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Sample records for wetland credits entrepreneurial

  1. Evaluation of a market in wetland credits: entrepreneurial wetland banking in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Morgan; Hayden, Nicholas

    2008-06-01

    With the rise of market-led approaches to environmental policy, compensation for permitted discharge of dredge or fill material into wetlands under Section 404 of the U.S. Clean Water Act has been purchased increasingly from entrepreneurial third-party providers. The growth of this practice (i.e., entrepreneurial wetland banking) has resolved many challenges associated with wetland compensation. But it has also produced (1) quantifiable temporal loss of wetland ecological functions, (2) spatial redistribution of wetland area, and (3) a degree of regulatory instability that may pose a threat to entrepreneurial compensation as a sustainable component of wetland-compensation policy. We used achieved compensation ratios, lapse between bank credit sale and the attainment of performance standards, distance between impact and bank site, and changes in bank market area to examine these 3 factors. We analyzed data from a census of all such transactions in the Chicago District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, compiled from site visits, Corps databases, and contacts with consultants and Section 404 permittees. Entrepreneurial banking provided compensation at a lower overall ratio than nonbank forms of compensation. Approximately 60% of bank credits were sold after site-protection standards were met but before ecological performance standards were met at the bank site. The average distance between bank and impact site was approximately 26 km. The area of markets within which established banks can sell wetland credits has fluctuated considerably over the study period. Comparing these data with similar data for other compensation mechanisms will assist in evaluating banking as an element of conservation policy. Data characterizing the performance of entrepreneurial wetland banks in actual regulatory environments are scarce, even though it is the most established of similar markets that have become instrumental to federal policy in administering several major environmental

  2. A smart market for nutrient credit trading to incentivize wetland construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffensperger, John F.; Prabodanie, R. A. Ranga; Kostel, Jill A.

    2017-03-01

    Nutrient trading and constructed wetlands are widely discussed solutions to reduce nutrient pollution. Nutrient markets usually include agricultural nonpoint sources and municipal and industrial point sources, but these markets rarely include investors who construct wetlands to sell nutrient reduction credits. We propose a new market design for trading nutrient credits, with both point source and non-point source traders, explicitly incorporating the option of landowners to build nutrient removal wetlands. The proposed trading program is designed as a smart market with centralized clearing, done with an optimization. The market design addresses the varying impacts of runoff over space and time, and the lumpiness of wetland investments. We simulated the market for the Big Bureau Creek watershed in north-central Illinois. We found that the proposed smart market would incentivize wetland construction by assuring reasonable payments for the ecosystem services provided. The proposed market mechanism selects wetland locations strategically taking into account both the cost and nutrient removal efficiencies. The centralized market produces locational prices that would incentivize farmers to reduce nutrients, which is voluntary. As we illustrate, wetland builders' participation in nutrient trading would enable the point sources and environmental organizations to buy low cost nutrient credits.

  3. Identifying the entrepreneurial competence of micro clients in MFI’s.A case study of uniCredit Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agbeko, D.; Blok, V.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Various researchers have indicated that in general, entrepreneurial competencies are positively related to entrepreneurial success (Baron & Markman, 2003; Baum & Locke, 2004; Baum et al, 2001; Chandler & Jansen, 1992; Ucbasaran et al, 2008). Also in case of developing countries, it is

  4. All Data is Credit Data: Reputation, Regulation and Character in the Entrepreneurial Imaginary

    OpenAIRE

    Rosamond, Emily

    2016-01-01

    This essay examines new means of measuring creditworthiness, reputation and character online and briefly considers the implications for contemporary art. New technologies for determining creditworthiness abound; for instance, companies in the so-called fintech (financial technology) industry, provide new methods for granting credit to the underbanked, using big data analytics and psychometric testing. Similarly, Rachel Botsman and others envision a future in which reputation becomes a kind of...

  5. Entrepreneurial personality and entrepreneurial behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Rodica LUCA

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a literature analysis concerning the concept of entrepreneurial personality. Several topics are discussed, such as: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial personality, personality traits and factors associated with entrepreneurship, context variables influencing entrepreneurial behaviour, psychological explanations of entrepreneurial behaviour.

  6. The Bias in Favor of Venture Capital Finance in U.S. Entrepreneurial Education: At the Expense of Trade Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Thomas; LeMire, Steven; Silvernagel, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The authors examine whether U.S. college-level entrepreneurship education demonstrates a bias favoring venture capital (VC) financing while marginalizing trade credit financing, and the resulting impact on entrepreneurship students. A sample of U.S. business textbooks and survey data from entrepreneurship students reveals a significant bias toward…

  7. Entrepreneurial personality and entrepreneurial behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Rodica LUCA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a literature analysis concerning the concept of entrepreneurial personality. Several topics are discussed, such as: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial personality, personality traits and factors associated with entrepreneurship, context variables influencing entrepreneurial behaviour, psychological explanations of entrepreneurial behaviour.

  8. Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.; Spigel, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the emergent entrepreneurial ecosystem approach. Entrepreneurial ecosystems are defined as a set of interdependent actors and factors coordinated in such a way that they enable productive entrepreneurship within a particular territory. The purpose of this paper is to

  9. Entrepreneurial Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is one of the youngest disciplines in the area of business administration. Hence, there is a special need for literature that can be used in teaching and that can serve as a basis for research. This article reviews five textbooks and three research-oriented books on entrepreneurial marketing, which is regarded as one of the key areas of entrepreneurship. As the review shows, there is no textbook that covers all relevant aspects of entrepreneurial marketing in sufficient bread...

  10. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial

  11. Entrepreneurial Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Van Praag, Mirjam; Thompson, Peter

    with a selected set of comparable firms and couples. We find evidence that couples often establish a business together because one spouse – most commonly the female – has limited outside opportunities in the labor market. However, the financial benefits for each of the spouses, and especially the female......We study possible motivations for co-entrepenurial couples to start up a joint firm, using a sample of 1,069 Danish couples that established a joint enterprise between 2001 and 2010. We compare their pre-entry characteristics, firm performance and postdissolution private and financial outcomes......, are larger in co-entrepreneurial firms, both during the life of the business and post-dissolution. The start-up of co-entrepreneurial firms seems therefore a sound investment in the human capital of both spouses as well as in the reduction of income inequality in the household. We find no evidence of non...

  12. Entrepreneurial Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Van Praag, Mirjam; Thompson, Peter

    with a selected set of comparable firms and couples. We find evidence that couples often establish a business together because one spouse - most commonly the female - has limited outside opportunities in the labor market. However, the financial benefits for each of the spouses, and especially the female......We study possible motivations for co-entrepenurial couples to start up a joint firm, us-ing a sample of 1,069 Danish couples that established a joint enterprise between 2001 and 2010. We compare their pre-entry characteristics, firm performance and post-dissolution private and financial outcomes......, are larger in co-entrepreneurial firms, both during the life of the business and post-dissolution. The start-up of co-entrepreneurial firms seems therefore a sound in-vestment in the human capital of both spouses as well as in the reduction of income inequality in the household. We find no evidence of non...

  13. ENTREPRENEURIAL CAPABILITIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Nielsen, Thorkild

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse entrepreneurship from an action research perspective. What is entrepreneurship about? Which are the fundamental capabilities and processes of entrepreneurship? To answer these questions the article includes a case study of a Danish entrepreneur and his networ....... Finally, the article discuss, how more long term action research methods could be integrated into the entrepreneurial processes and the possible impacts of such an implementation?...

  14. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Stam, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial ecosystem elements and use these to compose an entrepreneurial ecosystem index. Next, we measure the output of entrepreneurial ecosystems with different indicators of high-growth firms. We use the 12 provi...

  15. Treatment Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Dotro, Gabriela; Langergraber, Günter; Molle, Pascal; Nivala, Jaime; Puigagut, Jaume; Stein, Otto; Von Sperling, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Overview of Treatment Wetlands; Fundamentals of Treatment Wetlands; Horizontal Flow Wetlands; Vertical Flow Wetlands; French Vertical Flow Wetlands; Intensified and Modified Wetlands; Free Water Surface Wetlands; Other Applications; Additional Aspects.

  16. Reinventing Entrepreneurial History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadhwani, R. Daniel; Lubinski, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Research on entrepreneurship remains fragmented in business history. A lack of conceptual clarity inhibits comparisons between studies and dialogue among scholars. To address these issues, we propose to reinvent entrepreneurial history as a research field. We define “new entrepreneurial history...... and reconfiguring resources, and legitimizing novelty. The article elaborates on the historiography, premises, and potential contributions of new entrepreneurial history....

  17. Professional entrepreneurial identity construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum

    The present study investigates the construction of a professional identity as an entrepreneur in a sample of people with educational background in nutrition and health. The study examines the connection between professional identity construction and entrepreneurial business emergence using...... ‘entrepreneurial preparedness’ as parameter. This research seeks to address the following questions: What significant components or characteristics do entrepreneurs rely on in the early processes of constructing an entrepreneurial identity....

  18. Entrepreneurial Orientation and Internationalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Arnim; Rollnik-Sadowska, Ewa; Servais, Per

    Entrepreneurial orientation is a multidimensional construct that determines the strategic posture of a firm. In this study we investigate a sample of six manufacturing firms which are located both in a remote area and in a transition economy. Through interpreting the construct of entrepreneurial...... orientation as an attitude held by principals we investigate how entrepreneurial orientation affected the behaviour of these firms, specifically in terms of their internationalisation. Despite the fact that all firms have identical roots we find that entrepreneurial orientation held by their principals affect...

  19. Entrepreneurial Attitude and Entrepreneurial Efficacy of Technical Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidatol Akmaliah, Lope Pihie; Bagheri, Afsaneh

    2010-01-01

    Entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy are considered to be two important factors influencing students' intention and success in becoming entrepreneurs. This study was conducted to determine the entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy of 3000 students following technical subjects in the secondary schools of Malaysia.…

  20. The Entrepreneurial Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Jeffry A.

    Focusing on the knowledge and tools necessary for starting new entrepreneurial ventures, this book draws on information from the venture capital industry to describe the characteristics of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial managers and includes self-assessment and management competency inventories. Following an introduction describing the elements…

  1. Entrepreneurial stressors as predictors of entrepreneurial burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xueyan; Cang, Shuangxin; Hisrich, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    Research on the effects of entrepreneurial stressors is limited, especially regarding its relation to the burnout that frequently occurs in the process of starting and growing a venture. The effect of the role of entrepreneurial stressors (workload, competitive comparison, demands-of-knowledge, managing responsibility, and resource requirements) on burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment) was examined in a Chinese sample of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial stressors emerged as a significant predictor of burnout in the process of entrepreneurship in a sample of 289 entrepreneurs (63.8% men; M age = 26.2 yr.; 39.6% of their parents have been self-employed). The findings clarify the functional relationship between entrepreneurial stressors and burnout. Entrepreneurial stressors played multiple roles. Managing responsibility was an active contributor to the sense of achievement and to emotional exhaustion. Workload was an active contributor to emotional exhaustion. Demands-of-knowledge negatively affected three of the dimensions of burnout. Theoretical and practical implications for management of the effect of these relationships are discussed.

  2. Entrepreneurial team cognition: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, E.; Khapova, S.N.; Elfring, T.

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurial team scholars highlight the importance of studying entrepreneurial team cognition in gaining a better understanding of why some entrepreneurial teams are capable of developing teamwork leading to successful entrepreneurial outcomes while others are not. However, in the absence of a

  3. Moderating role of entrepreneurial orientation on the relationship between entrepreneurial skills, environmental factors and entrepreneurial intention: A PLS approach

    OpenAIRE

    Najafi Auwalu Ibrahim; Abdulsalam Mas’ud

    2016-01-01

    For decades, entrepreneurship has become a major concern to both scholars and policymakers because of its significant role in economic and social transformation. This paper modeled the direct effects of entrepreneurial skill, environmental factors and entrepreneurial orientation on entrepreneurial intention as well as the indirect (moderating) effect of entrepreneurial orientation on the relationship of entrepreneurial skill and environmental factors with entrepreneurial intention. Quantitati...

  4. Entrepreneurial Integration Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Florian; Schriber, Svante; King, David R.

    2016-01-01

    on 116 acquisitions, we find that entrepreneurial integration skills can display both advantages and disadvantages. While it helps to realize expected and serendipitous synergies, it can also trigger employee uncertainty due to decreased transparency. In supplementary analysis, we show measures...

  5. Unlacing the Entrepreneurial Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Ian Keith

    of entrepreneurship. Hence, context-specific studies are necessary to enhance entrepreneurship research and to develop more effective strategies to foster entrepreneurship. In this dissertation, I mainly focus on the entrepreneurial intentions of university students in an emerging economy context. I address...... researchers to fine-tune theories and to expand our theoretical understanding of entrepreneurship in general as well as provide practical guidelines for designing entrepreneurship teaching programs. In Paper 1, I explore the need for context-sensitive measures of entrepreneurial intentions. The study not only...... that researchers should seek to unpack the cultural differences that exist within a society in order to gain more specific and representative measurements of entrepreneurial intentions and, in turn, gain a better understanding of some of the mechanisms through which entrepreneurial intentions are developed...

  6. Sustainability and Entrepreneurial Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.; Anderson, Alistair

    Abstract Objectives - This paper explores how entrepreneurial action can lead to environmental sustainability. It builds on the assumption that the creation of sustainble practices is one of the most important challenges facing the global society, and that entrepreneurial action is a vital......: resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurial action.  Approach - The paper uses a case study approach to build deeper theoretical knowledge of environmentally sustainable entrepreneurship.  Results - The paper identifies and analyses a distinct form of sustainable entrepreneurship -  resource oriented...... entrepreneurship - which uses bricolage in various ways to create sustainable solutions. Implications and value - The concept of resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurship contributes to the theoretical understanding of how entrepreneurial action can support sustainability, Furthermore the case study has...

  7. Cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Sandra A

    2013-01-01

    Now as never before, familiar challenges require bold, novel approaches. Registered dietitians will benefit by cultivating an entrepreneurial mindset that involves being comfortable with uncertainty, learning to take calculated risks, and daring to just try it. An entrepreneur is someone who takes risks to create something new, usually in business. But the entrepreneurial mindset is available to anyone prepared to rely only on their own abilities for their economic security and expect no opportunity without first creating value for others.

  8. Entrepreneurial Leadership Competencies among Malaysian University Student Entrepreneurial Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Afsaneh; Lope Pihie, Zaidatol Akmaliah; Krauss, Steven Eric

    2013-01-01

    Developments in entrepreneurial leadership as a distinct area of both research and practice raised many questions about the personal competencies of entrepreneurial leaders that enable them to successfully lead entrepreneurial endeavours. Although identifying entrepreneurs' specific capabilities has been one of the main focuses of entrepreneurship…

  9. The strategic entrepreneurial thinking imperative

    OpenAIRE

    S. Dhliwayo; J. J. Van Vuuren

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that strategic entrepreneurial thinking is a unitary concept which should be viewed as a standalone construct. Design/Methodology/Approach: The concept strategic entrepreneurial thinking is modelled from an analysis of strategic thinking and entrepreneurial thinking from available literature. The strategic entrepreneurial mindset imperative is then emphasised and confirmed. Findings: This paper's finding is that there is no diff...

  10. Research handbook on entrepreneurial opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    With a wide-ranging set of contributions, this book provides a compilation of cutting-edge original research in the field of entrepreneurial opportunities. The book reopens the subject from diverse perspectives focusing on theories and approaches to entrepreneurial opportunities. The book has been...... interested in the field of entrepreneurial opportunities....

  11. Entrepreneurial Intention as Developmental Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva

    2010-01-01

    What predicts adults' entrepreneurial intentions? Utilizing a cross-sectional sample of 496 German scientists, we investigated a path model for the effects of entrepreneurial personality (Big Five profile), control beliefs, and recalled early entrepreneurial competence in adolescence (early inventions, leadership, commercial activities) on two…

  12. Application of Structural Equation Modelling to Assess the Impact of Entrepreneurial Characteristics on Students' Entrepreneurial Intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimi, S.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Lans, T.; Arasti, Z.; Chizari, M.; Mulder, M.

    2011-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is considered to be an important driver for economic growth. Entrepreneurial intention is, based on the literature, suggested to be a predictor of future entrepreneurial behaviour. Entrepreneurial intention is influenced by several factors including entrepreneurial characteristics.

  13. Towards an entrepreneurial mindset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thestrup, Klaus; Robinson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose; This chapter demonstrates how Humanities students in a blended learning course become active learners, use an entrepreneurial approach and reflect on the achievement of an entrepreneurial mind-set. The ICT-based Educational Design students were challenged to create value for themselves....... Effectuation, as a process, was combined with a design structure to help guide the students. Data draw from observations, written material in the form of blogs and assignments, as well as recorded conversations on google hangout with groups of students. Findings; The use of reflection, collaboration...... for establishing an entrepreneurial mindset in students and as such has to the potential as a method to confront future societal challenges. Originality/value; This chapter makes an important contribution to entrepreneurship education in general by demonstrating how the combination of particular online...

  14. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  15. Developing an Entrepreneurial Enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRand, John

    This document explains how to take an entrepreneurial approach to the delivery of a social service. Chapter 1 defines relevant terms, including entrepreneur, profit, social service, and management and also discusses the nature of "value" and the changing public perceptions on the use of public funds. Chapter 2 offers guidance on how to select…

  16. Managing Entrepreneurial Orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Doorn (Sebastiaan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, we evaluate the roles senior management teams and individual middle managers play in realizing the performance benefits of entrepreneurial orientations. We investigate the role of senior management teams by focusing on a sample of 9.000 firms in the Netherlands. The

  17. A unifying conceptual model of entrepreneurial management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senderovitz, Martin

    This article offers a systematic analysis and synthesis of the area of entrepreneurial management. Through a presentation of two main perspectives on entrepreneurial management and a newly developed unifying conceptual entrepreneurial management model, the paper discusses a number of theoretical...

  18. Moderating role of entrepreneurial orientation on the relationship between entrepreneurial skills, environmental factors and entrepreneurial intention: A PLS approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najafi Auwalu Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades, entrepreneurship has become a major concern to both scholars and policymakers because of its significant role in economic and social transformation. This paper modeled the direct effects of entrepreneurial skill, environmental factors and entrepreneurial orientation on entrepreneurial intention as well as the indirect (moderating effect of entrepreneurial orientation on the relationship of entrepreneurial skill and environmental factors with entrepreneurial intention. Quantitative research design was employed using students’ sample. It was found that entrepreneurial skill, environmental factors and entrepreneurial orientation have positive influence on entrepreneurial intention. It was also discovered that entrepreneurial orientation moderates the relationship between entrepreneurial skill and entrepreneurial intention. However, the moderation effect of entrepreneurial orientation on the relationship between environmental factors and entrepreneurial intention was not established in this study, thus, called for exploring this moderating effect in other contexts. As implication to policy, government should ensure not only enriching students with entrepreneurial skill and conducive entrepreneurial environment but also well-built entrepreneurial orientation among Nigeria teeming youths as it has a direct effect as well as strong interaction with other factors in explaining entrepreneurial intention.

  19. Narratives boost entrepreneurial attitudes: Making an entrepreneurial career attractive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellnhofer, Katharina

    2018-06-01

    This article analyses the impact of narratives on entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions. To this end, a quasi-experiment was conducted to evaluate web-based entrepreneurial narratives. The paired-sample tests and regression analysis use a sample of 466 people from Austria, Finland, and Greece and indicate that individuals' perceptions of the desirability of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial intention are significantly different before and after exposure to entrepreneurial narratives. Furthermore, the findings indicate that perceptions of the feasibility of entrepreneurship are more strongly affected by videos than by cases. From a policy perspective, this study raises awareness that entrepreneurship is an attractive career path.

  20. ENTREPRENEURIAL LEADERSHIP: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf ESMER

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, having just leadership or entrepreneurship qualities by business managers is not enough for success of enterprises. Managers need to have both leadership and entrepreneurship qualities in order to be successful. At this point, the concept of entrepreneurial leadership emerges. Entrepreneurial leadership is a new and modern type of leadership that is a combination of leadership qualities and spirit of entrepreneurship. In addition, entrepreneurial leadership is creating new products, new processes and expansion opportunities in existing businesses, working in social institutions and dealing with ignored social issues, participating in social and political movements, contributing to the change of current services and policies implemented by civil society organizations and governments. In recent times, entrepreneurial leadership has become a new phenomenon in business management that needs to be discussed. In this regard, in this study, the importance of entrepreneurial leadership is emphasized by examining the concept of entrepreneurial leadership within a theoretical framework.

  1. Determinants of Social Entrepreneurial Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockerts, Kai

    This paper tests the model proposed by Mair and Noboa (2006) who identify four antecedents which they suggest predict social entrepreneurial intentions and behavior. This study tests the Mair and Noboa model and extends it by including prior experience with social problems as an additional variable...... entrepreneurial behavior of master students such as evidenced in the number of electives selected which have a social entrepreneurial profile....

  2. Antecedents of Social Entrepreneurial Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockerts, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a contribution towards Mair and Noboa ‘s (2006) model of the antecedents of social entrepreneurial intentions. The Mair/Noboa model builds on Krueger’s (1993) proposal of a theory of planned behavior for entrepreneurial intention formation by suggesting that social entrepreneurial...... intentions are driven by an individual’s perceived desirability and perceived feasibility of starting a social venture. This article proposes and validates measures of the antecedents of social entrepreneurial behavior with a sample of nascent social entrepreneurs. The measures developed adapt constructs...

  3. The Entrepreneurial Personalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Annemarie

    The objective of the research is to investigate what constitutes the entrepreneurial personality in terms of innate and learned personality characteristics and how these relate to environmental impact and leadership. The thesis argues that an entrepreneurial personality is a combination of traits......-driven conceptualization, data were collected from 55 active entrepreneurs’ primarily located in Nupark, Holstebro, in Denmark. The selected population of entrepreneurs completed a 2-hour standardised and validated personality test measuring 36 personality traits, a leadership preference test with 27 leadership roles...... is described according to the empirical findings. Furthermore, the research finds that the set of personality traits necessary for an entrepreneur consists of Autonomy, Exploration Drive, Preparedness for Change, and Self-preservation Instinct. In conclusion, to answer the research question regarding...

  4. Editorial: International Entrepreneurial Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Wach

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, both the theory of internationalisation of the firm and/or the theory of international business have developed. Recent developments in international business studies prove that entrepreneurial orientation (EO) emerges as one of the important potential factors contributing to the intensification of the processes of internationalisation of the firm (Etemad, 2015; Gupta & Gupta, 2015). It seems that international entrepreneurship (IE) has been flourishing. The general theory o...

  5. Fractionalization and Entrepreneurial Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Awaworyi Churchill, Sefa

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of the literature on ethnicity and entrepreneurship focuses on the construct of ethnic entrepreneurship. However, very little is known about how ethnic heterogeneity affects entrepreneurship. This study attempts to fill the gap, and thus examines the effect of ethnic heterogeneity on entrepreneurial activities in a cross-section of 90 countries. Using indices of ethnic and linguistic fractionalization, we show that ethnic heterogeneity negatively influences entrepreneurship....

  6. Governing the Entrepreneurial Mindset: Business Students' Constructions of Entrepreneurial Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laalo, Hanna; Heinonen, Jarna

    2016-01-01

    Promoting entrepreneurship education to develop the entrepreneurial competences and mindsets of citizens has become an important mission on the supranational educational policy agenda. This endeavour constructs the ideal of a self-guided entrepreneurial subject who is active, adaptable and capable of tolerating uncertainty. Using the theorizations…

  7. Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy and Entrepreneurial Actions among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reducing unemployment challenges is possible with graduates becoming entrepreneurs. However, the challenge persists as a result of difficulties in transmitting entrepreneurial efficaciousness from training programmes to successful entrepreneurial actions. A dearth of studies exists with regard to how certain key ...

  8. Interorganisational Management in Entrepreneurial Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Piihl, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    In this article relationship management is defined and discussed in the context of an entrepreneurial society. Important aspects of trends in entrepreneurial economies to aspects of managerial economies. Based on a review of established management theories, it is concluded that there is a need...

  9. The Emergence of Entrepreneurial Milieus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Matiaske, Wenzel; Royer, Susanne

    This work in progress article focusses the development of a framework explaining the emergence of entrepreneurial milieu from a social capital perspective within a multiple domain setting. Beside embedded scarcities and relationships, specific supporting key actors and embedding processes...... the entrepreneurial milieu....

  10. Early Signs of Entrepreneurial Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavinina, Larisa V.

    2008-01-01

    Although successful entrepreneurship is important for the economic prosperity of any society, one should acknowledge that entrepreneurial giftedness is terra incognita from a research viewpoint. This article analyzes early manifestations of entrepreneurial giftedness in the cases of Richard Branson, Michael Dell, and Bill Gates and thus opens a…

  11. Determinants of Social Entrepreneurial Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockerts, Kai

    2017-01-01

    This article tests the model proposed by Mair and Noboa (2006) who identify four antecedents which they suggest predict social entrepreneurial intentions. The study extends the model by including prior experience with social problems as an additional variable. Findings show that prior experience ...... social entrepreneurship electives students enroll in is predicted by social entrepreneurial intentions.......This article tests the model proposed by Mair and Noboa (2006) who identify four antecedents which they suggest predict social entrepreneurial intentions. The study extends the model by including prior experience with social problems as an additional variable. Findings show that prior experience...... predicts social entrepreneurial intentions. This effect is mediated by the antecedents suggested by Mair and Noboa. Social entrepreneurial self-efficacy has both the largest impact on intentions as well as being itself most responsive to prior experience. Lastly, the study shows that the amount of optional...

  12. The Relationship between entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial competencies, entrepreneurial leadership, and firm performance: A proposed model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chijioke Nwachukwu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a conceptual model and propositions for researchers to explore the direct and indirect relationship between entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial competencies, entrepreneurial leadership and firm performance. Authors searched various databases including ProQuest, EBSCOhost databases, Scopus for peer reviewed Journals, books, and other relevant publications on the subject. A conceptual review provides direction for researchers to empirically examine the direct relationships between entrepreneurial orientation (EO, entrepreneurial competencies (EC, and firm performance and the mediating effect of entrepreneurial leadership (EL in the relationship between EO, EC, and firm performance. We suggest the use of entrepreneurial orientation scale (EOS, The entrecomp framework (2016, Renko et al., 2015 entrepreneurial leadership styles scale (ENTRELEAD, and Santos & Brito (2012 subjective measurement model for firm performance for measurement of the constructs of EO, EC, EL and performance. For researchers and academics, the model provides a basis for further research by testing empirically the validity of the model. Testing of this model could provide a better understanding of the EO, EC constructs that better predicts strategic and financial performance.

  13. Developing students’ entrepreneurial spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grădinaru, E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a research study about the necessity to develop the entrepreneurial spirit in universities and how students could be involved in such initiatives. A qualitative research based on three focus groups was conducted, having as main objective to identify students’ opinions regarding the initiative to develop an on-line magazine for students and young people. The results reveal that students prefer the online media to the traditional ones and the pilot numbers of the magazine received good appreciations. A business plan for the future development of the magazine is also presented.

  14. Bounded Entrepreneurial Vitality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langevang, Thilde; Gough, Katherine V.; Yankson, Paul W.K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent increased interest in female entrepreneurs, attention has tended to focus on dynamic individuals and generic incentives without considering the roles of gender and place in entrepreneurship. In this article, we draw on the notion of mixed embeddedness to explore how time......, are concomitantly propelling and impeding women's entrepreneurial activities. We propose that the study of female entrepreneurs within economic geography could be advanced by analyzing the differing effects of the complex, multiple, and shifting layers of institutional contexts in which they are embedded....

  15. Editorial: International Entrepreneurial Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, both the theory of internationalisation of the firm and/or the theory of international business have developed. Recent developments in international business studies prove that entrepreneurial orientation (EO emerges as one of the important potential factors contributing to the intensification of the processes of internationalisation of the firm (Etemad, 2015; Gupta & Gupta, 2015. It seems that international entrepreneurship (IE has been flourishing. The general theory of entrepreneurship indicates that market opportunities are a common and dominant link for all entrepreneurial activities. The entrepreneurship theory refers to the identification or creation opportunities, their evaluation and exploitation. The expansion into new geographic markets is undoubtedly an important market opportunity for growth and development. The internationalisation as a response to the market opportunity takes diverse paths. Based on the in-depth literature search, this issue of our journal aims to determine whether, why and how, in the context of diverse environmental conditions, the pursuit of market opportunities contributes to the increase of internationalisation of the firm (Dimitratos & Plakoyiannaki, 2003; Dimitratos, Voudouris, Plakoyiannaki & Nakos,. 2012; Wach. 2015.

  16. TECHNOLOGY ENTREPRENEURIAL ECOSYSTEMSTRUCTURE AND ENTREPRENEURIAL STRATEGIES CONTINGENCY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Roja

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important factors of social and economic progress now is the information technology. To develop their new ventures, entrepreneurs need a business environment, we name it entrepreneurial ecosystem, to generate, validate and implement viable business ideas, and resources and services to grow the business. The new venture competitiveness in the field of information technology depends on the entrepreneurial ecosystem structure and their components. The relationships arising betwee...

  17. Entrepreneurial Psychological Capital: A Different Way of Understanding Entrepreneurial Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Pease, Peter; Cunningham, James

    2016-01-01

    The development of a model of entrepreneurial psychological capital will provide both an advance in the theoretical understanding of entrepreneurship, and has practical implications for policy makers and those who design entrepreneurship education. Derived from the positive psychological capital model, first developed by Luthans et al. (2007), in the organisational context, this new model of entrepreneurial psychological capital will also draw on the existing entrepreneurship psychology liter...

  18. The Entrepreneurial Community College: Bringing Workforce, Economic and Community Development to Virginia Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes creating an entrepreneurial college within the community college that will offer non-credit courses to the community and workforce. States that the courses would focus on the training needs of community industry, with the employer as the customer, rather than the student. Adds that the proposed college would also focus on community…

  19. Radical Change by Entrepreneurial Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Nancy C

    1998-01-01

    .... How radical change in public policy has occurred in the past is then documented. We find examples of radical change by chance, radical change by consensus, radical change by learning, and radical change by entrepreneurial design...

  20. Entrepreneurial Diversity and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Verheul (Ingrid); A.J. van Stel (André)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMost studies investigating the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic growth treat entrepreneurs as a homogeneous group. This study investigates the impact of entrepreneurial diversity on national economic growth. Using data for 36 countries participating in the Global

  1. Radical Change by Entrepreneurial Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Nancy C

    1998-01-01

    .... Radical change by entrepreneurial design then becomes the focal point, in order to acquaint the reader with the strategies and tactics of well-known entrepreneurs who have been successful in molding...

  2. Job Quality by Entrepreneurial Spinoffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    We study whether entrepreneurial spinoffs are important drivers of industry dynamics. More precisely, we investigate whether the quality of jobs in spinoff entrepreneurs are higher than for other entrepreneurs. We distinguish spinoff firms by different types and distinguish between growing...

  3. Cognitive effects on entrepreneurial intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kent Wickstrøm; Rezaei, Shahamak; Wherry, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive characteristics of individuals have previously been established as important predictors of entrepreneurial intentions. Yet, we know little about this relationship in a transnational and ethnic entrepreneurship context. In this paper, we examine if and how émigrés differs from those...... individuals staying at home with regard to entrepreneurial intentions and with regard to their cognitive make-up. Also, we examine differences in the impact of cognitions of émigrés and homeland individuals respectively on their entrepreneurial intentions. We use data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor...... also find that both first and second generation émigrés are less likely to have entrepreneurially oriented cognitions....

  4. CREDIT SYSTEM AND CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Turgay GECER

    2012-01-01

    Credit system is an integrated architecture consisted of financial information, credit rating, credit risk management, receivables and credit insurance systems, credit derivative markets and credit guarantee programs. The main purpose of the credit system is to provide the functioning of all credit channels and to make it easy to access of credit sources demanded by all of real and legal persons in any economic system. Credit guarantee program, the one of prominent elements of the credit syst...

  5. Toward a Theory of Entrepreneurial Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teague, Bruce T.; Gartner, Bill

    2017-01-01

    The chapter reviews several of the most prominent entrepreneurship frameworks to demonstrate that the entrepreneurship field lacks a theory of entrepreneurial behavior. However, each of these existing frameworks would benefit from, and be complemented by, an entrepreneurial behavioral theory. Dra...

  6. Curricular improvements for entrepreneurial education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilache Simona

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims at investigating the most adequate methods for developing effective educational tools in entrepreneurial education. Entrepreneurship education should take place during the entire life of an entrepreneur, but the basic knowledge and skills related to this field are acquired starting from the elementary school, and improved during all the educational levels. Through entrepreneurship education, policymakers aim to prepare young people for succeeding on the entrepreneurial path. However, there are few scientific papers that aimed at discussing the available educational tools in Romania which play a role in forming entrepreneurs. Starting from the identified educational needs of young Romanian people under 35, including entrepreneurs and students, which were surveyed based on a questionnaire, we advance several key improvement areas for Romanian business curricula, and suggest critical paths to obtain desired results. The recommendations that we deliver through this paper are based on respondents’ opinions regarding their preference for certain aspects related to educational tools used in entrepreneurial education: learning materials used in universities in order to create an entrepreneurial mindset, the use of learning materials outside of the university curricula, and entrepreneurial skills that should be developed during school. A comparative perspective, examining curricular specificities in most entrepreneurial cultures of Europe, based on information obtained from Entrepreneurship Eurobarometer and Doing Business Indicators, is also included in our study. The main limitations, which arise from the subjective perspective of young entrepreneurs, as well as from the reduced sample volume, are thus corrected. The conclusions of our analysis provide a valuable starting point for educational policies promoting entrepreneurial skills enhancement in the Romanian business students’ population.

  7. The Relationship between Optimism, Pre-Entrepreneurial Curiosity and Entrepreneurial Curiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeraj Mitja

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs become more and more interesting fields for a scientific research. This paper addresses the relationship between optimism, pre-entrepreneurial curiosity and entrepreneurial curiosity as three determinants of entrepreneurial psychology. Literature review showed optimism is important for entrepreneurs and influence them mostly in a positive way. Although entrepreneurial curiosity is important determinant for entrepreneurs and it was connected with entrepreneurial self-efficacy, openness, and company's growth the connection with optimism remained unexplored until this research.

  8. Exploring Situated Ambiguity in Students' Entrepreneurial Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubberød, Elin; Pettersen, Inger Beate

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Building on entrepreneurial learning research, the purpose of this paper is to argue that the students participating in foreign entrepreneurial education programmes can have realistic entrepreneurial learning experiences. This research addresses two specific questions: how situated ambiguity induced by a foreign culture may contribute to…

  9. Wetland Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefit...

  10. National Wetlands Inventory Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear wetland features (including selected streams, ditches, and narrow wetland bodies) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National...

  11. Entrepreneurial leadership practices and school innovativeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidatol Akmaliah Lope Pihie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial leadership, as a distinctive type of leadership required for dealing with challenges and crises of current organizational settings, has increasingly been applied to improve school performance. However, there is limited research on the impact ofschool leaders' entrepreneurial leadership practices on school innovativeness. The main purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between principals' entrepreneurial leadership practices and school innovativeness through the teachers' perspectives. The participants included 294 Malaysian secondary school teachers in Selangor, Malaysia. A questionnaire containing 64 items (50 items on school principals' entrepreneurial leadership practices and 14 items on school innovativeness was utilized. An analysis of the data indicates that teachers perceive entrepreneurial leadership as highly important for school principals. However, the principals practise it moderately. Furthermore, this study found a significant correlation between teachers' perceptions of school principals' entrepreneurial leadership practices and school in-novativeness. Implications of the findings for developing school principals' entrepreneurial leadership and school innovativeness are discussed.

  12. Entrepreneurial by Design: Theorizing the Entrepreneurial Transformation of Contemporary Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelles, Jen; Vorley, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Recent national and regional innovation policies have both catalysed and compounded the entrepreneurial tendency in higher education, redefining the traditional roles of universities. While academic debate has for some time addressed the importance of universities to regional economic development, more recent literature has focused explicitly on…

  13. Entrepreneurial Saving Practices and Reinvestment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, Thorsten; Pamuk, Haki; Uras, Burak R.

    2017-01-01

    We use a novel enterprise survey to gauge the relationship between saving instruments and entrepreneurial reinvestment. We show that while most informal saving practices are not associated with a lower likelihood of reinvestment when compared with formal saving practices, there is a significantly

  14. Impression Management and Entrepreneurial Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halbinger, Maria; Reichstein, Toke

    2016-01-01

    into entrepreneurship. Analyzing individual-level data collected through online survey, field studies and experiments in hacker-and makerspaces, we find that impression management behavior that focuses others, i.e. accommodative impression management is positively associated with entrepreneurial experience while self...

  15. Modern Organization of Entrepreneurial Business

    OpenAIRE

    Liudmila Rosca-Sadurschi

    2013-01-01

    This article gives the notion of "entrepreneurial business" and is compared to "business inovations". It analyzes the advantages of these two notions. Modern methods are presented and analyzed to develop an innovative business through reengineering, incubators, business centers, clusters and others. It is also considered the experience of the Danube in practicing these organizational arrangements to develop business.

  16. Entrepreneurial Crowdfunding without Private Claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreau, Kevin J.; Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Reichstein, Toke

    Today's crowdfunding raises funds for tiny, private entrepreneurial ventures without granting funders private claims to a project's future value. Rather than “investments,” these are “contributions.” This paper argues that for such crowdfunding neither producer nor consumer surplus – i.e., project...

  17. Entrepreneurial marketing : an effectual approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    How do you sell a totally new kind of product to a market that does not yet exist? Entrepreneurial businesses often create products and services based on radically new technology that has the power to change the marketplace. This means that existing market research will have produced data about

  18. Entrepreneurial marketing : an effectual approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, E.J.

    2017-01-01

    How do you sell an innovative product to a market that does not yet exist? Entrepreneurial businesses often create products and services based on radically new technology that have the power to change the marketplace. Existing market research data will be largely irrelevant in these cases, making

  19. Entrepreneurial intention of Danish students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fietze, Simon; Boyd, Britta

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the entrepreneurial intention (EI) among Danish university students applying the theory of planned behaviour. Design/methodology/approach – Using cross-sectional data from the Danish Global University Student Spirit Survey 2013 (n=1...

  20. Entrepreneurial Creativity through Motivational Synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Teresa M.

    1997-01-01

    Defines and describes entrepreneurial creativity, which is the generation and implementation of novel, appropriate ideas to establish a new venture. Discusses the need for motivational synergy, which results when strong levels of personal interest and involvement are combined with the promise of rewards that confirm competence. (Author/CR)

  1. Wetlands and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Smardon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This editorial provides an overview of the special issue “Wetlands and Sustainability”. In particular, the special issue contains a review of Paul Keddy’s book “Wetland Ecology” with specific reference to wetland sustainability. It also includes papers addressing wetland data acquisition via radar and remote sensing to better understand wetland system dynamics, hydrologic processes linked to wetland stress and restoration, coastal wetlands land use conflict/management, and wetland utilization for water quality treatment.

  2. A Unifying Conceptual Model of Entrepreneurial Management - A Discussion and Elaboration of Stevenson's Understanding of Entrepreneurial Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senderovitz, Martin

    This article offers a systematic analysis and synthesis of the area of entrepreneurial management. Through a presentation of two main perspectives on entrepreneurial management and a newly developed unifying conceptual entrepreneurial management model, the paper discusses a number of theoretical...

  3. Entrepreneurial identity as emerging in innovative relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    rational or formative perspectives, which assume that entrepreneurial identity can be de ned and captured, in frameworks or generic models. These perspectives are most often based on the analysis of entrepreneurs, from questionnaires or interviews or from analyzing autobiographical accounts...... of their entrepreneurial experiences. Either represented as quanti able items which constitute identity. Or as archetypes, used to distinguish entrepreneurs based on narrative accounts of entrepreneurial processes. Neither of these perspectives accomplish to describe the notion of entrepreneurial identity...... as transformative, as ongoing interaction of the individual and the social. From a complex responsive process perspective, this PhD dissertation presents a transformative understanding of the notion of entrepreneurial process, opportunity and entrepreneurial identity. Through ve research papers, the author presents...

  4. Developing and governing entrepreneurial ecosystems:The structure of entrepreneurial support programs in Edinburgh, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Spigel, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurial ecosystems have emerged a popular concept within entrepreneurship policy and practitioner communities. Entrepreneurial ecosystems are seen as a regional economic development strategy based around creating supportive environments that foster innovative startups. However, existing research on entrepreneurial ecosystems has been largely atheoretical and has not yet explored how they influence the entrepreneurship process. This paper critically examines the relationships between e...

  5. The Role of Prior Entrepreneurial Exposure in the Entrepreneurial Process: A Review and Future Research Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zapkau, F.B.; Schwens, Christian; Kabst, Rüdiger

    2017-01-01

    Despite considerable research, the current state regarding how and in which context prior entrepreneurial exposure impacts the entrepreneurial process is unclear. The present paper's goal is to systemize and discuss extant quantitative-empirical research on the role of prior entrepreneurial exposure

  6. Entrepreneurial Leaders and the Dissemination of Entrepreneurial Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Barreto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze whether entrepreneurs’ leadership behaviors in small and micro enterprises that provide services contribute to the dissemination of the many dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation. This is basic qualitative research of an exploratory and interpretative nature, carried out by means of interviews – with a semi-structured script – applied to five entrepreneurs who are MSE leaders. Research data was analyzed through content analysis proposed by Bardin (2008, and narratives, according to Gibbs (2009. The results reveal that entrepreneurs use the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation with varying intensity and in an informal way, because they are not familiar with the practices of these dimensions.

  7. Fringe wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Fringe wetlands are characterized by the dominance of few species, a clear species zonation, synchrony of ecological processes with episodic events, and simplicity in the structure of vegetation. The structure and ecosystem dynamics of fringe forested wetlands are presented with emphasis on saltwater wetlands because they have been studied more than freshwater ones. The study areas were Caribbean and Florida mangroves. Fringe wetlands are found on the water edge of oceans, inland estuaries, and lakes. Water motion in the fringe is bi-directional and perpendicular to the forest and due mostly to tidal energy in oceanic and estuarine fringes. in lakes, water moves in and out of the fringe under the influence of wind, waves, or seiches. some fringe forests are occasionally flushed by terrestrial runoff or aquifer discharge. In contrast, fringe forests located on small offshore islands or steep coastal shroes are isolated from terrestrial runoff or aquifer discharge, and their hydroperiod is controlled by tides and waves only. Literature reviews suggest that ecosystem parameters such as vegetation structure, tree growth, primary productivity, and organic matter in sediments respond proportionally to hydrologic energy. Human activity that impacts on fringe forested wetlands include harvesting of trees, oil pollution and eutrophication. 72 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs

  8. Swedish Listed Family Firms and Entrepreneurial Spirit

    OpenAIRE

    Bjuggren, Per-Olof; Palmberg, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the entrepreneurial spirit in Swedish listed family firms. We associate family firms with entrepreneurship in the sense that there is an identifiable person that takes the uninsurable risk in the sense of Knight. This paper analysis two questions: Do entrepreneurial family firms have a higher rate of growth and do they invest in a more profit maximizing fashion than other listed firms? The analysis shows that entrepreneurial family firms in general are smaller in terms...

  9. Can role models boost entrepreneurial attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellnhofer, Katharina; Puumalainen, Kaisu

    2017-01-01

    This multi-country study used role models to boost perceptions of entrepreneurial feasibility and desirability. The results of a structural equation model based on a sample comprising 426 individuals who were primarily from Austria, Finland and Greece revealed a significant positive influence on perceived entrepreneurial desirability and feasibility. These findings support the argument for embedding entrepreneurial role models in entrepreneurship education courses to promote entrepreneurial activities. This direction is not only relevant for the academic community but also essential for nascent entrepreneurs, policymakers and society at large.

  10. Economic Freedom and Entrepreneurial Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    While much attention has been devoted to analyzing how the institutional framework and entrepreneurship impact growth, how economic policy and institutional design affect entrepreneurship appears to be much less analyzed. We try to explain cross-country differences in the level of entrepreneurship...... by differences in economic policy and institutional design. Specifically, we use the measures of economic freedom to ask which elements of economic policy making and the institutional framework that are responsible for the supply of entrepreneurship (our data on entrepreneurship are derived from the Global...... Entrepreneurship Monitor). The combination of these two datasets is unique in the literature. We find that the size of government is negatively correlated with entrepreneurial activity but that sound money is positively correlated with entrepreneurial activity. Other measures of economic freedom...

  11. Serious gaming for systemic entrepreneurialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mardjan, N.P. (Nitie)

    2016-01-01

     http://dx.doi.org/10.14261/postit/2B827A9F-E9C0-4A75-B45C19B59DD1E5AA  In 2015 and 2016, Saxion University of Applied Sciences organized the 2nd and 3rd edition of the Regional Innovation and Entrepreneurship Conference (RIEC).   The term entrepreneurialism doesn’t exist. In

  12. Process Ambidexterity for Entrepreneurial Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia D. Bot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Technology-based entrepreneurial firms must effectively support both mainstream exploitation and new-stream exploration in order to remain competitive for the long term. The processes that support exploitation and exploration initiatives are different in terms of logistics, payoff horizons, and capabilities. Few firms are able to strike a balance between the two, where mainstream exploitation usually trumps new-stream exploration. The ultimate goal is for the firm to operate effectively in a repeatable, scalable, and systematic manner, rather than relying on good luck and hoping either to come up with the next innovation or for the product to function according to its requirements. This article builds on the author’s years of experience in building businesses and transforming medium and large-sized, entrepreneurial technology firms, leading large-scale breakthrough and sustained performance improvements by using and evolving Lean Six Sigma methodologies, and reviews of technology innovation management and entrepreneurship literature. This article provides a process-based perspective to understanding and addressing the issues on balancing mainstream exploitation and new-stream exploration in medium and large-sized entrepreneurial firms and extending it to startups. The resulting capability is known as process ambidexterity and requires disciplined, agile, and lean business management.

  13. Entrepreneurial education’s and entrepreneurial role models’ influence on career choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnditsheni J. Muofhe

    2011-11-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the study is to firstly explore the differences in entrepreneurial intentions between entrepreneurship students and non-entrepreneurship students, and secondly to investigate the relationship between entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial intentions as well as between role models and entrepreneurial intentions. Motivation for the study: There is a need for stakeholders, such as training authorities and training providers, to understand the influence of entrepreneurship education and role models on entrepreneurial career choice. Knowing this could assist in developing and implementing more effective entrepreneurial education programmes. Research design, approach and method: The study was conducted amongst a convenience sample of 269 final-year students, of which 162 (60.2% were entrepreneurship and 107 (39.8% non-entrepreneurship students from a higher education institution in Johannesburg. The entrepreneurial intentions of entrepreneurship students were compared with those of non-entrepreneurship students. The findings of the study suggest that entrepreneurship students have stronger entrepreneurial intentions than non-entrepreneurship students, and that there is a positive relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intentions and between role models and entrepreneurial intentions respectively. Practical/managerial implications: Entrepreneurship stakeholders can use the findings of the study to improve curriculum design, delivery methods and assessment strategies in their efforts to advance entrepreneurship. Contribution/value-add: The findings of the study suggest that entrepreneurship education and role models can influence students’ entrepreneurial intentions in a developing country.

  14. Entrepreneurial Team: How Human and Social Capital Influence Entrepreneurial Opportunity Identification and Mobilization of External Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlem Omri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial teams play an extremely important role in the development of any country, especially in developing countries. To understand entrepreneurial teams that operate in a low-technology industry, we rely on the network and human perspective on entrepreneurship. In this paper, we investigate how the social and human capital of entrepreneurial team members influences their ability to identify entrepreneurial opportunities and mobilize external resources. We extend prior research in two ways. First, by using the ordered probit method to measure the identified entrepreneurial opportunities number at the level of entrepreneurial teams. Second, to our knowledge, there is a very small number of studies that have theoretically and empirically investigated the mobilization of external resources, especially at the level of entrepreneurial teams.

  15. Entrepreneurial Leadership Practices and School Innovativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmaliah, Zaidatol; Pihie, Lope; Asimiran, Soaib; Bagheri, Afsaneh

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurial leadership, as a distinctive type of leadership required for dealing with challenges and crises of current organizational settings, has increasingly been applied to improve school performance. However, there is limited research on the impact of school leaders' entrepreneurial leadership practices on school innovativeness. The main…

  16. Entrepreneurial culture in innovative biotech clusters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Frolova, P.; Groen, Arend J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the determinants of entrepreneurial culture in innovative biotech clusters. A literature review led to the identification of nine determinants. For the empirical study four clusters in Western Europe with a high entrepreneurial culture were selected. Cluster

  17. The Entrepreneurial University: Vision and Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzkowitz, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Forged in different academic and national traditions, the university is arriving at a common entrepreneurial format that incorporates and transcends its traditional missions. The academic entrepreneurial transition arises from the confluence of the internal development of higher education institutions and external influences on academic structures…

  18. Fostering Entrepreneurial Learning On-the-Job

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggen, Yvette; Lans, Thomas; Biemans, Harm J.A.; Kampen, Jarl; Mulder, Martin

    2016-01-01

    As economies become more innovation-driven, the need for entrepreneurial behaviour amongst employees working for existing companies increases in order to enhance the organisations' capacity to develop new ideas, products and services. Hence, entrepreneurial learning and the development of

  19. Entrepreneurial awareness and skills in mechanical technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed entrepreneurial awareness and skills in Mechanical Technology among Technical Education Students in Tai Solarin University of Education. Research questions focusing on the students' level of entrepreneurial awareness and the facilities available for inculcating skills in Mechanical Technology ...

  20. Learning to become entrepreneur(ial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe

    an entrepreneur, but also (and increasingly so) a question of becoming entrepreneurial. This study aims to better understand the conditions set upon students and their participation in enterprise education and thus how higher education settings become contexts for entrepreneurial learning. In three essays, I...

  1. The becoming of an entrepreneurial opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herholdt-Lomholdt, Sine Maria

    2015-01-01

    As innovation and entrepreneurship is about bringing something “new” into the world, a key point must be focusing on the entrepreneurial opportunity and how we get access to entrepreneurial opportunities. Contemporary research within entrepreneurship and innovation are mainly based in different f...

  2. Enterprise Potential, Entrepreneurial Intentions and Envy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edit Terek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research about the impact of envy on enterprise potential and entrepreneurial intentions. The research was conducted in Serbia and the respondents were students from 5 faculties, from the first to the fifth year of study. The results were gained by statistical analysis of the gathered information (380 completed questionnaires. Descriptive, correlation and regression analysis are the methods of statistical analysis that were used. From the dimensions of enterprise potential, the highest average value has the dimension Creativity, while from the dimensions of entrepreneurial intentions, the highest average value has the dimension Subjective norm. Of all the observed dimensions, the lowest value has the Envy dimension. Between envy and dimensions of enterprise potential and dimensions of entrepreneurial intentions, there are a number of statistically significant negative correlations. This is more prevalent at the dimension of entrepreneurial intentions. Feelings of inferiority in relation to other people and the perception of having a boring or a bad life have an especially negative impact on entrepreneurial potential and intentions. Envy, which occurs due to the desire for more entertainment, travel, and due to the perception of the lack of fortune, also has a negative impact on entrepreneurial potential and intentions, but the influence is considerably weaker. There is a statistically significant predictive effect of certain items of envy on enterprise potential dimensions and entrepreneurial intentions dimensions. But this fact is not so strongly expressed. Some results suggest the possibility (however small that envy, in some circumstances, can mildly encourage entrepreneurial intention.

  3. Leading an Entrepreneurial Workforce: Development or Decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clargo, Paul; Tunstall, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper analyses entrepreneurial activity within existing organisations. Research tends to limit entrepreneurial behaviour to owner-managers, corporate senior and middle managers and frequently presents intrapreneurship as a positive phenomenon. This paper seeks to broaden the focus of studies of intrapreneurship and corporate…

  4. Agglomeration economies, competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance

    OpenAIRE

    Páger, Balázs; Komlósi, Éva

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to elaborate the role of agglomeration effects on countries' competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance. Our research contributes to the understanding of the relationship that exists between a country's urban system characterized by spatial agglomeration (concentration) or deglomeration (deconcentration) processes, and its competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance, respectively. Urbanization economies refer to considerable cost savings generated through the locating...

  5. Information exposure, opportunity evaluation and entrepreneurial action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autio, E.; Dahlander, L.; Frederiksen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We study how an individual's exposure to external information regulates the evaluation of entrepreneurial opportunities and entrepreneurial action. Combining data from interviews, a survey, and a comprehensive web log of an online user community spanning eight years, we find that technical inform...

  6. Entrepreneurial Idea Identification through Online Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of social network websites may signal a change in the way the next generation of entrepreneurs identify entrepreneurial ideas. An important part of the entrepreneurship literature emphasizes how vital the use of social networks is to entrepreneurial idea identification, opportunity recognition, and ultimately new venture…

  7. Entrepreneurship Education: Workshops and Entrepreneurial Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected from participants in an entrepreneurship education workshop series, the author examined the series' impact and tested a model of entrepreneurial intentions incorporating social and psychological factors. He found that entrepreneurial disposition and workshop participation significantly influenced intentions, exposure to role…

  8. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  9. Age, job identification, and entrepreneurial intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatak, Isabella; Harms, Rainer; Fink, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how age and job identification affect entrepreneurial intention. Design/methodology/approach – The researchers draw on a representative sample of the Austrian adult workforce and apply binary logistic regression on entrepreneurial intention. Findings

  10. Entrepreneurial Activity, Self-Perception and Gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Verheul (Ingrid); L.M. Uhlaner (Lorraine); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractDrawing on Bem's psychological theory of self-perception, this paper presents and tests a model that examines the impact of gender and entrepreneurial activity on entrepreneurial self-perception. Based on a sample of alumni of a large Midwestern U.S. university, regression techniques are

  11. Entrepreneurial leadership practices and school innovativeness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Entrepreneurial leadership, as a distinctive type of leadership required for dealing with challenges and crises of current organizational settings, has increasingly been applied to improve school performance. However, there is limited research on the impact of school leaders' entrepreneurial leadership practices on school ...

  12. Towards Entrepreneurial Learning Competencies: The Perspective of Built Environment Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Kissi; Matthew, Somiah K.; Samuel, Ansah K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper sought to discuss entrepreneurial learning competencies by determining the outcome of entrepreneurial learning on the views of built environment students in the university setting. In this study, three relevant competencies were identified for entrepreneurial learning through literature, namely: entrepreneurial attitude, entrepreneurial…

  13. The Effect of Entrepreneurship Education on Entrepreneurial Intention in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Patricia; Christian Silangen

    2016-01-01

    This research studied the relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intention of university students. Following original research by Zhang, Duysters, Cloodt (2014), Ajzen's theory of planned behavior and Shapero's entrepreneurial event model would be incorporated to identify the effect of exogenous variables such as entrepreneurship education, prior entrepreneurial exposure, perceived desirability and feasibility towards entrepreneurial intention in university studen...

  14. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  15. National Wetlands Inventory Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland area features mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National Wetlands Inventory is a national program sponsored by the US Fish and...

  16. Entrepreneurial action, sustainability and bricolage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.

    This paper explores the relation between entrepreneurship and sustainability. It is explored whether bricolage, a specific form of entrepreneurial action, is particularly conducive to the creation of sustainable solutions. This question is investigated through a case study of an entrepreneur who...... has a long history of sustainable entrepreneurship in which bricolage plays a central role. The study identifies six distinct forms of bricolage practised by the entrepreneur. Furthermore, it is found that, while there is no direct link between bricolage and sustainability, the two concepts have...... a potentially synergetic relationship between them so that bricolage skills may enhance a sustainable mindset, and vice versa....

  17. Job Quality by Entrepreneurial Spinoffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    We study whether entrepreneurial spinoffs are important drivers of industry dynamics. More precisely, we investigate whether the quality of jobs in spinoff entrepreneurs are higher than for other entrepreneurs. We distinguish spinoff firms by different types and distinguish between growing...... for worker heterogeneity and industry and region clusters characteristics. An important feature of the analysis is that we measure the entrepreneur as the organic new firm. By organic new firm, we mean new firms that are not the result of restructurings or organising existing or additional activities...

  18. MODELING CREDIT RISK THROUGH CREDIT SCORING

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Cantemir CALIN; Oana Cristina POPOVICI

    2014-01-01

    Credit risk governs all financial transactions and it is defined as the risk of suffering a loss due to certain shifts in the credit quality of a counterpart. Credit risk literature gravitates around two main modeling approaches: the structural approach and the reduced form approach. In addition to these perspectives, credit risk assessment has been conducted through a series of techniques such as credit scoring models, which form the traditional approach. This paper examines the evolution of...

  19. Kansas Playa Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the distribution, areal extent, and morphometry of playa wetlands throughout western Kansas. Playa wetlands were...

  20. Measuring Entrepreneurial Orientation in the Social Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Kusa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to identify differences between measurement of organisational entrepreneurship in for-profit and non-profit context and to propose the measures aligned to non-profit organisations. The main research question is whether the scales designed to measure entrepreneurial orientation can be used in non-profit organisations and under which conditions. Research Design & Methods: Research methodology is based on review of research tools and measurement scales related to organisational entrepreneurship and comparison of for-profit and non-profit organisations, as well as their characteristics in the context of entrepreneurial orientation. Findings: Entrepreneurial orientation can be measured in non-profit organisations using existing scales that have been designed for business organisations, however they have to be modified, mostly in the dimension of competitive aggressiveness and autonomy. Additionally, the scale should be enriched with items related to cooperation with other organisations. Implications & Recommendations: It is necessary to develop methods and tools that enable the measurement of entrepreneurial orientation in non-profit organisation as well as comparative research on entrepreneurial orientation in for-profit and non-profit organisations. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying some aspects of entrepreneurial orientation, that apply to the social context. Some suggestions were formulated relating to the utilisation of entrepreneurial orientation scales (originally designed for business enterprises in non-profit organisations.

  1. BREAKEVEN DETERMINATION IN ENTREPRENEURIAL DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severian\tVlăduț\tIACOB

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has remote origins and is powered by entrepreneur’s action in response to meeting the needs and aspirations that they have. Putting into practice the ambitions of entrepreneurs is done by demonstrating personal skills in taking advantage of opportunities and / or ideas in business. To launch and maintain market businesses, entrepreneurs need not only the flair and ideas, but also a strong entrepreneurial education. On the one hand, it enables them to understand changes in the competitive environment, on the other hand, to find solutions to support the business. The faster and more robust decisions of entrepreneurs are, the greater will be their chances of success in the business arena. Moreover, in the era of information technology, entrepreneurial decision is inconceivable without recourse to calculations from the use of mathematical models or without the use of various simulation techniques. By developing this material is intended to show that the mathematical model of breakeven is a useful and efficient tool in the entrepreneur decision to start a business.

  2. Public initiatives to support entrepreneurs: Credit guarantees versus co-funding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.; Lóránth, G.; Morrison, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze state-sponsored credit guarantees in a setting where entrepreneurs are capital-constrained and subject to moral hazard. In our model, guarantees can raise welfare because they reduce the cost of capital faced by entrepreneurs, and so potentially enhance entrepreneurial effort incentives.

  3. The role of entrepreneurship education as a predictor of university students’ entrepreneurial intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Duijsters, G.M.; Cloodt, M.

    2013-01-01

    Using Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior and Shapero’s entrepreneurial event model as well as entrepreneurial cognition theory, we attempt to identify the relationship between entrepreneurship education, prior entrepreneurial exposure, perceived desirability and feasibility, and entrepreneurial

  4. The role of entrepreneurship education as a predictor of university students’ entrepreneurial intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Duysters, G.M.; Cloodt, M.M.A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Using Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior and Shapero’s entrepreneurial event model as well as entrepreneurial cognition theory, we attempt to identify the relationship between entrepreneurship education, prior entrepreneurial exposure, perceived desirability and feasibility, and entrepreneurial

  5. Performing entrepreneurial masculinity: An ethnographic account

    OpenAIRE

    Giazitzoglu, Andreas; Down, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the empirical relationship between masculinity, hegemony and\\ud entrepreneurial identity as a largely neglected debate; this omission is addressed by outlining how\\ud 10 enterprising men who own and run small businesses perform, in the Goffmanesque sense, a style\\ud of ‘entrepreneurial masculinity’ in front of each other during their leisure lives when they meet\\ud as a local entrepreneurial fraternity in a semi-rural pub. By so doing, we expand upon prevailing\\ud ideas...

  6. IMPLEMENTASI PEMBELAJARAN ENTREPRENEURIAL DALAM PENDIDIKAN SENI RUPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeljadi Pranata

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aims to produce a model of entrepreneurial learning in the field of art education in secondary schools. For this purpose teachers have developed textbooks; the books are designed in accordance with entrepreneurial learning cycle. The study found that art education teaching materials have been designed according to the specific learning strategies potential to improve the entrepreneurial mindset of learners. The results of this study has offered a strategic value to develop entrepreneurship education in Indonesia, especially when considering that the results of this research offers the potential to be extended to other fields and subjects in terms of types and levela of education.

  7. Investigating of the effect of entrepreneurial orientations on formation of entrepreneurial identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Parsian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s changing world, success belongs to the communities and organizations that make a significant relationship between scarce resources and capabilities of management and entrepreneurship of their human resource. In other words, societies and the organizations can move forward in the development path that, with creating the necessary conditions, equip their human resources to productive entrepreneurial knowledge and skills to conduct other organizations and community resources to create value and achieve the development, management. Formation of entrepreneurial identity plays an important role for the development of the entrepreneurial spirit in society. In this paper, given the importance of entrepreneurial identity, the role of entrepreneurial orientations based on Lampkin and Dess (1996 [Lumpkin, G. T., & Dess, G. G. (1996. Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1, 135-172.] is investigated on entrepreneurial identity of the municipality of Qom using a questionnaire consists of 18 items. The results show entrepreneurial orientation influences significantly on entrepreneurial identity.

  8. Narratives boost entrepreneurial attitudes: Making an entrepreneurial career attractive?†

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This article analyses the impact of narratives on entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions. To this end, a quasi‐experiment was conducted to evaluate web‐based entrepreneurial narratives. The paired‐sample tests and regression analysis use a sample of 466 people from Austria, Finland, and Greece and indicate that individuals’ perceptions of the desirability of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial intention are significantly different before and after exposure to entrepreneurial narratives. Furthermore, the findings indicate that perceptions of the feasibility of entrepreneurship are more strongly affected by videos than by cases. From a policy perspective, this study raises awareness that entrepreneurship is an attractive career path. PMID:29863170

  9. To be entrepreneurial, or not to be entrepreneurial? Explaining differences in franchisee entrepreneurial behavior within a franchise system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croonen, Evelien P.M.; Brand, Maryse J.; Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.

    Although franchising scholars largely acknowledge that franchisees may behave like entrepreneurs, little is known about whether and why franchisees differ in their entrepreneurial behaviors. Franchisees are semi-autonomous entrepreneurs running geographically dispersed units within established

  10. Prior Exposure and Educational Environment towards Entrepreneurial Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Soria-Barreto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is based on the responses to a questionnaire applied to 351 students of business management in Chile and Colombia. Through the analysis of structural equations on Ajzen’s model, we found that entrepreneurial education, the University environment, and the prior entrepreneurial exposure are mediated by the factors of the Ajzen`s model to generate entrepreneurial intention in higher education students. The results show that entrepreneurial education strengthens the perceived control of behavior and, with it, albeit in a differentiated way, the entrepreneurial intention of men and women. University environment affects entrepreneurial intention through attitude towards entrepreneurship; and finally, the work experience, used as one of the variables that measure prior entrepreneurial exposure, explains the entrepreneurial intention inversely through the subjective norms. We found that gender has a moderate effect on perceived control of behavior and entrepreneurial education. The scarce studies on the impact of the University environment and the mixed results of the entrepreneurial education and prior entrepreneurial exposure toward entrepreneurial intention show the necessity for further research. A second contribution is the opportunity to present new evidence about the relationship between University environment, entrepreneurial education and prior exposure to developing countries of South America, including the gender effect (moderator for entrepreneurial intention. It is important to note that most of the research in this area applies to developed countries, and some scholars suggest that extrapolating the results is not convenient.

  11. Leadership in entrepreneurial organizations: context and motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí Ripoll, Margarita; Gil Rodríguez, Francisco; Barrasa, Angel; Antino, Mirko

    2010-11-01

    Although organizational contexts have an influence on leadership, and some of their characteristics may facilitate (through weak structures) or inhibit (through strong structures) the leaders' behaviors, the extent of their influence has rarely been studied. Indeed, research of the influence of some types of contexts (entrepreneurial vs. non-entrepreneurial) on the emergence of certain variables (leaders' motives) is even scarcer. This paper analyses this influence in 40 companies, interviewing their leaders to obtain a qualitative register of their motives, and administering questionnaires to members of their respective management teams. The hypothesis considered was that, in 'weak' contexts (entrepreneurial), the leaders' motives would be more salient than in 'strong' contexts (non-entrepreneurial). The results largely confirm this hypothesis with respect to behaviors that are directly related to three main motives (power, affiliation and achievement). These results are discussed, and practical suggestions are provided for future research.

  12. Reinvigorating the Entrepreneurial Spirit of NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepollina, Frank

    2015-01-01

    This talk gives a rundown of a career in servicing and looks to the future of servicing and scientific missions working together. The talk attempts to reinvigorate the old NASA entrepreneurial spirit.

  13. Entrepreneurial leadership practices and school innovativeness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    entrepreneurial leadership practices on school innovativeness. The main purpose ... a supportive environment for change and innovation at schools (Park, 2012). There are ..... International Review of Entrepreneurship, 9(3):1-43. Available at ...

  14. This paper conceptualizes entrepreneurial librarianship. It presents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009). This perhaps stem from the “free library culture” that libraries are not-for- ... increasinly important commercial activity coupled with new technological ... Entrepreneurial education distinguishes itself from other aspects of business.

  15. Supporting Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Innovation in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lukeš

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on existence and support of entrepreneurial behaviour and innovation in larger organizations. It first suggests why it is important to pay attention to entrepreneurship and innovation and then defines corporate entrepreneurship. Typical barriers of entrepreneurial activities are described as well as innovation dilemmas organizations solve. Innovation process is not linear, but six components of innovation behaviour may be identified, together with specific roles employees play when moving the idea forward from idea creation to implementation. Important factors influencing the success of entrepreneurial behaviour are discussed, involving the role of middle managers and reward systems. Recommendations for fostering entrepreneurial behaviour and innovation are provided together with a simple inventory for measuring employee perception of manager's and organizational support for innovation.

  16. ENTREPRENEURIAL UNIVERSITY IN THE NEW ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Platis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary universities face new challenges and opportunities in the context of the dynamic environment. Therefore, a modern university must become entrepreneurial, which means that it has to behave according to the following characteristics: autonomy,

  17. Tournament in Workplace and Entrepreneurial Entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    ascribe this finding to an interaction between a selection effect ? entrepreneurial minded individuals self-select in small firms ? and a treatment effect ?workplaces with high tournament discourage these particular individuals from becoming entrepreneurs, revealing an unobserved preference...... for competition. The findings document the importance of labor market sorting processes for our understanding of the relationship between tournament and entrepreneurship and have implications for firms aiming at retaining entrepreneurial minded employees....

  18. Entrepreneurial Activity, Self-Perception and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Verheul, Ingrid; Uhlaner, Lorraine; Thurik, Roy

    2002-01-01

    textabstractDrawing on Bem's psychological theory of self-perception, this paper presents and tests a model that examines the impact of gender and entrepreneurial activity on entrepreneurial self-perception. Based on a sample of alumni of a large Midwestern U.S. university, regression techniques are used to identify those activities associated with self-perceptions of entrepreneurship, as well as direct and indirect effects of gender. Results support the model of both direct and indirect effe...

  19. Study Streams and Student Entrepreneurial Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukuakadibia Eresia-Eke

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the levels of entrepreneurial intention among university students is particularly critical in Africa where the scourge of unemployment is profound. Alive to this, governments and well-meaning institutions are investing in entrepreneurship development, the gains of which remain to be seen leading to an ebbing of hope in the youth population. To this end the study investigates the entrepreneurial intention of university students in South Africa with an aim to reveal differences arising from study streams. The study consequently extends knowledge by examining entrepreneurial intention within the context of an unemployment-ridden society while leveraging on the theories of planned behaviour. The study executed from a positivist standpoint surveyed 238 students and quantitatively analysed the data principally to test deductively derived hypothesised relationships. The empirical study concludes that there is indeed a difference in entrepreneurial intention levels between the two groups. Empirical in nature, this quantitative study and concludes that there is indeed a difference in entrepreneurial intention levels between the two groups. Interventions aimed at enhancing entrepreneurship can only generate desirable results if the entrepreneurial intentions of the target population are known. This would ensure that the right type of interventions are created and delivered to specific groups as the ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach continues to fail. Serving a clearly heterogeneous population with seemingly homogenous interventions appears faulty and this reality needs to inform pro-entrepreneurship initiatives in future.

  20. Entrepreneurial Orientation in Mexican Microenterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Montiel Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years research on Entrepreneurship Orientation (EO has provided valuable information regarding strategy, entrepreneurship and aspects of performance at the firm-level. In the entrepreneurial universe, microenterprises play a very special role in the business context of the economy. However, they have not been relatively present in the EO research. This paper studies the EO-performance relationship in a group of microenterprises in Mexico and includes the Dominant Logic (DL as a variable that moderates this relationship. The results indicate that risk taking, proactiveness and competitive aggressiveness variables from the EO influence the microenterprise performance. In addition, the external DL conceptualization moderates the EO-performance relationship. This paper shows the conclusions of the investigation as well as the limitations and identifies future research methods.

  1. In Search of Entrepreneurial Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriques, Christine Thalsgård

    opportunity to study how the interactions between technology-based entrepreneurs and an Accelerator programme may lead to increased entrepreneurial capacity, learning and growth. The Industrial PhD setting offers privileged access to entrepreneurs, advisors, incubator management and investors, and we get......The world wants more entrepreneurs so badly, that it has become a major priority of governments all over the world trying to produce them. Based on Industrial PhD collaboration between the Danish Science Park, Symbion A/S and Copenhagen Business School, this dissertation presents a unique...... - is originally intended as a forum that is shielded off from the everydayness of things, with the purpose of adding resources and removing barriers to venture creation. The idea is that entrepreneuring actors will be offered complementary resources and forced to spend time on planning and strategies...

  2. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  3. "Wetlands: Water Living Filters?",

    OpenAIRE

    Dordio, Ana; Palace, A. J.; Pinto, Ana Paula

    2008-01-01

    Human societies have indirectly used natural wetlands as wastewater discharge sites for many centuries. Observations of the wastewater depuration capacity of natural wetlands have led to a greater understanding of the potential of these ecosystems for pollutant assimilation and have stimulated the development of artificial wetlands systems for treatment of wastewaters from a variety of sources. Constructed wetlands, in contrast to natural wetlands, are human-made systems that are designed, bu...

  4. Putting "Entrepreneurial Finance Education" on the Map: Including Social Capital in the Entrepreneurial Finance Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Stephanie Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to bring attention to "entrepreneurial finance education", an aspect of entrepreneurship education that is widely taught but neglected by the educational literature. It does so by exploring how social capital, a key resource for entrepreneurs, can be incorporated into entrepreneurial finance…

  5. Credit Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Credit Management System. Outsourced Internet-based application. CMS stores and processes data related to USAID credit programs. The system provides information...

  6. Ohio Uses Wetlands Program Development Grants to Protect Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wetland water quality standards require the use of ORAM score to determine wetland quality. OEPA has also used these tools to evaluate wetland mitigation projects, develop performance standards for wetland mitigation banks and In Lieu Fee programs an.

  7. Optimal advanced credit releases in ecosystem service markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenDor, Todd K; Guo, Tianshu; Yates, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Ecosystem service markets are popular policy tools for ecosystem protection. Advanced credit releases are an important factor affecting the supply side of ecosystem markets. Under an advanced credit release policy, regulators give ecosystem suppliers a fraction of the total ecosystem credits generated by a restoration project before it is verified that the project actually achieves the required ecological thresholds. In spite of their prominent role in ecosystem markets, there is virtually no regulatory or research literature on the proper design of advanced credit release policies. Using U.S. aquatic ecosystem markets as an example, we develop a principal-agent model of the behavior of regulators and wetland/stream mitigation bankers to determine and explore the optimal degree of advance credit release. The model highlights the tension between regulators' desire to induce market participation, while at the same time ensuring that bankers successfully complete ecological restoration. Our findings suggest several simple guidelines for strengthening advanced credit release policy.

  8. Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and Regional Policy : A Sympathetic Critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/215649370

    2015-01-01

    Regional policies for entrepreneurship are currently going through a transition from increasing the quantity of entrepreneurship to the quality of entrepreneurship. The next step will be the transition from entrepreneurship policy towards policy for an entrepreneurial economy. The entrepreneurial

  9. Framing Entrepreneurial Ecosystem on Campus: Conceptual and System Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Evita; Andersen, Maj Munch; Murdock, Karen

    collective entrepreneurial culture and action at all university dimensions. The paper argues that applying systems thinking to university based entrepreneurship allows achieving a better understanding of universities as entrepreneurial ecosystems. The paper contributes to conceptual developments...

  10. Wonderful Wetlands: An Environmental Education Curriculum Guide for Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King County Parks Div., Redmond, WA.

    This curriculum guide was designed to give teachers, students, and society a better understanding of wetlands in the hope that they learn why wetlands should be valued and preserved. It explores what is meant by wetlands, functions and values of wetlands, wetland activities, and wetland offerings which benefit animal and plant life, recreation,…

  11. Credit: A Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanton, Brandolyn; And Others

    Intended for teachers of secondary school students, five lessons on consumer credit are presented. In the first lesson students identify and evaluate sources of credit, compare some of the costs and benefits of credit, and learn to apply criteria used in evaluating applications for credit. In the second lesson, students learn about two basic types…

  12. Refundable Tax Credits

    OpenAIRE

    Congressional Budget Office

    2013-01-01

    In 1975, the first refundable tax credit—the earned income tax credit (EITC)—took effect. Since then, the number and cost of refundable tax credits—credits that can result in net payments from the government—have grown considerably. Those credits will cost $149 billion in 2013, CBO estimates, mostly for the EITC and the child tax credit.

  13. NCA & Credit Guarantees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stooppn

    purposes of the National Credit Act; what the definition of a credit guarantee set out ...... Scholtz et al National Credit Act in para 8.2.4; Scott et al Law of Commerce ..... Eitelberg E "Autonomy of Documentary Credit Undertakings in South African.

  14. The Making of Entrepreneurial Subjectivity in Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siivonen, Päivi; Brunila, Kristiina

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the idea of entrepreneurial subjectivity and the ways in which it is shaped by the entrepreneurial discourse in adult education. As a result, we argue that educational practices related to adults form a particular kind of ideal subjectivity that we refer to as entrepreneurial. In order to understand how this entrepreneurial…

  15. Entrepreneurial Identity and Role Expectations in Nascent Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Mats; Middleton, Karen Williams; Nowell, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship has been defined as an individual?new value creation dialogic. To study how entrepreneurial identity evolves, this article, drawing on entrepreneurial learning theory, adds an entrepreneurial role expectations dialogic. Longitudinal evidence from nascent entrepreneurs working in venture teams on invention disclosures offers an…

  16. Designing a Model for Entrepreneurial Intentions of Agricultural Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafabadi, Maryam Omidi; Zamani, Maryam; Mirdamadi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    The authors used Ajzen's theory of planned behavior and Shapero's entrepreneurial event model as well as entrepreneurial cognition theory to identify the relationship among entrepreneurial skills, self-efficacy, attitudes toward entrepreneurship, psychological traits, social norms, perceived desirability, social support, and entrepreneurial…

  17. A Cooperative Approach to Academic Entrepreneurial Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a novel entrepreneurial model, the “Faculty Cooperative”, an eco-system for creating and managing academic entrepreneurial initiatives. The goal of this model is to promote academic entrepreneurism, by providing a guiding concept and tools that overcome the lack of alignment between individual academic attributes and faculty efforts in driving academic spin-out companies.  Through an empirical inquiry based on an academic spin-out company in a UK university context, we have explored the key activities, actors, organisational processes and outcomes related to the formation and development stages of the academic entrepreneurship process. The empirical evidence reveals that the key principles embodied by the “Faculty Cooperative Model” namely, openness, freedom and collective shareholding, are likely to promote the entrepreneurial culture within a university context. The paper argues for the importance of developing entrepreneurial culture in conventional research focused universities, which not only improves the traditional values of teaching and research, but also enhances the dynamic capabilities of universities in a global marketplace. It is suggested that the entrepreneurial ideal is not contradictory to the conventional university missions, rather it is complementary.

  18. Mapping The Phenomenon Of Students’ Entrepreneurial Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yud Buana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research mapped the phenomena that occured in students who are taking classes entrepreneurship that was limited by entrepreneurial knowledge, personal attitude, social norms and self-efficacy. Using descriptive statistics on the answers of 794 respondents, who were students of Bina Nusantara University, produced a variety of results. Based on entrepreneurial knowledge, students still felt hesitant to be able to start and run the entrepreneurial process. On the other hand, self-efficacy and personal attitude reflect a positive thing associated, while the support of family and the environment around where they livevalued invariety. Although this research discovered phenomenon using all the attributes having impacts on entrepreneurship intention, potential students who are properly trained have a probability of playing a leading role in this regard. The benefits that can be expected from this research are useful in identifying suitable students for any entrepreneurial activity in the future with the support of educational institutions, families, and the government as a whole to form the atmosphere of an entrepreneurial culture.

  19. Attitude and Entrepreneurial Intention Among Rural Community: the Mediating Role of Entrepreneurial Opportunity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahalan Norziani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has been well documented to have an economic and social implication for the nation to increase income. Most of developing countries give further consideration to include entrepreneurship as an agenda to help the poor to increase the living standard. In fact, entrepreneurship offers various business opportunities for rural communities to achieve better quality of life. However, the crucial part of doing business is to recognize business opportunity. Entrepreneurship and opportunity are two terms that complement each other. Opportunity recognition enables the entrepreneur to identify a good idea and transform it into a business concept. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between attitude (attitude toward money, attitude toward start-up and entrepreneurial intention. This paper also intends to understand the role of entrepreneurial opportunity recognition as a mediator between attitude and entrepreneurial intention. The aim of this research is to support training providers, to identify input for entrepreneurial training, specifically developing business concepts among rural community. From the practical perspective, it might help the government to understand the necessity to encourage entrepreneurial movement among rural community as to ensure business ideas flow. This research employed the quantitative method of data collection. The questionnaires were distributed to 500 local populations according to districts and villages. The findings of this study showed that both attitude (attitude toward money, attitude toward start-up influence entrepreneurial intention. The relationship between attitude toward start-up and entrepreneurial intention was mediated by opportunity recognition.

  20. Why are wetlands important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, comparable to rain forests and coral reefs. An immense variety of species of microbes, plants, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish, and mammals can be part of a wetland ecosystem.

  1. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  2. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  3. VSWI Wetlands Advisory Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset represents the DEC Wetlands Program's Advisory layer. This layer makes the most up-to-date, non-jurisdictional, wetlands mapping avaiable to the public...

  4. Entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, and competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Cadogan, John W.

    This study sheds light on the role that the competitive environment plays in determining how elements of market orientation and elements of entrepreneurial orientation interact to influence business success. We develop a model in which we postulate that market orientation, entrepreneurial...... orientation, and competitive environment shape business performance via a three-way interaction. We test the model using primary data from the CEOs of 270 CEO of manufacturing firms, together with secondary data on these firms' profit performance. An assessment of the results indicates that customer...... orientation moderates the positive relationships between the competitiveness element of entrepreneurial orientation and market share and return on assets (ROA): the positive relationships between competitiveness and market share and competitiveness and ROA become stronger the greater the firms' customer...

  5. Entrepreneurial Education in Romanian Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Pipirigeanu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available EU’ s 2020 strategy is to integrate creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship in the school curriculum by proposing a set of actions implying all students in entrepreneurial activity with a view to devoping theirs skills needed in business market. Governments should revise the legislation in force by eliminating existing administrative barriers and supporting entrepreneurs in crucial stages of the life cycle of a business; The links between schools, universities and business area should be strengthened in oreder to achieve aims proposed by EU’ s 2020 strategy. Entrepreneurial education has an important role in the educational system, having a strong applicative character, as it does emphasize the size of the student’s personality formation act. The purpose of the entrepreneurial education is to promote students’ innovation spirit.

  6. Socio-Psychological Aspects of Entrepreneurial Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhova Viktoriia M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study entrepreneurial motivation and socio-psychological aspects that determine it. In the article, the urgency of the study of socio-psychological aspects of motivation is substantiated. The list and essence of concepts related to the concept “motivation” are specified. The features of personal needs of entrepreneurs are determined. The groups of entrepreneurial motives are considered. The psychological properties of an entrepreneur’s personality are examined. The role of the positive self-identity in providing entrepreneurial motivation is substantiated. The values and value orientations typical for entrepreneurs are determined. The peculiarities of the Ukrainian mentality that are most clearly traced in the activity and behavior of entrepreneurs are considered. Specific features of normative regulation of human behavior in modern society are determined.

  7. Entrepreneurial Intentions among Business Students in Batangas State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELICA M. RAMOS

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on Entrepreneurial Intention among Business Students in Batangas State University based on their entrepreneurial capabilities and skills. The descriptive method of research was utilized in the conduct of the study. The study revealed that majority of the respondents have no family business, belongs to middle income group and management major students. Further, it was found out that most of the students agreed that they possess entrepreneurial intentions, skills and capabilities. It was also found out that entrepreneurial intention is not affected by the profile variables. It only shows that the entrepreneurial intention of the students is independent with that of their profile variables.

  8. The entrepreneurial role in primary care dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcocks, S

    2012-03-09

    This paper explores the entrepreneurial role of dentists in primary care dentistry. It reviews the changing context of dentistry, not least the reforms being introduced by the health and social care bill. It suggests that this new context will reinforce the need to consider the business side of dental practice, in particular, the importance of quality, creativity and innovation, alongside the importance of meeting the needs of patients. An entrepreneurial approach will be required in order to sustain dental practice in an increasingly competitive environment.

  9. MNE Entrepreneurial Capabilities at Intermediate Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoenen, Anne K.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Ambos, Björn

    2014-01-01

    at intermediate geographical levels differ from local subsidiaries and global corporate headquarters, and why those differences are important. We illustrate our arguments using data on European regional headquarters (RHQs). We find that RHQs' entrepreneurial capabilities depend on their external embeddedness...... and on the heterogeneous information that is generated through dissimilar markets within the region. Our study opens up for an interesting discussion of the independence of these mechanisms. In sum, we contribute to the understanding of the entrepreneurial role of intermediate units in general and RHQs in particular....

  10. The socially-dynamic entrepreneurial process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke; Lauring, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Large shares of the entrepreneurship research are informed by two central lines of thought. One focuses on the role of formal and informal social networks for mobilising resources and obtaining information about new markets and opportunities. The other conceives of individual personality traits o....... The article thus proposes an approach integrating the social and subjective levels of analysis as part of the same socially-dynamic entrepreneurial process....... or cognitive schemes as the independent variable behind entrepreneurial activity. Elaborating on the socially-dynamic perspectives of anthropological theories, this article presents a coherent theoretical framework for entrepreneurship research embracing the social dimensions as well as individual factors...

  11. Self-Efficacy: Conditioning the Entrepreneurial Mindset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Mauer, René; Kirketerp Linstad, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Research that has sought to identify the underlying determinants of self-efficacy is sparse. This chapter seeks to identify antecedents of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and the processes that produce and reinforce self-efficacy. It seeks to broaden our understanding of the self-efficacy concept t...... through an exploration of its origins and via a journey to its impact in the field of entrepreneurship. Finally, it suggests pedagogical initiatives needed to promote entrepreneurial self-efficacy in the different social arenas of life....

  12. The Impact of Entrepreneurial Leadership on Nurses' Innovation Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Afsaneh; Akbari, Morteza

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of entrepreneurial leadership on nurses' innovation work behavior and its dimensions. This cross-sectional study employed the 10-item Innovation Work Behavior Questionnaire and the 8-item Entrepreneurial Leadership Questionnaire to explore the impact of entrepreneurial leadership on the innovation work behavior of 273 nurses from public and private hospitals in Iran. Entrepreneurial leadership had a significant positive impact on nurses' innovation work behavior and most strongly improved idea exploration, followed by idea generation, idea implementation, and idea championing. Entrepreneurial leadership was effective in enhancing nurses' innovation work behavior. More attention needs to be focused on developing entrepreneurial leadership competencies and on developing nurse leaders. Healthcare policies and strategies are needed to facilitate the implementation of entrepreneurial leadership by providing healthcare leaders with the appropriate environment. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  13. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...... to 2002, reflecting increased market integration; but the determinants of formal and informal credit demand are distinct. Credit rationing depends on education and credit history, but we find no evidence of a bias against women. Regional differences are striking, and a ‘one size fits all’ approach...... to credit policy is clearly inappropriate....

  14. Immigrant Capital and Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malavika Sundararajan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study is to define and operationalize the concept of immigrant capital, a key factor that differentiates immigrant from host country entrepreneurs in how they recognize and start new ventures. Research Design & Methods: A detailed analysis of contemporary immigrant entrepreneurship and opportunity recognition literature was carried out. Using grounded theory, we synthesized the outcomes from the analysis of eight Canadian and U.S. case studies of successful immigrant entrepreneurs with the key findings from the literature to define and develop a model of immigrant capital. Findings: Based on our grounded theory development process we show that the concept of immigrant capital as a distillate of human, cultural, economic and social capital that goes beyond expected opportunity recognition (OR drivers like prior knowledge and prior experience to differentiate and enhance the immigrant entrepreneur’s ability to recognize business opportunities compared to host country entrepreneurs. We found immigrant capital to be a consequence of being boundary spanners in host and home country networks. Implications & Recommendations: Understanding a unique resource like immigrant capital, will help immigrant as well as host country entrepreneurs further develop their opportunity recognition ability by bridging gaps and fulfilling the needs for both, immigrant and host country consumers. Contribution & Value Added: The main contribution is the theoretical development, identification and definition of the immigrant capital model and propositions that will articulate the factors that lead to the conceptualization and operationalization of immigrant capital. Furthermore, the immigrant capital model can serve host country entrepreneurs to develop cross-cultural networks and jump-start entrepreneurial activities in their home countries as well as learn how to expand their operations into global markets.

  15. The Role of Entrepreneurial Knowledge and Skills in Developing Digital Entrepreneurial Intentions in Public Universities in Hamedan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad yaghoubi Farani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to extend the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB to more comprehensively explain the formation of students’ digital entrepreneurial intentions.In particular, the extended TPB incorporates two critical constructs, namely entrepreneurial knowledge and skills into the original TPB model.Data were collected from 150 computer science students from four public universities in Hamedan province. The results of regression analysis showed that there was asignificant relationship between motivational factors such as attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control and digital entrepreneurial intentions. Also perceived behavioral control played the strongest role in the determination of digital entrepreneurial intentions.Furthermore, the results illustrated that entrepreneurial knowledge and skills significantly relate to digital entrepreneurial intentions. Based on the knowledge gained in this study, some recommendation were offered for developing entrepreneurial culture, knowledge and skillsin order topromoting digital entrepreneurship.

  16. The experience of Iranian entrepreneurial nurses on the identification of entrepreneurial opportunities: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Jahani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To respond to the growing and emerging needs of the people in the health sector, the nurses need to develop their working domain from the hospitals to the community and be prepared to provide entrepreneurial roles at different care levels. Thus, to discover how to identify entrepreneurial opportunities in the field of nursing entrepreneurship, a study was conducted with the aim of describing the experiences of Iranian entrepreneurs on the identification of proper opportunities in entrepreneurship. Materials and Methods: This study was a qualitative research in which the Graneheim and Lundman's content analysis was used to collect and analyze the data. Thirteen entrepreneurial nurses were purposefully selected, and the data were collected by unstructured interviews. Results: As a result of data analysis, three main themes were obtained including the resources for opportunity identification and opportunity assessment and identification of proper opportunities. Conclusion: The findings indicate how to identify entrepreneurial opportunities in the field of health by entrepreneurial nurses which is the first step in the entrepreneurial process. Therefore, the findings of this study can be used to educate nurses who are interested in entering the field of nursing entrepreneurship.

  17. Credit Card Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students design credit cards and discover for themselves the mathematical realities of buying on credit. Employs multiple-intelligence theory to increase the chance that all students will be reached. (YDS)

  18. Credit Union Headquarters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) is the independent federal agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. NCUA, backed of the full faith...

  19. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands management. 120.172 Section 120.172 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Policies Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.172...

  20. Credit Card Security

    OpenAIRE

    G.C., Anup

    2013-01-01

    Author: Anup G.C. Year: 2013 Subject of thesis: Credit Card Security Number of pages: 36+2 Credit Card is a widely used electronic chip for easy transactions. The main purpose of the report was to show the security measures of transaction by credit cards. The purpose was to give information about credit cards and how they were introduced. The thesis reportcontained the types of card theft with examples and sited the various protocols used for online ...

  1. 75 FR 32973 - Entrepreneurial Mentoring and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... achievement and careers in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math). These subject areas are critical... any comprehensive entrepreneur service strategy. (3) What is the level of awareness surrounding... work best at imparting entrepreneurial skills and knowledge? (12) What is the level of awareness...

  2. Enhancing Students' Entrepreneurial Mindset: A Swedish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Erik; Bohman, Håkan; Hulten, Peter; Wilson, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the test of a pedagogical intervention to enhance students' entrepreneurial mindset on a university course. Design/methodology/approach: The course where the authors tested the new course design is a mandatory one in the business school's undergraduate business program. Pre- and post-evaluations…

  3. The Entrepreneurial Spirit and the Evolving Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workforce Economics, 1999

    1999-01-01

    A growing percentage of the U.S. work force depends upon entrepreneurial skills and behaviors to succeed in the new opportunity economy. The explosion of technology, accelerating need for new and different products, globalization of business, and demand for speed in delivery have shifted the economic driving force toward companies that can meet…

  4. Disruptive innovation as an entrepreneurial process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra, Y.; Yang, S.-J.S.; Singh, P.; Prajogo, D.; O'Neill, P.; Rahman, S.

    2008-01-01

    Research on conditions and causal mechanisms that influence disruptive innovation has been relatively unexplored in the extant research in disruptive innovation. By re-conceptualizing disruptive innovation as an entrepreneurial process at product, firm and industry levels, this paper draws on

  5. Analysis Of Entrepreneurial Attributes As Predictors Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on this, it was recommended that efforts should be made to introduce entrepreneurship as a compulsory course in Nigerian schools and colleges so as to transfer the entrepreneurial knowledge and skills to students through effective entrepreneurship education for their self-reliance and self employment during and ...

  6. Twenty Practices of an Entrepreneurial University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.; Cameron, Shona P.B.

    2006-01-01

    studies twenty organisational practices against which a University's entrepreneurship can be measured. These twenty practices or factors in effect formed the basis for an entrepreneurship audit. During a series of interviews, the extent to which the universities are seen as entrepreneurial...

  7. Entrepreneurial Careers of Women in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Lisa B.; Greenan, James P.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathways of entrepreneurial career development and the processes involved for women to become entrepreneurs in Zimbabwe. Women entrepreneurs were studied to gain an understanding of why women chose self-employment and how local enterprise programs should be designed to benefit them. The study…

  8. Teaching science students to identify entrepreneurial opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nab, J.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation describes a research project on teaching science students to identify entrepreneurial opportunities, which is a core competence for entrepreneurs that should be emphasized in education. This research consists of four studies. The first case study aims at finding design strategies

  9. Higher Education and Entrepreneurial Citizenship in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Soren

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on Singapore's "Global Schoolhouse" project, this article discusses how efforts to transform Singapore into a "world class" knowledge economy entail changes to the status of citizenship in Singapore. The project of wooing top foreign universities to Singapore is permeated with an entrepreneurial ideal of Singapore as…

  10. Entrepreneurial Orientation : Multilevel analysis and Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigtering, J.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has become one of the most important foci within the domain of entrepreneurship research. EO is distinguished from entrepreneurship, which is generally studied in relation to new entry, by its focus on the processes, practices, and decision-making activities that

  11. The entrepreneurial ladder, gender, and regional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. van der Zwan (Peter); I. Verheul (Ingrid); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractGender differences at five levels of entrepreneurial engagement are explained using country effects while controlling for individual-level variables. We distinguish between individuals who have never considered starting up a business, those who are thinking about it, and nascent, young,

  12. Unraveling the Shift to the Entrepreneurial Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.B. Audretsch (David); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractA recent literature has emerged providing compelling evidence that a major shift in the organization of the developed economies has been taking place: away from what has been characterized as the managed economy towards the entrepreneurial economy. In particular, the empirical evidence

  13. Entrepreneurial engagement levels in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Grilo (Isabel); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractA multinomial logit model and survey data from the 25 EU member states and the US are used to establish the effect of demographic and other variables on various entrepreneurial engagement levels. These engagement levels range from never thought about starting a business to thinking

  14. Understanding Gender, Creativity, and Entrepreneurial Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ronda Marie; Sardeshmukh, Shruti R.; Combs, Gwendolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the complex relationships between gender and entrepreneurial intentions. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a two study design where the second study is a constructive replication of the first study. The first study uses a cross-sectional design, while the second uses a design where data…

  15. Entrepreneurial Intention among Nigerian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Aliyu Dahiru; Aliyu, Sirajo; Ahmed, Selim

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurial intention (EI) is one of the major contributing factors to the formation, growth and development of entrepreneurship. It promotes self reliance and brings about initiatives. Entrepreneurship on the other hand, has been considered as an engine of growth for economic growth and development of developed and emerging economies.…

  16. Creativity of secondary school students: entrepreneurial skills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study adopted a quasi-experimental design using a pre-test, post-test control design in order to investigate the entrepreneurial skills and creative abilities of secondary school students in Physics. The study was carried out in Obio/Akpo Local Government Area of Rivers State of Nigeria, using purposive sampling ...

  17. Reimagining Charity: Kiva's Ideology of Entrepreneurial Charity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2011-01-01

    We attempt to tease out the imaginary conceptions that make lending through Kiva, an emergent microfinance charity, meaningful to its creators and supporters. A combination of interpretive methods (analysis of consumer narratives, brand genealogy) is used to outline and dissect Kiva’s innovative ...... ideology of entrepreneurial charity....

  18. Alternative entrepreneurial options: a policy mitigation strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on alternative entrepreneurial options as a mitigation strategy against climate change among part-time farmers in Abia state Nigeria. Some farmers abandoned farming in the face of reoccurring adverse weather conditions to other livelihood sustaining activities. The objectives were to examine the ...

  19. Corporate Innovation and Entrepreneurial Development | Iyayi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aimed at a theoretical exposition of the influence of corporate innovation on entrepreneurial development. To achieve this purpose a review of extant literature on innovation and creativity, concept of corporate innovation process of corporate innovation, approaches to corporate innovation, corporate innovation ...

  20. Business Educators' Views on the Entrepreneurial Competencies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated Business Educators' views on the entrepreneurial competencies eeded by business education graduates in Nigeria. A 23-item instrument was used for this study. The study sample comprised all the 66 Business Education lecturers in the universities and colleges of Education in Edo and Delta states ...

  1. Credit Market Information Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanyan, Lakshmi; Craig, Ben R.; Thomson, James B.; Zaman, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    We examine how a combination of credit market and asset quality information can jointly be used in assessing bank franchise value. We find that expectations of future credit demand and future asset quality explain contemporaneous bank franchise value, indicative of the feedback in credit market information and its consequent impact on bank franchise value.

  2. Boundedly rational credit cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez, María

    1996-01-01

    We propose an evolutionary model of a credit market. We show that the economy exhibits credit cycles. The model predicts dynamics which are consistent with some evidence about the Great Depression. Real shocks trigger episodes of credit--crunch which are observed in the process of adjustment towards the post shock equilibrium.

  3. Modernization of credit relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Volosovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is essential to modernize credit relations in the conditions of global economy transformations. This is due to the influence of integration processes on credit relations and transformation of the risks inherent in the credit field. The purpose of this article is to develop measures that help to improve the efficiency of interaction of credit relations’ participants. Modernization of credit relations is based on the interaction of its main and indirect subjects who belong to the subsystems of loans granting, deposits attraction and provision of related services. Its goal is to pass from extensive to intensive model of interaction between the subjects of credit relations. Components of the credit relations modernization are the following: institutional modernization, which is based on the interaction of credit relations’ subjects, and ensures the development of competition in all credit market’s segments, the creation of its corresponding infrastructure, qualitative change in the approaches of regulation and supervision; technological modernization, which involves the formation of joint products on the credit market and the formation of an integrated informational and analytical system. In the result of the credit relations’ modernization it is expected to achieve synergies between the subjects of credit relations, that will lead to changes in the business architecture of the financial market.

  4. The relationship between motives of entrepreneurial behavior and venture maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobera Dušan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries at a different level of development exhibit a variety of entrepreneurial initiatives and activities in terms of motives of entrepreneurial behavior, but also the scope and structure of entrepreneurial ventures. The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between the degree of economic development and the motives of entrepreneurial behavior. In order to perform a more detailed overview of the research subject, the research area expands on the scope and structure of entrepreneurial activity, with the aim of identifying the impact of the motives of entrepreneurial behavior on the entrepreneurial process observed in its phases. Characteristics of selected variables and the size of the research sample conditioned the usage of the Spearman's correlation coefficient and the Chi-square test. The results indicate a positive correlation between the level of economic development and opportunity motive of entrepreneurial ventures. This motive is also found to be a generator of maturity of entrepreneurial ventures. More specifically, the higher percentage of participation of the entrepreneurial ventures with opportunity motive is associated with a higher percentage of enterprise in more mature stages, which is especially reflected in the group of highly developed countries.

  5. Comparative analysis of entrepreneurial orientation of Croatian and Sweden students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najla Podrug

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the comparison of entrepreneurial orientation of Croatian and Swedish students. Croatian students show significantly lower entrepreneurial intention than Swedish students, and positive attitudes are more frequent with Swedish students. Design/methodology/approach – The cross-cultural research strategy used in this study was a narrowsample strategy which is based on a survey questionnaire comparison of the similar subcultures in different countries. Findings – Croatian students show significantly lower entrepreneurial intention, while positive entrepreneurial attitudes are more frequent with Swedish students. Interestingly, Swedish students consider the entrepreneurial climate to be more evident in their schools. This finding is especially significant if one considers the significantly lower entrepreneurial education of Swedish than Croatian students. Research limitations/implications – Conclusions based on this research are tentative and require further comparison including representatives of other cultures and faculties. Another limitation is identified through additional option of changing intentions and other factors of entrepreneurial orientation, and therefore would longitudinal research of tracking changes of entrepreneurial orientation over the years of study, as well as after studies, along with exploring the reasons of changing them, be desirable. The size of the sample of respondents appears as another potential limitation. Originality/value – Confidence in their own entrepreneurial skills for Croatian students is dependent on the support of the environment, which is not the case with Swedish students whose confidence depends solely on how individually entrepreneurial they are.

  6. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of…

  7. Entrepreneurial behaviour and the development of entrepreneurial ecosystems under uncertainty: essays on regenerative medicine venturing at the university-industry boundary

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, David

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurial ecosystems are an important economic consideration but remain an understudied phenomenon. In particular, research emphasising the role of the entrepreneur within entrepreneurial ecosystems is scant. Entrepreneurial universities, particularly the commercialisation activities by academic entrepreneurs, contribute to both the emergence and development of entrepreneurial ecosystems at the university-industry (U-I) boundary. Yet, an understanding of the links between...

  8. Alternative sources of financing entrepreneurial undertakings in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegomir Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficiency of internal financial resources and limited access to external sources of capital, as one of the key problems, local agricultural producers - entrepreneurs usualy describe with high cost of capital, complicated procedures, lack of transparency in regard to the settlement of credit requests and problems with security of loans. The aim of this study is to analyze the possibilities of facilitating access to increased volume of capital for domestic entrepreneurs in agriculture by using funding sources that are applied in developed economies for financing entrepreneurs. In order to achieve the stated aim, the subject of investigation in this paper is the analysis of alternative sources of financing, which use or increased adoption in Serbia would provide greater availability of capital for agricultural producers and others across the chain of agrobusiness complex and thus the promotion of entrepreneurial activity, and consequently, greater competitiveness and greater income of domestic agricultural producers and others across the chain of agrbusiness indirectly leading to increased economic growth and improvement of the welfare.

  9. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity

  10. The Relationships Among Leadership Styles, Entrepreneurial Orientation, and Business Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Wen Yang

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the knowledge of leadership styles and entrepreneurial orientation at small and medium enterprises as well as their effects on business performance. This study examines how leadership style can affect the development and implementation of entrepreneurial orientation in small and medium enterprises in Taiwan. It is also designed to examine the effects of leadership styles and entrepreneurial orientation on business performance. Significant conclusions from this...

  11. Entrepreneurial marketing: a new approach for challenging times

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela IONIŢĂ

    2012-01-01

    Entrepreneurial Marketing (EM) is a theoretical construct at the nexus between marketing and entrepreneurship, with a relatively long existence – over thirty years - but insufficiently developed. Entrepreneurial thinking, which is nonlinear, creative and avoids predictions, contradicts the traditional marketing model. Thus a “divorce” appears between marketing theory - which emphasizes managerial marketing behavior- and marketing practice in entrepreneurial firms. The purpose of this paper is...

  12. Unbounding entrepreneurial intents of university students: a multidisciplinary perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Aurora A.C. Teixeira; Rosa Portela Forte

    2009-01-01

    Entrepreneurial activities are seen as key drivers of innovation, job creation, and economic growth. Recent efforts are being pursued by several entities, including governments to promote entrepreneurial skills amongst the youngest. However, to design effective programs, policy makers have to uncover the determinants of entrepreneurship. To avoid that such efforts would be fruitless we argue that a multidisciplinary account of entrepreneurial intents among students is mandatory, circumventing...

  13. Comparing the Entrepreneurial Intention between Female and Male Engineering Students

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Choitung; Sun Hongyi; Law Kris

    2012-01-01

    Women business ownership contributes to entrepreneurship quality and diversity. However, the new venture creation rate of females lags far behind that of males. How to increase female entrepreneurship by entrepreneurship education is an important topic in the field. It has been reported that students’ entrepreneurial intention is a key to their future entrepreneurial behaviors. This paper aims to empirically compare the entrepreneurial intentions between female and male engineering students w...

  14. PRIDE AND PREJUDICE : A NEW VERSION OF ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION

    OpenAIRE

    SI, ENZHE

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to present an empirical finding in the area of culture and entrepreneurial intention. The author developed an entrepreneurial culture measure regard to values of proudness and prejudice based on the data from the World Values Survey. Entrepreneurial intention as the dependent variable was draw from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Consortium (GEM) ’s 2006 dataset. The data sample contains 27 countries. The result shows the newly developed culture measure is negati...

  15. Exploring the relationship between entrepreneurial behavior and teachers' job satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    do Carmo Amorim Neto, Roque; Rodrigues, Vinicius Picanco; Panzer, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    and private schools responded to the survey. Statistical analysis revealed a moderate correlation between entrepreneurial behavior and job satisfaction. Results also show that gender and educational level are associated with entrepreneurial behavior. The discussion includes theoretical and practical......This exploratory study has two goals: exploring the relationship between entrepreneurial behavior and job satisfaction among teachers, and identifying the demographic characteristics associated with both variables. Using a snowball technique, a sample of 385 K-12 Brazilian teachers from public...

  16. Comment on Geoengineering with seagrasses: is credit due where credit is given?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreska, Matthew P. J.; McGlathery, Karen J.; Emmer, Igino M.; Needelman, Brian A.; Emmett-Mattox, Stephen; Crooks, Stephen; Megonigal, J. Patrick; Myers, Doug

    2018-03-01

    In their recent review, ‘Geoengineering with seagrasses: is credit due where credit is given?,’ Johannessen and Macdonald (2016) invoke the prospect of carbon offset-credit over-allocation by the Verified Carbon Standard as a pretense for their concerns about published seagrass carbon burial rate and global stock estimates. Johannessen and Macdonald (2016) suggest that projects seeking offset-credits under the Verified Carbon Standard methodology VM0033: Methodology for Tidal Wetland and Seagrass Restoration will overestimate long-term (100 yr) sediment organic carbon (SOC) storage because issues affecting carbon burial rates bias storage estimates. These issues warrant serious consideration by the seagrass research community; however, VM0033 does not refer to seagrass SOC ‘burial rates’ or ‘storage.’ Projects seeking credits under VM0033 must document greenhouse gas emission reductions over time, relative to a baseline scenario, in order to receive credits. Projects must also monitor changes in carbon pools, including SOC, to confirm that observed benefits are maintained over time. However, VM0033 allows projects to conservatively underestimate project benefits by citing default values for specific accounting parameters, including CO2 emissions reductions. We therefore acknowledge that carbon crediting methodologies such as VM0033 are sensitive to the quality of the seagrass literature, particularly when permitted default factors are based in part on seagrass burial rates. Literature-derived values should be evaluated based on the concerns raised by Johannessen and Macdonald (2016), but these issues should not lead to credit over-allocation in practice, provided VM0033 is rigorously followed. These issues may, however, affect the feasibility of particular seagrass offset projects.

  17. Wetland Surface Water Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    .... Temporary storage includes channel, overbank, basin, and groundwater storage. Water is removed from the wetland through evaporation, plant transpiration, channel, overland and tidal flow, and groundwater recharge...

  18. Entrepreneurial Inclination Among Business Students: A Malaysian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yet-Mee Lim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has been the fundamental topics of discussion among the politicians, economists, and academics. Business creation is especially critical in developing countries to stimulate economic growth. The present study attempts to examine entrepreneurial inclination among students who are a potential source of entrepreneurs. The fi ndings of the present research study indicate that majority of our business students are not entrepreneurial-inclined. They do not seem to possess strong entrepreneurial characteristics and entrepreneurial skills, and they are not keen in starting a new business. The roles of higher institutes of education and the government in promoting entrepreneurship are discussed.

  19. VIDEO GAMES CONTRIBUTION TO STUDENTS’ ENTREPRENEURIAL TRAITS AND INTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra PERJU-MITRAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the popularity of video games and the influences they may pose on individuals’ psychology and behavior, the present study analyses whether video game playing among university students can be correlated with traits associated with an entrepreneur’s profile, which may, in turn, lead to an entrepreneurial intent. The results of the study reveal that students who do play video games show a higher entrepreneurial intent, this relationship being mediated by several psychological and cognitive characteristics. With regards to the psychological and cognitive factors studied, the results also suggest that a favorable attitude towards playing videogames fosters students’ entrepreneurial potential and has a positive effect on the entrepreneurial intent.

  20. Entrepreneurial mindset of information and communication technology firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Scheepers

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited research focuses on the entrepreneurial mindset of information and communication technology (ICT firms, despite the opportunities in and importance of this sector for economic growth. In this article, the entrepreneurial mindset of ICT firms is described by using three indicators: entrepreneurial orientation, e-business initiatives and a supportive organizational climate. Data were obtained using structured telephone interviews with 144 ICT firms. The findings indicate that the three indicators of an entrepreneurial mindset are associated and can be linked to performance. It is recommended that managers create a supportive climate for entrepreneurship by offering rewards, empowering employees and providing leadership and support for initiatives.

  1. Entrepreneurial intention among engineering students: The role of entrepreneurship education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Barba-Sánchez

    2018-01-01

    This research work aims to analyze the impact of entrepreneurial motivations on entrepreneurial intentions among future engineers and identify the role than entrepreneurship education plays in the development of the engineers’ entrepreneurship. The results indicate that the need for independence is the key factor in the entrepreneurial intent of future engineers and confirm the positive contribution that entrepreneurship education has on their entrepreneurial intentions. Finally, recommendations are offered which could help the various agents involved increase the effectiveness of actions aimed at promoting firm creation in this area.

  2. INTEGRATING ENTREPRENEURIAL SELF-EFFICACY INTO EDUCATION AT UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljerka Sedlan-König

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Educational institutions are urged to provide more enterprising individuals who will either act as entrepreneurs, or will be able to manage their careers and lives in an entrepreneurial way. The purpose of this study is to address the role of teaching at universities in maximizing entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and to examine the possibility to maximize the likelihood of entrepreneurial behavior by enhancing entrepreneurial self-efficacy with university students. The study investigates the impact that entrepreneurial self-efficacy has on the development of entrepreneurial motivation and behavior using a sample of 324 students of Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek in Croatia. The results of the research indicate that students demonstrate a higher propensity for entrepreneurial behavior and a higher probability of starting their own business if they feel more self-efficient. The research has also highlighted that teaching at universities does not significantly improve the perception of entrepreneurial self-efficacy in students and that firsthand experience has a more important role in that. An important conclusion to emerge from this research is that in order to influence entrepreneurial behavior, it is necessary to make better use of experience-based learning and supplement university courses with components of informal and/or non-formal education.

  3. ENTREPRENEURIAL ECO-SYSTEMS & REGIONAL ALLIANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe ENGLISH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of universities and their role in enterprise development, support and education is very mature. However when Isenberg coined the term ‘entrepreneurial ecosystem’ and suggested that higher education was one of the key foundation blocks of a regional eco-system it threw open the concept of the university having a wider role in the overall business, economic and civic life of a region. What is this wider role, and how do the universities themselves view their place in this evolving entrepreneurial eco-system? How do they fit into Regional Alliances set up to build regional economic development? This paper introduces two pilot Alliances that have been recently formed using both the education institutes and the wider eco-system to drive Innovation and Graduate Employability (The SHIP and REAL Alliances.

  4. Improving Perceived Entrepreneurial Abilities through Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Tomas; Moberg, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    evaluated the influence of the program/course on entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE), attitudes to entrepreneurship and whether or not the students had started a company during their education. The result indicates that the entrepreneurship program was effective in enhancing ESE, attitudes......This study evaluates the impact of an entrepreneurship program. Two pre-test/post-test surveys were performed among students attending the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 classes. A third pre-post survey was sent to students enrolled in an innovation management course, who served as the control group. We...... to entrepreneurship and start up behavior, which was not observed in the control group. The paper concludes by pointing out some limitations of the study and discussing the possible influence of entrepreneurial education on ESE, attitudes to entrepreneurship and start up....

  5. Entrepreneurial intention modeling using hierarchical multiple regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Jeger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to identify the contribution of effectuation dimensions to the predictive power of the entrepreneurial intention model over and above that which can be accounted for by other predictors selected and confirmed in previous studies. As is often the case in social and behavioral studies, some variables are likely to be highly correlated with each other. Therefore, the relative amount of variance in the criterion variable explained by each of the predictors depends on several factors such as the order of variable entry and sample specifics. The results show the modest predictive power of two dimensions of effectuation prior to the introduction of the theory of planned behavior elements. The article highlights the main advantages of applying hierarchical regression in social sciences as well as in the specific context of entrepreneurial intention formation, and addresses some of the potential pitfalls that this type of analysis entails.

  6. Credit risk transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Bank for International Settlements

    2003-01-01

    Executive summary Techniques for transferring credit risk, such as financial guarantees and credit insurance, have been a long-standing feature of financial markets. In the past few years, however, the range of credit risk transfer (CRT) instruments and the circumstances in which they are used have widened considerably. A number of factors have contributed to this growth, including: greater focus by banks and other financial institutions on risk management; a more rigorous approach to risk/re...

  7. Modern bank's credit risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šabović Šerif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Credit risk is the most important risk banks have to face with. It occurs due to an obligation created because of debtors' capital and interest rate nonpayment. Debtors obligations non-fulfilment may lead to great losses and insolvency in bank's business. Credit risk is the crucial reason of bank's insolvency. Over 80% of bank's balance sheet is exposed to credit risk.

  8. Entrepreneurial universities in a world educational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kalenyuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes modern development tendencies of university activities, it proved establishing of a global educational system, which shows increase of university education role, competition escalating and transformation of modern universities functions. It comprehensively studies the process when universities, both traditional and modern – business ones, are extending their functions. The article studied the development of scientists’ beliefs related to the essence and forms of entrepreneurial universities. On a basis of generalization of existing approaches, the authors give definition of the essence of entrepreneurial university as a subject of educational, scientific and other allied activities, which receives financial resources from diversified sources, extends fields of its activities and services. The foundation of the system of extended and main criteria for definition of entrepreneurial universities was laid. The main ones are the following: considerable financial autonomy and receiving of significant funding from non-governmental and diversified sources. Amounts and financial funding structure of the world leading universities were analyzed. It was proved that income from activities, which are allied with the main one (educational activity, increase. The article provides the amounts and the significance of international grants that ensure financial firmness, financial motivation of personnel, upgrades of facilities and resources, initiation and effectiveness of scientific-research activities of universities. Special attention was paid to research of such financial resources of the world leading universities as endowment funds, their scales, features and importance to boost economic capacities of higher education establishments. It was proved that it is important to consider world experience of entrepreneurial universities’ work within development and improving of competitive performance of Ukrainian higher education

  9. Entrepreneurial Advantages and Disadvantages of Belonging

    OpenAIRE

    Egbert, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The article analyzes the influence of religious network structures on entrepreneurial success. Members of the religious community of the Bohras in Tanga, Tanzania are contrasted with entrepreneurs of other ethnic origins. It is shown that the religious network provides, through a loan scheme, the opportunities to start and run a business successfully. In this respect, the importance of the Islamic business ethic is underlined. Finally, the macro-economic effects of the network are outlined.

  10. Knowledge and the Maintenance of Entrepreneurial Capability

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Tardieu

    2003-01-01

    This paper intends to bridge the austrian theory of entrepreneurship and the recent developments of the theory of the firm, namely the Knowledge Based Approach. The KBA and the theory of entrepreneurship share a common focus on knowledge and coordination. It is argued herein that by examining the cognitive foundations of entrepreneurship it is possible to connect the KBA and the theory of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship is by essence a matter of opportunities. An entrepreneurial opportunit...

  11. Entrepreneurial Learning, Heuristics and Venture Creation

    OpenAIRE

    RAUF, MIAN SHAMS; ZAINULLAH, MOHAMMAD

    2009-01-01

    After rigorous criticism on trait approach and with the emergence of behavioral approach in entrepreneurship during 1980s, the researchers started to introduce learning and cognitive theories in entrepreneurship to describe and explain the dynamic nature of entrepreneurship. Many researchers have described venture creation as a core and the single most important element of entrepreneurship. This thesis will discuss and present the role of entrepreneurial learning and heuristics in venture cre...

  12. Developing entrepreneurial leadership for sustainable organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Rae, David

    2018-01-01

    This chapter sets out to explore the field of leadership development and its emerging contribution to sustainable entrepreneurship; why there is a need to develop research and effective practices in this area, and how this might be achieved. It studies the questions of how organisations can generate entrepreneurial leadership for their longer-term sustainability; how they can develop a sustained culture of entrepreneurship, and how they can facilitate people into leadership roles, which enabl...

  13. Entrepreneurial Orientation Scale: Adaptation to Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada-Grau, Joan; Sánchez-García, José Carlos; Viardot, Eric; Boada-Cuerva, Maria; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2016-07-25

    Entrepreneurship is linked to the perception of opportunities, to orientation, to attitudes, to the fear of failure and to entrepreneurial motivations. Entrepreneurial orientation is a fundamental construct for understanding the phenomenon of entrepreneurship. What is more, it is multidimensional and has attracted considerable attention from researchers in recent years. The objective of this study was to adapt the original 12-item English scale to Spanish and to analyze its psychometric properties. The participants in the present study were 925 Spanish employees (48.2% men, 51.5% women, M age = 42.49 years, SD age = 11.25) from the Autonomous Communities of Catalonia and Castilla-León. After applying an ESEM (RMSEA = .06; CFI = .97 and TLI = .95) a structure was determined made up of four factors which corroborated the structure of the original scale: Autonomy (α = .71 and CI = .68 - .73), Innovativeness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73), Risk Taking (α = .72 and CI = .68 - .74) and Competitive Aggressiveness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73). The four factors displayed suitable reliability. The study also found evidences of validity in relation to a series of external correlates and various scales which refer to workaholism, irritation and burnout. The scale presented here may prove useful for satisfactorily identifying, in Spanish, the entrepreneurial orientation of the working population.

  14. Regularities development of entrepreneurial structures in regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Semenovna Pinkovetskaya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Consider regularities and tendencies for the three types of entrepreneurial structures — small enterprises, medium enterprises and individual entrepreneurs. The aim of the research was to confirm the possibilities of describing indicators of aggregate entrepreneurial structures with the use of normal law distribution functions. Presented proposed by the author the methodological approach and results of construction of the functions of the density distribution for the main indicators for the various objects: the Russian Federation, regions, as well as aggregates ofentrepreneurial structures, specialized in certain forms ofeconomic activity. All the developed functions, as shown by the logical and statistical analysis, are of high quality and well-approximate the original data. In general, the proposed methodological approach is versatile and can be used in further studies of aggregates of entrepreneurial structures. The received results can be applied in solving a wide range of problems justify the need for personnel and financial resources at the federal, regional and municipal levels, as well as the formation of plans and forecasts of development entrepreneurship and improvement of this sector of the economy.

  15. Forested wetland habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberstein, Jamie A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennish, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    A forested wetland (swamp) is a forest where soils are saturated or flooded for at least a portion of the growing season, and vegetation, dominated by trees, is adapted to tolerate flooded conditions. A tidal freshwater forested wetland is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity of soil porewater less than 0.5 g/l. It is known locally as tidal várzea in the Amazon delta, Brazil. A tidal saltwater forested wetland (mangrove forest) is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity often exceeding 3 g/l and reaching levels that can exceed seawater. Mangrove ecosystems are composed of facultative halophytes that generally experience better growth at moderate salinity concentrations.

  16. Dual Credit Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Noreen

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, legislation to improve access to dual-credit programs and to reduce disparities in access and completion--particularly for low income and underrepresented students--was enacted. The new law focused on expanding access to College in the High School but acknowledged issues in other dual-credit programs and reinforced the notion that cost…

  17. The Sustainable Personality in Entrepreneurship: The Relationship between Big Six Personality, Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy, and Entrepreneurial Intention in the Chinese Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Mei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationships between Big Six personality and entrepreneurial intention, inclusive of the mediating role of entrepreneurial self-efficacy in the Chinese context. Survey data from 280 college students reveal that Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Interpersonal Relationship were positively associated with entrepreneurial intention. Agreeableness and Openness, however, had no effect on entrepreneurial intention in this study. Mediation analysis further indicated that Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Interpersonal Relationship affected entrepreneurial self-efficacy, thus playing an indirect impact on entrepreneurial intention. In contrast, Agreeableness and Openness had no mediating role in the present study. These findings validate the bridge mechanism of entrepreneurial self-efficacy underlying the relationships between Big Six personality and entrepreneurial intention. These results highlight the direct role of sustainable personality as a predictor of entrepreneurial intention, especially as we note the decisive effect of the Interpersonal Relationship dimension in the Chinese context for the first time.

  18. Credit Risk Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamore, Stephen; Ohene Djan, Kwame; Alon, Ilan

    2018-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of scholarly research on credit risk measurement during the last 57 years applying bibliometric citation analysis and elaborates an agenda for future research. The bibliography is compiled using the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web...... of Science (WOS) database and includes all articles with citations over the period 1960–2016. Specifically, the review is carried out using 1695 articles across 72 countries published in 442 journals by 2928 authors. The findings suggest that credit risk research is multifaceted and can be classified...... into six streams: (1) defaultable security pricing, (2) default intensity modeling, (3) comparative analysis of credit models, (4) comparative analysis of credit markets, (5) credit default swap (CDS) pricing, and (6) loan loss provisions. The article contributes through synthesizing and identifying...

  19. On Entrepreneurial Education: Dilemmas and Tensions in Nonformal Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantea, Maria-Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits the current policy assumptions on youth entrepreneurship and their possible implications on entrepreneurial learning in nonformal settings. Based on secondary literature analysis, it interrogates the nonformal learning practices that promote entrepreneurship and calls for entrepreneurial learning to incorporate higher awareness…

  20. Entrepreneurial Saving Practices and Reinvestment : Theory and Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Pamuk, H.; Uras, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    We use a novel enterprise survey from Tanzania to gauge the relationship between saving instruments and entrepreneurial reinvestment. While most informal savings practices do not imply a lower likelihood of entrepreneurial reinvestment when compared with formal savings practices, we find a

  1. The Role of VET in the Entrepreneurial Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Kemmis, Don

    2017-01-01

    In the context of ongoing globalisation and faster technological change, economies are becoming more entrepreneurial and more knowledge-intensive. Entrepreneurial economies and societies require institutions, organisations, regulations and relationships different from those of the industrial societies of the late twentieth century. Consequently,…

  2. The relationship between individualism and entrepreneurial intention : a Finnish perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rantanen, Teemu; Toikko, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to analyze the relationship between individualist values and entrepreneurial intentions. Previous surveys have shown that major national differences in entrepreneurial intentions can be observed within Europe and that part of this variation can be explained by cultural values, especially the individualism–collectivism dimension. However, previous findings about the relationship between individualism and entrepreneurship remain contradictory. Design/methodology/ap...

  3. How Do Entrepreneurial Bosses Influence Their Employees’ Future Entrepreneurship Choices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam

    the main explanation for the positive influence of female entrepreneurial bosses on female employees’ transition into entrepreneurship. We show that the female boss effect is greater than other social interactions identified in prior research. We conclude that entrepreneurial bosses can be role models...

  4. Exploring the Behavioural Patterns of Entrepreneurial Learning: A Competency Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Thomas Wing Yan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to empirically explore the behavioural patterns involved in entrepreneurial learning through a conceptualization of entrepreneurial learning as a "competency". Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews to 12 entrepreneurs were conducted with a focus on the critical incidents in which…

  5. The Role of Peripherality in Students' Entrepreneurial Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubberød, Elin; Pettersen, Inger Beate

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to expand on the entrepreneurial learning literature and situated learning theory to explore how students with different educational backgrounds learn to recognise opportunities at the periphery of an entrepreneurial practice. The authors theoretically outline factors that may influence students'…

  6. No More Heroes: Entrepreneurial Learning in the SME Management Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckeown, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is increasingly viewed as a plural rather than singular endeavour. This paper develops a conceptual framework of team-based entrepreneurial learning, challenging the myth of the entrepreneurial "Lone Ranger" and revealing the significance of power structures in the SME management team in mediating what is and is not learnt.…

  7. Entrepreneurial Capabilities at the Regional Level in Multinational Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoenen, Anne K.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Ambos, Björn

    of RHQs’ entrepreneurial capabilities. We illustrate our arguments on the basis of data on European RHQs. In addition, our study opens up for an interesting discussion of these mechanisms’ interdependence. This contributes to our understanding of RHQs as important entrepreneurial actors within the MNE......, the structuring of regions, and the importance of MNE external embeddedness....

  8. Entrepreneurial innovation in chains and networks in Dutch greenhouse horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, L.; Kooten, van O.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the critical success factors in entrepreneurial innovation, and the role of cooperation with chain partners, knowledge institutions and colleague firms in the Dutch glasshouse industry. This industry, typified by a large number of family-owned entrepreneurial firms, is

  9. Entrepreneurial behavior in organizations: Does job design matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.P.J.; Parker, S.K.; Wennekers, A.R.M.; Wu, C.W.

    2015-01-01

    We take a first step to explore how organizational factors influence individual entrepreneurial behavior at work, by investigating the role of job design variables. Drawing on multiple-source survey data of 179 workers in a Dutch research and consultancy organization, we find that entrepreneurial

  10. Inclusion of entrepreneurial competencies within the undergraduate programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Woge

    2016-01-01

    3rd European Congress on Physiotherapy Education with a platform representation “Inclusion of entrepreneurial competencies within the undergraduate programme”2012.......3rd European Congress on Physiotherapy Education with a platform representation “Inclusion of entrepreneurial competencies within the undergraduate programme”2012....

  11. Business accomplishments, gender and entrepreneurial self-image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); I. Verheul (Ingrid); L.M. Uhlaner (Lorraine)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractDrawing on Bem’s psychological theory of self-perception, this paper presents and tests a model that examines the impact of business accomplishments and gender on entrepreneurial self-image and explores the definition of entrepreneurship according to Vesper’s Entrepreneurial Typology.

  12. Entrepreneurial Motivations and Intentions: Investigating the Role of Education Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solesvik, Marina Z.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the difference in entrepreneurial intentions, perceived entrepreneurial motivation, and cognitive profiles (attitudes towards entrepreneurship, perceived behaviour control, and subjective norms) between individuals who have participated in enterprise education programmes in the universities and…

  13. Students' Entrepreneurial Intentions: An Inter-Regional Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Mario; Haase, Heiko; Lautenschlager, Arndt

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The central research questions which the paper aims to answer are: What are the entrepreneurial intentions of university students in different European regions? What are the factors that most contribute to entrepreneurial intentions and the potential differences between the regions? Design/methodology/approach: This cross-sectional study…

  14. Revisiting the Antecedents of Social Entrepreneurial Intentions in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Ching Yin; Wu, Shih-Chia; Liu, Huei-Ching; Liang, Chaoyun

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how empathy, moral obligation, social entrepreneurial self-efficacy, perceived social support, and prior experience with social problems are associated with social entrepreneurial intentions. Through a survey, a sample of 252 Hong Kong students was used for analyses. Factor analyses supported that the antecedents of social…

  15. Pervasiveness of Entrepreneurial Orientation: Do Engagement and Voice Behavior Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belousova, Olga; Groen, Aard J; Gailly, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    A long-standing line of research proves a positive relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and performance of firms. Still, it is surprising, how little we know about the way entrepreneurial orientation is shaped, fostered, developed and maintained within organizations. Wales, Monsen, and

  16. Entrepreneurial orientation and practice: three case examples of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Historically disadvantaged schools are mostly in a position where they cannot easily practise entrepreneurial customs like innovation, proactiveness and risktaking. However, some of these schools perform well under similar circumstances and show strong entrepreneurial inclinations. In fact, in research conducted in 2006, ...

  17. MANAGEMENT OF CREDIT LOSSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya P. Anoshkina

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the problem of credit loss management topical for modern Russian science and banking practice. The bank’s lending activity is an integral and the most profitable sphere of banking activity. Banks need to take credit risks inherent in their core business and minimize their impact through the establishment of advanced risk management systems. The study, reflected in the present paper, has been conducted in order to determine approaches to the organization of credit loss management in banking. Analysis of the system of management of credit risks and credit losses has shown that they have different scope, object and purpose. In this connection, there is an objective necessity to create a special subsystem for the management of credit losses in banks. On the basis of common bank approaches to credit risk management, the paper develops models of credit loss management: a multi-level management model in the area of ‘operational-tactical-strategic management’ and a functional management model in the area of ‘technology-execution-control’. These models are important for the modern theory and practice of banking, as they allow the bank to manage credit losses on the entire time horizon of the management process, thus opening a wide range of opportunities for the creation and implementation of large-scale programs, as well as specific techniques. This study allows drawing a conclusion about the need to consider control credit losses as a strictly regulated multi-level process, in which each division is assigned with specific objectives, tasks, functions, formally enshrined in the relevant lists, job descriptions and other legal documents.

  18. Opportunity Evaluation through Experiential Learning (OETEL): An Analysis of Perceived Desirability, Perceived Feasibility, and Entrepreneurial Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Krisakorn Sukavejworakit; Triyuth Promsiri; Thanaphol Virasa

    2018-01-01

    The entrepreneurial intention is recognized as the best predictor of entrepreneurship activity. This study aims to extend the understanding of entrepreneurial intention within the context of entrepreneurship education. The role of opportunity evaluation on entrepreneurial intention was explored with the application of Experiential Learning Theory. The conceptual framework was developed based on the integrated entrepreneurial intention model, where perceived desirability and perceived feasibil...

  19. Application of Shapero’s Model In Explaining Entrepreneurial Intentions Among University Students In Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    JOHN KARANJA NGUGI; PROF. R. W. GAKURE; SIMON MAINA WAITHAKA; AGNES NYAMBURA KIWARA

    2013-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is considered as an engine of economic growth. Entrepreneurial process starts from development of entrepreneurial intentions. A large number of scholars have focused on the internal and psychological aspects regarding entrepreneur. However, little is known about how external factors can influence the development of entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurial intentions is influenced by three key latent variables; perceived desirability, propensity to act and perceived feasibi...

  20. Fostering Entrepreneurship: an Empirical study of Entrepreneurial mind set of Engineering and Technology students in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, Tahseen Mahmood; Asghar, Muhammad Zaheer; Liñán, Francisco (Coordinador); Guzmán Cuevas, Joaquín J. (Coordinador)

    2011-01-01

    Purpose- Entrepreneurship is usually considered only subject of business students. Due to lack of knowledge of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial skills engineering and technology education students are left behind in entrepreneurial activities. In order to add to literature on forecasting entrepreneurial intentions this research paper aims to examine levels of Entrepreneurial Intentions amongst Engineering and Technology students in Pakistan. Theoretical Framework- This research is bas...

  1. Entrepreneurial orientation in a franchised home entertainment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maritz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper fills the gap in the research undertaken into the entrepreneurial orientation of franchisees. The study identifies entrepreneurial orientation within a defined franchise system, using the entrepreneurial character theme matrix developed by Thompson (2002. Research methodology comprises the survey approach, using electronic media and Surveypro analysis (Dillman, 2000. Hypothesis tests highlight the absence of statistically significant entrepreneurial orientation in the franchise system, despite a significant orientation in a multiple-outlet proposition analysis. Conclusions and recommendations include mobilising and communicating the action factors associated with entrepreneurial orientation, involving all franchisees within the system. Managerial implications include the motivation of developing multiple-outlet franchise systems. Future research involves broadening the data set across industries and borders.

  2. Significance of personal characteristics for entrepreneurial youth activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Adamoniene

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic policy of the European Union is based on the encouragement of every resident’s economic activity. The greatest attention is paid to motivating the youth to work and encouraging their entrepreneurial activity. Scientists are actively discussing the impact of personal characteristics on entrepreneurial activity, and entrepreneurship is analyzed under two key aspects in terms of this research. Scientists describe entrepreneurship differently: some claim entrepreneurship is simply initiative, others that these are natural and acquired human characteristics, which enable his/her innovative behaviours and active performance and risk. The research aim is, after having identified personal youth characteristics, to define their significance for entrepreneurial activity. During the research the significance of personal entrepreneurial characteristics was indicated, and their links to value principles and specific influential factors on youth entrepreneurial activity.

  3. The Role of Economic Academic Education on Entrepreneurial Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dana Niţu-Antonie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to identify the role played by personality characteristics on entrepreneurial intentions and resultant behaviours, in the case of university students with economic education. The analysis was performed on a group of undergraduate and master degree students of the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration from the West University of Timişoara. For the investigated population, empirical results indicate that: (i personality characteristics are antecedents of behavioural characteristics depending on situational constraints that allow their expression; (ii behavioural characteristics emerge as significant predictors of entrepreneurial intention; (iii entrepreneurial intention is a primary forecaster of real entrepreneurial activity; (iv the increase of educational level and study programs’ specificity, to which the investigated population belongs, guarantee for entrepreneurial awareness raising and instruction of aspirant entrepreneurs.

  4. AN EMPIRICAL EXAMINATION OF ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION. EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru CONSTANGIOARA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the desired performances and the increased value added to the final consumer, organizations need not only to integrate their core businesses and align them to business strategy but also to develop essential entrepreneurial competences. After presenting the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation and their specificity in a supply chain, we propose an empirical research using a working dataset of 64 firms from various industries to analyze the Romanian entrepreneurial supply chains. Structural equations are employed to estimate the complex relationships between organizational performances and entrepreneurial orientation in supply chains at national level. Results show that entrepreneurial orientation influences organizational competences only in the framework of the supply chain management strategic approach to operational excellence.

  5. Explaining Entrepreneurial Behavior: Dispositional Personality Traits, Growth of Personal Entrepreneurial Resources, and Business Idea Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Applying a life-span approach of human development and using the example of science-based business idea generation, the authors used structural equation modeling to test a mediation model for predicting entrepreneurial behavior in a sample of German scientists (2 measurement occasions; Time 1, N = 488). It was found that recalled early…

  6. Entrepreneurial Capabilities and Organizational Transformation: Entrepreneurial Evolution at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Thiago; Carvalho de Mello, Jose Manoel

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian government has been fostering innovation through policies aimed at transferring technology from publicly funded science and technology organizations to the market. One response to this initiative has been an attempt by some universities to transform themselves into entrepreneurial institutions. In this paper the authors use a…

  7. How to become more entrepreneurial? : The role of identity in entrepreneurial goal orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarysse, Bart; van Boxstael, A.; Humphreys, John

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyze how social identification and role identity salience interplay and explain the entrepreneurial goal orientation of founder-owners of professional home nursing practices. First, we show how social identification with particular communities (i.e. professional

  8. The Effect of the Entrepreneurial Learning Design on Students' Entrepreneurial Competence in Vocational High Schools in Makassar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhe, Arniati; Tawe, Amiruddin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at determining to what extent the entrepreneurial learning design influences students' entrepreneurial competence in the Vocational High School in the Makassar. To achieve that goal, then some data collection techniques were used namely documentation and questionnaires. The data were analyzed using several techniques namely…

  9. Effects of Entrepreneurial Knowledge on Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Longitudinal Study of Selected South-East Asian Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxas, Banjo

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on the theory of planned behaviour, this study examines the direct and indirect effects of knowledge gained from a formal entrepreneurship education programme on an individual's entrepreneurial intentions (EI). It tracks the changes in students' entrepreneurial knowledge (EK), perceptions of desirability of, and self-efficacy in, engaging…

  10. Trust and Credit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    The present paper is an answer to the question, how did trust and credit emerge. The systems of trust and credit reduce the environmental and contextual complexities in which trust and credit are embedded. The paper analyses the forms of this reduction in a number of stages in the evolution...... of history from the present risk of modern systems back to early modernity, the Reformation and the high medieval Revolutions in law, organization and theology. It is not a history of economics, but a history of the conditions of some communication codes used in economic systems....

  11. Credit Risk Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, David

    Credit risk is today one of the most intensely studied topics in quantitative finance. This book provides an introduction and overview for readers who seek an up-to-date reference to the central problems of the field and to the tools currently used to analyze them. The book is aimed at researchers...... and students in finance, at quantitative analysts in banks and other financial institutions, and at regulators interested in the modeling aspects of credit risk. David Lando considers the two broad approaches to credit risk analysis: that based on classical option pricing models on the one hand...

  12. Credit risk management in banks

    OpenAIRE

    Pětníková, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this diploma thesis is managing credit risk in banks, as the most significant risk faced by banks. The aim of this work is to define the basic techniques, tools and methods that are used by banks to manage credit risk. The first part of this work focuses on defining these procedures and describes the entire process of credit risk management, from the definition of credit risk, describing credit strategy and policy, organizational structure, defining the most used credit risk mi...

  13. Credit derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Romain Rancière

    2002-01-01

    Credit Derivatives are securities that offer protection against credit or default risk of bonds or loans. The credit derivatives emerging market has grown rapidly and credit derivatives are widely used. This paper describes the emerging credit derivatives market structure. The current market activity is analyzed through elementary pricing dynamics and the study of the term structure of default risk. Focusing on the performance of credit derivatives in stress situation, including legal and mar...

  14. Entrepreneurial patent management in pharmaceutical startups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgersson, Marcus; Phan, Tai; Hedner, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Startups fill an increasingly important role as innovators in the pharmaceutical industry, and patenting is typically central to their success. This article aims to explore patent management in pharmaceutical startups. The results show that startups need to deal with several challenges related to patenting and an 'entrepreneurial' approach to patent management is called for. Resource constraints, venture capital provision, exits and other conditions and events must be readily considered in the patent management process to build a successful pharmaceutical venture, something that could benefit the pharmaceutical industry as a whole. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding the Entrepreneurial Process: a Dynamic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Maria Jorge Nassif

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable predominance in the adoption of perspectives based on characteristics in research into entrepreneurship. However, most studies describe the entrepreneur from a static or snapshot approach; very few adopt a dynamic perspective. The aim of this study is to contribute to the enhancement of knowledge concerning entrepreneurial process dynamics through an understanding of the values, characteristics and actions of the entrepreneur over time. By focusing on personal attributes, we have developed a framework that shows the importance of affective and cognitive aspects of entrepreneurs and the way that they evolve during the development of their business.

  16. The entrepreneurial revolution in health care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, A D

    1987-06-01

    The rapid changes in the health marketplace have opened the door for entrepreneurs. The author shows how entrepreneurs seek previously unthought of solutions to problems and through a team effort increase corporate value. According to the author, there is a specific profile of the successful entrepreneur. The qualities of the entrepreneur and the managers that work with them, therefore, are discussed in detail. Finally, several examples of problems in health care that present entrepreneurial opportunities are presented. The author includes scenarios for taking advantage of these opportunities.

  17. The role of control in entrepreneurial growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Fleck, Emma; Krueger, Norris

    as a proxy for entrepreneurial intentions. However, little research has attempted to establish the underlying mechanisms that produce or inhibit the development of self-efficacy. Social cognitive theory links self-efficacy to the exercise of personal control. Extending these findings to entrepreneurship......In this article we seek to extend previous work on control by developing a theoretical framework for understanding the role of control in entrepreneurship. We explore power-control theory as a tool for understanding the risk-related behaviours among entrepreneurs. Self-efficacy has long been used...

  18. Entrepreneurial Business Development Through Building Tribes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzweber, Markus; Mattsson, Jan; Standing, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Understanding tribe development can be critical to the survival of entrepreneurial e-service ventures. This article presents findings on how a Swedish start-up industrial design company termed BETTER-DESIGN attempted to build a global presence by creating a tribe of followers on the web. From thi...... of electronic word of mouth in social network environments....... this single in-depth case study and a comprehensive literature review, a model is developed comprising the necessary components to succeed in tribe building efforts in social media. These components include social cohesion of the inner tribe (founders) in terms of vision, the creation of an icon (a...

  19. Entrepreneurial Leapfrogging in the Context of ISE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We know little regarding the underlying contexts and mechanisms for disruptive innovation initiated by the entrepreneurial firms in the emerging economies. Further, there is limited knowledge about the contexts and mechanisms for global latecomers to catch up with and leapfrog global early......-movers. The cross-fertilization between such two research streams provides a great opportunity to shed light on their link toward an interdisciplinary domain of international strategic entrepreneurship (ISE). This article will develop an integrative typology of global innovations as well as a dynamic model...

  20. Public Service? Tax Credits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Albert

    1982-01-01

    Acknowledges the good work of private schools but resists the provision of further direct or indirect government aid to these schools. Argues that tax credits will adversely affect public education and American society. (Author/WD)

  1. Burnup credit in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, J.M.; Recio, M.

    2001-01-01

    The status of development of burnup credit for criticality safety analyses in Spain is described in this paper. Ongoing activities in the country in this field, both national and international, are resumed. Burnup credit is currently being applied to wet storage of PWR fuel, and credit to integral burnable absorbers is given for BWR fuel storage. It is envisaged to apply burnup credit techniques to the new generation of transport casks now in the design phase. The analysis methodologies submitted for the analyses of PWR and BWR fuel wet storage are outlined. Analytical activities in the country are described, as well as international collaborations in this field. Perspectives for future research and development of new applications are finally resumed. (author)

  2. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs. The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed.

  3. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yozzo, David

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  4. Principles of Wetland Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    the return of a degraded ecosystem to a close approximation of its remaining natural potential - is experiencing a groundswell of support across the United States. The number of stream, river, lake, wetland and estuary restoration projects grows yearly

  5. Wetland Groundwater Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Greg

    1993-01-01

    This technical note summarizes hydrologic and hydraulic (H AND H) processes and the related terminology that will likely be encountered during an evaluation of the effect of ground-water processes on wetland function...

  6. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  7. Industrial entrepreneurial network: Structural and functional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, M. A.; Davletbaev, R. H.; Berg, D. B.; Nazarova, J. J.; Parusheva, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    Structure and functioning of two model industrial entrepreneurial networks are investigated in the present paper. One of these networks is forming when implementing an integrated project and consists of eight agents, which interact with each other and external environment. The other one is obtained from the municipal economy and is based on the set of the 12 real business entities. Analysis of the networks is carried out on the basis of the matrix of mutual payments aggregated over the certain time period. The matrix is created by the methods of experimental economics. Social Network Analysis (SNA) methods and instruments were used in the present research. The set of basic structural characteristics was investigated: set of quantitative parameters such as density, diameter, clustering coefficient, different kinds of centrality, and etc. They were compared with the random Bernoulli graphs of the corresponding size and density. Discovered variations of random and entrepreneurial networks structure are explained by the peculiarities of agents functioning in production network. Separately, were identified the closed exchange circuits (cyclically closed contours of graph) forming an autopoietic (self-replicating) network pattern. The purpose of the functional analysis was to identify the contribution of the autopoietic network pattern in its gross product. It was found that the magnitude of this contribution is more than 20%. Such value allows using of the complementary currency in order to stimulate economic activity of network agents.

  8. Entrepreneurial networks as culturally embedded phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlatka Skokic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship research concerning networks has largely focused on network structure, content and governance. We believe that further research is required in order to gain a richer understanding of why specific network forms and types originated. The purpose of this paper is to explore the existence, importance, values and meanings of both the informal and formal networks and networking behaviours of small-scale hotel owner-managers embedded in the socio-economic context of Croatia. In order to gain richer and more detailed understanding of entrepreneurial networks and to understand the influence of socio-economic setting on entrepreneurial networking, we have employed qualitative, in-depth study with small hotel owners. Results suggest that entrepreneurs do not establish strong personal and firm-to-firm ties, but rather focus on formal associations. Reported findings identify socio-cultural factors apparently unique to the context of former socialist economy which have the potential to explain the reported networking behaviour. The adopted research approach brings another dimension to existing theoretical underpinnings, which can encourage researchers to extend or revise theories with new contextual variables.

  9. Engineering students and their entrepreneurial intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Dionísio Vieira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Promoting entrepreneurship is a key opportunity in the current environment, and engineering have recognized this criticism by including in their curricula basic financial disciplines. Given the current economic situation, provide the future engineer with concepts and techniques to move from knowledge to action, can improve the value perception of entrepreneurship as an alternative to employability on behalf of others. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminary results of the ENGEmpreende survey developed to measure the perceived attitudes and values of entrepreneurship by engineering students. Our sample involves 387 students of engineering courses from University of Minho. Portuguese engineering students report good levels of thoughts about entrepreneurship. Our study also found that their entrepreneurship predisposition has dependency relationships with gender, thoughts about entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial activities. The results of the perceived image of the entrepreneur suggest that students recognize the positive image of the entrepreneur in society, but have doubts about what is best: entrepreneur or employee in a large company? As perceived barriers, engineering students perceive as difficult to find a business idea or access to bank loans. Students’ perceived skills and competence suggest a perceived high adaptability, perseverance, technical confidence and orientation to results. The results of ENGEmpreende survey give an additional contribution to the theme of engineering entrepreneurship intentions through the identification of entrepreneurship predisposition, attitude to self-employment, entrepreneurial image, barriers to entrepreneurship, risk perception and technical confidence.

  10. Studying entrepreneurial occupations in the Terman women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Schröder, Elke; Obschonka, Martin

    2017-07-16

    To achieve a better understanding of entrepreneurship development in women, longitudinal data on 672 individuals collected from 1922 to 1959 were analysed in a secondary investigation of the Terman Longitudinal Study. Women's reports on their occupations during 10 different years were assigned to one of two categories: work for pay (0/1), and work allowing for self-employment (0/1) in the respective year. Structural equation modelling supported earlier results concerning male entrepreneurial activity. Personality and aspects of the parenting context the women had experienced by the average age of 12 predicted early entrepreneurial competencies (inventions, leadership) and occupational interests by age 13, which related to an entrepreneurship-related career goal in 1936, when the participants were about 27 years of age on average. Such a career goal in turn predicted a higher number of occasions of entrepreneurship-prone work. Surprisingly, we also found a relationship to divorce. Women who had experienced the failure of a marriage were in occupations with a potential for entrepreneurship more often. Reasons are discussed against a backdrop of historical timing and current findings to identify general aspects of entrepreneurship development. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  11. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  12. Economic Freedom and Entrepreneurial Activity: Evidence from EU 11 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Dragan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will present the results of our survey on economic freedom and entrepreneurial activity. We have conducted our analysis on EU 11countries (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom for the time period 2000- 2014. To measure the entrepreneurial activity we have used data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, and to measure economic freedom, we have used data from Fraiser Institute. Our results suggest strong positive and statistically significant, long term impact of economic freedom on entrepreneurial activity.

  13. Developing entrepreneurial competencies in the healthcare management undergraduate classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Louis; Freshman, Brenda

    2005-01-01

    Recently, entrepreneurial behavior is becoming more accepted in the healthcare field. This article describes an attempt to foster development of positive entrepreneurial competencies in the undergraduate health administration classroom. Through a literature review on entrepreneurs, eight competency clusters are identified; decision making, strategic thinking, risk taking, confidence building, communicating ideas, motivating team members, tolerance of ambiguity, and internal locus of control. These clusters are used to promote entrepreneurial skills for students though identified learning-centered activities and supplement an instructional style that facilitates thoughtful reflection.

  14. Entrepreneurial orientation and religion: the Pastor as an entrepreneur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Silva Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent decades Brazil has witnessed radical changes in its religious composition, with rapid expansion of Evangelical communities. Within these communities there exist various religious associations in which pastors play a key role. Using the theoretical framework of Entrepreneurial Orientation, and based on interviews with 20 Neopentecostal pastors in Belo Horizonte/Minas Gerais, this article shows that, in their work developing their churches, pastors exhibit characteristically entrepreneurial behavior (innovation, proactivity, competitive aggressiveness, risk-taking, autonomy. This study further demonstrates the importance and explanatory power of the Entrepreneurial Orientation theoretical framework and may open new research perspectives for social managers, social scholars and practitioners in related fields.

  15. The effects of entrepreneurial intention on business performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Radipere

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the relationship between entrepreneurial intention and business performance using 500 small, micro and medium enterprises (SMMEs in Gauteng province, South Africa. A questionnaire was used to collect data. The findings from the survey were modelled through a categorical regression model with business performance as a dependent variable. The level of significance of eight out of twelve variables suggests that entrepreneurial intention be classified as the strongest predictor of business performance. These findings, depicting the magnitude of the business environment in the study area, clearly confirm the positive impact of entrepreneurial intention on business performance.

  16. Theorizing on entrepreneurial orientation in international business: A synthetic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Narayanan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Both, entrepreneurship and international business have been topics of interest for academicians, businessmen and policy-makers around the world. Now it is obvious that entrepreneurs also do business internationally. International entrepreneurship is still a new research domain within international business studies and current empirical investigations focus on entrepreneurial orientation while internationalizing. The main objective of the paper is to discuss the concept of the international entrepreneurial orientation, by linking entrepreneurial orientation and internationalisation of the firm. The article is based on in-depth literature review and its critics.

  17. Faktor-Faktor yang Berpengaruh Terhadap Niat Kewirausahaan (Entrepreneurial Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieli Suharti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate factors that influence entrepreneurial intentions of college students. The analysis model includes internal factors, attitudes factors and contextual factors. The research involves a sample of 255 students from 6 faculties at Satya Wacana Christian University by using an accidental sampling technique. The results show a significant effect of the attitude factors, such as autonomy, authority, self realization, perceived confidence, and security, on the entrepreneurial intention of students. Likewise, this research also indicates the role of the contextual factors, such as academic support and social support in determining the entrepreneurial intentions of students.

  18. Metro Multnomah Wetlands - Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project characterizes wetlands use by juvenile salmonids and other fishes in the Multnomah Channel Marsh Natural...

  19. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - MO 2012 East West Gateway Wetlands (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Cowardin’s Classification of Wetlands and Deep Water Habitats of the United States (http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/wetlands/classwet/index.htm), together with...

  20. DETERMINING THE FACTORS AFFECTING ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem BAHADIR

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the factors affecting an individual’s ‘entrepreneurial intention’, which is a significant indicator of whether the individual will start a new enterprise, are examined within the Planned Behavior Theory. The main purpose of the research is to state what the determinants of entrepreneurial intention are. The study aims to contribute to answering the question, ‘Who can be the potential entrepreneurs in Turkey’ by presenting the factors having an impact on entrepreneurial intention on a regional basis through Zonguldak example. The roles of the research's independent variables (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, entrepreneurial self efficacy on entrepreneurial intentions were tested on 229 trainees participating voluntarily in Applied Entrepreneurship Trainings organized by KOSGEB in Zonguldak and its towns. The results of the research show that attitudes towards entrepreneurial behaviour, perceived entrepreneurial control, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and subjective norms are influential on the entrepreneurial intention of the individual.

  1. CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Haugbølle, Kim

    2010-01-01

    During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project was a fr......During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project...... was a framework of indicators relevant in building and real estate and applicable in the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as a proposal for a set of key indicators. The study resulting in CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework has been based on 28 case studies of evaluation practises in the building and real...... estate sector each addressing three interlinked levels: building/ projects level, company or enterprise level and benchmarking system level. Additionally it has been based on dialogue with researchers and professional organisation, international research and standardisation work and national building...

  2. Investigation of the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Opportunity Recognition and Entrepreneurial Capitals

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Ramezanpour; Seyran Amiriyan; Ali Naghi Mosleh Shirazy

    2014-01-01

    The heart of entrepreneurship is the creation and/or recognition of opportunities. Although there is no universal definition of entrepreneurship, opportunity recognition has been viewed as the central definition of this phenomenon. Without an opportunity there is no entrepreneurship. Therefore opportunity recognition is widely seen as a key step of the entrepreneurial processes. The identification of opportunities has been recognized as one of the most important abilities of successful entrep...

  3. Unlacing the entrepreneurial potential : exploring factors influencing entrepreneurial intention and entrepreneurship education in emerging economies

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Ian Keith

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that there is a strong correlation between entrepreneurship and economic development and a global movement to promote entrepreneurial action is quickly gaining momentum. In emerging economies entrepreneurship may be of crucial importance. It is believed that “entrepreneurship is the engine that will push the emerging economies forward as the states of the developing world quickly grow to be major economic forces” (Bruton et al., 2008, p. 2), so it is quite surprising that ...

  4. Wetlands Restoration Definitions and Distinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological restoration is a valuable endeavor that has proven very difficult to define. The term indicates that degraded and destroyed natural wetland systems will be reestablished to sites where they once existed. But, what wetland ecosystems are we talki

  5. Wetland Program Development Grants (WPDGs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Wetland Grant Database (WGD) houses grant data for Wetland Program Development Grants (created by EPA in 1990 under the Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3)...

  6. Wetland Restoration and Sediment Removal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — In 2008, Minnesota’s Private Lands Program and Wetland Management Districts began to compare different methods of restoring prairie pothole wetlands to see if there...

  7. Latinos in the Credit Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    Access to consumer credit as a means of building wealth is one of the least examined forms of social inequality. The recent economic crisis in the United States has brought attention to the significance of consumer credit in our nation's economy; however, less understood are the specific obstacles and barriers that prevent low-income individuals from reaching the "American Dream." In an exploratory manner, this study compared credit access, credit literacy, and credit experience of low-income...

  8. Credit derivatives and risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Michael S. Gibson

    2007-01-01

    The striking growth of credit derivatives suggests that market participants find them to be useful tools for risk management. I illustrate the value of credit derivatives with three examples. A commercial bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risk of its loan portfolio. An investment bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risks it incurs when underwriting securities. An investor, such as an insurance company, asset manager, or hedge fund, can use credit derivatives to align its...

  9. Models of Credit Risk Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Hagiu Alina

    2011-01-01

    Credit risk is defined as that risk of financial loss caused by failure by the counterparty. According to statistics, for financial institutions, credit risk is much important than market risk, reduced diversification of the credit risk is the main cause of bank failures. Just recently, the banking industry began to measure credit risk in the context of a portfolio along with the development of risk management started with models value at risk (VAR). Once measured, credit risk can be diversif...

  10. Determinants of Financial Sustainability for Farm Credit Applications—A Delphi Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes I. F. Henning

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmers use credit from commercial credit providers to finance production activities. Commercial credit providers have to predict the financial sustainability of the enterprise to ensure that the borrower will have the ability to repay the loan. A Delphi study was conducted to explore what factors are used as indicators of loan-repayment ability of farmers. The objective was not only to identify factors that are currently considered, but also to identify other personal attributes that may improve the accuracy in predicting the repayment ability of potential borrowers. The Delphi was applied to a panel consisting of nine credit analysts and credit managers from a commercial credit provider in South Africa. The results indicate that the current and past financial performance, account standing, collateral, and credit record of the farm are very important in the assessment of applications in terms of financial performance. Experience and the success factors compared to competitors were found to be important, while age and education/qualification are regarded as less important in predicting repayment ability. The results also show that, although not currently objectively included in credit evaluations, credit analysis regards leadership and human relations; commitment and confidence; internal locus of control; self-efficacy; calculated risk taking; need for achievement; and opportunity seeking as important indicators of the ability of potential borrows to repay their loans. Thus, credit analysts and managers also regard management abilities and entrepreneurial characteristics of potential borrowers to be good indicators of repayment ability. Results from this research provide new indicator factors that can be used to extend existing credit evaluation instruments in order to more accurately predict repayment ability.

  11. How does the closure of interorganizational relationships affect entrepreneurial orientation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Ruiz-Ortega

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study delves in the controversy about the nature and the sign of the effect of interorganizational relationships on entrepreneurial orientation. The paper analyses the effects of networks of interorganizational relationships at firm level. Specifically, we study the influence of closure of interorganizational relationships in entrepreneurial orientation and the mediating role of dynamic capabilities. The empirical analysis was developed on a sample of 292 Spanish agri-food firms. We detect a positive mediating effect of the closure of interorganizational relationships, mainly cooperative relationships, on entrepreneurial orientation through dynamic capabilities. It highlights the emergence of a suppression effect uncovering the dark side of closed interorganizational relationships in several dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation – proactiveness, autonomy and risk-taking –. This paper contributes to link three theoretical approaches – social capital, entrepreneurship and dynamic capabilities – to probe further into the implications of interorganizational relationships.

  12. Rethinking the entrepreneurial university for the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Sarah; Shumar, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    There is a deep concern about how higher education worldwide has become more narrowly focused on the economy, on qualification and credentialing. Central to this concern is the notion of the “Entrepreneurial University.” Touted by policy makers, university administrators and politicians...... different conception of the entrepreneurial, which comes from the work in Entrepreneurship Education (EE) in Scandinavia. The present climate has produced a kind of legitimacy crisis in that the only knowledge that is socially valued is knowledge that is already seen to have economic value. But Scandinavian...... as the model for the university of the future, entrepreneurial is seen as a synonym for the marketized and economized university, an institution where economic rationality determines research directions, curricular offerings, pedagogical theory, and services offered. Critics of the entrepreneurial university...

  13. Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and Regional Policy : A Sympathetic Critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, Erik|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/215649370

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Regional policies for entrepreneurship are currently going through a transition from increasing the quantity of entrepreneurship to increasing the quality of entrepreneurship. The next step will be the transition from entrepreneurship policy towards policy for an entrepreneurial economy.

  14. Measuring Entrepreneurial Activity in Egypt and Tunisia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will examine trends in entrepreneurial activity in these two countries, attitudes toward entrepreneurship, barriers to starting a business, and access to finance. The analysis will ... Driving vaccine innovations to improve lives and livelihoods.

  15. Value-Chain Networks and Entrepreneurial Output in Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitratos, Pavlos; Andersson, Ulf; Liouka, Ioanna

    2011-01-01

    on their entrepreneurial output. Entrepreneurial output can generate superior performance and positive externalities to the subsidiary. Based on a large-scale study of 268 multinational subsidiaries in the UK, we find that value-chain networks have a higher positive impact than multinational corporation (MNC) networks...... and non value-chain networks; because they may provide the subsidiary knowledge with market opportunities that it lacks and that the other types of networks cannot effectively provide. However, value-chain networks have a negative effect on entrepreneurial output of a subsidiary operating...... in an environment of high uncertainty; because they can constrain the exploration and creation of new knowledge that cannot be provided by any of the networks. Contrary to our expectations, the combined effect of value-chain and non-value chain networks has a negative influence on entrepreneurial output; and...

  16. The Entrepreneurial Process as an effectuation of Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Suna; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a supplementary perspective to Sarasvathy's (2001) effectuation theory in entrepreneurship research. Contrary to perceiving identity as a given precondition for the entrepreneurial process, as it is practiced in effectuation theory, the paper presents a supplementary conceptual...

  17. Investigating the effects of virtual social networks on entrepreneurial marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambeiz Talebi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of virtual social networks on entrepreneurial marketing. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale based on a model originally developed by Morris et al. (2002 [Morris, M. H., Schindehutte, M., & LaForge, R. W. (2002. Entrepreneurial marketing: a construct for integrating emerging entrepreneurship and marketing perspectives. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 10(4, 1-19.]. The study considers the effects of three components of virtual social network (VSN; namely structural VSN, interaction VSN and functional VSN on entrepreneurial marketing. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined positive and meaningful effects of all three VSN components on entrepreneurial marketing.

  18. Proactiveness in entrepreneurial software firms: the executives' voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Boissin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches proactiveness in firms, considered to be one of the dimensions of the entrepreneurial orientation. Its goal is to introduce the results of an exploratory and qualitative study, which aimed to characterize the proactiveness in entrepreneurial software firms. The theory resumes the concepts of entrepreneurial firms, entrepreneurial orientation and proactiveness. The data gathering was accomplished through deeper interviews with executives from 13 software firms that stand out in terms of entrepreneurship in Rio Grande do Sul state. The results of the study demonstrate that firms are proactive and show a characterization regarding this behavior, starting from the conceptual base adopted in the present study. Among the proactiveness elements in the researched organizations, the onesrelated to environment monitoring and opportunities quest are highlighted. The study also consoliding a components’ set of proactiveness based on the theory and organizational practice reported by executives.

  19. Entrepreneurial Education: A Realistic Alternative for Women and Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, James F.; Boyd, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    Entrepreneurial education is a valid, realistic occupational training alternative for minorities and women in business. Entrepreneurship requires that one become involved with those educational programs that contribute significantly to one's success. (Author)

  20. A multidimensional approach to entrepreneurial competencies among young entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André Kloosterman; Loredana Orhei; S. Nandram

    2013-01-01

    The construct of competence is explained through several approaches: individual, training, human resources, management, and entrepreneurial. Competences can be explained by different concepts such as knowledge, understanding, skills and behavior. In the literature there is a trend towards a holistic

  1. The Strategic Organization of the Entrepreneurial Established Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The entrepreneurship field predominantly focuses on start-ups, opportunity discovery and single individual. These overall characteristics mean that the field has difficulties conceptualizing and theorizing the entrepreneurial activities of established firms. In particular, the links between organ...

  2. Assessment of the Effects of Moderating Factors of Entrepreneurial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moderating Factors of Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) on the performance of ... factors such as cultural orientation and organizational structure (internal factors), social economic factors and political and legal factors (external factors) have a ...

  3. An Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy Scale with a Neutral Wording

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moberg, Kåre

    in the scale, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has been applied to investigate its convergent, discriminatory and nomological validity. The results demonstrate support for a multidimensional ESE-scale with high predictive validity regarding entrepreneurial behaviours and with high reliability...

  4. Corellation Between Achievement Motivation and Entrepreneurial Leadership Quality: Meta Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Hakim Nasution

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a meta analysis of the experimental and survey literature that has examined the effect of achievement motivation, as a part of the big five personality factors, and entrepreneurial leadership quality. This quantitative study review 20 studies based on independent samples (N = 6209. Summary analysis is provided to support the hypothesis in which the achievement motivation has a correlation with entrepreneurial leadership quality on a fairness procedural. Result indicates that the achievement motivation influences the quality of entrepreneurial leadership in a significant value (rc = 0.26. This finding is relevant to all stakeholders (educators, governments, and parents to make a better decision on the development of entrepreneurial leadership policies.

  5. exploring the african business model in relation to entrepreneurial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    different entrepreneurial and business leadership paradigms from America, Europe and ..... conventional authoritarian leadership style and that of servant leadership. ... people lived peacefully, under the democratic rule of their kings, the Chief ...

  6. Entrepreneurial Inclination Among Business Students: A Malaysian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yet-Mee Lim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Entrepreneurship has been the fundamental topics of discussion among the politicians, economists, and academics. Business creation is especially critical in developing countries to stimulate economic growth. The present study attempts to examine entrepreneurial inclination among students who are a potential source of entrepreneurs. The fi ndings of the present research study indicate that majority of our business students are not entrepreneurial-inclined. They do not seem to possess strong entrepreneurial characteristics and entrepreneurial skills, and they are not keen in starting a new business. The roles of higher institutes of education and the government in promoting entrepreneurship are discussed.

  7. Entrepreneurial orientation and practice: three case examples of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Case examples of three successful entrepreneurial historically disad- vantaged primary schools are presented. ... been elements of innovativeness and entrepreneurship in public sector orga- nisations, including public .... sources, these schools identify sustainable ventures that generate resources. Secondly, whether these ...

  8. Determining Factors of Entrepreneurial Motivation: Evidence from EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Roman

    2016-01-01

    Overall, our study highlights that macroeconomic conditions and the perception of theentrepreneurs about entrepreneurial activity are affecting significantly and with opposite signs theentrepreneurial activity depending on the motivation of entrepreneurs (opportunity or necessity.

  9. perception of job opportunities and entrepreneurial skills in library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-01

    Feb 1, 2018 ... entrepreneurial skills in Library and Information Science LIS). Investigative ... such as acquisition of documents, management ... centers as effective communication system, the ... but because of economic contributions of the.

  10. SOCIETY OF KNOWLEDGE AND ENTREPRENEURIAL ECONOMY: SOME VIEWS OF DRUCKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRUME NIKOLOSKI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to update the economic thoughts and opinions of Peter Drucker related to society knowledge and entrepreneurial society. The paper will be elaborated his claims relating to the transformation, the capitalism, and the characteristics of the new society. In particular will be analyzed some Ducker’s sightings for entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial economy, and innovations in the society. Namely, in this paper theory of innovation and entrepreneurship economic thinker Drucker is going to be refined and analyzed. In order to get begin the process of economic gain. Drucker believes that entrepreneurial economy is linked to the new companies which develop. According to him, entrepreneurs are the central figure in the economic growth. A main focus of the paper will be placed on the concepts and theories of entrepreneurial economy. The motivation is that theories are the source of new ideas, and every theory upgraded and changed parts of already existing theories.

  11. Wetlands: The changing regulatory landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Protection of wetlands became a national issue in 1988 when President George Bush pledged no net loss of wetlands in the US under his open-quotes environmental presidency.close quotes As wetlands became a national issue, the job of protecting them became an obligation for many groups, including hydro-power developers. Now, when a site selected for development includes an area that may be classified as a wetland, the developer quickly discovers the importance of recognizing and protecting these natural habitats. Federal legislation severely limits development of wetland, and most states increase the restrictions with their own wetlands regulations. The difficulty of defining wetlands complicates federal and state enforcement. Land that appears to be dry may in fact be classified as a wetland. So, even if a site appears dry, potential hydro developers must confirm whether or not any jurisdictional wetlands are present. Regulated lands include much more than marshes and swamps. Further complicating the definition of wetlands, a recent court decision found that even artificially created wetlands, such as man-made ponds, may be subject to regulation. Hydro developers must be aware of current regulatory requirements before they consider development of any site that may contain wetlands. To be certain that a site is open-quotes buildableclose quotes from the standpoint of wetlands regulation, a developer must verify (with the help of state agencies) that the property does not contain any jurisdictional wetlands. If it does, the regulatory process before development becomes much more complicated. For the short term, uncertainty abounds and extreme caution is in order. Because the regulatory process has become so complex and an agreeable definition of wetlands so elusive, the trend among the Corps and collaborating agencies is to constrict nationwide permits in favor of narrowing the jurisdictional definition of wetlands

  12. Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intention among University Students: Case of Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Garo, E.; Kume, V.; Basho, S.

    2015-01-01

    [EN] In Albania, during the last decades entrepreneurship has been in focus. It is commonly agreed that developing entrepreneurship in the long term would be translated into sustainable economic development. Albanian economy, being an economy in transition greatly and urgently needs to invest into increasing the number of entrepreneurs in the country. Entrepreneurial intention is considered to be really important. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to observe the determinants of entrepreneuri...

  13. Compete or Leapfrog: Creating Blue Ocean through Entrepreneurial Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Arslan Ayub; Muhammad Salman Aslam; Hanan Iftekhar; Adeel Razzaq; Sabiha Hafeez

    2013-01-01

    The study analyzes the role of entrepreneurial orientation with mediating effect of knowledge creation process to creating Blue Ocean in corporate sector in Pakistan There is an increasing competition among companies due to globalization and technological advancements. Thus, it requires a study to measure the multifaceted influence of entrepreneurial orientation on knowledge creation process and Blue Ocean besides the actual paradigm of this terminology. This concept has been well discussed i...

  14. Academic Entrepreneurialism and Private Higher Education in Europe (Chapter 6)

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiek, Marek

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we will focus on basic ideas and key concepts functioning in research on academic entrepreneurialism. The reference point here will be public institutions (the original focus of reflection both in Europe and the USA) and private institutions (under-researched from this particular analytical perspective both in Europe and in the USA). Apart from the discussion of the individual core elements of the “entrepreneurial university”, there will be discussions intended to see the d...

  15. Is there an entrepreneurial culture? A review of empirical research

    OpenAIRE

    James Hayton; Gabriella Cacciotti

    2014-01-01

    The literature on the association between cultural values and entrepreneurial beliefs, motives and behaviours has grown significantly over the last decade. Through its influence on beliefs, motives and behaviours, culture can magnify or mitigate the impact of institutional and economic conditions upon entrepreneurial activity. Understanding the impact of national culture, alone and in interaction with other contextual factors, is important for refining our knowledge of how entrepreneurs think...

  16. Entrepreneurial thinking as a key factor of family business success

    OpenAIRE

    Hnátek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Many entrepreneurs are really visionary game changers who believe both in their missions and values. These types of entrepreneurs use their mindsets and essential entrepreneurial thinking to build successful family businesses. The aim of this paper is to describe this special mindset, which manifests itself in entrepreneurial thinking, and offer a solution to help successors in family businesses to refresh and improve the core businesses given to them. Design thinking might be used as a metho...

  17. Exploring confidence: entrepreneurial leadership in news media organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Nel, Francois Pierre; Lehtisaari, Katja; Millburn-Curtis, Coral

    2015-01-01

    Leading a news media business has never been simple, but success in today’s increasingly turbulent and competitive environment requires entrepreneurial leadership distinct from other behavioural forms of leadership. This paper reflects on both entrepreneurship and leadership in order to develop a construct of entrepreneurial leadership in the context of the contemporary news media industry. Then, drawing on original data collected through the 21-question World Newsmedia Innovation Study condu...

  18. Canons, competencies and critique: delivering an undergraduate entrepreneurial marketing module

    OpenAIRE

    Ardley, Barry; Hardwick, Jialin

    2017-01-01

    In the context of the debate about the status of marketing degrees, graduate knowledge and competencies, this paper reflects on a set of pedagogic issues associated with the delivery of a final level entrepreneurial marketing module. Drawing on key literature, the module takes a set of entrepreneurial marketing canons as the basis of learning. Primary research was conducted into student perceptions of the module based on an interpretative methodology, using an open ended questionnaire. Studen...

  19. THE IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL SLACK IN ORGANIZATIONS ON ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Nurdan Gürkan; Ahmet Ferda Çakmak

    2016-01-01

    The concept of entrepreneurial orientation, which emerges with the development of strategic management, refers to entrepreneurship orientations of businesses. The businesses need resources in other words organizational slack in order to develop their entrepreneurial trends. The organizational slack consists of three slack type. These slack types are available slack, recoverable slack and potential slack. The purpose of this study is to examine whether organizational slack in the businesses ha...

  20. Entrepreneurial decision-making : Individuals, tasks and cognitions

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Veronica

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to gain a deeper understanding of decision-making of individuals involved in the entrepreneurial process. It is achieved by comparing entrepreneurs with different level of expertise in contexts that are more or less entrepreneurship-inducing. The issues of learning and expertise – investigation of what entrepreneurial knowledge is and how it is applied – are also addressed. This is an attempt of a multidisciplinary study based on entrepreneurship theory and emp...

  1. Global warming and prairie wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poiani, K.A.; Johnson, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns and waterfowl habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model

  2. Wetland soils, hydrology and geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Rhett Jackson; James A. Thompson; Randall K. Kolka

    2014-01-01

    The hydrology, soils, and watershed processes of a wetland all interact with vegetation and animals over time to create the dynamic physical template upon which a wetland's ecosystem is based (Fig. 2.1). With respect to many ecosystem processes, the physical factors defining a wetland environment at any particular time are often treated as independent variables,...

  3. Occupational dreams, choices and aspirations: adolescents' entrepreneurial prospects and orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Vondracek, Fred W

    2002-02-01

    The present study examined possible early antecedents of entrepreneurship of 14-17-year-old 10th grade students (n=320). We hypothesized that Entrepreneurial Orientation (interest and self-efficacy), together with Willingness to Expend Effort, would be an important predictor of an adolescent's Entrepreneurial Prospects, i.e. prospects of becoming self-employed in the future. Furthermore, personality and the model of self-employed family were expected to predict the level of Entrepreneurial Orientation. The same relationships were investigated separately for students who were more or less willing to expend effort. Among students more willing to expend effort, levels of Entrepreneurial Orientation were higher for those who were conscientious, self-efficient, open to new experiences, and low in agreeableness. Among students less willing to expend effort, a high need for social recognition predicted higher levels of Entrepreneurial Orientation. In addition, parents' model for them was connected with lower levels of Entrepreneurial Orientation. A moderating effect of Willingness to Expend Effort was supported by the results for parents' model and need for social recognition. Copyright 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  4. Entrepreneurial Attitudes: Comparing Independent Business’ Owners with Franchisees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bento Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify opportunities is the force behind thousands of small and medium enterprises, contributing to the improvement of social and economic performance of a country. The choice between starting an independent business or becoming franchisee seems to depend on different behaviors and attitudes of the entrepreneur. This research aims verify, based on entrepreneurial behavioral characteristics and the theory of planned behavior, whether there are differences in the degree of entrepreneurial attitude of franchisees and independent business owners, especially the food service industry. The issue as to possibility finding different attitudes in this study originated from assumedly less entrepreneurial characteristics of the franchisee, such as greater security and reduced innovation. As a theoretical basis, we dug into the concepts of entrepreneurship, entrepreneur and franchise, besides attitude and planned behavior. To data collect data we used the Instrument of Measure Entrepreneurial Attitude (IMAE proposed by Lopes and Souza Jr. (2005. The study was conducted with thirty occupants of the position of owner, main manager or co-owner of small and medium-sized food enterprises, in the city of Uberlândia, Brazil. Fifteen of them were franchisees and fifteen were independent business owners. Results indicated that, contrary to expectations, the entrepreneurial attitude of franchisees is higher. The most determinant factor in the entrepreneurial attitude differences observed in this study seems to be time in business.

  5. Evaluation Model of the Entrepreneurial Character in EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Madalin Munteanu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The evidence of entrepreneurship development as a factor of sustainable growth at national and regional level frequently calls for the interest of theorists and practitioners on identifying and outlining the best conditions and economic essential prerequisites for supporting the entrepreneurial initiatives on the long term. In this context, the objective of the present research is to analyse and measure the entrepreneurial character of the European Union member countries in an integrated manner, by developing an innovative model for proposing specific action lines and objectively evaluating the entrepreneurship development in the investigated states. Our model is based on a synthesis variable of the entrepreneurial national character, which was developed by sequential application of principal component analysis, while the initial variables are from secondary sources with good conceptual representativeness. Depending on the objective relevance of the three model components (cultural, economic and administrative, and entrepreneurial education components, the achieved results confirm the importance of a favourable cultural and economic and administrative background for entrepreneurship development and they reiterate the inefficiency of isolated entrepreneurial education unless supported by good entrepreneurial culture or adequate economic and administrative infrastructure. The case of Romania, in relation with the European Union member countries, is presented in detail.

  6. The Social Entrepreneurial Antecedents Scale (SEAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockerts, Kai

    2015-01-01

    as to identify possibly issues with cross-loadings. Next confirmatory factor analysis was used on the second sample to verify the goodness of fit for the model. Finally, nomological validity was confirmed. Findings – First, this article develops and refines measures of empathy, moral obligation, self......Purpose – This paper aims to develop and validate measures of four constructs that have often been identified as antecedents of social entrepreneurial behavior: empathy with marginalized people, a feeling of moral obligation to help these, a high level of self-efficacy concerning the ability...... to effect social change and perceived availability of social support. Nomological validity is demonstrated by showing that, as specified by Mair and Noboa (2006), empathy and moral obligation are positively Associated with perceived desirability and self-efficacy and social support with perceived...

  7. Entrepreneurial inclinations of women from rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković-Savić Olivera S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial inclinations of women from rural areas are shaped by the lack of business ideas and economic capital, which, in addition to financial resources, includes cultural capital in the form of knowledge and skills. The paper presents a part of a broader study on the social position of women from the rural areas of northern Kosovo and Metohija, conducted in 2013. The research was predominantly focused on entrepreneurial inclinations of rural women, and the findings suggest that private enterprise in the studied population is undeveloped as a result of two dominant reasons. The first reason is the situation which is unfavorable in terms of politics and security, and therefore, not conducive to investment security, together with the specificity in the form of complex administrative business conditions requiring compliance to parallel and mutually incompatible standards (of the Republic of Serbia and of the UNMIK administration. The second important reason for the lack of entrepreneurial initiatives is the lack of ownership of property and the means of production, since banks do not give loans without guarantees in the form of ownership of the mortgage, while other forms of financial incentives are unavailable. The respondents attended programs for acquiring new knowledge and skills only in a small number of cases, while showing the greatest susceptibility to education in traditional skills, such as training in agriculture and handicrafts, which are not the skills in line with the needs of the labor market. As the most important reasons that -prevent them from having their own business, the respondents -mentioned: the lack of ideas and the lack of financial resources. In this regard, they would find incentives in the form of grants most helpful to start their own business. The absence of funds and gender inequality form the basis for the lack of ownership of property and means of production. In addition to the shortage of financial

  8. Experts' perceptions on the entrepreneurial framework conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Aldina; e Silva, Eliana Costa; Lopes, I. Cristina; Braga, Alexandra; Braga, Vitor

    2017-11-01

    The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor is a large scale database for internationally comparative entrepreneurship. This database includes information of more than 100 countries concerning several aspects of entrepreneurship activities, perceptions, conditions, national and regional policy, among others, in two main sources of primary data: the Adult Population Survey and the National Expert Survey. In the present work the National Expert Survey datasets for 2011, 2012 and 2013 are analyzed with the purpose of studying the effects of different type of entrepreneurship expert specialization on the perceptions about the Entrepreneurial Framework Conditions (EFCs). The results of the multivariate analysis of variance for the 2013 data show significant differences of the entrepreneurship experts when compared the 2011 and 2012 surveys. For the 2013 data entrepreneur experts are less favorable then most of the other experts to the EFCs.

  9. How spatial context influences entrepreneurial value creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates how rural communities are enriched by entrepreneurial value-creating activities that go beyond job creation and growth. In addition, this study explores how spatial context influences these value-creating activities. This qualitative case-based study shows that rural......-being of the community. Thus, this study contributes to an in-depth understanding of how and why entrepreneurship can create multiple forms of value in rural areas as well as how value creation behaviours are motivated by the spatial context. In addition, it provides explanations why not all rural entrepreneurs...... entrepreneurs create 14 types of value for their communities, ranging from purely economic to socioeconomic and to social value. The reasons why rural entrepreneurs create value, not only for themselves, but value that benefits the community is partly explained by their desire to contribute positively...

  10. Economics Foundations for an Entrepreneurial Marketing Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen

    1997-01-01

    and its strategy, parts of the essence of the marketing concept are being challenged. This article proposes that a new entrepreneurial marketing concept based on an ex-ante supply-push conception of marketing, and which focuses on future market demands and the future capabilities of the firm......This article examines developments in economics and strategic management theory and discusses their implications for marketing. Recent advances in economic theory have suggested new inputs to marketing management theory and practice. With the advance of the “new economic theories” of the firm......, will be capable of solving these problems. Possible elements in a new approach are suggested. The focus is on industrial marketing, very long-term and very general environmental analysis, and on innovation, industrial transformation and the building of the competencies of the firm....

  11. FACTORS THAT STIMULATE THE ECOSYSTEM ROMANIAN ENTREPRENEURIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANŢA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has begun to grapple with the global economic and financial crisis, and entrepreneurs have become "heroes" capable of delivering impetus to fragile economies. Small and innovative companies account for 99% of all Europe's active companies and offer 66% of available jobs. In the context of a worrying unemployment rate that persists in many countries of the world, entrepreneurship has become a viable solution to economic problems. Entrepreneurship can not be defined precisely, and the multidimensionality and homogeneity of the concept makes it very difficult to generalize the conclusions of studies for regions other than those for which they were originally developed. The objective of the present study is to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the Romanian entrepreneurial ecosystem and the factors that have the power to stimulate it, thus allowing the design of efficient policies for the development of Romanian entrepreneurship.

  12. The co-construction of entrepreneurial sensemaking : an empirical examination of socially situated cognitive mechanisms in entrepreneurial cognitive development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaffka, Gabi Anja

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the topic of entrepreneurial cognitive development during business opportunity development. Business opportunity development takes place in a social context and is affected by the entrepreneur’s (inter)action with relevant stakeholders (Clarke & Cornelissen, 2011).

  13. Recommendations for Alternative Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderman, Ed; And Others

    Following a review of the mathematics topics taught in accounting, electronics, auto, food and clothing, and metals courses at Linn-Benton Community College, Albany, Oregon, recommendations were made to grant one semester of mathematics credit for completing a two-year sequence of these courses. The other required semester of mathematics should be…

  14. Earned Income Tax Credit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Oers; R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn recent policy discussions in the Netherlands, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) has been put forward as an effective instrument to reduce the unemployment rate among low-skilled workers. Using the MIMIC model, this article shows that a targeted EITC at low incomes indeed seems

  15. Waiting for tax credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinkopf, K.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the effect of tax credits and related legislation under consideration by Congress on the economics of the renewable energy industry. The topics discussed in the article include conflicting industry opinion on financial incentives, the effectiveness of current incentives, and alternative approaches. The article also includes a sidebar on tax incentives offered by state programs

  16. Ecological outcomes and evaluation of success in passively restored southeastern depressional wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.; Barton, Christopher, D.

    2010-11-01

    Abstract: Depressional wetlands may be restored passively by disrupting prior drainage to recover original hydrology and relying on natural revegetation. Restored hydrology selects for wetland vegetation; however, depression geomorphology constrains the achievable hydroperiod, and plant communities are influenced by hydroperiod and available species pools. Such constraints can complicate assessments of restoration success. Sixteen drained depressions in South Carolina, USA, were restored experimentally by forest clearing and ditch plugging for potential crediting to a mitigation bank. Depressions were assigned to alternate revegetation methods representing desired targets of herbaceous and wet-forest communities. After five years, restoration progress and revegetation methods were evaluated. Restored hydroperiods differed among wetlands, but all sites developed diverse vegetation of native wetland species. Vegetation traits were influenced by hydroperiod and the effects of early drought, rather than by revegetation method. For mitigation banking, individual wetlands were assessed for improvement from pre-restoration condition and similarity to assigned reference type. Most wetlands met goals to increase hydroperiod, herb-species dominance, and wetland-plant composition. Fewer wetlands achieved equivalence to reference types because some vegetation targets were incompatible with depression hydroperiods and improbable without intensive management. The results illustrated a paradox in judging success when vegetation goals may be unsuited to system constraints.

  17. Entrepreneurial finance: new frontiers of research and practice: Editorial for the special issue Embracing entrepreneurial funding innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Bellavitis, C.; Filatotchev, I.; Kamuriwo, D. S.; Vanacker, T.

    2017-01-01

    The proliferation of new sources of entrepreneurial finance potentially makes it easier for ventures to raise capital and grow. To date, entrepreneurial finance literature has developed a rich tradition of research on venture capital and angel finance. However, the emergence of “new” sources of finance, such as crowdfunding and the limited attention paid to “traditional” debt financing and financial bootstrapping, offers opportunities to explore, from different points of view and theoretical ...

  18. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ..., consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our... FXRS1265066CCP0] Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District, SD; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

  19. Framework for Explaining the Formation of Knowledge Intensive Entrepreneurial Born Global Firm: Entrepreneurial, Strategic and Network Based Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytaute Dlugoborskyte

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the knowledge based entrepreneurship relates to its essential reliance on research and development, deployment and maximization of research and development returns via technology development, and its commercialization via venturing. The paper aims to provide the empirically grounded framework for the analysis of the key determinants leading to the formation of R&D intensive entrepreneurial born global firm with a special focus on entrepreneurial firm and network theories. The unit of analysis chosen is the firm, while the focus is set on the firm behavior and strategic choices rather the business conditions per se. The paper aims to propose the definition of a born global firm as a specific form of entrepreneurial firm that forms while combining entrepreneurial, strategy and network constituents in a specific globally oriented constitution. Method of analysis applied is a multiple case study that was applied in order to build evidence on the interplay of strategy, networks and entrepreneurial constituents in the formation of knowledge intensive entrepreneurial born global firm. The small catching up country perspective adds on dynamics of the constituents as the framework and competitive conditions rapidly change in an uncertain direction.

  20. CO2 credit or energy credit in emission trading?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, E.

    2002-01-01

    Emission trading is a good concept and approach to tackle global warming. However, what ''currency'' or ''credit'' should be used in the trading has remained a debatable topic. This paper proposed an ''Energy Credit'' concept as an alternative to the ''CO 2 credit'' that is currently in place. From the thermodynamic point of view, the global warming problem is an ''energy balance'' problem. The energy credit concept is thought to be more thermodynamically correct and tackles the core of the global warming problem more directly. The Energy credit concept proposed can be defined as: the credit to offset the extra energy trapped/absorbed in the earth (and its atmosphere) due to the extra anthropogenic emission (or other activities) by a country or company. A couple of examples are given in the paper to demonstrate the concept of the Energy credit and its advantages over the CO 2 credit concept. (author)

  1. Constructed wetlands : the Canadian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, S.; Champagne, P. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Large volumes of wastewater from livestock and production facilities must be treated to minimize the contamination of waterways in agricultural areas. This paper investigated the use of constructed wetlands as a lower-cost and efficient method of treating agricultural wastewaters. The study found that while constructed wetlands required limited maintenance, temperature dependency of the constructed wetlands systems is a limiting factor in their widespread implementation. Lower operating temperatures are only overcome by constructing larger wetlands systems, which require a substantial amount of land. The Canadian climate poses significant challenges to the implementation of constructed wetlands, which become inoperative during winter months. Plants and bacteria normally become dormant or die during winter months, which can create a lag in wetland treatment during the initial months of operation in the Spring. Snowmelt and added rainfall in the Spring can also create a high flow within the wetland cells, as many constructed wetlands rely on runoff as a feed source. Washout of bacteria can occur. Wastewater storage systems or further engineering of the wetlands may be required. It was concluded that insulating wetland cells will maintain a warmer operating temperature, while the addition of an aeration system will increase the treatment efficiency of the wetland during winter months. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. Introduction of Credit Derivatives and Valuation of Credit Default Swap

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Lu

    2006-01-01

    The credit derivative market was established at the beginning of the 1990s since the emergence of credit derivatives fits the rapid development of the whole derivatives market. However, compare to other derivative market, this market is still small and incomplete. As with other derivatives, credit derivatives can be used to either take more risk or hedge it, hence various credit derivatives instruments are accepted and widely used by market participants such as banks, insurance companies, etc...

  3. Delving into Entrepreneurial Orientation Pervasiveness Question: The Critical Role of Consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belousova, Olga; Monsen, Erik; Groen, Aard J; Gailly, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has extensively investigated the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance, leaving the way entrepreneurial orientation is shaped, fostered, developed and maintained within organizations almost unattended. This paper is among the first to systematically

  4. The recognition of first time international entrepreneurial opportunities: Evidence from firms in knowledge-based industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra, Y.; Styles, C.; Wilkinson, I.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to complement existing theories of internationalization by studying an important aspect which has been neglected in previous studies: the process of international entrepreneurial opportunity recognition. International market entry is conceptualized as an entrepreneurial,

  5. Microbiology of wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Watersaturated soil and sediment ecosystems (i.e. wetlands) are ecologically as well as economically important systems due to their high productivity, their nutrient (re)cycling capacities and their prominent contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions. Being on the transition between

  6. Consumer Handbook to Credit Protection Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington, DC.

    The five sections of this consumer handbook are The Cost of Credit, Applying for Credit, Credit Histories and Records, Correcting Credit Mistakes, and Complaining about Credit. Each section discusses relevant legislation: Truth in Lending, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, and the Fair Credit Reporting Act. Topics discussed in section I include…

  7. Social Entrepreneurial Intention among Business Undergraduates: An Emerging Economy Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorseha Ayob

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social entrepreneurs are viewed as having the abilities to combat social and economic problems in which government, businesses, and non-profits may not be able to solve the problems alone. Consequently, with the collaboration among these sectors, more social enterprises can be established to create social values and development in a nation, specifically among the emerging economies. Therefore, it is timely to investigate what motivates undergraduates to develop social entrepreneurial intention. Drawing from the entrepreneurial models of Shapero and Sokol (1982 and Kruger and Brazeal (1994, this study aims to examine the social entrepreneurial intention among undergraduates from the perspective of an emerging economy. The proposed conceptual model differs from the existing entrepreneurial intention studies by adding the concepts of empathy and social entrepreneurship exposure as the antecedents to perceived desirability and perceived feasibility of social enterprising start-up, which in turn link to social entrepreneurial intention. Using the quota sampling technique, data were collected from 257 business and economics undergraduates from both public and private higher education institutions in Malaysia. The survey instrument was adapted from prior related studies, for instance, Davis (1983 for empathy; Shapero and Sokol (1982 for social entrepreneurship exposure; Krueger (1993 for perceived desirability and perceived feasibility; and Chen et al. (1998 for social entrepreneurial intention. Partial least squares path modelling was used to analyze the hypothesized relationships in the proposed conceptual framework. It is hoped that the findings of this study will shed light on the existing literature of social entrepreneurship, specifically the social entrepreneurial intention studies from the emerging economies perspective.

  8. Social Entrepreneurial Intention among Business Undergraduates: An Emerging Economy Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayob Noorseha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Social entrepreneurs are viewed as having the abilities to combat social and economic problems in which government, businesses, and non-profits may not be able to solve the problems alone. Consequently, with the collaboration among these sectors, more social enterprises can be established to create social values and development in a nation, specifically among the emerging economies. Therefore, it is timely to investigate what motivates undergraduates to develop social entrepreneurial intention. Drawing from the entrepreneurial models of Shapero and Sokol (1982 and Kruger and Brazeal (1994, this study aims to examine the social entrepreneurial intention among undergraduates from the perspective of an emerging economy. The proposed conceptual model differs from the existing entrepreneurial intention studies by adding the concepts of empathy and social entrepreneurship exposure as the antecedents to perceived desirability and perceived feasibility of social enterprising start-up, which in turn link to social entrepreneurial intention. Using the quota sampling technique, data were collected from 257 business and economics undergraduates from both public and private higher education institutions in Malaysia. The survey instrument was adapted from prior related studies, for instance, Davis (1983 for empathy; Shapero and Sokol (1982 for social entrepreneurship exposure; Krueger (1993 for perceived desirability and perceived feasibility; and Chen et al. (1998 for social entrepreneurial intention. Partial least squares path modelling was used to analyze the hypothesized relationships in the proposed conceptual framework. It is hoped that the findings of this study will shed light on the existing literature of social entrepreneurship, specifically the social entrepreneurial intention studies from the emerging economies perspective.

  9. Dynamic Virtual Credit Card Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Ian; Li, Jiangtao; Li, Ninghui

    Theft of stored credit card information is an increasing threat to e-commerce. We propose a dynamic virtual credit card number scheme that reduces the damage caused by stolen credit card numbers. A user can use an existing credit card account to generate multiple virtual credit card numbers that are either usable for a single transaction or are tied with a particular merchant. We call the scheme dynamic because the virtual credit card numbers can be generated without online contact with the credit card issuers. These numbers can be processed without changing any of the infrastructure currently in place; the only changes will be at the end points, namely, the card users and the card issuers. We analyze the security requirements for dynamic virtual credit card numbers, discuss the design space, propose a scheme using HMAC, and prove its security under the assumption the underlying function is a PRF.

  10. The Language of Successful Entrepreneurs: An Empirical Starting Point for the Entrepreneurial Mindset

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Matthew Patrick James; Kamovich, Uladzimir; Andersson, Gunnar; Steinert, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The concept of entrepreneurial mindset is growing in popularity within the field of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurial mindset orients humans' behaviour towards entrepreneurial activities and outcomes. The concept lacks empirical support due to methodological difficulties in discovering how entrepreneurs think. This article aims to address this by examining the language successful entrepreneurs use in an attempt to find evidence of an expert entrepreneurial mindset. Language represents the way...

  11. Identifying the main Individual Factors Influencing Entrepreneurial Decision making Biases: A Qualitative Content Analysis Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kambiz Talebi; Pouria Nouri; Abdolah Ahmadi Kafeshani

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurial decisions are one of the most important functions of entrepreneurs so as to manage their ventures on a daily basis. These decisions are not fully rational and because of various factors like cognitive and personal characteristics, environmental and firm-related issues, entrepreneurial decisions are prone to biases. Decision making biases has become a favorable research topic among entrepreneurial scholars. Decision making biases are responsible for lots of entrepreneurial succ...

  12. Risk Worth Taking - Entrepreneurial Behaviour When Faced with Risk and Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zichella, Giulio

    theory suggests differences in risk taking due to individual characteristics. However, entrepreneurship theory did not provide empirical support for such differences. Using data from a laboratory experiment with simple money games, we observe how individuals from two different groups (entrepreneurial......-oriented, non-entrepreneurial-oriented) react to different degrees of risk and uncertainty when real monetary incentives are involved in each decision. The analysis reveals significant differences between entrepreneurial and non-entrepreneurial-oriented individuals in their decision making. In particular...

  13. Dynamic Diversification in Corporate Credit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Jin, Xisong

    We characterize diversification in corporate credit using a new class of dynamic copula models which can capture dynamic dependence and asymmetry in large samples of firms. We also document important differences between credit spread and equity return dependence dynamics. Modeling a decade...... the crisis and remain high as well. The most important shocks to credit dependence occur in August of 2007 and in August of 2011, but interestingly these dates are not associated with significant changes to median credit spreads....

  14. Are carbon credits effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Is it possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by assigning a value to CO 2 ? That's the concept behind carbon credits. Their advantage: they set targets but let companies decide how to meet them. Of all the processes that can be used to reduce air pollution, the cap and trade system is the best way to meet global targets on a national or continental scale. The system's efficiency is based on setting a ceiling for emissions: this is the cap. The emissions quotas are negotiable goods that can be traded on a market: this is the 'trade'. No company can exceed its quotas, but it can choose how to meet them: decreasing its emissions by changing its production processes, buying carbon credits sold by companies that have exceeded their targets, or using clean development mechanisms. For a carbon credit system to function correctly on an economic level, it's essential to meet one condition: don't allocate too many emissions quotas to the companies involved. If they receive too many quotas, it's not hard for them to meet their objectives without changing their production processes. The supply of carbon credits currently exceeds demand. The price per ton of CO 2 is collapsing, and companies that have exceeded their targets are not rewarded for their efforts. Efficient though it may be, the cap and trade system cannot be the only way to fight CO 2 emissions. In Europe, it presently covers 40% of the CO 2 emissions by targeting utilities and industries that consume the most fossil fuels. But it cannot be extended to some sectors where pollution is diffuse. In transportation, for example, it's not possible to impose such a requirement. For that sector, as well as for the building sector, a suitable system of taxes might be effective and incentive

  15. The African Credit Trap

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Andrianova; Badi H. Baltagi; Panicos O. Demetriades; David Fielding

    2010-01-01

    We put forward a plausible explanation of African financial underdevelopment in the form of a bad credit market equilibrium. Utilising an appropriately modified IO model of banking, we show that the root of the problem could be unchecked moral hazard (strategic loan defaults) or adverse selection (a lack of good projects). We provide empirical evidence from a large panel of African banks which suggests that loan defaults are a major factor inhibiting bank lending when the quality of regulatio...

  16. Credit scoring methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtek, Martin; Kočenda, Evžen

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, 3-4 (2006), s. 152-167 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/0931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : banking sector * credit scoring * discrimination analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.190, year: 2006 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1050_s_152_167.pdf

  17. Follow Up: Credit Card Caution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Timothy P.

    2007-01-01

    In "Pushing Plastic," ("The New England Journal of Higher Education", Summer 2007), John Humphrey notes that many college administrators justify their credit card solicitations by suggesting that credit card access will help students learn to manage their own finances. Instead, credit card debt will teach thousands of students…

  18. Intertemporal consumption and credit constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    There is continuing controversy over the importance of credit constraints. This paper investigates whether total household expenditure and debt is affected by an exogenous increase in access to credit provided by a credit market reform that enabled Danish house owners to use housing equity...

  19. Searching for the existence of entrepreneurial ecosystems : a regional cross-section growth regression approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruns, K.; Bosma, N.; Sanders, M.; Schramm, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method by which the entrepreneurial ecosystem, if present, reveals itself in the data. We first follow the literature and define the entrepreneurial ecosystem as a multidimensional set of interacting factors that moderate the effect of entrepreneurial activity on economic

  20. Entrepreneurship Education: Effect of a Treatment in Undergraduate College Courses on Entrepreneurial Intent and Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Robert D.

    2017-01-01

    Entrepreneurship programming has become a very popular choice among higher education students the past three decades. Entrepreneurial intent is consistently regarded as the greatest predictor of entrepreneurial behavior and success of entrepreneurial education programs, while ideation is viewed as a key skill needed for successful entrepreneurial…

  1. Entrepreneurship Education Revisited: Perceived Entrepreneurial Role Models Increase Perceived Behavioural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellnhofer, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Relying on Bandura's (1986) social learning theory, Ajzen's (1988) theory of planned behaviour (TPB), and Dyer's (1994) model of entrepreneurial careers, this study aims to highlight the potential of entrepreneurial role models to entrepreneurship education. The results suggest that entrepreneurial courses would greatly benefit from real-life…

  2. Credit-proofing fundamentals for a solid credit policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydiatt, I. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This Power Point presentation presented the basics of a credit policy with reference to corporate objectives, governance, credit definitions, subjective/objective elements, quantification of full risk, management, monitoring, reporting and gate-keeping processes. Options for a credit policy were described as being approval authority grids, confidentiality issues, credit scoring, corporate risk levels, follow-up collection calling, and procedures on unapproved exposures. Recommendations for setting risk and credit limits were also presented with a note emphasizing that in the past 6 months credit evaluation processes have had to deal with the media risk, a new risk that has not been seen before. This risk can be addressed by careful monitoring of stock prices. The paper also presented recommendations for what to look for as indicators and how to deal with risk in volatile price periods. Credit tools for volatile times were described. 1 tab.

  3. Credit-proofing fundamentals for a solid credit policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydiatt, I.

    2003-01-01

    This Power Point presentation presented the basics of a credit policy with reference to corporate objectives, governance, credit definitions, subjective/objective elements, quantification of full risk, management, monitoring, reporting and gate-keeping processes. Options for a credit policy were described as being approval authority grids, confidentiality issues, credit scoring, corporate risk levels, follow-up collection calling, and procedures on unapproved exposures. Recommendations for setting risk and credit limits were also presented with a note emphasizing that in the past 6 months credit evaluation processes have had to deal with the media risk, a new risk that has not been seen before. This risk can be addressed by careful monitoring of stock prices. The paper also presented recommendations for what to look for as indicators and how to deal with risk in volatile price periods. Credit tools for volatile times were described. 1 tab

  4. Compete or Leapfrog: Creating Blue Ocean through Entrepreneurial Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan Ayub

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the role of entrepreneurial orientation with mediating effect of knowledge creation process to creating Blue Ocean in corporate sector in Pakistan There is an increasing competition among companies due to globalization and technological advancements. Thus, it requires a study to measure the multifaceted influence of entrepreneurial orientation on knowledge creation process and Blue Ocean besides the actual paradigm of this terminology. This concept has been well discussed in this research arena since its inception in 2005. Numerous such initiatives have already been taken, however this concept invites a lot more addition, related companies are still in pursuit to materialize the research concepts. We highlight the contingencies in the shift from a red ocean to Blue Ocean. The study uses exploratory approach; primary data is collected from 391 professionals working in different sectors of Pakistan. The study uses structural equation model (SEM technique to test the hypotheses. The study found a positive relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and Blue Ocean, entrepreneurial orientation, knowledge creation process, and Blue Ocean. The study throws light on the importance of entrepreneurial orientation and knowledge creation process to head on this fast-paced competition.

  5. Entrepreneurship education: relationship between education and entrepreneurial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Mário; do Paço, Arminda

    2011-08-01

    The importance of entrepreneurial activity for the economic growth of countries is now well established. The relevant literature suggests important links between education, venture creation and entrepreneurial performance, as well as between entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial activity. The primary purpose of this paper is to provide some insights about entrepreneurship education. The meaning of entrepreneurship education is explained, and the significant increase of these educational programmes is highlighted. Literature has been suggesting that the most suitable indicator to evaluate the results of entrepreneurship education is the rate of new business creation. However, some studies indicate that the results of such programmes are not immediate. Therefore, many researchers try to understand the precursors of venture creation, concluding that is necessary to carry out longitudinal studies. Based on an overview of the research published about the existing linkage of entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial activity, the main topics studied by different academics are addressed. For the authors, the positive impact of entrepreneurship education puts a double challenge on governments in the future: the increased need of financial funds to support entrepreneurship education and the choice of the correct educational programme.

  6. Determine Entrepreneurial Characteristics Using Mobile Android Game Freezer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ismail

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychometric Test has been used as an individual trait measurement for a long time for both experienced entrepreneurs as well as young generation who are looking for their potential in entrepreneurship. The assessment and measurement of strength and weaknesses of key entrepreneurial traits provides the entrepreneurial level and personal development planning for entrepreneur or those who want to venture into business. However, the traditional psychometric test lacks of fun element which is less enjoyable activity during answering the test. Furthermore, it requires basic understanding of business jargon that difficult for certain respondents to provide accurate respond. The purpose of this study is to propose a gamification approach which is mobile game application called ‘Freezer’ that can measured entrepreneurial traits of the player. In this sense, ‘Freezer’ creates a simulated scenario for respondents to play as an ice cream business owner and to win as a successful business person, each action done will be measured as entrepreneurial traits criteria. At the end of the game, the result will be presented that can describe the entrepreneurial characteristics of the individuals based on their planning and activities during playing the game.  

  7. Organizational Culture and Entrepreneurial Performance in Business Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Narcisa POSTEUCĂ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the market economy an overview is visible, according to which organizational culture is correlated with the entrepreneurial performance. Therefore, the economic actors’ behaviour is an essential component in the formation and development of entrepreneurial performance, and also is evident the correlation between the theoretic field and practices, regarding the relationship between an organizational culture and the entrepreneurial performance Moreover, methodological openings towards the new paradigms reflect different ways of approaching the knowable contents. It is about the objective analysis of the contextual situations, analysis which reflects the transmission and reception of entrepreneurial typologies that are effective on the social level. Furthermore, adopting a consensual methodology to the level of entrepreneurial dimensions legitimize precisely those social responsibilities designed to support efficiency and educational performance. For this purpose, we consider that it should be granted an important role to the connection between entrepreneurship methodology and knowledge system, depending on which the strategies initiated are operationalized. Therefore, such connections depend on the strategies assumed in the process of materialize the business performance.

  8. Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intention among University Students: Case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Garo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, during the last decades entrepreneurship has been in focus. It is commonly agreed that developing entrepreneurship in the long term would be translated into sustainable economic development. Albanian economy, being an economy in transition greatly and urgently needs to invest into increasing the number of entrepreneurs in the country. Entrepreneurial intention is considered to be really important. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to observe the determinants of entrepreneurial intention in Albania. The target is university students. Many programs that foster entrepreneurship such as incubator centers, business plan competitions along with new educational practices have been developed. In addition, even though studies conducting in this field are few, Albanian education institutions have shown a willing to study the factors influencing entrepreneurship development. The reason is the belief that developing and supporting entrepreneurial activities among youth will positively influence the economy of the country in terms of economic growth. This study widely represents the Albanian students and shows the deteminants of entrepreneurial intention they have. Hopefully the findings of this study would be useful to the policy makers and the Albanian government to undertake effective policies focused on entrepreneurial activity; targeting economic development of the country.

  9. Research on the Mechanism of Entrepreneurial Education Quality, Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Entrepreneurial Intention in Social Sciences, Engineering and Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, He; Xiong, Wei; Cao, Yonghui

    2017-01-01

    Entrepreneurship Education in Colleges and universities is a profound reform of China's higher education paradigm. Which is a necessary choice for Chinese universities to break through the traditional educational model. It is an important measure to cultivate college students' entrepreneurial consciousness, entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial…

  10. Value of credit bureau reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brković Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient system of credit information sharing contributes to solving the problem of information asymmetry on the credit and financial markets in general. The consequences of the global economic and financial crisis revealed an increasing demand for reliable information and data which could close the existing gap in their insufficiency, misuse or inadequate analytical value for the economic and financial policy makers. In that sense, more attention is directed to the usefulness of credit information sharing and the practical value of information and data contained in credit bureau reports for the purposes of achieving the overall economic policy goals. The fulfillment of that role depends mostly on the credit information sharing system and its characteristics, participants, and procedures. A credit bureau report in the best possible manner reflects all advantages and disadvantages of the established credit information exchange system in terms of its analytical value for the purposes of efficient macroeconomic and macrofinancial policies.

  11. 40 CFR 258.12 - Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degraded wetlands or creation of man-made wetlands); and (5) Sufficient information is available to make a... expansions shall not be located in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following...

  12. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald J Schmitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  13. Wetlands - an underestimated economic resource?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gren, I.M.; Soederqvist, T.

    1996-01-01

    Wetlands are producing several valuable resources like fish, potential for recreation, water cleaning etc. These resources, and methods for assigning an economic value to them, are discussed in this article. Swedish and foreign empirical studies of the economic value of wetlands are reviewed. This review shows that socioeconomic estimates of the value of wetlands risk to be misleading if the direct and indirect values are not properly accounted for. 37 refs

  14. DETERMINANTS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTION: The Case of Norwegian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Indarti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify determinants of entrepreneurial intentions among young people. The empirical basis is Norwegian students, while an objective is also to create a basis for comparative studies among different economic and cultural contexts. Independent variables in the study include demographic factors and individual background, personality traits, and contextual elements like access to capital and information. The individual perceptions of self-efficacy and instrumental readiness are the variables that affect entrepreneurial intentions most significantly. Age, gender and educational background have no statistically significant impact. Generally, the level of the entrepreneurial intentions among Norwegian students is relatively low, which may be explained by social status and economic remuneration of entrepreneurs compared with employees in the Norwegian context.

  15. Internationalization of the Entrepreneurial Activity of Social Purpose Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusa Rafał

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyse and identify patterns of international entrepreneurial activity of social purpose organizations. The article utilizes international social entrepreneurship literature to develop an understanding of the international activity of social entrepreneurs and to identify factors that differentiate their activity. A cluster analysis was conducted to identify patterns of international social entrepreneurial activity, which included: the subject of activity, the types of beneficiaries, the scope of activity, and the legal type of organization. As a result, a survey sample of 55 international social ventures was divided into 3 homogeneous groups. The groups were (1 solution providers, (2 entrepreneurial charities, and (3 intermediaries. The results of the analysis show the diversity of the international activities of social entrepreneurs, although only a portion of them operate internationally. These findings contribute to a greater understanding of social entrepreneurs’ motivation and the paths of their internationalization activity.

  16. Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy of University Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Basol

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the entrepreneurial self-efficacy perceptions among university students across two countries, i.e., Poland and Turkey. Data were obtained through questionnaires designed to assess the perceptions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. In all, 365 Polish and 278 Turkish students completed the questionnaires. Results indicated that Polish and Turkish students did not differ significantly in regard to the overall measure of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Our study contributed to the entrepreneurship literature by performing a cross-cultural comparison of the perceptions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Thus, it provided recommendations for fostering entrepreneurial self efficacy among university students.

  17. Youths’ Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Intentions. Empirical Study on Students with Entrepreneurship Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nițu–Antonie Renata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to identify the psychological and behavioural characteristics as potential triggers of youths’ entrepreneurial intentions within the context of rational action and planned behaviour theory. The empirical study proposed nine antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions for Romanian students with entrepreneurial higher education background. The results emphasized that behavioural variables (favourable subjective norms and attitude development, perceived behavioural control influence entrepreneurial intentions in a higher degree than the psychological ones (propensity to risk-taking, self-confidence, need for achievement, innovativeness. Moreover, some psychological variables (locus of control and tolerance of ambiguity have been identified as having insignificant influence on entrepreneurial intentions of the respondent students.

  18. Credit Rating and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Camanho; Pragyan Deb; Zijun Liu

    2010-01-01

    In principle, credit rating agencies are supposed to be impartial observers that bridge the gap between private information of issuers and the information available to the wider pool of investors. However, since the 1970s, rating agencies have relied on an issuer-pay model, creating a conflict of interest the largest source of income for the rating agencies are the fees paid by the issuers the rating agencies are supposed to impartially rate. In this paper, we explore the trade-off between re...

  19. Morphology of a Wetland Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurmu; Andrle

    1997-11-01

    / Little attention has been paid to wetland stream morphology in the geomorphological and environmental literature, and in the recently expanding wetland reconstruction field, stream design has been based primarily on stream morphologies typical of nonwetland alluvial environments. Field investigation of a wetland reach of Roaring Brook, Stafford, Connecticut, USA, revealed several significant differences between the morphology of this stream and the typical morphology of nonwetland alluvial streams. Six morphological features of the study reach were examined: bankfull flow, meanders, pools and riffles, thalweg location, straight reaches, and cross-sectional shape. It was found that bankfull flow definitions originating from streams in nonwetland environments did not apply. Unusual features observed in the wetland reach include tight bends and a large axial wavelength to width ratio. A lengthy straight reach exists that exceeds what is typically found in nonwetland alluvial streams. The lack of convex bank point bars in the bends, a greater channel width at riffle locations, an unusual thalweg location, and small form ratios (a deep and narrow channel) were also differences identified. Further study is needed on wetland streams of various regions to determine if differences in morphology between alluvial and wetland environments can be applied in order to improve future designs of wetland channels.KEY WORDS: Stream morphology; Wetland restoration; Wetland creation; Bankfull; Pools and riffles; Meanders; Thalweg

  20. Entrepreneurial Resilience, Factor of Influence on the Function of Entrepreneur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel CROITORU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The entrepreneurial spirit and its capacity of adapting is a current subject and it is still, quite simple, as the entrepreneurial resilience live to tell their story. It becomes difficult to believe, even tough, but reflecting on this subject, the whole world becomes a workplace. It is less known, though, what leads the entrepreneurs to make decisions in difficult periods. Our research, through this article, showed us that specific personal factors count a lot in doing the job of entrepreneur. It must be highlighted, that, after the analysis, we have to grow ecosystems for entrepreneurs, not to build them. We believe that there should be more gardeners than workers in constructions. All the actors involved in the entrepreneurial ecosystem in Romania should have as common elements the development of hubs of entrepreneurship, a civil society better shaped, partnerships based on sharing experience and resources in education. The recent economic evolutions claim the possibility of the apparition of a new science, anthropology, which judges the entrepreneurial motivations and attitudes in the new entrepreneurial ecosystem. Therefore, we analysed, in this article, a tool of measuring the entrepreneurial resilience under the form of an index. Based on this index, there can be taken certain early measures or interventions to help the sustainability of the business of the entrepreneurs. Maybe the results of this study will support the agencies, the directions to see measures for supporting not only the foundation but also the evolution of start-ups (performances, profits, business number, sales, at the level of the cognitive strong points but also social networking skills.

  1. Evolution and the Growth Process: Natural Selection of Entrepreneurial Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Oded; Michalopoulos, Stelios

    2012-03-01

    This research suggests that a Darwinian evolution of entrepreneurial spirit played a significant role in the process of economic development and the dynamics of inequality within and across societies. The study argues that entrepreneurial spirit evolved non-monotonically in the course of human history. In early stages of development, risk-tolerant, growth promoting traits generated an evolutionary advantage and their increased representation accelerated the pace of technological progress and the process of economic development. In mature stages of development, however, risk-averse traits gained an evolutionary advantage, diminishing the growth potential of advanced economies and contributing to convergence in economic growth across countries.

  2. Evolution and the Growth Process: Natural Selection of Entrepreneurial Traits*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Oded; Michalopoulos, Stelios

    2013-01-01

    This research suggests that a Darwinian evolution of entrepreneurial spirit played a significant role in the process of economic development and the dynamics of inequality within and across societies. The study argues that entrepreneurial spirit evolved non-monotonically in the course of human history. In early stages of development, risk-tolerant, growth promoting traits generated an evolutionary advantage and their increased representation accelerated the pace of technological progress and the process of economic development. In mature stages of development, however, risk-averse traits gained an evolutionary advantage, diminishing the growth potential of advanced economies and contributing to convergence in economic growth across countries. PMID:25089059

  3. Ireland or the Netherlands: Which country is more entrepreneurial?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Gorman, Colm; Diaz-Moriana, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    What country was ranked the most entrepreneurial of the EU-15 countries in 2005? Ireland. In 2005, Ireland ranked 1st of the EU-15 countries in terms of the rate of entrepreneurship. The Dutch ranked jointed 9th. Which of the EU-15 countries was the most entrepreneurial in 2012? The Netherlands. Since 2005, the rate of entrepreneurship in the Netherlands has increased. They now rank 1stof the EU-15 countries. Ireland’s rate of entrepreneurship has decreased. By 2012, Ireland ranked 9th of the...

  4. Charismatic leadership and entrepreneurial activity: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan van Hemmen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship literature frequently identifies entrepreneurs as possessing a charismatic personality. Charisma is broadly defined as a combination of the talent to foresee market opportunities and the ability to motivate other people in the materialization of these opportunities. Business organizations also provide the context for developing skills and knowledge, which is particularly valuable for potential entrepreneurs who identify business opportunities. Using a sample of 41 countries, we show that higher rates of charismatic leadership at the country level are positively associated with entrepreneurial activity. This outcome suggests that both business-oriented and educational organizations that promote charismatic leadership play a significant role in the development of entrepreneurial incubators.

  5. Entrepreneurial Competencies Needed by Managers in their Work

    OpenAIRE

    Penchev, Plamen; Salopaju, Antti

    2011-01-01

    Problem – Studying the relation of the two aspects of Managerial and Entrepreneurial competencies on the individual level. Combining theoretically the competencies of managers with the competencies of entrepreneurs into the concept of entrepreneurial competencies needed by managers in their work.   Purpose – We test which of the competencies of entrepreneurs are and can be utilized by professionally employed managers, by answering our three research questions:             1. How do the resear...

  6. Towards a broader conception of entrepreneurial journalism education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Kirsten; Færgemann, Helle Meibom

    2016-01-01

    In this article we examine the impact of entrepreneurialism on postgraduate students of journalism at Aarhus University in Denmark. We specifically focus on a course module that students follow while undertaking a full-time internship in the media and communication industry. The module requires...... immersed in communities of practice. The places of internship functioned as anchors for the students’ entrepreneurship processes by providing access to a wide range of opportunities for development and a real-life arena for testing their own entrepreneurial skills. Yet, even in this environment students...

  7. Managing Entrepreneurial Risks under Conditions of Instability of Economic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnichenko Yurii V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the state of an organisation under modern conditions of establishment of new competitive relations between subjects of economic activity and transition to the model of market economy, justifies urgency of studies devoted to methods of entrepreneurial risk management. The article analyses factors that influence the risk level and offers own definition of this category. The article sets the task of improvement of the systemised classification of entrepreneurial risk management methods. In the result of the conducted analysis, the authors offered an improved systemised classification of risk management methods and justifies efficiency of its use.

  8. Innovating and Exploiting Entrepreneurial Opportunities in Smart Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Sascha; Richter, Chris; Papagiannidis, Savvas

    2015-01-01

    Smart City initiatives are considered a vehicle for achieving sustainable development of urban growth. This paper explores the conditions and factors that affect innovation in Smart Cities from an entrepreneurial vantage point. Data was obtained through a series of interviews with German entrepre......Smart City initiatives are considered a vehicle for achieving sustainable development of urban growth. This paper explores the conditions and factors that affect innovation in Smart Cities from an entrepreneurial vantage point. Data was obtained through a series of interviews with German...

  9. The Power of Passion in Entrepreneurship Education: Entrepreneurial Role Models Encourage Passion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellnhofer, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    This study of Entrepreneurship Education (EE) centers on the impact of entrepreneurial role models on entrepreneurial passion, which also is expected to influence entrepreneurial intention. Based on 426 individuals recruited primarily from Austria, Finland, and Greece, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) reveals the significant direct and indirect effects of entrepreneurial role models on entrepreneurial intention, mediated by entrepreneurial passion. These effects were found to be stronger following multimedia presentation of entrepreneurial stories, confirming the fruitful spillover effects of the innovative educational use of computers on entrepreneurial intentions among nascent entrepreneurs. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and social learning theory, this study confirms both the positive impact of entrepreneurial role models and significant short-term effects of web-based multimedia in the context of EE. This narrative approach is shown to be an effective pedagogical instrument in enhancing individual orientation toward entrepreneurship to facilitate entrepreneurial intention. This study identifies the great potential of these pioneering methods and tools, both for further research in the academic community and for entrepreneurship educators who hope to promote entrepreneurial intention in aspiring entrepreneurs. The findings are also relevant for policy makers designing effective instruments to achieve long-term goals. PMID:29877516

  10. The Power of Passion in Entrepreneurship Education: Entrepreneurial Role Models Encourage Passion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellnhofer, Katharina

    2017-07-01

    This study of Entrepreneurship Education (EE) centers on the impact of entrepreneurial role models on entrepreneurial passion, which also is expected to influence entrepreneurial intention. Based on 426 individuals recruited primarily from Austria, Finland, and Greece, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) reveals the significant direct and indirect effects of entrepreneurial role models on entrepreneurial intention, mediated by entrepreneurial passion. These effects were found to be stronger following multimedia presentation of entrepreneurial stories, confirming the fruitful spillover effects of the innovative educational use of computers on entrepreneurial intentions among nascent entrepreneurs. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and social learning theory, this study confirms both the positive impact of entrepreneurial role models and significant short-term effects of web-based multimedia in the context of EE. This narrative approach is shown to be an effective pedagogical instrument in enhancing individual orientation toward entrepreneurship to facilitate entrepreneurial intention. This study identifies the great potential of these pioneering methods and tools, both for further research in the academic community and for entrepreneurship educators who hope to promote entrepreneurial intention in aspiring entrepreneurs. The findings are also relevant for policy makers designing effective instruments to achieve long-term goals.

  11. 12 CFR 561.12 - Consumer credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; loans in the nature of overdraft protection; and credit extended in connection with credit cards. ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer credit. 561.12 Section 561.12 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.12 Consumer credit. The term consumer credit means credit extended...

  12. Quality of urban forest carbon credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam C. Poudyala; Jacek P. Siry; J.M. Bowker

    2011-01-01

    While the urban forest is considered an eligible source of carbon offset credits, little is known about its market potential and the quality aspects of the credits. As credit suppliers increase in number and credit buyers become more interested in purchasing carbon credits, it is unclear whether and how urban forest carbon credits can perform relative to the other...

  13. FACTORS OF INFLUENCE ON THE ENTREPRENEURIAL INTEREST: AN ANALYSIS WITH STUDENTS OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY RELATED COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Guilherme Bonfim

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to analyze the entrepreneurial interest of students in information technology related courses. A literature review was performed, from which four hypotheses were announced, affirming that the student interest in entrepreneurial activity is influenced by (1 the perceived vocation of the area, (2 the ownership of a company, (3 the perceived social support from friends and family, and (4 the entrepreneurial skills mastery. A field study was developed, with data collected from the 171 students of higher education institutions from Fortaleza. The data were analyzed by using statistical techniques of descriptive analysis, analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis. It was found that: (1 students, in general, have a moderate predisposition to engage in entrepreneurial activities; (2 the entrepreneurial interest is influenced by the perceived entrepreneurial vocation of the area, the social support, and the perceived strategic entrepreneurial skills mastery.

  14. Credit scoring for individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria DIMITRIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lending money to different borrowers is profitable, but risky. The profits come from the interest rate and the fees earned on the loans. Banks do not want to make loans to borrowers who cannot repay them. Even if the banks do not intend to make bad loans, over time, some of them can become bad. For instance, as a result of the recent financial crisis, the capability of many borrowers to repay their loans were affected, many of them being on default. That’s why is important for the bank to monitor the loans. The purpose of this paper is to focus on credit scoring main issues. As a consequence of this, we presented in this paper the scoring model of an important Romanian Bank. Based on this credit scoring model and taking into account the last lending requirements of the National Bank of Romania, we developed an assessment tool, in Excel, for retail loans which is presented in the case study.

  15. Testing Students’ Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy as an Early Predictor of Entrepreneurial Activities. Evidence From the SEAS Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Zięba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last forty years, since Bandura (1977 introduced the concept of selfefcacy, there have been a constantly growing number of research publicatons using this concept. Its early development resulted in the creaton of a new construct of entrepreneurial self-efcacy (ESE proposed for the frst tme by (Chen et al. 1998. Since then, many different groups of research concerning ESE have emerged - one of them is the study of ESE of students. With regard to this partcular group, a recent tendency to study ESE in a pre-post setng can be notced i.a. Karlsson, Moberg (2013, Shinnar, Hsu, Powell (2014, Ismail, Zain, Zulihar (2015. Due to the increasing interest in entrepreneurial self-efcacy research and the need to fll the gap in the literature with regard to European post-communist countries (and partcularly – Poland (Drnovsek, Wincent, Cardon, 2010, in this paper we present a brief overview of ESE research and pose the queston whether ESE of Polish students can serve as an early predictor of their subsequent entrepreneurial actvites, potentally leading them to nascent entrepreneurship. The research material was collected from the SEAS (Survey on Entrepreneurial Attudes of Students Project carried out at the Faculty of Management and Economics, Gdańsk University of Technology. The research sample was composed of 72 students - ESE was measured in a pre-post setng using a single item based on a fve-point Likert scale. One of the research conclusions is that ESE manifested by student-beginners seems to influence their later entrepreneurial behavior in a statstcally signifcant way - potentally making ESE a valuable early predictor of future entrepreneurial actvites. In the concluding part of the study, limitatons are discussed and future study developments are indicated.

  16. Entrepreneurial Mindset: A Synthetic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Naumann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art in research on entrepreneurial mindset (EM. The paper identifies research areas which have contributed to the current status of the EM concept, outlines areas which remain under-addressed and suggests areas for future research. Research Design & Methods: A comprehensive method of a synthetic literature review was employed. In a four-step process, relevant papers were identified and classified. Research methods and sampling were analysed and put into a perspective of the EM concept development. Based on that, recommendations for future research are presented. Findings: No commonly shared EM concept was found. Instead, scholars have contributed largely by depicting particular attributes of EM. These attributes can be divided into core attributes of EM and meta-cognitive attributes of EM. While core attributes are easier to recognize and exhibited through behaviour, meta-cognitive attributes are more hidden within an individual. Mainly the Anglo-American perspective influences the research on EM. The dominating research design methods remain quantitative. Only one longitudinal and one qualitative study using in-depth interviews were identified in the pool. Links to other research areas are provided. Implications & Recommendations: The EM concept might be investigated further with the inclusion of more other cultures or with people from other cultural backgrounds to test the validity of the existing assumptions. Contribution & Value Added: This literature review contributes to the current body of knowledge by giving an overview of the EM concept and its attributes and associated qualities. It identifies current gaps in research and provides recommendations on how to close them.

  17. Entrepreneurial transhumance in Bessarabia (1812-1853

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Emilciuc

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century, in the context of penetration of capitalist relations and the territorial losses associated with the annexation of Bessarabia and Bukovina, the Carpathian transhumance phenomenon develops new peculiarities. Namely, the analysis of documentary sources indicates the existence in this period of two types of transhumance. The first type, which we can call conventionally “traditional”, had a seasonal character determined by the annual climate change. The second type, which we can call conventionally “entrepreneurial”, targeted the bringing of cattle for fattening and subsequent shepherding directly to markets, for sale. While the traditional transhumance practically ceased in Bessarabia after the lands in the southern regions were distributed for colonization, the entrepreneurial transhumance developed throughout the whole period, being carried especially by Armenians and Jews of Habsburg subjection. In this second type of transhumance, the shepherds were substituted by entrepreneurs, who bought lambs, calves and foals from different owners and then drove them “to pasture and wintering” in Bessarabia, where they rented uninhabited lands and hired workers. Then the mature herds were shepherded outside Bessarabia for sale at various fairs of Galicia and Bukovina, and even Moravia. The Russian customs agencies on the Prut recorded the seasonal migration of livestock in figures and names, routes and duration. The tsarist authorities did not completely prohibit this phenomenon, despite the complaints of local entrepreneurs. On the contrary, aiming to increase the accumulations resulting from customs duties and various taxes on livestock, they stimulated it, allowing free entry into the territory of Bessarabia for foreign subjects dealing with cattle trade.

  18. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  19. Roofvogels in de Nederlandse wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Cornelis; Beemster, Nicolaas; Zijlstra, Menno; van Eerden, M; Daan, Serge

    1995-01-01

    Roofvogels in de Nederlandse wetlands (1995). C. Dijkstra, N. Beemster, M. Zijlstra, M. van Eerden, S. Daan RWS, RDIJ, Flevobericht nr. 381. ISBN 90-369-1147-8. Dit Flevobericht vormt de eindrapportage van het onderzoeksproject " De betekenis van grootschalige wetlands voor roofvogels". De verwerkte

  20. Carbon Storage in US Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in US wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. ...

  1. Carbon dynamics in wetland restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, K.; Ciborowski, J.; Gardner-Costa, J.; Slama, C. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada); Daly, C.; Hornung, J. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Dixon, G.; Farwell, A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Foote, L.; Frederick, K.; Roy, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Smits, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Wytrykush, C. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study focused on the reclamation of wetland ecosystems impacted by oil sands development in the boreal wetlands. Although these wetlands play an important role in global carbon balance, their ecosystem function is compromised by direct and regional anthropogenic disturbance and climate change. Large oil sand mining areas that require reclamation generate substantial quantities of extraction process-affected materials. In order to determine if the reclaimed wetlands were restored to equivalent ecosystem function, this study evaluated carbon flows and food web structure in oil sands-affected wetlands. The purpose was to determine whether a prescribed reclamation strategy or topsoil amendment accelerates reclaimed wetland development to produce self-sustaining peatlands. In addition to determining carbon fluxes, this study measured compartment standing stocks for residual hydrocarbons, organic substrate, bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, biofilm, macrophytes, detritus, zoobenthos and aquatic-terrestrial exports. Most biotic 28 compartments differed between oil-sands-affected and reference wetlands, but the difference lessened with age. Macroinvertebrate trophic diversity was lower in oil sands-affected wetlands. Peat amendment seemed to speed convergence for some compartments but not others. These results were discussed in the context of restoration of ecosystem function and optimization of reclamation strategies.

  2. Concurrent credit portfolio losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicking, Joachim; Guhr, Thomas; Schäfer, Rudi

    2018-01-01

    We consider the problem of concurrent portfolio losses in two non-overlapping credit portfolios. In order to explore the full statistical dependence structure of such portfolio losses, we estimate their empirical pairwise copulas. Instead of a Gaussian dependence, we typically find a strong asymmetry in the copulas. Concurrent large portfolio losses are much more likely than small ones. Studying the dependences of these losses as a function of portfolio size, we moreover reveal that not only large portfolios of thousands of contracts, but also medium-sized and small ones with only a few dozens of contracts exhibit notable portfolio loss correlations. Anticipated idiosyncratic effects turn out to be negligible. These are troublesome insights not only for investors in structured fixed-income products, but particularly for the stability of the financial sector. JEL codes: C32, F34, G21, G32, H81.

  3. Does Entrepreneurial Education Trigger More or Less Neoliberalism in Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackéus, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: An emerging scholarly critique has claimed that entrepreneurial education triggers more neoliberalism in education, leading to increased inequality, neglect of civic values and an unjust blame of poor citizens for their misfortunes. The purpose of this paper is to develop a deeper understanding of this potentially problematic relationship…

  4. Entrepreneurial Attributes among Postgraduate Students of a Pakistani University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akhtar; Topping, Keith J.; Tariq, Riaz H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores entrepreneurial attributes among the students of The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, a public sector Pakistani university. Multistage sampling was employed to maximize the representation. Five hundred and twenty one master's level students from thirty departments returned completed questionnaires. Three factors emerged: self…

  5. Developing Entrepreneurial Resilience: Implications for Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin; Wang, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Leadership development has attracted much research attention within the human resource development (HRD) community. However, little scholarly effort has been made to study a special group of leaders--entrepreneurs. This paper aims to fill in this knowledge gap by taking a close look at entrepreneurial resilience, a key ability of…

  6. Entrepreneurial Education at University Level and Entrepreneurship Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Sk. Mahmudul; Khan, Eijaz Ahmed; Nabi, Md. Noor Un

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the literature on effectiveness of entrepreneurship education by empirically assessing the role of university entrepreneurial education in entrepreneurship development and reporting the results. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative method was applied for this study. This research was…

  7. Specific Features of Entrepreneurial Departments Management in Russian Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troshina, Elena P.; Mantulenko, Valentina V.; Shaposhnikov, Vladislav A.; Anopchenko, Tatiana Y.

    2016-01-01

    The topic is considered to be relevant due to the fact that entrepreneurship is necessary for the businesses survival and development worldwide, including Russia, and today some Russian companies are adapting their economies to the more developed economic standards. The entrepreneurial format adoption is an important stage of development for…

  8. Pushing the Entrepreneurial Prodigy: Canadian Aboriginal Entrepreneurship Education Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth; Blue, Levon Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Globally, neoliberal education policy touts youth entrepreneurship education as a solution for staggering youth unemployment, a means to bolster economically depressed regions, and solution to the ill-defined changing marketplace. Many jurisdictions have emphasized a need for K-12 entrepreneurial education for the general population, and targeted…

  9. Interdisciplinary Entrepreneurial Leadership Education and the Development of Agricultural Innovators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Matthew M.

    2015-01-01

    This article qualitatively explores the potential of entrepreneurial leadership curricula to encourage interdisciplinary interest in agricultural issues and prompt diverse student engagement in agricultural leadership and innovation. The study focuses specifically on the activities and perspectives of 15 undergraduate students who completed an…

  10. A Case Study on Undergraduate Entrepreneurial Constructivist Learning in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamar, Said

    2016-01-01

    Jobs are available for university graduates with entrepreneurship skills, but unemployment in Morocco persists because of the dissociation between university entrepreneurship graduate skills and professional market demand. While university graduates have achieved academic standards, they have lacked the entrepreneurial attributes to be employable.…

  11. Globalization and the Rise of the Entrepreneurial Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audretsch, D.; Sanders, M.

    This paper argues that recent trends in the global economy have led to a shift in developed countries’ comparative advantage from mature industrial to early stage entrepreneurial production. We develop a three stage product life cycle model in which we distinguish between life cycle stages

  12. Students' Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy: Does the Teaching Method Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaho, Ernest; Olomi, Donath R.; Urassa, Goodluck Charles

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the various entrepreneurship teaching methods in Uganda and how these methods relate to entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE). Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 522 final year students from selected universities and study programs was surveyed using self-reported questionnaires. Findings: There…

  13. Analysing the Role of Crowdfunding in Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menon, Karan; Kärkkäinen, Hannu; Jussila, Jari

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the explorative study is to understand the role of crowdfunding in the facilitation of customer engagement for entrepreneurial ecosystems, using data from two recent events of competing product launches. We conducted an event study that employed content analysis and emotion analysis, a...

  14. The Effects of Relationship Banking and Entrepreneurial Orientation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine if relationship banking, and entrepreneurial orientation (EO) affect the financial performance of manufacturing firms in Kenya. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design with the population being 620 manufacturing SMEs involved in relationship banking with commercial ...

  15. Early Development of Entrepreneurial Qualities: the Role of Initial Education

    OpenAIRE

    Isobel van der Kuip; Ingrid Verheul

    2003-01-01

    This study attempts to create a better understanding of the role of entrepreneurship education in developing entrepreneurial qualities. Theory and practice are confronted. The paper discusses the extent to which entrepreneurship can be taught, and the way in which it should be taught. The focus is on the phase of initial education.

  16. Entrepreneurial Orientation: The Dimensions' Shared Effects on Explaining Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomberg, Carina; Urbig, Diemo; Stockmann, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We shed new light on the structure of the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and firm performance and how this relationship varies across contexts. Using commonality analysis, we decompose the variance in performance—in terms of the effects of innovativeness, proactiveness, and...

  17. Theorizing the Entrepreneurial University: Open Questions and Possible Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiris, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to address theoretical questions regarding the transition towards an entrepreneurial university and the changes associated with this process, namely the increased commodification, the competitive quest for private funding and the introduction of business management practices. The important theoretical advances made in the…

  18. Entrepreneurial saving practices and reinvestment : Theory and evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Pamuk, Haki; Uras, Burak

    2017-01-01

    We use a novel enterprise survey to gauge the relationship between saving instruments and entrepreneurial reinvestment. We show that while most informal saving practices are not associated with a lower likelihood of reinvestment when compared with formal saving practices, there is a significantly

  19. Entrepreneurial migration and regional opportunities in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    nDoen, M.L.; Gorter, C.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietveld, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the entrepreneurial migrants' preferences for a location for business activities in developing countries. In the modelling framework six socio-economic and six socio-cultural variables are used in this study to investigate the migrants' propensity to stay at a

  20. Entrepreneurial Creativity as a Convergent Basis for Teaching Business Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenci, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    Of the "21st Century" business skills of communication, collaboration, creativity, and critical thinking, creativity arguably receives among the least explicit attention in traditional business core curricula. With that in mind, the context of entrepreneurial creativity is put forth as a basis for teaching business communication. By…

  1. Educating for an Entrepreneurial Career: Developing Opportunity-Recognition Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardeshmukh, Shruti R.; Smith-Nelson, Ronda M.

    2011-01-01

    Entrepreneurship as a career option has become increasingly desirable, and there is a real need to develop an opportunity-oriented entrepreneurial mindset among tertiary students. Current entrepreneurship education heavily relies on the linear process of business planning and rarely encourages the complex and non-linear thinking patterns necessary…

  2. Exploiting opportunities at all cost? Entrepreneurial intent and externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbig, D.; Weitzel, G.U.; Rosenkranz, S.; van Witteloostuijn, A.

    2011-01-01

    they exploit welfare-enhancing opportunities as it is assumed in several normative models? Do we need to prevent potential entrepreneurs from being destructive or are there intrinsic limits to harm others? We experimentally investigate how people with different entrepreneurial intent exploit risky

  3. ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION CONCEPT AS A STRATEGIC (ENTREPRENEUR POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan GÜRKAN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of entrepreneurship has become an increasingly important concept and attracted attention with the increase in competition between businesses. In the entrepreneurship literature firstly individual entrepreneurship is discussed and later studies on the enterprise level entrepreneurship were conducted. At the same time, with the transition to the behavioral model of entrepreneurship of the traditional entrepreneurial model of entrepreneurship, rather than personality characteristics of entrepreneurs seem to be at the forefront of behaviors. Enterprise level entrepreneurship in other words the concept of business entrepreneurship contains entrepreneurship orientation of businesses. The entrepreneurship orientation of businesses has also called in the literature as entrepreneurial orientation. The concept of entrepreneurial orientation has a very important place in terms of the ability to sustain the assets of businesses and ensure differentiation from their competitors. With this study, prominent the concept of entrepreneurial orientation in respect to competitive advantage of the businesses will be included and increased awareness related to this concept will be tried to be ensured.

  4. Exploring Societal Responses towards Managerial Prerogative in Entrepreneurial Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callagher, Lisa; Horst, Maja; Husted, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Society's expectations for an increased role in science agenda setting and greater returns on public science investments shift university management practices. Entrepreneurial university, new public management, and sociology of science literature's inform the changing expectations about the roles and norms that govern university management and…

  5. Entrepreneurial motivation and small business growth in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijdenberg, E.L.; Masurel, E.; Paas, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between entrepreneurial motivation and small business growth in one of the poorest emerging countries: the African least developed country (LDC), Rwanda. Design/methodology/approach – On the basis of theoretical resources and a

  6. Implementing entrepreneurial thinking into iSchool curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Michael Rene

    2014-01-01

    The session aims to bring together a group of researchers and educators within the iSchool community interested in implementing entrepreneurial thinking in curriculum (teaching and research). Entrepreneurship is a contemporary social and cultural movement extending beyond its starting point...

  7. Entrepreneurial Learning a Practical Model from the Creative Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, David

    2004-01-01

    Explores how entrepreneurial capability and identity are learned in the creative and media industries. This sector is of growing social and economic importance, and the majority of its employment and commercial activity takes place within small businesses. However, entrepreneurship in the creative industries and the related development of…

  8. CROSS-BORDER COLLABORATION IN ENTREPRENEURIAL EDUCATION IN UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela DIACONU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The entrepreneurship, as an integral part of education, is now widely accepted worldwide. Entrepreneurial education is considered today as a holistic and inclusive process and not just a component of education in business. The activity of developing the entrepreneurial spirit organized on new principles must be seen by the universities as the foundation of successful fulfillment of university’s mission in contributing to social and economic development. This paper's main purpose is to identify a number of solutions on how they can ensure through cross-border cooperation the development of entrepreneurial skills within the universities through learning experiences contexts. In this regard, the paper proposes a model of entrepreneurial project which takes the form of simulated enterprise developed by the University of Pitesti, and a number of solutions for this project to be developed and implemented through cross-border cooperation, in accordance with the strategies and principles promoted by European Commission and European Parliament, which stresses the importance of developing through international cooperation of innovative methods that go beyond the traditional frame in which, currently, are formed the competencies and the educational process is performed. Thus, the proposed model can be expanded and implemented "in the mirror" and internationally by building partnerships between countries, universities and economic agents from those countries with real benefits for all parties involved through valuing the national specificities.

  9. Coordinating technology introduction and entrepreneurial activities in rural areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, J.E.; Pennink, B.J.W.; Simatupang, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    © Copyright 2017 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. The main purpose of this research is to investigate how technology introduction projects in rural areas should be coordinated in order to achieve local economic development and the role of social capital and entrepreneurial activities. Characteristics

  10. A College's Role in Developing and Supporting an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeon, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    From the earliest oil pioneers to today's business startups, entrepreneurs have paved the road to success for Oklahoma. Small businesses account for more than 80% of the business community in each of the state's two largest cities. Higher education must take a leadership role in developing and sustaining a thriving entrepreneurial ecosystem for…

  11. Entrepreneurialism for Canadian Principals: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shelleyann; Webber, Charles F.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the various elements of Canadian educational entrepreneurialism as manifested yesterday, today, and tomorrow and in relation to the social and political influences of the time. This discussion is informed by the findings of the International Study of the Preparation of Principals (ISPP) and represents an expansion of the…

  12. Entrepreneurial Health Informatics for Computer Science and Information Systems Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, James; Joseph, Anthony; Narula, Stuti

    2014-01-01

    Corporate entrepreneurship is a critical area of curricula for computer science and information systems students. Few institutions of computer science and information systems have entrepreneurship in the curricula however. This paper presents entrepreneurial health informatics as a course in a concentration of Technology Entrepreneurship at a…

  13. The emergence of entrepreneurial milieus and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Matiaske, Wenzel; Royer, Susanne

    In the center of the investigation of this research is the emergence of entrepreneurial milieus and social capital within industry clusters. The motivation of the research initiative is to shed some light on the action patterns in innovation processes within multiple domain settings. This paper d...

  14. Private equity and entrepreneurial management in management buy-outs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bruining (Hans); E. Verwaal (Ernst); D.M. Wright (Mike)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCritics claim that short-term profit orientation and high deal price strategies of private equity (PE) firms can negatively affect the ability of management buyouts to initiate and sustain entrepreneurial management. This study investigates this claim by comparing effects of majority PE

  15. Exploring the interplay between entrepreneurial agency and structural context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine; Neergaard, Helle

    of interactions (or morphogenetic sequences) between local (rural) structures and entrepreneurial agency empirically. The research shows how entrepreneurs draw from the local context to create unique activities; how these unique activities result in various forms of regional development outcomes (i.e. social...

  16. Divestment, Entrepreneurial Incentives and the Decision to go Public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper develops a theory of the life cycle of the firm based on incentive constraints.The optimal sale of the firm is restricted by entrepreneurial moral hazard and a lack of commitment regarding future divestment.This leads to a dynamic inefficiency that causes the entrepreneur to delay and to

  17. High Income Inequality as a Structural Factor in Entrepreneurial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lecuna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Statistical tests on a panel of data from 54 countries over the 2004–2009 period support the proposition that high income inequality and entrepreneurial activity share a positive linear relationship. In a novel approach, the dependent variable is defined from two independent and uncorrelated perspectives: (1 the World Bank Group Entrepreneurship Snapshot, which measures new business entry density based on secondary official sources; and (2 the Total Early Stage Entrepreneurial Activity of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor project, which is a survey-based measure of formal and informal entrepreneurial participation rates. The empirical strategy is based on the logic that economies with increasing concentrations of wealth tend to encourage entrepreneurial activity because entrepreneurs accumulate more income than workers. Following the disequalizing model, once this inequality appears, it is reinforced in successive generations. The intuition behind this outcome is that a certain level of initial capital is required to establish a new enterprise, which implies that the probability of becoming an entrepreneur increases if an individual has inherited wealth.

  18. Climbing the Entrepreneurial Ladder: The Role of Gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Grilo (Isabel); A.R. Thurik (Roy); I. Verheul (Ingrid); P.W. van der Zwan (Peter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate whether women and men differ with respect to the steps they take in the entrepreneurial process, distinguishing between five successive steps described by the following positions: (1) "never thought about it"; (2) "thinking about starting up a business"; (3) "taking steps

  19. Undergraduate Entrepreneurial Finance Course: Some Curriculum and Pedagogical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Samanta; Chan, Kam C.

    2013-01-01

    Using online survey, we document the opinions of finance professors as to what should be the core content of undergraduate entrepreneurial finance course and the approach to be taken to teach this course. On the core content of the course, the top five topics preferred by the respondents were: Identifying business opportunities and examining their…

  20. CHINESE ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY IN PORTUGAL: TRADITIONAL ETHNIC STRATEGIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Reis Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In Portugal in recent decades, just like in other welcoming countries, immigrants have reached levels of entrepreneurial activity that are higher than those of autochthonous citizens. However, a deeper analysis of the official data shows that not all immigrant groups have the same tendency to become entrepreneurs. In this respect, the Chinese stand out as being the group with the highest ratio of entrepreneurial activity in Portugal, despite the fact that their migration is a relatively recent phenomenon. What factors can explain the Chinese community’s disproportionate rate of entrepreneurial initiative? Do they possess any particular resources that make them more enterprising than the autochthonous population, or than other groups of immigrants? Does the context of Portugal hamper certain opportunities or in some way limit their economic integration into the job market? Do we find similar business strategies among other Chinese entrepreneurs residing in welcoming societies apart from that of Portugal? Why did Chinese business initiative grow at such an exceptional rate in Portugal in the late 1990s? By seeking answers to these questions, this article attempts to examine Chinese business strategies in Portugal, as well as their exceptional success rate in comparison with other entrepreneurial immigrants. To that end, the author has analysed the data gathered in a survey carried out on 309 Chinese entrepreneurs resident in Portugal (see Oliveira, 2005.

  1. Governance and strategy of entrepreneurial networks: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Windsperger (Josef); G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); G. Cliquet (Gérard); T. Ehrmann (Thomas)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis special issue focuses on empirical and theoretical papers that help us to better understand the strategy and governance of entrepreneurial networks, such as franchise chains, alliances, and cooperative networks. The following central themes are covered: (I) Which formal governance

  2. Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intention among African Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinying, Wang; Pelagie, Pene Zongabiro Nina

    2014-01-01

    Students' perceptions towards entrepreneurship have been a focus for many researches in the field of Entrepreneurship: Given the role that entrepreneurship play in the economic development of a country, researchers acknowledge that students are the key population for entrepreneurial activities. Researchers want to predict and understand students'…

  3. IT Entrepreneurial Intention among College Students: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liqiang

    2013-01-01

    IT (Information Technology) entrepreneurs have been contributing greatly to economic growth and job creation. Despite its importance, IT entrepreneurship remains understudied in business research. Particularly, the study of IT entrepreneurial behavior has been ignored in both Information Systems (IS) and entrepreneurship disciplines. Utilizing the…

  4. The Effect of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Teacher Satisfaction and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Melissa Rihm

    2016-01-01

    Teacher turnover is a costly problem. Since teacher working conditions influence teacher's satisfaction and career intentions, managers may theoretically increase teacher satisfaction and retention by fostering a school environment supportive of the highly-trained professional. Entrepreneurial Orientation is an organizational construct correlated…

  5. Investigating Entrepreneurial Intention among Public Sector University Students of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naimatullah; Soomro, Bahadur Ali

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Nowadays, entrepreneurship is regarded as an indispensable means for economic development. In this regard, promoting entrepreneurship is a necessity for every economy. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that may influence students' entrepreneurial intentions. Design/methodology/approach: The conceptual framework underlying…

  6. Entrepreneurial Intentions of Agricultural Students: Levels and Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouratashi, Mahtab

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examined levels and determinants of entrepreneurial intentions amongst agricultural students. Methodology: The statistical population comprised students in colleges of agriculture at University of Tehran. By use of a random sampling method, a sample of 120 students participated in the study. The instrument for data collection…

  7. A Cross-Cultural Approach to Understanding Entrepreneurial Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriano, Juan A.; Gorgievski, Marjan; Laguna, Mariola; Stephan, Ute; Zarafshani, Kiumars

    2012-01-01

    The current research aims to shed light on the role of culture in the formation of career intentions. It draws on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen), which has been widely employed to predict intentions, including entrepreneurial career intentions, but past research has almost exclusively been conducted in "Western" countries.…

  8. Students' Entrepreneurial Inclination at a Malaysian Polytechnic: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Ahmad Yasruddin Md; Mahmood, Nik Abdul Aziz Nik; Jaafar, Nik Azyyati Nik

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary results of an ongoing project to examine students' inclination towards entrepreneurship at a Malaysian polytechnic. The study used a self-administered questionnaire to explore the influence of entrepreneurial intent, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, perceived support factors and…

  9. Learning to Make Sense: What Works in Entrepreneurial Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, David; Elliott, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to explore the changing influences and relevance of passive and experiential methods of learning within what can be described as a new era of entrepreneurial education. What still largely remains unaddressed in the literature is how are entrepreneur's best educated and developed in a manner which can have a direct impact on…

  10. Entrepreneurial strategic groups: how clustering helps nascent firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amezcua, A.S.; Ratinho, Tiago

    2012-01-01

    Our study examines how strategic groups consisting of nascent ventures outperform other firms. An entrepreneurial strategic group is defined as firms that pursue a similar founding strategy, belong to the same industry, and compete in the same geography. We show that firms belonging to an

  11. Entrepreneurial orientation and practice: three case examples of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    easily practise entrepreneurial customs like innovation, proactiveness and risk- taking. ... trying conditions and are faced with barriers to learning, which include .... novel ways of delivering products and services in a more effective, efficient and .... However, only a small number of learners (about 30% of the 1,240) come from.

  12. Human Economy and Entrepreneurial Learning in a Voluntary Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Christine

    2014-01-01

    "Based on five months anthropological field study in a British affiliate of an American charity in London, Revsbech asks what does learning look like in a social voluntary organization for youth. Her chapter argues that volunteers develop entrepreneurial abilities by shifting flexibly between...

  13. Exploring the African business model in relation to entrepreneurial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper sought to answer the many questions asked of entrepreneurship growth and support in Africa by analyzing different entrepreneurial and business leadership paradigms from America, Europe and Asia. Literature shows that the Americans and Europeans grew their societies as a result of individual creativity and ...

  14. Climate Change and Intertidal Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline M. Ross

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause—the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the “squeeze” experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change.

  15. Climate change and intertidal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pauline M; Adam, Paul

    2013-03-19

    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause-the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the "squeeze" experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change.

  16. Credit concession through credit scoring: Analysis and application proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Amat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study herein develops and tests a credit scoring model which can help financial institutions in assessing credit requests.  Design/methodology/approach: The empirical study has the objective of answering two questions: (1 Which ratios better discriminate the companies based on their being solvent or insolvent? and (2 What is the relative importance of these ratios? To do this, several statistical techniques with a multifactorial focus have been used (Multivariate Analysis of Variance, Linear Discriminant Analysis, Logit and Probit Models. Several samples of companies have been used in order to obtain and to test the model.  Findings: Through the application of several statistical techniques, the credit scoring model has been proved to be effective in discriminating between good and bad creditors.  Research limitations:  This study focuses on manufacturing, commercial and services companies of all sizes in Spain; Therefore, the conclusions may differ for other geographical locations. Practical implications:  Because credit is one of the main drivers of growth, a solid credit scoring model can help financial institutions assessing to whom to grant credit and to whom not to grant credit. Social implications: Because of the growing importance of credit for our society and the fear of granting it due to the latest financial turmoil, a solid credit scoring model can strengthen the trust toward the financial institutions assessment’s.  Originality/value: There is already a stream of literature related to credit scoring. However, this paper focuses on Spanish firms and proves the results of our model based on real data. The application of the model to detect the probability of default in loans is original.

  17. DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES INFLUENCING INDIVIDUAL ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION AND STRATEGIC THINKING CAPABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Jelenc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Strategic thinking capability is interesting part of the cognitive development of each entrepreneur. This paper develops on notion that there a number of demographic variables that shape the behavior of each particular elements of entrepreneurial orientation and strategic component of each entrepreneur. The demographic variable that have significant role will take the role of moderator in further research. Since both constructs are multidimensional, the demographic variables are not influencing them in the same way. The empirical research has been performed on IT firms in Croatia in 2014. Individual entrepreneurial orientation is measured by the construct developed by Bolton and Lane’s (2012 individual entrepreneurial orientation instrument. The instrument is grounded in the seminal work of Miller (1983, Covin and Slevin (1986; 1988; 1989, Lumpkin and Dess (1996 and Covin and Wales (2011; consisting of three dimensions – risk-taking, innovation, and proactiveness. Strategic thinking was measured by Pisapia’s (2009 Strategic thinking questionnaire (STQ. The STQ asked respondents to rate how often they use systems thinking, reframing, and reflecting skills. Within the framework of individual entrepreneurial orientation the following demographic variables shape the trends: age, gender, education abroad and previous experience. Entrepreneurs between 40-60 years old are less prone to risk, female entrepreneurs are more proactive than men, education abroad provides with the additional proactiveness and the entrepreneur with previous experience is prone to higher risk, proactiveness and innovativeness. Within the framework of strategic thinking capability the following demographic variables shape the trends: age, gender, education and experience. Entrepreneurs older than 60 score high on system thinking as well as females, females also score higher on reframing. Entrepreneurs with PhD degree score lower on reframing, while managers working more

  18. Entrepreneurial Women in Brazil: What Are Their Fears?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Adriano Momm Maciel de Camargo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This article aims to investigate the fears of entrepreneurial women in consolidated businesses, in view of the current volatile political and economic situation in Brazil. Design/methodology/approach – We chose a qualitative and interpretative approach, using in-depth interviews with expert entrepreneurs with already consolidated businesses as the data collection technique. We did not define the categories a priori, but instead they emerged inductively from what the interviewees said. Findings – The findings indicate that the fears present in entrepreneurial activities go beyond those related to opening a business and its continuity, such as fear of bankruptcy. We noticed that during the entrepreneurial trajectory, fears alter and can be grouped into the following categories: fears related to the future of the enterprise and the entrepreneur; specific fears concerning the business sector; fears related to financial aspects. The economic instability in Brazil seems to be an aggravating factor and was present at all times in the women’s statements. Originality/value – The theoretical contribution of this study lies in the finding that there are fears that can change as the woman and the enterprise mature. This finding goes beyond the fears commonly found in the literature, which are the fear of opening a new business and that of failure or bankruptcy. This study is aligned with those that address the emotions that permeate entrepreneurial activities. By identifying that women have different types of fears over time, the study could, as a practical contribution, lead to business training programs that, in addition to technical aspects, also include emotional dimensions to better prepare entrepreneurial women.

  19. Credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byiers, Bruce; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses two industrial firm surveys to identify the key determinants of credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing. We construct five different measures of being credit constrained and estimate desired debt demand. Besides firm size and ownership structure, we find evidence that general...

  20. Store Security. Credit Card Fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockway, Jerry

    The manual, intended for use by adults and not in the high school classroom situation, presents material directed toward assisting in the reduction of credit card crime. This teaching guide is organized in three sections which deal with the nature of and major reasons for credit card fraud, the types of hot card runners, and methods of reducing…

  1. Tuition Tax Credits. Issuegram 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augenblick, John; McGuire, Kent

    Approaches for using the federal income tax system to aid families of pupils attending private schools include: tax credits, tax deductions, tax deferrals, and education savings incentives. Tax credit structures can be made refundable and made sensitive to taxpayers' income levels, the level of education expenditures, and designated costs.…

  2. Wetlands Research Program. Wetland Evaluation Technique (WET). Volume 2. Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    to waves taller than I ft? • " Guidelines: 1 "Sufficient" is defined as the height of vegetation or relief multiplied * by length of vegetation or...Sci., Interim Rep. No. 3, Gloucester Point, VA. 52 pp. 203 VI. 4 WET 2.0 Simmons, E. G. 1957. An ecological survey of the Upper Laguna Madre of Texas...A wetland class characterized by vegetation that is 6 m or taller . Fringe Wetland - Fringe wetlands along a channel (i.e.. river, stream, etc.)are

  3. Remote sensing of wetlands applications and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Tiner, Ralph W; Klemas, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    Effectively Manage Wetland Resources Using the Best Available Remote Sensing Techniques Utilizing top scientists in the wetland classification and mapping field, Remote Sensing of Wetlands: Applications and Advances covers the rapidly changing landscape of wetlands and describes the latest advances in remote sensing that have taken place over the past 30 years for use in mapping wetlands. Factoring in the impact of climate change, as well as a growing demand on wetlands for agriculture, aquaculture, forestry, and development, this text considers the challenges that wetlands pose for remote sensing and provides a thorough introduction on the use of remotely sensed data for wetland detection. Taking advantage of the experiences of more than 50 contributing authors, the book describes a variety of techniques for mapping and classifying wetlands in a multitude of environments ranging from tropical to arctic wetlands including coral reefs and submerged aquatic vegetation. The authors discuss the advantages and di...

  4. Involving Young People in Polish and Lithuanian Social Enterprises by Fostering Entrepreneurial Skills and Abil-ities as Entrepreneurial Opportunity at University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Greblikaite

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper aims to analyse theoretically and empirically the development of social entrepreneurship in Poland and Lithuania, emphasizing the development of appropriate skills and abilities gained at university as entrepreneurial opportunity. Research Design & Methods: The research undertaken for the purposes of the paper is based on a literature review and empirical research partly devoted to a situational analysis of social entrepreneurship in Poland, as well as a pilot survey of target groups pertaining to the entrepreneurial skills and abilities as entrepreneurial opportunity of Lithuanian and Polish students as potential social entrepreneurs. Findings: The main research findings imply that despite the existence of entrepreneurial opportunity as education at university, social entrepreneurship is increasingly important in Poland. Overall support is needed for the creation of social enterprises and attracting young people to them. Empirical research based on Lithuanian and Polish students’ perception of acquiring entrepreneurial skills and abilities at university can be entrepreneurial opportunity for social entrepreneurship. Implications & Recommendations: Implementing further research in the field, as empirical this research was just a pilot one. Research can be developed by taking into account more respondents in both countries. Contribution & Value Added: The study provides empirical evidence entrepreneurial skills and abilities gained/developed at university are a possible entrepreneurial opportunity for exploiting and creating social enterprises.

  5. Can a Short Intensive Course Affect Entrepreneurial Ability, Knowledge and Intent, or Further Entrepreneurial Study? An Assessment of the SEED Programme, Dunedin, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, Jon; Kirkwood, Jodyanne; Clark, Gavin J.; Silvey, Stephen; Appleby, Ruth D.; Wolkenhauer, Svea Mara; Panjabi, Jayashree; Gluyas, Eva; Brain, Chelsea; Abbott, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The SEED (Student Enterprise Experience in Dunedin) programme was developed as a four-week, intensive entrepreneurial "boot camp" to provide a small group of participants with a highly experiential business course. Using pre-course and post-course surveys, the authors measured the entrepreneurial ability, knowledge and intentions of the…

  6. Atrazine remediation in wetland microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runes, H B; Bottomley, P J; Lerch, R N; Jenkins, J J

    2001-05-01

    Laboratory wetland microcosms were used to study treatment of atrazine in irrigation runoff by a field-scale-constructed wetland under controlled conditions. Three experiments, in which 1 ppm atrazine was added to the water column of three wetland, one soil control, and one water control microcosm, were conducted. Atrazine dissipation from the water column and degradate formation (deethylatrazine [DEA]; deisopropylatrazine [DIA]; and hydroxyatrazine [HA]) were monitored. Atrazine dissipation from the water column of wetland microcosms was biphasic. Less than 12% of the atrazine applied to wetland microcosms remained in the water column on day 56. Atrazine degradates were observed in water and sediment, with HA the predominant degradate. Analysis of day 56 sediment samples indicated that a significant portion of the initial application was detected as the parent compound and HA. Most probable number (MPN) assays demonstrated that atrazine degrader populations were small in wetland sediment. Wetland microcosms were able to reduce atrazine concentration in the water column via sorption and degradation. Based on results from this study, it is hypothesized that plant uptake contributed to atrazine dissipation from the water column.

  7. 12 CFR 703.6 - Credit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit analysis. 703.6 Section 703.6 Banks and... ACTIVITIES § 703.6 Credit analysis. A Federal credit union must conduct and document a credit analysis on an... Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. A Federal credit union must update this analysis at least annually...

  8. Credit Cards. Bulletin No. 721. (Revised.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Linda Kirk

    This cooperative extension bulletin provides basic information about credit cards and their use. It covers the following topics: types of credit cards (revolving credit, travel and entertainment, and debit); factors to consider when evaluating a credit card (interest rates, grace period, and annual membership fee); other credit card costs (late…

  9. 7 CFR 4280.139 - Credit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit quality. 4280.139 Section 4280.139 Agriculture... Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.139 Credit quality. The lender must determine credit quality and must address all of the elements of credit quality in a written credit analysis, including...

  10. The emergence of treatment wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, S.

    1998-01-01

    Judging by the growing number of wetlands built for wastewater treatment around the world, this natural technology seems to have firmly established roots. After almost 30 years of use in wastewater treatment, constructed treatment wetlands now number over 500 in Europe and 600 in North America. Marsh-type surface flow systems are most common in North America, but subsurface flow wetlands, where wastewater flows beneath the surface of a gravel-rock bed, predominate in Europe. The inexpensive, low maintenance technology is in high demand in Central America, Eastern Europe, and Asia. New applications, from nitrate-contaminated ground water to effluent from high-intensity livestock operations, are also increasing. But in the United States, treatment-wetland technology has not yet gained national regulatory acceptance. Some states and EPA regions are eager to endorse them, but others are wary of this nontraditional method of treating wastewater. In part, this reluctance exists because the technology is not yet completely understood. Treatment wetlands also pose a potential threat to wildlife attracted to this new habitat -an ecosystem exposed to toxic compounds. New efforts are under way, however, to place the technology onto firmer scientific and regulatory ground. Long-term demonstration and monitoring field studies are currently probing the inner workings of wetlands and their water quality capabilities to provide better data on how to design more effective systems. A recent study of US policy and regulatory issues surrounding treatment wetlands has recommended that the federal government actively promote the technology and clear the regulatory roadblocks to enable wider use. Proponents argue that the net environmental benefits of constructed wetlands, such as restoring habitat and increasing wetlands inventory, should be considered. 8 refs., 6 photos

  11. Using Tradtional Ecological Knowledge to Protect Wetlands: the Swinomish Tribe's Wetland Cultural Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, T.

    2017-12-01

    "Traditional" wetland physical assessment modules do not adequately identify Tribal cultural values of wetlands and thus wetlands may not be adequately protected for cultural uses. This Swinomish Wetlands Cultural Assessment Project has developed a cultural resource scoring module that can be incorporated into wetland assessments to better inform wetland protections. Local native knowledge was gathered about the traditional uses of 99 native wetland plant species. A cultural scoring matrix was developed based on the presence of traditionally used plants in several use categories including: construction, ceremonial, subsistence, medicinal, common use, plant rarity, and place of value for each wetland. The combined score of the cultural and physcial modules provides an overall wetland score that relates to proscribed buffer protection widths. With this local native knowledge incorporated into wetland assessments, we are protecting and preserving Swinomish Reservation wetlands for both cultural uses and ecological functionality through the Tribe's wetland protection law.

  12. The influence of sovereign credit ratings on corporate credit ratings.

    OpenAIRE

    Umutoni, Liliane

    2017-01-01

    Credit ratings have a key role in modern financial markets as they communicate crucial information on the creditworthiness of a debt issuer to investors and regulators. These credit ratings are mostly determined by three rating agencies, namely Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s and Fitch, even though, the credit rating industry counts a dozen of recognized rating agencies. Indeed, the three agencies have become the market leaders with a market share of 94.3% on the U.S market (Bloomberg, 2015) and 9...

  13. European Experience and Ukrainian Realities in the Policy of Financial Support Entrepreneurial Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Savchenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - We want to provide recommendations to bridge the gap in access to financing of the entrepreneurial sector in Ukraine based on the analysis of European experience, EBF approaches, financial funds for SMEs and the current state of the credit market in Ukraine. Design/methodology/approach - We used the general scientific methods of knowledge, conceptual tenets of the theory of market economy, abstract logical analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, historical (to determine the nature and causes of bank investment in SMEs, refine categories and terms; formalization, systems analysis (to determine factors of investment banking, institutional and legal environment; statistical, retrospective analysis. The results of surveys conducted by the EBF on the issues of support and development of SMEs are used, own research of 120 Ukrainian SMEs, which was conducted during the period from January to July 2016. The nature of the research questions was reinforced by the decision to survey only SMEs. Independent reporting (from entrepreneurs or CEOs was used to account for both business activity and the external sources of information. Findings - Policy initiatives should primarily be developed at the national level in the field of lending to SMEs based on the European experience and Ukrainian realities; it is necessary to develop an understanding of the need for access to certain types of information; SMEs are the main providers and the most valuable source of credit information. Research implications/limitations - When using the methods of calculation creditworthiness perhaps to take into account the methods for assessing the quality of management, the image of the enterprise, ISO certificates. Originality/value/contribution - Based on the cross-country comparison of the EU and Ukraine, highlight the necessity of focusing on some legal unification of SME lending procedures for the development of a culture of sustainable entrepreneurship

  14. Technology Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and Entrepreneurship in the West Region of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roja Alexandru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Technical progress and entrepreneurship have become drivers of economic and social stability and progress. To develop their new ventures, to generate value, and to validate and implement business ideas, entrepreneurs need a competitive business environment, we name it technology entrepreneurial ecosystem. Entrepreneurial new ventures competitiveness depends on the entrepreneurial ecosystem structure and components. Our research presents the main levels of information technology industry linked with technology entrepreneurial ecosystems components. In the second part of our research we present the entrepreneurs perception about information technology entrepreneurial ecosystem in the west region of Romania. Our objective was to find out the entrepreneurs point of view about opportunities and influences that they perceive in the regional entrepreneurial ecosystem

  15. Tertiary Students’ Entrepreneurial Ability of Entrepreneurship-Embedded Internship Program in Education Service Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Mei Chou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to explore tertiary students’ entrepreneurial ability of entrepreneurship-embedded internship program in education service industry. To achieve this goal, the study uses interviews, and panel discussions to confirm entrepreneurial ability. In addition, the study utilizes transformation of knowledge and ability to select representative knowledge items and to confirm the entrepreneurial ability structure of entrepreneurship-embedded internship program in education service industry through panel discussions. Entrepreneurs in education service industry should have these ten categories, total 42 items, such as essential professional knowledge item; that is, entrepreneurial skills, education ability, marketing ability, computer ability, service ability, and management ability, in order to cultivate entrepreneurs’ abilities of education service industry effectively. Core entrepreneurial ability of education service industry entrepreneurs should include 13 items in total, including entrepreneurial skills, education ability, marketing ability and service ability and so on.

  16. Entrepreneurship education revisited: perceived entrepreneurial role models increase perceived behavioural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellnhofer, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Relying on Bandura’s (1986) social learning theory, Ajzen’s (1988) theory of planned behaviour (TPB), and Dyer’s (1994) model of entrepreneurial careers, this study aims to highlight the potential of entrepreneurial role models to entrepreneurship education. The results suggest that entrepreneurial courses would greatly benefit from real-life experiences, either positive or negative. The results of regression analysis based on 426 individuals, primarily from Austria, Finland, and Greece, show that role models increase learners’ entrepreneurial perceived behaviour control (PBC) by increasing their self-efficacy. This study can inform the research and business communities and governments about the importance of integrating entrepreneurs into education to stimulate entrepreneurial PBC. This study is the first of its kind using its approach, and its results warrant more in-depth studies of storytelling by entrepreneurial role models in the context of multimedia entrepreneurship education. PMID:29104604

  17. The Role of Competencies and Education in Increasing Entrepreneurial Intention in Creative Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Winstinindah Sandroto

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The creative economy is being increasingly encouraged by the Indonesian government, the existing entrepreneurs are mostly engaged in the culinary industry. This study aims to describe the role of competencies and education in increasing entrepreneurial intention in the creative economy. Three hundred and five questionnaires were distributed to creative entrepreneurs, consisting of 162 respondents in Jakarta and 143 in Balikpapan using convenience sampling. Research findings show that there is no difference between the mean scores of entrepreneurial competencies in Jakarta and Balikpapan. Furthermore, the level of education has a positive effect on (i entrepreneurial intention, (ii entrepreneurial professional attraction, and (iii entrepreneurial networking support. There is a positive relationship between education level and monthly revenue, as well as between entrepreneurial competencies and monthly revenue. The findings of this research would suggest government and education institution to further develop entrepreneurship education and train them with various methods and to cultivate interests in other creative sub-sectors.

  18. Entrepreneurship education revisited: perceived entrepreneurial role models increase perceived behavioural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellnhofer, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Relying on Bandura's (1986) social learning theory, Ajzen's (1988) theory of planned behaviour (TPB), and Dyer's (1994) model of entrepreneurial careers, this study aims to highlight the potential of entrepreneurial role models to entrepreneurship education. The results suggest that entrepreneurial courses would greatly benefit from real-life experiences, either positive or negative. The results of regression analysis based on 426 individuals, primarily from Austria, Finland, and Greece, show that role models increase learners' entrepreneurial perceived behaviour control (PBC) by increasing their self-efficacy. This study can inform the research and business communities and governments about the importance of integrating entrepreneurs into education to stimulate entrepreneurial PBC. This study is the first of its kind using its approach, and its results warrant more in-depth studies of storytelling by entrepreneurial role models in the context of multimedia entrepreneurship education.

  19. Economic Entitlements via Entrepreneurial Conduct? Women and Financial Inclusion in Neo-liberal India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kalpana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the gendered local character of neoliberalism at the household level by focusing on microcredit/finance programs in India. Microfinance promoted by the state as an informal activity targeting women is intended to alleviate income inequalities, even as it contributes to maintaining the world capitalist system. In India the inception of microfinance-based Self Help Groups (SHGs or peer groups of women savers and borrowers in the 1990s has coincided with a rightward turn towards neoliberal policies of structural adjustment, privatization and economic deregulation. In this paper, I show how Indian policy makers have endeavored to make women's economic entitlements contingent upon their disciplined financial behavior and their willing participation in neoliberal agendas of creating and deepening 'self-regulating' markets at village levels. Drawing on an ethnographic study conducted in a South Indian state, I show that the community level 'neoliberal disciplining' that microfinance entails does not proceed without resistance. Whilst SHGs seek to constitute women as fiscally disciplined savers and borrowers, women stake their 'rightful' entitlement to bank credit even as they reject outright the entrepreneurial subjectivities they are expected to assume. They pursue purposes and ends that extend well beyond 'financial inclusion.'

  20. Call for papers: Fostering an Entrepreneurial Environment in an Emerging Nation: Lessons and Challenges from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Albornoz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The level of entrepreneurial activity is related to several factors such as the educational level of the local population, the business environment, and the legal conditions (Grilo and Thurik 2005; van Stel et al 2005; Bowen and De Clercq 2008. Some of these macro level factors can explain not only the entrepreneurial capabilities, but also the type of entrepreneurial activity that occurs.