern change based on GIS and RS: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fan-Ting; Xi, Min; Li, Yue; Kong, Fan-Long; Chen, Wan

    2013-04-01

    Wetland is an ecological landscape with most biodiversity in nature, which has unique ecological structure and function, and contains abundant natural resources to provide material guarantee for human's living and development. Wetland landscape pattern is the comprehensive result of various ecological processes, and has become a hot issue in wetland ecological study. At present, the combination of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies is an important way to study the wetland landscape pattern change. This paper reviewed the research progress in the wetland landscape change based on GIS and RS from the aspects of the research methods of wetland landscape pattern, index of wetland landscape pattern, and driving forces of wetland landscape pattern evolution, and discussed the applications of the combination of GIS and RS in monitoring the wetland landscape pattern change, the index selection of wetland landscape pattern, and the driving mechanisms of the combined action of human and nature. Some deficiencies in the current studies were put forward, and the directions of the future-studies were prospected.

  11. Assessment of biodiversities and spatial structure of Zarivar Wetland in Kurdistan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHDI REYAHI-KHORAM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reyahi-Khoram M, Hoshmand K. 2012. Assessment of biodiversities and spatial structure of Zarivar Wetland in Kurdistan Province, Iran. Biodiversitas 13: 130-134. Wetlands are valuable ecosystems that occupy about 6% of the world’s land surface. Iran has over 250 wetlands measuring about 2.5 million hectares. Zarivar wetland (ZW is the only natural aquatic ecosystem in Kurdistan province in Iran. The present research was carried out during 2009 through 2010 with the aim of recognizing the capabilities and limitations of ZW through documentary, extensive field visits and also direct field observations during the years of study. Geographic Information System (GIS has been used to evaluate the land as a main tool. The results of this research showed that ZW has a great talent regarding diversity of bird species and the ecological status of wetland has caused the said wetland welcome numerous species of birds. The results of this research showed that industrial pollutions are not considered as threats to the wetland but evacuation of agricultural runoff and development of Marivan city toward the wetland and the resulting pollution load could be introduced as an important part of the wetland threats. It is recommended to make necessary studies in the field of various physical and biological parameters of the wetland, and also the facing threats and opportunities.

  12. Growth Responses of Three Dominant Wetland Plant Species to Various Flooding and Nutrient Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, S.; Shaffer, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal Louisiana is experiencing a greater rate of wetland loss than any other wetland system in the United States. This is primarily due to anthropogenic stressors such as flood control levees, backfilling and development of wetlands, and other hydrologic modifications. Methods employed to mitigate wetland loss include the construction of river diversions and assimilation wetlands, which can provide consistent sources of freshwater influx and nutrients to impounded swamps and marshes. It is well known that prolonged flooding causes strain on wetland plant communities and facilitates or exacerbates wetland degradation. However, because river diversions and assimilation wetlands bring high nutrient loads along with freshwater, there is debate over whether prolonged flooding or high influx of nutrients is the primary cause of stress in river diversion and assimilation wetland discharge areas. This mesocosm experiment addresses this question by isolating the effects of flooding and nutrients on the biomass of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum), maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), and cordgrass (Spartina patens) over the course of a growing season. The results of this study provide clarity as to whether flooding stress, high nutrient loads, or both cause a reduction in wetland plant productivity. By evaluating the growth responses of T. distichum, P. hemitomon, and S. patens at varying nutrient regimes, we gain insight on how these more dominant species will react to high nutrient discharges from large river diversions, such as those proposed in Louisiana's 2017 Master Plan.

  13. Detecting emergence, growth, and senescence of wetland vegetation with polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Alisa L.; Kaya, Shannon G.; White, Lori; Brisco, Brian; Roth, Mark F.; Sadinski, Walter J.; Rover, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands provide ecosystem goods and services vitally important to humans. Land managers and policymakers working to conserve wetlands require regularly updated information on the statuses of wetlands across the landscape. However, wetlands are challenging to map remotely with high accuracy and consistency. We investigated the use of multitemporal polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data acquired with Canada’s Radarsat-2 system to track within-season changes in wetland vegetation and surface water. We speculated, a priori, how temporal and morphological traits of different types of wetland vegetation should respond over a growing season with respect to four energy-scattering mechanisms. We used ground-based monitoring data and other ancillary information to assess the limits and consistency of the SAR data for tracking seasonal changes in wetlands. We found the traits of different types of vertical emergent wetland vegetation were detected well with the SAR data and corresponded with our anticipated backscatter responses. We also found using data from Landsat’s optical/infrared sensors in conjunction with SAR data helped remove confusion of wetland features with upland grasslands. These results suggest SAR data can provide useful monitoring information on the statuses of wetlands over time.

  14. The use of HJ-1A/B satellite data to detect changes in the size of wetlands in response in to a sudden turn from drought to flood in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the response in the size of wetlands to a sudden turn from drought to flood along the Yangtze River system in China. The wetlands and their spatial distributions in the provinces of Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Anhui and Jiangsu for three periods (April and May 2010, April and May 2011 and June and July 2011 were identified by the artificial visual interpretation of charge-coupled device images obtained in 2010 and 2011 by the HJ-1A and HJ-1B satellites. The sizes of the wetland areas of all five provinces in the three periods were 30,087.10, 23,427.68 and 31,346.49 km2, respectively, with the largest changes occurring in Jiangxi. Changes in the mean standardized precipitation index (SPI and its patterns of spatial distribution had similar trends to the changes in the size of the wetlands of each province in the three periods. SPI was positively correlated (R2 = 0.360, p < 0.05 with changes in the proportions of the wetlands during the drought. The mean SPI of the final period after the flood was positively correlated (R2 = 0.406, p < 0.01 with changes in the proportions of wetlands. Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake were impacted most by the flood, and Hongze Lake and Caohu Lake were the least affected.

  15. [Changes of wetland landscape pattern in Dayang River Estuary based on high-resolution remote sensing image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Zhao, Dong-zhi; Zhang, Feng-shou; Wei, Bao-quan

    2011-07-01

    Based on the comprehensive consideration of the high resolution characteristics of remote sensing data and the current situation of land cover and land use in Dayang River Estuary wetland, a classification system with different resolutions of wetland landscape in the Estuary was established. The landscape pattern indices and landscape transition matrix were calculated by using the high resolution remote sensing data, and the dynamic changes of the landscape pattern from 1984 to 2008 were analyzed. In the study period, the wetland landscape components changed drastically. Wetland landscape transferred from natural wetland into artificial wetland, and wetland core regional area decreased. Natural wetland's largest patch area index descended, and the fragmentation degree ascended; while artificial wetland area expanded, its patch number decreased, polymerization degree increased, and the maximum patch area index had an obvious increasing trend. Increasing human activities, embankment construction, and reclamation for aquaculture were the main causes for the decrease of wetland area and the degradation of the ecological functions of Dayang River Estuary. To constitute long-term scientific and reasonable development plan, establish wetland nature reserves, protect riverway, draft strict inspective regimes for aquaculture reclamation, and energetically develop resource-based tourism industry would be the main strategies for the protection of the estuarine wetland.

  16. Advancing Wetlands Mapping and Monitoring with GNSS Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuffada, Cinzia; Chew, Clara; Nghiem, Son V.; Shah, Rashmi; Podest, Erika; Bloom, A. Anthony; Koning, Alexandra; Small, Eric; Schimel, David; Reager, J. T.; Mannucci, Anthony; Williamson, Walton; Cardellach, Estel

    2016-08-01

    Wetland dynamics is crucial to address changes in both atmospheric methane (CH4) and terrestrial water storage. Yet, both spatial distribution and temporal variability of wetlands remain highly unconstrained despite the existence of remote sensing products from past and present satellite sensors. An innovative approach to mapping wetlands is offered by the Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R), which is a bistatic radar concept that takes advantage of the ever increasing number of GNSS transmitting satellites to yield many randomly distributed measurements with broad-area global coverage and rapid revisit time. Hence, this communication presents the science motivation for mapping of wetlands and monitoring of their dynamics, and shows the relevance of the GNSS-R technique in this context, relative to and in synergy with other existing measurement systems. Additionally, the communication discusses results of our data analysis on wetlands in the Amazon, specifically from the initial analysis of satellite data acquired by the TechDemoSat-1 mission launched in 2014. Finally, recommendations are provided for the design of a GNSS-R mission specifically to address wetlands science issues.

  17. Fish and wildlife evaluation of wetlands created by mining activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepler, S.R.; Sabolcik, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Four lacustrine wetland systems in Pennsylvania created by mining activities, either by sand and gravel or bituminous coal removal, were samples to determine the functional values of the fish and wildlife habitat. Most of the sampled sites were remnants of pre-act (1977) mining where minimal, if any, reclamation techniques were used. Natural succession within these impoundments have created ecosystems different in quality based on the availability of suitable habitat. Sampling techniques used to evaluate the wetland systems included initial water quality analyses, and aquatic habitat mapping using visual observations, LCD recorder, and computerized chart recorder. Fish populations were sampled using a boat mounted D.C. electrofishing unit with game fish being collected, weighted and measured and population estimates calculated as catch per unit effort (CPUE). Wildlife utilization of each site was conducted during the spring nesting season. Each site was surveyed for species utilization, nest searches determined whether nesting occurred and nesting success was noted. Wildlife utilization was determined by observation, tracks, calls, scat, etc. Whenever possible sites were monitored during the fall migration period to determine whether the sites were being utilized by migratory waterfowl. Wetland vegetative studies were also conducted at each site. Wetland species were identified and concentrations and dispersion of each wetland species were noted. Each sampled wetland data set is presented separately because of the variabilities between sampled sites based on the geology, reclamation status, and habitat

  18. Climate Change and Intertidal Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline M. Ross

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause—the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the “squeeze” experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change.

  19. Climate change and intertidal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pauline M; Adam, Paul

    2013-03-19

    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause-the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the "squeeze" experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change.

  20. Tidal Wetlands of the Yaquina and Alsea River Estuaries in Oregon: GIS layer development and recommendations for National Wetlands Inventory revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) layers of current and likely former tidal wetlands in two Oregon estuaries were generated by enhancing the 2010 National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data with expert local field knowledge, LiDAR-derived elevations, and 2009 aerial orthophotos. Th...

  1. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiero, Laurent; Berger, Gilles; Rezende Filho, Ary T; Meunier, Jean-François; Martins-Silva, Elisângela R; Furian, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types), which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite), which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1) collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa) to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1) and Al (up to 7 mg L-1) are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described in the

  2. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Barbiero

    Full Text Available Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types, which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite, which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1 collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1 and Al (up to 7 mg L-1 are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described

  3. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jean-François; Martins-Silva, Elisângela R.; Furian, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types), which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite), which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1) collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa) to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1) and Al (up to 7 mg L-1) are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described in the

  4. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Macrophytes, Water and Sediment of a Tropical Wetland System Using Hierarchical Cluster Analysis Technique

    OpenAIRE

    , N. Kumar J.I.; , M. Das; , R. Mukherji; , R.N. Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystems is becoming a global phenomenon because these metals are indestructible and most of them have toxic effects on living organisms. Most of the fresh water bodies all over the world are getting contaminated thus declining their suitability. Therefore, monitoring and assessment of such freshwater systems has become an environmental concern. This study aims to elucidate the useful role of the cluster analysis to assess the relationship and interdependenc...

  5. A network model framework for prioritizing wetland conservation in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Gene; Haukos, David A.

    2017-01-01

    ContextPlaya wetlands are the primary habitat for numerous wetland-dependent species in the Southern Great Plains of North America. Plant and wildlife populations that inhabit these wetlands are reciprocally linked through the dispersal of individuals, propagules and ultimately genes among local populations.ObjectiveTo develop and implement a framework using network models for conceptualizing, representing and analyzing potential biological flows among 48,981 spatially discrete playa wetlands in the Southern Great Plains.MethodsWe examined changes in connectivity patterns and assessed the relative importance of wetlands to maintaining these patterns by targeting wetlands for removal based on network centrality metrics weighted by estimates of habitat quality and probability of inundation.ResultsWe identified several distinct, broad-scale sub networks and phase transitions among playa wetlands in the Southern Plains. In particular, for organisms that can disperse >2 km a dense and expansive wetland sub network emerges in the Southern High Plains. This network was characterized by localized, densely connected wetland clusters at link distances (h) >2 km but <5 km and was most sensitive to changes in wetland availability (p) and configuration when h = 4 km, and p = 0.2–0.4. It transitioned to a single, large connected wetland system at broader spatial scales even when the proportion of inundated wetland was relatively low (p = 0.2).ConclusionsOur findings suggest that redundancy in the potential for broad and fine-scale movements insulates this system from damage and facilitates system-wide connectivity among populations with different dispersal capacities.

  6. Wetlands Research Program. Wetland Evaluation Technique (WET). Volume 2. Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    to waves taller than I ft? • " Guidelines: 1 "Sufficient" is defined as the height of vegetation or relief multiplied * by length of vegetation or...Sci., Interim Rep. No. 3, Gloucester Point, VA. 52 pp. 203 VI. 4 WET 2.0 Simmons, E. G. 1957. An ecological survey of the Upper Laguna Madre of Texas...A wetland class characterized by vegetation that is 6 m or taller . Fringe Wetland - Fringe wetlands along a channel (i.e.. river, stream, etc.)are

  7. Upland Forest Linkages to Seasonal Wetlands: Litter Flux, Processing, and Food Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Palik; Darold P. Batzer; Christel Kern

    2005-01-01

    The flux of materials across ecosystem boundaries has significant effects on recipient systems. Because of edge effects, seasonal wetlands in upland forest are good systems to explore these linkages. The purpose of this study was to examine flux of coarse particulate organic matter as litter fall into seasonal wetlands in Minnesota, and the relationship of this flux to...

  8. Carbon sequestration in surface flow constructed wetland after 12 years of swine wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands used for the treatment of swine wastewater may potentially sequester significant amounts of carbon. In past studies, we evaluated the treatment efficiency of wastewater in marsh-pond-marsh design wetland system. The functionality of this system was highly dependent on soil carbo...

  9. Carbon dynamics, food web structure and reclamation strategies in Athabasca oil sands wetlands (CRFAW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciborowski, J.; Dixon, G.; Foote, L.; Liber, K.; Smits, J.

    2010-01-01

    This abstract provided details of the Carbon Dynamics, Food Web Structure and Reclamation Strategies in Athabasca Oil Sands Wetlands (CFRAW) program, a collaboration between oil sands industry partners and university laboratories. CFRAW researchers are investigating the effects of mine tailings and process waters on the development, health, and function of wetland communities in post-mining landscapes. The aim of the program is to accurately predict how quickly the reclaimed wetlands will approach conditions seen in reference wetland systems. The program is also examining the effects of hydrocarbons as a surrogate source of carbon after they are metabolized by bacteria. The biological uptake, pathways, and movement through the food web of materials used by the biota in constructed wetlands are also being studied. Flux estimates will be used to determine if wetlands amended with peat will maintain their productivity. A conceptual model of carbon pathways and budgets is also being developed.

  10. Mitigation of two pyrethroid insecticides in a Mississippi Delta constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M T; Cooper, C M; Smith, S; Cullum, R F; Knight, S S; Locke, M A; Bennett, E R

    2009-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are a suggested best management practice to help mitigate agricultural runoff before entering receiving aquatic ecosystems. A constructed wetland system (180 m x 30 m), comprising a sediment retention basin and two treatment cells, was used to determine the fate and transport of simulated runoff containing the pyrethroid insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin, as well as suspended sediment. Wetland water, sediment, and plant samples were collected spatially and temporally over 55 d. Results showed 49 and 76% of the study's measured lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin masses were associated with vegetation, respectively. Based on conservative effects concentrations for invertebrates and regression analyses of maximum observed wetland aqueous concentrations, a wetland length of 215 m x 30 m width would be required to adequately mitigate 1% pesticide runoff from a 14 ha contributing area. Results of this experiment can be used to model future design specifications for constructed wetland mitigation of pyrethroid insecticides.

  11. Remote sensing of wetlands applications and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Tiner, Ralph W; Klemas, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    Effectively Manage Wetland Resources Using the Best Available Remote Sensing Techniques Utilizing top scientists in the wetland classification and mapping field, Remote Sensing of Wetlands: Applications and Advances covers the rapidly changing landscape of wetlands and describes the latest advances in remote sensing that have taken place over the past 30 years for use in mapping wetlands. Factoring in the impact of climate change, as well as a growing demand on wetlands for agriculture, aquaculture, forestry, and development, this text considers the challenges that wetlands pose for remote sensing and provides a thorough introduction on the use of remotely sensed data for wetland detection. Taking advantage of the experiences of more than 50 contributing authors, the book describes a variety of techniques for mapping and classifying wetlands in a multitude of environments ranging from tropical to arctic wetlands including coral reefs and submerged aquatic vegetation. The authors discuss the advantages and di...

  12. Drivers of wetland conversion: a global meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H; Vermaat, Jan E; Janse, Jan H

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analysis of case studies has become an important tool for synthesizing case study findings in land change. Meta-analyses of deforestation, urbanization, desertification and change in shifting cultivation systems have been published. This present study adds to this literature, with an analysis of the proximate causes and underlying forces of wetland conversion at a global scale using two complementary approaches of systematic review. Firstly, a meta-analysis of 105 case-study papers describing wetland conversion was performed, showing that different combinations of multiple-factor proximate causes, and underlying forces, drive wetland conversion. Agricultural development has been the main proximate cause of wetland conversion, and economic growth and population density are the most frequently identified underlying forces. Secondly, to add a more quantitative component to the study, a logistic meta-regression analysis was performed to estimate the likelihood of wetland conversion worldwide, using globally-consistent biophysical and socioeconomic location factor maps. Significant factors explaining wetland conversion, in order of importance, are market influence, total wetland area (lower conversion probability), mean annual temperature and cropland or built-up area. The regression analyses results support the outcomes of the meta-analysis of the processes of conversion mentioned in the individual case studies. In other meta-analyses of land change, similar factors (e.g., agricultural development, population growth, market/economic factors) are also identified as important causes of various types of land change (e.g., deforestation, desertification). Meta-analysis helps to identify commonalities across the various local case studies and identify which variables may lead to individual cases to behave differently. The meta-regression provides maps indicating the likelihood of wetland conversion worldwide based on the location factors that have determined historic

  13. Impact of chloride on denitrification potential in roadside wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Nakita A; Bushey, Joseph T; Tobias, Craig R; Song, Bongkeun; Vadas, Timothy M

    2016-05-01

    Developed landscapes are exposed to changes in hydrology and water chemistry that limit their ability to mitigate detrimental impacts to coastal water bodies, particularly those that result from stormwater runoff. The elevated level of impervious cover increases not only runoff but also contaminant loading of nutrients, metals, and road salt used for deicing to water bodies. Here we investigate the impact that road salt has on denitrification in roadside environments. Sediments were collected from a series of forested and roadside wetlands and acclimated with a range of Cl(-) concentrations from 0 to 5000 mg L(-1) for 96 h. Denitrification rates were measured by the isotope pairing technique using (15)N-NO3(-), while denitrifying community structures were compared using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of nitrous oxide reductase genes (nosZ). Chloride significantly (p wetlands at a Cl(-) dosage of 2500 or 5000 mg L(-1), but the decrease in denitrification rates was less and not significant for the roadside wetlands historically exposed to elevated concentrations of Cl(-). The difference could not be attributed to other significant changes in conditions, such as DOC concentrations, N species concentrations, or pH levels. Denitrifying communities, as measured by T-RFs of the nosZ gene, in the roadside wetlands with elevated concentration of Cl(-) were distinctly different and more diverse compared to forested wetlands, and also different in roadside wetlands after 96 h exposures to Cl(-). The shifts in denitrifying communities seem to minimize the decrease in denitrification rates in the wetlands previously exposed to Cl. As development results in more Cl(-) use and exposure to a broad range of natural or manmade wetland structures, an understanding of the seasonal effect of Cl on denitrification processes in these systems would aid in design or mitigation of the effects on N removal rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Tropical wetlands: A missing link in the global carbon cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögersten, Sofie; Black, Colin R; Evers, Stephanie; Hoyos-Santillan, Jorge; Wright, Emma L; Turner, Benjamin L

    2014-01-01

    Tropical wetlands are not included in Earth system models, despite being an important source of methane (CH4) and contributing a large fraction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from land use, land use change, and forestry in the tropics. This review identifies a remarkable lack of data on the carbon balance and gas fluxes from undisturbed tropical wetlands, which limits the ability of global change models to make accurate predictions about future climate. We show that the available data on in situ carbon gas fluxes in undisturbed forested tropical wetlands indicate marked spatial and temporal variability in CO2 and CH4 emissions, with exceptionally large fluxes in Southeast Asia and the Neotropics. By upscaling short-term measurements, we calculate that approximately 90 ± 77 Tg CH4 year−1 and 4540 ± 1480 Tg CO2 year−1 are released from tropical wetlands globally. CH4 fluxes are greater from mineral than organic soils, whereas CO2 fluxes do not differ between soil types. The high CO2 and CH4 emissions are mirrored by high rates of net primary productivity and litter decay. Net ecosystem productivity was estimated to be greater in peat-forming wetlands than on mineral soils, but the available data are insufficient to construct reliable carbon balances or estimate gas fluxes at regional scales. We conclude that there is an urgent need for systematic data on carbon dynamics in tropical wetlands to provide a robust understanding of how they differ from well-studied northern wetlands and allow incorporation of tropical wetlands into global climate change models. PMID:26074666

  15. A Summary of the San Francisco Tidal Wetlands Restoration Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry R. Brown

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The four topical articles of the Tidal Wetlands Restoration Series summarized and synthesized much of what is known about tidal wetlands and tidal wetland restoration in the San Francisco Estuary (hereafter “Estuary”. Despite a substantial amount of available information, major uncertainties remain. A major uncertainty with regard to fishes is the net benefit of restored tidal wetlands relative to other habitats for native fishes in different regions of the Estuary given the presence of numerous invasive alien species. With regard to organic carbon, a major uncertainty is the net benefit of land use change given uncertainty about the quantity and quality of different forms of organic carbon resulting from different land uses. A major challenge is determining the flux of organic carbon from open systems like tidal wetlands. Converting present land uses to tidal wetlands will almost certainly result in increased methylation of mercury at the local scale with associated accumulation of mercury within local food webs. However, it is unclear if such local accumulation is of concern for fish, wildlife or humans at the local scale or if cumulative effects at the regional scale will emerge. Based on available information it is expected that restored tidal wetlands will remain stable once constructed; however, there is uncertainty associated with the available data regarding the balance of sediment accretion, sea-level rise, and sediment erosion. There is also uncertainty regarding the cumulative effect of many tidal restoration projects on sediment supply. The conclusions of the articles highlight the need to adopt a regional and multidisciplinary approach to tidal wetland restoration in the Estuary. The Science Program of the CALFED effort provides an appropriate venue for addressing these issues.

  16. Climatic Alterations of Wetlands: Conservation and Adaptation Practices in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiquee, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Unique geographic location and geo-morphological conditions of Bangladesh have made the wetlands of this country one of the most vulnerable to climate change. Wetland plays a crucial role in maintaining the ecological balance of ecosystems and cultural figures and which occupy around 50% of the area. Drought, excessive temperature, mountain snowfields and glaciers melting, riverbank erosion, salinity intrusion, flashflood, storm surges, higher water temperatures, precipitation anomalies, coastal cyclones, seasonal anomalies and extremes are main threats to the wetland ecosystem. Enhanced UV-B radiation and increased summer precipitation will significantly increase dissolved organic carbon concentrations altering major biogeochemical cycles and also will result into the expansion of range for many invasive aquatic weeds. Generally, rising temperature will lower water quality through a fall in oxygen concentrations, release of phosphorus from sediments, increased thermal stability, and altered mixing patterns. As a result biodiversity is getting degraded, many species of flora and fauna are getting threatened, and wetland-based ecosystem is getting degenerated. At the same time, the living conditions of local people are deteriorating as livelihoods, socioeconomic institutions, and extensive cultural values as well. For conserving and managing wetlands technology, legislation, educational knowledge, action plan strategy and restoration practices are required. In order to address the human needs in the changing climate community-based adaptation approaches and wetland restoration, practices had been taken in almost every type of wetlands in Bangladesh. Therefore, Bangladesh now needs a comprehensive strategy and integrated system combining political, economic, social, technological approaches and institutional supports to address sustainable wetland restoration, conservation and the newly added crisis, climate change.

  17. Hydroperiod regime controls the organization of plant species in wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Romano; del Jesus, Manuel; Rinaldo, Andrea; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2012-11-27

    With urban, agricultural, and industrial needs growing throughout the past decades, wetland ecosystems have experienced profound changes. Most critically, the biodiversity of wetlands is intimately linked to its hydrologic dynamics, which in turn are being drastically altered by ongoing climate changes. Hydroperiod regimes, e.g., percentage of time a site is inundated, exert critical control in the creation of niches for different plant species in wetlands. However, the spatial signatures of the organization of plant species in wetlands and how the different drivers interact to yield such signatures are unknown. Focusing on Everglades National Park (ENP) in Florida, we show here that cluster sizes of each species follow a power law probability distribution and that such clusters have well-defined fractal characteristics. Moreover, we individuate and model those signatures via the interplay between global forcings arising from the hydroperiod regime and local controls exerted by neighboring vegetation. With power law clustering often associated with systems near critical transitions, our findings are highly relevant for the management of wetland ecosystems. In addition, our results show that changes in climate and land management have a quantifiable predictable impact on the type of vegetation and its spatial organization in wetlands.

  18. Atrazine remediation in wetland microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runes, H B; Bottomley, P J; Lerch, R N; Jenkins, J J

    2001-05-01

    Laboratory wetland microcosms were used to study treatment of atrazine in irrigation runoff by a field-scale-constructed wetland under controlled conditions. Three experiments, in which 1 ppm atrazine was added to the water column of three wetland, one soil control, and one water control microcosm, were conducted. Atrazine dissipation from the water column and degradate formation (deethylatrazine [DEA]; deisopropylatrazine [DIA]; and hydroxyatrazine [HA]) were monitored. Atrazine dissipation from the water column of wetland microcosms was biphasic. Less than 12% of the atrazine applied to wetland microcosms remained in the water column on day 56. Atrazine degradates were observed in water and sediment, with HA the predominant degradate. Analysis of day 56 sediment samples indicated that a significant portion of the initial application was detected as the parent compound and HA. Most probable number (MPN) assays demonstrated that atrazine degrader populations were small in wetland sediment. Wetland microcosms were able to reduce atrazine concentration in the water column via sorption and degradation. Based on results from this study, it is hypothesized that plant uptake contributed to atrazine dissipation from the water column.

  19. Innovative techniques cut costs in wetlands drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an approach to drilling oil and gas wells in sensitive wetlands areas contributed to a savings of over $1.2 million on a three-well, $3 million drilling project in south Louisiana. ARCO Oil and Gas Co. drilled a three-well project in the Bayou Sale field with a truck-mounted workover rig and a modified solids-control system. This smaller equipment eliminated the need to build a large location in the marsh. Traditional drilling techniques require a large drillsite to accommodate all the equipment of a modern drilling complex. However, recently imposed environmental regulations substantially limit, and in some cases prohibit, the use of these conventional techniques for drilling wells in wetlands areas. Based on the potentially huge economic and operational impact on the drilling industry because of these stricter regulations, alternatives to these traditional practices are essential

  20. Comparing two surface flow wetlands for removal of nutrients in agricultural drainage water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Levesen, Bo

    In Denmark there is a growing interest for using constructed wetlands as a mean for removal of nutrients from agricultural run-off, such as drainage ditches and tile drainage systems. We have studied two surface flow constructed wetlands from district Vejle, Jutland, Denmark. The Vicarage Wetland.......020 mg P and unfiltered TP decreases with 75 % to 0.040 mg P l-1. The results from this study seem to indicate that constructed surface flow wetlands are able to remove nitrogen and retain phosphorus from agricultural drainage run-off although the nutrient concentrations are much lower as compared...

  1. Removal of selected PPCPs, EDCs, and antibiotic resistance genes in landfill leachate by a full-scale constructed wetlands system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xinzhu; Tran, Ngoc Han; Yin, Tingru; He, Yiliang; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2017-09-15

    Landfill leachate could be a significant source of emerging contaminants (ECs) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) into the environment. This study provides the first information on the occurrence of selected ECs and ARGs in raw leachate from 16-year old closed landfill site in Singapore. Among the investigated ECs, acetaminophen (ACT), bisphenol A (BPA), clofibric acid (CA), caffeine (CF), crotamiton (CTMT), diclofenac (DCF), N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), gemfibrozil (GFZ), lincomycin (LIN), salicylic acid (SA), and sulfamethazine (SMZ) were the most frequently detected compounds in raw landfill leachate. The concentrations of detected ECs in raw landfill leachate varied significantly, from below quantification limit to 473,977 ng/L, depending on the compound. In this study, Class I integron (intl1) gene and ten ARGs were detected in raw landfill leachate. Sulfonamide resistance (sul1, sul2, and dfrA), aminoglycoside resistance (aac6), tetracycline resistance (tetO), quinolone resistance (qnrA), and intl1 were ubiquitously present in raw landfill leachate. Other resistance genes, such as beta-lactam resistance (blaNMD1, blaKPC, and blaCTX) and macrolide-lincosamide resistance (ermB) were also detected, detection frequency of 90%) in the investigated hybrid CW system. This hybrid CW system was also found to be effective in the reduction of several ARGs (intl1, sul1, sul2, and qnrA). Aeration lagoons and reed beds appeared to be the most important treatment units of the hybrid CW for removing the majority of ECs from the leachate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Using Tradtional Ecological Knowledge to Protect Wetlands: the Swinomish Tribe's Wetland Cultural Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, T.

    2017-12-01

    "Traditional" wetland physical assessment modules do not adequately identify Tribal cultural values of wetlands and thus wetlands may not be adequately protected for cultural uses. This Swinomish Wetlands Cultural Assessment Project has developed a cultural resource scoring module that can be incorporated into wetland assessments to better inform wetland protections. Local native knowledge was gathered about the traditional uses of 99 native wetland plant species. A cultural scoring matrix was developed based on the presence of traditionally used plants in several use categories including: construction, ceremonial, subsistence, medicinal, common use, plant rarity, and place of value for each wetland. The combined score of the cultural and physcial modules provides an overall wetland score that relates to proscribed buffer protection widths. With this local native knowledge incorporated into wetland assessments, we are protecting and preserving Swinomish Reservation wetlands for both cultural uses and ecological functionality through the Tribe's wetland protection law.

  3. Specifically Designed Constructed Wetlands: A Novel Treatment Approach for Scrubber Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Rodgers Jr; James W. Castle; Chris Arrington: Derek Eggert; Meg Iannacone

    2005-09-01

    A pilot-scale wetland treatment system was specifically designed and constructed at Clemson University to evaluate removal of mercury, selenium, and other constituents from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater. Specific objectives of this research were: (1) to measure performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system in terms of decreases in targeted constituents (Hg, Se and As) in the FGD wastewater from inflow to outflow; (2) to determine how the observed performance is achieved (both reactions and rates); and (3) to measure performance in terms of decreased bioavailability of these elements (i.e. toxicity of sediments in constructed wetlands and toxicity of outflow waters from the treatment system). Performance of the pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems was assessed using two criteria: anticipated NPDES permit levels and toxicity evaluations using two sentinel toxicity-testing organisms (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas). These systems performed efficiently with varied inflow simulations of FGD wastewaters removing As, Hg, and Se concentrations below NPDES permit levels and reducing the toxicity of simulated FGD wastewater after treatment with the constructed wetland treatment systems. Sequential extraction procedures indicated that these elements (As, Hg, and Se) were bound to residual phases within sediments of these systems, which should limit their bioavailability to aquatic biota. Sediments collected from constructed wetland treatment systems were tested to observe toxicity to Hyalella azteca or Chironomus tetans. Complete survival (100%) was observed for H. azteca in all cells of the constructed wetland treatment system and C. tentans had an average of 91% survival over the three treatment cells containing sediments. Survival and growth of H. azteca and C. tentans did not differ significantly between sediments from the constructed wetland treatment system and controls. Since the sediments of the constructed

  4. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT WATER RESOURCES POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Gökalp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of untreated waste waters into surface waters creates significant pollution in these resources. Wastewaters are most of the time discharged into seas, rivers and other water bodies without any treatments due to high treatment costs both in Turkey and throughout the world. Constructed wetlands, also called as natural treatment systems, are used as an alternative treatment system to conventional high-cost treatment systems because of their low construction, operation and maintenance costs, energy demands, easy operation and low sludge generation. Today, constructed wetland systems are largely used to treat domestic wastewaters, agricultural wastewaters, industrial wastewater and runoff waters and ultimately to prevent water pollution and to improve water quality of receiving water bodies. In present study, currently implemented practices in design, construction, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands were assessed and potential mistakes made in different phases these systems were pointed out and possible solutions were proposed to overcome these problems.

  5. Effects of interspecific competition on the growth of macrophytes and nutrient removal in constructed wetlands: A comparative assessment of free water surface and horizontal subsurface flow systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yucong; Wang, Xiaochang; Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Zhao, Yaqian; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Ge, Yuan; Xiong, Jiaqing

    2016-05-01

    The outcome of competition between adjoining interspecific colonies of Phragmites and Typha in two large field pilot-scale free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SSF) CWs is evaluated. According to findings, the effect of interspecific competition was notable for Phragmites australis, whereby it showed the highest growth performance in both FWS and SSF wetland. In a mixed-culture, P. australis demonstrates superiority in terms of competitive interactions for space between plants. Furthermore, the interspecific competition among planted species seemed to cause different ecological responses of plant species in the two CWs. For example, while relatively high density and shoot height determined the high aboveground dry weight of P. australis in the FWS wetland, this association was not evident in the SSF. Additionally, while plants nutrients uptake accounts for a higher proportion of the nitrogen removal in FWS, that in the SSF accounts for a higher proportion of the phosphorous removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biogeochemical Hotspots: Small Geographically Isolated Wetlands and their Impacts at the Landscape Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, N. B.

    2017-12-01

    Wetlands provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, including retention of sediment and nutrients, and subsequent improvements in downstream water quality. In fact, a recent review suggests that 64% of reactive nitrogen (N) retention in US freshwater systems occurs in wetlands, while 28% occurs in lakes and reservoirs, and only 8% occurs in streams and rivers. Although the processes controlling nutrient retention in wetlands are well known, there is a lack of quantitative understanding of the relative nutrient filtering abilities of wetlands of various sizes, and in various landscape positions. Our inability to recognize the value of wetlands has led to their dramatic loss in the last few decades. Specifically, there has been an increased loss of geographically isolated wetlands, small upland wetlands that receive fewer legal protections due to their apparent isolation from jurisdictional waters. In this study, we use a meta-analyses approach to quantify the role of small wetlands in landscape scale nutrient processing. We synthesized data from 600 lentic systems around the world to gain insight into the relationship between hydrologic and biogeochemical controls on nutrient retention. Our results indicate that the first-order reaction rate constant k(T-1), is inversely proportional to the residence time, across 6 orders of magnitude in residence time for total N, total P, nitrate, and phosphate. We used a sediment-water model to show how nutrient removal processes are impacted by system size. Finally, the k-residence time relationships were upscaled to the landscape scale using a wetland size-frequency distribution. Results suggest that small wetlands play a disproportionately large role in landscape-scale nutrient processing—50% of nitrogen removal occurs in wetlands smaller than 10^2.5 m2 in our example. Thus, given the same loss in wetland area, the nutrient retention potential lost is greater when smaller wetlands are preferentially lost from the

  7. Using recent hurricanes and associated event layers to evaluate regional storm impacts on estuarine-wetland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. G.; Marot, M. E.; Osterman, L. E.; Adams, C. S.; Haller, C.; Jones, M.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical cyclones are a major driver of change in coastal and estuarine environments. Heightened waves and sea level associated with tropical cyclones act to erode sediment from one environment and redistribute it to adjacent environments. The fate and transport of this redistributed material is of great importance to the long-term sediment budget, which in turns affects the vulnerability of these coastal systems. The spatial variance in both storm impacts and sediment redistribution is large. At the regional-scale, difference in storm impacts can often be attributed to natural variability in geologic parameters (sediment availability/erodibility), coastal geomorphology (including fetch, shoreline tortuosity, back-barrier versus estuarine shoreline, etc.), storm characteristics (intensity, duration, track/approach), and ecology (vegetation type, gradient, density). To assess storm characteristics and coastal geomorphology on a regional-scale, cores were collected from seven Juncus marshes located in coastal regions of Alabama and Mississippi (i.e., Mobile Bay, Bon Secour Bay, Mississippi Sound, and Grand Bay) expected to have been impacted by Hurricane Frederic (1979). All cores were sectioned and processed for water content, organic matter (loss-on-ignition), and select cores analyzed for foraminiferal assemblages, stable isotopes and bulk metals to aid in the identification of storm events. Excess lead-210 and cesium-137 were used to develop chronologies for the cores and evaluate mass accumulation rates and sedimentation rates. Temporal variations in accumulation rates of inorganic and organic sediments were compared with shoreline and areal change rates derived from historic aerial imagery to evaluate potential changes in sediment exchange prior to, during, and following the storm. A combined geospatial and geologic approach will improve our understanding of coastal change in estuarine marsh environments, as well help refine the influence of storms on regional

  8. Appropriate and sustainable wastewater management in developing countries by the use of constructed wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Hans; Koottatep, Thammarat; Fryd, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Constructed wetland systems for wastewater management may have great potential in developing countries as robust and decentralized solution. A case study from Koh Phi Phi island in Thailand where a constructed wetland systems was established after the destructions by the tsunami in 2004...... is described. The project includes a wastewater collection system for the main business area of the island, a pumping station, a multistage constructed wetland system, and a system for reuse of treated wastewater. The wastewater is treated to meet the Thai effluent standards for total suspended solids......, the system is only partly a success, mainly because no key-person or key-authority took responsibility for managing the system....

  9. Ground-survey and water-quality data for selected wetlands on or near the Lower Brule Indian Reservation in South Dakota, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzert, Kathleen M.; Thompson, Ryan F.

    2015-08-20

    Numerous lakes, ponds, and wetlands are located within the Lower Brule Indian Reservation. Wetlands are an important resource providing aquatic habitat for plants and animals, and acting as a natural water filtration system. Several of the wetlands on or near the reservation are of particular interest, but information on the physical and biological integrity of these wetlands was needed to provide a base-line reference when planning for future water management needs. A reconnaissance-level study of selected wetlands on and near the Lower Brule Indian Reservation was completed in 2012–13 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Lower Brule Sioux Tribe using ground surveys and water-quality analyses. Ground surveys of six wetland areas (Dorman Slough, Little Bend Wetlands, Miller Pond, Potter Slough, an unnamed slough, and West Brule Community wetlands) were completed to map land, water, vegetation, and man-made features of the selected wetland areas using real-time kinematic global navigation satellite systems equipment. Water samples were collected from four of the selected wetlands. Two separate waterbodies were sampled at one of the wetlands for a total of five sampling locations. Water samples were analyzed for physical properties, selected inorganics, metals, nutrients, and suspended sediment. Concentrations of calcium, sodium, and sulfate were greater at the two wetland sites fed by ground water, compared to the wetland sites fed by surface runoff.

  10. Estimating coastal wetland gain and losses in Galveston County and Cameron County, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Clare; Mora, Miguel A; Knight, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Coastal wetlands serve many important ecological services. One of these important ecological services is their use as storm buffers. Coastal wetlands provide habitat for migratory birds and aquatic species and can improve water quality. In the late 1990s, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) published a study outlining the trends of coastal wetlands from the 1950s to early 1990s. In the present study, wetland gains and losses were calculated for Galveston County and Cameron County, Texas, USA, between 2001 and 2011. Maps from the National Land Cover Database were used to determine wetland areas for the years 2001, 2006, and 2011. ArcGIS was used to compare land cover between the study periods to determine overall wetland losses and gains. A statistical analysis was performed between wetland loss and population data to determine whether increased population density led to a higher loss of wetlands. Our analysis indicates that wetland loss is still occurring, however at a lower rate of loss (0.14%-0.18% annually) than the USFWS study predicted earlier (2.7%). In addition, the majority of wetland losses were due to conversion to upland areas. We found a positive correlation between increased population density and decreased wetland area; however, the trend was not significant. The present study shows how the majority of wetland loss in Galveston and Cameron counties is occurring as a result of increased upland areas. In addition, the present study shows that the use of online mapping systems can be used as a low-cost alternative to assess land changes when field tests are not feasible. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:120-129. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  11. An assessment of the performance of municipal constructed wetlands in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Anthony; Arnscheidt, Joerg; Joyce, Eadaoin; O'Toole, James; Galvin, Gerry; O' Callaghan, Mark; Conroy, Ken; Killian, Darran; Shryane, Tommy; Hughes, Francis; Walsh, Katherine; Kavanagh, Emily

    2018-03-15

    While performance assessments of constructed wetlands sites around the world have appraised their capacity for effective removal of organics, a large variance remains in these sites' reported ability to retain nutrients, which appears to depend on differences in design, operation and climate factors. Nutrient retention is a very important objective for constructed wetlands, to avoid eutrophication of aquatic environments receiving their effluents. This study assessed the performance of constructed wetlands in terms of nutrient retention and associated parameters under the humid conditions of Ireland's temperate maritime climate. A review of the performance of 52 constructed wetland sites from 17 local authorities aimed to identify the best performing types of constructed wetlands and the treatment factors determining successful compliance with environmental standards. Data analysis compared effluent results from constructed wetlands with secondary free surface flow or tertiary horizontal subsurface flow, hybrid systems and integrated constructed wetlands with those from small-scale mechanical wastewater treatment plants of the same size class. Nutrient concentrations in effluents of constructed wetlands were negatively correlated (p treatment performance of constructed wetlands significantly (p wastewater treatment plants, secondary free surface water and tertiary horizontal subsurface flow wetlands showed a very large variance in effluent concentrations for organic and nutrient parameters. E. coli numbers in effluents were lowest for integrated constructed wetlands with an arithmetic mean of 89 MPN/100 ml. Despite Ireland's humid climate, some constructed wetland sites achieved long or frequent periods of zero effluent discharge and thus did not transfer any waterborne pollution to their receptors during these periods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Desert wetlands in the geologic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, Jeff S.; Rech, Jason A.; Quade, Jay; Bright, Jordon; Edwards, L.; Springer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Desert wetlands support flora and fauna in a variety of hydrologic settings, including seeps, springs, marshes, wet meadows, ponds, and spring pools. Over time, eolian, alluvial, and fluvial sediments become trapped in these settings by a combination of wet ground conditions and dense plant cover. The result is a unique combination of clastic sediments, chemical precipitates, and organic matter that is preserved in the geologic record as ground-water discharge (GWD) deposits. GWD deposits contain information on the timing and magnitude of past changes in water-table levels and, therefore, are a potential source of paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic information. In addition, they can be important archeological and paleontological archives because desert wetlands provide reliable sources of fresh water, and thus act as focal points for human and faunal activities, in some of the world's harshest and driest lands. Here, we review some of the physical, sedimentological, and geochemical characteristics common to GWD deposits, and provide a contextual framework that researchers can use to identify and interpret geologic deposits associated with desert wetlands. We discuss several lines of evidence used to differentiate GWD deposits from lake deposits (they are commonly confused), and examine how various types of microbiota and depositional facies aid in reconstructing past environmental and hydrologic conditions. We also review how late Quaternary GWD deposits are dated, as well as methods used to investigate desert wetlands deeper in geologic time. We end by evaluating the strengths and limitations of hydrologic and climatic records derived from GWD deposits, and suggest several avenues of potential future research to further develop and utilize these unique and complex systems.

  13. Process-Based Modeling of Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, S.; Brovelli, A.; Rossi, L.; Barry, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are widespread facilities for wastewater treatment. In subsurface flow wetlands, contaminated wastewater flows through a porous matrix, where oxidation and detoxification phenomena occur. Despite the large number of working CWs, system design and optimization are still mainly based upon empirical equations or simplified first-order kinetics. This results from an incomplete understanding of the system functioning, and may in turn hinder the performance and effectiveness of the treatment process. As a result, CWs are often considered not suitable to meet high water quality-standards, or to treat water contaminated with recalcitrant anthropogenic contaminants. To date, only a limited number of detailed numerical models have been developed and successfully applied to simulate constructed wetland behavior. Among these, one of the most complete and powerful is CW2D, which is based on Hydrus2D. The aim of this work is to develop a comprehensive simulator tailored to model the functioning of horizontal flow constructed wetlands and in turn provide a reliable design and optimization tool. The model is based upon PHWAT, a general reactive transport code for saturated flow. PHWAT couples MODFLOW, MT3DMS and PHREEQC-2 using an operator-splitting approach. The use of PHREEQC to simulate reactions allows great flexibility in simulating biogeochemical processes. The biogeochemical reaction network is similar to that of CW2D, and is based on the Activated Sludge Model (ASM). Kinetic oxidation of carbon sources and nutrient transformations (nitrogen and phosphorous primarily) are modeled via Monod-type kinetic equations. Oxygen dissolution is accounted for via a first-order mass-transfer equation. While the ASM model only includes a limited number of kinetic equations, the new simulator permits incorporation of an unlimited number of both kinetic and equilibrium reactions. Changes in pH, redox potential and surface reactions can be easily incorporated

  14. Impact of chloride on denitrification potential in roadside wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, Nakita A.; Bushey, Joseph T.; Tobias, Craig R.; Song, Bongkeun; Vadas, Timothy M.

    2016-01-01

    Developed landscapes are exposed to changes in hydrology and water chemistry that limit their ability to mitigate detrimental impacts to coastal water bodies, particularly those that result from stormwater runoff. The elevated level of impervious cover increases not only runoff but also contaminant loading of nutrients, metals, and road salt used for deicing to water bodies. Here we investigate the impact that road salt has on denitrification in roadside environments. Sediments were collected from a series of forested and roadside wetlands and acclimated with a range of Cl − concentrations from 0 to 5000 mg L −1 for 96 h. Denitrification rates were measured by the isotope pairing technique using 15 N–NO 3 − , while denitrifying community structures were compared using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of nitrous oxide reductase genes (nosZ). Chloride significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited denitrification in forested wetlands at a Cl − dosage of 2500 or 5000 mg L −1 , but the decrease in denitrification rates was less and not significant for the roadside wetlands historically exposed to elevated concentrations of Cl − . The difference could not be attributed to other significant changes in conditions, such as DOC concentrations, N species concentrations, or pH levels. Denitrifying communities, as measured by T-RFs of the nosZ gene, in the roadside wetlands with elevated concentration of Cl − were distinctly different and more diverse compared to forested wetlands, and also different in roadside wetlands after 96 h exposures to Cl − . The shifts in denitrifying communities seem to minimize the decrease in denitrification rates in the wetlands previously exposed to Cl. As development results in more Cl − use and exposure to a broad range of natural or manmade wetland structures, an understanding of the seasonal effect of Cl on denitrification processes in these systems would aid in design or mitigation of the effects on

  15. Mine-associated wetlands as avian habitat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstman, A.J.; Nawrot, J.R.; Woolf, A.

    1998-01-01

    Surveys for interior wetland birds at mine-associated emergent wetlands on coal surface mines in southern Illinois detected one state threatened and two state endangered species. Breeding by least bittern (Ixobrychus exilis) and common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) was confirmed. Regional assessment of potential wetland bird habitat south of Illinois Interstate 64 identified a total of 8,109 ha of emergent stable water wetlands; 10% were associated with mining. Mine-associated wetlands with persistent hydrology and large expanses of emergent vegetation provide habitat that could potentially compensate for loss of natural wetlands in Illinois

  16. Simulating the Effects of Sea Level Rise on the Resilience and Migration of Tidal Wetlands along the Hudson River.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava M Tabak

    Full Text Available Sea Level Rise (SLR caused by climate change is impacting coastal wetlands around the globe. Due to their distinctive biophysical characteristics and unique plant communities, freshwater tidal wetlands are expected to exhibit a different response to SLR as compared with the better studied salt marshes. In this study we employed the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM, which simulates regional- or local-scale changes in tidal wetland habitats in response to SLR, and adapted it for application in a freshwater-dominated tidal river system, the Hudson River Estuary. Using regionally-specific estimated ranges of SLR and accretion rates, we produced simulations for a spectrum of possible future wetland distributions and quantified the projected wetland resilience, migration or loss in the HRE through the end of the 21st century. Projections of total wetland extent and migration were more strongly determined by the rate of SLR than the rate of accretion. Surprisingly, an increase in net tidal wetland area was projected under all scenarios, with newly-formed tidal wetlands expected to comprise at least 33% of the HRE's wetland area by year 2100. Model simulations with high rates of SLR and/or low rates of accretion resulted in broad shifts in wetland composition with widespread conversion of high marsh habitat to low marsh, tidal flat or permanent inundation. Wetland expansion and resilience were not equally distributed through the estuary, with just three of 48 primary wetland areas encompassing >50% of projected new wetland by the year 2100. Our results open an avenue for improving predictive models of the response of freshwater tidal wetlands to sea level rise, and broadly inform the planning of conservation measures of this critical resource in the Hudson River Estuary.

  17. 78 FR 68719 - Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... of wetlands in Sec. 55.2(b)(11) to cover manmade wetlands in order to ensure that wetlands built for...] RIN 2501-AD51 Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HUD... wetlands and floodplains. With respect to wetlands, the rule codifies existing procedures for Executive...

  18. Tropical wetlands and REDD+: Three unique scientific challenges for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Friess

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The carbon sequestration and storage value of terrestrial habitats is now increasingly appreciated, and is the basis for Payment for Ecosystem Service (PES policies such as REDD+. Tropical wetlands may be suitable for inclusion in such schemes because of the disproportionately large volume of carbon they are able to store. However, tropical wetlands offer a number of unique challenges for carbon management and policy compared to terrestrial forest systems: 1 Tropical wetlands are dynamic and subject to a wide range of physical and ecological processes that affect their long-term carbon storage potential – thus, such systems can quickly become a carbon source instead of a sink; 2 Carbon dynamics in tropical wetlands often operate over longer time-scales than are currently covered by REDD+ payments; and 3 Much of the carbon in a tropical wetland is stored in the soil, so monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV needs to adequately encapsulate the entire ecosystem and not just the vegetative component. This paper discusses these physical and biological concepts, and highlights key legal, management and policy questions that must be considered when constructing a policy framework to conserve these crucial ecosystems.

  19. Isoprene emission from wetland sedges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ekberg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available High latitude wetlands play an important role for the surface-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4, but fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC in these ecosystems have to date not been extensively studied. This is despite BVOC representing a measurable proportion of the total gaseous C fluxes at northern locations and in the face of the high temperature sensitivity of these systems that requires a much improved process understanding to interpret and project possible changes in response to climate warming. We measured emission of isoprene and photosynthetic gas exchange over two growing seasons (2005–2006 in a subarctic wetland in northern Sweden with the objective to identify the physiological and environmental controls of these fluxes on the leaf scale. The sedge species Eriophorum angustifolium and Carex rostrata were both emitters of isoprene. Springtime emissions were first detected after an accumulated diurnal mean temperature above 0°C of about 100 degree days. Maximum measured growing season standardized (basal emission rates (20°C, 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 were 1075 (2005 and 1118 (2006 μg C m−2 (leaf area h−1 in E. angustifolium, and 489 (2005 and 396 (2006 μg C m−2 h−1 in C. rostrata. Over the growing season, basal isoprene emission varied in response to the temperature history of the last 48 h. Seasonal basal isoprene emission rates decreased with leaf nitrogen (N, which may be explained by the typical growth and resource allocation pattern of clonal sedges as the leaves age. The observations were used to model emissions over the growing season, accounting for effects of temperature history, links to leaf assimilation rate and the light and temperature dependencies of the cold-adapted sedges.

  20. Evaluation of sulfate reduction at experimentally induced mixing interfaces using small-scale push-pull tests in an aquifer-wetland system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneeshaw, Tara A.; McGuire, Jennifer T.; Smith, Erik W.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents small-scale push-pull tests designed to evaluate the kinetic controls on SO 4 2- reduction in situ at mixing interfaces between a wetland and aquifer impacted by landfill leachate at the Norman Landfill research site, Norman, OK. Quantifying the rates of redox reactions initiated at interfaces is of great interest because interfaces have been shown to be zones of increased biogeochemical transformations and thus may play an important role in natural attenuation. To mimic the aquifer-wetland interface and evaluate reaction rates, SO 4 2- -rich anaerobic aquifer water (∼100mg/LSO 4 2- ) was introduced into SO 4 2- -depleted wetland porewater via push-pull tests. Results showed SO 4 2- reduction was stimulated by the mixing of these waters and first-order rate coefficients were comparable to those measured in other push-pull studies. However, rate data were complex involving either multiple first-order rate coefficients or a more complex rate order. In addition, a lag phase was observed prior to SO 4 2- reduction that persisted until the mixing interface between test solution and native water was recovered, irrespective of temporal and spatial constraints. The lag phase was not eliminated by the addition of electron donor (acetate) to the injected test solution. Subsequent push-pull tests designed to elucidate the nature of the lag phase support the importance of the mixing interface in controlling terminal electron accepting processes. These data suggest redox reactions may occur rapidly at the mixing interface between injected and native waters but not in the injected bulk water mass. Under these circumstances, push-pull test data should be evaluated to ensure the apparent rate is actually a function of time and that complexities in rate data be considered

  1. Wetland Hydrology | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefits and types, and explains the role and importance of hydrology on wetland functioning. The chapter continues with the description of wetland hydrologic terms and related estimation and modeling techniques. The chapter provides a quick but valuable information regarding hydraulics of surface and subsurface flow, groundwater seepage/discharge, and modeling groundwater/surface water interactions in wetlands. Because of the aggregated effects of the wetlands at larger scales and their ecosystem services, wetland hydrology at the watershed scale is also discussed in which we elaborate on the proficiencies of some of the well-known watershed models in modeling wetland hydrology. This chapter can serve as a useful reference for eco-hydrologists, wetland researchers and decision makers as well as watershed hydrology modelers. In this chapter, the importance of hydrology for wetlands and their functional role are discussed. Wetland hydrologic terms and the major components of water budget in wetlands and how they can be estimated/modeled are also presented. Although this chapter does not provide a comprehensive coverage of wetland hydrology, it provides a quick understanding of the basic co

  2. Implications of agricultural encroachment on the carbon and greenhouse gas dynamics in tropical African wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Matthew; Kansiime, Frank; Jones, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Cyperus papyrus L. (papyrus) wetlands dominate the permanently inundated wetlands of tropical East Africa and support the livelihoods of millions of people in rural sub-Saharan Africa through the provision of multiple ecosystem services such as the supply of drinking water, fish protein, building materials and biofuels. These wetlands are also extremely important in local and regional scale biogeochemical cycles due to their extensive spatial distribution, high rates of photosynthetic carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation, long-term carbon (C) sequestration in the form of peat and the control of water loss through evapotranspiration. However, these wetlands are facing significant anthropogenic pressures due to the increasing demand for agricultural land where the papyrus plants are removed and replaced with subsistence crops such as cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta). Eddy covariance measurements were made on an undisturbed papyrus wetland and a cocoyam dominated wetland on the Ugandan shoreline of Lake Victoria to better understand the impacts of agricultural encroachment on the C sequestration potential of these wetlands. Peak rates of net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation at the papyrus wetland were over 40 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1, even under increasing vapour pressure deficit (≥2 kPa), while maximum rates of assimilation at the cocoyam site were 28 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Annual rates of papyrus net primary productivity (NPP) were amongst the highest recorded for wetland systems globally (3.09 kg C m-2 yr-1) and the continual regeneration of the papyrus plants, due to an absence of pronounced seasonal climatic variability, can lead to significant C accumulation in the above and belowground biomass (≥88 t C ha-1). Where these wetlands remain inundated and anaerobic conditions prevail, significant detrital and peat deposits can form further increasing the combined C sink capacity of these ecosystems to over 700 t C ha-1. The C sink strength of these wetlands is however offset by

  3. Carbon dynamics, food web structure and reclamation strategies in Athabasca oil sands wetlands (CFRAW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciborowski, J.J.; Dixon, G.; Foote, L.; Liber, K.; Smits, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    The remediation and ecology of oilsands constructed wetlands was discussed with reference to a project known as the Carbon dynamics, Food web structure and Reclamation strategies in Athabasca oil sands Wetlands (CFRAW). This joint project between 7 mining partners and 5 universities documents how tailings in constructed wetlands modify maturation leading to natural conditions in a reclaimed landscape. Since wetlands are expected to make up 20-50 per cent of the final reclamation landscape of areas surface mined for oil sands in northeastern Alberta, the project focuses on how quickly wetlands amended with reclamation materials approach the conditions seen in reference wetland systems. This study provided a conceptual model of carbon pathways and budgets to evaluate how the allocation of carbon among compartments changes as newly formed wetlands mature in the boreal system. It is likely that succession and community development will accelerate if constructed wetlands are supplemented with stockpiled peat or topsoil. The bitumens and naphthenic acids found in wetlands constructed with mine tailings materials are initially toxic, but may ultimately serve as an alternate source of carbon once they degrade or are metabolized by bacteria. This study evaluated the sources, biological uptake, pathways, and movement through the food web of materials used by the biota in constructed wetlands, with particular reference to how productivity of new wetlands is maintained. Net ecosystem productivity is being monitored along with rates of organic carbon accumulation from microbial, algal, and macrophyte production, and influx of outside materials. The rates of leaf litter breakdown and microbial respiration are also being monitored to determine how constituents speed or slow food web processes of young and older wetlands. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope measurements indicate which sources are incorporated into the food web as wetlands age, and how this influences community

  4. Efficiencies of freshwater and estuarine constructed wetlands for phenolic endocrine disruptor removal in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chi-Ying; Yang, Lei; Kuo, Wen-Chien; Zen, Yi-Peng

    2013-10-01

    We examined the distribution and removal efficiencies of phenolic endocrine disruptors (EDs), namely nonylphenol diethoxylates (NP2EO), nonylphenol monoethoxylates (NP1EO), nonylphenol (NP), and octylphenol (OP), in wastewater treated by estuarine and freshwater constructed wetland systems in Dapeng Bay National Scenic Area (DBNSA) and along the Dahan River in Taiwan. Water samples were taken bimonthly at 30 sites in three estuarine constructed wetlands (Datan, Pengcun and Linbian right bank (A and B)) in DBNSA, for eight sampling campaigns. The average removal efficiencies were in the range of 3.13-97.3% for wetlands in DBNSA. The highest average removal occurred in the east inlet to the outlet of the Tatan wetland. The most frequently detected compound was OP (57.7%), whose concentration was up to 1458.7 ng/L in DBNSA. NP was seen in only 20.5% of the samples. The temporal variation of EDs showed a decrease across seasons, where summer>spring>winter>autumn in these constructed wetlands. The removal efficiencies of EDs by estuarine wetlands, in decreasing order, were Datan>Pengcun>Linbian right bank in DBNSA. Water samples collected at 18 sites in three freshwater constructed wetlands (Daniaopi, Hsin-Hai I, and Hsin-Hai II) along the riparian area of Dahan River. NP2EO was the most abundant compound, with a concentration of up to 11,200 ng/L. Removal efficiencies ranged from 55% to 91% for NP1EO, NP2EO, and NP in Hsin-Hai I. The average removal potential of EDs in freshwater constructed wetlands, in decreasing order, was Hsin-Hai II>Daniaopi>Hsin-Hai I constructed wetlands. The lowest concentrations of the selected compounds were observed in the winter. The highest removal efficiency of the selected phenolic endocrine disruptors was achieved by Hsin-Hai I wetland. The calculated risk quotients used to evaluate the ecological risk were up to 30 times higher in the freshwater wetlands along Dahan River than in the estuarine (DBNSA) constructed wetlands, indicating

  5. Tidal Wetlands and Coastal Ocean Carbon Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, C.; Wang, S. R.; Forbrich, I.; Giblin, A. E.; Cai, W. J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent overviews of coastal ocean C dynamics have tidal wetlands in a prominent position: a local sink for atmospheric CO2, a local store of OC, and a source of DIC and OC for the adjacent estuary and nearshore ocean. Over the past decade there have been great strides made in quantifying and understanding these flows and linkages. GPP and R of the wetlands are not nearly as imbalanced as thought 30 yrs ago. Heterotrophy of adjacent estuarine waters is not solely due to the respiration of OC exported from the marsh, rather we see the marsh directly respiring into the water during tidal inundation and accumulated marsh DIC draining into tidal creeks. Organic carbon burial on the marsh is still a relatively minor flux, but it is large relative to marsh NEE. Using literature and unpublished data on marsh DIC export, we used examples from Sapelo Island GA USA and Plum Island MA USA to constrain estimates of NEP and potential OC export. P. There remain large uncertainties in quantifying C dynamics of coupled wetland - estuary systems. Gas exchange from the water to atmosphere is one of the largest uncertainties. Work at Sapelo suggests that upwards of 40% of all daily exchange occurs from water flooding the marsh, which is but a few hours a day. This estimate is based on the intercept value for gas exchange vs wind velocity. Another major uncertainty comes from converting between O2 based estimates of metabolism to C. At Sapelo we find PQ and RQ values diverging greatly from Redfield. Finally, C dynamics of the coastal ocean, especially the role of tidal wetlands is likely to change substantially in the future. Studies at Plum Island show a reversal of the 4000 yr process of marsh progradation with marshes eroding away at their edges because of inadequate sediment supply and rising sea level. The fate of eroded OC is questionable. Landward transgression with SLR is the only likely counter to continued wetland loss - but that's a complex social issue requiring new

  6. Michigan Wetlands: Yours To Protect. A Citizen's Guide to Local Involvement in Wetland Protection. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikiel, Wilfred

    This guidebook is designed to assist concerned Michigan citizens, local governments, conservation organizations, landowners, and others in their efforts to initiate wetlands protection activities. Chapter 1 focuses on wetland functions, values, losses, and the urgent need to protect wetland resources. Chapter 2 discusses wetland identification and…

  7. Effect of wetland management: are lentic wetlands refuges of plant-species diversity in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont of Colombia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna I. Murillo-Pacheco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated degradation of the wetlands and fragmentation of surrounding vegetation in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont are the main threats to diversity and ecological integrity of these ecosystems; however, information on this topic is of limited availability. In this region, we evaluated the value of 37 lentic wetlands as reservoirs of woody and aquatic plants and analyzed diversity and changes in species composition within and among groups defined according to management given by: (1 type (swamps, heronries, rice fields, semi-natural lakes, constructed lakes and fish farms and (2 origins (natural, mixed and artificial. A total of 506 plant species were recorded: 80% woody and 20% aquatic. Of these, 411 species (81% were considered species typical of the area (Meta Piedmont distribution. Diversity patterns seem to be driven by high landscape heterogeneity and wetland management. The fish farms presented the highest diversity of woody plants, while swamps ranked highest for aquatic plant diversity. Regarding wetland origin, the artificial systems were the most diverse, but natural wetlands presented the highest diversity of typical species and can therefore be considered representative ecosystems at the regional scale. Our results suggest that lentic wetlands act as refuges for native vegetation of Meta Piedmont forest, hosting 55% of the woody of Piedmont species and 29% of the aquatic species of Orinoco basin. The wetlands showed a high species turnover and the results indicated that small wetlands (mean ± SD: size = 11 ± 18.7 ha, with a small area of surrounding forest (10 ± 8.6 ha supported high local and regional plant diversity. To ensure long-term conservation of lentic wetlands, it is necessary to develop management and conservation strategies that take both natural and created wetlands into account.

  8. Designated Wetlands and Setback Distances in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This GIS layer depicts wetlands designated for protection in the state of Iowa. Designated wetland is defined in Iowa Code subsection 459.102(21) as follows: 21....

  9. 40 CFR 230.41 - Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... through secondary impacts. Discharging fill material in wetlands as part of municipal, industrial or recreational development may modify the capacity of wetlands to retain and store floodwaters and to serve as a...

  10. Characterization of bioactivity in treatment wetlands utilising an enzymatic assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, J.L.; Werker, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Microbial activity is a critical aspect of biological wastewater treatment which is not being routinely monitored as part of treatment wetland research and development. The level of microbial activity is a reference from which observed and variable treatment performance needs to be evaluated with respect to design and operating conditions. The purpose of the present study was to assess enzyme hydrolysis kinetics of the model substrate fluorescein diacetate (FDA) using activated sludge and to begin to relate these findings to wetland mesocosm in-situ enzyme activity measurements. In activated sludge samples, the FDA hydrolysis rate was found to correlate with microbial abundance measured as mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS). The ratio of biomass to substrate concentration was also found to influence the extent of FDA consumption and a critical saturation loading for activated sludge on FDA was estimated. Of the numerous empirical enzyme reaction models available in the literature, the Tessier model was determined to most closely fit the experimental data. FDA hydrolysis experiments conducted on activated sludge samples and laboratory wetland mesocosms at the same initial substrate concentration indicate that the enzyme assay is sensitive enough to exhibit characteristic reaction kinetics that can be used to quantify biomass concentrations present within laboratory treatment wetland mesocosms. In continued investigation, changes in mesocosm biomass levels as the wetland vegetation matures will be related to an equivalent MLVSS concentration and the biological treatment system performance. (author)

  11. Evaluation of Polarimetric SAR Decomposition for Classifying Wetland Vegetation Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Hong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Florida Everglades is the largest subtropical wetland system in the United States and, as with subtropical and tropical wetlands elsewhere, has been threatened by severe environmental stresses. It is very important to monitor such wetlands to inform management on the status of these fragile ecosystems. This study aims to examine the applicability of TerraSAR-X quadruple polarimetric (quad-pol synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR data for classifying wetland vegetation in the Everglades. We processed quad-pol data using the Hong & Wdowinski four-component decomposition, which accounts for double bounce scattering in the cross-polarization signal. The calculated decomposition images consist of four scattering mechanisms (single, co- and cross-pol double, and volume scattering. We applied an object-oriented image analysis approach to classify vegetation types with the decomposition results. We also used a high-resolution multispectral optical RapidEye image to compare statistics and classification results with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR observations. The calculated classification accuracy was higher than 85%, suggesting that the TerraSAR-X quad-pol SAR signal had a high potential for distinguishing different vegetation types. Scattering components from SAR acquisition were particularly advantageous for classifying mangroves along tidal channels. We conclude that the typical scattering behaviors from model-based decomposition are useful for discriminating among different wetland vegetation types.

  12. Wetland Microtopographic Structure is Revealed with Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, J.; Stovall, A. E.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Slesak, R.

    2017-12-01

    Wetland microtopographic structure and its function has been the subject of research for decades, and several investigations suggest that microtopography is generated by autogenic ecohydrologic processes. But due to the difficulty of capturing the true spatial variability of wetland microtopography, many of the hypotheses for self-organization have remained elusive to test. We employ a novel method of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) that reveals an unprecedented high-resolution (structure of wetland microtopography in 10 black ash (Fraxinus nigra) stands of northern Minnesota, USA. Here we present the first efforts to synthesize this information and show that TLS provides a good representation of real microtopographic structure, where TLS accurately measured hummock height, but occlusion of low points led to a slight negative bias. We further show that TLS can accurately locate microtopographic high points (hummocks), as well as estimate their height and area. Using these new data, we estimate distributions in both microtopographic elevation and hummock area in each wetland and relate these to monitored hydrologic regime; in doing so, we test hypotheses linking emergent microtopographic patterns to putative hydrologic controls. Finally, we discuss future efforts to enumerate consequent influences of microtopography on wetland systems (soil properties and vegetation composition).

  13. Phytotoxicity testing of winery wastewater for constructed wetland treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, Michele; Christen, Evan W; Quayle, Wendy C

    2009-09-30

    Rapid and inexpensive phytotoxicity bioassays for winery wastewater (WW) are important when designing winery wastewater treatment systems involving constructed wetlands. Three macrophyte wetland species (Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus validus and Juncus ingens) were tested using a pot experiment simulating a wetland microcosm. The winery wastewater concentration was varied (0.5%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) and pH was corrected for some concentrations using lime as an amendment. The tolerance of the three aquatic macrophytes species to winery wastewater was studied through biomass production, total chlorophyll and nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium tissue concentrations. The results showed that at greater than 25% wastewater concentration all the macrophytes died and that Phragmites was the least hardy species. At less than 25% wastewater concentration the wetland microcosms were effective in reducing chemical oxygen demand, phenols and total soluble solids. We also evaluated the performance of two laboratory phytotoxicity assays; (1) Garden Cress (Lepidium sativum), and (2) Onion (Allium coepa). The results of these tests revealed that the effluent was highly toxic with effective concentration, EC(50), inhibition values, as low as 0.25%. Liming the WW increased the EC(50) by 10 fold. Comparing the cress and onion bioassays with the wetland microcosm results indicated that the thresholds for toxicity were of the same order of magnitude. As such we suggest that the onion and cress bioassays could be effectively used in the wine industry for rapid wastewater toxicity assessment.

  14. Management practices and controls on methane emissions from sub-tropical wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, Nicholas; Casa-Nova Gomez, Nuri; Bernacchi, Carl

    2015-04-01

    It is well documented that green house gas concentrations have risen at unequivocal rates since the industrial revolution but the disparity between anthropogenic sources and natural sources is uncertain. Wetlands are one example of a natural ecosystem that can be a substantial source or sink for methane (CH4) depending on any combination of climate conditions, natural and anthropogenic disturbances, or ecosystem perturbations. Due to strict anaerobic conditions required for CH4-generating microorganisms, natural wetlands are the main source for biogenic CH4. Although wetlands occupy less than 5% of total land surface area, they contribute approximately 20% of total CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. CH4 is one of the most damaging green house gases with current emission estimates ranging from 55 to 231 Tg CH4 yr-1. The processes regulating CH4 emissions are sensitive to land use and management practices of areas surrounding wetlands. Variation in adjacent vegetation or grazing intensity by livestock can, for example, alter CH4 fluxes from wetland soils by altering nutrient balance, carbon inputs and hydrology. Therefore, understanding how these changes will affect wetland source strength is essential to understand the impact of wetland management practices on the global climate system. In this study we quantify wetland methane fluxes from subtropical wetlands on a working cattle ranch in central Florida near Okeechobee Lake (27o10'52.04"N, 81o21'8.56"W). To determine differences in CH4 fluxes associated with land use and management, a replicated (n = 4) full factorial experiment was designed for wetlands where the surrounding vegetation was (1) grazed or un-grazed and (2) composed of native vegetation or improved pasture. Net exchange of CH4 and CO2 between the land surface and the atmosphere were sampled with a LICOR Li-7700 open path CH4 analyzer and Li-7500A open path CO2/H20 analyzer mounted in a 1-m3 static gas-exchange chamber. Our results showed and verified

  15. 40 CFR 257.9 - Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not locate such units in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following demonstrations... actions (e.g., restoration of existing degraded wetlands or creation of man-made wetlands); and (5) Sufficient information is available to make a reasonable determination with respect to these demonstrations...

  16. North Dakota Wetlands Discovery Guide. Photocopy Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Nancy J., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet contains games and activities that can be photocopied for classroom use. Activities include Wetland Terminology, Putting on the Map, Erosional Forces, Water in...Water out, Who Lives Here?, Wetlands in Disguise, Dichotomous Plant Game, Algae Survey, Conducting an Algal Survey, Water Quality Indicators Guide, Farming Wetlands, Wetlands…

  17. Description of the Wetlands Research Programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walmsley, RD

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a rationale to the development of a multidisciplinary South African Wetland Research Programme. A definition of what is meant by the term wetland is given along with a general description of what types of wetland occur in South...

  18. Quantification and Controls of Wetland Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNicol, Gavin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Wetlands cover only a small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, but have a disproportionately large influence on global climate. Low oxygen conditions in wetland soils slows down decomposition, leading to net carbon dioxide sequestration over long timescales, while also favoring the production of redox sensitive gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Freshwater marshes in particular sustain large exchanges of greenhouse gases under temperate or tropical climates and favorable nutrient regimes, yet have rarely been studied, leading to poor constraints on the magnitude of marsh gas sources, and the biogeochemical drivers of flux variability. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was once a great expanse of tidal and freshwater marshes but underwent drainage for agriculture during the last two centuries. The resulting landscape is unsustainable with extreme rates of land subsidence and oxidation of peat soils lowering the surface elevation of much of the Delta below sea level. Wetland restoration has been proposed as a means to slow further subsidence and rebuild peat however the balance of greenhouse gas exchange in these novel ecosystems is still poorly described. In this dissertation I first explore oxygen availability as a control on the composition and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from drained wetland soils. In two separate experiments I quantify both the temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission and the kinetic sensitivity of gas production to a wide range of oxygen concentrations. This work demonstrated the very high sensitivity of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide production to oxygen availability, in carbon rich wetland soils. I also found the temporal dynamics of gas production to follow a sequence predicted by thermodynamics and observed spatially in other soil or sediment systems. In the latter part of my dissertation I conduct two field studies to quantify greenhouse gas exchange and understand the carbon sources for

  19. Wetland survey of the X-10 Bethel Valley and Melton Valley groundwater operable units at Oak Ridge National Labortory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensteel, B.A.

    1996-03-01

    Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands, (May 24, 1977) requires that federal agencies avoid, to the extent possible, adverse impacts associated with the destruction and modification of wetlands and that they avoid direct and indirect support of wetlands development when there is a practicable alternative. In accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Regulations for Compliance with Floodplains and Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements (Subpart B, 10 CFR 1022.11), surveys for wetland presence or absence were conducted in both the Melton Valley and the Bethel Valley Groundwater Operable Units (GWOU) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) from October 1994 through September 1995. As required by the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act of 1992, wetlands were identified using the criteria and methods set forth in the Wetlands Delineation Manual (Army Corps of Engineers, 1987). Wetlands were identified during field surveys that examined and documented vegetation, soils, and hydrologic evidence. Most of the wetland boundary locations and wetland sizes are approximate. Boundaries of wetlands in Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 and on the former proposed site of the Advanced Neutron Source in the upper Melton Branch watershed were located by civil survey during previous wetland surveys; thus, the boundary locations and areal sizes in these areas are accurate. The wetlands were classified according to the system developed by Cowardin et al. (1979) for wetland and deepwater habitats of the United States. A total of 215 individual wetland areas ranging in size from 0.002 ha to 9.97 ha were identified in the Bethel Valley and Melton Valley GWOUs. The wetlands are classified as palustrine forested broad-leaved deciduous (PFO1), palustrine scrub-shrub broad-leaved deciduous (PSS1), and palustrine persistent emergent (PEM1)

  20. Hydrogeochemical characterization of the phreatic system of the coastal wetland located between Fiumi Uniti and Bevano rivers in the southern Po plain (Northern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, V.; Dinelli, E.; Antonellini, M.; Capaccioni, B.; Balugani, E.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    surface water is all brackish to salty and characterised by negative values of Eh, which is probably due to the low hydraulic gradients of the area. Hydrochemistry indicates that a simple mixing model does not completely account for the observed groundwater chemistry, thus a more complex and dynamic system must be invoked. The interaction between saltwater and freshwater could be possibly complicated by contributions from deeper and older connate waters and, considering the type of water sample, by precipitation-dissolution reactions taking place in the vadose zone. Application of the BEX (Base Exchange Index, Stuyfzand, 1993), corrected for the occurrence of dolomite in the aquifer, indicate that a salinization processes is taking place in the largest part of the studied area and only in few locations close to the Fiumi Uniti river mouth there are geochemical evidences of freshening probably because there is a different geological situation: silt-clay lenses containing exchangeable minerals are intercalated and/or overlying the sandy aquifer. However an influence of the river on groundwater chemistry cannot be at present completely excluded for the proximity of these sites to the river. Apart groundwater salinization another major environmental problem concerning water quality is represented by elevated Arsenic concentrations. The element display a good negative correlation with Eh but no evident sign of correlation with other measured parameters. Observed arsenic concentrations reach a maximum of 42 µg/l in an auger-hole close to a pond, which is characterized by abundant precipitation of iron hydroxides in the hyporheic zone as well as most of the others surface water bodies. Other relatively high concentration (about 60 µg/l ) are observed in a piezometer (screen depth of 5 m) in the southern area. The ongoing salinization process and the detected anomalies in Arsenic in the phreatic aquifer and in surface water are jeopardizing this wetland ecosystem, which poses a

  1. Estimating belowground carbon stocks in isolated wetlands of the Northern Everglades Watershed, central Florida, using ground penetrating radar (GPR) and aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Matthew; Comas, Xavier; Hinkle, Ross; Sumner, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Peat soils store a large fraction of the global soil carbon (C) pool and comprise 95% of wetland C stocks. While isolated freshwater wetlands in temperate and tropical biomes account for more than 20% of the global peatland C stock, most studies of wetland soil C have occurred in expansive peatlands in northern boreal and subarctic biomes. Furthermore, the contribution of small depressional wetlands in comparison to larger wetland systems in these environments is very uncertain. Given the fact that these wetlands are numerous and variable in terms of their internal geometry, innovative methods are needed for properly estimating belowground C stocks and their overall C contribution to the landscape. In this study, we use a combination of ground penetrating radar (GPR), aerial imagery, and direct measurements (coring) in conjunction with C core analysis to develop a relation between C stock and surface area, and estimate the contribution of subtropical depressional wetlands to the total C stock of pine flatwoods at the Disney Wilderness Preserve (DWP), Florida. Additionally, GPR surveys were able to image collapse structures underneath the peat basin of depressional wetlands, depicting lithological controls on the formation of depressional wetlands at the DWP. Results indicate the importance of depressional wetlands as critical contributors to the landscape C budget at the DWP and the potential of GPR-based approaches for (1) rapidly and noninvasively estimating the contribution of depressional wetlands to regional C stocks and (2) evaluating the formational processes of depressional wetlands.

  2. Estimating Belowground Carbon Stocks in Isolated Wetlands of the Northern Everglades Watershed, Central Florida, Using Ground Penetrating Radar and Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Matthew; Comas, Xavier; Benscoter, Brian; Hinkle, Ross; Sumner, David

    2017-11-01

    Peat soils store a large fraction of the global soil carbon (C) pool and comprise 95% of wetland C stocks. While isolated freshwater wetlands in temperate and tropical biomes account for more than 20% of the global peatland C stock, most studies of wetland soil C have occurred in expansive peatlands in northern boreal and subarctic biomes. Furthermore, the contribution of small depressional wetlands in comparison to larger wetland systems in these environments is very uncertain. Given the fact that these wetlands are numerous and variable in terms of their internal geometry, innovative methods are needed for properly estimating belowground C stocks and their overall C contribution to the landscape. In this study, we use a combination of ground penetrating radar (GPR), aerial imagery, and direct measurements (coring) in conjunction with C core analysis to develop a relation between C stock and surface area, and estimate the contribution of subtropical depressional wetlands to the total C stock of pine flatwoods at the Disney Wilderness Preserve (DWP), Florida. Additionally, GPR surveys were able to image collapse structures underneath the peat basin of depressional wetlands, depicting lithological controls on the formation of depressional wetlands at the DWP. Results indicate the importance of depressional wetlands as critical contributors to the landscape C budget at the DWP and the potential of GPR-based approaches for (1) rapidly and noninvasively estimating the contribution of depressional wetlands to regional C stocks and (2) evaluating the formational processes of depressional wetlands.

  3. A conceptual framework for assessing cumulative impacts on the hydrology of nontidal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Thomas C.

    1988-01-01

    Wetlands occur in geologic and hydrologic settings that enhance the accumulation or retention of water. Regional slope, local relief, and permeability of the land surface are major controls on the formation of wetlands by surface-water sources. However, these landscape features also have significant control over groundwater flow systems, which commonly play a role in the formation of wetlands. Because the hydrologic system is a continuum, any modification of one component will have an effect on contiguous components. Disturbances commonly affecting the hydrologic system as it relates to wetlands include weather modification, alteration of plant communities, storage of surface water, road construction, drainage of surface water and soil water, alteration of groundwater recharge and discharge areas, and pumping of groundwater. Assessments of the cumulative effects of one or more of these disturbances on the hydrologic system as related to wetlands must take into account uncertainty in the measurements and in the assumptions that are made in hydrologic studies. For example, it may be appropriate to assume that regional groundwater flow systems are recharged in uplands and discharged in lowlands. However, a similar assumption commonly does not apply on a local scale, because of the spatial and temporal dynamics of groundwater recharge. Lack of appreciation of such hydrologic factors can lead to misunderstanding of the hydrologic function of wetlands within various parts of the landscape and mismanagement of wetland ecosystems.

  4. Midcontinent Prairie-Pothole wetlands and climate change: An Introduction to the Supplemental Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The multitude of wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America forms one of Earth’s largest wetland complexes. The midcontinent location exposes this ecologically and economically important wetland system to a highly variable climate, markedly influencing ponded-water levels, hydroperiods, chemical characteristics, and biota of individual basins. Given their dominance on the landscape and recognized value, great interest in how projected future changes in climate will affect prairie-pothole wetlands has developed and spawned much scientific research. On June 2, 2015, a special symposium, “Midcontinent Prairie-Pothole Wetlands: Influence of a Changed Climate,” was held at the annual meeting of the Society of Wetland Scientists in Providence, Rhode Island, USA. The symposium’s twelve presenters covered a wide range of relevant topics delivered to a standing-room-only audience. Following the symposium, the presenters recognized the need to publish their presented papers as a combined product to facilitate widespread distribution. The need for additional papers to more fully cover the topic of prairie-pothole wetlands and climate change was also identified. This supplemental issue of Wetlands is the realization of that vision.

  5. Pre- and post-construction analysis of a wetland used for mine drainage control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, K.M.; Mitsch, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    A 0.39 ha constructed wetland in Athens County, Ohio is being evaluated for its ability to remove contaminants from acidic mine drainage. The wetland receives water flow from Lick run stream which is contaminated by two major abandoned underground mine seeps. The wetland effluent is then directed back into Lick Run, a tributary of the Hocking River. Data were collected 1.5 years prior to construction and 11 months following completion of the passive wetland system. Preconstruction data reported average spring quarter 1991 and 1992 iron concentrations in the stream at the future wetland influent and effluents sites to be 330 and 106 mg/l, while spring quarter 1993 showed iron levels at the wetland influent and effluent to be 64 and 3 mg/l, respectively. Iron removal percentages were 68% prior to the construction of the wetland and 95% following its completion. Preconstruction data were analyzed using a dynamic computer model and preliminary comparison with the first 11 months of the wetland data show the actual iron removal rates to be 4 g/m 2 day 1 compared to the predicted value of 6.5 g/m 2 day 1 (based on data collected from April 1991--March 1992, under similar hydrologic conditions)

  6. Estimating wetland connectivity to streams in the Prairie Pothole Region: An isotopic and remote sensing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J. R.; Mushet, David M.; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Neff, Brian; Christensen, J. R.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Rugh, W. D.; Alexander, L.C.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and perennial streams is critical to understanding the reliance of stream flow on inputs from wetlands. We used the isotopic evaporation signal in water and remote sensing to examine wetland‐stream hydrologic connectivity within the Pipestem Creek watershed, North Dakota, a watershed dominated by prairie‐pothole wetlands. Pipestem Creek exhibited an evaporated‐water signal that had approximately half the isotopic‐enrichment signal found in most evaporatively enriched prairie‐pothole wetlands. Groundwater adjacent to Pipestem Creek had isotopic values that indicated recharge from winter precipitation and had no significant evaporative enrichment, indicating that enriched surface water did not contribute significantly to groundwater discharging into Pipestem Creek. The estimated surface water area necessary to generate the evaporation signal within Pipestem Creek was highly dynamic, varied primarily with the amount of discharge, and was typically greater than the immediate Pipestem Creek surface water area, indicating that surficial flow from wetlands contributed to stream flow throughout the summer. We propose a dynamic range of spilling thresholds for prairie‐pothole wetlands across the watershed allowing for wetland inputs even during low‐flow periods. Combining Landsat estimates with the isotopic approach allowed determination of potential (Landsat) and actual (isotope) contributing areas in wetland‐dominated systems. This combined approach can give insights into the changes in location and magnitude of surface water and groundwater pathways over time. This approach can be used in other areas where evaporation from wetlands results in a sufficient evaporative isotopic signal.

  7. Ecological outcomes and evaluation of success in passively restored southeastern depressional wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.; Barton, Christopher, D.

    2010-11-01

    Abstract: Depressional wetlands may be restored passively by disrupting prior drainage to recover original hydrology and relying on natural revegetation. Restored hydrology selects for wetland vegetation; however, depression geomorphology constrains the achievable hydroperiod, and plant communities are influenced by hydroperiod and available species pools. Such constraints can complicate assessments of restoration success. Sixteen drained depressions in South Carolina, USA, were restored experimentally by forest clearing and ditch plugging for potential crediting to a mitigation bank. Depressions were assigned to alternate revegetation methods representing desired targets of herbaceous and wet-forest communities. After five years, restoration progress and revegetation methods were evaluated. Restored hydroperiods differed among wetlands, but all sites developed diverse vegetation of native wetland species. Vegetation traits were influenced by hydroperiod and the effects of early drought, rather than by revegetation method. For mitigation banking, individual wetlands were assessed for improvement from pre-restoration condition and similarity to assigned reference type. Most wetlands met goals to increase hydroperiod, herb-species dominance, and wetland-plant composition. Fewer wetlands achieved equivalence to reference types because some vegetation targets were incompatible with depression hydroperiods and improbable without intensive management. The results illustrated a paradox in judging success when vegetation goals may be unsuited to system constraints.

  8. A geophysical analysis of hydro-geomorphic controls within a headwater wetland in a granitic landscape, through ERI and IP

    OpenAIRE

    E. S. Riddell; S. A. Lorentz; D. C. Kotze

    2010-01-01

    Wetlands are undergoing considerable degradation in South Africa. As interventions are often technical and costly, there is a requirement to develop conceptual process models for these wetland systems so that rehabilitation attempts will be successful. This paper presents an approach using the geophysical methods of Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) and Induced Polarization (IP) to delineate sub-surface hydro-geomorphic controls that maintain equilibrium disconnectivity of wetland-catchmen...

  9. Sediment retention in a bottomland hardwood wetland in Eastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiss, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    One of the often-stated functions of wetlands is their ability to remove sediments and other particulates from water, thus improving water quality in the adjacent aquatic system. However, actual rates of suspended sediment removal have rarely been measured in freshwater wetland systems. To address this issue, suspended sediment dynamics were measured in a 85-km2 bottomland hardwood (BLH) wetland adjacent to the highly turbid Cache River in eastern Arkansas during the 1988-1990 water years. A suspended sediment mass balance was calculated using depth-integrated, flow-weighted daily measurements at wetland inflow and outflow points. Over the three-year period, suspended sediment load decreased an average of 14% between upstream and downstream sampling points. To test the idea that the suspended sediments were retained by the adjacent wetland and to determine what portion of the BLH forest was most responsible for retaining the suspended sediments, concurrent measurements of sediment accretion were made at 30 sites in the wetland using feldspar clay marker horizons, sedimentation disks, the 137cesium method, and dendrogeomorphic techniques. Sedimentation rates exceeding 1 cm/yr were measured in frequently flooded areas dominated by Nyssa aquatica and Taxodium distichum. Maximum sedimentation rates did not occur on the natural levee, as would be predicted by classical fluvial geomorphology, but in the "first bottom," where retention time of the water reached a maximum. Multiple regression was used to relate sedimentation rates with several physical and biological factors. A combination of distance from the river, flood duration, and tree basal area accounted for nearly 90% of the variation in sedimentation rates.

  10. Wetland restoration and compliance issues on the Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wein, G.R.; McLeod, K.W.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Operation of the nuclear production reactors on the Savannah River Site has faced potential conflicts with wetland regulations on several occasions. This paper provides two examples in which regulatory compliance and restoration research have been meshed, providing both compliance and better knowledge to aid future regulatory needs. The decision to restart the L reactor required the mitigation of thermal effluents under Sec. 316 of the Clean Water Act. The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, permit for the selected mitigation alternative, a 405-ha once-through cooling reservoir, required the establishment of a balanced biological community (BBC) within the lake. To promote the development of a BBC, the reservoir was seeded with water from an existing BBC (Par Pond) and stocked with fish and had artificial reefs constructed. The US Department of Energy (DOE) also requested that the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory establish littoral/wetland vegetation along the shoreline to provide aquatic and wildlife habitat, shoreline stabilization, and a good faith effort toward the establishment of a BBC. The development of wetland vegetation was deemed important to the successful development of a BBC within L Lake. However, in a similar cooling reservoir system constructed in 1957 (Par Pond), wetland vegetation successfully developed without any planting effort. Other than the good faith effort toward a BBC, there is no reason to assume a littoral/wetland community would not develop of its own accord. However, research conducted at L Lake indicates that the planting of wetland vegetation at L Lake accelerated the process of natural selection over that of areas that were not planted

  11. Co-evolution and thresholds in arid floodplain wetland ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandi, Steven; Rodriguez, Jose; Riccardi, Gerardo; Wen, Li; Saintilan, Neil

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation in arid floodplain wetlands consist of water dependent and flood tolerant species that rely on periodical floods in order to maintain healthy conditions. The floodplain often consist of a complex system of marshes, swamps and lagoons interconnected by a network of streams and poorly defined rills. Over time, feedbacks develop between vegetation and flow paths producing areas of flow obstruction and flow concentration, which combined with depositional and erosional process lead to a continuous change on the position and characteristics of inundation areas. This coevolution of flow paths and vegetation can reach a threshold that triggers major channel transformations and abandonment of wetland areas, in a process that is irreversible. The Macquarie Marshes is a floodplain wetland complex in the semi-arid region of north western NSW, Australia. The site is characterised by a low-gradient topography that leads to channel breakdown processes where the river network becomes practically non-existent and the flow extends over large areas of wetland that later re-join and reform channels exiting the system. Due to a combination of climatic and anthropogenic pressures, the wetland ecosystem in the Macquarie Marshes has deteriorated over the past few decades. This has been linked to decreasing inundation frequencies and extent, with whole areas of flood dependent species such as Water Couch and Common Reed undergoing complete succession to terrestrial species and dryland. In this presentation we provide an overview of an ecogeomorphological model that we have developed in order to simulate the complex dynamics of the marshes. The model combines hydrodynamic, vegetation and channel evolution modules. We focus on the vegetation component of the model and the transitional rules to predict wetland invasion by terrestrial vegetation.

  12. Floodplain Hydrodynamics and Ecosystem Function in a Dryland Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. F.; Sandi, S. G.; Saco, P. M.; Wen, L.; Saintilan, N.; Kuczera, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Macquarie Marshes is a floodplain wetland system located in the semiarid region of south-east Australia, regularly flooded by small channels and creeks that get their water from a regulated river system. Flood-dependent vegetation in the wetland includes semi-permanent wetland areas (reed beds, lagoons, and mixed marsh), and floodplain forests and woodlands mainly dominated by River Red Gum (Eucalyptus Camaldulensis). These plant communities support a rich ecosystem and provide sanctuary for birds, frogs and fish and their ecological importance has been recognized under the Ramsar convention. During droughts, wetland vegetation can deteriorate or transition to terrestrial vegetation. Most recently, during the Millennium drought (2001-2009) large areas of water couch and common reeds transitioned to terrestrial vegetation and many patches of River Red Gum reported up to an 80% mortality. Since then, a significant recovery has occurred after a few years of record or near record rainfall. In order to support management decisions regarding watering of the wetland from the upstream reservoir, we have developed an eco-hydraulic model that relates vegetation distribution to the inundation regime (present and past) determined by floodplain hydrodynamics. The model couples hydrodynamic simulations with a rules-based vegetation module that considers water requirements for different plant associations and transition rules accounting for patch dynamics and vegetation resilience. The model has been setup and calibrated with satellite-derived inundation and vegetation maps as well as fractional cover products during the period from 1991 to 2013. We use the model to predict short-term wetland evolution under dry and wet future conditions.

  13. Bacterial communities in batch and continuous-flow wetlands treating the herbicide S-metolachlor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, O.F.; Maillard, E.; Vuilleumier, S.; Imfeld, G.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of wetland bacterial communities in the context of pesticide contamination and hydrological regime is scarce. We investigated the bacterial composition in constructed wetlands receiving Mercantor Gold ® contaminated water (960 g L −1 of the herbicide S-metolachlor, > 80% of the S-enantiomer) operated under continuous-flow or batch modes to evaluate the impact of the hydraulic regime. In the continuous-flow wetland, S-metolachlor mass removal was > 40%, whereas in the batch wetland, almost complete removal of S-metolachlor (93–97%) was observed. Detection of ethanesulfonic and oxanilic acid degradation products further indicated S-metolachlor biodegradation in the two wetlands. The dominant bacterial populations were characterised by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 454 pyrosequencing. The bacterial profiles evolved during the first 35 days of the experiment, starting from a composition similar to that of inlet water, with the use of nitrate and to a lesser extent sulphate and manganese as terminal electron acceptors for microbial metabolism. Proteobacteria were the most abundant phylum, with Beta-, Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria representing 26%, 19% and 17% respectively of total bacterial abundance. Bacterial composition in wetland water changed gradually over time in continuous-flow wetland and more abruptly in the batch wetland. Differences in overall bacterial water structure in the two systems were modest but significant (p = 0.008), and S-metolachlor, nitrate, and total inorganic carbon concentrations correlated with changes in the bacterial profiles. Together, the results highlight that bacterial composition profiles and their dynamics may be used as bioindicators of herbicide exposure and hydraulic disturbances in wetland systems. - Highlights: • We evaluated the bacterial composition in wetlands treating S-metolachlor • Hydraulic regime impacted biogeochemical processes and S-metolachlor removal

  14. Identification and Characterisation of Wetlands For A Correct Basin Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrado, F.; Gomes, F.

    The effects of human activities on water resources have great conse- quences for water users. Some of the problems affecting water resources arise from conflicting uses, including discharge of untreated industrial and domestic wastewater and inadequate agricultural practices on the watersheds. The knowledge of hydrologic and water quality characteristics and behaviour of the system will provide the basis for action to prevent the degradation of water resources. So comprehensive and ratio- nal water management is a necessary condition for social and economic development. The Water Framework Directive defines a good status for all waters all types of waters to be achieved in 15 years. To wetlands the Directive purpose the prevention of their degradation and the protection of those wetlands directly depending on aquatic sys- tems. The sensitiveness of wetlands leads to a difficult management of this resources where it is necessary to know the dynamic of the system and the pressures that can change the ecosystem equilibrium. In spite of the critical role of wetlands, there is a lack of information related with these areas, many times not included in the monitor- ing activity routines. A water quality-monitoring network is an essential instrument of water management. Portugal is now redesigning their freshwater network monitoring in a watershed basis, to provide the necessary data to preserve and control the water quality of the rivers and reservoirs. The combined approach principle to the protec- tion of water that is defended in the Water Framework Directive, was adopted. One of the criterion used to the localisation of sampling stations were characterisation of protected areas. Portugal due to his natural and climate conditions have some impor- tant and unique ecosystems, sometimes being considered as protected areas. Their characteristics must be studied and their equilibrium preserved. Anyhow a little at- tention had been provided to these zones and the actual

  15. Using stable isotopes to understand hydrochemical processes in and around a Prairie Pothole wetland in the Northern Great Plains, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Christopher T.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Stricker, Craig A.; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Morrison, Jean M.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Thurston, Roland S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A stable isotope study of the hydrochemistry of a Prairie Pothole wetland system. → δ 18 O H2O and δ 2 H H2O values show salt concentration by transpiration at wetland edge. → A range of δ 34 S SO4 values indicate SO 4 source and reduction processes. → Isotopic mixing lines show interaction of surface and groundwater at wetland edge. - Abstract: Millions of internally drained wetland systems in the Prairie Potholes region of the northern Great Plains (USA and Canada) provide indispensable habitat for waterfowl and a host of other ecosystem services. The hydrochemistry of these systems is complex and a crucial control on wetland function, flora and fauna. Wetland waters can have high concentrations of SO 4 2- due to the oxidation of large amounts of pyrite in glacial till that is in part derived from the Pierre shale. Water chemistry including δ 18 O H2O , δ 2 H H2O , and δ 34 S SO4 values, was determined for groundwater, soil pore water, and wetland surface water in and around a discharge wetland in North Dakota. The isotopic data for the first time trace the interaction of processes that affect wetland chemistry, including open water evaporation, plant transpiration, and microbial SO 4 reduction.

  16. Performance evaluation of constructed wetlands: A review of arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aiming at environmental pollution control through the use of constructed wetlands systems (CWs) in arid and semi arid climatic region, a detailed review of CWs was undertaken. Given the practical application and simplicity of the technology, principles for building phytotechnology-ecohydrology environment used for ...

  17. Removal efficiency of constructed wetland for treatment of agricultural wastewaters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šereš, M.; Hnátková, T.; Vymazal, J.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2017), s. 45-52 ISSN 1857-1727 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020573 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Agriculture wastewater * Constructed wetland * Horizontal filter * Hybrid system s * Vertical filter Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Bioremediation, diagnostic biotechnologies (DNA chips and biosensing devices) in environmental management

  18. Pilot-scale comparison of constructed wetlands operated under high hydraulicloading rates and attached biofilm reactors for domestic wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountoulakis, M.S.; Terzakis, S.; Chatzinotas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Four different pilot-scale treatment units were constructed to compare the feasibility of treating domestic wastewater in the City of Heraklio, Crete, Greece: (a) a freewater surface (FWS) wetland system, (b) a horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) wetland system, (c) a rotating biological contactor...

  19. Lake Superior Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of the coastal margin and the watershed context in defining the ecology of even very large lakes is increasingly being recognized and examined. Coastal wetlands are both important contributors to the biodiversity and productivity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake-basin connection. We explored wetland-watershed connections and their relationship to wetland function and condition using data collected from 37 Lake Superior wetlands spanning a substantial geographic and geomorphic gradient. While none of these wetlands are particularly disturbed, there were nevertheless clear relationships between watershed landuse and wetland habitat and biota, and these varied consistently across wetland type categories that reflected the strength of connection to the watershed. For example, water clarity and vegetation structure complexity declined with decreasing percent natural land cover, and these effects were strongest in riverine wetlands (having generally large watersheds and tributary-dominated hydrology) and weakest in lagoon wetlands (having generally small watersheds and lake-dominate hydrology). Fish abundance and species richness both increased with decreasing percent natural land cover while species diversity decreased, and again the effect was strongest in riverine wetlands. Lagoonal wetlands, which lack any substantial tributary, consistently harbored the fewest species of fish and a composition different from the more watershed-lin

  20. The nitrogen abatement cost in wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystroem, Olof

    1998-01-01

    The costs of abating agricultural nitrogen pollution in wetlands are estimated. By linking costs for construction of wetlands to the denitrification capacity of wetlands, an abatement cost function can be formed. A construction-cost function and a denitrification function for wetlands is estimated empirically. This paper establishes a link between abatement costs and the nitrogen load on wetlands. Since abatement costs fluctuate with nitrogen load, ignoring this link results in incorrect estimates of abatement costs. The results demonstrate that wetlands have the capacity to provide low cost abatement of nitrogen compounds in runoff. For the Kattegatt region in Sweden, marginal abatement costs for wetlands are shown to be lower than costs of land use changing measures, such as extended land under fallow or cultivation of fuel woods, but higher than the marginal costs of reducing nitrogen fertilizer

  1. The role of reserves and anthropogenic habitats for functional connectivity and resilience of ephemeral wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden, Daniel R; Hellman, Michelle L; Angeler, David G; Allen, Craig R

    -reserve wetlands, restoring wetlands at spatial scales that promote movements of shorter dispersing species, and further scrutinizing irrigation reuse pit removal by considering effects on functional connectivity for anurans, an emblematic and threatened group of organisms. However, broader conservation plans will need to give consideration to other wetland-dependent species, incorporate invasive species management, and address additional challenges arising from global change in social-ecological systems like the Rainwater Basin.

  2. Adaptive wetland management in an uncertain and changing arid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Downard

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands in the arid western United States provide rare and critical migratory bird habitat and constitute a critical nexus within larger social-ecological systems (SES where multiple changing land-use and water-use patterns meet. The Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, USA, presents a case study of the ways that wetland managers have created adaptive management strategies that are responsive to the social and hydrological conditions of the agriculture-dominated SES within which they are located. Managers have acquired water rights and constructed infrastructure while cultivating collaborative relationships with other water users to increase the adaptive capacity of the region and decrease conflict. Historically, water management involved diversion and impoundment of water within wetland units timed around patterns of agricultural water needs. In the last 20 years, managers have learned from flood and drought events and developed a long-term adaptive management plan that specifies alternative management actions managers can choose each year based on habitat needs and projected water supply. Each alternative includes habitat goals and target wetland water depth. However, wetland management adapted to agricultural return-flow availability may prove insufficient as population growth and climate change alter patterns of land and water use. Future management will likely depend more on negotiation, collaboration, and learning from social developments within the SES than strictly focusing on water management within refuge boundaries. To face this problem, managers have worked to be included in negotiations with regional water users, a strategy that may prove instructive for other wetland managers in agriculture-dominated watersheds.

  3. In Situ Wetland Restoration Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    wetland habitats where: habitat disruption should be minimized; desirable flora or fauna might be harmed by traditional remedial excavation methods...However, it is possible that short-term impacts to hydrophytic flora and fauna may occur. Other potential challenges include the long-term physical

  4. Magellanic Wetlands : More than Moor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filipová, L.; Hédl, Radim; Dančák, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2013), s. 163-188 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0389 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : wetland * vegetation * environment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.612, year: 2013

  5. Nevada Test Site Wetlands Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen

    1997-05-01

    This report identifies 16 Nevada Test Site (NTS) natural water sources that may be classified by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as jurisdictional wetlands and identifies eight water sources that may be classified as waters of the United States. These water sources are rare, localized habitats on the NTS that are important to regional wildlife and to isolated populations of water tolerant plants and aquatic organisms. No field investigations on the NTS have been conducted in the past to identify those natural water sources which would be protected as rare habitats and which may fall under regulatory authority of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1997. This report identifies and summarizes previous studies of NTS natural water sources, and identifies the current DOE management practices related to the protection of NTS wetlands. This report also presents management goals specific for NTS wetlands that incorporate the intent of existing wetlands legislation, the principles of ecosystem management, and the interests of regional land managers and other stakeholders.

  6. Carbon dynamics, food web structure and reclamation strategies in Athabasca oil sands wetlands (CFRAW) : overview and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciborowski, J.; Dixon, D.G.; Foote, L.; Liber, K.; Smits, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Seven oil sand mining partners and 5 university labs have joined forces to study the effects of mine tailings and process waters on development, health and function of wetland communities formed in post-mining landscapes. The collaborative effort, know as the carbon dynamics, food web structure and reclamation strategies in Athabasca oil sands wetlands (CRFAW), aims to identify the materials and strategies most effective and economical in producing a functioning reclamation landscape. This presentation reported on part of the study that tested predictions about how quickly wetlands amended with reclamation materials approach the conditions of reference wetland systems. It provided a conceptual model of carbon pathways and budgets to assess how the allocation of carbon among compartments changes as newly formed wetlands mature in the boreal system. It was assumed that stockpiling constructed wetlands with peat or topsoil would accelerate succession and community development. Although the bitumen and the naphthenic acids found in constructed wetlands are initially toxic, they may serve as an alternate source of carbon once they degrade. This study also assessed the sources, biological uptake, pathways, and movement through the food web of materials used by the biota in constructed wetlands. Additional studies are examining how the productivity of new wetlands is maintained. Net ecosystem productivity is being monitored along with rates of organic carbon accumulation from microbial, algal, and macrophyte production, and influx of outside materials. The rates of leaf litter breakdown and microbial respiration are being compared to determine how constituents speed or slow food web processes of young and older wetlands. Carbon and nitrogen isotope values in food web compartments indicate which sources are incorporated into the food web as wetlands age. The values are used to determine how this influences community development, food web structure and complexity, and the

  7. Historical wetlands mapping and GIS processing for the Savannah River Site Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christel, L.M.

    1994-08-01

    New policies regarding the open-quotes no net lossclose quotes of wetlands have presented resource managers and GIS analysts with a challenging ecological application. Historical aerial photography provides a temporal record of conditions over time, beneficial when appraising wetland gain and loss because man-made disturbances can have both short and long term effects on wetland communities. This is particularly true when assessing existing communities for restoration and reclamation of the ecologic structure and function of the community prior to a disturbance. Remediation efforts can be optimized when definitive documentation exists of the original communities. The Geographic Information System (GIS) is a powerful tool for integrating these data sets and performing spatial and temporal analyses in support of ecological applications. On the Savannah River Site (SRS) temporal analysis of multispectral scanner data has shown where wetlands were impacted by reactor operation, such as thermal discharge into creeks and swamps, and where wetlands were removed due to the construction of facilities. The GIS database was used to determine how the distribution and composition of wetland classes have changed over time. Historic black and white aerial photography of SRS as well as color infrared aerial photography as recent as 1989was used to develop a more current land cover database. Six wetland classes were photointerpreted. The historical data layer was then used in spatial analyses to aid in deriving potential viable and cost effective management technique alternatives for remediation of wetlands influenced by past reactor operations and has provided acreage estimates of wetlands lost. Acreage values can be used to estimate the potential costs of wetland remediation. This application of temporal analysis using a GIS demonstrates the utility of documenting prior conditions before remediation actually commences and how to maximize cost effective remediation efforts

  8. Emission of greenhouse gases and soil carbon sequestration in a riparian marsh wetland in central Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Subir K; Liu, Ruiqiang; Lal, Rattan

    2017-10-23

    Wetlands are a C sink, but they also account for a large natural source of greenhouse gases (GHG), particularly methane (CH 4 ). Soils of wetlands play an important role in alleviating the global climate change regardless of the emission of CH 4 . However, there are uncertainties about the amount of C stored and emitted from wetlands because of the site specific factors. Therefore, the present study was conducted in a temperate riverine flow-through wetland, part of which was covered with emerging macrophyte Typhus latifolia in central Ohio, USA, with the objective to assess emissions of GHGs (CH 4, CO 2 , N 2 O) and measure C and nitrogen (N) stocks in wetland soil in comparison to a reference upland site. The data revealed that CH 4 emission from the open and vegetated wetland ranged from 1.03-0.51 Mg C/ha/y and that of CO 2 varied from 1.26-1.51 Mg C/ha/y. In comparison, CH 4 emission from reference upland site was negligible (0.01 Mg C/ha/y), but CO 2 emission was much higher (3.24 Mg C/ha/y). The stock of C in wetland soil was 85 to 125 Mg C/ha up to 0.3 m depth. The average rate of emission was 2.15 Mg C/ha/y, but the rate of sequestration was calculated as 5.55 Mg C/ha/y. Thus, the wetland was actually a C sink. Emission of N 2 O was slightly higher in vegetated wetland (0.153 mg N 2 O-N/m 2 /h) than the open wetland and the reference site (0.129 mg N 2 O-N/m 2 /h). Effect of temperature on emission of GHGs from the systems was also studied.

  9. Evaluation of constructed wetland treatment performance for winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, Mark E; Carr, Melanie A; Shepherd, Heather L

    2003-01-01

    Rapid expansion of wineries in rural California during the past three decades has created contamination problems related to winery wastewater treatment and disposal; however, little information is available about performance of on-site treatment systems. Here, the project objective was to determine full-scale, subsurface-flow constructed wetland retention times and treatment performance through assessment of water quality by daily sampling of total dissolved solids, pH, total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannins, nitrate, ammonium, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphate, sulfate, and sulfide across operating systems for winery wastewater treatment. Measurements were conducted during both the fall crush season of heavy loading and the spring following bottling and racking operations at the winery. Simple decay model coefficients for these constituents as well as COD and tannin removal efficiencies from winery wastewater in bench-scale reactors are also determined. The bench-scale study used upward-flow, inoculated attached-growth (pea-gravel substrate) reactors fed synthetic winery wastewater. Inlet and outlet tracer studies for determination of actual retention times were essential to analyses of treatment performance from an operational subsurface-flow constructed wetland that had been overloaded due to failure to install a pretreatment system for suspended solids removal. Less intensive sampling conducted at a smaller operational winery wastewater constructed wetland that had used pretreatment suspended solids removal and aeration indicated that the constructed wetlands were capable of complete organic load removal from the winery wastewater.

  10. Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: five decades of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymazal, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The first experiments on the use of wetland plants to treat wastewaters were carried out in the early 1950s by Dr. Käthe Seidel in Germany and the first full-scale systems were put into operation during the late 1960s. Since then, the subsurface systems have been commonly used in Europe while free water surface systems have been more popular in North America and Australia. During the 1970s and 1980s, the information on constructed wetland technology spread slowly. But since the 1990 s the technology has become international, facilitated by exchange among scientists and researchers around the world. Because of the need for more effective removal of ammonia and total nitrogen, during the 1990 s and 2000s vertical and horizontal flow constructed wetlands were combined to complement each other to achieve higher treatment efficiency. Today, constructed wetlands are recognized as a reliable wastewater treatment technology and they represent a suitable solution for the treatment of many types of wastewater.

  11. China's natural wetlands: past problems, current status, and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuqing An; Harbin Li; Baohua Guan; Changfang Zhou; Zhongsheng Wang; Zifa Deng; Yingbiao Zhi; Yuhong Liu; Chi Xu; Shubo Fang; Jinhui Jiang; Hongli Li

    2007-01-01

    Natural wetlands, occupying 3.8% of China's land and providing 54.9% of ecosystem services, are unevenly distributed among eight wetland regions. Natural wetlands in China suffered great loss and degradation (e.g., 23.0% freshwater swamps, 51.2% coastal wetlands) because of the wetland reclamation during China's long history of civilization, and the...

  12. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Wildlife Habitat: 17 Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides brief descriptions of 17 wetland treatment systems from across the country that are providing significant water quality benefits while demonstrating additional benefits such as wildlife habitat.

  13. Phytoplankton succession in a tropical freshwater lake, Bhoj Wetland (Bhopal, India): spatial and temporal perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ahmed, A.; Wangane, A.

    Bhoj Wetland is tropical freshwater system in central India �Bhopal� serving the citizens as one of the major source of water since its inception Understanding the process of phytoplankton variation can be particularly useful in water quality...

  14. Characterizing the Connectivity and Cumulative Effects of Wetlands on Downstream Hydrology: A Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) are depressional landscape features entirely surrounded by uplands. While “GIW” may imply functional isolation from other surface waters, these systems exhibit a gradient of hydrologic, biological, and/or chemical connectivity. ...

  15. Simulation of hydrological processes in the Zhalong wetland within a river basin, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Q. Feng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhalong National Nature Preserve is a large wetland reserve on the Songnen Plain in Northeast China. Wetlands in the preserve play a key role in maintaining regional ecosystem function and integrity. Global climate change and intensified anthropogenic activities in the region have raised great concerns over the change of natural flow regime, wetland degradation and loss. In this study, two key hydrologic components in the preserve, water surface area and water volume, as well as their variations during the period 1985–2006, were investigated with a spatially-distributed hydrologic modeling system (SWAT. A wetland module was incorporated into the SWAT model to represent hydrological linkages between the wetland and adjacent upland areas. The modified modeling system was calibrated with streamflow measurements from 1987 to 1989 and was validated for the period 2005–2006. The calibration achieved a Nash efficiency coefficient (Ens of 0.86, and the validation yielded an Ens of 0.66. In the past 20 yr, water surface area in the Zhalong wetland fluctuated from approximately 200 km2 to 1145 km2 with a rapid decreasing trend through the early 2000s. Consequently, water volume decreased largely in the preserve, especially in the dry seasons. The situation changed following the implementation of a river diversion in 2001. Overall, the modeling yielded plausible estimates of hydrologic changes in this large wetland reserve, building a foundation for assessing ecological water requirements and developing strategies and plans for future water resources management within the river basin.

  16. Macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and wetland characteristics affect use of wetlands by avian species in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Pendelton, G.W.; Bennatti, C.R.; Mingo, T.M.; Stromborg, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to determine use by avian species (e.g., piscivores, marsh birds, waterfowl, selected passerines) of 29 wetlands in areas with low (chemistry, basin characteristics, and avian use of different wetland types. Shallow, beaver (Castor canadensis)-created wetlands with the highest phosphorus levels and abundant and varied macrophyte assemblages supported greater densities of macroinvertebrates and numbers of duck broods (88.3% of all broods) in contrast to deep, glacial type wetlands with sparse vegetation and lower invertebrate densities that supported fewer broods (11.7%). Low pH may have affected some acid-intolerant invertebrate taxa (i.e., Ephemeroptera), but high mean numbers of Insecta per wetland were recorded from wetlands with a pH of 5.51. Other Classes and Orders of invertebrates were more abundant on wetlands with pH > 5.51. All years combined use of wetlands by broods was greater on wetlands with pH ≤ 5.51 (77.4%) in contract to wetlands with pH > 5.51 that supported 21.8% of the broods. High mean brood density was associated with mean number of Insecta per wetland. For lentic wetlands created by beaver, those habitats contained vegetative structure and nutrients necessary to provide cover to support invertebrate populations that are prey of omnivore and insectivore species. The fishless status of a few wetlands may have affected use by some waterfowl species and obligate piscivores.

  17. Wetland restoration, flood pulsing, and disturbance dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    1999-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics are critical to wetland viability, there is as yet no consensus among those responsible for wetland restoration about how best to plan for those phenomena or even whether it is really necessary to do so at all. In this groundbreaking book, Dr. Beth Middleton draws upon the latest research from around the world to build a strong case for making flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics integral to the wetland restoration planning process.While the initial chapters of the book are devoted to laying the conceptual foundations, most of the coverage is concerned with demonstrating the practical implications for wetland restoration and management of the latest ecological theory and research. It includes a fascinating case history section in which Dr. Middleton explores the restoration models used in five major North American, European, Australian, African, and Asian wetland projects, and analyzes their relative success from the perspective of flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics planning.Wetland Restoration also features a wealth of practical information useful to all those involved in wetland restoration and management, including: * A compendium of water level tolerances, seed germination, seedling recruitment, adult survival rates, and other key traits of wetland plant species * A bibliography of 1,200 articles and monographs covering all aspects of wetland restoration * A comprehensive directory of wetland restoration ftp sites worldwide * An extensive glossary of essential terms

  18. Metal pollution across the upper delta plain wetlands and its adjacent shallow sea wetland, northeast of China: implications for the filtration functions of wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Ye, Siyuan; Yuan, Hongming; Ding, Xigui; Zhao, Guangming; Yang, Shixiong; He, Lei; Wang, Jin; Pei, Shaofeng; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2018-02-01

    Grain size and concentrations of organic carbon (Corg) and particulate metals (PMs) As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Al, Fe, and Mn of 373 surface sediment samples, salinities in 67 surface water samples, were analyzed in various environments, including the upper delta plain wetlands (UDPW), its adjacent shallow sea wetland (SSW) in the Liaodong Bay, and river channels that are running through the Liaohe Delta, to evaluate the spatial distribution, transportation environmental dynamics of metals, and the provenance of metal pollution and assess the filtration functions of wetlands. The concentrations of PMs for UDPW were generally higher by a factor of ~ 10-22% compared with its analogues in SSW, suggesting the accumulation of PMs within the UDPW indicates that the UDPW systems are efficiently physical and chemical traps for PMs of anthropogenic sources by retaining and storing pollutants flowing into the sea. However, there was sever sewage irrigation-induced Cd pollution with a geo-accumulation index of 0.62-3.11 in an area of ~ 86 km 2 of the adjacent shallow sea wetland, where large amount wetlands were historically moved for agriculture in the UDPW. Remarkably, the distributions of PMs were controlled by salinity-induced desorption and re-adsorption mechanisms and significantly dispersed the contamination coverage by the three-dimensional hydrodynamic and sedimentation processes that dominated by inputs of freshwater and ocean dynamics including NE-SW tidal currents and NE-E longshore drifts in the SSW of the Liaodong Bay. A high agreement between the UDPW and the SSW datasets in principal component analysis essentially reflects that the characteristics of PM sources in the SSW were actually inherited from that in the UDPW, with a much closer relationship among metals, organic matter, and fine particulates in SSW than that of UDPW, which was judged by their correlation coefficient range of 0.406-0.919 in SSW against those of 0.042-0.654 in UDPW.

  19. Impacts of Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activities on the Ecological Restoration of Wetlands in the Arid Regions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the global ecosystem, wetlands and their dynamics greatly influence regional eco-environment systems. To understand the distributions, change processes and temporal-spatial characteristics of the wetlands of the inland river basin in an arid region (Heihe River Basin, HRB, this paper employed multi-source remote sensing data to facilitate multi-temporal monitoring of the HRB wetland using a wetland information extraction method. First, we performed monitoring of these wetlands for the years 2000, 2007, 2011 and 2014; then, we analyzed the variation characteristics of the spatial-temporal dynamics of the wetlands in the HRB over the last 15 years via the landscape dynamic change model and the transformation matrix. In addition, we studied the possible driving mechanisms of these changes. The research results showed that the total area of the HRB wetlands had decreased by 2959.13 hectares in the last 15 years (Since 2000, and the annual average loss was −1.09%. The dynamics characterizing the HRB wetlands generally presented a trend of slow increase after an initial decrease, which can be classified into three stages. From 2000 to 2007, the total wetland area rapidly decreased; from 2007 to 2011, the area slowly decreased; and from 2011 to 2014, the area gradually increased. The dynamic changing processes characterizing the wetland resources were ascribed to a combination of natural processes and human activities. The main driving mechanisms of wetland dynamic changes include climatic conditions, upper reach water inflows, population, water resources, cultivated area, and policy. The findings of this study can served as reference and support for the conservation and management of wetland resources in the HRB.

  20. Land characterisation for soil-based constructed wetlands: Adapting investigation methods to design objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Petitjean, A.; Forquet, N.; Choubert, J.M.; Coquery, M; Bouyer, M.; Boutin, C.

    2015-01-01

    Buffer zones between wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies have recently gained interest in France. These soil-based constructed wetland (SBCW) systems receive treated wastewater and may have various designs aiming to mimic 'natural' wetlands. Research is needed to assess the treatment efficiency of such systems. To this aim, a comprehensive study is carried out to understand the fate of water, conventional pollutants (suspended solids, organic carbon, ammonium, and phosph...

  1. CONSTRUCTED WETLAND TECHNOLOGY TO PREVENT WATER RESOURCES POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Zeki Gökalp; Sedat Karaman; Ismail Taş; Halil Kirnak

    2016-01-01

    Discharge of untreated waste waters into surface waters creates significant pollution in these resources. Wastewaters are most of the time discharged into seas, rivers and other water bodies without any treatments due to high treatment costs both in Turkey and throughout the world. Constructed wetlands, also called as natural treatment systems, are used as an alternative treatment system to conventional high-cost treatment systems because of their low construction, operation and maintenance c...

  2. The land value impacts of wetland restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaza, Nikhil; BenDor, Todd K

    2013-09-30

    U.S. regulations require offsets for aquatic ecosystems damaged during land development, often through restoration of alternative resources. What effect does large-scale wetland and stream restoration have on surrounding land values? Restoration effects on real estate values have substantial implications for protecting resources, increasing tax base, and improving environmental policies. Our analysis focuses on the three-county Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, North Carolina region, which has experienced rapid development and extensive aquatic ecological restoration (through the state's Ecosystem Enhancement Program [EEP]). Since restoration sites are not randomly distributed across space, we used a genetic algorithm to match parcels near restoration sites with comparable control parcels. Similar to propensity score analysis, this technique facilitates statistical comparison and isolates the effects of restoration sites on surrounding real estate values. Compared to parcels not proximate to any aquatic resources, we find that, 1) natural aquatic systems steadily and significantly increase parcel values up to 0.75 mi away, and 2) parcels 0.5 mi from EEP sites gain substantial amenity value. When we control for intervening water bodies (e.g. un-restored streams and wetlands), we find a similar inflection point whereby parcels points to the need for higher public visibility of aquatic ecosystem restoration programs and increased public information about their value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrocarbon biodegradation in intertidal wetland sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGenity, Terry J

    2014-06-01

    Intertidal wetlands, primarily salt marsh, mangrove and mudflats, which provide many essential ecosystem services, are under threat on numerous fronts; a situation that is made worse by crude-oil pollution. Microbes are the main vehicle for remediation of such sediments, and new discoveries, such as novel biodegradation pathways, means of accessing oil, multi-species interactions, and community-level responses to oil addition, are helping us to understand, predict and monitor the fate of oil. Despite this, there are many challenges, not least because of the heterogeneity of these ecosystems and the complexity of crude oil. For example, there is growing awareness about the toxicity of the oxygenated products that result from crude-oil weathering, which are difficult to degrade. This review highlights how developments in areas as diverse as systems biology, microbiology, ecology, biogeochemistry and analytical chemistry are enhancing our understanding of hydrocarbon biodegradation and thus bioremediation of oil-polluted intertidal wetlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Constructed Wetlands for Treatment of Combined Sewer Overflow in the US: A Review of Design Challenges and Application Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Tao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As combined sewer systems and centralized wastewater treatment facilities age, many communities in the world are challenged by management of combined sewer overflow (CSO. Constructed wetlands are considered to be one of the green infrastructure solutions to CSOs in the US. Despite the wide application of constructed wetlands to different types of wastewaters, the stochastic and intermittent nature of CSO presents challenges for design and performance assessment of constructed wetlands. This paper reviews the application status of CSO constructed wetlands in the US, assesses the benefits of CSO constructed wetlands, identifies challenges to designing CSO constructed wetlands, and proposes design considerations. This review finds that constructed wetlands are effective in CSO treatment and relatively less expensive to build than comparable grey infrastructure. Constructed wetlands not only remove pollutants, but also mitigate the event-associated flow regime. The design challenges include incorporating considerations of green infrastructure into permit requirements, determining design capacity for highly variable flows, requiring pretreatment, and needing adaptive design and intensive monitoring. Simultaneous monitoring of flow rate and water quality at both the inflow and outflow of CSO constructed wetlands is required for performance assessment and needed to support design, but is rarely available.

  5. National Wetland Mitigation Banking Study Wetland Migitation Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    habitat (i.e. number of snags, extent of exposed steep shoreline, etc.) rather than selecting species themselves as function indicators [ WWF 1992...etc.) that are converted to portray hydrologic, water quality, and habitat functions as well as wetland loss on watershed scales [ WWF 1992]. The...Natural Areas - include the Stewardship Program, a partnership program between the private and public sectors for conservation land acquisitions

  6. Three approaches to the classification of inland wetlands. [Dismal Swamp, Tennessee, and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, P. T.; Malone, D.; Brooks, P. D.; Carter, V.

    1977-01-01

    In the Dismal Swamp project, seasonal, color-infrared aerial photographs and LANDSAT digital data were interpreted for a detailed analysis of the vegetative communities in a large, highly altered wetland. In Western Tennessee, seasonal high altitude color-infrared aerial photographs provided the hydrologic and vegetative information needed to map inland wetlands, using a classification system developed for the Tennessee Valley Region. In Florida, color-infrared aerial photographs were analyzed to produce wetland maps using three existing classification systems to evaluate the information content and mappability of each system. The methods used in each of the three projects can be extended or modified for use in the mapping of inland wetlands in other parts of the United States.

  7. Introduction to the Wetland Book 1: Wetland structure and function, management, and nethods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Nick C.; Middleton, Beth A.; McInnes, Robert J.; Everard, Mark; Irvine, Kenneth; Van Dam, Anne A.; Finlayson, C. Max; Finlayson, C. Max; Everard, Mark; Irvine, Kenneth; McInnes, Robert J.; Middleton, Beth A.; Van Dam, Anne A.; Davidson, Nick C.

    2016-01-01

    The Wetland Book 1 is designed as a ‘first port-of-call’ reference work for information on the structure and functions of wetlands, current approaches to wetland management, and methods for researching and understanding wetlands. Contributions by experts summarize key concepts, orient the reader to the major issues, and support further research on such issues by individuals and multidisciplinary teams. The Wetland Book 1 is organized in three parts - Wetland structure and function; Wetland management; and Wetland methods - each of which is divided into a number of thematic Sections. Each Section starts with one or more overview chapters, supported by chapters providing further information and case studies on different aspects of the theme.

  8. Towards an integrated strategy for monitoring wetland inundation with virtual constellations of optical and radar satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, B.; Huang, W.; Huang, C.; Jones, J. W.; Lang, M. W.; Creed, I. F.; Carroll, M.

    2017-12-01

    The function of wetlandscapes in hydrological and biogeochemical cycles is largely governed by surface inundation, with small wetlands that experience periodic inundation playing a disproportionately large role in these processes. However, the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of inundation in these wetland systems are still poorly understood, resulting in large uncertainties in global water, carbon and greenhouse gas budgets. Satellite imagery provides synoptic and repeat views of the Earth's surface and presents opportunities to fill this knowledge gap. Despite the proliferation of Earth Observation satellite missions in the past decade, no single satellite sensor can simultaneously provide the spatial and temporal detail needed to adequately characterize inundation in small, dynamic wetland systems. Surface water data products must therefore integrate observations from multiple satellite sensors in order to address this objective, requiring the development of improved and coordinated algorithms to generate consistent estimates of surface inundation. We present a suite of algorithms designed to detect surface inundation in wetlands using data from a virtual constellation of optical and radar sensors comprising the Landsat and Sentinel missions (DeVries et al., 2017). Both optical and radar algorithms were able to detect inundation in wetlands without the need for external training data, allowing for high-efficiency monitoring of wetland inundation at large spatial and temporal scales. Applying these algorithms across a gradient of wetlands in North America, preliminary findings suggest that while these fully automated algorithms can detect wetland inundation at higher spatial and temporal resolutions than currently available surface water data products, limitations specific to the satellite sensors and their acquisition strategies are responsible for uncertainties in inundation estimates. Further research is needed to investigate strategies for

  9. ASSESSING THE EFFECT OF ANTIBIOTICS ON THE RESISTANCE OF RESIDENT MICROBES IN WETLANDS CONSTRUCTED FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of constructed wetlands as a cost effective and environmentally friendly option for wastewater treatment is becoming more prevalent. These systems are championed as combining many of the benefits of tertiary treatment while also providing high quality wetland habitat as...

  10. Spatial and functional characterization, identification and assessment of isolated wetlands in Alachua County, Florida, USA - GIS and remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing mapping techniques were developed to identify the locations of isolated wetlands in Alachua County, FL, a 2510 sq km area in north-central Florida with diverse geology and numerous isolated wetlands. The resul...

  11. EnviroAtlas - Potential Wetland Areas - Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Potential Wetland Areas (PWA) dataset shows potential wetland areas at 30-meter resolution. Beginning two centuries ago, many wetlands were turned...

  12. Temporary wetlands: Challenges and solutions to conserving a ‘disappearing’ ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Mushet, David M.; Bell, Kathleen P.; Boix, Dani; Fitzsimons, James A.; Isselin-Nondedeu, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Frequent drying of ponded water, and support of unique, highly specialized assemblages of often rare species, characterize temporary wetlands, such as vernal pools, gilgais, and prairie potholes. As small aquatic features embedded in a terrestrial landscape, temporary wetlands enhance biodiversity and provide aesthetic, biogeochemical, and hydrologic functions. Challenges to conserving temporary wetlands include the need to: (1) integrate freshwater and terrestrial biodiversity priorities; (2) conserve entire ‘pondscapes’ defined by connections to other aquatic and terrestrial systems; (3) maintain natural heterogeneity in environmental gradients across and within wetlands, especially gradients in hydroperiod; (4) address economic impact on landowners and developers; (5) act without complete inventories of these wetlands; and (6) work within limited or non-existent regulatory protections. Because temporary wetlands function as integral landscape components, not singly as isolated entities, their cumulative loss is ecologically detrimental yet not currently part of the conservation calculus. We highlight approaches that use strategies for conserving temporary wetlands in increasingly human-dominated landscapes that integrate top-down management and bottom-up collaborative approaches. Diverse conservation activities (including education, inventory, protection, sustainable management, and restoration) that reduce landowner and manager costs while achieving desired ecological objectives will have the greatest probability of success in meeting conservation goals.

  13. Groundwater connectivity of upland-embedded wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Brian; Rosenberry, Donald O.

    2018-01-01

    Groundwater connections from upland-embedded wetlands to downstream waterbodies remain poorly understood. In principle, water from upland-embedded wetlands situated high in a landscape should flow via groundwater to waterbodies situated lower in the landscape. However, the degree of groundwater connectivity varies across systems due to factors such as geologic setting, hydrologic conditions, and topography. We use numerical models to evaluate the conditions suitable for groundwater connectivity between upland-embedded wetlands and downstream waterbodies in the prairie pothole region of North Dakota (USA). Results show groundwater connectivity between upland-embedded wetlands and other waterbodies is restricted when these wetlands are surrounded by a mounding water table. However, connectivity exists among adjacent upland-embedded wetlands where water–table mounds do not form. In addition, the presence of sand layers greatly facilitates groundwater connectivity of upland-embedded wetlands. Anisotropy can facilitate connectivity via groundwater flow, but only if it becomes unrealistically large. These findings help consolidate previously divergent views on the significance of local and regional groundwater flow in the prairie pothole region.

  14. Mitigation of two pyrethroid insecticides in a Mississippi Delta constructed wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, M.T. [USDA Agricultural Research Service National Sedimentation Laboratory, Water Quality and Ecology Research Unit, PO Box 1157, 598 McElroy Drive, Oxford, MS 38655 (United States)], E-mail: matt.moore@ars.usda.gov; Cooper, C.M.; Smith, S.; Cullum, R.F.; Knight, S.S.; Locke, M.A.; Bennett, E.R. [USDA Agricultural Research Service National Sedimentation Laboratory, Water Quality and Ecology Research Unit, PO Box 1157, 598 McElroy Drive, Oxford, MS 38655 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Constructed wetlands are a suggested best management practice to help mitigate agricultural runoff before entering receiving aquatic ecosystems. A constructed wetland system (180 m x 30 m), comprising a sediment retention basin and two treatment cells, was used to determine the fate and transport of simulated runoff containing the pyrethroid insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin, as well as suspended sediment. Wetland water, sediment, and plant samples were collected spatially and temporally over 55 d. Results showed 49 and 76% of the study's measured lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin masses were associated with vegetation, respectively. Based on conservative effects concentrations for invertebrates and regression analyses of maximum observed wetland aqueous concentrations, a wetland length of 215 m x 30 m width would be required to adequately mitigate 1% pesticide runoff from a 14 ha contributing area. Results of this experiment can be used to model future design specifications for constructed wetland mitigation of pyrethroid insecticides. - A wetland length of 215 m x 30 m mitigated pyrethroid runoff from a 14 ha field.

  15. Mitigation of two pyrethroid insecticides in a Mississippi Delta constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, M.T.; Cooper, C.M.; Smith, S.; Cullum, R.F.; Knight, S.S.; Locke, M.A.; Bennett, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are a suggested best management practice to help mitigate agricultural runoff before entering receiving aquatic ecosystems. A constructed wetland system (180 m x 30 m), comprising a sediment retention basin and two treatment cells, was used to determine the fate and transport of simulated runoff containing the pyrethroid insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin, as well as suspended sediment. Wetland water, sediment, and plant samples were collected spatially and temporally over 55 d. Results showed 49 and 76% of the study's measured lambda-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin masses were associated with vegetation, respectively. Based on conservative effects concentrations for invertebrates and regression analyses of maximum observed wetland aqueous concentrations, a wetland length of 215 m x 30 m width would be required to adequately mitigate 1% pesticide runoff from a 14 ha contributing area. Results of this experiment can be used to model future design specifications for constructed wetland mitigation of pyrethroid insecticides. - A wetland length of 215 m x 30 m mitigated pyrethroid runoff from a 14 ha field

  16. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Matthew J.; Creed, Irena F.; Alexander, Laurie; Basu, Nandita B.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Craft, Christopher; D’Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bo...

  17. Diverse characteristics of wetlands restored under the Wetlands Reserve Program in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Joel M. Gramling

    2012-01-01

    The Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) restores converted or degraded wetlands on private working lands; however, the nature and outcomes of such efforts are undocumented in the Southeastern U.S. Identification of wetland types is needed to assess the program's conservation benefits, because ecological functions differ with hydrogeomorphic (HGM) type. We reviewed...

  18. Characteristic community structure of Florida's subtropical wetlands: the Florida wetland condition index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depending upon the classification scheme applied, there are between 10 and 45 different wetland types in Florida. Land use and land cover change has a marked effect on wetland condition, and different wetland types are affected differentially depending on many abiotic and biotic ...

  19. SLOSS or Not? Factoring Wetland Size Into Decisions for Wetland Conservation, Enhancement, Restoration, and Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitigation or replacement of several small impacted wetlands or sites with fewer large wetlands can occur deliberately through the application of functional assessment methods (e.g., Adamus 1997) or coincidentally as the result of market-based mechanisms for wetland mitigation ba...

  20. Soil and water characteristics of a young surface mine wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Cole, C.; Lefebvre, Eugene A.

    1991-05-01

    Coal companies are reluctant to include wetland development in reclamation plans partly due to a lack of information on the resulting characteristics of such sites. It is easier for coal companies to recreate terrestrial habitats than to attempt experimental methods and possibly face significant regulatory disapproval. Therefore, we studied a young (10 years) wetland on a reclaimed surface coal mine in southern Illinois so as to ascertain soil and water characteristics such that the site might serve as a model for wetland development on surface mines. Water pH was not measured because of equipment problems, but evidence (plant life, fish, herpetofauna) suggests suitable pH levels. Other water parameters (conductivity, salinity, alkalinity, chloride, copper, total hardness, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and sulfate) were measured, and only copper was seen in potentially high concentrations (but with no obvious toxic effects). Soil variables measured included pH, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, aluminum, iron, sulfate, chloride, and percent organic matter. Soils were slightly alkaline and most parameters fell within levels reported for other studies on both natural and manmade wetlands. Aluminum was high, but this might be indicative more of large amounts complexed with soils and therefore unavailable, than amounts actually accessible to plants. Organic matter was moderate, somewhat surprising given the age of the system.

  1. Artificial wetlands - yes or no?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Václav; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Lusková, Věra

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2004), s. 119-127 ISSN 1642-3593. [International Symposium on the Ecology of Fluvial Fishes /9./. Lodz, 23.06.2003-26.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6093007; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : floodplain * artificial wetlands * fish communities Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. Monitoring coastal wetlands in a highly dynamic tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saynor, M.J.; Finlayson, C.M.; Spiers, A.; Eliot, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Alligator Rivers Region in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia has been selected by government and collaborating agencies as a key study area for the monitoring of natural and human-induced coastal change. The Region contains the floodplain wetlands of Kakadu National Park which have been recognised internationally for their natural and cultural heritage value. A coastal monitoring program for assessing and monitoring environmental change in the Alligator Rivers Region has been established at the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist. This program has developed a regional capacity to measure and assess change on the wetlands, floodplains and coastline within the region. Field assessment and monitoring procedures have been developed for the program. The assessment procedures require use of georeferencing and data handling techniques to facilitate comparison and relational overlay of a wide variety of information. Monitoring includes regular survey of biophysical and cultural processes on the floodplains; such as the extension of tidal creeks and mangroves, shoreline movement, dieback in Melaleuca wetlands, and weed invasion of freshwater wetlands. A differential Global Positioning System is used to accurately georeference spatial data and a Geographic Information System is then used to store and assess information. The assessment and monitoring procedures can be applied to the wet-dry tropics in general. These studies are all particularly pertinent with the possibility of greenhouse gases causing global warming and potential sea-level rise, a major possible threat to the valued wetlands of Kakadu National Park, and across the wet-dry tropics in general

  3. Vegetation of wetlands of the prairie pothole region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrud, H.A.; Millar, J.B.; Van Der Valk, A.G.; van der Valk, A.

    1989-01-01

    precipitation can raise water levels high enough to drown out emergent vegetation or produce 'eat outs' due to increases in the size of muskrat populations that accompany periods of high water. The elimination of emergents creates a lake marsh dominated by submersed vegetation. During the next drought when the marsh bottom is exposed by receding water levels (a drawdown), seeds of emergents and mudflat annuals in the soil (the seed bank) germinate (the dry marsh stage). When the marsh refloods, ending the dry marsh stage, the emergents survive and spread vegetatively. This is the regenerating marsh. This stage continues until high water again eliminates the emergents, starting the next degenerating stage.Zonation patterns are conspicuous because each zone often is dominated by a single species that has a lifeform different from those in adjacent zones. The species composition of each zone is a function of its environment (water or moisture regime, salinity, and disturbance history). Within a zone it may take a year or more for species composition to adjust to a change of environmental conditions. These lags sometimes result in abnormal zonation patterns, particularly after a change in water level.Classification of prairie wetlands is more difficult than for most other wetland type, because of these vegetation cycles. Early attempts to classify prairie wetlands did not take the dynamic nature of their vegetation into account. Stewart and Kantrud (1971) developed a classification system for prairie potholes that recognized different phases of vegetation zones dominated by deep marsh species. It used the composition of the vegetation in the deepest part (zone) of a pothole as an indicator of its water-level regime and water chemistry. The application of the national wetland classification system of Cowardin et al. (1979) to potholes is also discussed, and lists of species that characterize the various dominance types associated with the subclasses in this system are presented.

  4. Interactions Between Wetlands and Tidal Inlets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanchez, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) presents numerical simulations investigating how the loss of wetlands in estuaries modifies tidal processes in inlet navigation channels...

  5. Hydraulic residence time and iron removal in a wetland receiving ferruginous mine water over a 4 year period from commissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusin, F M; Jarvis, A P; Gandy, C J

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) has been conducted for the UK Coal Authority's mine water treatment wetland at Lambley, Northumberland, to determine the hydraulic performance of the wetland over a period of approximately 4 years since site commissioning. The wetland RTD was evaluated in accordance with moment analysis and modelled based on a tanks-in-series (TIS) model to yield the hydraulic characteristics of system performance. Greater hydraulic performance was seen during the second site monitoring after 21 months of site operation i.e. longer hydraulic residence time to reflect overall system hydraulic efficiency, compared to wetland performance during its early operation. Further monitoring of residence time during the third year of wetland operation indicated a slight reduction in hydraulic residence time, thus a lower system hydraulic efficiency. In contrast, performance during the fourth year of wetland operation exhibited an improved overall system hydraulic efficiency, suggesting the influence of reed growth over the lifetime of such systems on hydraulic performance. Interestingly, the same pattern was found for iron (which is the primary pollutant of concern in ferruginous mine waters) removal efficiency of the wetland system from the second to fourth year of wetland operation. This may therefore, reflect the maturity of reeds for maintaining efficient flow distribution across the wetland to retain a longer residence time and significant fractions of water involved to enhance the extent of treatment received for iron attenuation. Further monitoring will be conducted to establish whether such performance is maintained, or whether efficiency decreases over time due to accumulation of dead plant material within the wetland cells.

  6. Geographic Information System (GIS) representation of historical seagrass coverage in Perdido Bay from United States Geological Survey/National Wetlands Research Center (USGS/NWRC), 1979 (NODC Accession 0000605)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical seagrass coverage in Perdido Bay 1979 from United States Geological Survey/National Wetlands Research Center (USGS/NWRC).

  7. Geographic Information System (GIS) characterization of historical seagrass coverage in Perdido Bay from United States Geological Survey/National Wetlands Research Center (USGS/NWRC), 1987 (NODC Accession 0000606)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Graphical representation of historical seagrass coverage in Perdido Bay in 1987 from United States Geological Survey/National Wetlands Research Center (USGS/NWRC).

  8. [Vulnerability assessment on the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary under sea-level rise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li-Fang; Wang, Ning; Ge, Zhen-Ming; Zhang, Li-Quan

    2014-02-01

    To study the response of coastal wetlands to climate change, assess the impacts of climate change on the coastal wetlands and formulate feasible and practical mitigation strategies are the important prerequisite for securing coastal ecosystems. In this paper, the possible impacts of sea level rise caused by climate change on the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary were analyzed by the Source-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence (SPRC) model and IPCC definition on the vulnerability. An indicator system for vulnerability assessment was established, in which sea-level rise rate, subsidence rate, habitat elevation, inundation threshold of habitat and sedimentation rate were selected as the key indicators. A quantitatively spatial assessment method based on the GIS platform was established by quantifying each indicator, calculating the vulnerability index and grading the vulnerability index for the assessment of coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary under the scenarios of sea-level rise. The vulnerability assessments on the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary in 2030 and 2050 were performed under two sea-level rise scenarios (the present sea-level rise trend over recent 30 years and IPCC A1F1 scenario). The results showed that with the projection in 2030 under the present trend of sea-level rise (0.26 cm x a(-1)), 6.6% and 0.1% of the coastal wetlands were in the low and moderate vulnerabilities, respectively; and in 2050, 9.8% and 0.2% of the coastal wetlands were in low and moderate vulnerabilities, respectively. With the projection in 2030 under the A1F1 scenario (0.59 cm x a(-1)), 9.0% and 0.1% of the coastal wetlands were in the low and moderate vulnerabilities, respectively; and in 2050, 9.5%, 1.0% and 0.3% of the coastal wetlands were in the low, moderate and high vulnerabilities, respectively.

  9. Predicted water quality of oil sands reclamation wetlands : impact of physical design and hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Although engineered wetlands can be used as treatment systems in the reclamation of oil sands mines, a variety of factors must be considered to improve the biological functioning of many oil sands reclamation landscapes. Key factors in the control of concentrations of dissolved substances include area, depth, shape, surrounding landscape material and contributing water quality and quantity. Seasonal cycles of precipitation and ice cover also require consideration in the planning of wetlands ecosystems. This paper presented details of a model designed to predict constituent concentrations in planned wetlands based on probable inflow and processes. Input variables consisted of key substances and hydrological factors that may be encountered on reclaimed landscapes. The model was constructed to perform sensitivity analyses of wetlands with respect to total dissolved solids (TDS), major ions, and naphthenic acids concentrations. Inputs and assumptions drawn from previous environmental impact assessments completed for proposed and approved oil sands projects were used. Results suggested that wetlands volume is an important factor in the moderation of peak flows and substance decay. The predictions generated by the model suggested that wetlands size, tailings and sandcap placement schedules may be manipulated to achieve desired wetlands salinities. It was observed that the proportion of the watershed covered by specific land types can affect both initial and future concentrations. Long-term climate change that results in 15 per cent more or less runoff was predicted to have little effect on wetlands concentrations, although concentrations may rise during periodic droughts. It was concluded that site-specific modelling and careful planning is needed to achieve desired water quality for the creation of engineered wetlands. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  10. Evolution of wetland in Honghe National Nature Reserve from the view of hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiancang; Dong, Weihong; Lin, Xueyu; Liang, Yukai; Meng, Ying; Xie, Wei

    2017-12-31

    There is wide concern about the evolution of wetlands, an important component of the global ecosystem. The Honghe National Nature Reserve (HNNR) is an internationally important marsh wetland in China that is at risk of degradation. To gain an improved understanding of how the HNNR wetland developed from 1975 to 2014, typical years, including 1975, 1988, 1996, 2002 and 2014, were selected based on precipitation date. And land cover types of the different years were classified using TM images. The results showed that the wetland evolution mainly reflects transformations between the meadow and wetland land cover types. The landscape index suggests the wetland is degrading. The main drivers of wetland evolution were a warmer and drier climate, the establishment of an irrigation system, and a decrease in the groundwater level. These factors resulted in changes in the quantity of water in the HNNR. We can therefore say that the evolution was driven by changes in the water quantity. Because there have been very few hydrogeological studies in the HNNR, we examined the relationships among precipitation, surface water, and groundwater, all of which significantly influence water quantity. We found that precipitation was the only source of surface water and, while there was certain amount of surface water recharge into the shallow groundwater, the recharge range was limited, which increased the vulnerability of the wetlands. Thus, it is difficult to recharge surface water but easy to lose surface water from the HNNR, which suggests that efforts need to be directed at maintaining the surface water at the optimal level to prevent degradation of the wetland. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Ecosystem services: developing sustainable management paradigms based on wetland functions and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.; Smith, Loren M.; Conner, William H.; Burkett, Virginia R.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Hester, Mark W.; Zheng, Haochi

    2013-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century and twentieth century, there was considerable interest and activity to develop the United States for agricultural, mining, and many other purposes to improve the quality of human life standards and prosperity. Most of the work to support this development was focused along disciplinary lines with little attention focused on ecosystem service trade-offs or synergisms, especially those that transcended boundaries of scientific disciplines and specific interest groups. Concurrently, human population size has increased substantially and its use of ecosystem services has increased more than five-fold over just the past century. Consequently, the contemporary landscape has been highly modified for human use, leaving behind a fragmented landscape where basic ecosystem functions and processes have been broadly altered. Over this period, climate change also interacted with other anthropogenic effects, resulting in modern environmental problems having a complexity that is without historical precedent. The challenge before the scientific community is to develop new science paradigms that integrate relevant scientific disciplines to properly frame and evaluate modern environmental problems in a systems-type approach to better inform the decision-making process. Wetland science is a relatively new discipline that grew out of the conservation movement of the early twentieth century. In the United States, most of the conservation attention in the earlier days was on wildlife, but a growing human awareness of the importance of the environment led to the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969. Concurrently, there was a broadening interest in conservation science, and the scientific study of wetlands gradually gained acceptance as a scientific discipline. Pioneering wetland scientists became formally organized when they formed The Society of Wetland Scientists in 1980 and established a publication outlet to share wetland research

  12. Treating urban sewage using constructed wetlands; Depuracion de aguas residuales urbanas mediante humedales contruidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J. [ETS Camins, Canals i Ports. UPC. Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, A. [Biologa. Barcelona. (Spain); Junqueras, X. [Biologo. Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-09-01

    Constructed wetlands are a low-cost alternative for treating sewage from small urbanized areas. The ``Can Massaguer`` children`s holiday home has a 230 m``2 subsurface flow wetland for secondary treatment of the sewage generated by 130 people. The system comprises two porous substrate beds with macrophytes (ditch reed, Phragmites australis) and entry and exit units. Its high purification performance and nil running costs make it ideal for treating wastewaters from small built-up areas. (Author)

  13. Wetland Vegetation Integrity Assessment with Low Altitude Multispectral Uav Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, M. A.; Tesfamichael, S.

    2017-08-01

    The use of multispectral sensors on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) was until recently too heavy and bulky although this changed in recent times and they are now commercially available. The focus on the usage of these sensors is mostly directed towards the agricultural sector where the focus is on precision farming. Applications of these sensors for mapping of wetland ecosystems are rare. Here, we evaluate the performance of low altitude multispectral UAV imagery to determine the state of wetland vegetation in a localised spatial area. Specifically, NDVI derived from multispectral UAV imagery was used to inform the determination of the integrity of the wetland vegetation. Furthermore, we tested different software applications for the processing of the imagery. The advantages and disadvantages we experienced of these applications are also shortly presented in this paper. A JAG-M fixed-wing imaging system equipped with a MicaScene RedEdge multispectral camera were utilised for the survey. A single surveying campaign was undertaken in early autumn of a 17 ha study area at the Kameelzynkraal farm, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Structure-from-motion photogrammetry software was used to reconstruct the camera position's and terrain features to derive a high resolution orthoretified mosaic. MicaSense Atlas cloud-based data platform, Pix4D and PhotoScan were utilised for the processing. The WET-Health level one methodology was followed for the vegetation assessment, where wetland health is a measure of the deviation of a wetland's structure and function from its natural reference condition. An on-site evaluation of the vegetation integrity was first completed. Disturbance classes were then mapped using the high resolution multispectral orthoimages and NDVI. The WET-Health vegetation module completed with the aid of the multispectral UAV products indicated that the vegetation of the wetland is largely modified ("D" PES Category) and that the condition is expected to

  14. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; O’Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  15. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, L.M.; Carter, V.; Golet, F.C.; LaRoe, E.T.

    1985-01-01

    This classification, to be used in a new inventory of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States, is intended to describe ecological taxa, arrange them in a system useful to resource managers, furnish units for mapping, and provide uniformity of concepts and terms. Wetlands are defined by plants (hydrophytes), soils (hydric soils), and frequency of flooding. Ecologically related areas of deep water, traditionally not considered wetlands, are included in the classification as deepwater habitats.Systems form the highest level of the classification hierarchy; five are defined-Marine, Estuarine, Riverine, Lacustrine, and Palustrine. Marine and Estuarine Systems each have two Subsystems, Subtidal and Intertidal; the Riverine System has four Subsystems, Tidal, Lower Perennial, Upper Perennial, and Intermittent; the Lacustrine has two, Littoral and Limnetic; and the Palustrine has no Subsystems.Within the Subsystems, Classes are based on substrate material and flooding regime, or on vegetative life form. The same Classes may appear under one or more of the Systems or Subsystems. Six Classes are based on substrate and flooding regime: (1) Rock Bottom with a substrate of bedrock, boulders, or stones; (2) Unconsolidated Bottom with a substrate of cobbles, gravel, sand, mud, or organic material; (3) Rocky Shore with the same substrates as Rock Bottom; (4) Unconsolidated Shore with the same substrates as Unconsolidated Bottom; (5) Streambed with any of the substrates; and (6) Reef with a substrate composed of the living and dead remains of invertebrates (corals, mollusks, or worms). The bottom Classes, (1) and (2) above, are flooded all or most of the time and the shore Classes, (3) and (4), are exposed most of the time. The Class Streambed is restricted to channels of intermittent streams and tidal channels that are dewatered at low tide. The life form of the dominant vegetation defines the five Classes based on vegetative form: (1) Aquatic Bed, dominated by plants

  16. Characterizing the Surface Connectivity of Depressional Wetlands: Linking Remote Sensing and Hydrologic Modeling Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J.; Evenson, G. R.; Vanderhoof, M.; Wu, Q.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.

    2017-12-01

    Surface connectivity of wetlands in the 700,000 km2 Prairie Pothole Region of North America (PPR) can occur through fill-spill and fill-merge mechanisms, with some wetlands eventually spilling into stream/river systems. These wetland-to-wetland and wetland-to-stream connections vary both spatially and temporally in PPR watersheds and are important to understanding hydrologic and biogeochemical processes in the landscape. To explore how to best characterize spatial and temporal variability in aquatic connectivity, we compared three approaches, 1) hydrological modeling alone, 2) remotely-sensed data alone, and 3) integrating remotely-sensed data into a hydrological model. These approaches were tested in the Pipestem Creek Watershed, North Dakota across a drought to deluge cycle (1990-2011). A Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was modified to include the water storage capacity of individual non-floodplain wetlands identified in the National Wetland Inventory (NWI) dataset. The SWAT-NWI model simulated the water balance and storage of each wetland and the temporal variability of their hydrologic connections between wetlands during the 21-year study period. However, SWAT-NWI only accounted for fill-spill, and did not allow for the expansion and merging of wetlands situated within larger depressions. Alternatively, we assessed the occurrence of fill-merge mechanisms using inundation maps derived from Landsat images on 19 cloud-free days during the 21 years. We found fill-merge mechanisms to be prevalent across the Pipestem watershed during times of deluge. The SWAT-NWI model was then modified to use LiDAR-derived depressions that account for the potential maximum depression extent, including the merging of smaller wetlands. The inundation maps were used to evaluate the ability of the SWAT-depression model to simulate fill-merge dynamics in addition to fill-spill dynamics throughout the study watershed. Ultimately, using remote sensing to inform and validate

  17. Investigations of subsurface flow constructed wetlands and associated geomaterial resources in the Akumal and Reforma regions, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekeler, Mark P. S.; Probst, Pete; Samsonov, Misha; Tselepis, Cynthia M.; Bates, William; Kearns, Lance E.; Maynard, J. Barry

    2007-12-01

    Subsurface flow constructed wetlands in the village of Akumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico were surveyed to determine the general status of the wetland systems and provide baseline information for long term monitoring and further study. Twenty subsurface flow wetlands were surveyed and common problems observed in the systems were overloading, poor plant cover, odor, and no secondary containment. Bulk mineral composition of aggregate from two subsurface flow constructed wetlands was determined to consist solely of calcite using bulk powder X-ray diffraction. Some soil structure is developed in the aggregate and aggregate levels in wetlands drop at an estimated rate between 3 and 10 cm/year for overloaded wetlands owing to dissolution. Mineral composition from fresh aggregate samples commonly is a mixture of calcite and aragonite. Trace amounts of Pb, Zn, Co, and Cr were observed in fresh aggregate. Coefficients of permeability ( k) varied from 0.006 to 0.027 cm/s with an average values being 0.016 cm/s. Grain size analysis of fresh aggregate samples indicates there are unimodal and multimodal size distributions in the samples with modes in the coarse and fine sand being common. Investigations of other geologic media from the Reforma region indicate that a dolomite with minor amounts of Fe-oxide and palygorskite is abundant and may be a better aggregate source that the current materials used. A Ca-montmorillonite bed was identified in the Reforma region as well and this unit is suitable to serve as a clay liner to prevent leaks for new and existing wetland systems. These newly discovered geologic resources should aid in the improvement of subsurface flow constructed wetlands in the region. Although problems do exist in these wetlands with respect to design, these systems represent a successful implementation of constructed wetlands at a community level in developing regions.

  18. Simulation of Constructed Wetland in treating Wastewater using Fuzzy Logic Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarsan, J. S.; Subramani, Sheekha; Rajan, Rajitha J.; Shah, Isha; Nithiyanantham, S.

    2018-04-01

    Constructed wetlands act as a natural alternative to conventional methods of wastewater treatment. CW are found effective in wastewater containing inorganic matter, organic matter, toxic compounds, metals, nitrogen, phosphorous, heavy metals, organic chemicals, and pathogens. The treatment efficiency by the adaptation of CWs in treatment process is achieved by a complex interaction between plants, microorganisms, soil matrix and substances in the wastewater. Constructed wetland treatment systems are engineered systems designed in such a manner that it could take advantages of those processes occurring in natural wetlands in treating the wastewater concerned, but in a more controlled environment. Petrochemical wastewater was the type of wastewater taken for the study. Characteristics of petrochemical wastewater mainly oil, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical oxygen demand (COD) were selected for treatment in constructed wetland as they are predominant in petrochemical wastewater. The conventional methods followed in the treatment are chemical and biological treatment. In this study, a fuzzy model for water quality assessment has been developed and water quality index value was obtained. The experiment conducted and further analysis using fuzzy logic indicated that interpretation of certain imprecise data can be improved within fuzzy inference system (FIS). Based on the analysis, we could observe that Typha sp contained wetland cell showed greater efficiency in removal of parameters such as COD and BOD than Phragmites sp. wetland cell.

  19. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemhuis, Constanze; Amler, Esther; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Gabiri, Geofrey; Näschen, Kristian

    2016-10-01

    Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  20. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Leemhuis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  1. Large Constructed Wetlands for Phosphorus Control: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Kadlec

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews aspects of the performance of large (>40 ha constructed treatment wetlands intended for phosphorus control. Thirty-seven such wetlands have been built and have good data records, with a median size of 754 ha. All are successfully removing phosphorus from a variety of waters. Period of record median concentration reductions were 71%, load reductions 0.77 gP·m−2·year−1, and rate coefficients 12.5 m·year−1. Large wetlands have a narrower performance spectrum than the larger group of all sizes. Some systems display startup trends, ranging to several years, likely resulting from antecedent soil and vegetation conditions. There are internal longitudinal gradients in concentration, which vary with lateral position and flow conditions. Accretion in inlet zones may require attention. Concentrations are reduced to plateau values, in the range of about 10–50 mgP·m−3. Vegetation type has an effect upon performance measures, and its presence facilitates performance. Trends in the performance measures over the history of individual systems display only small changes, with both increases and decreases occurring. Such trends remove little of the variance in behavior. Seasonality is typically weak for steady flow systems, and most variability appears to be stochastic. Stormwater systems display differences between wet and dry season behavior, which appear to be flow-driven. Several models of system performance have been developed, both steady and dynamic.

  2. Characterization of Inundated Wetlands with Microwave Remote Sensing: Cross-Product Comparison for Uncertainty Assessment in Tropical Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, K. C.; Jensen, K.; Alvarez, J.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Schroeder, R.; Podest, E.; Chapman, B. D.; Zimmermann, R.

    2015-12-01

    We have been assembling a global-scale Earth System Data Record (ESDR) of natural Inundated Wetlands to facilitate investigations on their role in climate, biogeochemistry, hydrology, and biodiversity. The ESDR comprises (1) Fine-resolution (100 meter) maps, delineating wetland extent, vegetation type, and seasonal inundation dynamics for regional to continental-scale areas, and (2) global coarse-resolution (~25 km), multi-temporal mappings of inundated area fraction (Fw) across multiple years. During March 2013, the NASA/JPL L-band polarimetric airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We collected UAVSAR datasets over regions of the Amazon basin during that time to support systematic analyses of error sources related to the Inundated Wetlands ESDR. UAVSAR datasets were collected over Pacaya Samiria, Peru, Madre de Dios, Peru, and the Napo River in Ecuador. We derive landcover classifications from the UAVSAR datasets emphasizing wetlands regions, identifying regions of open water and inundated vegetation. We compare the UAVSAR-based datasets with those comprising the ESDR to assess uncertainty associated with the high resolution and the coarse resolution ESDR components. Our goal is to create an enhanced ESDR of inundated wetlands with statistically robust uncertainty estimates. The ESDR documentation will include a detailed breakdown of error sources and associated uncertainties within the data record. This work was carried out in part within the framework of the ALOS Kyoto & Carbon Initiative. PALSAR data were provided by JAXA/EORC and the Alaska Satellite Facility. Portions of this work were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. Feasibility of constructed wetlands for removing chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos from aqueous mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrard, R.M.; Bearr, J.S.; Murray-Gulde, C.L.; Rodgers, J.H.; Shah, Y.T.

    2004-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos (an insecticide) and chlorothalonil (a fungicide) are transported in stormwater runoff and can be lethal to receiving aquatic system biota. This study determined removal rates of chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil in simulated stormwater runoff treated in constructed wetland mesocosms. Using sentinel species, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas, observed declines in toxicity of the simulated runoff after treatment were 98 and 100%, respectively. First order removal rates were 0.039/h for chlorpyrifos and 0.295/h for chlorothalonil in these experiments. Constructed wetland mesocosms were effective for decreasing concentrations of chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil in simulated stormwater runoff, and decreasing P. promelas and C. dubia mortality resulting from these exposures. The results from this study indicate that constructed wetlands could be part of an efficient mitigation strategy for stormwater runoff containing these pesticides. - Constructed wetlands have potential for treatment of pesticide mixtures in stormwater runoff

  4. Feasibility of constructed wetlands for removing chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos from aqueous mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherrard, R.M.; Bearr, J.S.; Murray-Gulde, C.L.; Rodgers, J.H.; Shah, Y.T

    2004-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos (an insecticide) and chlorothalonil (a fungicide) are transported in stormwater runoff and can be lethal to receiving aquatic system biota. This study determined removal rates of chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil in simulated stormwater runoff treated in constructed wetland mesocosms. Using sentinel species, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas, observed declines in toxicity of the simulated runoff after treatment were 98 and 100%, respectively. First order removal rates were 0.039/h for chlorpyrifos and 0.295/h for chlorothalonil in these experiments. Constructed wetland mesocosms were effective for decreasing concentrations of chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil in simulated stormwater runoff, and decreasing P. promelas and C. dubia mortality resulting from these exposures. The results from this study indicate that constructed wetlands could be part of an efficient mitigation strategy for stormwater runoff containing these pesticides. - Constructed wetlands have potential for treatment of pesticide mixtures in stormwater runoff.

  5. Performance of a half-saturated vertical flow wetland packed with volcanic gravel in stormwater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaoping; Park, Kisoo; Niu, Siping; Kim, Youngchul

    2014-01-01

    A half-saturated pilot-scale wetland planted with Acorus calamus was built to treat urban stormwater. The design comprises a sedimentation tank for pretreatment, and a vertical flow volcanic gravel wetland bed equipped with a recirculation device. Eighteen rainfall events were monitored in 2012. The treatment system achieved total removal efficiencies of 99.4, 81, 50, and 86% for suspended solids, organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively, and 29, 68, and 25% for copper, zinc, and lead, respectively, at a 3-day hydraulic residence time. In the wetland bed, the removal of ammonia, total nitrogen, and zinc were improved by recirculation. Plant uptake provided 18% of nitrogen removal and 39% of phosphorus removal. During the experimental stage, only 1.4% of the pore volume in substrate was reduced due to clogging, implying that the wetland can operate without clogging for a relatively long period.

  6. Bioenergy production potential for aboveground biomass from a subtropical constructed wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi-Chung [Department of Forestry and Nature Conservation, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 11114 (China); Ko, Chun-Han [School of Forestry and Resource Conservation, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Bioenergy Research Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Chang, Fang-Chih [The Instrument Center, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, University Road, Tainan City 70101 (China); Chen, Pen-Yuan [Department of Landscape Architecture, National Chiayi University, Chiayi City 60004 (China); Liu, Tzu-Fen [School of Forestry and Resource Conservation, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Sheu, Yiong-Shing [Department of Water Quality Protection, Environmental Protection Administration, Executive Yuan, Taipei 10042 (China); Shih, Tzenge-Lien [Department of Chemistry, Tamkang University, Tamsui, Taipei 25137 (China); Teng, Chia-Ji [Environmental Protection Bureau, Taipei County Government, Taipei 22001 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Wetland biomass has potentials for bioenergy production and carbon sequestration. Planted with multiple species macrophytes to promote biodiversity, the 3.29 ha constructed wetland has been treated 4000 cubic meter per day (CMD) domestic wastewater and urban runoff. This study investigated the seasonal variations of aboveground biomass of the constructed wetland, from March 2007 to March 2008. The overall aboveground biomass was 16,737 kg and total carbon content 6185 kg at the peak of aboveground accumulation for the system emergent macrophyte at September 2007. Typhoon Korsa flood this constructed wetland at October 2007, however, significant recovery for emergent macrophyte was observed without human intervention. Endemic Ludwigia sp. recovered much faster, compared to previously dominated typha. Self-recovery ability of the macrophyte community after typhoon validated the feasibility of biomass harvesting. Incinerating of 80% biomass harvested of experimental area in a nearby incineration plant could produce 11,846 kWh for one month. (author)

  7. Application of the artificial intelligence to estimate the constructed wetland response to heavy metal removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elektorowicz, M. [Concordia Univ., Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: mariae@civil.concordia.ca; Balanzinski, M. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Mechnical Engineering, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Qasaimeh, A. [Concordia Univ., Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    Current design approaches lack essential parameters necessary to evaluate the removal of metals contained in wastewater which is discharged to constructed wetlands. As a result, there is no guideline for an accurate design of constructed wetlands. An artificial intelligence approach was used to assess constructed wetland design. For this purpose concentrations of bioavailable mercury were evaluated in conditions where initial concentrations of inorganic mercury, chloride concentrations and pH values changed. Fuzzy knowledge base was built based on results obtained from previous investigations performed in a greenhouse for floating plants, and from computations for mercury speciation. The Fuzzy Decision Support System (FDSS) used the knowledge base to find parameters that permit to generate the highest amount of mercury available for plants. The findings of this research can be applied to wetlands and all natural processes where correlations between them are uncertain. (author)

  8. Application of the artificial intelligence to estimate the constructed wetland response to heavy metal removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elektorowicz, M.; Balanzinski, M.; Qasaimeh, A.

    2002-01-01

    Current design approaches lack essential parameters necessary to evaluate the removal of metals contained in wastewater which is discharged to constructed wetlands. As a result, there is no guideline for an accurate design of constructed wetlands. An artificial intelligence approach was used to assess constructed wetland design. For this purpose concentrations of bioavailable mercury were evaluated in conditions where initial concentrations of inorganic mercury, chloride concentrations and pH values changed. Fuzzy knowledge base was built based on results obtained from previous investigations performed in a greenhouse for floating plants, and from computations for mercury speciation. The Fuzzy Decision Support System (FDSS) used the knowledge base to find parameters that permit to generate the highest amount of mercury available for plants. The findings of this research can be applied to wetlands and all natural processes where correlations between them are uncertain. (author)

  9. 398 ASSESSMENT OF WETLAND VALUATION PROCESSES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    This study therefore examined the processes involved in the valuation of wetland resources for ... of the subsistence uses of wetland resources are also not ... hydrological cycle, playing a key role in the provision ..... Management Strategies at the River Basin Scale. A ... Using. GIS: A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty.

  10. Carbon Cycling in Wetland Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl C. Trettin; Martin F. Jurgensen

    2003-01-01

    Wetlands comprise a small proportion (i.e., 2 to 3%) of earth's terrestrial surface, yet they contain a significant proportion of the terrestrial carbon (C) pool. Soils comprise the largest terrestrial C pool (ca. 1550 Pg C in upper 100 cm; Eswaran et al., 1993; Batjes, 1996), and wetlands contain the single largest component, with estimates ranging between 18...

  11. Diversity patterns of temporary wetland macroinvertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although macroinvertebrates are potentially useful for assessing the condition of temporary wetlands, little is yet known about them. Macroinvertebrate assemblages were assessed in 138 temporary wetlands in the south-western Cape, recording 126 taxa. However, predicted richness estimates were all higher than the ...

  12. Advancing the use of minirhizotrons in wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. M. Iversen; M. T. Murphy; M. F. Allen; J. Childs; D. M. Eissenstat; E.A. Lilleskov; T. M. Sarjala; V. L. Sloan; P. F. Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Wetlands store a substantial amount of carbon (C) in deep soil organic matter deposits, and play an important role in global fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane. Fine roots (i.e., ephemeral roots that are active in water and nutrient uptake) are recognized as important components of biogeochemical cycles in nutrient-limited wetland ecosystems. However,...

  13. Macroinvertebrate variation in endorheic depression wetlands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquatic macroinvertebrates are rarely used in wetland assessments due to their variation. However, in terms of biodiversity, these invertebrates form an important component of wetland fauna. Spatial and temporal variation of macroinvertebrate assemblages in endorheic depressions (locally referred to as 'pans') in ...

  14. The carbon balance of North American wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott D. Bridgham; J. Patrick Megonigal; Jason K. Keller; Norman b. Bliss; Carl Trettin

    2006-01-01

    We examine the carbon balance of North American wetlands by reviewing and synthesizing the published literature and soil databases. North American wetlands contain about 220 Pg C, most of which is in peat. They are a small to moderate carbon sink of about 49 Tg C yr-l, although the uncertainty around this estimate is greater than 100%, with the...

  15. Pesticide mitigation capacities of constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew T. Moore; Charles M. Cooper; Sammie Smith; John H. Rodgers

    2000-01-01

    This research focused on using constructed wetlands along field perimeters to buffer receiving water against potential effects of pesticides associated with storm runoff. The current study incorporated wetland mesocosm sampling following simulated runoff events using chlorpyrifos, atrazine, and metolachlor. Through this data collection and simple model analysis,...

  16. Methane Cycling in a Warming Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyce, G. L.; Megonigal, P.; Rich, R.; Kirwan, M. L.; Herbert, E. R.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal wetlands are global hotspots of carbon (C) storage, but the future of these systems is uncertain. In June 2016, we initiated an in-situ, active, whole-ecosystem warming experiment in the Smithsonian's Global Change Research Wetland to quantify how warming and elevated CO2 affect the stability of coastal wetland soil C pools and contemporary rates of C sequestration. Transects are located in two plant communities, dominated by C3 sedges or C4 grasses. The experiment has a gradient design with air and soil warming treatments ranging from ambient to +5.1 °C and heated plots consistently maintain their target temperature year-round. In April 2017, an elevated CO2 treatment was crossed with temperature in the C3community. Ongoing measurements include soil elevation, C fluxes, porewater chemistry and redox potential, and above- and below-ground growth and biomass. In both years, warming increased methane (CH4) emissions (measured at 3-4 week intervals) from spring through fall at the C3 site, but had little effect on emissions from the C4 site. Winter (Dec-Mar) emissions showed no treatment effect. Stable isotope analysis of dissolved CH4 and DIC also indicated that warming had differing effects on CH4 pathways in the two vegetation communities. To better understand temperature effects on rates of CH4 production and oxidation, 1 m soil cores were collected from control areas of the marsh in summer 2017 and incubated at temperatures ranging from 4 °C to 35 °C. Warming increased CH4 production and oxidation rates in surface samples and oxidation rates in the rooting zone samples from both sites, but temperature responses in deep (1 m) soil samples were minimal. In the surface and rooting zone samples, production rates were also consistently higher in C3 soils compared to C4 soils, but, contrary to our expectations, the temperature response was stronger in the C4 soils. However, oxidation in C3 rooting zone samples did have a strong temperature response. The

  17. Integrated Constructed Wetlands (ICW) for livestock wastewater management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Rory; McInnes, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Social, economic and environmental coherence is sought in the management of livestock wastewater. Wetlands facilitate the biogeochemical processes that exploit livestock wastewater and provide opportunities to achieve such coherence and also to deliver on a range of ecosystem services. The Integrated Constructed Wetland (ICW) concept integrates three inextricably linked objectives: water quantity and quality management, landscape-fit to improve aesthetic site values and enhanced biodiversity. The synergies derived from this explicit integration allow one of the key challenges for livestock management to be addressed. An example utilizing twelve ICW systems from a catchment on the south coast of Ireland demonstrates that over an eight year period mean reduction of total and soluble phosphorus (molybdate reactive phosphorus) exceeded 95% and the mean removal of ammonium-N exceeded 98%. This paper reviews evidence regarding the capacity of ICWs to provide a coherent and sustainable alternative to conventional systems.

  18. Plants in constructed wetlands help to treat agricultural processing wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Grismer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, wineries in the western United States and sugarcane processing for ethanol in Central and South America have experienced problems related to the treatment and disposal of process wastewater. Both winery and sugarcane (molasses wastewaters are characterized by large organic loadings that change seasonally and are detrimental to aquatic life. We examined the role of plants for treating these wastewaters in constructed wetlands. In the greenhouse, subsurface-flow flumes with volcanic rock substrates and plants steadily removed approximately 80% of organic-loading oxygen demand from sugarcane process wastewater after about 3 weeks of plant growth; unplanted flumes removed about 30% less. In field studies at two operational wineries, we evaluated the performance of similar-sized, paired, subsurface constructed wetlands with and without plants; while both removed most of the oxygen demand, removal rates in the planted system were slightly greater and significantly different from those of the unplanted system under field conditions.

  19. A geophysical analysis of hydro-geomorphic controls within a headwater wetland in a granitic landscape, through ERI and IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Riddell

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are undergoing considerable degradation in South Africa. As interventions are often technical and costly, there is a requirement to develop conceptual process models for these wetland systems so that rehabilitation attempts will be successful. This paper presents an approach using the geophysical methods of Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI and Induced Polarization (IP to delineate sub-surface hydro-geomorphic controls that maintain equilibrium disconnectivity of wetland-catchment processes, which through gully erosion are increasing the catchments connectivity through loss of water and sediment. The findings presented here give insight into the geomorphic processes that maintain the wetland in an un-degraded state, this allows for the development of a conceptual model outlining the wetland forming processes. The analysis suggests that sub-surface clay-plugs, within an otherwise sandy substrate are created by illuviation of clays from the surrounding hillslopes particularly at zones of valley confinement.

  20. Are all intertidal wetlands naturally created equal? Bottlenecks, thresholds and knowledge gaps to mangrove and saltmarsh ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friess, Daniel A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Horstman, Erik M.; Balke, Thorsten; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Galli, Demis; Webb, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    Intertidal wetlands such as saltmarshes and mangroves provide numerous important ecological functions, though they are in rapid and global decline. To better conserve and restore these wetland ecosystems, we need an understanding of the fundamental natural bottlenecks and thresholds to their establishment and long-term ecological maintenance. Despite inhabiting similar intertidal positions, the biological traits of these systems differ markedly in structure, phenology, life history, phylogeny and dispersal, suggesting large differences in biophysical interactions. By providing the first systematic comparison between saltmarshes and mangroves, we unravel how the interplay between species-specific life-history traits, biophysical interactions and biogeomorphological feedback processes determine where, when and what wetland can establish, the thresholds to long-term ecosystem stability, and constraints to genetic connectivity between intertidal wetland populations at the landscape level. To understand these process interactions, research into the constraints to wetland development, and biological adaptations to overcome these critical bottlenecks and thresholds requires a truly interdisciplinary approach.

  1. Treatment Wetland Aeration without Electricity? Lessons Learned from the First Experiment Using a Wind-Driven Air Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Boog

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerated treatment wetlands have become an increasingly recognized technology for treating wastewaters from domestic and various industrial origins. To date, treatment wetland aeration is provided by air pumps which require access to the energy grid. The requirement for electricity increases the ecological footprint of an aerated wetland and limits the application of this technology to areas with centralized electrical infrastructure. Wind power offers another possibility as a driver for wetland aeration, but its use for this purpose has not yet been investigated. This paper reports the first experimental trial using a simple wind-driven air pump to replace the conventional electric air blowers of an aerated horizontal subsurface flow wetland. The wind-driven air pump was connected to a two-year old horizontal flow aerated wetland which had been in continuous (24 h aeration since startup. The wind-driven aeration system functioned, however it was not specifically adapted to wetland aeration. As a result, treatment performance decreased compared to prior continuous aeration. Inconsistent wind speed at the site may have resulted in insufficient pressure within the aeration manifold, resulting in insufficient air supply to the wetland. This paper discusses the lessons learned during the experiment.

  2. Wetland Survey of Selected Areas in the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Area of Responsibilty, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosensteel.

    1997-01-01

    This document was prepared to summarize wetland surveys performed in the Y- 1 2 Plant area of responsibility in June and July 1994. Wetland surveys were conducted in three areas within the Oak Ridge Y- 12 Plant area of responsibility in June and July 1994: the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Operable Unit (OU), part of the Bear Creek Valley OU (the upper watershed of Bear Creek from the culvert under Bear Creek Road upstream through the Y-12 West End Environmental Management Area, and the catchment of Bear Creek North Tributary 1), and part of Chestnut Ridge OU 2 (the McCoy Branch area south of Bethel Valley Road). Using the criteria and methods set forth in the Wetlands Delineation Manual, 18 wetland areas were identified in the 3 areas surveyed; these areas were classified according to the system developed by Cowardin. Fourteen wetlands and one wetland/pond area that are associated with disturbed or remnant stream channels and seeps were identified in the UEFPC OU. Three wetlands were identified in the Bear Creek Valley OU portion of the survey area. One wetland was identified in the riparian zone of McCoy Branch in the southern portion of Chestnut Ridge OU 2

  3. Estimation of Net Groundwater Recharge Using Natural Drawdown Events in Subtropical Isolated Wetland Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, D. B.; Min, J.; Jawitz, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Restoration of ditched and drained wetlands in the Lake Okeechobee basin, Florida, USA is currently under study for possible amelioration of anthropogenic phosphorus enrichment of the lake. To date most research in this area has focused on the biogeochemical role of these wetlands. Here we focus on the dynamic hydrology of these systems and the resulting control on biogeochemical cycling. Four depressional wetlands in the basin were monitored for approximately three years to understand the interaction between wetland surface water and adjacent upland groundwater system. A coupled hydrologic-biogeochemical model was created to evaluate restoration scenarios. Determining wetland-scale hydraulic conductivity was an important aspect of the hydrologic model. Based on natural drawdown events observed at wetland-upland well pairs, hydraulic conductivities of top sandy soil layers surrounding the isolated wetlands were calculated using the Dupuit equation under a constrained water budget framework. The drawdown-based hydraulic conductivity estimates of 1.1 to 18.7 m/d (geometric mean of 4.8 m/d) were about three times greater than slug test- based values (1.5 ± 1.1 m/d), which is consistent with scale-dependent expectations. Model-based net groundwater recharge rate at each depressional wetland was predicted based on the estimated hydraulic conductivities, which corresponded to 50 to 72% of rainfall in the same period. These variances appeared to be due to the relative difference of ditch bottom elevation controlling the surface runoff as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the sandy aquifer. Results from this study have implications for nutrient loads to Lake Okeechobee via groundwater as well as water quality monitoring and management strategies aimed to reduce solute export (especially P) from the upstream catchment area to Lake Okeechobee.

  4. Wastewater treatment in tsunami affected areas of Thailand by constructed wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Hans; Koottatep, H.; Laugesen, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    the systems which have been built at three locations: (a) Baan Pru Teau: A newly-built township for tsunami victims which was constructed with the contribution of the Thai Red Cross. Conventional septic tanks were installed for the treatment of blackwater from each household and its effluent and grey water...... system and a system for reuse of treated wastewater. The constructed wetland system (capacity 400 m3/day) consists of vertical flow, horizontal subsurface flow, free water surface flow and pond units. Because the treatment plant is surrounded by resorts, restaurants and shops, the constructed wetland...... systems are designed with terrains as scenic landscaping. (c) Patong: A 5,000 m2 constructed wetland system has been established to treat polluted water from drainage canals which collect overflow from septic tanks and grey water from residential areas. It is envisaged that these three systems will serve...

  5. Are isolated wetlands groundwater recharge hotspots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, A.; Wicks, C. M.; Brantley, S. T.; Golladay, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) are a common landscape feature in the mantled karst terrain of the Dougherty Plain physiographic district in Southwestern Georgia. These wetlands support a high diversity of obligate/facultative wetland flora and fauna, including several endangered species. While the ecological value of these wetlands is well documented, the hydrologic effects of GIWs on larger watershed processes, such as water storage and aquifer recharge, are less clear. Our project seeks to understand the spatial and temporal variation in recharge across GIWs on this mantled karst landscape. In particular, our first step is to understand the role of isolated wetlands (presumed sinkholes) in delivering water into the underlying aquifer. Our hypothesis is that many GIWs are actually water-filled sinkholes and are locations of focused recharge feeding either the underlying upper Floridan aquifer or the nearby creeks. If we are correct, then these sinkholes should exhibit "drains", i.e., conduits into the limestone bedrock. Thus, the purposes of our initial study are to image the soil-limestone contact (the buried epikarstic surface) and determine if possible subsurface drains exist. Our field work was conducted at the Joseph W Jones Ecological Research Center. During the dry season, we conducted ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys as grids and lines across a large wetland and across a field with no surface expression of a wetland or sinkhole. We used GPR (200 MHz antenna) with 1-m spacing between antenna and a ping rate of 1 ping per 40 centimeters. Our results show that the epikarstic surface exhibits a drain underneath the wetland (sinkhole) and that no similar feature was seen under the field, even though the survey grid and spacing were similar. As our project progresses, we will survey additional wetlands occurring across varying soil types to determine the spatial distribution between surface wetlands and subsurface drains.

  6. Variation in Assemblages of Small Fishes and Microcrustaceans After Inundation of Rarely Flooded Wetlands of the Lower Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siziba, Nqobizitha; Chimbari, Moses J.; Masundire, Hillary; Mosepele, Ketlhatlogile; Ramberg, Lars

    2013-12-01

    Water extraction from floodplain river systems may alter patterns of inundation of adjacent wetlands and lead to loss of aquatic biodiversity. Water reaching the Okavango Delta (Delta), Botswana, may decrease due to excessive water extraction and climate change. However, due to poor understanding of the link between inundation of wetlands and biological responses, it is difficult to assess the impacts of these future water developments on aquatic biota. Large floods from 2009 to 2011 inundated both rarely and frequently flooded wetlands in the Delta, creating an opportunity to examine the ecological significance of flooding of wetlands with widely differing hydrological characteristics. We studied the assemblages of small fishes and microcrustaceans, together with their trophic relationships, in temporary wetlands of the lower Delta. Densities of microcrustaceans in temporary wetlands were generally lower than previously recorded in these habitats. Microcrustacean density varied with wetland types and hydrological phase of inundation. High densities of microcrustaceans were recorded in the 2009 to 2010 flooding season after inundation of rarely flooded sites. Large numbers of small fishes were observed during this study. Community structure of small fishes differed significantly across the studied wetlands, with poeciliids predominant in frequently flooded wetlands and juvenile cichlids most abundant in rarely flooded wetlands (analysis of similarity, P < 0.05). Small fishes of <20 mm fed largely on microcrustaceans and may have led to low microcrustacean densities within the wetlands. This result matched our prediction that rarely flooded wetlands would be more productive; hence, they supported greater populations of microcrustaceans and cichlids, which are aggressive feeders. However, the predominance of microcrustaceans in the guts of small fishes (<20 mm) suggests that predation by fishes may also be an important regulatory mechanism of microcrustacean

  7. Technical and Regulatory Guidance Document for Constructed Treatment Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    horizon in which organic material is being added. This horizon often has the characteristics of cultivation and other disturbances. Under the A horizon is...intermediate between III and II (commonly called “green rust”) induces the reduction of Se. In the case of Se accumulation, ecotoxicological effects should be...consulted before a constructed wetland system design can be approved, specifically because many restrict the use and cultivation of plant species that

  8. Modeling natural wetlands: A new global framework built on wetland observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, E.; Romanski, J.; Olefeldt, D.

    2015-12-01

    Natural wetlands are the world's largest methane (CH4) source, and their distribution and CH4 fluxes are sensitive to interannual and longer-term climate variations. Wetland distributions used in wetland-CH4 models diverge widely, and these geographic differences contribute substantially to large variations in magnitude, seasonality and distribution of modeled methane fluxes. Modeling wetland type and distribution—closely tied to simulating CH4 emissions—is a high priority, particularly for studies of wetlands and CH4 dynamics under past and future climates. Methane-wetland models either prescribe or simulate methane-producing areas (aka wetlands) and both approaches result in predictable over- and under-estimates. 1) Monthly satellite-derived inundation data include flooded areas that are not wetlands (e.g., lakes, reservoirs, and rivers), and do not identify non-flooded wetlands. 2) Models simulating methane-producing areas overwhelmingly rely on modeled soil moisture, systematically over-estimating total global area, with regional over- and under-estimates, while schemes to model soil-moisture typically cannot account for positive water tables (i.e., flooding). Interestingly, while these distinct hydrological approaches to identify wetlands are complementary, merging them does not provide critical data needed to model wetlands for methane studies. We present a new integrated framework for modeling wetlands, and ultimately their methane emissions, that exploits the extensive body of data and information on wetlands. The foundation of the approach is an existing global gridded data set comprising all and only wetlands, including vegetation information. This data set is augmented with data inter alia on climate, inundation dynamics, soil type and soil carbon, permafrost, active-layer depth, growth form, and species composition. We investigate this enhanced wetland data set to identify which variables best explain occurrence and characteristics of observed

  9. 76 FR 79145 - Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ...] RIN 2501-AD51 Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands Correction In proposed rule document... Type of proposed action Type of proposed action (new Wetlands or 100- Non-wetlands area reviewable... construction in wetlands locations. \\2\\ Or those paragraphs of Sec. 55.20 that are applicable to an action...

  10. 7 CFR 1410.10 - Restoration of wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of wetlands. 1410.10 Section 1410.10... Restoration of wetlands. (a) An owner or operator who entered into a CRP contract on land that is suitable for restoration to wetlands or that was restored to wetlands while under such contract, may, if approved by CCC...

  11. 7 CFR 12.30 - NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. 12.30 Section 12.30 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Wetland Conservation § 12.30 NRCS responsibilities regarding wetlands. (a) Technical and...

  12. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR...

  13. On leadership and success in professional wetland science

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Wetland Scientists and the wetland profession are fortunate to have an abundance of leaders. These leaders respond to the needs of the Society for guidance and direction. They also consistently advance wetland science and improve the quality of wetland management...

  14. Natural wetland in China | Pan | African Journal of Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As it is known to all, wetland is one of the most crucial ecosystems in the world, with large varieties in China. How to protect wetland in China has become a more serious problem and five typical wetlands were selected in the article to illustrate the condition. Through the comparison between the past and present of wetland, ...

  15. Nitrogen and COD Removal from Septic Tank Wastewater in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Plants Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, R S; Grismer, M E

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated subsurface flow (SSF) constructed wetland treatment performance with respect to organics (COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal from domestic (septic tank) wastewater as affected by the presence of plants, substrate "rock" cation exchange capacity (CEC), laboratory versus field conditions and use of synthetic as compared to actual domestic wastewater. This article considers the effects of plants on constructed wetland treatment in the field. Each constructed wetland system was comprised of two beds (2.6 m long by 0.28 m wide and deep filled with ~18 mm crushed lava rock) separated by an aeration tank connected in series. The lava rock had a porosity of ~47% and a CEC of 4 meq/100 gm. One pair of constructed wetland systems was planted with cattails in May 2008, while an adjacent pair of systems remained un-planted. Collected septic tank or synthesized wastewater was allowed to gravity feed each constructed wetland system and effluent samples were regularly collected and tested for COD and nitrogen species during four time periods spanning November 2008 through June 2009. These effluent concentrations were tested for statistical differences at the 95% level for individual time periods as well as the overall 6-month period. Organics removal from domestic wastewater was 78.8% and 76.1% in the planted and un-planted constructed wetland systems, respectively, while ammonium removal was 94.5% and 90.2%, respectively. Similarly, organics removal from the synthetic wastewater of equivalent strength was 88.8% and 90.1% for planted and un-planted constructed wetland systems, respectively, while ammonium removal was 96.9% and 97.3%, respectively.

  16. Determination of the health of Lunyangwa wetland using Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Msilimba, Golden

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are major sources of various ecological goods and services including storage and distribution of water in space and time which help in ensuring the availability of surface and groundwater throughout the year. However, there still remains a poor understanding of the range of values of water quality parameters that occur in wetlands either in its impacted state or under natural conditions. It was thus imperative to determine the health of Lunyangwa wetland in Mzuzu City in Malawi in order to classify and determine its state. This study used the Escom's Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index Field Guide to determine the overall characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland and to calculate its combined Wetland Index Score. Data on site information, field measurements (i.e. EC, pH, temperature and DO) and physical characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland were collected from March, 2013 to February, 2014. Results indicate that Lunyangwa wetland is a largely open water zone which is dominated by free-floating plants on the water surface, beneath surface and emergent in substrate. Furthermore, the wetland can be classified as of a C ecological category (score = 60-80%), which has been moderately modified with moderate risks of the losses and changes occurring in the natural habitat and biota in the wetland. It was observed that the moderate modification and risk were largely because of industrial, agricultural, urban/social catchment stressors on the wetland. This study recommends an integrated and sustainable management approach coupled with continuous monitoring and evaluation of the health of the wetland for all stakeholders in Mzuzu City. This would help to maintain the health of Lunyangwa wetland which is currently at risk of being further modified due to the identified catchment stressors.

  17. Efficiency of a natural wetland for effluent polishing of a septic tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yousefi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands now days apply as a polishing system for the classical wastewater treatment, in addition of different usages. Usually wetland systems are inexpensive methods vs. expensive high technology treatment systems. Objective of this study is an evaluation of natural wetland treatment in polishing of a septic effluent. Research duration works extended for 10 months on a natural wetland system in Pardis of Mazandaran University of medical sciences and eastern north of health faculty. Wastewater quality index such as pH, EC, BOD, COD, TSS, Nitrate, Phosphorus, Ammonia and Temperature performed on the samples of influent and effluent of the system. The study showed the system works as a buffering system for flow and pH. Results indicated that average of BOD5 and TSS efficiency were 67.70and 83%, respectively. Efficiency of COD was 65.26 and 80 % for a Low and moderate strength influent respectively. Average of phosphorus, NH3 and Nitrate in effluent were 0.032 mg/L, 7.18 and 0.036 mg/L, respectively. Efficiency of ammonia and Phosphorus were slightly increased in best condition. Based on this study result, natural wetland can be success in BOD, COD, and TSS removal of the classical septic tank, but for nitrogen and Phosphorus removal do not have considerable effects.

  18. BUFFER ZONE METHOD, LAND USE PLANNING AND CONSERVATION STRATEGIES ABOUT WETLANDS UNDER URBANIZATION PRESSURE IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ergen, Baris

    2010-01-01

    Wetlands are special areas that they offer habitat for terrestrial and water life. Wetlands are nest sides also for amphibian, for this reason wetlands offer wide range diversity for species. Wetlands are also reproduction regions for birds. Wetlands have special importance for ecosystem because they obstruct erosion. Wetlands absorb contaminants from water therefore wetlands contribute to clean water and they offer more potable water. Wetlands obstruct waterflood. In that case wetlands must ...

  19. Heterogeneity in a Suburban River Network: Understanding the Impact of Fluvial Wetlands on Dissolved Oxygen and Metabolism in Headwater Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, J. S.; Wollheim, W. M.; Sheehan, K.; Lightbody, A.

    2014-12-01

    Low dissolved oxygen content in rivers threatens fish populations, aquatic organisms, and the health of entire ecosystems. River systems with high fluvial wetland abundance and organic matter, may result in high metabolism that in conjunction with low re-aeration rates, lead to low oxygen conditions. Increasing abundance of beaver ponds in many areas may exacerbate this phenomenon. This research aims to understand the impact of fluvial wetlands, including beaver ponds, on dissolved oxygen (D.O.) and metabolism throughout the headwaters of the Ipswich R. watershed, MA, USA. In several fluvial wetland dominated systems, we measured diel D.O. and metabolism in the upstream inflow, the surface water transient storage zones of fluvial wetland sidepools, and at the outflow to understand how the wetlands modify dissolved oxygen. D.O. was also measured longitudinally along entire surface water flow paths (x-y km long) to determine how low levels of D.O. propagate downstream. Nutrient samples were also collected to understand how their behavior was related to D.O. behavior. Results show that D.O. in fluvial wetlands has large swings with periods of very low D.O. at night. D.O. swings were also seen in downstream outflow, though lagged and somewhat attenuated. Flow conditions affect the level of inundation and the subsequent effects of fluvial wetlands on main channel D.O.. Understanding the D.O. behavior throughout river systems has important implications for the ability of river systems to remove anthropogenic nitrogen.

  20. The influence of urbanisation on macroinvertebrate biodiversity in constructed stormwater wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, Teresa J; Davis, Jenny A; Thompson, Ross M

    2015-12-01

    The construction of wetlands in urban environments is primarily carried out to assist in the removal of contaminants from wastewaters; however, these wetlands have the added benefit of providing habitat for aquatic invertebrates, fish and waterbirds. Stormwater quantity and quality is directly related to impervious area (roads, sealed areas, roofs) in the catchment. As a consequence, it would be expected that impervious area would be related to contaminant load and biodiversity in receiving waters such as urban wetlands. This study aimed to establish whether the degree of urbanisation and its associated changes to stormwater runoff affected macroinvertebrate richness and abundance within constructed wetlands. Urban wetlands in Melbourne's west and south east were sampled along a gradient of urbanisation. There was a significant negative relationship between total imperviousness (TI) and the abundance of aquatic invertebrates detected for sites in the west, but not in the south east. However macroinvertebrate communities were relatively homogenous both within and between all study wetlands. Chironomidae (non-biting midges) was the most abundant family recorded at the majority of sites. Chironomids are able to tolerate a wide array of environmental conditions, including eutrophic and anoxic conditions. Their prevalence suggests that water quality is impaired in these systems, regardless of degree of urbanisation, although the causal mechanism is unclear. These results show some dependency between receiving wetland condition and the degree of urbanisation of the catchment, but suggest that other factors may be as important in determining the value of urban wetlands as habitat for wildlife. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of litter decomposition in a natural versus coal-slurry pond reclaimed as a wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.; Middleton, B.A. [National Wetlands Research Center (USGS), Lafayette, LA (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Decomposition is a key function in reclaimed wetlands, and changes in its rate have ramifications for organic-matter accumulation, nutrient cycling, and production. The purpose of this study was to compare leaf litter decomposition rates in coal-slurry ponds vs. natural wetlands on natural floodplain wetlands in Illinois, USA. The rate of decomposition was slower in the natural wetland vs. the coal pond (k = 0.0043{+-}0.0008 vs. 0.0066{+-}0.0011, respectively); the soil of the natural wetland was more acidic than the coal pond in this study (pH = 5.3 vs. 7.9, respectively). Similarly, higher organic matter levels were related to lower pH levels, and organic matter levels were seven-times higher in the natural wetland than in the coal pond. The coal slurry pond was five years old at the time of the study, while the natural oxbow wetland was older (more than 550 years). The coal-slurry pond was originally a floodplain wetland (slough); the downstream end was blocked with a stoplog structure and the oxbow filled with slurry. The pattern of decomposition for all species in the coal pond was the same as in the natural pond; Potomogeton nodosus decomposed more quickly than Phragmites australis, and both of these species decomposed more quickly than either Typha latifolia or Cyperus erythrorhizos. Depending on how open or closed the system is to outside inputs, decomposition rate regulates other functions such as production, nutrient cycling, organic-layer accumulation in the soil, and the timing and nature of delivery of detritus to the food chain.

  2. Denitrification potential and its relation to organic carbon quality in three coastal wetland soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodla, Syam K. [School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Wang, Jim J. [School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)], E-mail: jjwang@agctr.lsu.edu; DeLaune, Ron D. [Wetland Biogeochemistry Institute, School of the Coast and Environment, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Cook, Robert L. [Chemistry Department, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Capacity of a wetland to remove nitrate through denitrification is controlled by its physico-chemical and biological characteristics. Understanding these characteristics will help better to guide beneficial use of wetlands in processing nitrate. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between soil organic carbon (SOC) quality and denitrification rate in Louisiana coastal wetlands. Composite soil samples of different depths were collected from three different wetlands along a salinity gradient, namely, bottomland forest swamp (FS), freshwater marsh (FM), and saline marsh (SM) located in the Barataria Basin estuary. Potential denitrification rate (PDR) was measured by acetylene inhibition method and distribution of carbon (C) moieties in organic C was determined by {sup 13}C solid-state NMR. Of the three wetlands, the FM soil profile exhibited the highest PDR on both unit weight and unit volume basis as compared to FS and SM. The FM also tended to yield higher amount of N{sub 2}O as compared to the FS and SM especially at earlier stages of denitrification, suggesting incomplete reduction of NO{sub 3}{sup -} at FM and potential for emission of N{sub 2}O. Saline marsh soil profile had the lowest PDR on the unit volume basis. Increasing incubation concentration from 2 to 10 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N L{sup -1} increased PDR by 2 to 6 fold with the highest increase in the top horizons of FS and SM soils. Regression analysis showed that across these three wetland systems, organic C has significant effect in regulating PDR. Of the compositional C moieties, polysaccharides positively influenced denitrification rate whereas phenolics (likely phenolic adehydes and ketonics) negatively affected denitrification rate in these wetland soils. These results could have significant implication in integrated assessment and management of wetlands for treating nutrient-rich biosolids and wastewaters, non-point source agricultural runoff, and nitrate found in the diverted

  3. Exposure and Figure Out of Climate Induced Alterations in the Wetlands of Banglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiquee, S. A.; Rahman, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Unique geographic location and geo-morphological conditions of Bangladesh have made the wetlands of this country one of the most vulnerable to climate change. Wetland plays a crucial role in maintaining the ecological balance of ecosystems and cultural figures and which occupy around 50% of the area. Drought, excessive temperature, mountain snowfields and glaciers melting, riverbank erosion, salinity intrusion, flashflood, storm surges, higher water temperatures, precipitation anomalies, coastal cyclones, seasonal anomalies and extremes are main threats to the wetland ecosystem. Enhanced UV-B radiation and increased summer precipitation will significantly increase dissolved organic carbon concentrations altering major biogeochemical cycles and also will result into the expansion of range for many invasive aquatic weeds. Generally, rising temperature will lower water quality through a fall in oxygen concentrations, release of phosphorus from sediments, increased thermal stability, and altered mixing patterns. As a result biodiversity is getting degraded, many species of flora and fauna are getting threatened, and wetland-based ecosystem is getting degenerated. At the same time, the living conditions of local people are deteriorating as livelihoods, socioeconomic institutions, and extensive cultural values as well. For conserving and managing wetlands technology, legislation, educational knowledge, action plan strategy and restoration practices are required. In order to address the human needs in the changing climate community-based adaptation approaches and wetland restoration, practices had been taken in almost every type of wetlands in Bangladesh. Therefore, Bangladesh now needs a comprehensive strategy and integrated system combining political, economic, social, technological approaches and institutional supports to address sustainable wetland restoration, conservation and the newly added crisis, climate change.

  4. Denitrification potential and its relation to organic carbon quality in three coastal wetland soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodla, Syam K.; Wang, Jim J.; DeLaune, Ron D.; Cook, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Capacity of a wetland to remove nitrate through denitrification is controlled by its physico-chemical and biological characteristics. Understanding these characteristics will help better to guide beneficial use of wetlands in processing nitrate. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between soil organic carbon (SOC) quality and denitrification rate in Louisiana coastal wetlands. Composite soil samples of different depths were collected from three different wetlands along a salinity gradient, namely, bottomland forest swamp (FS), freshwater marsh (FM), and saline marsh (SM) located in the Barataria Basin estuary. Potential denitrification rate (PDR) was measured by acetylene inhibition method and distribution of carbon (C) moieties in organic C was determined by 13 C solid-state NMR. Of the three wetlands, the FM soil profile exhibited the highest PDR on both unit weight and unit volume basis as compared to FS and SM. The FM also tended to yield higher amount of N 2 O as compared to the FS and SM especially at earlier stages of denitrification, suggesting incomplete reduction of NO 3 - at FM and potential for emission of N 2 O. Saline marsh soil profile had the lowest PDR on the unit volume basis. Increasing incubation concentration from 2 to 10 mg NO 3 - -N L -1 increased PDR by 2 to 6 fold with the highest increase in the top horizons of FS and SM soils. Regression analysis showed that across these three wetland systems, organic C has significant effect in regulating PDR. Of the compositional C moieties, polysaccharides positively influenced denitrification rate whereas phenolics (likely phenolic adehydes and ketonics) negatively affected denitrification rate in these wetland soils. These results could have significant implication in integrated assessment and management of wetlands for treating nutrient-rich biosolids and wastewaters, non-point source agricultural runoff, and nitrate found in the diverted Mississippi River water used for coastal

  5. Utilizing GNSS Reflectometry to Assess Surface Inundation Dynamics in Tropical Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K.; McDonald, K. C.; Podest, E.; Chew, C. C.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical wetlands play a significant role in global atmospheric methane and terrestrial water storage. Despite the growing number of remote sensing products from satellite sensors, both spatial distribution and temporal variability of wetlands remain highly uncertain. An emerging innovative approach to mapping wetlands is offered by GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R), a bistatic radar concept that takes advantage of GNSS transmitting satellites to yield observations with global coverage and rapid revisit time. This technology offers the potential to capture dynamic inundation changes in wetlands at higher temporal fidelity and sensitivity under the canopy than presently possible. We present an integrative analysis of radiometric modeling, ground measurements, and several microwave remote sensing datasets traditionally used for wetland observations. From a theoretical standpoint, GNSS-R sensitivities for vegetation and wetlands are investigated with a bistatic radar model in order to understand the interactions of the signal with various land surface components. GNSS reflections from the TechDemoSat-1 (TDS-1), Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), and Cyclone GNSS (CYGNSS) missions are tested experimentally with contemporaneous (1) field measurements collected from the Pacaya Samiria National Reserve in the Peruvian Amazon, (2) imaging radar from Sentinel-1 and PALSAR-2 observed over a variety of tropical wetland systems, and (3) pan-tropical coarse-resolution (25km) microwave datasets (Surface Water Microwave Product Series). We find that GNSS-R data provide the potential to extend capabilities of current remote sensing techniques to characterize surface inundation extent, and we explore how to maximize synergism between different satellite sensors to produce an enhanced wetland monitoring product.

  6. Uranium Immobilization in Wetland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Peter R.; Koster van Groos, Paul G.; Li, Dien; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Seaman, John C.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Scheckel, Kirk

    2014-05-01

    In wetlands, which are a major feature at the groundwater-surface water interface, plants deliver oxygen to the subsurface to keep root tissue aerobic. Some of this oxygen leaches into the rhizosphere where it will oxidize iron that typically precipitates on or near roots. Furthermore, plans provide carbon via root exudates and turnover, which in the presence of the iron oxides drives the activity of heterotrophic iron reducers in wetland soils. Oxidized iron is an important electron acceptor for many microbially-driven transformations, which can affect the fate and transport of several pollutants. It has been shown that heterotrophic iron reducing organisms, such as Geobacter sp., can reduce water soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). The goal of this study was to determine if and how iron cycling in the wetland rhizosphere affects uranium dynamics. For this purpose, we operated a series of small-scale wetland mesocosms in a greenhouse to simulate the discharge of uranium-contaminated groundwater to surface waters. The mesocosms were operated with two different Fe(II) loading rates, two plant types, and unplanted controls. The mesocosms contained zones of root exclusion to differentiate between the direct presence and absence of roots in the planted mesocosms. The mesocosms were operated for several month to get fully established, after which a U(VI) solution was fed for 80 days. The mesocosms were then sacrificed and analyzed for solid-associated chemical species, microbiological characterization, micro-X-ray florescence (µ-XRF) mapping of Fe and U on the root surface, and U speciation via X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). Results showed that bacterial numbers including Geobacter sp., Fe(III), as well as total uranium, were highest on roots, followed by sediments near roots, and lowest in zones without much root influence. Results from the µ-XRF mapping on root surfaces indicated a strong spatial correlation between Fe and U. This correlation was

  7. FULL-SCALE TREATMENT WETLANDS FOR METAL REMOVAL FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E; John Gladden, J

    2007-01-01

    The A-01 NPDES outfall at the Savannah River Site receives process wastewater discharges and stormwater runoff from the Savannah River National Laboratory. Routine monitoring indicated that copper concentrations were regularly higher than discharge permit limit, and water routinely failed toxicity tests. These conditions necessitated treatment of nearly one million gallons of water per day plus storm runoff. Washington Savannah River Company personnel explored options to bring process and runoff waters into compliance with the permit conditions, including source reduction, engineering solutions, and biological solutions. A conceptual design for a constructed wetland treatment system (WTS) was developed and the full-scale system was constructed and began operation in 2000. The overall objective of our research is to better understand the mechanisms of operation of the A-01 WTS in order to provide better input to design of future systems. The system is a vegetated surface flow wetland with a hydraulic retention time of approximately 48 hours. Copper, mercury, and lead removal efficiencies are very high, all in excess of 80% removal from water passing through the wetland system. Zinc removal is 60%, and nickel is generally unaffected. Dissolved organic carbon in the water column is increased by the system and reduces toxicity of the effluent. Concentrations of metals in the A-01 WTS sediments generally decrease with depth and along the flow path through the wetland. Sequential extraction results indicate that most metals are tightly bound to wetland sediments

  8. FULL-SCALE TREATMENT WETLANDS FOR METAL REMOVAL FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E; John Gladden, J

    2007-03-22

    The A-01 NPDES outfall at the Savannah River Site receives process wastewater discharges and stormwater runoff from the Savannah River National Laboratory. Routine monitoring indicated that copper concentrations were regularly higher than discharge permit limit, and water routinely failed toxicity tests. These conditions necessitated treatment of nearly one million gallons of water per day plus storm runoff. Washington Savannah River Company personnel explored options to bring process and runoff waters into compliance with the permit conditions, including source reduction, engineering solutions, and biological solutions. A conceptual design for a constructed wetland treatment system (WTS) was developed and the full-scale system was constructed and began operation in 2000. The overall objective of our research is to better understand the mechanisms of operation of the A-01 WTS in order to provide better input to design of future systems. The system is a vegetated surface flow wetland with a hydraulic retention time of approximately 48 hours. Copper, mercury, and lead removal efficiencies are very high, all in excess of 80% removal from water passing through the wetland system. Zinc removal is 60%, and nickel is generally unaffected. Dissolved organic carbon in the water column is increased by the system and reduces toxicity of the effluent. Concentrations of metals in the A-01 WTS sediments generally decrease with depth and along the flow path through the wetland. Sequential extraction results indicate that most metals are tightly bound to wetland sediments.

  9. Examining the role of management practices and landscape context on methane dynamics from subtropical wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, Nicholas; Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria; Boughton, Elizabeth; Yang, Wendy; Bernacchi, Carl

    2017-04-01

    Globally, wetlands are the largest natural source of atmospheric CH4, an important GHG with a warming potential 25 times stronger than CO2 (IPCC 2008; Forster et al. 2013). In sub-tropical climates where precipitation and temperatures are high, land-use change and agricultural management practices often intersect with extensive wetland systems. The Everglades watershed in South Central Florida represents a large areal extent characterized by a high density of wetlands nested within agricultural fields dominated to a large extent by grazed rangelands. Soils are primarily Spodosols and Histosols and sustain a relatively high water table, even during the dry season. Here, rangelands dominated by native vegetation have been converted to agronomically 'improved pastures' suitable for large scale cattle ranching through high intensive agronomic practices including vegetation homogenization, fertilization and drainage. In this study we first tested the hypothesis that CH4 fluxes from small ephemeral wetlands are indirectly influenced by management practices associated with the agricultural fields in which they are nested. We found that wetlands embedded in agronomically 'Improved' pastures exhibit significantly higher CH4 fluxes compared to wetlands embedded in 'Native' pastures. Next, we sought to determine the mechanisms by which the surrounding landscapes affect methane production processes to better predict how expanding or intensifying agriculture will affect wetland methane fluxes. We focus on substrate supply in the form of substrate quality and quantity available to methanogens as it is a principle control over CH4 production and susceptible to ecosystem perturbations. This research was conducted at the McArthur Agro-Ecology Research Center on Buck Island Ranch, Lake Placid, Florida. Wetland CH4 fluxes were measured using static canopy chambers coupled with infrared gas analysis of CH4, CO2 and water vapor. Additionally, soil manipulation incubations were prepared

  10. Adsorption, sedimentation, and inactivation of E. coli within wastewater treatment wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutilier, L; Jamieson, R; Gordon, R; Lake, C; Hart, W

    2009-09-01

    importance of wastewater characterization when designing a treatment wetland system for bacterial removal. This study illustrated the level of variability in E. coli removal processes that can be observed within different wastewater, and wetland environments.

  11. The surface elevation table and marker horizon technique: A protocol for monitoring wetland elevation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    James C. Lynch,; Phillippe Hensel,; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    The National Park Service, in response to the growing evidence and awareness of the effects of climate change on federal lands, determined that monitoring wetland elevation change is a top priority in North Atlantic Coastal parks (Stevens et al, 2010). As a result, the NPS Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network (NCBN) in collaboration with colleagues from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have developed a protocol for monitoring wetland elevation change and other processes important for determining the viability of wetland communities. Although focused on North Atlantic Coastal parks, this document is applicable to all coastal and inland wetland regions. Wetlands exist within a narrow range of elevation which is influenced by local hydrologic conditions. For coastal wetlands in particular, local hydrologic conditions may be changing as sea levels continue to rise. As sea level rises, coastal wetland systems may respond by building elevation to maintain favorable hydrologic conditions for their survival. This protocol provides the reader with instructions and guidelines on designing a monitoring plan or study to: A) Quantify elevation change in wetlands with the Surface Elevation Table (SET). B) Understand the processes that influence elevation change, including vertical accretion (SET and Marker Horizon methods). C) Survey the wetland surface and SET mark to a common reference datum to allow for comparing sample stations to each other and to local tidal datums. D) Survey the SET mark to monitor its relative stability. This document is divided into two parts; the main body that presents an overview of all aspects of monitoring wetland elevation dynamics, and a collection of Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) that describes in detail how to perform or execute each step of the methodology. Detailed instruction on the installation, data collection, data management and analysis are provided in this report

  12. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  13. Using constructed wetlands to treat subsurface drainage from intensively grazed dairy pastures in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, C C; Nguyen, M Long; Sukias, J P S

    2003-01-01

    Performance data, during the start-up period, are presented for constructed wetlands treating subsurface drainage from dairy pastures in Waikato (rain-fed) and Northland (irrigated), North Island, New Zealand. The wetlands comprised an estimated 1 and 2% of the drained catchment areas, respectively. Nitrate concentrations were high in the drainage inflows at both sites (medians 10 g m(-3) at Waikato and 6.5 g m(-3) at Northland), but organic N was also an important form of N at Waikato (37% of TN). Comparison of wetland inflow and outflow nutrient concentrations showed overall nutrient reductions during passage through the wetlands for NO3-N (34 and 94% for medians, respectively), TN (56 and 33%, respectively), and DRP (80%, Northland only). Median NH4-N (both sites) and DRP (Waikato) concentrations showed apparent increases between the wetland inlets and outlets. However, a mass balance calculated for the 3 month preliminary monitoring periods showed substantial mass removal of DRP (80%) and all measured forms of N (NO3-N 78%, NH4-N 41%, Org-N 99.8% and TN 96%) in the Waikato wetland. Monitoring of these systems needs to be continued through a range of seasons and years to fully assess their long-term performance.

  14. Temporal Data Fusion Approaches to Remote Sensing-Based Wetland Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Joshua S. M.

    This thesis investigates the ecology of wetlands and associated classification in prairie and boreal environments of Alberta, Canada, using remote sensing technology to enhance classification of wetlands in the province. Objectives of the thesis are divided into two case studies, 1) examining how satellite borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), optical (RapidEye & SPOT) can be used to evaluate surface water trends in a prairie pothole environment (Shepard Slough); and 2) investigating a data fusion methodology combining SAR, optical and Lidar data to characterize wetland vegetation and surface water attributes in a boreal environment (Utikuma Regional Study Area (URSA)). Surface water extent and hydroperiod products were derived from SAR data, and validated using optical imagery with high accuracies (76-97% overall) for both case studies. High resolution Lidar Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Digital Surface Models (DSM), and Canopy Height Model (CHM) products provided the means for data fusion to extract riparian vegetation communities and surface water; producing model accuracies of (R2 0.90) for URSA, and RMSE of 0.2m to 0.7m at Shepard Slough when compared to field and optical validation data. Integration of Alberta and Canadian wetland classifications systems used to classify and determine economic value of wetlands into the methodology produced thematic maps relevant for policy and decision makers for potential wetland monitoring and policy development.

  15. Urban wetlands: restoration or designed rehabilitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Ravit

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The continuing loss of urban wetlands due to an expanding human population and urban development pressures makes restoration or creation of urban wetlands a high priority. However, urban wetland restorations are particularly challenging due to altered hydrologic patterns, a high proportion of impervious surface and stormwater runoff, degraded urban soils, historic contamination, and competitive pressure from non-native species. Urban wetland projects must also consider human-desired socio-economic benefits. We argue that using current wetland restoration approaches and existing regulatory “success” criteria, such as meeting restoration targets for vegetation structure based on reference sites in non-urban locations, will result in “failed” urban restorations. Using three wetland Case Studies in highly urbanized locations, we describe geophysical tools, stormwater management methods, and design approaches useful in addressing urban challenges and in supporting “successful” urban rehabilitation outcomes. We suggest that in human-dominated landscapes, the current paradigm of “restoration” to a previous state must shift to a paradigm of “rehabilitation”, which prioritizes wetland functions and values rather than vegetation structure in order to provide increased ecological benefits and much needed urban open space amenities.

  16. Assessment on vulnerability of coastal wetlands to sea level rise in the Yangtze Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, L.; Ge, Z.; Zhang, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Yangtze Delta in China is vital economic hubs in terms of settlement, industry, agriculture, trade and tourism as well as of great environmental significance. In recent decades, the prospect of climate change, in particular sea level rise and its effects on low lying coastal areas have generated worldwide attention to coastal ecosystems. Coastal wetlands, as important parts of coastal ecosystem, are particularly sensitive to sea level rise. To study the responses of coastal wetlands to climate change, assess the impacts of climate change on coastal wetlands and formulate feasible and practical mitigation strategies are the important prerequisites for securing the coastal zone ecosystems. In this study, taking the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary as a case study, the potential impacts of sea-level rise to coastal wetlands habitat were analyzed by the Source-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence (SPRC) model. The key indicators, such as the sea-level rise rate, subsidence rate, elevation, daily inundation duration of habitat and sedimentation rate, were selected to build a vulnerability assessment system according to the IPCC definition of vulnerability, i.e. the aspects of exposure, sensitivity and adaptation. A quantitatively spatial assessment method on the GIS platform was established by quantifying each indicator, calculating the vulnerability index and grading the vulnerability. The vulnerability assessment on the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary under the sea level rise rate of the present trend and IPCC A1F1 scenario were performed for three sets of projections of short-term (2030s), mid-term (2050s) and long-term (2100s). The results showed that at the present trend of sea level rise rate of 0.26 cm/a, 92.3 % of the coastal wetlands in the Yangtze Estuary was in the EVI score of 0 in 2030s, i.e. the impact of sea level rise on habitats/species of coastal wetlands was negligible. While 7.4 % and 0.3 % of the coastal wetlands were in the EVI score of

  17. Pharmaceutical Residues Affecting the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike Wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björklund, Erland; Svahn, Ola; Bak, Søren Alex

    2016-01-01

    This study is the first to investigate the pharmaceutical burden from point sources affecting the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden. The investigated Biosphere Reserve is a >1000 km(2) wetland system with inflows from lakes, rivers, leachate from landfill, and wastewater......-treatment plants (WWTPs). We analysed influent and treated wastewater, leachate water, lake, river, and wetland water alongside sediment for six model pharmaceuticals. The two WWTPs investigated released pharmaceutical residues at levels close to those previously observed in Swedish monitoring exercises. Compound......-dependent WWTP removal efficiencies ranging from 12 to 100 % for bendroflumethiazide, oxazepam, atenolol, carbamazepine, and diclofenac were observed. Surface-water concentrations in the most affected lake were ≥100 ng/L for the various pharmaceuticals with atenolol showing the highest levels (>300 ng...

  18. Spatial assessment of water use in an environmentally sensitive wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahbaz; Hafeez, Mohsin; Abbas, Akhtar; Ahmad, Aftab

    2009-05-01

    system, there is a need to upgrade measuring and reporting infrastructure by strengthening the institutional and management arrangements to better gauge the efficiency of environmental and consumptive water use. The state-of-the-art technology of remote sensing-based SEBAL modeling proved to have potential for measuring actual water use with reliable accuracy and can be used for assessing the environmental and productive use of water from wetlands in other regions of Australia.

  19. RS- and GIS-based study on landscape pattern change in the Poyang Lake wetland area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoling; Li, Hui; Bao, Shuming; Wu, Zhongyi; Fu, Weijuan; Cai, Xiaobin; Zhao, Hongmei; Guo, Peng

    2006-10-01

    As wetland has been recognized as an important component of ecosystem, it is received ever-increasing attention worldwide. Poyang Lake wetlands, the international wetlands and the largest bird habitat in Asia, play an important role in biodiversity and ecologic protection. However, with the rapid economic growth and urbanization, landscape patterns in the wetlands have dramatically changed in the past three decades. To better understand the