Sample records for wetland bioreactor evaluated

  1. Biological manganese removal from acid mine drainage in constructed wetlands and prototype bioreactors. (United States)

    Hallberg, Kevin B; Johnson, D Barrie


    Mine drainage waters vary considerably in the range and concentration of heavy metals they contain. Besides iron, manganese is frequently present at elevated concentrations in waters draining both coal and metal mines. Passive treatment systems (aerobic wetlands and compost bioreactors) are designed to remove iron by biologically induced oxidation/precipitation. Manganese, however, is problematic as it does not readily form sulfidic minerals and requires elevated pH (>8) for abiotic oxidation of Mn (II) to insoluble Mn (IV). As a result, manganese removal in passive remediation systems is often less effective than removal of iron. This was found to be the case at the pilot passive treatment plant (PPTP) constructed to treat water draining the former Wheal Jane tin mine in Cornwall, UK, where effective removal of manganese occurred only in one of the three rock filter components of the composite systems over a 1-year period of monitoring. Water in the two rock filter systems where manganese removal was relatively poor was generally system. These differences in water chemistry and manganese removal were due to variable performances in the compost bioreactors that feed the rock filter units in the composite passive systems at Wheal Jane. An alternative approach for removing soluble manganese from mine waters, using fixed bed bioreactors, was developed. Ferromanganese nodules (about 2 cm diameter), collected from an abandoned mine adit in north Wales, were used to inoculate the bioreactors (working volume ca. 700 ml). Following colonization by manganese-oxidizing microbes, the aerated bioreactor catalysed the removal of soluble manganese, via oxidation of Mn (II) and precipitation of the resultant Mn (IV) in the bioreactor, in synthetic media and mine water from the Wheal Jane PPTP. Such an approach has potential application for removing soluble Mn from mine streams and other Mn-contaminated water courses.

  2. Bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamaleddine, E. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering


    Composting is once again gaining interest among ecological engineers in view of greener industrial and residential activities. Uniform composting is needed to ensure decomposition and to keep the whole system at the same composting stage. A homogeneous temperature must be maintained throughout the media. A bioreactor design consisting of a heater core made of copper tubing was designed and tested. Two four-inch holes were made at the top and bottom of the barrel to allow air to flow through the system and promote aerobic composting. Once composting began and temperature increased, the water began to flow through the copper piping and the core heat was distributed throughout the medium. Three thermocouples were inserted at different heights on a 200 litre plastic barrel fitted with the aforementioned apparatus. Temperature variations were found to be considerably lower when the apparatus was operated with the heat redistribution system, enabling uniform composting, accelerating the process and reducing the risks of pathogenic or other contaminants remaining active in the barrels.

  3. Wetlands Research Program. Wetland Evaluation Technique (WET). Volume 2. Methodology. (United States)


    to waves taller than I ft? • " Guidelines: 1 "Sufficient" is defined as the height of vegetation or relief multiplied * by length of vegetation or...Sci., Interim Rep. No. 3, Gloucester Point, VA. 52 pp. 203 VI. 4 WET 2.0 Simmons, E. G. 1957. An ecological survey of the Upper Laguna Madre of Texas...A wetland class characterized by vegetation that is 6 m or taller . Fringe Wetland - Fringe wetlands along a channel (i.e.. river, stream, etc.)are

  4. Construction and evaluation of urinary bladder bioreactor for urologic tissue-engineering purposes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, Niall F


    OBJECTIVE: To design and construct a urinary bladder bioreactor for urologic tissue-engineering purposes and to compare the viability and proliferative activity of cell-seeded extracellular matrix scaffolds cultured in the bioreactor with conventional static growth conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A urinary bladder bioreactor was designed and constructed to replicate physiologic bladder dynamics. The bioreactor mimicked the filling pressures of the human bladder by way of a cyclical low-delivery pressure regulator. In addition, cell growth was evaluated by culturing human urothelial cells (UCs) on porcine extracellular matrix scaffolds in the bioreactor and in static growth conditions for 5 consecutive days. The attachment, viability, and proliferative potential were assessed and compared with quantitative viability indicators and by fluorescent markers for intracellular esterase activity and plasma membrane integrity. Scaffold integrity was characterized with scanning electron microscopy and 4\\

  5. Evaluating the significance of wetland restoration scenarios on phosphorus removal. (United States)

    Daneshvar, Fariborz; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Adhikari, Umesh; Elahi, Behin; Abouali, Mohammad; Herman, Matthew R; Martinez-Martinez, Edwin; Calappi, Timothy J; Rohn, Bridget G


    Freshwater resources are vital for human and natural systems. However, anthropogenic activities, such as agricultural practices, have led to the degradation of the quality of these limited resources through pollutant loading. Agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs), such as wetlands, are recommended as a valuable solution for pollutant removal. However, evaluation of their long-term impacts is difficult and requires modeling since performing in-situ monitoring is expensive and not feasible at the watershed scale. In this study, the impact of natural wetland implementation on total phosphorus reduction was evaluated both at the subwatershed and watershed levels. The study area is the Saginaw River Watershed, which is largest watershed in Michigan. The phosphorus reduction performances of four different wetland sizes (2, 4, 6, and 8 ha) were evaluated within this study area by implementing one wetland at a time in areas identified to have the highest potential for wetland restoration. The subwatershed level phosphorus loads were obtained from a calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. These loads were then incorporated into a wetland model (System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis IntegratioN-SUSTAIN) to evaluate phosphorus reduction at the subwatershed level and then the SWAT model was again used to route phosphorus transport to the watershed outlet. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the spatial impact of wetland size and placement on phosphorus reduction. Overall, the performance of 2 ha wetlands in total phosphorus reduction was significantly lower than the larger sizes at both the subwatershed and watershed levels. Regarding wetland implementation sites, wetlands located in headwaters and downstream had significantly higher phosphorus reduction than the ones located in the middle of the watershed. More specifically, wetlands implemented at distances ranging from 200 to 250 km and 50-100 km from the outlet had the

  6. Evaluation of a market in wetland credits: entrepreneurial wetland banking in Chicago. (United States)

    Robertson, Morgan; Hayden, Nicholas


    With the rise of market-led approaches to environmental policy, compensation for permitted discharge of dredge or fill material into wetlands under Section 404 of the U.S. Clean Water Act has been purchased increasingly from entrepreneurial third-party providers. The growth of this practice (i.e., entrepreneurial wetland banking) has resolved many challenges associated with wetland compensation. But it has also produced (1) quantifiable temporal loss of wetland ecological functions, (2) spatial redistribution of wetland area, and (3) a degree of regulatory instability that may pose a threat to entrepreneurial compensation as a sustainable component of wetland-compensation policy. We used achieved compensation ratios, lapse between bank credit sale and the attainment of performance standards, distance between impact and bank site, and changes in bank market area to examine these 3 factors. We analyzed data from a census of all such transactions in the Chicago District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, compiled from site visits, Corps databases, and contacts with consultants and Section 404 permittees. Entrepreneurial banking provided compensation at a lower overall ratio than nonbank forms of compensation. Approximately 60% of bank credits were sold after site-protection standards were met but before ecological performance standards were met at the bank site. The average distance between bank and impact site was approximately 26 km. The area of markets within which established banks can sell wetland credits has fluctuated considerably over the study period. Comparing these data with similar data for other compensation mechanisms will assist in evaluating banking as an element of conservation policy. Data characterizing the performance of entrepreneurial wetland banks in actual regulatory environments are scarce, even though it is the most established of similar markets that have become instrumental to federal policy in administering several major environmental

  7. Evaluation of Productivity of Zymotis Solid-State Bioreactor Based on Total Reactor Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar F. von Meien


    Full Text Available In this work a method of analyzing the performance of solid-state fermentation bioreactors is described. The method is used to investigate the optimal value for the spacing between the cooling plates of the Zymotis bioreactor, using simulated fermentation data supplied by a mathematical model. The Zymotis bioreactor has good potential for those solid-state fermentation processes in which the substrate bed must remain static. The current work addresses two design parameters introduced by the presence of the internal heat transfer plates: the width of the heat transfer plate, which is governed by the amount of heat to be removed and the pressure drop of the cooling water, and the spacing between these heat transfer plates. In order to analyze the performance of the bioreactor a productivity term is introduced that takes into account the volume occupied within the bioreactor by the heat transfer plates. As part of this analysis, it is shown that, for logistic growth kinetics, the time at which the biomass reaches 90 % of its maximum possible value is a good estimate of the optimum harvesting time for maximizing productivity. Application of the productivity analysis to the simulated fermentation results suggests that, with typical fast growing fungi ( = 0.324 h–1, the optimal spacing between heat transfer plates is of the order of 6 cm. The general applicability of this approach to evaluate the productivity of solid-state bioreactors is demonstrated.

  8. Fish and wildlife evaluation of wetlands created by mining activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepler, S.R.; Sabolcik, T.M.


    Four lacustrine wetland systems in Pennsylvania created by mining activities, either by sand and gravel or bituminous coal removal, were samples to determine the functional values of the fish and wildlife habitat. Most of the sampled sites were remnants of pre-act (1977) mining where minimal, if any, reclamation techniques were used. Natural succession within these impoundments have created ecosystems different in quality based on the availability of suitable habitat. Sampling techniques used to evaluate the wetland systems included initial water quality analyses, and aquatic habitat mapping using visual observations, LCD recorder, and computerized chart recorder. Fish populations were sampled using a boat mounted D.C. electrofishing unit with game fish being collected, weighted and measured and population estimates calculated as catch per unit effort (CPUE). Wildlife utilization of each site was conducted during the spring nesting season. Each site was surveyed for species utilization, nest searches determined whether nesting occurred and nesting success was noted. Wildlife utilization was determined by observation, tracks, calls, scat, etc. Whenever possible sites were monitored during the fall migration period to determine whether the sites were being utilized by migratory waterfowl. Wetland vegetative studies were also conducted at each site. Wetland species were identified and concentrations and dispersion of each wetland species were noted. Each sampled wetland data set is presented separately because of the variabilities between sampled sites based on the geology, reclamation status, and habitat


    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  10. Evaluation Of Management Properties Of Wetland Soils Of Akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation Of Management Properties Of Wetland Soils Of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria For Sustainable Crop Production. ... Organic matter content values were high with mean of 12.59, 60.01, and 3.20 percent for Inland valley, Flood plain and mangrove soils respectively. Effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) was below ...

  11. Evaluation of wetland creation and waterfowl use in conjunction with abandoned mine lands in northeast Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKistry, M C; Anderson, S H [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)


    During 1991 and 1992, we studied 92 wetlands, including open water (ponds) and emergent communities, created as a result of Wyoming Abandoned Mine Lands` (AML) reclamation efforts in northeast Wyoming. Through these activities, over 300 wetlands were filled, reclaimed, created, or otherwise modified. For mitigation purposes wetlands to be filled or modified were first evaluated using a Wetland Habitat Value (WHV) Model. Using the model, wetland losses were mitigated by increasing the WHV of some wetlands or by creating new wetlands elsewhere. We evaluated model performance in offsetting wetland loss and how well the model predicted waterfowl use. We also compared post-reclamation wetland sizes to those predicted by engineering plans and submitted for Section 404 permit approval. In our study, predicted WHVs were overestimated at 100% of the wetlands for which pre-reclamation WHVs were available (n8). The most commonly overestimated variables were size, fraction of emergent cover, adjacent upland cover, and the number of bays and peninsulas. We obtained preconstruction size estimates for 64 of the original 80 wetlands. Fifty five of 64 wetlands were smaller than pre-reclamation engineering goals. The WHV Model accurately predicted use of wetlands by migrating and breeding canada geese (Branta canadensis), migrating dabbling ducks, and migrating diving ducks.

  12. Performance evaluation of startup for a yeast membrane bioreactor (MBRy) treating landfill leachate. (United States)

    Amaral, Míriam C S; Gomes, Rosimeire F; Brasil, Yara L; Oliveira, Sílvia M A; Moravia, Wagner G


    The startup process of a membrane bioreactor inoculated with yeast biomass (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and used in the treatment of landfill leachate was evaluated. The yeast membrane bioreactor (MBRy) was inoculated with an exogenous inoculum, a granulated active dry commercial bakers' yeast. The MBRy was successfully started up with a progressive increase in the landfill leachate percentage in the MBRy feed and the use of Sabouraud Dextrose Broth. The membrane plays an important role in the startup phase because of its full biomass retention and removal of organic matter. MBRy is a suitable and promising process to treat recalcitrant landfill leachate. After the acclimation period, the COD and NH 3 removal efficiency reached values of 72 ± 3% and 39 ± 2% respectively. MBRy shows a low membrane-fouling potential. The membrane fouling was influenced by soluble microbial products, extracellular polymeric substances, sludge particle size, and colloidal dissolved organic carbon.

  13. Cost effective dry anaerobic digestion in textile bioreactors: Experimental and economic evaluation. (United States)

    Patinvoh, Regina J; Osadolor, Osagie A; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J


    The aim of this work was to study dry anaerobic digestion (dry-AD) of manure bedded with straw using textile-based bioreactor in repeated batches. The 90-L reactor filled with the feedstocks (22-30% total solid) and inoculum without any further treatment, while the biogas produced were collected and analyzed. The digestate residue was also analyzed to check its suitability as bio-fertilizer. Methane yield after acclimatization increased from 183 to 290NmlCH 4 /gVS, degradation time decreased from 136 to 92days and the digestate composition point to suitable bio-fertilizer. The results then used to carry out economical evaluation, which shows dry-AD in textile bioreactors is a profitable method of handling the waste with maximum payback period of 5years, net present value from $7,000 to $9,800,000 (small to large bioreactors) with internal rate of return from 56.6 to 19.3%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mitigating Losses of Wetland Ecosystems: A Context for Evaluation. (United States)

    Mattingly, Rosanna L.


    Preservation of our wetlands has been an issue for many years. Today, despite current laws and those adopted 200 years ago, the wetlands remain insufficiently protected and developed. A holistic guide and suggestions for the classroom are provided to aid in efforts directed at wetland education, research and management. (ZWH)

  15. Use of tracer tests to evaluate hydraulic properties of constructed wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachniew, P.; Czuprynski, P.; Maloszewski, P.


    Knowledge of hydraulic properties is a perquisite for studies of constructed wetlands functioning. Bromide ions and tritium were used as a tracers to derive RTDs for two constructed wetlands: a reed bed with subsurface flow and a Lemna pond. Quantitative hydraulic characteristics (mean travel time of water, dispersion number) of the wetlands were evaluated from RTDs (Residence Time Distributions) by means of a mathematical model of waste water flow. (author)

  16. Towards a Tissue-Engineered Ligament: Design and Preliminary Evaluation of a Dedicated Multi-Chamber Tension-Torsion Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric P. Laurent


    Full Text Available Tissue engineering may constitute a promising alternative to current strategies in ligament repair, providing that suitable scaffolds and culture conditions are proposed. The objective of the present contribution is to present the design and instrumentation of a novel multi-chamber tension-torsion bioreactor dedicated to ligament tissue engineering. A preliminary biological evaluation of a new braided scaffold within this bioreactor under dynamic loading is reported, starting with the development of a dedicated seeding protocol validated from static cultures. The results of these preliminary biological characterizations confirm that the present combination of scaffold, seeding protocol and bioreactor may enable us to head towards a suitable ligament tissue-engineered construct.

  17. Ohio Uses Wetlands Program Development Grants to Protect Wetlands (United States)

    The wetland water quality standards require the use of ORAM score to determine wetland quality. OEPA has also used these tools to evaluate wetland mitigation projects, develop performance standards for wetland mitigation banks and In Lieu Fee programs an.

  18. Wetlands Research Program. Wetland Evaluation Technique (WET). Volume 1. Literature Review and Evaluation Rationale. (United States)


    activities (Shahane 1982). Models for quan- tifying the transport of nutrients to water bodies are widely available (see review by Westerdahl et al... Westerdahl , H. E., W. B. Ford III, J. Harris, Weller, M. W. 1979. Density and habitat and C. R. Lee. 1981. Evaluation of tech- relationship of blue

  19. Ecological outcomes and evaluation of success in passively restored southeastern depressional wetlands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Steven, Diane; Sharitz, Rebecca R.; Barton, Christopher, D.


    Abstract: Depressional wetlands may be restored passively by disrupting prior drainage to recover original hydrology and relying on natural revegetation. Restored hydrology selects for wetland vegetation; however, depression geomorphology constrains the achievable hydroperiod, and plant communities are influenced by hydroperiod and available species pools. Such constraints can complicate assessments of restoration success. Sixteen drained depressions in South Carolina, USA, were restored experimentally by forest clearing and ditch plugging for potential crediting to a mitigation bank. Depressions were assigned to alternate revegetation methods representing desired targets of herbaceous and wet-forest communities. After five years, restoration progress and revegetation methods were evaluated. Restored hydroperiods differed among wetlands, but all sites developed diverse vegetation of native wetland species. Vegetation traits were influenced by hydroperiod and the effects of early drought, rather than by revegetation method. For mitigation banking, individual wetlands were assessed for improvement from pre-restoration condition and similarity to assigned reference type. Most wetlands met goals to increase hydroperiod, herb-species dominance, and wetland-plant composition. Fewer wetlands achieved equivalence to reference types because some vegetation targets were incompatible with depression hydroperiods and improbable without intensive management. The results illustrated a paradox in judging success when vegetation goals may be unsuited to system constraints.

  20. Preliminary Evaluation of Critical Wave Energy Thresholds at Natural and Created Coastal Wetlands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shafer, Deborah


    This technical note presents an evaluation of the wave climate at eight natural and created coastal wetland sites in an effort to identify the existence of critical wave energy thresholds for long-term marsh stability...

  1. Evaluation of the growth environment of a hydrostatic force bioreactor for preconditioning of tissue-engineered constructs. (United States)

    Reinwald, Yvonne; Leonard, Katherine H L; Henstock, James R; Whiteley, Jonathan P; Osborne, James M; Waters, Sarah L; Levesque, Philippe; El Haj, Alicia J


    Bioreactors have been widely acknowledged as valuable tools to provide a growth environment for engineering tissues and to investigate the effect of physical forces on cells and cell-scaffold constructs. However, evaluation of the bioreactor environment during culture is critical to defining outcomes. In this study, the performance of a hydrostatic force bioreactor was examined by experimental measurements of changes in dissolved oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and pH after mechanical stimulation and the determination of physical forces (pressure and stress) in the bioreactor through mathematical modeling and numerical simulation. To determine the effect of hydrostatic pressure on bone formation, chick femur skeletal cell-seeded hydrogels were subjected to cyclic hydrostatic pressure at 0-270 kPa and 1 Hz for 1 h daily (5 days per week) over a period of 14 days. At the start of mechanical stimulation, dissolved O2 and CO2 in the medium increased and the pH of the medium decreased, but remained within human physiological ranges. Changes in physiological parameters (O2, CO2, and pH) were reversible when medium samples were placed in a standard cell culture incubator. In addition, computational modeling showed that the distribution and magnitude of physical forces depends on the shape and position of the cell-hydrogel constructs in the tissue culture format. Finally, hydrostatic pressure was seen to enhance mineralization of chick femur skeletal cell-seeded hydrogels.

  2. Evaluation of Polarimetric SAR Decomposition for Classifying Wetland Vegetation Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Hong


    Full Text Available The Florida Everglades is the largest subtropical wetland system in the United States and, as with subtropical and tropical wetlands elsewhere, has been threatened by severe environmental stresses. It is very important to monitor such wetlands to inform management on the status of these fragile ecosystems. This study aims to examine the applicability of TerraSAR-X quadruple polarimetric (quad-pol synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR data for classifying wetland vegetation in the Everglades. We processed quad-pol data using the Hong & Wdowinski four-component decomposition, which accounts for double bounce scattering in the cross-polarization signal. The calculated decomposition images consist of four scattering mechanisms (single, co- and cross-pol double, and volume scattering. We applied an object-oriented image analysis approach to classify vegetation types with the decomposition results. We also used a high-resolution multispectral optical RapidEye image to compare statistics and classification results with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR observations. The calculated classification accuracy was higher than 85%, suggesting that the TerraSAR-X quad-pol SAR signal had a high potential for distinguishing different vegetation types. Scattering components from SAR acquisition were particularly advantageous for classifying mangroves along tidal channels. We conclude that the typical scattering behaviors from model-based decomposition are useful for discriminating among different wetland vegetation types.

  3. Treatment Wetlands


    Dotro, Gabriela; Langergraber, Günter; Molle, Pascal; Nivala, Jaime; Puigagut, Jaume; Stein, Otto; Von Sperling, Marcos


    Overview of Treatment Wetlands; Fundamentals of Treatment Wetlands; Horizontal Flow Wetlands; Vertical Flow Wetlands; French Vertical Flow Wetlands; Intensified and Modified Wetlands; Free Water Surface Wetlands; Other Applications; Additional Aspects.

  4. Performance evaluation of constructed wetlands: A review of arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aiming at environmental pollution control through the use of constructed wetlands systems (CWs) in arid and semi arid climatic region, a detailed review of CWs was undertaken. Given the practical application and simplicity of the technology, principles for building phytotechnology-ecohydrology environment used for ...

  5. Evaluation of constructed wetland treatment performance for winery wastewater. (United States)

    Grismer, Mark E; Carr, Melanie A; Shepherd, Heather L


    Rapid expansion of wineries in rural California during the past three decades has created contamination problems related to winery wastewater treatment and disposal; however, little information is available about performance of on-site treatment systems. Here, the project objective was to determine full-scale, subsurface-flow constructed wetland retention times and treatment performance through assessment of water quality by daily sampling of total dissolved solids, pH, total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannins, nitrate, ammonium, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphate, sulfate, and sulfide across operating systems for winery wastewater treatment. Measurements were conducted during both the fall crush season of heavy loading and the spring following bottling and racking operations at the winery. Simple decay model coefficients for these constituents as well as COD and tannin removal efficiencies from winery wastewater in bench-scale reactors are also determined. The bench-scale study used upward-flow, inoculated attached-growth (pea-gravel substrate) reactors fed synthetic winery wastewater. Inlet and outlet tracer studies for determination of actual retention times were essential to analyses of treatment performance from an operational subsurface-flow constructed wetland that had been overloaded due to failure to install a pretreatment system for suspended solids removal. Less intensive sampling conducted at a smaller operational winery wastewater constructed wetland that had used pretreatment suspended solids removal and aeration indicated that the constructed wetlands were capable of complete organic load removal from the winery wastewater.

  6. Performance evaluation of an side-stream anaerobic membrane bioreactor: Synthetic and alcoholic beverage industry wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The treatment performance of a laboratory-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR using high strength wastewater was evaluated. The AnMBR model system consisted of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB and an ultrafiltration (UF membrane. Its performance was first examined using molasses based synthetic wastewater at different hydraulic retention times (1-3 days and organic loading rates (5-15 kg COD/ As a result of the experimental studies, maximum treatment efficiency with respect to COD reduction (95% was achieved at 7.5 kg COD/ OLR (CODinfluent=15.000 mg/L, HRT=2 days applications. When OLR was increased to 15 kg COD/, system performance decreased sharply. Similarly, methane gas production decreased by increasing OLR. After then, feed was changed to real wastewater, which was alcoholic beverage industry effluent. At this study, maximum COD removal efficiency of the system and maximum methane gas production was 88% and 74%, respectively.

  7. Bioreactor principles (United States)


    Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  8. Cordaiteans in paleotropical wetlands: An ecological re-evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, Anne [Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3115 (United States); Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3115 (United States); Lambert, Lance [Dept. of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Costanza, Suzanne [Paleobotanical Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Slone, E.J. [Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3115 (United States); Cutlip, P.C. [Dept. of Natural Science, St. Petersburg College, St. Petersburg, FL 33733-3489 (United States)


    Cordaiteans in cordaite-dominated permineralized peat from Pennsylvanian coals in Iowa have been reconstructed as mangroves using root anatomy, peat taphonomy, and geochemical data. Macrofloral, palynofloral, and conodont biostratigraphy indicate that these peats come from the latest Atokan Blackoak coal and earliest Desmoinesian Cliffland coal (mid-Moscovian), both in the Kalo Formation. Thus, their depositional setting can be used to evaluate the mangrove hypothesis. In Recent mires, thick mangrove peats have accumulated in tropical to subtropical carbonate systems; in contrast, thick tropical freshwater peats have accumulated in siliclastic systems. Kalo Formation coals, which we interpret as freshwater deposits, formed in siliciclastic depositional settings, similar to those of modern tropical freshwater peat, and to other Pennsylvanian coals in North America interpreted as freshwater deposits. In the late Atokan and earliest Desmoinesian (mid-Moscovian), cordaiteans and tree ferns predominated in the Western Interior and Illinois Basins; lycopsids and cordaiteans predominated in the Appalachian and Donets Basins. The scarcity of lycopsid-only mires in North America during the late Atokan-earliest Desmoinesian (mid-Moscovian) suggests drier climates than during the mid-to-late Desmoinesian (late Moscovian). Rather than indicating mangrove swamps, cordaite-dominated peat may indicate climates with a 'low-rain' season. Although most plants in cordaite-dominated peat probably grew in freshwater, coastal mires in climate zones with seasons of 'low-rain' may harbor mangrove taxa. The Changuinola Swamp of Panama, a modern peat-accumulating wetland that has a 'low-rain' season, is a possible analog of ancient cordaite-dominated mires. In Changuinola, most plants require freshwater; however mangroves, sustained by salt-water influx into the swamp, grow along the seaward edge and along blackwater creeks. The 'low-rain' season

  9. Evaluation of mixing and mass transfer in a stirred pilot scale bioreactor utilizing CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Yang, Jifeng; Larsson, Hilde Kristina


    Knowledge and prediction of mixing and mass transfer in agitated bioreactors is fundamental for process development and scale up. In particular key process parameters such as mixing time and volumetric mass transfer coefficient are essential for bioprocess development. In this work the mixing...... and mass transfer performance of a high power agitated pilot scale bioreactor has been characterized using a novel combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental investigations. The effect of turbulence inside the vessel was predicted using a standard RANS k-ε model. Mixing time...... transfer coefficients were in accordance with the experimental data. This work illustrates the possibility of predicting the two phase fluid dynamic performance of an agitated pilot scale bioreactor using validated CFD models. These models can be applied to illustrate the effect of changing the physical...

  10. An evaluation of different bioreactor configurations for continuous bio-ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntihuga, Jean Nepomuscene; Senn, Thomas; Gschwind, Peter; Kohlus, Reinhard


    Highlights: • Two bioreactor configurations were constructed and compared. • Continuous bioethanol production was performed in both bioreactors. • Plate heat exchanger bioreactor was the best for solid mash fermentation. • Operational power costs of both bioreactors were different in small scale levels. • Further study needed for both bioreactors with optimized parameters. - Abstract: In this preliminary investigation, a so-called Blenke cascade and plate heat exchanger bioreactor configuration were compared in terms of mixing characteristics, contamination free process, operational power costs and overall performance. At room temperature, fermentation was initially started as batch run and switched to continuous operation, when the residual sugars within the reactor were detected to be C ⩽ 1% (g/L). Samples from both configurations were taken and analyzed for ethanol and residual sugar content, as well as for any infection of the fermentation and lactic acid content, respectively. Mixing characteristics were studied by the residence time distribution method. Both geometries behaved as a finite number n of continuous stirred tanks in series, behaving as a plug flow with superimposed axial dispersion. The number of tanks in series n obtained in the plate heat exchanger configuration was 1.5–3 times larger than those in the Blenke cascade. The average ethanol productivity was Q p = 3.07 (g/L h) and Q p = 2.31 (g/L h) for cascade and plate exchanger configuration, respectively. The analysis of operational power costs indicates relevant differences between the two reactors at laboratory scale; however, systems with different types of pumps and viscosities are compared. From an industrial scale point of view, specific operational costs decrease with scale-up, as no mechanical mixing is needed in the fermenters

  11. Evaluation of Wetland Hydrology in Formerly Irrigated Areas (United States)


    and Mr. Dave VanBaren (Senior Environmental Specialist and Environmental Specialist - California Department of Fish and Wildlife/Gray Lodge...applications has been shown to alter vegetation and soil characteristics (e.g., color , redox features, and salt content) of affected areas (Ekstein...reference sites if necessary. The examination of wetland hydrology in the absence of water additions in combination with analysis of rainfall normality

  12. Evaluating how variants of floristic quality assessment indicate wetland condition. (United States)

    Kutcher, Thomas E; Forrester, Graham E


    Biological indicators are useful tools for the assessment of ecosystem condition. Multi-metric and multi-taxa indicators may respond to a broader range of disturbances than simpler indicators, but their complexity can make them difficult to interpret, which is critical to indicator utility for ecosystem management. Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) is an example of a biological assessment approach that has been widely tested for indicating freshwater wetland condition, but less attention has been given to clarifying the factors controlling its response. FQA quantifies the aggregate of vascular plant species tolerance to habitat degradation (conservatism), and model variants have incorporated species richness, abundance, and indigenity (native or non-native). To assess bias, we tested FQA variants in open-canopy freshwater wetlands against three independent reference measures, using practical vegetation sampling methods. FQA variants incorporating species richness did not correlate with our reference measures and were influenced by wetland size and hydrogeomorphic class. In contrast, FQA variants lacking measures of species richness responded linearly to reference measures quantifying individual and aggregate stresses, suggesting a broad response to cumulative degradation. FQA variants incorporating non-native species, and a variant additionally incorporating relative species abundance, improved performance over using only native species. We relate our empirical findings to ecological theory to clarify the functional properties and implications of the FQA variants. Our analysis indicates that (1) aggregate conservatism reliably declines with increased disturbance; (2) species richness has varying relationships with disturbance and increases with site area, confounding FQA response; and (3) non-native species signal human disturbance. We propose that incorporating species abundance can improve FQA site-level relevance with little extra sampling effort. Using our

  13. Microbial population heterogeneity versus bioreactor heterogeneity: evaluation of Redox Sensor Green as an exogenous metabolic biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baert, Jonathan; Delepierre, Anissa; Telek, Samuel


    Microbial heterogeneity in metabolic performances has attracted a lot of attention, considering its potential impact on industrial bioprocesses. However, little is known about the impact of extracellular perturbations (i.e. bioreactor heterogeneity) on cell-to-cell variability in metabolic...

  14. Performance Evaluation of Integrated Constructed Wetland for Domestic Wastewater Treatment. (United States)

    Sehar, Shama; Naz, Iffat; Khan, Sumera; Naeem, Sana; Perveen, Irum; Ali, Naeem; Ahmed, Safia


    Simple, budget friendly, laboratory-scale integrated constructed wetland (ICW) was designed to assess domestic wastewater treatment performance at a loading rate of 75 mm/d, planted with native plant species: Veronica-angallis aquatica and compared with non-vegetative control system at various residence times of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28 days. Results revealed that the vegetated ICW demonstrated superior performance over non-vegetated control: 69.12 vs 17.12%, 67.77 vs 16.04%, 68 vs 16.48%, 71.19 vs 6.56%, 71.54 vs 14.80%, and 72.04 vs 11.41% for total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, phosphates (PO4(-)), sulfate (SO4(-)), nitrate (NO3(-)), and nitrite (NO2(-)), respectively, at 20 days residence times. Reduction in bacterial counts (2.79 × 10(4) CFU/mL) and fecal pathogens (345.5 MPN index/100 mL) was observed in V. aquatica at 20 days residence time. Therefore, the present study highlights not only the presence of vegetation but also appropriate residence time in constructed wetlands for better performances.

  15. Human wetland dependency and socio-economic evaluation of wetland functions through participatory approach in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malabika Biswas


    Full Text Available Wetlands are an important source of natural resources upon which rural economies depend. They have increasingly been valuable for their goods and services, and the intrinsic ecological value they provide to local populations, as well as people living outside the periphery of the wetlands. Stakeholders' participation is essential to the protection and preservation of wetlands because it plays a very important role economically as well as ecologically in the wetland system. The objective of this study was to determine whether gender, educational status, mouzas (which are constituents of a block according to the land reform of the West Bengal Government in India, and wetland functions have any influence on the annual income of the local community. Considering a floodplain wetland in rural India, the focus was extended to recognize the pattern of wetland functions according to the nature of people's involvement through cluster analysis of the male and female populations. Using the statistical software R-2.8.1, an ANOVA (analysis of variance table was constructed. Since the p value (significance level was lower than 0.05 for each case, it can be concluded that gender, educational status, mouzas, and wetland functions have a significant influence on annual income. However, S-PLUS-2000 was applied to obtain a complete scenario of the pattern of wetland functions, in terms of involvement of males and females, through cluster analysis. The main conclusion is that gender, educational status, mouzas, and wetland functions have significant impacts on annual income, while the pattern of occupation of the local community based on wetland functions is completely different for the male and female populations.

  16. Evaluation and impact study of detriment caused by oil products on Shadegan wetland environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili Sarri, A.; Emandel, K.; Kourgez, S.


    The international wetland of Shadegan with an area of 400 thousands hector is located in south of Khosestan which from south part is connected to Persian Gulf and correlated to it. During the oil-war in Persian Gulf region and discharging crude oil from Kuwait's oil wells into wetland of Shadegan, almost 20% of vegetation coverage in this wetland which is vital for livestock food without any cost, has been extensively damaged. Experts estimated that it takes about 10 years (1370-1380) to recovering the lost of vegetation coverage in this area. Economical evaluation base on effects of oil pollution on vegetation coverage in wetland of Shadegan has been studied by compensation trade upon cost and interest economical Technic. Price of barley as a provender given by governmental agencies to dairy farmers was used as a cost evaluation technic. As a first step, types of vegetation base on cost and quality of nutrient value were classified and then according to these classification, some coefficient for them were determined. By multiplying these coefficients to price of barley (as a dry-provender and best quality) related to year of 1370 until 1379, the money worth (in Rials) of each vegetation community was calculated. For actual economical determination lost of vegetation coverage in wetland of Shadegan it is necessary to multiplying amounts of vegetation lost for each community per year (in hector) to amounts of provender consumed by domestic animals (in ton), which this determines the quantity of vegetation and their types. then by multiplying these quantity to equivalent money worth (in Rials) which is related to amount of vegetation lost per year, will be the actual vegetation lost for each community per year

  17. Evaluation of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for remote wetland monitoring: design and initial results. (United States)

    Watras, Carl J; Morrow, Michael; Morrison, Ken; Scannell, Sean; Yaziciaglu, Steve; Read, Jordan S; Hu, Yu-Hen; Hanson, Paul C; Kratz, Tim


    Here, we describe and evaluate two low-power wireless sensor networks (WSNs) designed to remotely monitor wetland hydrochemical dynamics over time scales ranging from minutes to decades. Each WSN (one student-built and one commercial) has multiple nodes to monitor water level, precipitation, evapotranspiration, temperature, and major solutes at user-defined time intervals. Both WSNs can be configured to report data in near real time via the internet. Based on deployments in two isolated wetlands, we report highly resolved water budgets, transient reversals of flow path, rates of transpiration from peatlands and the dynamics of chromophoric-dissolved organic matter and bulk ionic solutes (specific conductivity)-all on daily or subdaily time scales. Initial results indicate that direct precipitation and evapotranspiration dominate the hydrologic budget of both study wetlands, despite their relatively flat geomorphology and proximity to elevated uplands. Rates of transpiration from peatland sites were typically greater than evaporation from open waters but were more challenging to integrate spatially. Due to the high specific yield of peat, the hydrologic gradient between peatland and open water varied with precipitation events and intervening periods of dry out. The resultant flow path reversals implied that the flux of solutes across the riparian boundary varied over daily time scales. We conclude that WSNs can be deployed in remote wetland-dominated ecosystems at relatively low cost to assess the hydrochemical impacts of weather, climate, and other perturbations.

  18. Treatment of Alkaline Stripped Effluent in Aerated Constructed Wetlands: Feasibility Evaluation and Performance Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keli He


    Full Text Available Ammonium stripping has gained increasing interest for nitrogen recovery in anaerobically digested effluents. However, the stripped effluents often still do not meet discharge standards, having high pH and residual pollutants. Constructed wetlands (CWs are an easy to operate ecosystem and have a long history of application in treatment of wastewaters with extreme pH, such as acid mine drainage. However, knowledge of the mechanistic details involved in the use of CWs to treat high alkaline drainage, such as stripped effluent, is insufficient. This study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of using three sub-surface horizontal flow CWs to treat high alkaline stripped effluent (pH > 10. Two intensification strategies—intermittent aeration and effluent recirculation—were evaluated to enhance nitrogen depuration performance. The results show that the treatment of alkaline stripped effluent is feasible due to the high buffering capacity of the wetlands. Effluent recirculation combined with intermittent artificial aeration improves nitrogen removal, with 71% total nitrogen (TN removal. Ammonia volatilization from the surface of the wetlands in high alkaline conditions only contributed to 3% of the total removed ammonium. The microbial abundance and activity had significant diversity for the various enhancement strategies used in the constructed wetland systems. Anammox is an important process for nitrogen removal in CWs treating alkaline stripped effluent, and possible enhancements of this process should be investigated further.

  19. Evaluation and comparison of models and modelling tools simulating nitrogen processes in treatment wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelfeldt, Stina; Fritzson, Peter


    with Modelica 2.1 (Wiley-IEEE Press, USA, 2004).] and an associated tool. The differences and similarities between the MathModelica Model Editor and three other ecological modelling tools have also been evaluated. The results show that the models can well be modelled and simulated in the MathModelica Model...... Editor, and that nitrogen decrease in a constructed treatment wetland should be described and simulated using the Nitrification/Denitrification model as this model has the highest overall quality score and provides a more variable environment.......In this paper, two ecological models of nitrogen processes in treatment wetlands have been evaluated and compared. These models were implemented, simulated, and visualized using the Modelica modelling and simulation language [P. Fritzson, Principles of Object-Oriented Modelling and Simulation...

  20. Final report on evaluation of cyclocraft support of oil and gas operations in wetland areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggington, W.J.; Stevens, P.M.; John, C.J.; Harder, B.J.; Lindstedt, D.M.


    The cyclocraft is a proven hybrid aircraft, capable of VTOL, lifting heavy and bulky loads, highly controllable, having high safety characteristics and low operating costs. Mission Research Corporation (MRC), under Department of Energy sponsorship, is evaluating the potential use of cyclocraft in the transport of drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment, in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner, to support oil and gas drilling, production, and transportation operations in wetland areas. Based upon the results of an earlier parametric study, a cyclocraft design, having a payload capacity of 45 tons and designated H.1 Cyclocraft, was selected for further study, including the preparation of a preliminary design and a development plan, and the determination of operating costs. This report contains all of the results derived from the program to evaluate the use of cyclocraft in the support of oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas.

  1. Performance of Aspergillus niger Cultivation in Geometrically Dissimilar Bioreactors Evaluated on the Basis of Morphological Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Priede


    Full Text Available The growth of Aspergillus niger, citric acid production and mycelia morphology changes were compared under different mixing conditions in bioreactors with two types of stirrers: Rushton turbine stirrers (RTS1 or RTS2 and axial counterflow stirrers (ACS1 or ACS2. The characteristics of growth, productivity and morphology varied with the mixing system and the applied agitation regime. In the first series of experiments, the flow characteristics of Aspergillus niger broth under different mixing conditions were analysed in a model bioreactor using RTS1 and ACS1. The kinetic energy E of flow fluctuations was measured in gassed and ungassed water and fermentation broth systems using a stirring intensity measuring device (SIMD-f1. The difference of energy E values at different points was more pronounced in the bioreactor with RTS1 than in the case of ACS1. High viscous A. niger broths provided higher energy E values in comparison with water. It was observed that the Aspergillus niger growth rate and citric acid synthesis rate decreased at very high energy E values, the behaviour obviously being connected with the influence of the irreversible shear stress on the mycelial morphology. In the second series of experiments, a higher citric acid yield was achieved in the case of ACS2 at a power input approximately twice lower than in the case of RTS2. Morphological characterization of A. niger pellets was carried out by the image analysis method. ACS2 provided the development of morphology, where pellets and cores had larger area, perimeter and diameter, and the annular region of pellets was looser and more »hairy« in comparison with the case of RTS2. The pellets from the fermentation with RTS2 were smaller, denser, with shorter hyphae in the annular region of pellets, and the broth was characterized by a higher percentage of diffuse mycelia. Power input studies of RTS2 and ACS2 were made at different agitator rotation speeds and gas flow rates using water

  2. Evaluation of two pilot scale membrane bioreactors for the elimination of selected surfactants from municipal wastewaters (United States)

    González, Susana; Petrovic, Mira; Barceló, Damiá


    SummaryThe removal of selected surfactants, linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), coconut diethanol amides (CDEA) and alkylphenol ethoxylates and their degradation products were investigated using a two membrane bioreactor (MBR) with hollow fiber and plate and frame membranes. The two pilot plants MBR run in parallel to a full-scale conventional activated sludge (CAS) treatment. A total of eight influent samples with the corresponding effluent samples were analysed by solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS-MS). The results indicate that both MBR have a better effluent quality in terms of chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD and BOD), NH4+ , concentration and total suspended solids (TSS). MBR showed a better similar performance in the overall elimination of the total nonylphenolic compounds, achieving a 75% of elimination or a 65% (the same elimination reached by CAS). LAS and CDEA showed similar elimination in the three systems investigated and no significant differences were observed.

  3. An evaluation of rapid methods for monitoring vegetation characteristics of wetland bird habitat (United States)

    Tavernia, Brian G.; Lyons, James E.; Loges, Brian W.; Wilson, Andrew; Collazo, Jaime A.; Runge, Michael C.


    Wetland managers benefit from monitoring data of sufficient precision and accuracy to assess wildlife habitat conditions and to evaluate and learn from past management decisions. For large-scale monitoring programs focused on waterbirds (waterfowl, wading birds, secretive marsh birds, and shorebirds), precision and accuracy of habitat measurements must be balanced with fiscal and logistic constraints. We evaluated a set of protocols for rapid, visual estimates of key waterbird habitat characteristics made from the wetland perimeter against estimates from (1) plots sampled within wetlands, and (2) cover maps made from aerial photographs. Estimated percent cover of annuals and perennials using a perimeter-based protocol fell within 10 percent of plot-based estimates, and percent cover estimates for seven vegetation height classes were within 20 % of plot-based estimates. Perimeter-based estimates of total emergent vegetation cover did not differ significantly from cover map estimates. Post-hoc analyses revealed evidence for observer effects in estimates of annual and perennial covers and vegetation height. Median time required to complete perimeter-based methods was less than 7 percent of the time needed for intensive plot-based methods. Our results show that rapid, perimeter-based assessments, which increase sample size and efficiency, provide vegetation estimates comparable to more intensive methods.

  4. Evaluation of a Multi-Parameter Sensor for Automated, Continuous Cell Culture Monitoring in Bioreactors (United States)

    Pappas, D.; Jeevarajan, A.; Anderson, M. M.


    Compact and automated sensors are desired for assessing the health of cell cultures in biotechnology experiments in microgravity. Measurement of cell culture medium allows for the optirn.jzation of culture conditions on orbit to maximize cell growth and minimize unnecessary exchange of medium. While several discrete sensors exist to measure culture health, a multi-parameter sensor would simplify the experimental apparatus. One such sensor, the Paratrend 7, consists of three optical fibers for measuring pH, dissolved oxygen (p02), dissolved carbon dioxide (pC02) , and a thermocouple to measure temperature. The sensor bundle was designed for intra-arterial placement in clinical patients, and potentially can be used in NASA's Space Shuttle and International Space Station biotechnology program bioreactors. Methods: A Paratrend 7 sensor was placed at the outlet of a rotating-wall perfused vessel bioreactor system inoculated with BHK-21 (baby hamster kidney) cells. Cell culture medium (GTSF-2, composed of 40% minimum essential medium, 60% L-15 Leibovitz medium) was manually measured using a bench top blood gas analyzer (BGA, Ciba-Corning). Results: A Paratrend 7 sensor was used over a long-term (>120 day) cell culture experiment. The sensor was able to track changes in cell medium pH, p02, and pC02 due to the consumption of nutrients by the BHK-21. When compared to manually obtained BGA measurements, the sensor had good agreement for pH, p02, and pC02 with bias [and precision] of 0.02 [0.15], 1 mm Hg [18 mm Hg], and -4.0 mm Hg [8.0 mm Hg] respectively. The Paratrend oxygen sensor was recalibrated (offset) periodically due to drift. The bias for the raw (no offset or recalibration) oxygen measurements was 42 mm Hg [38 mm Hg]. The measured response (rise) time of the sensor was 20 +/- 4s for pH, 81 +/- 53s for pC02, 51 +/- 20s for p02. For long-term cell culture measurements, these response times are more than adequate. Based on these findings , the Paratrend sensor could

  5. Limnological state index (LSI) to evaluate ecological conditions of the Canal del Dique wetlands, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinilla A, Gabriel A; Duarte Coy, Juliana; Vega Mora, Leonel


    Determining the ecological state or health of an ecosystem offers useful tools for its management and conservation. In Colombia, indexes of aquatic systems that combine in a single parameter the physical, chemical and biological variables have not been published, and the evaluation of water bodies' ecological state has been fragmentary or incomplete. In this work a limnological state index (LSI) for wetlands of the Canal del Dique, ecosystems under constant pressure by the human communities, is presented. For the construction of this multi-metric index, graphs of quality of the selected variables were constructed and values of importance were assigned to them. The theory of the multi-attributes was used to construct the LSI, which considers 12 variables. A principal components analysis was realized with these chosen parameters. A simplified version was designed (partial LSI - PLSI) in which four of the biological variables were excluded. Finally, an interpretation scale of the values obtained with these indices was built. The LSI and the PLSI were applied to wetlands of the Canal del Dique to establish their current ecological condition. Data show that the limnological state of most wetlands is acceptable, which suggests that these lentic ecosystems are within tolerable limits of function, although they are not exempt from deterioration processes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Liberacki


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researches carried out in the middle part of Pizza Zielonka forest complex. The aim was the evaluation of retention changes at wetlands and mid-forest ponds. The object of the study was the catchment of the Trojanka watercourse, considering from the origin to the cross-section of Zielonka Lake. The catchment is located in in the central part of the Wielkopolska region, approximatelly 20 km on the North-East of Poznań. The area of this forestall catchment is about 223 ha. In the paper an analysis of the results from three hydrological years was presented. The results of the years 1987 (wet year, 2003 (dry year and 2009 (medium year were analysed against meteorological conditions. Retention capacity in each wetlands, as well as the possibility of water retention in the Trojanka watercourse was calculated. The researches confirmed significant meteorological conditions influence the amount of retentioned water. The calculated capacity of retentioned water was 15 852 m3 considering the total area of wetland and swamp (8,58 ha and precipitation sum of 555 mm. 18% increase of water capacity was observed in wet year (1987 In this year the sum of precipitation was 100 mm higher than multiyear average sum. Meanwhile 62% decrease of water capacity was observed in dry year (2003, when the precipitation sum was 208 mm lower than multiyear average one.

  7. [Land Use Pattern Change and Regional Sustainability Evaluation of Wetland in Jiaogang Lake]. (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Cai, Yi-min; Bai, Yan-ying; Chen, Wei-ping; Yang, Xiu-chao


    Changes in land use and sustainability evaluation of wetland in Jiaogang Lake from 1995 to 2013 were analyzed, based on the land use change models and an index system, supported by RS, GIS, and social statistical data. The results showed: (1) dry land, paddy field, and building land were the predominant landscape in the study area. The arable land was mainly converted during 1995-2000, which was driven by the extension of agriculture, and the building land increased significantly during 2010-2013, which was driven by the tourism development. (2) Compared to the beginning research area, the building land increased by 123.3%, and the wetland decreased by 23.15%. The land system was at risk for a low proportion of wetland, scarcity of unused land, and the fragmented landscape. (3) The regional sustainability results were bad level, bad level, poor level, good level, and poor level during the different periods, with some room for improvement. (4) The fitness of regional sustainability in study area yielded satisfactory results in 2010, owing to the rapid growth of regional productivity and the regional stability. Since 2010, with the increasing environmental load, the regional sustainability fell down to the poor level. The obstruction of sustainable development is necessary to be addressed in the study area.

  8. Performance evaluation of duplex constructed wetlands for the treatment of diesel contaminated wastewater. (United States)

    Mustapha, Hassana Ibrahim; Gupta, Pankaj Kumar; Yadav, Brijesh Kumar; van Bruggen, J J A; Lens, P N L


    A duplex constructed wetland (duplex-CW) is a hybrid system that combines a vertical flow (VF) CW as a first stage with a horizontal flow filter (HFF) as a second stage for a more efficient wastewater treatment as compared to traditional constructed wetlands. This study evaluated the potential of the hybrid CW system to treat influent wastewater containing diesel range organic compounds varying from C 7 - C 40 using a series of 12-week practical and numerical experiments under controlled conditions in a greenhouse (pH was kept at 7.0 ± 0.2, temperature between 20 and 23° C and light intensity between 85 and 100-μmol photons m -2 sec -1 for 16 h d -1 ). The VF CWs were planted with Phragmites australis and were spiked with different concentrations of NH 4 + -N (10, 30 and 60 mg/L) and PO 4 3- -P (3, 6 and 12 mg/L) to analyse their effects on the degradation of the supplied petroleum hydrocarbons. The removal rate of the diesel range organics considering the different NH 4 + -N and PO 4 3- -P concentrations were simulated using Monod degradation kinetics. The simulated results compared well with the observed database. The results showed that the model can effectively be used to predict biochemical transformation and degradation of diesel range organic compounds along with nutrient amendment in duplex constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Kinetic evaluation and process performance of a fixed film bioreactor removing phthalic acid and dimethyl phthalate. (United States)

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Mesdaghinia, Ali-Reza; Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin; Zinatizadeh, Ali Akbar


    Phthalate esters are toxic organic contaminants which can enter into the environment through various industrial processes. In this study, a 6-liter fixed film bioreactor was used to examine biodegradation of phthalic acid (PA) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) in synthetic wastewater. Effect on the process of two operating factors, namely hydraulic retention time (HRT) (at four levels ranging between 6 and 48 h) and initial phthalate concentrations (at six levels ranging from 10mg to 500 mg/l), was investigated. The process was stable at all operating conditions, except for the condition with influent PA and DMP of 500 mg/l and HRT of 6h. More than 95% removal efficiency was achieved for the conditions with HRT longer than 10h. Remarkable amount of DMP (398 mg/kg of sludge) was adsorbed on the biomass due to its higher hydrophobicity compared to PA (171 mg/kg). The kinetic parameters (mu(m,)K(s), Y and K(d)) were determined and compared for both substrates, PA and DMP.

  10. An Ecosystem-Service Approach to Evaluate the Role of Non-Native Species in Urbanized Wetlands (United States)

    Yam, Rita S. W.; Huang, Ko-Pu; Hsieh, Hwey-Lian; Lin, Hsing-Juh; Huang, Shou-Chung


    Natural wetlands have been increasingly transformed into urbanized ecosystems commonly colonized by stress-tolerant non-native species. Although non-native species present numerous threats to natural ecosystems, some could provide important benefits to urbanized ecosystems. This study investigated the extent of colonization by non-native fish and bird species of three urbanized wetlands in subtropical Taiwan. Using literature data the role of each non-native species in the urbanized wetland was evaluated by their effect (benefits/damages) on ecosystem services (ES) based on their ecological traits. Our sites were seriously colonized by non-native fishes (39%–100%), but wetland ES. Our results indicated the importance of non-native fishes in supporting ES by serving as food source to fish-eating waterbirds (native, and migratory species) due to their high abundance, particularly for Oreochromis spp. However, all non-native birds are regarded as “harmful” species causing important ecosystem disservices, and thus eradication of these bird-invaders from urban wetlands would be needed. This simple framework for role evaluation of non-native species represents a holistic and transferable approach to facilitate decision making on management priority of non-native species in urbanized wetlands. PMID:25860870

  11. An Ecosystem-Service Approach to Evaluate the Role of Non-Native Species in Urbanized Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita S. W. Yam


    Full Text Available Natural wetlands have been increasingly transformed into urbanized ecosystems commonly colonized by stress-tolerant non-native species. Although non-native species present numerous threats to natural ecosystems, some could provide important benefits to urbanized ecosystems. This study investigated the extent of colonization by non-native fish and bird species of three urbanized wetlands in subtropical Taiwan. Using literature data the role of each non-native species in the urbanized wetland was evaluated by their effect (benefits/damages on ecosystem services (ES based on their ecological traits. Our sites were seriously colonized by non-native fishes (39%–100%, but <3% by non-native birds. Although most non-native species could damage ES regulation (disease control and wastewater purification, some could be beneficial to the urbanized wetland ES. Our results indicated the importance of non-native fishes in supporting ES by serving as food source to fish-eating waterbirds (native, and migratory species due to their high abundance, particularly for Oreochromis spp. However, all non-native birds are regarded as “harmful” species causing important ecosystem disservices, and thus eradication of these bird-invaders from urban wetlands would be needed. This simple framework for role evaluation of non-native species represents a holistic and transferable approach to facilitate decision making on management priority of non-native species in urbanized wetlands.

  12. Fabrication, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of poly(lactic acid glycolic acid)/nano-hydroxyapatite composite microsphere-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering in rotating bioreactors. (United States)

    Lv, Qing; Nair, Lakshmi; Laurencin, Cato T


    Dynamic flow culture bioreactor systems have been shown to enhance in vitro bone tissue formation by facilitating mass transfer and providing mechanical stimulation. Our laboratory has developed a biodegradable poly (lactic acid glycolic acid) (PLAGA) mixed scaffold consisting of lighter-than-water (LTW) and heavier-than-water (HTW) microspheres as potential matrices for engineering tissue using a high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) rotating bioreactor system. We have demonstrated enhanced osteoblast differentiation and mineralization on PLAGA scaffolds in the HARV rotating bioreactor system when compared with static culture. The objective of the present study is to improve the mechanical properties and bioactivity of polymeric scaffolds by designing LTW polymer/ceramic composite scaffolds suitable for dynamic culture using a HARV bioreactor. We employed a microsphere sintering method to fabricate three-dimensional PLAGA/nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) mixed scaffolds composed of LTW and HTW composite microspheres. The mechanical properties, pore size and porosity of the composite scaffolds were controlled by varying parameters, such as sintering temperature, sintering time, and PLAGA/n-HA ratio. The PLAGA/n-HA (4:1) scaffold sintered at 90 degrees C for 3 h demonstrated the highest mechanical properties and an appropriate pore structure for bone tissue engineering applications. Furthermore, evaluation human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) response to PLAGA/n-HA scaffolds was performed. HMSCs on PLAGA/n-HA scaffolds demonstrated enhanced proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization when compared with those on PLAGA scaffolds. Therefore, PLAGA/n-HA mixed scaffolds are promising candidates for HARV bioreactor-based bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of hollow fiber and mini perm bioreactors as an alternative to murine ascites for small scale monoclonal antibody production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, O. M.


    The objective of this study was to compare monoclonal antibody production in hollow fiber, mini perm bioreactor systems and murine ascites to determine the feasibility of the bioreactor system as a potential alternative to the use of mice. One hybridoma cell line was grown in hollow fiber, mini perm bioreactor systems and in groups of 5 mice. Mice were primed with 0.5 ml pristane intraperitoneally 14 days prior to inoculation of 1x10 7 hybridoma cells. Each mouse was tapped a maximum of three times for collection of ascites. Bioreactors were harvested three times weekly for 30 days and were monitored by cell counts, cell viability and media consumption. Time and materials logs were maintained. The total quantity of monoclonal antibody produced in 5 mice versus the total production for the two different bioreactors (hollow fiber and mini perm) in 30 days was as follows: cell line 2AC10E6C7 produce 158 mg vs.97.5 mg, vs 21.54 mg respectively. Mean monoclonal antibody concentration ranged from 4.07 to 8.37 mg/ml in murine ascites, from 0.71 to 3.8 mg/ml in hollow fiber bioreactor system, and from 0.035 to 1.06 in mini perm. Although time and material costs were generally greater for the bioreactors, these results suggest that hollow fiber and mini perm bioreactor systems merit further investigations as potentially viable in vitro alternatives to the use of mice for small scale (<1mg) monoclonal antibody production.(Author)

  14. Evaluation of Hollow Fiber And Miniperm Bioreactors as An Alternative to Murine Ascites for Small Scale Monoclonal Antibody Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedalla, O. M.


    The objective of this study was to compare monoclonal antibody production in hollow fiber, miniPERM bioreactor systems and murine ascites to determine the feasibility of the bioreactor system as a potential alternative to the use of mice. One hybridoma cell line was grown in hollow fiber, miniPERM bioreactor systems and in groups of 5 mice. Mice were primed with 0.5 ml pristane intraperitoneally 14 days prior to inoculation of 1X10 7 hybridoma cells. Each mouse was tapped a maximum of three times for collection of ascites. Bioreactors were harvested three times weekly for 30 days and were monitored by cell counts, cell viability and media consumption. Time and materials logs were maintained. The total quantity of monoclonal antibody produced in 5 mice versus the total production for the two different bioreactors (hollow fiber and miniPERM) in 30 days was as follows: cell line 2AC10E6C7 produce 158 mg vs.97.5 mg; vs 21.54 mg respectively. Mean monoclonal antibody concentration ranged from 4.07 to 8.37 mg/ml in murine ascites, from 0.71 to 3.8 mg/ml in hollow fiber bioreactor system, and from 0.035 to 1.06 in miniPERM. Although time and material costs were generally greater for the bioreactors, these results suggest that hollow fiber and miniPERM bioreactor systems merit further investigations as potentially viable in vitro alternatives to the use of mice for small scale (< 1 g) monoclonal antibody production.

  15. Use of hydrochemistry and environmental isotopes for evaluation of the hydrological connection between groundwater and wetland swamp Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa A, Diana P; Martinez F, Diana C; Betancur V, Teresita


    The understanding of water flow paths around a wetland is based on the hydrologic information interpretation. Although the incorporation of non-conventional techniques like hydrochemistry and isotopic hydrology allows a major compression level of hydrologic systems: They allow identify origin and evolution of water, movement times, permanence in the hydrologic cycle components. Cienaga Colombia wetland and its catch area, represent a strategic ecosystem located in the Bajo Cauca antioqueno. The natural conditions and the consequences of the human intervention on the wetland impose the need to approach its study and understanding, seeking to be able lo design effective measures to guarantee its sustainability. We presents the firsts results of the project developed by Antioquia University and IAEA: Hydrochemical and Isotopic techniques for the assessment of hydrological processes in the wetlands of Bajo Cauca Antioqueno which is part of the program: Isotopic techniques for assessment of hydrological processes in wetlands by International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA. The general objective of the study is evaluate the dynamic of water flow, in and out of the wetland in the Bajo Cauca Antioqueno, using geochemical and isotopic techniques.

  16. Evaluation of bioremediation strategies of a controlled oil release in a wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Marc A.; Bonner, James S.; Page, Cheryl A.; Autenrieth, Robin L.


    A controlled petroleum release was conducted to evaluate bioremediation in a wetland near Houston, Texas. The 140-day study was conducted using a randomized, complete block design to test three treatments with six replicates per treatment. The three treatment strategies were inorganic nutrients, inorganic nutrients with an alternative electron acceptor, and a no-action oiled control. Samples were analyzed for petroleum chemistry and inorganic nutrients. These results are discussed in the context of our related research involving toxicology and microbiology at the site during the experiment. To evaluate biodegradation, the targeted compounds were normalized to the conservative compound C 30 17α, 21β-[H]hopane, thus reducing the effects of spatial heterogeneity and physical transport. The two biostimulation treatments demonstrated statistically-higher rates of biodegradation than the oiled no-action control. For the majority of the experiment, target nutrient levels were maintained. Further research may be warranted to optimize these bioremediation strategies as well as evaluating additional treatment strategies for wetlands and other shoreline systems

  17. Application of the soil perturbation index to evaluate created and restored wetlands (United States)

    Rebecca Smith Maul; Marjorie M. Holland


    Biogeochemical properties of wetlands have recently been investigated to assess recovery of wetland ecosys-tems following human alteration. Analyses of soil samples have shown that the natural regeneration of timber-harvested wetlands exhibits predictable trends for soil organic matter, total organic carbon, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and total phosphorus. Incorporating...

  18. Membrane fouling and performance evaluation of conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR), moving biofilm MBR and oxic/anoxic MBR. (United States)

    Khan, Sher Jamal; Ahmad, Aman; Nawaz, Muhammad Saqib; Hankins, Nicholas P


    In this study, three laboratory scale submerged membrane bioreactors (MBRs) comprising a conventional MBR (C-MBR), moving bed MBR (MB-MBR) and anoxic-oxic MBR (A/O-MBR) were continuously operated with synthesized domestic wastewater (chemical oxygen demand, COD = 500 mg/L) for 150 days under similar operational and environmental conditions. Kaldnes(®) plastic media with 20% dry volume was used as a biofilm carrier in the MB-MBR and A/O-MBR. The treatment performance and fouling propensity of the MBRs were evaluated. The effect of cake layer formation in all three MBRs was almost the same. However, pore blocking caused a major difference in the resultant water flux. The A/O-MBR showed the highest total nitrogen and phosphorus (PO4-P) removal efficiencies of 83.2 and 69.7%, respectively. Due to the high removal of nitrogen, fewer protein contents were found in the soluble and bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the A/O-MBR. Fouling trends of the MBRs showed 12, 14 and 20 days filtration cycles for C-MBR, MB-MBR and A/O-MBR, respectively. A 25% reduction of the soluble EPS and a 37% reduction of the bound EPS concentrations in A/O-MBR compared with C-MBR was a major contributing factor for fouling retardation and the enhanced filtration capacity of the A/O-MBR.

  19. Emergy and Economic Evaluations of Four Fruit Production Systems on Reclaimed Wetlands Surrounding the Pearl River Estuary, China (United States)

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare a traditional tropical fruit cultivation system, for bananas, and three newly introduced fruit cultivation systems, for papaya, guava and wampee, on reclaimed wetlands of the Pearl River Estuary, China. The evaluations...

  20. Synthesis and toxicity evaluation of hydrophobic ionic liquids for volatile organic compounds biodegradation in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Castillo, Alfredo Santiago [Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, UMR 6226, 11 Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Université européenne de Bretagne (France); Guihéneuf, Solène, E-mail: [Université européenne de Bretagne, Université de Rennes 1, Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR, CNRS 6226, Groupe Ingénierie Chimique & Molécules Pour le Vivant (ICMV), Bât. 10A, Campus de Beaulieu, Avenue du Général Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Le Guével, Rémy [Plate-forme ImPACcell Structure Fédérative de Recherche BIOSIT Université de Rennes 1, Bat. 8, Campus de Villejean, 2 Avenue du Pr. Leon Bernard, CS 34317, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Biard, Pierre-François [Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, UMR 6226, 11 Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Université européenne de Bretagne (France); and others


    Highlights: • Description of a VOC depollution system suitable with industrial processes, TPPB. • Novel association of TPPB and hydrophobic ionic liquids. • Synthesis of several hydrophobic ionic liquids designed to fit desired properties. • Toxicity evaluation of these ILs towards cells, animals and bacteria. - Abstract: Synthesis of several hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs), which might be selected as good candidates for degradation of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB), were carried out. Several bioassays were also realized, such as toxicity evaluation on activated sludge and zebrafish, cytotoxicity, fluoride release in aqueous phase and biodegradability in order to verify their possible effects in case of discharge in the aquatic environment and/or human contact during industrial manipulation. The synthesized compounds consist of alkylimidazoliums, functionalized imidazoliums, isoqinoliniums, triazoliums, sulfoniums, pyrrolidiniums and morpholiniums and various counter-ions such as: PF{sub 6}{sup −}, NTf{sub 2}{sup −} and NfO{sup −}. Toxicity evaluation on activated sludge of each compound (5% v/v of IL) was assessed by using a glucose uptake inhibition test. Toxicity against zebrafish and cytotoxicity were evaluated by the ImPACCell platform of Rennes (France). Fluoride release in water was estimated by regular measurements using ion chromatography equipment. IL biodegradability was determined by measuring BOD{sub 28} of aqueous samples (compound concentration,1 mM). All ILs tested were not biodegradable; while some of them were toxic toward activated sludge. Isoquinolinium ILs were toxic to human cancerous cell lines. Nevertheless no toxicity was found against zebrafish Danio rerio. Only one IL released fluoride after long-time agitation.

  1. Synthesis and toxicity evaluation of hydrophobic ionic liquids for volatile organic compounds biodegradation in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Castillo, Alfredo Santiago; Guihéneuf, Solène; Le Guével, Rémy; Biard, Pierre-François


    Highlights: • Description of a VOC depollution system suitable with industrial processes, TPPB. • Novel association of TPPB and hydrophobic ionic liquids. • Synthesis of several hydrophobic ionic liquids designed to fit desired properties. • Toxicity evaluation of these ILs towards cells, animals and bacteria. - Abstract: Synthesis of several hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs), which might be selected as good candidates for degradation of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB), were carried out. Several bioassays were also realized, such as toxicity evaluation on activated sludge and zebrafish, cytotoxicity, fluoride release in aqueous phase and biodegradability in order to verify their possible effects in case of discharge in the aquatic environment and/or human contact during industrial manipulation. The synthesized compounds consist of alkylimidazoliums, functionalized imidazoliums, isoqinoliniums, triazoliums, sulfoniums, pyrrolidiniums and morpholiniums and various counter-ions such as: PF_6"−, NTf_2"− and NfO"−. Toxicity evaluation on activated sludge of each compound (5% v/v of IL) was assessed by using a glucose uptake inhibition test. Toxicity against zebrafish and cytotoxicity were evaluated by the ImPACCell platform of Rennes (France). Fluoride release in water was estimated by regular measurements using ion chromatography equipment. IL biodegradability was determined by measuring BOD_2_8 of aqueous samples (compound concentration,1 mM). All ILs tested were not biodegradable; while some of them were toxic toward activated sludge. Isoquinolinium ILs were toxic to human cancerous cell lines. Nevertheless no toxicity was found against zebrafish Danio rerio. Only one IL released fluoride after long-time agitation.

  2. Constructed Wetlands (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  3. Hydro-biogeochemical phosphorus mobilization - evaluating a wetland restoration "P risk" assesment tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Forsmann, Ditte M.; Hoffmann, Carl Christian


    recognized as one of the most important mitigation options in obeying the quality goals of the European Water Framework Directive. While the nitrogen removal efficiency of restored wetlands is well accepted, the impact of wetland restoration on phosphorus (P) is less obvious. An increasing number...... of studies have called to the attention that wetland restoration on former agricultural soils may result in P release. Despite the high priority of wetland restoration there is a serious lack in understanding the fate of P following wetland restoration, and predictive model tools are highly needed....... Prediction of P dynamics in restored wetlands is extremely challenging because of the complex interactions and feedbacks between hydrology, hydrochemistry and sediment geochemistry. In the Danish Strategic Research project MONITECH, one of the major objectives was to investigate the possibility of developing...

  4. Urbanization Impacts on Flooding in the Kansas River Basin and Evaluation of Wetlands as a Mitigation Measure (United States)

    This study evaluates the impacts of future land use changes on flooding in the Kansas River Basin. It also studies the impacts of wetlands on flood reduction. The study presents Hydrologic Engineering Centers-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) based runoff modeling and River A...

  5. Evaluation of methane emissions from West Siberian wetlands based on inverse modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H-S; Inoue, G [Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 457-4 Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8047 (Japan); Maksyutov, S; Machida, T [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Glagolev, M V [Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Patra, P K [Research Institute for Global Change/JAMSTEC, 3173-25 Showa-cho, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan); Sudo, K, E-mail: [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)


    West Siberia contains the largest extent of wetlands in the world, including large peat deposits; the wetland area is equivalent to 27% of the total area of West Siberia. This study used inverse modeling to refine emissions estimates for West Siberia using atmospheric CH{sub 4} observations and two wetland CH{sub 4} emissions inventories: (1) the global wetland emissions dataset of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (the GISS inventory), which includes emission seasons and emission rates based on climatology of monthly surface air temperature and precipitation, and (2) the West Siberian wetland emissions data (the Bc7 inventory), based on in situ flux measurements and a detailed wetland classification. The two inversions using the GISS and Bc7 inventories estimated annual mean flux from West Siberian wetlands to be 2.9 {+-} 1.7 and 3.0 {+-} 1.4 Tg yr{sup -1}, respectively, which are lower than the 6.3 Tg yr{sup -1} predicted in the GISS inventory, but similar to those of the Bc7 inventory (3.2 Tg yr{sup -1}). The well-constrained monthly fluxes and a comparison between the predicted CH{sub 4} concentrations in the two inversions suggest that the Bc7 inventory predicts the seasonal cycle of West Siberian wetland CH{sub 4} emissions more reasonably, indicating that the GISS inventory predicts more emissions from wetlands in northern and middle taiga.

  6. Evaluation of a membrane bioreactor system as post-treatment waste water treatment for better removal of micropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arriaga, Sonia; de Jonge, Nadieh; Lund Nielsen, Marc


    Organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals are persistent pollutants that are only partially degraded in waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was used as a polishing step on a full-scale WWTP, and its ability to remove micropollutants...

  7. Evaluating the potential for site-specific modification of LiDAR DEM derivatives to improve environmental planning-scale wetland identification using Random Forest classification (United States)

    O'Neil, Gina L.; Goodall, Jonathan L.; Watson, Layne T.


    Wetlands are important ecosystems that provide many ecological benefits, and their quality and presence are protected by federal regulations. These regulations require wetland delineations, which can be costly and time-consuming to perform. Computer models can assist in this process, but lack the accuracy necessary for environmental planning-scale wetland identification. In this study, the potential for improvement of wetland identification models through modification of digital elevation model (DEM) derivatives, derived from high-resolution and increasingly available light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data, at a scale necessary for small-scale wetland delineations is evaluated. A novel approach of flow convergence modelling is presented where Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), curvature, and Cartographic Depth-to-Water index (DTW), are modified to better distinguish wetland from upland areas, combined with ancillary soil data, and used in a Random Forest classification. This approach is applied to four study sites in Virginia, implemented as an ArcGIS model. The model resulted in significant improvement in average wetland accuracy compared to the commonly used National Wetland Inventory (84.9% vs. 32.1%), at the expense of a moderately lower average non-wetland accuracy (85.6% vs. 98.0%) and average overall accuracy (85.6% vs. 92.0%). From this, we concluded that modifying TWI, curvature, and DTW provides more robust wetland and non-wetland signatures to the models by improving accuracy rates compared to classifications using the original indices. The resulting ArcGIS model is a general tool able to modify these local LiDAR DEM derivatives based on site characteristics to identify wetlands at a high resolution.

  8. Evaluation of ALOS PALSAR Data for High-Resolution Mapping of Vegetated Wetlands in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Clewley


    Full Text Available As the largest natural source of methane, wetlands play an important role in the carbon cycle. High-resolution maps of wetland type and extent are required to quantify wetland responses to climate change. Mapping northern wetlands is particularly important because of a disproportionate increase in temperatures at higher latitudes. Synthetic aperture radar data from a spaceborne platform can be used to map wetland types and dynamics over large areas. Following from earlier work by Whitcomb et al. (2009 using Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1 data, we applied the “random forests” classification algorithm to variables from L-band ALOS PALSAR data for 2007, topographic data (e.g., slope, elevation and locational information (latitude, longitude to derive a map of vegetated wetlands in Alaska, with a spatial resolution of 50 m. We used the National Wetlands Inventory and National Land Cover Database (for upland areas to select training and validation data and further validated classification results with an independent dataset that we created. A number of improvements were made to the method of Whitcomb et al. (2009: (1 more consistent training data in upland areas; (2 better distribution of training data across all classes by taking a stratified random sample of all available training pixels; and (3 a more efficient implementation, which allowed classification of the entire state as a single entity (rather than in separate tiles, which eliminated discontinuities at tile boundaries. The overall accuracy for discriminating wetland from upland was 95%, and the accuracy at the level of wetland classes was 85%. The total area of wetlands mapped was 0.59 million km2, or 36% of the total land area of the state of Alaska. The map will be made available to download from NASA’s wetland monitoring website.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of a constructed wetland for treating extremely alkaline (pH 12) steel slag drainage. (United States)

    Mayes, W M; Aumônier, J; Jarvis, A P


    High pH (> 12) leachates are an environmental problem associated with drainage from lime (CaO)-rich industrial residues such as steel slags, lime spoil and coal combustion residues. Recent research has highlighted the potential for natural ('volunteer') wetlands to buffer extremely alkaline influent waters. This appears ascribable to high CO(2) partial pressures in the wetland waters from microbial respiration, which accelerates precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)), and the high specific surface area for mineral precipitation offered by macrophytes. The research presented here builds on this and provides preliminary evaluation of a constructed wetland built in March 2008 to buffer drainage from steel slag heaps in north-east England. The drainage water from the slag mounds is characterised by a mean pH of 11.9, high concentrations of Ca (up to 700 mg/L), total alkalinity (up to 800 mg/L as CaCO(3)) and are slightly brackish (Na = 300 mg/L; Cl = 400 mg/L) reflecting native groundwaters at this coastal setting. Documented calcite precipitation rates (mean of 5 g CaCO(3)/m(2)/day) from nearby volunteer sites receiving steel slag drainage were used to scale the constructed wetland planted with Phragmites australis; a species found to spontaneously grow in the vicinity of the discharge. Improved performance of the wetland during summer months may at least in part be due to biological activity which enhances rates of calcite precipitation and thus lowering of pH. Secondary Ca-rich precipitates also serve as a sink for some trace elements present at low concentrations in the slag leachate such as Ni and V. The implications for scaling and applying constructed wetlands for highly alkaline drainage are discussed.

  10. Fed-batch bioreactor performance and cell line stability evaluation of the artificial chromosome expression technology expressing an IgG1 in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (United States)

    Combs, Rodney G; Yu, Erwin; Roe, Susanna; Piatchek, Michele Bailey; Jones, Heather L; Mott, John; Kennard, Malcolm L; Goosney, Danika L; Monteith, Diane


    The artificial chromosome expression (ACE) technology system uses an engineered artificial chromosome containing multiple site-specific recombination acceptor sites for the rapid and efficient construction of stable cell lines. The construction of Chinese hamster ovary(CHO) cell lines expressing an IgG1 monoclonal antibody (MAb) using the ACE system has been previously described (Kennard et al., Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009;104:540-553). To further demonstrate the manufacturing feasibility of the ACE system, four CHO cell lines expressing the human IgG1 MAb 4A1 were evaluated in batch and fed-batch shake flasks and in a 2-L fed-batch bioreactor. The batch shake flasks achieved titers between 0.7 and 1.1 g/L, whereas the fed-batch shake flask process improved titers to 2.5–3.0 g/L. The lead 4A1 ACE cell line achieved titers of 4.0 g/L with an average specific productivity of 40 pg/(cell day) when cultured in a non optimized 2-L fed-batch bioreactor using a completely chemically defined process. Generational stability characterization of the lead 4A1-expressing cell line demonstrated that the cell line was stable for up to 75 days in culture. Product quality attributes of the 4A1 MAb produced by the ACE system during the stability evaluation period were unchanged and also comparable to existing expression technologies such as the CHO-dhfr system. The results of this evaluation demonstrate that a clonal, stable MAb-expressing CHO cell line can be produced using ACE technology that performs competitively using a chemically defined fed-batch bioreactor process with comparable product quality attributes to cell lines generated by existing technologies.

  11. Ecological outcomes and evaluation of success in passively restored Southeastern depressional wetlands (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Rebecca R. Sharitz; Christopher D. Barton


    Depressional wetlands may be restored passively by disrupting prior drainage to recover original hydrology and relying on natural revegetation. Restored hydrology selects for wetland vegetation; however, depression geomorphology constrains the achievable hydroperiod, and plant communities are influenced by hydroperiod and available species pools. Such constraints can...

  12. Evaluation of the Hanford 200 West Groundwater Treatment System: Fluidized Bed Bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brian B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jackson, Dennis G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dickson, John O. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eddy-Dilek, Carol A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    A fluidized bed reactor (FBR) in the 200W water treatment facility at Hanford is removing nitrate from groundwater as part of the overall pump-treat-reinject process. Control of the FBR bed solids has proven challenging, impacting equipment, increasing operations and maintenance (O&M), and limiting the throughput of the facility. In response to the operational challenges, the Department of Energy Richland Office (DOE-RL) commissioned a technical assistance team to facilitate a system engineering evaluation and provide focused support recommendations to the Hanford Team. The DOE Environmental Management (EM) technical assistance process is structured to identify and triage technologies and strategies that address the target problem(s). The process encourages brainstorming and dialog and allows rapid identification and prioritization of possible options. Recognizing that continuous operation of a large-scale FBR is complex, requiring careful attention to system monitoring data and changing conditions, the technical assistance process focused on explicit identification of the available control parameters (“knobs”), how these parameters interact and impact the FBR system, and how these can be adjusted under different scenarios to achieve operational goals. The technical assistance triage process was performed in collaboration with the Hanford team.

  13. Evaluation of surface water dynamics for water-food security in seasonal wetlands, north-central Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hiyama


    Full Text Available Agricultural use of wetlands is important for food security in various regions. However, land-use changes in wetland areas could alter the water cycle and the ecosystem. To conserve the water environments of wetlands, care is needed when introducing new cropping systems. This study is the first attempt to evaluate the water dynamics in the case of the introduction of rice-millet mixed-cropping systems to the Cuvelai system seasonal wetlands (CSSWs in north-central Namibia. We first investigated seasonal changes in surface water coverage by using satellite remote sensing data. We also assessed the effect of the introduction of rice-millet mixed-cropping systems on evapotranspiration in the CSSWs region. For the former investigation, we used MODIS and AMSR-E satellite remote sensing data. These data showed that at the beginning of the wet season, surface water appears from the southern (lower part and then expands to the northern (higher part of the CSSWs. For the latter investigation, we used data obtained by the classical Bowen ratio-energy balance (BREB method at an experimental field site established in September 2012 on the Ogongo campus, University of Namibia. This analysis showed the importance of water and vegetation conditions when introducing mixed-cropping to the region.

  14. Biological and chemical evaluation of sewage water pollution in the Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberholster, P.J.; Botha, A.-M.; Cloete, T.E.


    Macroinvertebrate communities in Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area and their relationship with water quality were studied with the aim to evaluate their use as potential indicators of pollution. Sampling locations were selected to include outlets from swage effluent, agricultural and informal residential runoff. A large increase in nutrient concentrations was observed downstream from discharged treated sewage with an associated decrease in species richness. Bioassays performed included: Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuate, Lactuca sativa, Allium cepa and Pyxicephalus adspersus. The highest percentage of lethality response to a screen (100% concentration) of sampled wetland water by test specimens were observed at the point source input of the Hartbeespoort treated sewage plant. Data generated from the AUSRIVAS method and multitrophic level bioassays revealed the deterioration of the wetland possibly due to factors such as increasing urbanization, industrialization, agriculture runoff and rapid human settlement in the Hennops River catchment area and its principal tributaries. - Bioassays confirmed the degradation of a freshwater wetland system due to effluent from a variety of sources

  15. Biological and chemical evaluation of sewage water pollution in the Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberholster, P.J. [CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail:; Botha, A.-M. [Department of Genetics, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa); Cloete, T.E. [Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of Pretoria, Hillcrest, Pretoria ZA002 (South Africa)


    Macroinvertebrate communities in Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area and their relationship with water quality were studied with the aim to evaluate their use as potential indicators of pollution. Sampling locations were selected to include outlets from swage effluent, agricultural and informal residential runoff. A large increase in nutrient concentrations was observed downstream from discharged treated sewage with an associated decrease in species richness. Bioassays performed included: Daphnia magna, Hydra attenuate, Lactuca sativa, Allium cepa and Pyxicephalus adspersus. The highest percentage of lethality response to a screen (100% concentration) of sampled wetland water by test specimens were observed at the point source input of the Hartbeespoort treated sewage plant. Data generated from the AUSRIVAS method and multitrophic level bioassays revealed the deterioration of the wetland possibly due to factors such as increasing urbanization, industrialization, agriculture runoff and rapid human settlement in the Hennops River catchment area and its principal tributaries. - Bioassays confirmed the degradation of a freshwater wetland system due to effluent from a variety of sources.

  16. Integrated field and laboratory tests to evaluate effects of metals-impacted wetlands on amphibians: A case study from Montana (United States)

    Linder, G.; ,


    Mining activities frequently impact wildlife habitats, and a wide range of habitats may require evaluations of the linkages between wildlife and environmental stressors common to mining activities (e.g., physical alteration of habitat, releases of chemicals such as metals and other inorganic constituents as part of the mining operation). Wetlands, for example, are frequently impacted by mining activities. Within an ecological assessment for a wetland, toxicity evaluations for representative species may be advantageous to the site evaluation, since these species could be exposed to complex chemical mixtures potentially released from the site. Amphibian species common to these transition zones between terrestrial and aquatic habitats are one key biological indicator of exposure, and integrated approaches which involve both field and laboratory methods focused on amphibians are critical to the assessment process. The laboratory and field evaluations of a wetland in western Montana illustrates the integrated approach to risk assessment and causal analysis. Here, amphibians were used to evaluate the potential toxicity associated with heavy metal-laden sediments deposited in a reservoir. Field and laboratory methods were applied to a toxicity assessment for metals characteristic of mine tailings to reduce potential "lab to field" extrapolation errors and provide adaptive management programs with critical site-specific information targeted on remediation.

  17. Conserving Prairie Pothole Region wetlands and surrounding grasslands: evaluating effects on amphibians (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Neau, Jordan L.


    The maintenance of viable and genetically diverse populations of amphibians in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States depends on upland as well as wetland over-wintering and landscape level habitat features.Prairie pothole wetlands provide important amphibian breeding habitat while grasslands surrounding these wetlands provide foraging habitat for adults, overwintering habitat for some species, and important connectivity among breeding wetlands.Grasslands surrounding wetlands were found to be especially important for wood frogs and northern leopard frogs, while croplands dominated habitat utilized by Great Plains toads and Woodhouse’s toads.Habitat suitability mapping highlighted (1) the influence of deep-water overwintering wetlands on suitable habitat for four of five anuran species encountered; (2) the lack of overlap between areas of core habitat for both the northern leopard frog and wood frog compared to the core habitat for both toad species; and (3) the importance of conservation programs in providing grassland components of northern leopard frog and wood frog habitat.Currently, there are approximately 7.2 million acres (2.9 million hectares, ha) of habitat in the PPR identified as suitable for amphibians. WRP and CRP wetland and grassland habitats accounted for approximately 1.9 million acres (0.75 million ha) or 26 percent of this total area.Continued loss of amphibian habitat resulting from an ongoing trend of returning PPR conservation lands to crop production, will likely have significant negative effects on the region’s ability to maintain amphibian biodiversity. Conversely, increases in conservation wetlands and surrounding grasslands on the PPR landscape have great potential to positively influence the region’s amphibian populations.

  18. Evaluation of wetlands designed to transfer and transform selected metals in an aqueous matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, W.B.; Gillespie, W.B. Jr.; Rodgers, J.H. Jr.


    Constructed wetlands can be used as an alternative to traditional wastewater treatment. Two wetlands were constructed at a Louisiana petroleum refinery and were used to study transfers and transformations of selected metals (Zn, Pb, and Cu) in a refinery effluent. In order to optimize metal removal from the aqueous matrix and subsequently decrease metal bioavailability, the hydroperiod, hydrosoil, and vegetation were specifically selected and incorporated into the wetland design. To test the metal removal efficiency of the constructed wetlands, refinery effluent was amended with 4 mg Zn/L as ZnCl 2 for 150 d. From influent to effluent, average total recoverable and soluble zinc concentrations decreased by 41 and 72%, respectively. Toxicity tests (7 d) using Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas illustrated a decrease in zinc bioavailability. Average C. dubia survival increased from 0--73% as a result of wetland treatment; for P. promelas, the increase in average survival was 37--94%. Based upon this field experiment, constructed wetlands can be specifically designed for zinc removal and concomitant decreases in toxicity

  19. Evaluation of parallel milliliter-scale stirred-tank bioreactors for the study of biphasic whole-cell biocatalysis with ionic liquids. (United States)

    Dennewald, Danielle; Hortsch, Ralf; Weuster-Botz, Dirk


    As clear structure-activity relationships are still rare for ionic liquids, preliminary experiments are necessary for the process development of biphasic whole-cell processes involving these solvents. To reduce the time investment and the material costs, the process development of such biphasic reaction systems would profit from a small-scale high-throughput platform. Exemplarily, the reduction of 2-octanone to (R)-2-octanol by a recombinant Escherichia coli in a biphasic ionic liquid/water system was studied in a miniaturized stirred-tank bioreactor system allowing the parallel operation of up to 48 reactors at the mL-scale. The results were compared to those obtained in a 20-fold larger stirred-tank reactor. The maximum local energy dissipation was evaluated at the larger scale and compared to the data available for the small-scale reactors, to verify if similar mass transfer could be obtained at both scales. Thereafter, the reaction kinetics and final conversions reached in different reactions setups were analysed. The results were in good agreement between both scales for varying ionic liquids and for ionic liquid volume fractions up to 40%. The parallel bioreactor system can thus be used for the process development of the majority of biphasic reaction systems involving ionic liquids, reducing the time and resource investment during the process development of this type of applications. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of ecosystem-based adaptation: Kamiesberg wetlands case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Black


    Full Text Available Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA is increasingly being promoted as a cost-effective means of adaptation to climate change. However, in spite of considerable international press, there is still little evidence to substantiate this claim. This study proposes a method through which the cost-effectiveness of EbA strategies can be evaluated against alternative adaptation options, and contributes to South African literature on the subject. The potential cost-effectiveness of wetland restoration is assessed as a means of securing the carrying capacity of land for pastoralist communities of the Kamiesberg communal area in South Africa under projected future climate conditions. The conventional alternatives would be to respond to increasingly dry conditions by drilling boreholes and using supplemental feed for livestock. It was assumed that the EbA interventions would occur upfront, whereas the alternatives are more likely to be implemented in reaction to droughts over a longer time period. The study found the implementation of conventional alternatives to be more cost-effective than EbA as a means to sustaining livestock stocking rates, with EbA being twice as costly. However, this is framed from the perspective of those directly affected (the landowners, and does not include the benefits to broader society.

  1. Wetland Groundwater Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Greg


    This technical note summarizes hydrologic and hydraulic (H AND H) processes and the related terminology that will likely be encountered during an evaluation of the effect of ground-water processes on wetland function...

  2. Evaluation of a New Temporary Immersion Bioreactor System for Micropropagation of Cultivars of Eucalyptus, Birch and Fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Businge


    Full Text Available The use of liquid instead of solid culture medium for the micropropagation of plants offers advantages such as better access to medium components and scalability through possible automation of the processes. The objective of this work was to compare a new temporary immersion bioreactor (TIB to solid medium culture for the micropropagation of a selection of tree species micropropagated for commercial use: Nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana (Steven Spach, Eucalyptus (E. grandis x E. urophylla, Downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh, and Curly birch (Betula pendula var. carelica. Cultivation of explants in the TIB resulted in a significant increase of multiplication rate and fresh weight of Eucalyptus and B. pendula, but not Betula pubescens. In addition, the fresh weight of embryogenic tissue and the maturation frequency of somatic embryos increased significantly when an embryogenic cell line of A. nordmanniana was cultivated in the TIB compared to solid culture medium. These results demonstrate the potential for scaling up and automating micropropagation by shoot multiplication and somatic embryogenesis in commercial tree species using a temporary immersion bioreactor.

  3. Further evaluation of wetland emission estimates from the JULES land surface model using SCIAMACHY and GOSAT atmospheric column methane measurements (United States)

    Hayman, Garry; Comyn-Platt, Edward; McNorton, Joey; Chipperfield, Martyn; Gedney, Nicola


    The atmospheric concentration of methane began rising again in 2007 after a period of near-zero growth [1,2], with the largest increases observed over polar northern latitudes and the Southern Hemisphere in 2007 and in the tropics since then. The observed inter-annual variability in atmospheric methane concentrations and the associated changes in growth rates have variously been attributed to changes in different methane sources and sinks [2,3]. Wetlands are generally accepted as being the largest, but least well quantified, single natural source of CH4, with global emission estimates ranging from 142-284 Tg yr-1 [3]. The modelling of wetlands and their associated emissions of CH4 has become the subject of much current interest [4]. We have previously used the HadGEM2 chemistry-climate model to evaluate the wetland emission estimates derived using the UK community land surface model (JULES, the Joint UK Land Earth Simulator) against atmospheric observations of methane, including SCIAMACHY total methane columns [5] up to 2007. We have undertaken a series of new HadGEM2 runs using new JULES emission estimates extended in time to the end of 2012, thereby allowing comparison with both SCIAMACHY and GOSAT atmospheric column methane measurements. We will describe the results of these runs and the implications for methane wetland emissions. References [1] Rigby, M., et al.: Renewed growth of atmospheric methane. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L22805, 2008; [2] Nisbet, E.G., et al.: Methane on the Rise-Again, Science 343, 493, 2014; [3] Kirschke, S., et al.,: Three decades of global methane sources and sinks, Nature Geosciences, 6, 813-823, 2013; [4] Melton, J. R., et al.: Present state of global wetland extent and wetland methane modelling: conclusions from a model inter-comparison project (WETCHIMP), Biogeosciences, 10, 753-788, 2013; [5] Hayman, G.D., et al.: Comparison of the HadGEM2 climate-chemistry model against in situ and SCIAMACHY atmospheric methane data, Atmos. Chem

  4. Evaluation of wetland implementation strategies on phosphorus reduction at a watershed scale (United States)

    Abouali, Mohammad; Nejadhashemi, A. Pouyan; Daneshvar, Fariborz; Adhikari, Umesh; Herman, Matthew R.; Calappi, Timothy J.; Rohn, Bridget G.


    Excessive nutrient use in agricultural practices is a major cause of water quality degradation around the world, which results in eutrophication of the freshwater systems. Among the nutrients, phosphorus enrichment has recently drawn considerable attention due to major environmental issues such as Lake Erie and Chesapeake Bay eutrophication. One approach for mitigating the impacts of excessive nutrients on water resources is the implementation of wetlands. However, proper site selection for wetland implementation is the key for effective water quality management at the watershed scale, which is the goal of this study. In this regard, three conventional and two pseudo-random targeting methods were considered. A watershed model called the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was coupled with another model called System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis IntegratioN (SUSTAIN) to simulate the impacts of wetland implementation scenarios in the Saginaw River watershed, located in Michigan. The inter-group similarities of the targeting strategies were investigated and it was shown that the level of similarity increases as the target area increases (0.54-0.86). In general, the conventional targeting method based on phosphorus load generated per unit area at the subwatershed scale had the highest average reduction among all the scenarios (44.46 t/year). However, when considering the total area of implemented wetlands, the conventional method based on long-term impacts of wetland implementation showed the highest amount of phosphorus reduction (36.44 t/year).

  5. Hydrology, vegetation, and soils of four north Florida River flood plains with an evaluation of state and federal wetland determinations (United States)

    Light, H.M.; Darst, M.R.; MacLaughlin, M.T.; Sprecher, S.W.


    A study of hydrologic conditions, vegetation, and soils was made in wetland forests of four north Florida streams from 1987 to 1990. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation to support State and Federal efforts to improve wetland delineation methodology in flood plains. Plant communities and soils were described and related to topographic position and long-term hydrologic conditions at 10 study plots located on 4 streams. Detailed appendixes give average duration, frequency, and depth of flooding; canopy, subcanopy, and ground-cover vegetation; and taxonomic classification, series, and profile descriptions of soils for each plot. Topographic relief, range in stage, and depth of flooding were greatest on the alluvial flood plain of the Ochlockonee River, the largest of the four streams. Soils were silty in the lower elevations of the flood plain, and tree communities were distinctly different in each topographic zone. The Aucilla River flood plain was dominated by levees and terraces with very few depressions or low backwater areas. Oaks dominated the canopy of both lower and upper terraces of the Aucilla flood plain. Telogia Creek is a blackwater stream that is a major tributary of the Ochlockonee River. Its low, wet flood plain was dominated by Wyssa ogeche (Ogeechee tupelo) trees, had soils with mucky horizons, and was inundated by frequent floods of very short duration. The St. Marks River, a spring-fed stream with high base flow, had the least topographic relief and lowest range in stage of the four streams. St. Marks soils had a higher clay content than the other streams, and limestone bedrock was relatively close to the surface. Wetland determinations of the study plots based on State and Federal regulatory criteria were evaluated. Most State and Federal wetland determinations are based primarily on vegetation and soil characteristics because hydrologic records are usually not

  6. Compensatory stream and wetland mitigation in North Carolina: an evaluation of regulatory success. (United States)

    Hill, Tammy; Kulz, Eric; Munoz, Breda; Dorney, John R


    Data from a probability sample were used to estimate wetland and stream mitigation success from 2007 to 2009 across North Carolina (NC). "Success" was defined as whether the mitigation site met regulatory requirements in place at the time of construction. Analytical results were weighted by both component counts and mitigation size. Overall mitigation success (including preservation) was estimated at 74 % (SE = 3 %) for wetlands and 75 % (SE = 4 %) for streams in NC. Compared to the results of previous studies, wetland mitigation success rates had increased since the mid-1990s. Differences between mitigation providers (mitigation banks, NC Ecosystem Enhancement Program's design-bid-build and full-delivery programs, NC Department of Transportation and private permittee-responsible mitigation) were generally not significant although permittee-responsible mitigation yielded higher success rates in certain circumstances. Both wetland and stream preservation showed high rates of success and the stream enhancement success rate was significantly higher than that of stream restoration. Additional statistically significant differences when mitigation size was considered included: (1) the Piedmont yielded a lower stream mitigation success rate than other areas of the state, and (2) recently constructed wetland mitigation projects demonstrated a lower success rate than those built prior to 2002. Opportunities for improvement exist in the areas of regulatory record-keeping, understanding the relationship between post-construction establishment and long-term ecological trajectories of stream and wetland restoration projects, incorporation of numeric ecological metrics into mitigation monitoring and success criteria, and adaptation of stream mitigation designs to achieve greater success in the Piedmont.

  7. McGill wetland model: evaluation of a peatland carbon simulator developed for global assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. St-Hilaire


    Full Text Available We developed the McGill Wetland Model (MWM based on the general structure of the Peatland Carbon Simulator (PCARS and the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model. Three major changes were made to PCARS: (1 the light use efficiency model of photosynthesis was replaced with a biogeochemical description of photosynthesis; (2 the description of autotrophic respiration was changed to be consistent with the formulation of photosynthesis; and (3 the cohort, multilayer soil respiration model was changed to a simple one box peat decomposition model divided into an oxic and anoxic zones by an effective water table, and a one-year residence time litter pool. MWM was then evaluated by comparing its output to the estimates of net ecosystem production (NEP, gross primary production (GPP and ecosystem respiration (ER from 8 years of continuous measurements at the Mer Bleue peatland, a raised ombrotrophic bog located in southern Ontario, Canada (index of agreement [dimensionless]: NEP = 0.80, GPP = 0.97, ER = 0.97; systematic RMSE [g C m−2 d−1]: NEP = 0.12, GPP = 0.07, ER = 0.14; unsystematic RMSE: NEP = 0.15, GPP = 0.27, ER = 0.23. Simulated moss NPP approximates what would be expected for a bog peatland, but shrub NPP appears to be underestimated. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the model output did not change greatly due to variations in water table because of offsetting responses in production and respiration, but that even a modest temperature increase could lead to converting the bog from a sink to a source of CO2. General weaknesses and further developments of MWM are discussed.

  8. In vitro evaluation of a novel bioreactor based on an integral oxygenator and a spirally wound nonwoven polyester matrix for hepatocyte culture as small aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flendrig, L. M.; la Soe, J. W.; Jörning, G. G.; Steenbeek, A.; Karlsen, O. T.; Bovée, W. M.; Ladiges, N. C.; te Velde, A. A.; Chamuleau, R. A.


    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The development of custom-made bioreactors for use as a bioartificial liver (BAL) is considered to be one of the last challenges on the road to successful temporary extracorporeal liver support therapy. We devised a novel bioreactor (patent pending) which allows individual perfusion

  9. Dengue fever in the San Juan Bay Estuary: Evaluating the Role of Wetland Ecosystem Services (United States)

    Dengue is transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a species that thrives in cities. Here we ask which elements within the urban environment could be managed to reduce the potential for Dengue occurrence. In particular, we study the potential of wetlands in the SJBE to buffer from vector pr...

  10. Wetlands Evaluation Technique (WET). Volume 1: Literature Review and Evaluation Rationale. (United States)


    the transport of nutrients to water bodies are widely available (see review by Westerdahl et al. 198 1I/*L). 28. Direct Alteration (predictor for...Manage. 7:151-153. York. Westerdahl , H. E., W. B. Ford III, J. Harris, Weller, M. W. 1979. Density and habitat and C. R. Lee. 1981. Evaluation of tech

  11. Evaluation of using cyclocranes to support drilling and production of oil and gas in Wetland Areas. Fourth quarterly report, [October--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggington, W.J.


    The planned program falls under wetlands area research related to drilling, production, and transportation of oil and gas resources. Specifically the planned program addresses an evaluation of using cyclocraft to transport drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas. During the.reporting period, a report that contained the results of each of the five subtasks that comprise Task 1, Environmental Considerations, was prepared and submitted to DOE. The subtasks were an overview of oil and gas activities in wetlands; a review of present wetland access practices; identification of past environmental impacts experienced; definition of marsh habitat considerations and discussion of forested wetland considerations. In Task 2, Transport Requirements, a report on the acquisition of data on the transport requirements to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in Wetland Areas was prepared and submitted to DOE. Task 3, Parametric Analysis, was completed during the reporting period. The analysis showed that a cyclocraft, having a payload capacity of 45 tons, was the most economic and would be able to transport all of the required equipment and materials. The final report on the parametric analysis was to be submitted in January, 1993.

  12. Tidal wetland fluxes of dissolved organic carbon and sediment at Browns Island, California: initial evaluation (United States)

    Ganju, N.K.; Bergamaschi, B.; Schoellhamer, D.H.


    Carbon and sediment fluxes from tidal wetlands are of increasing concern in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (Delta), because of drinking water issues and habitat restoration efforts. Certain forms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) react with disinfecting chemicals used to treat drinking water, to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs), some of which are potential carcinogens. The contribution of DBP precursors by tidal wetlands is unknown. Sediment transport to and from tidal wetlands determines the potential for marsh accretion, thereby affecting habitat formation.Water, carbon, and sediment flux were measured in the main channel of Browns Island, a tidal wetland located at the confluence of Suisun Bay and the Delta. In-situ instrumentation were deployed between May 3 and May 21, 2002. Water flux was measured using acoustic Doppler current profilers and the index-velocity method. DOC concentrations were measured using calibrated ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence instruments. Suspended-sediment concentrations were measured using a calibrated nephelometric turbidity sensor. Tidally averaged water flux through the channel was dependent on water surface elevations in Suisun Bay. Strong westerly winds resulted in higher water surface elevations in the area east of Browns Island, causing seaward flow, while subsiding winds reversed this effect. Peak ebb flow transported 36% more water than peak flood flow, indicating an ebb-dominant system. DOC concentrations were affected strongly by porewater drainage from the banks of the channel. Peak DOC concentrations were observed during slack after ebb, when the most porewater drained into the channel. Suspended-sediment concentrations were controlled by tidal currents that mobilized sediment from the channel bed, and stronger tides mobilized more sediment than the weaker tides. Sediment was transported mainly to the island during the 2-week monitoring period, though short periods of export occurred during the spring

  13. An approach for evaluating the repeatability of rapid wetland assessment methods: The effects of training and experience (United States)

    We sampled 92 wetlands from four different basins in the United States to quantify observer repeatability in rapid wetland condition assessment using the Delaware Rapid Assessment Protocol (DERAP). In the Inland Bays basin of Delaware, 58 wetland sites were sampled by multiple ob...

  14. Wetland Hydrology (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefit...

  15. Microbiology of a wetland ecosystem constructed to remediate mine drainage from a heavy metal mine. (United States)

    Hallberg, Kevin B; Johnson, D Barrie


    A pilot passive treatment plant (PPTP) was constructed to evaluate the potential of a composite wetland system to remediate acidic, metal-rich water draining the former Wheal Jane tin, in Cornwall, England. The treatment plant consists of three separate and controllable composite systems, each of which comprises a series of aerobic wetlands for iron oxidation and precipitation, a compost bioreactor for removing chalcophilic metals and to generate alkalinity, and rock filter ponds for removing soluble manganese and organic carbon. To understand the roles of microorganisms in remediating acid mine drainage (AMD) in constructed wetland ecosystems, populations of different groups of cultivatable acidophilic microbes in the various components of the Wheal Jane PPTP were enumerated over a 30-month period. Initially, moderately acidophilic iron-oxidising bacteria (related to Halothiobacillus neapolitanus) were found to be the major cultivatable microorganisms present in the untreated AMD, though later heterotrophic acidophiles emerged as the dominant group, on a numerical basis. Culturable microbes in the surface waters and sediments of the aerobic wetlands were similarly dominated by heterotrophic acidophiles, though both moderately and extremely acidophilic iron-oxidising bacteria were also present in significant numbers. The dominant microbial isolate in waters draining the anaerobic compost bioreactors was an iron- and sulfur-oxidising moderate acidophile that was closely related to Thiomonas intermedia. The acidophiles enumerated at the Wheal Jane PPTP accounted for 1% to 25% of the total microbial population. Phylogenetic analysis of 14 isolates from various components of the Wheal Jane PPTP showed that, whilst many of these bacteria were commonly encountered acidophiles, some of these had not been previously encountered in AMD and AMD-impacted environments.

  16. Performance evaluation of a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating ethanol thin stillage. (United States)

    Dereli, R K; Urban, D R; Heffernan, B; Jordan, J A; Ewing, J; Rosenberger, G T; Dunaev, T I


    The ethanol industry has grown rapidly during the past ten years, mainly due to increasing oil prices. However, efficient and cost-effective solutions for treating thin stillage wastewater have still to be developed. The anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology combines classical anaerobic treatment in a completely-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with membrane separation. The combination of these two technologies can achieve a superior effluent quality and also increase biogas production compared to conventional anaerobic solutions. A pilot-scale AnMBR treating thin stillage achieved very high treatment efficiencies in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) removal (>98%). An average permeate flux of 4.3 L/m2 x h was achieved at relatively low transmembrane pressure (TMP) values (0.1-0.2 bars) with flat-sheet membranes. Experience gained during the pilot-scale studies provides valuable information for scaling up of AnMBRs treating complex and high-strength wastewaters.

  17. Evaluation of Zosteric Acid for Mitigating Biofilm Formation of Pseudomonas putida Isolated from a Membrane Bioreactor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Polo


    Full Text Available This study provides data to define an efficient biocide-free strategy based on zosteric acid to counteract biofilm formation on the membranes of submerged bioreactor system plants. 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis showed that gammaproteobacteria was the prevalent taxa on fouled membranes of an Italian wastewater plant. Pseudomonas was the prevalent genus among the cultivable membrane-fouler bacteria and Pseudomonas putida was selected as the target microorganism to test the efficacy of the antifoulant. Zosteric acid was not a source of carbon and energy for P. putida cells and, at 200 mg/L, it caused a reduction of bacterial coverage by 80%. Biofilm experiments confirmed the compound caused a significant decrease in biomass (−97% and thickness (−50%, and it induced a migration activity of the peritrichous flagellated P. putida over the polycarbonate surface not amenable to a biofilm phenotype. The low octanol-water partitioning coefficient and the high water solubility suggested a low bioaccumulation potential and the water compartment as its main environmental recipient and capacitor. Preliminary ecotoxicological tests did not highlight direct toxicity effects toward Daphnia magna. For green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata an effect was observed at concentrations above 100 mg/L with a significant growth of protozoa that may be connected to a concurrent algal growth inhibition.

  18. Evaluation of an integrated sponge--granular activated carbon fluidized bed bioreactor for treating primary treated sewage effluent. (United States)

    Xing, W; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Listowski, A; Cullum, P


    An integrated fluidized bed bioreactor (iFBBR) was designed to incorporate an aerobic sponge FBBR (ASB-FBBR) into an anoxic granular activated carbon FBBR (GAC-FBBR). This iFBBR was operated with and without adding a new starch based flocculant (NSBF) to treat synthetic primary treated sewage effluent (PTSE). The NSBF contains starch based cationic flocculants and trace nutrients. The results indicate that the iFBBR with NSBF addition could remove more than 93% dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 61% total nitrogen (T-N) and 60% total phosphorus (T-P) at just a very short hydraulic retention time of 50 min. The optimum frequency of adding NSBF to the iFFBR is four times per day. As a pretreatment to microfiltration, the iFFBR could increase 5L/m(2)h of critical flux thus reducing the membrane fouling. In addition, better microbial activity was also observed with high DO consumption (>66%) and specific oxygen uptake rate (>35 mg O(2)/g VSS h). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Schisandra lignans production regulated by different bioreactor type. (United States)

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Kokotkiewicz, Adam; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Ekiert, Halina


    Schisandra chinensis (Chinese magnolia vine) is a rich source of therapeutically relevant dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans with anticancer, immunostimulant and hepatoprotective activities. In this work, shoot cultures of S. chinensis were grown in different types of bioreactors with the aim to select a system suitable for the large scale in vitro production of schisandra lignans. The cultures were maintained in Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and 1mg/l 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Five bioreactors differing with respect to cultivation mode were tested: two liquid-phase systems (baloon-type bioreactor and bubble-column bioreactor with biomass immobilization), the gas-phase spray bioreactor and two commercially available temporary immersion systems: RITA ® and Plantform. The experiments were run for 30 and 60 days in batch mode. The harvested shoots were evaluated for growth and lignan content determined by LC-DAD and LC-DAD-ESI-MS. Of the tested bioreactors, temporary immersion systems provided the best results with respect to biomass production and lignan accumulation: RITA ® bioreactor yielded 17.86g/l (dry weight) during 60 day growth period whereas shoots grown for 30 days in Plantform bioreactor contained the highest amount of lignans (546.98mg/100g dry weight), with schisandrin, deoxyschisandrin and gomisin A as the major constituents (118.59, 77.66 and 67.86mg/100g dry weight, respectively). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating the efficiency of two phase partitioning stirred tank bio-reactor for treating xylene vapors from the airstreamthrough a bed of Pseudomonas Putida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Golbabaei


    Conclusion: Overall, the results of the present research revealed that the application of two phase stirred tank bioreactors (TPPBs containing pure strains of Pseudomonas putida was successful for treatment of air streams with xylene.

  1. National Wetlands Inventory Lines (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear wetland features (including selected streams, ditches, and narrow wetland bodies) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National...

  2. Comparative evaluation of low cost materials as constructed wetland filling media (United States)

    Pinho, Henrique J. O.; Vaz, Mafalda M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.


    Three waste materials from civil construction activities were assessed as low cost alternative filling materials used in Constructed Wetlands (CW). CW are green processes for wastewater treatment, whose design includes an appropriate selection of vegetation and filling material. The sustainability of such processes may be incremented using recovered wastes as filling materials. The abilities of the materials to support plant growth and to contribute to pollutants removal from wastewater were assessed and compared to expanded clay, a filling usually used in CW design. Statistical analysis, using one-way ANOVA and Welch's ANOVA, demonstrate that limestone fragments are a better choice of filling material than brick fragments and basalt gravel.

  3. Microbial-based evaluation of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for the sustainable and efficient treatment of municipal wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moustapha


    Conventional activated sludge-based wastewater treatment is an energy and resource-intensive process. Historically it has been successful at producing safely treated wastewater effluents in the developed world, specifically in places that have the infrastructure and space to support its operation. However, with a growing need for safe and efficient wastewater treatment across the world in both urban and rural settings, a paradigm shift in waste treatment is proving to be necessary. The sustainability of the future of wastewater treatment, in a significant way, hinges on moving towards energy neutrality and wastewater effluent reuse. This potential for reuse is threatened by the recent emergence and study of contaminants that have not been previously taken into consideration, such as antibiotics and other organic micropollutants (OMPs), antibiotic resistance genes, and persistent pathogenic bacteria. This dissertation focuses on investigating the use of anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology for the sustainable treatment of municipal-type wastewaters. Specifically, a microbial approach to understanding biofouling and methane recovery potential in anaerobic MBR systems has been employed to assess different reactor systems’ efficiency. This dissertation further compares AnMBRs to their more widely used aerobic counterparts. This comparison specifically focuses on the removal and biodegradation of OMPs and antibiotics in both anaerobic and aerobic MBRs, while also investigating their effect on the proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes. Due to rising interest in wastewater effluent reuse and the lack of a comprehensive understanding of MBR systems’ effects on pathogen proliferation, this dissertation also investigates the presence of pathogens in both aerobic and anaerobic MBR effluents by using molecularbased detection methods. The findings of this dissertation demonstrate that membrane-associated anaerobic digestion processes have significant

  4. Cascades of bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooijer, de C.D.


    In this thesis a common phenomenon in bioprocess engineering is described : the execution of a certain bioprocess in more than one bioreactor. Chapter 1, a review, classifies bioprocesses by means of a number of characteristics :
    i) processes with a variable

  5. Evaluation of using cyclocranes to support drilling & production of oil & gas in wetland areas. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, incorporating milestone schedule/status, October 1993--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggington, W.J.


    This report is a progress report on a planned program falling under wetlands area research related to drilling, production, and transportation of oil and gas resources. Specifically the planned program addresses an evaluation of using cyclocraft to transport drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas. During this period, task 5, subscale tests, and task 7, environmental impacts, were completed. Work was continued on task 10, technology transfer, and the preparation of the final report as part of task 11.

  6. Evaluation of process performance, energy consumption and microbiota characterization in a ceramic membrane bioreactor for ex-situ biomethanation of H2 and CO2. (United States)

    Alfaro, Natalia; Fdz-Polanco, María; Fdz-Polanco, Fernando; Díaz, Israel


    The performance of a pilot ceramic membrane bioreactor for the bioconversion of H 2 and CO 2 to bioCH 4 was evaluated in thermophilic conditions. The loading rate was between 10 and 30 m 3  H 2 /m 3 reactor  d and the system transformed 95% of H 2 fed. The highest methane yield found was 0.22 m 3  CH 4 /m 3  H 2 , close to the maximum stoichiometric value (0.25 m 3  CH 4 /m 3  H 2 ) thus indicating that archaeas employed almost all H 2 transferred to produce CH 4 . k L a value of 268 h -1 was reached at 30 m 3  H 2 /m 3 reactor  d. DGGE and FISH revealed a remarkable archaeas increase related to the selection-effect of H 2 on community composition over time. Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus was the archaea found with high level of similarity. This study verified the successful application of membrane technology to efficiently transfer H 2 from gas to the liquid phase, the development of a hydrogenotrophic community from a conventional thermophilic sludge and the technical feasibility of the bioconversion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating the effect of different draw solutes in a baffled osmotic membrane bioreactor-microfiltration using optical coherence tomography with real wastewate

    KAUST Repository

    Pathak, Nirenkumar


    This study investigated the performance of an integrated osmotic and microfiltration membrane bioreactor for real sewage employing baffles in the reactor. To study the biofouling development on forward osmosis membranes optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique was employed. On-line monitoring of biofilm growth on a flat sheet cellulose triacetate forward osmosis (CTA-FO) membrane was conducted for 21 days. Further, the process performance was evaluated in terms of water flux, organic and nutrient removal, microbial activity in terms of soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and floc size. The measured biofouling layer thickness was in the order sodium chloride (NaCl) > ammonium sulfate (SOA) > potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4). Very high organic removal (96.9±0.8 %) and reasonably good nutrient removal efficiency (85.2±1.6 % TN) was achieved. The sludge characteristics and biofouling layer thickness suggest that less EPS and higher floc size were the governing factors for less fouling.

  8. Wetlands and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Smardon


    Full Text Available This editorial provides an overview of the special issue “Wetlands and Sustainability”. In particular, the special issue contains a review of Paul Keddy’s book “Wetland Ecology” with specific reference to wetland sustainability. It also includes papers addressing wetland data acquisition via radar and remote sensing to better understand wetland system dynamics, hydrologic processes linked to wetland stress and restoration, coastal wetlands land use conflict/management, and wetland utilization for water quality treatment.

  9. Evaluation of the Effects of Iron Oxides on Soil Reducing Conditions and Methane Generation in Cambodian Wetland Rice Fields (United States)

    Weaver, M.; Benner, S.; Fendorf, S.; Sampson, M.; Leng, M.


    Atmospheric concentrations of methane have been steadily increasing over the last 100 years, which has given rise to research of wetland rice fields, recently identified as a major anthropomorphic source of methane. Establishment of experimental soil pots, cultivating an aromatic early variety rice strain in the Kean Svay District of Cambodia, have recently been carried out to evaluate methods to minimize methane release by promoting redox buffering by iron oxides. In the first series of experiments, iron oxides were added to the soils and the rate of change in reducing conditions and methanogenesis onset was monitored. In the second series of experiments, plots are subject to periodic drying cycles to promote rejuvenation of buffering iron oxides. Initial results indicate a delay in the onset of methanogenesis, and overall methane generation, in plots where initial iron oxides concentrations are elevated.

  10. A novel gas separation integrated membrane bioreactor to evaluate the impact of self-generated biogas recycling on continuous hydrogen fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakonyi, Péter; Buitrón, Germán; Valdez-Vazquez, Idania; Nemestóthy, Nándor; Bélafi-Bakó, Katalin


    Highlights: • A Gas Separation Membrane Bioreactor was designed to improve H_2 production. • Headspace gas after enrichment by PDMS membranes was used for reactor sparging. • Stripping the bioreactor with a CO_2-enriched gas enhanced the H_2 fermentation. - Abstract: A Gas Separation Membrane Bioreactor (GSMBR) by integrating membrane technology with a continuous biohydrogen fermenter was designed. The feasibility of this novel configuration for the improvement of hydrogen production capacity was tested by stripping the fermentation liquor with CO_2- and H_2-enriched gases, obtained directly from the bioreactor headspace. The results indicated that sparging the bioreactor with the CO_2-concentrated fraction of the membrane separation unit (consisting of two PDMS modules) enhanced the steady-state H_2 productivity (8.9–9.2 L H_2/L-d) compared to the membrane-less control CSTR to be characterized with 6.96–7.35 L H_2/L-d values. On the other hand, purging with the H_2-rich gas strongly depressed the achievable productivity (2.7–3.03 L H_2/L-d). Microbial community structure and soluble metabolic products were monitored to assess the GSMBR behavior. The study demonstrated that stripping the bioH_2 fermenter with its own, self-generated atmosphere after adjusting its composition (to higher CO_2-content) can be a promising way to intensify dark fermentative H_2 evolution.

  11. Genotoxicity evaluation of the insecticide endosulfan in the wetland macrophyte Bidens laevis L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Debora J.; Menone, Mirta L.; Camadro, Elsa L.; Moreno, Victor J.


    The frequency of micronuclei (MN) and chromosome aberrations in anaphase-telophase (CAAT) was determined in root tips of the wetland macrophyte Bidens laevis exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of endosulfan (0.01, 0.02, 0.5 and 5 μg/L) for 48 h. MN frequency varied from 0 in negative controls and plants exposed to 0.01 μg/L endosulfan to 0-3 in plants exposed to 5 μg/L. Moreover, a significant concentration-dependent increase of CAAT was observed. The higher proportion of laggards and vagrand chromosomes observed at 5 μg/L would indicate that endosulfan interacts with the spindle interrupting normal chromosome migration. Endosulfan resulted genotoxic to B. laevis, a species of potential value for bioassays and in situ monitoring of environmental contamination by pesticides. - Endosulfan causes a concentration-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations in the macrophyte Bidens laevis

  12. Mercury Bioaccumulation in Tropical Mangrove Wetland Fishes: Evaluating Potential Risk to Coastal Wildlife. (United States)

    Le, Dung Quang; Satyanarayana, Behara; Fui, Siau Yin; Shirai, Kotaro


    The present study, aimed at observing the total concentration of mercury (Hg) in edible finfish species with an implication to human health risk, was carried out from the Setiu mangrove wetlands on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Out of 20 species observed, the highest Hg concentrations were found among carnivores-fish/invertebrate-feeders, followed by omnivores and carnivores-invertebrate-feeders, while the lowest concentrations in herbivores. The Hg concentrations varied widely with fish species and body size, from 0.12 to 2.10 mg/kg dry weight. A positive relationship between body weight and Hg concentration was observed in particular for Toxotes jaculatrix and Tetraodon nigroviridis. Besides the permissible range of Hg concentration up to 0.3 mg/kg (cf. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)) in majority of species, the carnivore feeders such as Acanthopagrus pacificus, Gerres filamentosus, and Caranx ignobilis have shown excess amounts (> 0.40 mg/kg flesh weight) that raising concerns over the consumption by local people. However, the weekly intake of mercury-estimated through the fish consumption in all three trophic levels-suggests that the present Hg concentrations are still within the range of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) reported by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). Perhaps, a multi-species design for Hg monitoring at Setiu wetlands would be able to provide further insights into the level of toxicity transfer among other aquatic organisms and thereby a strong health risk assessment for the local communities.

  13. Fringe wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo, A.E.


    Fringe wetlands are characterized by the dominance of few species, a clear species zonation, synchrony of ecological processes with episodic events, and simplicity in the structure of vegetation. The structure and ecosystem dynamics of fringe forested wetlands are presented with emphasis on saltwater wetlands because they have been studied more than freshwater ones. The study areas were Caribbean and Florida mangroves. Fringe wetlands are found on the water edge of oceans, inland estuaries, and lakes. Water motion in the fringe is bi-directional and perpendicular to the forest and due mostly to tidal energy in oceanic and estuarine fringes. in lakes, water moves in and out of the fringe under the influence of wind, waves, or seiches. some fringe forests are occasionally flushed by terrestrial runoff or aquifer discharge. In contrast, fringe forests located on small offshore islands or steep coastal shroes are isolated from terrestrial runoff or aquifer discharge, and their hydroperiod is controlled by tides and waves only. Literature reviews suggest that ecosystem parameters such as vegetation structure, tree growth, primary productivity, and organic matter in sediments respond proportionally to hydrologic energy. Human activity that impacts on fringe forested wetlands include harvesting of trees, oil pollution and eutrophication. 72 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs

  14. Carbon dynamics in wetland restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, K.; Ciborowski, J.; Gardner-Costa, J.; Slama, C. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada); Daly, C.; Hornung, J. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Dixon, G.; Farwell, A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Foote, L.; Frederick, K.; Roy, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Smits, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Wytrykush, C. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    This study focused on the reclamation of wetland ecosystems impacted by oil sands development in the boreal wetlands. Although these wetlands play an important role in global carbon balance, their ecosystem function is compromised by direct and regional anthropogenic disturbance and climate change. Large oil sand mining areas that require reclamation generate substantial quantities of extraction process-affected materials. In order to determine if the reclaimed wetlands were restored to equivalent ecosystem function, this study evaluated carbon flows and food web structure in oil sands-affected wetlands. The purpose was to determine whether a prescribed reclamation strategy or topsoil amendment accelerates reclaimed wetland development to produce self-sustaining peatlands. In addition to determining carbon fluxes, this study measured compartment standing stocks for residual hydrocarbons, organic substrate, bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, biofilm, macrophytes, detritus, zoobenthos and aquatic-terrestrial exports. Most biotic 28 compartments differed between oil-sands-affected and reference wetlands, but the difference lessened with age. Macroinvertebrate trophic diversity was lower in oil sands-affected wetlands. Peat amendment seemed to speed convergence for some compartments but not others. These results were discussed in the context of restoration of ecosystem function and optimization of reclamation strategies.

  15. Environmental flows and its evaluation of restoration effect based on LEDESS model in Yellow River Delta wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.G.; Lian, Y.; Huang, C.; Wang, X.J.; Wang, R.L.; Shan, K.; Pedroli, B.; Eupen, van M.; Elmahdi, A.; Ali, M.


    Due to freshwater supplement scarcity and heavy human activities, the fresh water wetland ecosystem in Yellow River Delta is facing disintegrated deterioration, and it is seriously affecting the health of the Yellow River ecosystem. This paper identifies the restoration objectives of wetland aiming

  16. Performance Evaluation of a Floating Treatment Wetland in an Urban Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nichols


    Full Text Available Floating Treatment Wetland (FTW systems are purpose-built devices designed to replicate the water treatment processes that occur in and around naturally occurring floating vegetated islands. FTWs can be used to improve the water quality of water storage ponds by contributing to water treatment processes through adhesion, filtration, nutrient uptake (direct use by plants, and sequestration. This paper presents the results of a twelve-month investigation into the pollution removal performance of a FTW receiving stormwater runoff from a 7.46 ha urban residential catchment. As anticipated, there was a high degree of variation in FTW treatment performance between individual rainfall events. Overall pollution removal performance was calculated to be 80% for Total Suspended Solids (TSS, 53% for Total Phosphorous (TP, and 17% for Total Nitrogen (TN for a FTW footprint of 0.14% of the contributing catchment. TSS and TP concentrations were found to be significantly reduced after FTW treatment. The minimum FTW footprint to catchment size ratio required to achieve regulated nutrient removal rates was calculated to be 0.37%. Sum of loads calculations based on flow resulted in pollution load reductions of TSS 76%, TP 55%, and TN 17%. Pollution treatment performance (particularly for TN was found to be affected by low influent concentrations, and highly-variable inflow concentrations. The study demonstrated that FTWs are an effective treatment solution for the removal of pollution from urban stormwater runoff.

  17. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor (United States)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.


    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid

  18. Wetland Mitigation Monitoring at the Fernald Preserve - 13200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Jane [Fernald Preserve Site Manager, DOE Office of Legacy Management, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Bien, Stephanie; Decker, Ashlee; Homer, John [Environmental Scientist, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Wulker, Brian [Intern, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States)


    The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for 7.2 hectares (17.8 acres) of mitigation wetland at the Fernald Preserve, Ohio. Remedial activities affected the wetlands, and mitigation plans were incorporated into site-wide ecological restoration planning. In 2008, the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees developed a comprehensive wetland mitigation monitoring approach to evaluate whether compensatory mitigation requirements have been met. The Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Plan provided a guideline for wetland evaluations. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) wetland mitigation monitoring protocols were adopted as the means for compensatory wetland evaluation. Design, hydrologic regime, vegetation, wildlife, and biogeochemistry were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Evaluations showed mixed results when compared to the Ohio EPA performance standards. Results of vegetation monitoring varied, with the best results occurring in wetlands adjacent to forested areas. Amphibians, particularly ambystomatid salamanders, were observed in two areas adjacent to forested areas. Not all wetlands met vegetation performance standards and amphibian biodiversity metrics. However, Fernald mitigation wetlands showed substantially higher ratings compared to other mitigated wetlands in Ohio. Also, soil sampling results remain consistent with other Ohio mitigated wetlands. The performance standards are not intended to be 'pass/fail' criteria; rather, they are reference points for use in making decisions regarding future monitoring and maintenance. The Trustees approved the Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report with the provision that long-term monitoring of the wetlands continues at the Fernald Preserve. (authors)

  19. Wetland Mitigation Monitoring at the Fernald Preserve - 13200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Jane; Bien, Stephanie; Decker, Ashlee; Homer, John; Wulker, Brian


    The U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for 7.2 hectares (17.8 acres) of mitigation wetland at the Fernald Preserve, Ohio. Remedial activities affected the wetlands, and mitigation plans were incorporated into site-wide ecological restoration planning. In 2008, the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees developed a comprehensive wetland mitigation monitoring approach to evaluate whether compensatory mitigation requirements have been met. The Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Plan provided a guideline for wetland evaluations. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) wetland mitigation monitoring protocols were adopted as the means for compensatory wetland evaluation. Design, hydrologic regime, vegetation, wildlife, and biogeochemistry were evaluated from 2009 to 2011. Evaluations showed mixed results when compared to the Ohio EPA performance standards. Results of vegetation monitoring varied, with the best results occurring in wetlands adjacent to forested areas. Amphibians, particularly ambystomatid salamanders, were observed in two areas adjacent to forested areas. Not all wetlands met vegetation performance standards and amphibian biodiversity metrics. However, Fernald mitigation wetlands showed substantially higher ratings compared to other mitigated wetlands in Ohio. Also, soil sampling results remain consistent with other Ohio mitigated wetlands. The performance standards are not intended to be 'pass/fail' criteria; rather, they are reference points for use in making decisions regarding future monitoring and maintenance. The Trustees approved the Fernald Preserve Wetland Mitigation Monitoring Report with the provision that long-term monitoring of the wetlands continues at the Fernald Preserve. (authors)

  20. Evaluation of metal contamination and phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophytes of East Kolkata Wetlands, India. (United States)

    Khatun, Amina; Pal, Sandipan; Mukherjee, Aloke Kumar; Samanta, Palas; Mondal, Subinoy; Kole, Debraj; Chandra, Priyanka; Ghosh, Apurba Ratan


    The present study analyzes metal contamination in sediment of the East Kolkata Wetlands, a Ramsar site, which is receiving a huge amount of domestic and industrial wastewater from surrounding areas. The subsequent uptake and accumulation of metals in different macrophytes are also examined in regard to their phytoremediation potential. Metals like cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and lead (Pb) were estimated in sediment, water and different parts of the macrophytes Colocasia esculenta and Scirpus articulatus . The concentration of metals in sediment were, from highest to lowest, Mn (205.0±65.5 mg/kg)>Cu (29.9±10.2 mg/kg)>Pb (22.7±10.3 mg/kg)>Cd (3.7±2.2 mg/kg). The phytoaccumulation tendency of these metals showed similar trends in both native aquatic macrophyte species. The rate of accumulation of metals in roots was higher than in shoots. There were strong positive correlations ( p <0.001) between soil organic carbon (OC) percentage and Mn (r =0.771), and sediment OC percentage and Pb (r=0.832). Cation exchange capacity (CEC) also showed a positive correlation ( p <0.001) with Cu (r=0.721), Mn (r=0.713), and Pb (r=0.788), while correlations between sediment OC percentage and Cu (r=0.628), sediment OC percentage and Cd (r=0.559), and CEC and Cd (r=0.625) were significant at the p <0.05 level. Bioaccumulation factor and translocation factors of these two plants revealed that S. articulatus was comparatively more efficient for phytoremediation, whereas phytostabilization potential was higher in C. esculenta .

  1. Effects of a perfusion bioreactor activated novel bone substitute in spine fusion in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Koroma, Kariatta Ester; Ding, Ming


    To evaluate the effect of a large perfusion-bioreactor cell-activated bone substitute, on a two-level large posterolateral spine fusion sheep model.......To evaluate the effect of a large perfusion-bioreactor cell-activated bone substitute, on a two-level large posterolateral spine fusion sheep model....

  2. Evaluation of Subsurface Flow and Free-water Surface Wetlands Treating NPR-3 Produced Water - Year No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J. E.; Jackson, L. M.


    This paper is a summary of some of the activities conducted during the first year of a three-year cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) and Texaco relating to the treatment of produced water by constructed wetlands. The first year of the CRADA is for design, construction and acclimation of the wetland pilot units. The second and third years of the CRADA are for tracking performance of pilot wetlands as the plant and microbial communities mature. A treatment wetland is a proven technology for the secondary and tertiary treatment of produced water, storm water and other wastewaters. Treatment wetlands are typically classified as either free-water surface (FWS) or subsurface flow (SSF). Both FWS and SSF wetlands work well when properly designed and operated. This paper presents a collection of kinetic data gathered from pilot units fed a slipstream of Wyoming (NPR-3) produced water. The pilot units are set up outdoors to test climatic influences on treatment. Monitoring parameters include evapotranspiration, plant growth, temperature, and NPDES discharge limits. The pilot wetlands (FWS and SSF) consist of a series of 100-gal plastic tubs filled with local soils, gravel, sharp sand and native wetland plants (cattail (Typha spp.), bulrush (Scirpus spp.), dwarf spikerush (Eleocharis)). Feed pumps control hydraulic retention time (HRT) and simple water control structures control the depth of water. The treated water is returned to the existing produced water treatment system. All NPDES discharge limits are met. Observations are included on training RMOTC summer students to do environmental work

  3. Evaluation of a combined modelling-remote sensing method for estimating net radiation in a wetland: a case study in the Nebraska Sand Hills, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodin, D.G.


    Close-range measurement combined with modelling of incoming radiation is used to evaluate the prospect of remotely-measuring net radiation of a wetland environment located in the Sand Hills of Nebraska. Results indicate that net radiation can be measured with an accuracy comparable to that of conventional instruments. Sources of error are identified and discussed. Possible application of the methodology to satellite remote sensing is considered. (author)

  4. National Wetlands Inventory Points (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  5. National Wetlands Inventory Polygons (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland area features mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National Wetlands Inventory is a national program sponsored by the US Fish and...

  6. Sensing in tissue bioreactors (United States)

    Rolfe, P.


    Specialized sensing and measurement instruments are under development to aid the controlled culture of cells in bioreactors for the fabrication of biological tissues. Precisely defined physical and chemical conditions are needed for the correct culture of the many cell-tissue types now being studied, including chondrocytes (cartilage), vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (blood vessels), fibroblasts, hepatocytes (liver) and receptor neurones. Cell and tissue culture processes are dynamic and therefore, optimal control requires monitoring of the key process variables. Chemical and physical sensing is approached in this paper with the aim of enabling automatic optimal control, based on classical cell growth models, to be achieved. Non-invasive sensing is performed via the bioreactor wall, invasive sensing with probes placed inside the cell culture chamber and indirect monitoring using analysis within a shunt or a sampling chamber. Electroanalytical and photonics-based systems are described. Chemical sensing for gases, ions, metabolites, certain hormones and proteins, is under development. Spectroscopic analysis of the culture medium is used for measurement of glucose and for proteins that are markers of cell biosynthetic behaviour. Optical interrogation of cells and tissues is also investigated for structural analysis based on scatter.

  7. Kansas Playa Wetlands (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the distribution, areal extent, and morphometry of playa wetlands throughout western Kansas. Playa wetlands were...

  8. Using Remote Sensing to Evaluate Wetland Recovery in the Northern Tampa Bay Area Following Reduction in Groundwater Withdrawals (United States)

    Elder, Amor

    In the past, the Northern Tampa Bay Area (NTBA) wetlands saw severe declines in hydrologic conditions due to excessive groundwater withdrawal rates. Eventually these rates were reduced to allow the wetlands to recover. To monitor this recovery, the Southwest Florida Water Management district (SWFWMD) set up a fieldwork based scoring methodology, called the Wetlands Assessment Procedure (WAP). WAP has been used in many studies of the area since groundwater withdrawal reductions; with many of those studies finding the recovery to be mixed at best. However, these studies were very limited in the number of wetlands they could assess due to the limitations of fieldwork. Therefore, it was proposed that remotely sensed variables associated with water consumption and stress be used to assess the recovery of the NTBA wetlands, as remote sensing allows for efficient assessments of targets over large area. Utilizing ASTER imagery scenes from 2005 and 2014, 211 wetlands' remotely sensed responses of NDVI, Land Surface Temperature (LST), and Evapotranspiration (ET) were mapped and statistically examined for trends indicating improvement or decline. Furthermore, a subset of WAP scores for the two years were examined and compared to the remotely sensed values. The results were contradictory, with remotely sensed responses showing an improvement over the time period, WAP scores indicating a decline in hydrologic conditions, and the two methods showing little to no fit when modeled against each other. As such, it is believed at this time that the remotely sensed method is not suitable for measuring the indicators of wetland recovery used in the WAP methodology.

  9. Feasibility of using geothermal effluents for waterfowl wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and institutional constraints which could affect geothermal wetland development; potential problems associated with depletion of geothermal resources and subsidence of wetland areas; potential interference (adverse and beneficial) of wetlands with ground water; special considerations for wetlands requirements including size, flows, and potential water usage; and final conclusions and recommendations for suitable sites for developing demonstration wetlands.

  10. Working group report on wetlands and wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teels, B.


    The results and conclusions of a working group held to discuss the state of knowledge and knowledge gaps concerning climatic change impacts on wetlands and wildlife are presented. Prairie pothole wetlands are extremely productive and produce ca 50% of all ducks in North America. The most productive, and most vulnerable to climate change, are small potholes, often less than one acre in area. Changes in water regimes and land use will have more impact on wildlife than changes in temperature. There are gaps in knowledge relating to: boreal wetlands and their wildlife, and response to climate; wetland inventories that include the smallest wetlands; coordinated schemes for monitoring status and trends of wetlands and wildlife; and understanding of ecological relationships within wetlands and their wildlife communities. Recommendations include: coordinate and enhance existing databases to provide an integrated monitoring system; establish research programs to increase understanding of ecological relationships within wetland ecosystems; evaluate programs and policies that affect wetlands; and promote heightened public awareness of general values of wetlands

  11. Evaluation of an alternative method for wastewater treatment containing pesticides using solar photocatalytic oxidation and constructed wetlands. (United States)

    Berberidou, Chrysanthi; Kitsiou, Vasiliki; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A; Antoniadis, Αpostolos; Ntonou, Eleftheria; Zalidis, George C; Poulios, Ioannis


    The present study proposes an integrated system based on the synergetic action of solar photocatalytic oxidation with surface flow constructed wetlands for the purification of wastewater contaminated with pesticides. Experiments were conducted at pilot scale using simulated wastewater containing the herbicide clopyralid. Three photocatalytic methods under solar light were investigated: the photo-Fenton and the ferrioxalate reagent as well as the combination of photo-Fenton with TiO 2 P25, which all led to similar mineralization rates. The subsequent treatment in constructed wetlands resulted in further decrease of DOC and inorganic ions concentrations, especially of NO 3 - . Clopyralid was absent in the outlet of the wetlands, while the concentration of the detected intermediates was remarkably low. These findings are in good agreement with the results of phytotoxicity of the wastewater, after treatment with the ferrioxalate/wetlands process, which was significantly reduced. Thus, this integrated system based on solar photocatalysis and constructed wetlands has the potential to effectively detoxify wastewater containing pesticides, producing a purified effluent which could be exploited for reuse applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Filtration characteristics in membrane bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenblij, H.


    Causes of and remedies for membrane fouling in Membrane Bioreactors for wastewater treatment are only poorly understood and described in scientific literature. A Filtration Characterisation Installation and a measurement protocol were developed with the aim of a) unequivocally determination and

  13. Evaluation of using cyclocranes to support drilling and production of oil and gas in wetland areas. Third quarterly technical progress report, First quarter, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggington, W.J.


    The planned program falls under wetlands area research related to drilling, production, and transportation of oil and gas resources. Specifically the planned program addresses an evaluation of using cyclocraft to transport drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas. The cyclocraft is a proven hybrid aircraft that utilizes aerostatic and aerodynamic lift. This type of aircraft has considerable payload capacity, VTOL capability, high controllability, low operating cost, low downwash and high safety. The benefits of using a cyclocraft to transport drill rigs and materials over environmentally-sensitive surfaces would be significant. The cyclocraft has considerable cost and operational advantages over the helicopter. The major activity during the report period was focussed on Task 4, Preliminary Design. The selected design has been designated H.1 Cyclocraft by MRC. The preliminary design work was based on the results of the three preceding tasks. A report was initiated that contains descriptions of the H.1 Cyclocraft and its subsystems; options available for the final aircraft design process; performance, geometry, weights and power data; logistics and considerations relating to cyclocraft operations in wetlands.

  14. Evaluation of using cyclocranes to support drilling and production of oil and gas in wetland areas. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, Second quarter, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggington, W.J.


    The planned program falls under wetlands area research related to drilling, production, and transportation of oil and gas resources. Specifically the planned program addresses an evaluation of using cyclocraft to transport drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas. The cyclocraft is a proven hybrid aircraft that utilizes aerostatic and aerodynamic lift. This type of aircraft has considerable payload capacity, VTOL capability, high controllability, low operating cost, low downwash and high safety. The benefits of using a cyclocraft to transport drill rigs and materials over environmentally-sensitive surfaces would be significant. The cyclocraft has considerable cost and operational advantages over the helicopter. The major activity during the second quarter of 1993 was focussed on completion of Task 4, Preliminary Design. The selected design has been designated H.1 Cyclocraft by MRC. Also during the report period, Task 6, Ground Support, was completed and a report containing the results was submitted to DOE. This task addressed the complete H.1 Cyclocraft system, i.e. it included the need personnel, facilities and equipment to support cyclocraft operations in wetland areas.

  15. 14 CFR 1216.205 - Procedures for evaluating NASA actions impacting floodplains and wetlands. (United States)


    ... shall be made at the earliest practicable stage of advance planning, such as during facilities master... step in the evaluation process and will normally be accomplished using only the appropriate Single... other adverse impacts. (i) The basic criteria to be used in determining the impacts of the various...

  16. A novel bioreactor to simulate urinary bladder mechanical properties and compliance for bladder functional tissue engineering. (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Li, Dao-bing; Xu, Feng; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Yu-chun; Li, Hong; Wang, Kun-jie


    Bioreactors are pivotal tools for generating mechanical stimulation in functional tissue engineering study. This study aimed to create a bioreactor that can simulate urinary bladder mechanical properties, and to investigate the effects of a mechanically stimulated culture on urothelial cells and bladder smooth muscle cells. We designed a bioreactor to simulate the mechanical properties of bladder. A pressure-record system was used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the bioreactor by measuring the pressure in culture chambers. To test the biocompatibility of the bioreactor, viabilities of urothelial cells and smooth muscle cells cultured in the bioreactor under static and mechanically changed conditions were measured after 7-day culture. To evaluate the effect of mechanical stimulations on the vital cells, urethral cells and smooth muscle cells were cultured in the simulated mechanical conditions. After that, the viability and the distribution pattern of the cells were observed and compared with cells cultured in non-mechanical stimulated condition. The bioreactor system successfully generated waveforms similar to the intended programmed model while maintaining a cell-seeded elastic membrane between the chambers. There were no differences between viabilities of urothelial cells ((91.90 ± 1.22)% vs. (93.14 ± 1.78)%, P > 0.05) and bladder smooth muscle cells ((93.41 ± 1.49)% vs. (92.61 ± 1.34)%, P > 0.05). The viability of cells and tissue structure observation after cultured in simulated condition showed that mechanical stimulation was the only factor affected cells in the bioreactor and improved the arrangement of cells on silastic membrane. This bioreactor can effectively simulate the physiological and mechanical properties of the bladder. Mechanical stimulation is the only factor that affected the viability of cells cultured in the bioreactor. The bioreactor can change the growth behavior of urothelial cells and bladder smooth muscle cells, resulting in

  17. Effect of sudden addition of PCE and bioreactor coupling to ZVI filters on performance of fluidized bed bioreactors operated in simultaneous electron acceptor modes. (United States)

    Moreno-Medina, C U; Poggi-Varaldo, Hector M; Breton-Deval, L; Rinderknecht-Seijas, N


    The present work evaluated the effects of (i) feeding a water contaminated with 80 mg/L PCE to bioreactors seeded with inoculum not acclimated to PCE, (ii) coupling ZVI side filters to bioreactors, and (iii) working in different biological regimes, i.e., simultaneous methanogenic aeration and simultaneous methanogenic-denitrifying regimes, on fluidized bed bioreactor performance. Simultaneous electron acceptors refer to the simultaneous presence of two compounds operating as final electron acceptors in the biological respiratory chain (e.g., use of either O 2 or NO 3 - in combination with a methanogenic environment) in a bioreactor or environmental niche. Four lab-scale, mesophilic, fluidized bed bioreactors (bioreactors) were implemented. Two bioreactors were operated as simultaneous methanogenic-denitrifying (MD) units, whereas the other two were operated in partially aerated methanogenic (PAM) mode. In the first period, all bioreactors received a wastewater with 1 g chemical oxygen demand of methanol per liter (COD-methanol/L). In a second period, all the bioreactors received the wastewater plus 80 mg perchloroethylene (PCE)/L; at the start of period 2, one MD and one PAM were coupled to side sand-zero valent iron filters (ZVI). All bioreactors were inoculated with a microbial consortium not acclimated to PCE. In this work, the performance of the full period 1 and the first 60 days of period 2 is reported and discussed. The COD removal efficiency and the nitrate removal efficiency of the bioreactors essentially did not change between period 1 and period 2, i.e., upon PCE addition. On the contrary, specific methanogenic activity in PAM bioreactors (both with and without coupled ZVI filter) significantly decreased. This was consistent with a sharp fall of methane productivity in those bioreactors in period 2. During period 2, PCE removals in the range 86 to 97 % were generally observed; the highest removal corresponded to PAM bioreactors along with the

  18. "Wetlands: Water Living Filters?",


    Dordio, Ana; Palace, A. J.; Pinto, Ana Paula


    Human societies have indirectly used natural wetlands as wastewater discharge sites for many centuries. Observations of the wastewater depuration capacity of natural wetlands have led to a greater understanding of the potential of these ecosystems for pollutant assimilation and have stimulated the development of artificial wetlands systems for treatment of wastewaters from a variety of sources. Constructed wetlands, in contrast to natural wetlands, are human-made systems that are designed, bu...

  19. Evaluation of wastewater nitrogen transformation in a natural wetland (Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia) using dual-isotope analysis of nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Masayuki; Takemon, Yasuhiro; Makabe, Akiko; Yoshimizu, Chikage; Kohzu, Ayato; Ohte, Nobuhito; Tumurskh, Dashzeveg; Tayasu, Ichiro; Yoshida, Naohiro; Nagata, Toshi


    The Tuul River, which provides water for the daily needs of many residents of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, has been increasingly polluted by wastewater from the city's sewage treatment plant. Information on water movement and the transformation of water-borne materials is required to alleviate the deterioration of water quality. We conducted a synoptic survey of general water movement, water quality including inorganic nitrogen concentrations, and isotopic composition of nitrogen (δ 15 N-NO 3 - , δ 18 O-NO 3 - , and δ 15 N-NH 4 + ) and water (δ 18 O-H 2 O) in a wetland area that receives wastewater before it enters the Tuul River. We sampled surface water, groundwater, and spring water along the two major water routes in the wetland that flow from the drain of the sewage treatment plant to the Tuul River: a continuous tributary and a discontinuous tributary. The continuous tributary had high ammonium (NH 4 + ) concentrations and nearly stable δ 15 N-NH 4 + , δ 15 N-NO 3 - , and δ 18 O-NO 3 - concentrations throughout its length, indicating that nitrogen transformation (i.e., nitrification and denitrification) during transit was small. In contrast, NH 4 + concentrations decreased along the discontinuous tributary and nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentrations were low at many points. Values of δ 15 N-NH 4 + , δ 15 N-NO 3 - , and δ 18 O-NO 3 - increased with flow along the discontinuous route. Our results indicate that nitrification and denitrification contribute to nitrogen removal in the wetland area along the discontinuous tributary with slow water transport. Differences in hydrological pathways and the velocity of wastewater transport through the wetland area greatly affect the extent of nitrogen removal. - Research Highlights: → Dual-isotope analysis of nitrate was used to assess wastewater nitrogen status. → Wetland that receives the wastewater contributed to nitrogen removal. → Differences in hydrological pathways greatly affect the extent of nitrogen removal.

  20. Anaerobic membrane bioreactor under extreme conditions (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz Sierra, J.D.; De Kreuk, M.K.; Spanjers, H.; Van Lier, J.B.


    Membrane bioreactors ensure biomass retention by the application of micro or ultrafiltration processes. This allows operation at high sludge concentrations. Previous studies have shown that anaerobic membrane bioreactors is an efficient way to retain specialist microorganisms for treating

  1. Evaluation of sulfate reduction at experimentally induced mixing interfaces using small-scale push-pull tests in an aquifer-wetland system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneeshaw, Tara A.; McGuire, Jennifer T.; Smith, Erik W.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.


    This paper presents small-scale push-pull tests designed to evaluate the kinetic controls on SO 4 2- reduction in situ at mixing interfaces between a wetland and aquifer impacted by landfill leachate at the Norman Landfill research site, Norman, OK. Quantifying the rates of redox reactions initiated at interfaces is of great interest because interfaces have been shown to be zones of increased biogeochemical transformations and thus may play an important role in natural attenuation. To mimic the aquifer-wetland interface and evaluate reaction rates, SO 4 2- -rich anaerobic aquifer water (∼100mg/LSO 4 2- ) was introduced into SO 4 2- -depleted wetland porewater via push-pull tests. Results showed SO 4 2- reduction was stimulated by the mixing of these waters and first-order rate coefficients were comparable to those measured in other push-pull studies. However, rate data were complex involving either multiple first-order rate coefficients or a more complex rate order. In addition, a lag phase was observed prior to SO 4 2- reduction that persisted until the mixing interface between test solution and native water was recovered, irrespective of temporal and spatial constraints. The lag phase was not eliminated by the addition of electron donor (acetate) to the injected test solution. Subsequent push-pull tests designed to elucidate the nature of the lag phase support the importance of the mixing interface in controlling terminal electron accepting processes. These data suggest redox reactions may occur rapidly at the mixing interface between injected and native waters but not in the injected bulk water mass. Under these circumstances, push-pull test data should be evaluated to ensure the apparent rate is actually a function of time and that complexities in rate data be considered

  2. Wonderful Wetlands: An Environmental Education Curriculum Guide for Wetlands. (United States)

    King County Parks Div., Redmond, WA.

    This curriculum guide was designed to give teachers, students, and society a better understanding of wetlands in the hope that they learn why wetlands should be valued and preserved. It explores what is meant by wetlands, functions and values of wetlands, wetland activities, and wetland offerings which benefit animal and plant life, recreation,…

  3. Determination of the health of Lunyangwa wetland using Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Msilimba, Golden


    Wetlands are major sources of various ecological goods and services including storage and distribution of water in space and time which help in ensuring the availability of surface and groundwater throughout the year. However, there still remains a poor understanding of the range of values of water quality parameters that occur in wetlands either in its impacted state or under natural conditions. It was thus imperative to determine the health of Lunyangwa wetland in Mzuzu City in Malawi in order to classify and determine its state. This study used the Escom's Wetland Classification and Risk Assessment Index Field Guide to determine the overall characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland and to calculate its combined Wetland Index Score. Data on site information, field measurements (i.e. EC, pH, temperature and DO) and physical characteristics of Lunyangwa wetland were collected from March, 2013 to February, 2014. Results indicate that Lunyangwa wetland is a largely open water zone which is dominated by free-floating plants on the water surface, beneath surface and emergent in substrate. Furthermore, the wetland can be classified as of a C ecological category (score = 60-80%), which has been moderately modified with moderate risks of the losses and changes occurring in the natural habitat and biota in the wetland. It was observed that the moderate modification and risk were largely because of industrial, agricultural, urban/social catchment stressors on the wetland. This study recommends an integrated and sustainable management approach coupled with continuous monitoring and evaluation of the health of the wetland for all stakeholders in Mzuzu City. This would help to maintain the health of Lunyangwa wetland which is currently at risk of being further modified due to the identified catchment stressors.

  4. Evaluation of Organic Matter Removal Efficiency and Microbial Enzyme Activity in Vertical-Flow Constructed Wetland Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoling Xu


    Full Text Available In this study, enzyme activities and their relationships to organics purification were investigated in three different vertical flow constructed wetlands, namely system A (planting Pennisetum sinese Roxb, system B (planting Pennisetum purpureum Schum., and system C (no plant. These three wetland systems were fed with simulation domestic sewage at an influent flow rate of 20 cm/day. The results showed that the final removal efficiency of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD in these three systems was 87%, 85% and 63%, respectively. Planting Pennisetum sinese Roxb and Pennisetum purpureum Schum. could improve the amount of adsorption and interception for organic matter in the substrate, and the amount of interception of organic matter in planting the Pennisetum sinese Roxb system was higher than that in planting the Pennisetum purpureum Schum. system. The activities of enzymes (urease, phosphatase and cellulase in systems A and B were higher than those in system C, and these enzyme activities in the top layer (0–30 cm were significantly higher than in the other layers. The correlations between the activities of urease, phosphatase, cellulase and the COD removal rates were R = 0.815, 0.961 and 0.973, respectively. It suggests that using Pennisetum sinese Roxb and Pennisetum purpureum Schum. as wetland plants could promote organics removal, and the activities of urease, phosphatase and cellulase in those three systems were important indicators for COD purification from wastewater. In addition, 0–30 cm was the main function layer. This study could provide a theoretical basis for COD removal in the wetland system and supply new plant materials for selection.

  5. Evaluation of seasonal changes in methane flux in a wetland ecosystem using the Closed Geosphere Experiment Facility (United States)

    Suzuki, S.; Inubushi, K.; Yokozawa, M.; Hara, T.; Nishidate, K.; Tsuga, S.; Tako, Y.; Nakamura, Y.


    To estimate CH4 emission from a wetland ecosystem to the atmosphere, seasonal change in CH4 flux was measured continuously in the Closed Geosphere Experiment Facility (CGEF). Plant-mediated transport is one of the important pathways for CH4 emission from Phragmites australis-dominated vegetation because most CH4 emission occurs through P. australis plant. The CGEF is equipped with a Geosphere Module (GM) and a Geosphere Material Circulation (GMC) system. The size of the GM is 5.8 m Ã- 8.7 m in ground area with an average height of 11.9 m, including the soil depth of 3.1 m. A wetland ecosystem dominated by P. australis was introduced into the GM. The CGEF can control air temperature and CO2 concentration in the GM automatically. Hourly CH4 flux from the wetland ecosystem can be calculated easily by measuring continuously the changes in CH4 concentration in air, air temperature and pressure in the GM. The method showed that monthly CH4 flux varied from 0.39 to 1.11 g C m-2 month-1 from April to November and the CH4 emission for the plant growing season (eight months) was 5.64 g C m-2. The CGEF has an advantage in studying total CH4 emission from soil to the atmosphere through plant-mediated transport, diffusion and ebullition because of the large size of the GM.

  6. Syngas fermentation to biofuel: evaluation of carbon monoxide mass transfer and analytical modeling using a composite hollow fiber (CHF) membrane bioreactor. (United States)

    Munasinghe, Pradeep Chaminda; Khanal, Samir Kumar


    In this study, the volumetric mass transfer coefficients (Ka) for CO were examined in a composite hollow fiber (CHF) membrane bioreactor. The mass transfer experiments were conducted at various inlet gas pressures (from 5 to 30 psig (34.5-206.8 kPa(g))) and recirculation flow rates (300, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 mL/min) through CHF module. The highest Ka value of 946.6 1/h was observed at a recirculation rate of 1500 mL/min and at an inlet gas pressure of 30 psig(206.8 kPa(g)). The findings of this study confirm that the use of CHF membranes is effective and improves the efficiency CO mass transfer into the aqueous phase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioreactor technology for herbal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobri Hussein; Rusli Ibrahim; Abdul Rahim Harun; Azhar Mohamad; Hawa Abdul Aziz; Wan Nazirah Wan Ali


    Plants have been an important source of medicine for thousands of years and herbs are hot currency in the world today. During the last decade, popularity of alternative medicine increased significantly worldwide with noticeable trend. This in turn accelerated the global trade of herbal raw materials and herbal products and created greater scope for Asian countries that possess the major supply of herbal raw materials within their highly diversified tropical rain forest. As such, advanced bioreactor culture system possesses a great potential for large scale production than the traditional tissue culture system. Bioreactor cultures have many advantages over conventional cultures. Plant cells in bioreactors can grow fast and vigorously in shorter period as the culture conditions in bioreactor such as temperature, pH, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients can be optimised by on-line manipulation. Nutrient uptake can also be enhanced by continuous medium circulation, which ultimately increased cell proliferation rate. Consequently, production period and cost are substantially reduced, product quality is controlled and standardized as well as free of pesticide contamination and production of raw material can be conducted all year round. Taking all these into consideration, current research efforts were focused on varying several parameters such as inoculation density, air flow, medium formulation, PGRs etc. for increased production of cell and organ cultures of high market demand herbal and medicinal plants, particularly Eurycoma longifolia, Panax ginseng and Labisia pumila. At present, the production of cell and organ culture of these medicinal plants have also been applied in airlift bioreactor with different working volumes. It is hope that the investment of research efforts into this advanced bioreactor technology will open up a bright future for the modernization of agriculture and commercialisation of natural product. (author)

  8. Following an Optimal Batch Bioreactor Operations Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Virgen-Ortíz, J.J.


    The problem of following an optimal batch operation model for a bioreactor in the presence of uncertainties is studied. The optimal batch bioreactor operation model (OBBOM) refers to the bioreactor trajectory for nominal cultivation to be optimal. A multiple-variable dynamic optimization of fed...... as the master system which includes the optimal cultivation trajectory for the feed flow rate and the substrate concentration. The “real” bioreactor, the one with unknown dynamics and perturbations, is considered as the slave system. Finally, the controller is designed such that the real bioreactor...

  9. Application of semifluidized bed bioreactor as novel bioreactor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conventional bioreactors such as pond digester, anaerobic filtration, up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), up-flow anaerobic sludge fixed-film (UASFF), continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), anaerobic contact digestion and fluidized bed, used over the past decades are largely operated anaerobically. They have ...

  10. Why are wetlands important? (United States)

    Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, comparable to rain forests and coral reefs. An immense variety of species of microbes, plants, insects, amphibians, reptiles, birds, fish, and mammals can be part of a wetland ecosystem.

  11. Percent Wetland Cover (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  12. Percent Wetland Cover (Future) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  13. VSWI Wetlands Advisory Layer (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset represents the DEC Wetlands Program's Advisory layer. This layer makes the most up-to-date, non-jurisdictional, wetlands mapping avaiable to the public...

  14. The road to higher permanence and biodiversity in exurban wetlands. (United States)

    Urban, Mark C; Roehm, Robert


    Exurban areas are expanding throughout the world, yet their effects on local biodiversity remain poorly understood. Wetlands, in particular, face ongoing and substantial threats from exurban development. We predicted that exurbanization would reduce the diversity of wetland amphibian and invertebrate communities and that more spatially aggregated residential development would leave more undisturbed natural land, thereby promoting greater local diversity. Using structural equation models, we tested a series of predictions about the direct and indirect pathways by which exurbanization extent, spatial pattern, and wetland characteristics might affect diversity patterns in 38 wetlands recorded during a growing season. We used redundancy, indicator species, and nested community analyses to evaluate how exurbanization affected species composition. In contrast to expectations, we found higher diversity in exurban wetlands. We also found that housing aggregation did not significantly affect diversity. Exurbanization affected biodiversity indirectly by increasing roads and development, which promoted permanent wetlands with less canopy cover and more aquatic vegetation. These pond characteristics supported greater diversity. However, exurbanization was associated with fewer temporary wetlands and fewer of the species that depend on these habitats. Moreover, the best indicator species for an exurban wetland was the ram's head snail, a common disease vector in disturbed ponds. Overall, results suggest that exurbanization is homogenizing wetlands into more permanent water bodies. These more permanent, exurban ponds support higher overall animal diversity, but exclude temporary wetland specialists. Conserving the full assemblage of wetland species in expanding exurban regions throughout the world will require protecting and creating temporary wetlands.

  15. Development of soil properties and nitrogen cycling in created wetlands (United States)

    Wolf, K.L.; Ahn, C.; Noe, G.B.


    Mitigation wetlands are expected to compensate for the loss of structure and function of natural wetlands within 5–10 years of creation; however, the age-based trajectory of development in wetlands is unclear. This study investigates the development of coupled structural (soil properties) and functional (nitrogen cycling) attributes of created non-tidal freshwater wetlands of varying ages and natural reference wetlands to determine if created wetlands attain the water quality ecosystem service of nitrogen (N) cycling over time. Soil condition component and its constituents, gravimetric soil moisture, total organic carbon, and total N, generally increased and bulk density decreased with age of the created wetland. Nitrogen flux rates demonstrated age-related patterns, with younger created wetlands having lower rates of ammonification, nitrification, nitrogen mineralization, and denitrification potential than older created wetlands and natural reference wetlands. Results show a clear age-related trajectory in coupled soil condition and N cycle development, which is essential for water quality improvement. These findings can be used to enhance N processing in created wetlands and inform the regulatory evaluation of mitigation wetlands by identifying structural indicators of N processing performance.

  16. WRF-Chem simulations in the Amazon region during wet and dry season transitions: evaluation of methane models and wetland inundation maps (United States)

    Beck, V.; Gerbig, C.; Koch, T.; Bela, M. M.; Longo, K. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Kaplan, J. O.; Prigent, C.; Bergamaschi, P.; Heimann, M.


    The Amazon region, being a large source of methane (CH4), contributes significantly to the global annual CH4 budget. For the first time, a forward and inverse modelling framework on regional scale for the purpose of assessing the CH4 budget of the Amazon region is implemented. Here, we present forward simulations of CH4 as part of the forward and inverse modelling framework based on a modified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry that allows for passive tracer transport of CH4, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide (WRF-GHG), in combination with two different process-based bottom-up models of CH4 emissions from anaerobic microbial production in wetlands and additional datasets prescribing CH4 emissions from other sources such as biomass burning, termites, or other anthropogenic emissions. We compare WRF-GHG simulations on 10 km horizontal resolution to flask and continuous CH4 observations obtained during two airborne measurement campaigns within the Balanço Atmosférico Regional de Carbono na Amazônia (BARCA) project in November 2008 and May 2009. In addition, three different wetland inundation maps, prescribing the fraction of inundated area per grid cell, are evaluated. Our results indicate that the wetland inundation maps based on remote-sensing data represent the observations best except for the northern part of the Amazon basin and the Manaus area. WRF-GHG was able to represent the observed CH4 mixing ratios best at days with less convective activity. After adjusting wetland emissions to match the averaged observed mixing ratios of flights with little convective activity, the monthly CH4 budget for the Amazon basin obtained from four different simulations ranges from 1.5 to 4.8 Tg for November 2008 and from 1.3 to 5.5 Tg for May 2009. This corresponds to an average CH4 flux of 9-31 mg m-2 d-1 for November 2008 and 8-36 mg m-2 d-1 for May 2009.

  17. Design and maintenance of subsurface gravel wetlands. (United States)


    This report summarizes the University of New Hampshire Stormwater Center (UNHSC) evaluation of : a review of Subsurface Gravel Wetlands design and specifications used by the New Hampshire : Department of Transportation (NHDOT or Department). : Subsur...

  18. Thinking beyond the Bioreactor Box: Incorporating Stream Ecology into Edge-of-Field Nitrate Management. (United States)

    Goeller, Brandon C; Febria, Catherine M; Harding, Jon S; McIntosh, Angus R


    Around the world, artificially drained agricultural lands are significant sources of reactive nitrogen to stream ecosystems, creating substantial stream health problems. One management strategy is the deployment of denitrification enhancement tools. Here, we evaluate the factors affecting the potential of denitrifying bioreactors to improve stream health and ecosystem services. The performance of bioreactors and the structure and functioning of stream biotic communities are linked by environmental parameters like dissolved oxygen and nitrate-nitrogen concentrations, dissolved organic carbon availability, flow and temperature regimes, and fine sediment accumulations. However, evidence of bioreactors' ability to improve waterway health and ecosystem services is lacking. To improve the potential of bioreactors to enhance desirable stream ecosystem functioning, future assessments of field-scale bioreactors should evaluate the influences of bioreactor performance on ecological indicators such as primary production, organic matter processing, stream metabolism, and invertebrate and fish assemblage structure and function. These stream health impact assessments should be conducted at ecologically relevant spatial and temporal scales. Bioreactors have great potential to make significant contributions to improving water quality, stream health, and ecosystem services if they are tailored to site-specific conditions and implemented strategically with land-based and stream-based mitigation tools within watersheds. This will involve combining economic, logistical, and ecological information in their implementation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Evaluation of using cyclocranes to support drilling and production of oil and gas in wetland areas. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, Third quarter, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggington, W.J.


    The planned program falls under wetlands area research related to drilling, production, and transportation of oil and gas resources. Specifically the planned program addresses an evaluation of using cyclocraft to transport drill rigs, mud, pipes and other materials and equipment in a cost effective and environmentally safe manner to support oil and gas drilling and production operations in wetland areas. The cyclocraft is a proven hybrid aircraft that utilizes aerostatic and aerodynamic lift. This type of aircraft has considerable payload capacity, VTOL capability, high controllability, low operating cost, low downwash and high safety. The benefits of using a cyclocraft to transport drill rigs and materials over environmentally-sensitive surfaces would be significant. The cyclocraft has considerable cost and operational advantages over the helicopter. In 1992, Task 1, Environmental Considerations, and Task 2, Transport Requirements, were completed. In the first two quarters of 1993, Task 3, Parametric Analysis, Task 4, Preliminary Design, and Task 6, Ground Support, were completed. Individual reports containing results obtained from each of these tasks were submitted to DOE. In addition, through June 30, 1993, a Subscale Test Plan was prepared under Task 5, Subscale Tests, and work was initiated on Task 7, Environmental Impacts, Task 8, Development Plan, Task 9, Operating Costs, and Task 10, Technology Transfer.

  20. Evaluation of the seasonal performance of a water reclamation pond-constructed wetland system for removing emerging contaminants. (United States)

    Matamoros, Víctor; Salvadó, Victòria


    The capacity of a full-scale reclamation pond-constructed wetland (CW) system to eliminate 27 emerging contaminants (i.e. pharmaceuticals, sunscreen compounds, fragrances, antiseptics, fire retardants, pesticides, and plasticizers) and the seasonal occurrence of these contaminants is studied. The compounds with the highest concentrations in the secondary effluent are diclofenac, caffeine, ketoprofen, and carbamazepine. The results show that the constructed wetland (61%) removes emerging contaminants significantly more efficiently than the pond (51%), presumably due to the presence of plants (Phragmites and Thypa) as well as the higher hydraulic residence time (HRT) in the CW. A greater seasonal trend to the efficient removal of these compounds is observed in the pond than in the CW. The overall mass removal efficiency of each individual compound ranged from 27% to 93% (71% on average), which is comparable to reported data in advanced treatments (photo-fenton and membrane filtration). The seasonal average content of emerging contaminants in the river water (2488 ng L(-1)) next to the water reclamation plant is found to be higher than the content in the final reclaimed water (1490 ng L(-1)), suggesting that the chemical quality of the reclaimed water is better than available surface waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating trade-offs of a large, infrequent sediment diversion for restoration of a forested wetland in the Mississippi delta (United States)

    Rutherford, Jeffrey S.; Day, John W.; D'Elia, Christopher F.; Wiegman, Adrian R. H.; Willson, Clinton S.; Caffey, Rex H.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Lane, Robert R.; Batker, David


    Flood control levees cut off the supply of sediment to Mississippi delta coastal wetlands, and contribute to putting much of the delta on a trajectory for continued submergence in the 21st century. River sediment diversions have been proposed as a method to provide a sustainable supply of sediment to the delta, but the frequency and magnitude of these diversions needs further assessment. Previous studies suggested operating river sediment diversions based on the size and frequency of natural crevasse events, which were large (>5000 m3/s) and infrequent (active builds on these previous works by quantitatively assessing tradeoffs for a large, infrequent diversion into the forested wetlands of the Maurepas swamp. Land building was estimated for several diversion sizes and years inactive using a delta progradation model. A benefit-cost analysis (BCA) combined model land building results with an ecosystem service valuation and estimated costs. Results demonstrated that land building is proportional to diversion size and inversely proportional to years inactive. Because benefits were assumed to scale linearly with land gain, and costs increase with diversion size, there are disadvantages to operating large diversions less often, compared to smaller diversions more often for the immediate project area. Literature suggests that infrequent operation would provide additional gains (through increased benefits and reduced ecosystem service costs) to the broader Lake Maurepas-Pontchartrain-Borgne ecosystem. Future research should incorporate these additional effects into this type of BCA, to see if this changes the outcome for large, infrequent diversions.

  2. Evaluation and characterization during the anaerobic digestion of high-strength kitchen waste slurry via a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor. (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaolan; Huang, Zhenxing; Ruan, Wenquan; Yan, Lintao; Miao, Hengfeng; Ren, Hongyan; Zhao, Mingxing


    The anaerobic digestion of high-strength kitchen waste slurry via a pilot-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) was investigated at two different operational modes, including no sludge discharge and daily sludge discharge of 20 L. The AnMBR provided excellent and reliable permeate quality with high COD removal efficiencies over 99%. The obvious accumulations of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and Ca(2+) were found in the anaerobic digester by precipitation and agglomeration. Though the physicochemical process contributed to attenuating the free LCFAs toxicity on anaerobic digestion, the digestion efficiency was partly influenced for the low bioavailability of those precipitates. Moreover, higher organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.8 kg COD/(m(3) d) and digestion efficiency of 78% were achieved as the AnMBR was stably operated with sludge discharge, where the membrane fouling propensity was also alleviated, indicating the crucial significance of SRT control on the treatment of high-strength kitchen waste slurry via AnMBRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of energy-distribution of a hybrid microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) for cost-effective wastewater treatment. (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Bi, Fanghua; Ngo, Huu-Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Jia, Hui; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhang, Xinbo


    A low-cost hybrid system integrating a membrane-less microbial fuel cell (MFC) with an anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor (MBR) was studied for fouling mitigation. The appended electric field in the MBR was supplied by the MFC with continuous flow. Supernatant from an anaerobic reactor with low dissolved oxygen was used as feed to the MFC in order to enhance its performance compared with that fed with synthetic wastewater. The voltage output of MFC maintained at 0.52±0.02V with 1000Ω resister. The electric field intensity could reach to 0.114Vcm(-1). Compared with the conventional MBR (CMBR), the contents rather than the components of foulants on the cake layer of fouled MFC-MBR system was significantly reduced. Although only 0.5% of the feed COD was translated into electricity and applied to MBR, the hybrid system showed great feasibility without additional consumption but extracting energy from waste water and significantly enhancing the membrane filterability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioreactor design and optimization – a future perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist


    Bioreactor design and optimisation are essential in translating the experience gained from lab or pilot scale experiments to efficient production processes in industrial scale bioreactors. This article gives a future perspective on bioreactor design and optimisation, where it is foreseen...

  5. Freshwater Wetlands: A Citizen's Primer. (United States)

    Catskill Center for Conservation and Development, Inc., Hobart, NY.

    The purpose of this "primer" for the general public is to describe the general characteristics of wetlands and how wetland alteration adversely affects the well-being of humans. Particular emphasis is placed on wetlands in New York State and the northeast. Topics discussed include wetland values, destruction of wetlands, the costs of…

  6. Quantitative analysis of microbial biomass yield in aerobic bioreactor. (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu; Isoda, Satoru


    We have studied the integrated model of reaction rate equations with thermal energy balance in aerobic bioreactor for food waste decomposition and showed that the integrated model has the capability both of monitoring microbial activity in real time and of analyzing biodegradation kinetics and thermal-hydrodynamic properties. On the other hand, concerning microbial metabolism, it was known that balancing catabolic reactions with anabolic reactions in terms of energy and electron flow provides stoichiometric metabolic reactions and enables the estimation of microbial biomass yield (stoichiometric reaction model). We have studied a method for estimating real-time microbial biomass yield in the bioreactor during food waste decomposition by combining the integrated model with the stoichiometric reaction model. As a result, it was found that the time course of microbial biomass yield in the bioreactor during decomposition can be evaluated using the operational data of the bioreactor (weight of input food waste and bed temperature) by the combined model. The combined model can be applied to manage a food waste decomposition not only for controlling system operation to keep microbial activity stable, but also for producing value-added products such as compost on optimum condition. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts on Wetland Vegetation in the Dunhuang Yangguan National Nature Reserve in Northwest China Using Landsat Derived NDVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Pan


    Full Text Available Based on 541 Landsat images between 1988 and 2016, the normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVIs of the wetland vegetation at Xitugou (XTG and Wowachi (WWC inside the Dunhuang Yangguan National Nature Reserve (YNNR in northwest China were calculated for assessing the impacts of climate change on wetland vegetation in the YNNR. It was found that the wetland vegetation at the XTG and WWC had both shown a significant increasing trend in the past 20–30 years and the increase in both the annual mean temperature and annual peak snow depth over the Altun Mountains led to the increase of the wetland vegetation. The influence of the local precipitation on the XTG wetland vegetation was greater than on the WWC wetland vegetation, which demonstrates that in extremely arid regions, the major constraint to the wetland vegetation is the availability of water in soils, which is greatly related to the surface water detention and discharge of groundwater. At both XTG and WWC, the snowmelt from the Altun Mountains is the main contributor to the groundwater discharge, while the local precipitation plays a lesser role in influencing the wetland vegetation at the WWC than at the XTG, because the wetland vegetation grows on a relatively flat terrain at the WWC, while it grows on a stream channel at the XTG.

  8. [Spatiotemporal dynamic fuzzy evaluation of wetland environmental pollution risk in Dayang estuary of Liaoning Province, Northeast China based on remote sensing]. (United States)

    Sun, Yong-Guang; Zhao, Dong-Zhi; Zhang, Feng-Shou; Wei, Bao-Quan; Chu, Jia-Lan; Su, Xiu


    Based on the aerial image data of Dayang estuary in 2008, and by virtue of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) , remote sensing technology, and GIS spatial analysis, a spatiotemporal evaluation was made on the comprehensive level of wetland environmental pollution risk in Dayang estuary, with the impacts of typical human activities on the dynamic variation of this comprehensive level discussed. From 1958 to 2008, the comprehensive level of the environmental pollution risk in study area presented an increasing trend. Spatially, this comprehensive level declined from land to ocean, and showed a zonal distribution. Tourism development activities unlikely led to the increase of the comprehensive level, while human inhabitation, transportation, and aquaculture would exacerbate the risk of environmental pollution. This study could provide reference for the sea area use planning, ecological function planning, and pollutants control of estuary region.

  9. Treatment of cosmetic effluent in different configurations of ceramic UF membrane based bioreactor: Toxicity evaluation of the untreated and treated wastewater using catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis). (United States)

    Banerjee, Priya; Dey, Tanmoy Kumar; Sarkar, Sandeep; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja


    Extensive usage of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and their discharge through domestic sewage have been recently recognized as a new generation environmental concern which deserves more scientific attention over the classical environmental pollutants. The major issues of this type of effluent addressed in this study were its colour, triclosan and anionic surfactant (SDS) content. Samples of cosmetic effluent were collected from different beauty treatment salons and spas in and around Kolkata, India and treated in bioreactors containing a bacterial consortium isolated from activated sludge samples collected from a common effluent treatment plant. Members of the consortium were isolated and identified as Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Salmonella sp. and Comamonas sp. The biotreated effluent was subjected to ultrafiltration (UF) involving indigenously prepared ceramic membranes in both side-stream and submerged mode. Analysis of the MBR treated effluent revealed 99.22%, 98.56% and 99.74% removal of colour, triclosan and surfactant respectively. Investigation of probable acute and chronic cyto-genotoxic potential of the untreated and treated effluents along with their possible participation in triggering oxidative stress was carried out with Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). Comet formation recorded in both liver and gill cells and micronucleus count in peripheral erythrocytes of individuals exposed to untreated effluent increased with duration of exposure and was significantly higher than those treated with UF permeates which in turn neared control levels. Results of this study revealed successful application of the isolated bacterial consortium in MBR process for efficient detoxification of cosmetic effluent thereby conferring the same suitable for discharge and/or reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Review of nonconventional bioreactor technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C.E.; Mcllwain, M.E.


    Biotechnology will significantly affect many industrial sectors in the future. Industrial sectors that will be affected include pharmaceutical, chemical, fuel, agricultural, and environmental remediation. Future research is needed to improve bioprocessing efficiency and cost-effectiveness in order to compete with traditional technologies. This report describes recent advances in bioprocess technologies and bioreactor designs and relates them to problems encountered in many industrial bioprocessing operations. The primary focus is directed towards increasing gas and vapor transfer for enhanced bioprocess kinetics as well as unproved by-product separation and removal. The advantages and disadvantages of various conceptual designs such as hollow-fiber, gas-phase, hyperbaric/hypobaric, and electrochemical bioreactors are also discussed. Specific applications that are intended for improved bioprocesses include coal desulfurization, coal liquefaction, soil bioremediation, biomass conversion to marketable chemicals, biomining, and biohydrometallurgy as well as bioprocessing of gases and vapors.

  11. Education and training of future wetland scientists and managers (United States)

    Wilcox, D.A.


    Wetland science emerged as a distinct discipline in the 1980s. In response, courses addressing various aspects of wetland science and management were developed by universities, government agencies, and private firms. Professional certification of wetland scientists began in the mid-1990s to provide confirmation of the quality of education and experience of persons involved in regulatory, management, restoration/construction, and research involving wetland resources. The education requirements for certification and the need for persons with specific wetland training to fill an increasing number of wetland-related positions identified a critical need to develop curriculum guidelines for an undergraduate wetland science and management major for potential accreditation by the Society of Wetland Scientists. That proposed major contains options directed toward either wetland science or management. Both options include required basic courses to meet the general education requirements of many universities, required upper-level specialized courses that address critical aspects of physical and biological sciences applicable to wetlands, and a minimum of four additional upper-level specialized courses that can be used to tailor a degree to students' interests. The program would be administered by an independent review board that would develop guidelines and evaluate university applications for accreditation. Students that complete the required coursework will fulfill the education requirements for professional wetland scientist certification and possess qualifications that make them attractive candidates for graduate school or entry-level positions in wetland science or management. Universities that offer this degree program could gain an advantage in recruiting highly qualified students with an interest in natural resources. Alternative means of educating established wetland scientists are likewise important, especially to provide specialized knowledge and experience or

  12. The Legal Structure of Taiwan’s Wetland Conservation Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Yuan Su


    Full Text Available In July of 2013, Taiwan passed its Wetland Conservation Act and will begin the implementation of the Act on 2 February 2015. With this Act, Taiwan has become the second Asian country to have specific legislation on wetland conservation and protection. This new law enables the society to achieve sustainable utilization on wetland ecological services. The core concepts of the Wetland Conversation Act include biological diversity conservation and wise use of wetland resources. Special political circumstances prevent Taiwan from registering its wetlands as a conservation priority under the Ramsar Convention. This new law allows the government to evaluate and assign a specific area as a “Wetland of Importance.” Under this status, any development activities within the designated area shall be prohibited unless the developer prepares a usage plan for review. The usage plan and the original usage of the natural resources within the wetland area shall also follow the “wise use” principle to protect the wetland and biological service system. However, this new law does not provide clear separation between the two different “wise use” standards. If the development is deemed necessary, new law provides compensation mitigation measures to extend the surface of the wetland and provides additional habitats for various species. Wetland conservation and management rely heavily on systematic research and fundamental data regarding Taiwan’s wetlands. Determining how to adopt these scientific methodologies and transfer them into enforceable mechanisms is a sizeable challenge for both biologists and lawyers as the Wetland Conservation Act creates many legal norms without clarifying definitions. This article will review the current wetland regulations from the legal perspective and provide suggestions for enforcement in the future.

  13. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L.; Isaacson, H.R.


    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity

  14. The significant surface-water connectivity of "geographically isolated wetlands" (United States)

    Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Mushet, David M.; Alexander, Laurie C.; DeKeyser, Edward S.; Fowler, Laurie; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan W.; Rains, Mark C.; Richter, Stephen; Walls, Susan


    We evaluated the current literature, coupled with our collective research expertise, on surface-water connectivity of wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” (sensu Tiner Wetlands 23:494–516, 2003a) to critically assess the scientific foundation of grouping wetlands based on the singular condition of being surrounded by uplands. The most recent research on wetlands considered to be “geographically isolated” shows the difficulties in grouping an ecological resource that does not reliably indicate lack of surface water connectivity in order to meet legal, regulatory, or scientific needs. Additionally, the practice of identifying “geographically isolated wetlands” based on distance from a stream can result in gross overestimates of the number of wetlands lacking ecologically important surface-water connections. Our findings do not support use of the overly simplistic label of “geographically isolated wetlands”. Wetlands surrounded by uplands vary in function and surface-water connections based on wetland landscape setting, context, climate, and geographic region and should be evaluated as such. We found that the “geographically isolated” grouping does not reflect our understanding of the hydrologic variability of these wetlands and hence does not benefit conservation of the Nation’s diverse wetland resources. Therefore, we strongly discourage use of categorizations that provide overly simplistic views of surface-water connectivity of wetlands fully embedded in upland landscapes.

  15. A model for evaluating effects of climate, water availability, and water management on wetland impoundments--a case study on Bowdoin, Long Lake, and Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuges (United States)

    Tangen, Brian A.; Gleason, Robert A.; Stamm, John F.


    Many wetland impoundments managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) National Wildlife Refuge System throughout the northern Great Plains rely on rivers as a primary water source. A large number of these impoundments currently are being stressed from changes in water supplies and quality, and these problems are forecast to worsen because of projected changes to climate and land use. For example, many managed wetlands in arid regions have become degraded owing to the long-term accumulation of salts and increased salinity associated with evapotranspiration. A primary goal of the USFWS is to provide aquatic habitats for a diversity of waterbirds; thus, wetland managers would benefit from a tool that facilitates evaluation of wetland habitat quality in response to current and anticipated impacts of altered hydrology and salt balances caused by factors such as climate change, water availability, and management actions. A spreadsheet model that simulates the overall water and salinity balance (WSB model) of managed wetland impoundments is presented. The WSB model depicts various habitat metrics, such as water depth, salinity, and surface areas (inundated, dry), which can be used to evaluate alternative management actions under various water-availability and climate scenarios. The WSB model uses widely available spreadsheet software, is relatively simple to use, relies on widely available inputs, and is readily adaptable to specific locations. The WSB model was validated using data from three National Wildlife Refuges with direct and indirect connections to water resources associated with rivers, and common data limitations are highlighted. The WSB model also was used to conduct simulations based on hypothetical climate and management scenarios to demonstrate the utility of the model for evaluating alternative management strategies and climate futures. The WSB model worked well across a range of National Wildlife Refuges and could be a valuable tool for USFWS

  16. Lactic acid Production with in situ Extraction in Membrane Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Ghafouri Taleghani


    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Lactic acid is widely used in the food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The major problems associated with lactic acid production are substrate and end-product inhibition, and by-product formation. Membrane technologyrepresents one of the most effective processes for lactic acid production. The aim of this work is to increase cell density and lactic acid productivity due to reduced inhibition effect of substrate and product in membrane bioreactor.Material and Methods: In this work, lactic acid was produced from lactose in membrane bioreactor. A laboratory scale membrane bioreactor was designed and fabricated. Five types of commercial membranes were tested at the same operating conditions (transmembrane pressure: 500 KPa and temperature: 25°C. The effects of initial lactose concentration and dilution rate on biomass growth, lactic acid production and substrate utilization were evaluated.Results and Conclusion: The high lactose retention of 79% v v-1 and low lactic acid retention of 22% v v-1 were obtained with NF1 membrane; therefore, this membrane was selected for membrane bioreactor. The maximal productivity of 17.1 g l-1 h-1 was obtainedwith the lactic acid concentration of 71.5 g l-1 at the dilution rate of 0.24 h−1. The maximum concentration of lactic acid was obtained at the dilution rate of 0.04 h−1. The inhibiting effect of lactic acid was not observed at high initial lactose concentration. The critical lactose concentration at which the cell growth severely hampered was 150 g l-1. This study proved that membrane bioreactor had great advantages such as elimination of substrate and product inhibition, high concentration of process substrate, high cell density,and high lactic acid productivity.Conflict of interest: There is no conflict of interest.

  17. Wetland Surface Water Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... Temporary storage includes channel, overbank, basin, and groundwater storage. Water is removed from the wetland through evaporation, plant transpiration, channel, overland and tidal flow, and groundwater recharge...

  18. Use of G3-DHS Bioreactor for Secondary Treatment of Septic Tank Desludging Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izarul Machdar


    Full Text Available Study was done for the use of the third-generation of downflow hanging sponge (G3-DHS bioreactor for secondary treatment of septic tank desludging wastewater. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prospective system of G3-DHS bioreactor to be applied in Indonesia. During experiment, the G3-DHS bioreactor kept a relatively high dissolved oxygen concentration under natural aeration. At a relatively short hydraulic retention (HRT of 3 h, the G3-DHS bioreactor could remove up to 21% (SD 15% of total COD, 21% (SD = 7% of filtered-COD, 58% (SD = 24% of unfiltered-BOD, and 33% (SD = 24% of ammonium removal. The final effluent had an unfiltered-BOD of only 46 mg.L-1 (SD = 20 mg.L-1 that it was below the Indonesian standard (unfiltered-BOD = 100 mg.L-1 for thresholds of domestic wastewater treatment plants effluent.

  19. Membrane bioreactors for waste gas treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reij, M.W.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Hartmans, S.


    This review describes the recent development of membrane reactors for biological treatment of waste gases. In this type of bioreactor gaseous pollutants are transferred through a membrane to the liquid phase, where micro-organisms degrade the pollutants. The membrane bioreactor combines the

  20. Membrane bioreactors for waste gas treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reij, M.W.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Hartmans, S.


    This review describes the recent development of membrane reactors for biological treatment of waste gases. In this type of bioreactor gaseous pollutants are transferred through a membrane to the liquid phase, where micro-organisms degrade the pollutants. The membrane bioreactor combines the

  1. Comparison of membrane bioreactor technology and conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper was to review the use of membrane bioreactor technology as an alternative for treating the discharged effluent from a bleached kraft mill by comparing and contrasting membrane bioreactors with conventional activated sludge systems for wastewater treatment. There are many water shortage ...

  2. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Depression Wetlands in the Upper Des Plaines River Basin (United States)


    Wetlands and Coastal Ecology Branch; Dr. David J. Tazik, Chief, Eco- system Evaluation and Engineering Division; and Dr. Edwin A. Theriot, Direc- tor, EL...wetlands (Euliss and Mushet 1996, Azous and Horner 2001, Bhaduri et al. 1997) and nutrient loading into those wetlands. The overall LU score is...Euliss, N. H., and Mushet , D. M. (1996). “Water-level fluctuation in wetlands as a function of landscape condition in the prairie pothole region

  3. Placing prairie pothole wetlands along spatial and temporal continua to improve integration of wetland function in ecological investigations (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.; Newton, Wesley E.; Otto, Clint R.V.; Nelson, Richard D.; LaBaugh, James W.; Scherff, Eric J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.


    We evaluated the efficacy of using chemical characteristics to rank wetland relation to surface and groundwater along a hydrologic continuum ranging from groundwater recharge to groundwater discharge. We used 27 years (1974–2002) of water chemistry data from 15 prairie pothole wetlands and known hydrologic connections of these wetlands to groundwater to evaluate spatial and temporal patterns in chemical characteristics that correspond to the unique ecosystem functions each wetland performed. Due to the mineral content and the low permeability rate of glacial till and soils, salinity of wetland waters increased along a continuum of wetland relation to groundwater recharge, flow-through or discharge. Mean inter-annual specific conductance (a proxy for salinity) increased along this continuum from wetlands that recharge groundwater being fresh to wetlands that receive groundwater discharge being the most saline, and wetlands that both recharge and discharge to groundwater (i.e., groundwater flow-through wetlands) being of intermediate salinity. The primary axis from a principal component analysis revealed that specific conductance (and major ions affecting conductance) explained 71% of the variation in wetland chemistry over the 27 years of this investigation. We found that long-term averages from this axis were useful to identify a wetland’s long-term relation to surface and groundwater. Yearly or seasonal measurements of specific conductance can be less definitive because of highly dynamic inter- and intra-annual climate cycles that affect water volumes and the interaction of groundwater and geologic materials, and thereby influence the chemical composition of wetland waters. The influence of wetland relation to surface and groundwater on water chemistry has application in many scientific disciplines and is especially needed to improve ecological understanding in wetland investigations. We suggest ways that monitoring in situ wetland conditions could be linked

  4. Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science - Tampa Bay Study - Characterization of Tidal Wetlands (United States)

    McIvor, Carole


    Tidal wetlands in Tampa Bay, Florida, consist of mangrove forests and salt marshes. Wetlands buffer storm surges, provide fish and wildlife habitat, and enhance water quality through the removal of water-borne nutrients and contaminants. Substantial areas of both mangroves and salt marshes have been lost to agricultural, residential, and industrial development in this urban estuary. Wetlands researchers are characterizing the biological components of tidal wetlands and examining the physical factors such as salinity, tidal flushing, and sediment deposition that control the composition of tidal wetland habitats. Wetlands restoration is a priority of resource managers in Tampa Bay. Baseline studies such as these are needed for successful restoration planning and evaluation.

  5. Identification, evaluation and change detection of highly sensitive wetlands in South-Eastern Sri Lanka using ALOS (AVNIR2, PALSAR) and Landsat ETM+ data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawardena, Ajith; Fernando, Tamasha; Takeuchi, Wataru; Wickramasinghe, Chathura H; Samarakoon, Lal


    Sri Lanka is an island consists of numerous wetlands and many of these ecosystems have been indiscriminately exploited for a commercial, agricultural, residential and industrial development and waste dumping. Eastern River Basin Region in Sri Lanka is rapidly urbanizing, which leads more threats to the surrounding wetland ecosystems considerably. Therefore, it is important to identify and designated them as reserved areas where necessary in order to protect them under the National Environmental Act of Sri Lanka. Mapping and change detection of wetlands in the selected region is a key requirement to fulfill the above task. GIS and Remote Sensing techniques were used to identify and analyze the wetland eco systems. In this study Landsat ETM+, ALOS-AVNIR2, ALOS-PALSAR images were analyzed for identifying and change detection of wetlands. The secondary information and data were collected through a questionnaire survey to recognize the possible threats and benefits. The collected data and information were incorporated in identification, analyzing and ranking the wetlands. The final outcome of the project is to correlate the satellite data with the field observations to quantify the highly sensitive wetlands to declare as Environmental Protection Areas under the National Environment Act of Sri Lanka

  6. Evaluation of a hierarchy of models reveals importance of substrate limitation for predicting carbon dioxide and methane exchange in restored wetlands (United States)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Jenerette, G. D.; Knox, S. H.; Sturtevant, C.; Verfaillie, J.; Dronova, I.; Poindexter, C. M.; Eichelmann, E.; Baldocchi, D. D.


    Wetlands and flooded peatlands can sequester large amounts of carbon (C) and have high greenhouse gas mitigation potential. There is growing interest in financing wetland restoration using C markets; however, this requires careful accounting of both CO2 and CH4 exchange at the ecosystem scale. Here we present a new model, the PEPRMT model (Peatland Ecosystem Photosynthesis Respiration and Methane Transport), which consists of a hierarchy of biogeochemical models designed to estimate CO2 and CH4 exchange in restored managed wetlands. Empirical models using temperature and/or photosynthesis to predict respiration and CH4 production were contrasted with a more process-based model that simulated substrate-limited respiration and CH4 production using multiple carbon pools. Models were parameterized by using a model-data fusion approach with multiple years of eddy covariance data collected in a recently restored wetland and a mature restored wetland. A third recently restored wetland site was used for model validation. During model validation, the process-based model explained 70% of the variance in net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) and 50% of the variance in CH4 exchange. Not accounting for high respiration following restoration led to empirical models overestimating annual NEE by 33-51%. By employing a model-data fusion approach we provide rigorous estimates of uncertainty in model predictions, accounting for uncertainty in data, model parameters, and model structure. The PEPRMT model is a valuable tool for understanding carbon cycling in restored wetlands and for application in carbon market-funded wetland restoration, thereby advancing opportunity to counteract the vast degradation of wetlands and flooded peatlands.

  7. Forested wetland habitat (United States)

    Duberstein, Jamie A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennish, Michael J.


    A forested wetland (swamp) is a forest where soils are saturated or flooded for at least a portion of the growing season, and vegetation, dominated by trees, is adapted to tolerate flooded conditions. A tidal freshwater forested wetland is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity of soil porewater less than 0.5 g/l. It is known locally as tidal várzea in the Amazon delta, Brazil. A tidal saltwater forested wetland (mangrove forest) is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity often exceeding 3 g/l and reaching levels that can exceed seawater. Mangrove ecosystems are composed of facultative halophytes that generally experience better growth at moderate salinity concentrations.

  8. Landscape hydrology. The hydrological legacy of deforestation on global wetlands. (United States)

    Woodward, C; Shulmeister, J; Larsen, J; Jacobsen, G E; Zawadzki, A


    Increased catchment erosion and nutrient loading are commonly recognized impacts of deforestation on global wetlands. In contrast, an increase in water availability in deforested catchments is well known in modern studies but is rarely considered when evaluating past human impacts. We used a Budyko water balance approach, a meta-analysis of global wetland response to deforestation, and paleoecological studies from Australasia to explore this issue. After complete deforestation, we demonstrated that water available to wetlands increases by up to 15% of annual precipitation. This can convert ephemeral swamps to permanent lakes or even create new wetlands. This effect is globally significant, with 9 to 12% of wetlands affected, including 20 to 40% of Ramsar wetlands, but is widely unrecognized because human impact studies rarely test for it. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Microbial Bioreactor Development in the ALS NSCORT (United States)

    Mitchell, Cary; Whitaker, Dawn; Banks, M. Katherine; Heber, Albert J.; Turco, Ronald F.; Nies, Loring F.; Alleman, James E.; Sharvelle, Sybil E.; Li, Congna; Heller, Megan

    and recycling of effluent supernatant were evaluated to maximize degradation and minimize water input. The off-gases proceeded to a bioregenerative air-treatment reactor, and the sludge effluent was investigated for multiple downstream uses including dewatering by reed beds, use as a nutrient supplement for fish or mushroom growth, and as a growth medium and nutrient source for various crops. The Bio-Regenerative Environmental Air Treatment for Health (BREATHe I) reactor treated greywater and off-gases from the thermophilic aerobic digestion reactor which contained elevated levels of ammonia (NH3 ) and hydrogen sulfide (H2 S). BREATHe I development focused initially on removing greywater contaminants with clean air supplied to a biotrickling filter. Limited removal of organic carbon (70%) led to studies indicating that biodegradation metabolites of the surfactant disodium cocoamphodiacetate are recalcitrant. Subsequent studies showed that NH3 loaded at 150 mg/min and H2 S at 0.83 mg/min were removed completely, while removal of carbonaceous compounds from greywater remained constant. A BREATHe II reactor emphasized biofilters and biotrickling filters for removal of ersatz multicomponent gaseous waste streams representative of habitat air and atmospheric condensate. The model waste stream contained a mixture of acetone, n-butanol, methane, ethylene, and ammonia. Both biofilters and biotrickling filters packed with different media were able to achieve complete removal of easily soluble compounds such as acetone, n-butanol, and ammonia within a short startup period, whereas methane was not removed because of its extreme aqueous insolubility. Different packing media and bioreactor configurations were subsequently assessed, as well as the effect of influent ammonia concentration. Research sponsored in part by NASA grant NAG5-12686.

  10. Tubular membrane bioreactors for biotechnological processes. (United States)

    Wolff, Christoph; Beutel, Sascha; Scheper, Thomas


    This article is an overview of bioreactors using tubular membranes such as hollow fibers or ceramic capillaries for cultivation processes. This diverse group of bioreactor is described here in regard to the membrane materials used, operational modes, and configurations. The typical advantages of this kind of system such as environments with low shear stress together with high cell densities and also disadvantages like poor oxygen supply are summed up. As the usage of tubular membrane bioreactors is not restricted to a certain organism, a brief overview of various applications covering nearly all types of cells from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells is also given here.

  11. ('fingerponds\\') in the wetlands of Lake Victoria, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential effect on ecosystem integrity of the use of natural wetlands for seasonal wetland fishponds ('fingerponds\\'), integrated with vegetable production for livelihood demands, was evaluated using experimental sites at Lake Victoria, Kenya. Soluble reactive phosphorous and total phosphorus, ammonium, nitrate and ...

  12. A greenhouse-scale photosynthetic microbial bioreactor for carbon sequestration in magnesium carbonate minerals. (United States)

    McCutcheon, Jenine; Power, Ian M; Harrison, Anna L; Dipple, Gregory M; Southam, Gordon


    A cyanobacteria dominated consortium collected from an alkaline wetland located near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada accelerated the precipitation of platy hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2·4H2O] in a linear flow-through experimental model wetland. The concentration of magnesium decreased rapidly within 2 m of the inflow point of the 10-m-long (∼1.5 m(2)) bioreactor. The change in water chemistry was monitored over two months along the length of the channel. Carbonate mineralization was associated with extra-cellular polymeric substances in the nutrient-rich upstream portion of the bioreactor, while the lower part of the system, which lacked essential nutrients, did not exhibit any hydromagnesite precipitation. A mass balance calculation using the water chemistry data produced a carbon sequestration rate of 33.34 t of C/ha per year. Amendment of the nutrient deficiency would intuitively allow for increased carbonation activity. Optimization of this process will have application as a sustainable mining practice by mediating magnesium carbonate precipitation in ultramafic mine tailings storage facilities.

  13. Structure and dynamics of basin forested wetlands in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.


    Freshwater basin wetlands are found in depressions of various depths, generally in areas where precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration or where the depression intersects the water table creating groundwater seeps or springs. Forested basins are those that contain woody vegetation with the potential for reaching tree stature; they do not include woody shrub wetlands. In North America these areas are mainly in the central and eastern region. Pertinent information and reviews on the distribution, floristic composition, structure and dynamics of basin forested wetlands are summarized. The major emphasis is on freshwater wetlands, but data for saltwater wetlands mainly from Florida and tropical America are included. The external factors affecting basin wetlands or the important components of a wetlands energy signature are described as well as the distribution and floristic composition of representative basin wetlands. Sections on structural characteristics, organic matter dynamics, and nutrient cycling comprise the bulk of quantitative information. The effects of disturbances, both natural and human induced, with varying degrees of impact depending upon the intensity and on the part of the ecosystem to which the stressor is applied are evaluated. Examples of stressors in basin wetlands include water impoundment, water diversion, thermal stress from hot water, sedimentation, addition of toxic substances, addition of wastewater, oil spills, and harvesting. 86 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs

  14. Evaluating the effect of different draw solutes in a baffled osmotic membrane bioreactor-microfiltration using optical coherence tomography with real wastewate

    KAUST Repository

    Pathak, Nirenkumar; Fortunato, Luca; Li, Sheng; Chekli, Laura; Phuntsho, Sherub; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Shon, Ho Kyong


    (OCT) technique was employed. On-line monitoring of biofilm growth on a flat sheet cellulose triacetate forward osmosis (CTA-FO) membrane was conducted for 21 days. Further, the process performance was evaluated in terms of water flux, organic

  15. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Zimmerman


    Full Text Available There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs. The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed.

  16. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yozzo, David


    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  17. Principles of Wetland Restoration (United States)

    the return of a degraded ecosystem to a close approximation of its remaining natural potential - is experiencing a groundswell of support across the United States. The number of stream, river, lake, wetland and estuary restoration projects grows yearly

  18. Bioreactor design for tendon/ligament engineering. (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Gardiner, Bruce S; Lin, Zhen; Rubenson, Jonas; Kirk, Thomas B; Wang, Allan; Xu, Jiake; Smith, David W; Lloyd, David G; Zheng, Ming H


    Tendon and ligament injury is a worldwide health problem, but the treatment options remain limited. Tendon and ligament engineering might provide an alternative tissue source for the surgical replacement of injured tendon. A bioreactor provides a controllable environment enabling the systematic study of specific biological, biochemical, and biomechanical requirements to design and manufacture engineered tendon/ligament tissue. Furthermore, the tendon/ligament bioreactor system can provide a suitable culture environment, which mimics the dynamics of the in vivo environment for tendon/ligament maturation. For clinical settings, bioreactors also have the advantages of less-contamination risk, high reproducibility of cell propagation by minimizing manual operation, and a consistent end product. In this review, we identify the key components, design preferences, and criteria that are required for the development of an ideal bioreactor for engineering tendons and ligaments.

  19. Aujeszky's disease virus production in disposable bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    1Laboratory for Cell Culture Technology and Biotransformations, 2Laboratory for ... A novel, disposable-bag bioreactor system that uses wave action for mixing and transferring ... consisted of 95% of air + 5% of CO2 using gas mixing module.

  20. Oxygen transfer in slurry bioreactors. (United States)

    Kawase, Y; Moo-Young, M


    The oxygen transfer in bioreactors with slurries having a yield stress was investigated. The volumetric mass transfer coefficients in a 40-L bubble column with simulated fermentation broths, the Theological properties of which were represented by the Casson model, were measured. Experimental data were compared with a theoretical correlation developed on the basis of a combination of Higbie's penetration theory and Kolmogoroff's theory of isotropic turbulence. Comparisons between the proposed correlation and data for the simulated broths show good agreement. The mass transfer data for actual mycelial fermentation broths reported previously by the authors were re-examined. Their Theological data was correlated by the Bingham plastic model. The oxygen transfer rate data in the mycelial fermentation broths fit the predictions of the proposed theoretical correlation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  2. Gas Research Institute wetland research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkey, P.L.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Isaacson, H.R.


    As part of three ongoing research projects, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) is studying the natural gas industry's impacts on wetlands and how to manage operations so that impacts can be minimized or eliminated. The objective of the first project is to gain a better understanding of the causes and processes of wetland loss in the Louisiana deltaic plain and what role gas pipeline canals play in wetland loss. On the basis of information gathered from the first projects, management and mitigation implications for pipeline construction and maintenance will be evaluated. The objective of the second project is to assess the floral and faunal communities on existing rights-of-way (ROWs) that pass through numerous types of wetlands across the United States. The emphasis of the project is on pipelines that were installed within the past five years. The objective of the third project is to evaluate the administrative, jurisdictional, technical, and economic issues of wetland mitigation banking. This paper discusses these projects, their backgrounds, some of the results to date, and the deliverables

  3. Bioreactor Design for Tendon/Ligament Engineering


    Wang, Tao; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Lin, Zhen; Rubenson, Jonas; Kirk, Thomas B.; Wang, Allan; Xu, Jiake; Smith, David W.; Lloyd, David G.; Zheng, Ming H.


    Tendon and ligament injury is a worldwide health problem, but the treatment options remain limited. Tendon and ligament engineering might provide an alternative tissue source for the surgical replacement of injured tendon. A bioreactor provides a controllable environment enabling the systematic study of specific biological, biochemical, and biomechanical requirements to design and manufacture engineered tendon/ligament tissue. Furthermore, the tendon/ligament bioreactor system can provide a s...

  4. Immobilized yeast in bioreactor for alcohol fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handy, M.K.; Kim, K.


    Mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was developed using a Co-60 source. Cells were immobilized onto sterile, channeled alumina beads and packed into bioreactor column under controlled temperature. Feedstocks containing substrate and nutrients were fed into the bioreactor at specific rates. Beads with greatest porosity and surface area produced the most ethanol. Factors affecting ethanol productivity included: temperature, pH, flow rate, nutrients and substrate in the feedstock

  5. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism]. (United States)

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin


    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  6. Use of macroinvertebrates to identify cultivated wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.; Johnson, Douglas H.


    We evaluated the use of macroinvertebrates as a potential tool to identify dry and intensively farmed temporary and seasonal wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region. The techniques we designed and evaluated used the dried remains of invertebrates or their egg banks in soils as indicators of wetlands. For both the dried remains of invertebrates and their egg banks, we weighted each taxon according to its affinity for wetlands or uplands. Our study clearly demonstrated that shells, exoskeletons, head capsules, eggs, and other remains of macroinvertebrates can be used to identify wetlands, even when they are dry, intensively farmed, and difficult to identify as wetlands using standard criteria (i.e., hydrology, hydrophytic vegetation, and hydric soils). Although both dried remains and egg banks identified wetlands, the combination was more useful, especially for identifying drained or filled wetlands. We also evaluated the use of coarse taxonomic groupings to stimulate use of the technique by nonspecialists and obtained satisfactory results in most situations.

  7. Metro Multnomah Wetlands - Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multnomah Channel Wetland Restoration Monitoring Project characterizes wetlands use by juvenile salmonids and other fishes in the Multnomah Channel Marsh Natural...

  8. Wetlands & Deepwater Habitats - MO 2012 East West Gateway Wetlands (SHP) (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Cowardin’s Classification of Wetlands and Deep Water Habitats of the United States (, together with...

  9. Use of created cattail ( Typha) wetlands in mitigation strategies (United States)

    Dobberteen, Ross A.; Nickerson, Norton H.


    In order to balance pressures for land-use development with protection of wetland resources, artificial wetlands have been constructed in an effort to replace lost ecosystems. Despite its regulatory appeal and prominent role in current mitigation strategies, it is unclear whether or not created systems actually compensate for lost wetland resources. Mitigation predictions that rely on artificial wetlands must be analyzed critically in terms of their efficacy. Destruction of wetlands due to burial by coal fly ash at a municipal landfill in Danvers, Massachusetts, USA, provided an opportunity to compare resulting growth of created cattail ( Typha) marshes with natural wetland areas. Once the appropriate cattail species was identified for growth under disturbed landfill conditions, two types of artificial wetlands were constructed. The two systems differed in their hydrologic attributes: while one had a surface water flow characteristic of most cattail wetlands, the second system mimicked soil and water conditions found in naturally occurring floating cattail marshes. Comparison of plant growth measurements for two years from the artificial systems with published values for natural cattail marshes revealed similar structure and growth patterns. Experiments are now in progress to investigate the ability of created cattail marshes to remove and accumulate heavy metals from polluted landfill leachate. Research of the type reported here must be pursued aggressively in order to document the performance of artificial wetlands in terms of plant structure and wetland functions. Such research should allow us to start to evaluate whether artificial systems actually compensate for lost wetlands by performing similar functions and providing the concomitant public benefits.


    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, an evaluation of the compost-free bioreactor treatment of acid rock drainage (ARD) from the Aspen Seep was conducted at the Leviathan Mine Superfund site located in a remote, high altitude area of Alpine Co...

  11. Tubular bioreactor and its application; Tubular bioreactor to sono tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, I.; Nagamune, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yuki, K. [Nikka Whisky Distilling Co. Ltd. Tokyo (Japan); Inaba, H. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The loop type tubular bioreactor (TBR) was developed where biocatalysts are trapped in the reactor by membrane module. A UF membrane or MF membrane and crossflow filtration were adopted for the membrane module, and the reactor loop was composed of four membrane modules. The reactor was operated at 2-4 m/s in membrane surface velocity and 300-400 kPa in filtration pressure. As the result of the high-density culture of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, a biomass concentration was more than 10 times that in batch culture, suggesting the remarkable enhancement of a production efficiency. As the result of the continuous fermentation of cider, the fast fermentation more than 60 times that in conventional ones was obtained together with the same quality as conventional ones. Such a fast fermentation was probably achieved by yeast suspended in the fermenter of TBR, by yeast hardly affected physico-chemically as compared with immobilized reactors, and by small effect of mass transfer on reaction systems. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Wetlands Restoration Definitions and Distinctions (United States)

    Ecological restoration is a valuable endeavor that has proven very difficult to define. The term indicates that degraded and destroyed natural wetland systems will be reestablished to sites where they once existed. But, what wetland ecosystems are we talki

  13. Wetland Program Development Grants (WPDGs) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Wetland Grant Database (WGD) houses grant data for Wetland Program Development Grants (created by EPA in 1990 under the Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3)...

  14. Wetland Restoration and Sediment Removal (United States)

    Department of the Interior — In 2008, Minnesota’s Private Lands Program and Wetland Management Districts began to compare different methods of restoring prairie pothole wetlands to see if there...

  15. Osteocytes Mechanosensing in NASA Rotating Wall Bioreactor (United States)

    Spatz, Jordan; Sibonga, Jean; Wu, Honglu; Barry, Kevin; Bouxsein, Mary; Pajevic, Paola Divieti


    Osteocyte cells are the most abundant (90%) yet least understood bone cell type in the human body. Osteocytes are theorized to be the mechanosensors and transducers of mechanical load for bones, yet the biological mechanism of this action remains elusive. However, recent discoveries in osteocyte cell biology have shed light on their importance as key mechanosensing cells regulating bone remodeling and phosphate homeostasis. The aim of this project was to characterize gene expression patterns and protein levels following exposure of MLO-Y4, a very well characterized murine osteocyte-like cell line, to simulated microgravity using the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor. To determine mechanistic pathways of the osteocyte's gravity sensing ability, we evaluated in vitro gene and protein expression of osteocytes exposed to simulated microgravity. Improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of mechano transduction at the osteocyte cellular level may lead to revolutionary treatment otions to mitigate the effects of bone loss encountered by astronauts on long duration space missions and provide tailored treatment options for maintaining bone strength of immobilized/partially paralyzed patients here on Earth.

  16. Wetlands: The changing regulatory landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, R.M.


    Protection of wetlands became a national issue in 1988 when President George Bush pledged no net loss of wetlands in the US under his open-quotes environmental presidency.close quotes As wetlands became a national issue, the job of protecting them became an obligation for many groups, including hydro-power developers. Now, when a site selected for development includes an area that may be classified as a wetland, the developer quickly discovers the importance of recognizing and protecting these natural habitats. Federal legislation severely limits development of wetland, and most states increase the restrictions with their own wetlands regulations. The difficulty of defining wetlands complicates federal and state enforcement. Land that appears to be dry may in fact be classified as a wetland. So, even if a site appears dry, potential hydro developers must confirm whether or not any jurisdictional wetlands are present. Regulated lands include much more than marshes and swamps. Further complicating the definition of wetlands, a recent court decision found that even artificially created wetlands, such as man-made ponds, may be subject to regulation. Hydro developers must be aware of current regulatory requirements before they consider development of any site that may contain wetlands. To be certain that a site is open-quotes buildableclose quotes from the standpoint of wetlands regulation, a developer must verify (with the help of state agencies) that the property does not contain any jurisdictional wetlands. If it does, the regulatory process before development becomes much more complicated. For the short term, uncertainty abounds and extreme caution is in order. Because the regulatory process has become so complex and an agreeable definition of wetlands so elusive, the trend among the Corps and collaborating agencies is to constrict nationwide permits in favor of narrowing the jurisdictional definition of wetlands

  17. Floodwater utilisation values of wetland services - a case study in Northeastern China (United States)

    Lü, S. B.; Xu, S. G.; Feng, F.


    Water plays a significant role in wetlands. Floodwater utilisation in wetlands brings a wide range of wetland services, from goods production and water regulation to animal protection and aesthetics related to water supply in wetlands. In this study, the floodwater utilisation values of wetland services were estimated within the Momoge wetland and Xianghai wetland in western Jilin province of northeastern China. From 2003 to 2008, the floodwater diverted from the Nenjiang and Tao'er River is 381 million m3, which translates into a monetary value of approximately 1.35 billion RMB in 2008 (RMB: Chinese Currency, RMB 6.80 = US 1), and the ratio of economic value, eco-environmental value, and social value is 1:12:2. Besides the monetary value of the water itself, excessive floodwater utilisation may bring losses to wetlands; the threshold floodwater utilisation volumes in wetlands are discussed. Floodwater utilisation can alleviate water shortages in wetlands, and the evaluation of floodwater utilisation in wetland services in monetary terms is a guide for the effective use of the floodwater resources and for the conservation of wetlands.

  18. The ecological value of constructed wetlands for treating urban runoff. (United States)

    Pankratz, S; Young, T; Cuevas-Arellano-, H; Kumar, R; Ambrose, R F; Suffet, I H


    The Sweetwater Authority's urban runoff diversion system (URDS) comprises constructed wetlands on a hillside between the town of Spring Valley and the Sweetwater Reservoir, California, USA. The URDS were designed to divert dry-weather and first-flush urban runoff flows from the Sweetwater reservoir. However, these constructed wetlands have developed into ecologically valuable habitat. This paper evaluates the following ecological questions related to the URDS: (1) the natural development of the species present and their growth pattern; (2) the biodiversity and pollutant stress on the plants and invertebrates; and (3) the question of habitat provided for endangered species. The URDS wetlands are comprised primarily of rush (Scirpus spp.) and cattails (Typha spp.). This vegetative cover ranged from 39-78% of the area of the individual wetland ponds. Current analyses of plant tissues and wetland sediment indicates the importance of sediment sorption for metals and plant uptake of nutrients. Analyses of URDS water following runoff events show the URDS wetlands do reduce the amount of nutrients and metals in the water column. Invertebrate surveys of the wetland ponds revealed lower habitat quality and environmental stress compared to unpolluted natural habitat. The value of the wetlands as wildlife habitat is constrained by low plant biodiversity and pollution stress from the runoff. Since the primary Sweetwater Authority goal is to maintain good water quality for drinking, any secondary utilization of URDS habitat by species (endangered or otherwise) is deemed an added benefit.

  19. Remote sensing of wetlands at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, E.J.; Jensen, J.R.; Sharitz, R.R.


    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) occupies about 300 sq mi along a 10-mile stretch of the Savannah River. Large areas of wetlands cover the site, especially along tributary stream floodplains and the Savannah River. Some of these areas have been altered by cooling water discharges from nuclear production reactors onsite. To assess the effects of current and future plant operations on SRP and regional wetlands, an accurate quantitative survey was needed. Several studies were initiated to provide wetland acreage and distribution information: regional wetland inventories were provided from an analysis of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) satellite data. Wetlands were mapped throughout the entire Savannah River watershed and in the Savannah River floodplain. SRP wetlands were identified using a combination of LANDSAT MSS and Thematic Mapper satellite data and aerial photography. Wetlands in the SRP Savannah River swamp and thermally affected areas were mapped using high resolution MSS data collected from a low-flying aircraft. Vegetation communities in areas receiving cooling water discharges were then compared to surface temperatures measured from the airborne scanner at the same time to evaluate plant temperature tolerance. Historic changes to SRP wetlands from cooling water discharges were tabulated using aerial photography

  20. Construction of a Simple Multipurpose Airlift Bioreactor and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The aim of the present research is to develop a simple airlift bioreactor which can be operated even ... compression metal. The bioreactor is mixed ... the method developed by (Bailey and Olis, .... (Ed) Concise Encyclopedia of Bio-resources.

  1. Hurricane storm surge and amphibian communities in coastal wetlands of northwestern Florida (United States)

    Gunzburger, M.S.; Hughes, W.B.; Barichivich, W.J.; Staiger, J.S.


    Isolated wetlands in the Southeastern United States are dynamic habitats subject to fluctuating environmental conditions. Wetlands located near marine environments are subject to alterations in water chemistry due to storm surge during hurricanes. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of storm surge overwash on wetland amphibian communities. Thirty-two wetlands in northwestern Florida were sampled over a 45-month period to assess amphibian species richness and water chemistry. During this study, seven wetlands were overwashed by storm surge from Hurricane Dennis which made landfall 10 July 2005 in the Florida panhandle. This event allowed us to evaluate the effect of storm surge overwash on water chemistry and amphibian communities of the wetlands. Specific conductance across all wetlands was low pre-storm (marine habitats are resistant to the effects of storm surge overwash. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. Efficacy of Bioremediation of Agricultural Runoff Using Bacterial Communities in Woodchip Bioreactors. (United States)

    Mortensen, Z. H.; Leandro, M.; Silveus, J. M.


    California's agricultural sector is fundamental in the State's economic growth and is responsible for supplying a large portion of the country's produce. In order to meet the market's demand for crop production the region's agrarian landscape requires an abundance of nutrient rich irrigation. The resultant agricultural effluent is a source of increased nutrient content in California's watershed and groundwater systems, promoting eutrophication and contributing to negative impacts on local ecosystems and human health. Previous studies have examined the denitrification potential of woodchip bioreactors. However, research has been deficient regarding specific variables that may affect the remediation process. To evaluate the efficacy of woodchip bioreactors in remediating waters containing high nitrate concentrations, denitrification rates were examined and parameters such as temperature, laminar flow, and hydraulic residence times were measured to identify potential methods for increasing denitrification efficiency. By measuring the rate of denitrification in a controlled environment where potentially confounding factors can be manipulated, physical components affecting the efficiency of woodchip bioreactors were examined to assess effects. Our research suggests the implementation of woodchip bioreactors to treat agricultural runoff would significantly reduce the concentration of nitrate in agricultural effluent and contribute to the mitigation of negative impacts associated with agricultural irrigation. Future research should focus on the ability of woodchip bioreactors to successfully remediate other agricultural pollutants, such as phosphates and pesticides, to optimize the efficiency of the bioremediation process.

  3. Industrialization of a perfusion bioreactor: Prime example of a non-straightforward process. (United States)

    Talò, G; Turrisi, C; Arrigoni, C; Recordati, C; Gerges, I; Tamplenizza, M; Cappelluti, A; Riboldi, S A; Moretti, M


    Bioreactors are essential enabling technologies for the translation of advanced therapies medicinal products from the research field towards a successful clinical application. In order to speed up the translation and the spread of novel tissue engineering products into the clinical routine, tissue engineering bioreactors should evolve from laboratory prototypes towards industrialized products. In this work, we thus challenged the industrialization process of a novel technological platform, based on an established research prototype of perfusion bioreactor, following a GMP-driven approach. We describe how the combination of scientific background, intellectual property, start-up factory environment, wise industrial advice in the biomedical field, design, and regulatory consultancy allowed us to turn a previously validated prototype technology into an industrial product suitable for serial production with improved replicability and user-friendliness. The solutions implemented enhanced aesthetics, ergonomics, handling, and safety of the bioreactor, and they allowed compliance with the fundamental requirements in terms of traceability, reproducibility, efficiency, and safety of the manufacturing process of advanced therapies medicinal products. The result is an automated incubator-compatible device, housing 12 disposable independent perfusion chambers for seeding and culture of any perfusable tissue. We validated the cell seeding process of the industrialized bioreactor by means of the Design of Experiment approach, whilst the effectiveness of perfusion culture was evaluated in the context of bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Treating domestic sewage by Integrated Inclined-Plate-Membrane bio-reactor (United States)

    Song, Li Ming; Wang, Zi; Chen, Lei; Zhong, Min; Dong, Zhan Feng


    Membrane fouling shorten the service life of the membrane and increases aeration rate for membrane surface cleaning. Two membrane bio-reactors, one for working and another for comparing, were set up to evaluate the feasibility of alleviating membrane fouling and improving wastewater treatment efficiency by integrating inclined-plate precipitation and membrane separation. The result show that: (1) Inclined-plate in reactor had a good effect on pollutant removal of membrane bioreactor. The main role of inclined-plate is dividing reactor space and accelerating precipitation. (2) Working reactor have better performance in COD, TN and TP removal, which can attribute to that working reactor (integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor) takes both advantages of membrane separation and biological treatment. When influent COD, TP and TN concentration is 163-248 mg/L, 2.08-2.81 mg/L and 24.38-30.49 mg/L in working reactor, effluent concentration is 27-35 mg/L, 0.53-0.59 mg/L and 11.28-11.56 mg/L, respectively. (3) Membrane fouling was well alleviated in integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor, and membrane normal service time is significantly longer than that in comparing reactor, which can attribute to accelerating precipitation of inclined-plate. In summary, integrated inclined-plate-Membrane bioreactor is a promising technology to alleviating membrane fouling and improving wastewater treatment efficiency, having good performance and bright future in application.

  5. Global warming and prairie wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poiani, K.A.; Johnson, W.C.


    In this article, the authors discuss current understanding and projections of global warming; review wetland vegetation dynamics to establish the strong relationship among climate, wetland hydrology, vegetation patterns and waterfowl habitat; discuss the potential effects of a greenhouse warming on these relationships; and illustrate the potential effects of climate change on wetland habitat by using a simulation model

  6. Wetland soils, hydrology and geomorphology (United States)

    C. Rhett Jackson; James A. Thompson; Randall K. Kolka


    The hydrology, soils, and watershed processes of a wetland all interact with vegetation and animals over time to create the dynamic physical template upon which a wetland's ecosystem is based (Fig. 2.1). With respect to many ecosystem processes, the physical factors defining a wetland environment at any particular time are often treated as independent variables,...

  7. Evaluation of two hybrid poplar clones as constructed wetland plant species for treating saline water high in boron and selenium, or waters only high in boron (United States)

    Wetland mesocosms were constructed to assess two salt- and B-tolerant hybrid poplar clones (Populus trichocarpa ×P. deltoides×P. nigra '345-1' and '347-14') for treating saline water high in boron (B) and selenium (Se). In addition, a hydroponic experiment was performed to test the B tolerance and B...

  8. Treatment of cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater and the reuse of sludge for biodiesel production by microalgal heterotrophic bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Manzoni Maroneze


    Full Text Available Microalgal heterotrophic bioreactors are a potential technological development that can convert organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus of wastewaters into a biomass suitable for energy production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of microalgal heterotrophic bioreactors in the secondary treatment of cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater and the reuse of microalgal sludge for biodiesel production. The experiments were performed in a bubble column bioreactor using the microalgae Phormidium sp. Heterotrophic microalgal bioreactors removed 90 % of the chemical oxygen demand, 57 % of total nitrogen and 52 % of total phosphorus. Substantial microalgal sludge is produced in the process (substrate yield coefficient of 0.43 mg sludge mg chemical oxygen demand−¹, resulting in a biomass with high potential for producing biodiesel (ester content of more than 99 %, cetane number of 55, iodine value of 73.5 g iodine 100 g−¹, unsaturation degree of ~75 % and a cold filter plugging point of 5 ºC.

  9. Using recent hurricanes and associated event layers to evaluate regional storm impacts on estuarine-wetland systems (United States)

    Smith, C. G.; Marot, M. E.; Osterman, L. E.; Adams, C. S.; Haller, C.; Jones, M.


    Tropical cyclones are a major driver of change in coastal and estuarine environments. Heightened waves and sea level associated with tropical cyclones act to erode sediment from one environment and redistribute it to adjacent environments. The fate and transport of this redistributed material is of great importance to the long-term sediment budget, which in turns affects the vulnerability of these coastal systems. The spatial variance in both storm impacts and sediment redistribution is large. At the regional-scale, difference in storm impacts can often be attributed to natural variability in geologic parameters (sediment availability/erodibility), coastal geomorphology (including fetch, shoreline tortuosity, back-barrier versus estuarine shoreline, etc.), storm characteristics (intensity, duration, track/approach), and ecology (vegetation type, gradient, density). To assess storm characteristics and coastal geomorphology on a regional-scale, cores were collected from seven Juncus marshes located in coastal regions of Alabama and Mississippi (i.e., Mobile Bay, Bon Secour Bay, Mississippi Sound, and Grand Bay) expected to have been impacted by Hurricane Frederic (1979). All cores were sectioned and processed for water content, organic matter (loss-on-ignition), and select cores analyzed for foraminiferal assemblages, stable isotopes and bulk metals to aid in the identification of storm events. Excess lead-210 and cesium-137 were used to develop chronologies for the cores and evaluate mass accumulation rates and sedimentation rates. Temporal variations in accumulation rates of inorganic and organic sediments were compared with shoreline and areal change rates derived from historic aerial imagery to evaluate potential changes in sediment exchange prior to, during, and following the storm. A combined geospatial and geologic approach will improve our understanding of coastal change in estuarine marsh environments, as well help refine the influence of storms on regional

  10. Risk Perception and Vulnerability of Wetlands Areas on South ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    16 mars 2017 ... They will identify and evaluated for climate change stressors and then analyze factors affecting wetland management and the local ... Site internet ... Un commerce plus inclusif permettrait-il de promouvoir l'égalité des sexes ?

  11. 40 CFR 258.41 - Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project XL Bioreactor Landfill... WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Design Criteria § 258.41 Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects. (a) Buncombe County, North Carolina Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Requirements...

  12. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland... (United States)


    ..., consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal mandates, and our... FXRS1265066CCP0] Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District, SD; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

  13. Alfred pilot wetland to treat municipal lagoon effluent - case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crolla, A.; Kinsley, C.


    A constructed wetland demonstration system has been built to polish the municipal lagoon effluent from the village of Alfred. The treatment lagoons have an annual discharge in the spring and have currently reached maximum capacity; inhibiting further population growth or expansion of the local agri-food industries. The demonstration wetland system is designed to treat 15% of the municipal lagoon influent, that is, 155 m 3 /day or 23,250 m 3 /year. A three year monitoring program (2000-2002) was put in place to evaluate the wetland as a cost effective means to treat municipal lagoon wastewater for the village of Alfred. The 2000 and 2001 monitoring seasons have been completed, and the 2002 monitoring season will operate between June and October 2002. At the completion of the three year monitoring program the Alfred wetland system will be evaluated for its ability to polish the municipal lagoon effluent to meet the Spring/Summer/Fall discharge criteria, set by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE), for the receiving water body (Azatica Brook). As phosphorus is the most difficult element to remove down to MOE guidelines, the Alfred research wetland includes slag phosphorus adsorption filters and a vegetated filter as phosphorus polishing systems. Once the wetland system is approved by the MOE, the village of Alfred will be able to increase its capacity for municipal wastewater treatment. Constructed wetlands are still considered innovative systems in Ontario and government ministries (MOE, OMAFRA) are insisting upon 3-4 years of monitoring data for each constructed wetland system established. There is a clear need for monitoring data to be gathered on established systems, and for this data to be evaluated with the goal of developing reliable design guidelines. Ultimately this should result in having constructed wetlands recognised as viable wastewater treatment options in Ontario. With fewer grant programs for rural municipalities, cost effective systems such

  14. Constructed wetlands : the Canadian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, S.; Champagne, P. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    Large volumes of wastewater from livestock and production facilities must be treated to minimize the contamination of waterways in agricultural areas. This paper investigated the use of constructed wetlands as a lower-cost and efficient method of treating agricultural wastewaters. The study found that while constructed wetlands required limited maintenance, temperature dependency of the constructed wetlands systems is a limiting factor in their widespread implementation. Lower operating temperatures are only overcome by constructing larger wetlands systems, which require a substantial amount of land. The Canadian climate poses significant challenges to the implementation of constructed wetlands, which become inoperative during winter months. Plants and bacteria normally become dormant or die during winter months, which can create a lag in wetland treatment during the initial months of operation in the Spring. Snowmelt and added rainfall in the Spring can also create a high flow within the wetland cells, as many constructed wetlands rely on runoff as a feed source. Washout of bacteria can occur. Wastewater storage systems or further engineering of the wetlands may be required. It was concluded that insulating wetland cells will maintain a warmer operating temperature, while the addition of an aeration system will increase the treatment efficiency of the wetland during winter months. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. ``Living off the land'': resource efficiency of wetland wastewater treatment (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Odum, H. T.; Brown, M. T.; Alling, A.

    Bioregenerative life support technologies for space application are advantageous if they can be constructed using locally available materials, and rely on renewable energy resources, lessening the need for launch and resupply of materials. These same characteristics are desirable in the global Earth environment because such technologies are more affordable by developing countries, and are more sustainable long-term since they utilize less non-renewable, imported resources. Subsurface flow wetlands (wastewater gardens™) were developed and evaluated for wastewater recycling along the coast of Yucatan. Emergy evaluations, a measure of the environmental and human economic resource utilization, showed that compared to conventional sewage treatment, wetland wastewater treatment systems use far less imported and purchased materials. Wetland systems are also less energy-dependent, lessening dependence on electrical infrastructure, and require simpler maintenance since the system largely relies on the ecological action of microbes and plants for their efficacy. Detailed emergy evaluations showed that wetland systems use only about 15% the purchased emergy of conventional sewage systems, and that renewable resources contribute 60% of total emergy used (excluding the sewage itself) compared to less than 1% use of renewable resources in the high-tech systems. Applied on a larger scale for development in third world countries, wetland systems would require 1/5 the electrical energy of conventional sewage treatment (package plants), and save 2/3 of total capital and operating expenses over a 20-year timeframe. In addition, there are numerous secondary benefits from wetland systems including fiber/fodder/food from the wetland plants, creation of ecosystems of high biodiversity with animal habitat value, and aesthestic/landscape enhancement of the community. Wetland wastewater treatment is an exemplar of ecological engineering in that it creates an interface ecosystem to handle

  16. Microbiology of wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Dedysh, S.N.


    Watersaturated soil and sediment ecosystems (i.e. wetlands) are ecologically as well as economically important systems due to their high productivity, their nutrient (re)cycling capacities and their prominent contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions. Being on the transition between


    An ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor was evaluated for biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in contaminated water. The system was fed 5 mg/L MTBE in granular activated carbon (GAC) treated Cincinnati tap water containing ample buffer and nutrients. Within 120...

  18. Evaluating the piscicide rotenone as an option for eradication of invasive Mozambique tilapia in a Hawaiian brackish-water wetland complex (United States)

    Nico, Leo; Englund, Ronald A.; Jelks, Howard L.


    Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus were recently discovered in ‘Aimakapā Fishpond, a 12-hectare brackish-water wetland complex in Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park, on the Island of Hawai’i. As a possible eradication method, we evaluated rotenone, a natural piscicide used in fish management and the active ingredient in plants traditionally used by indigenous Hawaiians for capturing fish. To assess rotenone’s efficacy in killing tilapia and effects on non-target species, laboratory toxicity tests involved exposing organisms to various concentrations of liquid CFT Legumine (5% rotenone) in static trials of 48-h to 72-h duration. Test organisms included: Mozambique tilapia, non-native guppy Poecilia reticulata, the non-native odonate Rambur’s forktail Ischnura ramburii, native feeble shrimp Palaemon debilis, and native ‘ōpae’ula shrimp Halocaridina rubra. All organisms and water used in tests were obtained from ‘Aimakapā (12.6–12.7 ppt salinity), or, for H. rubra, an anchialine pool (15.0–15.2 ppt salinity). Survival analyses indicated CFT Legumine concentrations >3 ppm (>0.15 mg/L rotenone) achieved 100% mortality of tilapia and 93% of guppies within 24 h, with most tilapia killed by 6 h and most guppies by 2 h. Little or no mortality was observed among invertebrate exposed to 1 to 5 mg/L CFT Legumine: 0% mortality for ‘ōpae’ula shrimp, 4% for feeble shrimp; and 16% for odonate larvae. The 48 h LC50 values for Mozambique tilapia and guppy were 0.06 and 0.11 mg/L rotenone, respectively. Results demonstrate rotenone’s potential for non-native fish eradication in brackish-water habitats, with benefit of low mortality to certain macro-invertebrates. High rotenone tolerance displayed by ‘ōpae’ula shrimp is noteworthy. Invasive fish are common in anchialine pools, threatening existence of shrimp and other invertebrate fauna. Although rotenone’s effects on freshwater organisms have been well studied, our research

  19. Comparative analysis of top-lit bubble column and gas-lift bioreactors for microalgae-sourced biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyed Hosseini, Nekoo; Shang, Helen; Ross, Gregory M.; Scott, John Ashley


    Highlights: • Top-lit gas-lift and bubble columns were studied as deep algal cultivation tank. • A theoretical energy requirement analysis and a hydrodynamic model were developed. • Areal productivities of both bioreactors were notably higher than traditional raceways. • A gas-lift reactor sparged with 6% carbon dioxide achieved the highest lipid production. • Hydrodynamic and light stresses increased the lipid content suitable for biodiesel. - Abstract: The development of top-lit one-meter deep bioreactors operated as either a gas-lift or bubble column system using air and carbon dioxide enriched air was studied. The goal was high productivity cultivation of algae with elevated lipid levels suitable for conversion into biodiesel. A theoretical energy requirement analysis and a hydrodynamic model were developed to predict liquid circulation velocities in the gas-lift bioreactor, which agreed well with experimental measurements. The influence of operational parameters such as design of bioreactor, gas flow rates and carbon dioxide concentration on the growth and lipid volumetric production of Scenedesmus dimorphus was evaluated using factorial design. While biomass productivity was 12% higher in the bubble column bioreactor (68.2 g_d_w m"−"2 day"−"1), maximum lipid volumetric production (0.19 g_L_i_p_i_d L"−"1) was found in a gas-lift bioreactor sparged with 6% carbon dioxide due to hydrodynamic and light stresses.

  20. Community structure and quality after 10 years in two central Ohio mitigation bank wetlands. (United States)

    Spieles, Douglas J; Coneybeer, Meagan; Horn, Jonathan


    We evaluate two 10-year-old mitigation bank wetlands in central Ohio, one created and one with restored and enhanced components, by analysis of vegetation characteristics and by comparison of the year-10 vegetation and macroinvertebrate communities with reference wetlands. To assess different measures of wetland development, we compare the prevalence of native hydrophytes with an index of floristic quality and we evaluate the predictability of these parameters in year 10, given 5 years of data. Results show that the mitigation wetlands in this study meet vegetation performance criteria of native hydrophyte establishment by year 5 and maintain these characteristics through year 10. Species richness and floristic quality, as well as vegetative similarity with reference wetlands, differ among mitigation wetlands in year 1 and also in their rate of change during the first 10 years. The prevalence of native hydrophytes is reasonably predictable by year 10, but 5 years of monitoring is not sufficient to predict future trends of floristic quality in either the created or restored wetland. By year 10, macroinvertebrate taxa richness does not statistically differ among these wetlands, but mitigation wetlands differ from reference sites by tolerance index and by trophic guild dominance. The created wetland herbivore biomass is significantly smaller than its reference, whereas detritivore biomass is significantly greater in the created wetland and smaller in the restored wetland as compared with respective reference wetlands. These analyses illustrate differences in measures of wetland performance and contrast the monitoring duration necessary for legal compliance with the duration required for development of more complex indicators of ecosystem integrity.

  1. Waterbird communities and seed biomass in managed and reference-restored wetlands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (United States)

    Tapp, Jessica L.; Weegman, Matthew M.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Kaminski, Richard M.; Davis, J. Brian


    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) commenced the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI) in summer 2010 after the April 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The MBHI enrolled in the program 193,000 ha of private wet- and cropland inland from potential oil-impaired wetlands. We evaluated waterfowl and other waterbird use and potential seed/tuber food resources in NRCS Wetland Reserve Program easement wetlands managed via MBHI funding and associated reference wetlands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley of Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Missouri. In Louisiana and Mississippi, nearly three times more dabbling ducks and all ducks combined were observed on managed than reference wetlands. Shorebirds and waterbirds other than waterfowl were nearly twice as abundant on managed than referenced wetlands. In Arkansas and Missouri, managed wetlands had over twice more dabbling ducks and nearly twice as many duck species than reference wetlands. Wetlands managed via MBHI in Mississippi and Louisiana contained ≥1.3 times more seed and tuber biomass known to be consumed by waterfowl than reference wetlands. Seed and tuber resources did not differ between wetlands in Arkansas and Missouri. While other studies have documented greater waterbird densities on actively than nonmanaged wetlands, our results highlighted the potential for initiatives focused on managing conservation easements to increase waterbird use and energetic carrying capacity of restored wetlands for waterbirds.

  2. Farm Deployable Microbial Bioreactor for Fuel Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okeke, Benedict [Auburn Univ., Montgomery AL (United States)


    Research was conducted to develop a farm and field deployable microbial bioreactor for bioethanol production from biomass. Experiments were conducted to select the most efficient microorganisms for conversion of plant fiber to sugars for fermentation to ethanol. Mixtures of biomass and surface soil samples were collected from selected sites in Alabama black belt counties (Macon, Sumter, Choctaw, Dallas, Montgomery, Lowndes) and other areas within the state of Alabama. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of culture parameters on key biomass saccharifying enzymes (cellulase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase and beta-xylosidase). A wide-scale sampling of locally-grown fruits in Central Alabama was embarked to isolate potential xylose fermenting microorganisms. Yeast isolates were evaluated for xylose fermentation. Selected microorganisms were characterized by DNA based methods. Factors affecting enzyme production and biomass saccharification were examined and optimized in the laboratory. Methods of biomass pretreatment were compared. Co-production of amylolytic enzymes with celluloytic-xylanolytic enzymes was evaluated; and co-saccharification of a combination of biomass, and starch-rich materials was examined. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with and without pre-saccharifcation was studied. Whole culture broth and filtered culture broth simultaneous saccahrifcation and fermentation were compared. A bioreactor system was designed and constructed to employ laboratory results for scale up of biomass saccharification.

  3. Performance of a novel baffled osmotic membrane bioreactor-microfiltration hybrid system under continuous operation for simultaneous nutrient removal and mitigation of brine discharge

    KAUST Repository

    Pathak, Nirenkumar; Chekli, Laura; Wang, Jin; Kim, Youngjin; Phuntsho, Sherub; Li, Sheng; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Shon, Hokyong


    in an attempt to reduce the process footprint and energy costs associated with continuous aeration. The process performance was evaluated in terms of water flux, salinity build up in the bioreactor, organic and nutrient removal and microbial activity using

  4. Woodchip bioreactors effectively treat aquaculture effluent (United States)

    Nutrients, in particular nitrogen and phosphorus, can create eutrophication problems in any watershed. Preventing water quality impairment requires controlling nutrients from both point-source and non-point source discharges. Woodchip bioreactors are one relatively new approach that can be utilized ...

  5. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.


    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the

  6. An innovative membrane bioreactor for methane biohydroxylation. (United States)

    Pen, N; Soussan, L; Belleville, M-P; Sanchez, J; Charmette, C; Paolucci-Jeanjean, D


    In this study, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was developed for efficient, safe microbial methane hydroxylation with Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. This innovative MBR, which couples a bioreactor with two gas/liquid macroporous membrane contactors supplying the two gaseous substrates (methane and oxygen) was operated in fed-batch mode. The feasibility and the reproducibility of this new biohydroxylation process were first demonstrated. The mass transfer within this MBR was twice that observed in a batch reactor in similar conditions. The productivity reached with this MBR was 75±25mgmethanol(gdrycell)(-1)h(-1). Compared to the literature, this value is 35times higher than that obtained with the only other fed-batch membrane bioreactor reported, which was run with dense membranes, and is comparable to those obtained with bioreactors fed by bubble-spargers. However, in the latter case, an explosive gas mixture can be formed, a problem that is avoided with the MBR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  8. Use of quality indicators for long-term evaluation of heavy metals content in soils of an agro-ecological protected wetland: L'Albufera de Valencia Natural Park, Valencia, Spain (United States)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Palop, Carla


    Due to the social, economical and environmental importance of agro-ecological wetlands, strategies for periodical evaluation of their environmental quality should be developed, particularly in those areas were a mixture of land uses are supporting the survival of wildlife and migrant species as is the case of most Mediterranean coastal wetlands. The aim of this work is to develop a strategy for a long-term assessment of the environmental quality of soils in a rice-wetland: L'Albufera Natural Park, Spain, in the surroundings of the metropolitan area of Valencia. The area was officially declared as Natural Park in 1986, integrating both the traditional irrigation system and the ecological importance derived from being a Mediterranean Wetland that is now transformed to a large extent in a rice-wetland allowing the presence of a large variety of migrant spices. The methodology consisted in the monitoring of 20 sites distributed in 5 sectors in and around the natural park of potentially contrasting anthropogenic pressure and land use. Soil samples collection were instrumented in two campaigns. The first one was in 1989 (three years after the official declaration as Natural Park of the wetland), and the second 19 years later in 2008. Seven heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were analyzed to determine its total and extractable fractions by treatment with EDTA. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, using graphite furnace when necessary, was used for the determination of metals. To evaluate the quality of soils at each sampling date four indicators were obtained, namely, Contamination Factor (CF), Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI). Results obtained with quality indicators were further compared to obtain temporal and spatial trends using Geographical Information systems procedures. In general, there is a reduction of metal contents in the study area in both dates. The trend of metals according to average

  9. Influence of environmental variables on the structure and composition of soil bacterial communities in natural and constructed wetlands. (United States)

    Arroyo, Paula; Sáenz de Miera, Luis E; Ansola, Gemma


    Bacteria are key players in wetland ecosystems, however many essential aspects regarding the ecology of wetland bacterial communities remain unknown. The present study characterizes soil bacterial communities from natural and constructed wetlands through the pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA genes in order to evaluate the influence of wetland variables on bacterial community composition and structure. The results show that the composition of soil bacterial communities was significantly associated with the wetland type (natural or constructed wetland), the type of environment (lagoon, Typha or Salix) and three continuous parameters (SOM, COD and TKN). However, no clear associations were observed with soil pH. Bacterial diversity values were significantly lower in the constructed wetland with the highest inlet nutrient concentrations. The abundances of particular metabolic groups were also related to wetland characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 40 CFR 258.12 - Wetlands. (United States)


    ... degraded wetlands or creation of man-made wetlands); and (5) Sufficient information is available to make a... expansions shall not be located in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following...

  11. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald J Schmitz


    Full Text Available It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  12. Wetlands - an underestimated economic resource?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gren, I.M.; Soederqvist, T.


    Wetlands are producing several valuable resources like fish, potential for recreation, water cleaning etc. These resources, and methods for assigning an economic value to them, are discussed in this article. Swedish and foreign empirical studies of the economic value of wetlands are reviewed. This review shows that socioeconomic estimates of the value of wetlands risk to be misleading if the direct and indirect values are not properly accounted for. 37 refs

  13. Bioreactors in tissue engineering - principles, applications and commercial constraints. (United States)

    Hansmann, Jan; Groeber, Florian; Kahlig, Alexander; Kleinhans, Claudia; Walles, Heike


    Bioreactor technology is vital for tissue engineering. Usually, bioreactors are used to provide a tissue-specific physiological in vitro environment during tissue maturation. In addition to this most obvious application, bioreactors have the potential to improve the efficiency of the overall tissue-engineering concept. To date, a variety of bioreactor systems for tissue-specific applications have been developed. Of these, some systems are already commercially available. With bioreactor technology, various functional tissues of different types were generated and cultured in vitro. Nevertheless, these efforts and achievements alone have not yet led to many clinically successful tissue-engineered implants. We review possible applications for bioreactor systems within a tissue-engineering process and present basic principles and requirements for bioreactor development. Moreover, the use of bioreactor systems for the expansion of clinically relevant cell types is addressed. In contrast to cell expansion, for the generation of functional three-dimensional tissue equivalents, additional physical cues must be provided. Therefore, bioreactors for musculoskeletal tissue engineering are discussed. Finally, bioreactor technology is reviewed in the context of commercial constraints. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Morphology of a Wetland Stream (United States)

    Jurmu; Andrle


    / Little attention has been paid to wetland stream morphology in the geomorphological and environmental literature, and in the recently expanding wetland reconstruction field, stream design has been based primarily on stream morphologies typical of nonwetland alluvial environments. Field investigation of a wetland reach of Roaring Brook, Stafford, Connecticut, USA, revealed several significant differences between the morphology of this stream and the typical morphology of nonwetland alluvial streams. Six morphological features of the study reach were examined: bankfull flow, meanders, pools and riffles, thalweg location, straight reaches, and cross-sectional shape. It was found that bankfull flow definitions originating from streams in nonwetland environments did not apply. Unusual features observed in the wetland reach include tight bends and a large axial wavelength to width ratio. A lengthy straight reach exists that exceeds what is typically found in nonwetland alluvial streams. The lack of convex bank point bars in the bends, a greater channel width at riffle locations, an unusual thalweg location, and small form ratios (a deep and narrow channel) were also differences identified. Further study is needed on wetland streams of various regions to determine if differences in morphology between alluvial and wetland environments can be applied in order to improve future designs of wetland channels.KEY WORDS: Stream morphology; Wetland restoration; Wetland creation; Bankfull; Pools and riffles; Meanders; Thalweg

  15. High performance liquid chromatography profiling of health-promoting phytochemicals and evaluation of antioxidant, anti-lipoxygenase, iron chelating and anti-glucosidase activities of wetland macrophytes. (United States)

    Ooh, Keng-Fei; Ong, Hean-Chooi; Wong, Fai-Chu; Sit, Nam-Weng; Chai, Tsun-Thai


    The phytochemistry and bioactivity of wetland macrophytes are underexplored. Plants are known as the natural sources of phytochemical beneficial to health. The objective of this study is to analyze the phytochemical profiles and bioactivities of 10 extracts prepared from different plant parts of wetland macrophytes Hanguana malayana, Ludwigia adscendens and Monochoria hastata. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the phytochemical profile of the extracts. Antioxidant assay such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power were performed. Bioactivity assays carried out were anti-lipoxygenase, anti-glucosidase, and iron chelating. Leaf extract of L. adscendens had the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (half of maximal effective concentration [EC50] =0.97 mg/mL) and NO (EC50 = 0.31 mg/mL) scavenging activities. The extract also exhibited the highest iron chelating (EC50 = 3.24 mg/mL) and anti-glucosidase (EC50 = 27.5 μg/mL) activities. The anti-glucosidase activity of L. adscendens leaf extract was comparable or superior to those of acarbose, myricetin and quercetin. Correlation between iron chelating and radical scavenging activities among the extracts implies the presence of dual-function phytoconstituents with concurrent iron chelating and radical scavenging activities. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of p-coumaric acid (p-CA), gallic acid (GA) and myricetin in all or most extracts. M. hastata fruit and leaf extracts had the highest p-hydroxybenzoic acid content. Antioxidant and anti-glucosidase activities of the extracts were correlated with p-CA, GA, and myricetin contents. Our study demonstrated that wetland macrophytes H. malayana, L. adscendens and M. hastata are potential sources of health-promoting phytochemicals with potent therapeutically-relevant bioactivities.

  16. High performance liquid chromatography profiling of health-promoting phytochemicals and evaluation of antioxidant, anti-lipoxygenase, iron chelating and anti-glucosidase activities of wetland macrophytes (United States)

    Ooh, Keng-Fei; Ong, Hean-Chooi; Wong, Fai-Chu; Sit, Nam-Weng; Chai, Tsun-Thai


    Background: The phytochemistry and bioactivity of wetland macrophytes are underexplored. Plants are known as the natural sources of phytochemical beneficial to health. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze the phytochemical profiles and bioactivities of 10 extracts prepared from different plant parts of wetland macrophytes Hanguana malayana, Ludwigia adscendens and Monochoria hastata. Materials and Methods: High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the phytochemical profile of the extracts. Antioxidant assay such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power were performed. Bioactivity assays carried out were anti-lipoxygenase, anti-glucosidase, and iron chelating. Results: Leaf extract of L. adscendens had the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (half of maximal effective concentration [EC50] =0.97 mg/mL) and NO (EC50 = 0.31 mg/mL) scavenging activities. The extract also exhibited the highest iron chelating (EC50 = 3.24 mg/mL) and anti-glucosidase (EC50 = 27.5 μg/mL) activities. The anti-glucosidase activity of L. adscendens leaf extract was comparable or superior to those of acarbose, myricetin and quercetin. Correlation between iron chelating and radical scavenging activities among the extracts implies the presence of dual-function phytoconstituents with concurrent iron chelating and radical scavenging activities. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of p-coumaric acid (p-CA), gallic acid (GA) and myricetin in all or most extracts. M. hastata fruit and leaf extracts had the highest p-hydroxybenzoic acid content. Antioxidant and anti-glucosidase activities of the extracts were correlated with p-CA, GA, and myricetin contents. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that wetland macrophytes H. malayana, L. adscendens and M. hastata are potential sources of health-promoting phytochemicals with potent therapeutically-relevant bioactivities. PMID:25298659

  17. Effects of hydraulic retention time on anaerobic hydrogenation performance and microbial ecology of bioreactors fed with glucose-peptone and starch-peptone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shiue-Lin; Chao, Yu-Chieh; Wang, Yu-Hsuan; Hsiao, Chia-Jung; Bai, Ming-Der [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 701 (China); Whang, Liang-Ming; Wang, Yung-Fu; Cheng, Sheng-Shung [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 701 (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center (SERC), National Cheng-Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 701 (China); Tseng, I.-Cheng [Sustainable Environment Research Center (SERC), National Cheng-Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 701 (China); Department of Life Science, National Cheng-Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 701 (China)


    This study evaluated anaerobic hydrogenation performance and microbial ecology in bioreactors operated at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) conditions and fed with glucose-peptone (GP) and starch-peptone (SP). The maximum hydrogen production rates for GP- and SP-fed bioreactors were found to be 1247 and 412 mmol-H{sub 2}/L/d at HRT of 2 and 3 h, respectively. At HRT > 8 h, hydrogen consumption due to peptone fermentation could occur and thus reduced hydrogen yield from carbohydrate fermentation. Results of cloning/sequencing and denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) indicated that Clostridium sporogenes and Clostridium celerecrescens were dominant hydrogen-producing bacteria in the GP-fed bioreactor, presumably due to their capability on protein hydrolysis. In the SP-fed bioreactor, Lactobacillus plantarum, Propionispira arboris, and Clostridium butyricum were found to be dominant populations, but the presence of P. arboris at HRT > 3 h might be responsible for a lower hydrogen yield from starch fermentation. As a result, optimizing HRT operation for bioreactors was considered an important asset in order to minimize hydrogen-consuming activities and thus maximize net hydrogen production. The limitation of simple parameters such as butyrate to acetate ratio (B/A ratio) in predicting hydrogen production was recognized in this study for bioreactors fed with multiple substrates. It is suggested that microbial ecology analysis, in addition to chemical analysis, should be performed when complex substrates and mixed cultures are used in hydrogen-producing bioreactors. (author)

  18. 2011 Summary: Coastal wetland restoration research (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wiley, Michael J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Czayka, Alex; Dominguez, Andrea; Doty, Susan; Eggleston, Mike; Green, Sean; Sweetman, Amanda


    The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) projects currently taking place in Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide a unique opportunity to study ecosystem response to management actions as practitioners strive to improve wetland function and increase ecosystem services. Through a partnership between the U.S. Geological Survey – Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Ducks Unlimited, a GLRI-funded project has reestablished the hydrologic connection between an intensively managed impounded wetland (Pool 2B) and Crane Creek, a small Lake Erie tributary, by building a water-control structure that was opened in the spring of 2011. The study site is located within the USFWS Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge (ONWR) and lies within the boundaries of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-designated Maumee River Area of Concern. The broad objective of the project is to evaluate how hydrologically reconnecting a previously diked wetland impacts fish, mollusks, and other biota and affects nutrient transport, nutrient cycling, water quality, flood storage, and many other abiotic conditions. The results from this project suggest large system-wide benefits from sustainable reestablishment of lake-driven hydrology in this and other similar systems. We comprehensively sampled water chemistry, fish, birds, plants, and invertebrates in Crane Creek coastal wetlands, Pool 2A (a reference diked wetland), and Pool 2B (the reconnected wetland) in 2010 and 2011 to: 1) Characterize spatial and seasonal patterns for these parameters. 2) Examine ecosystem response to the opening of a water-control structure that allows fish passage Our sampling efforts have yielded data that reveal striking changes in water quality, hydrology, and fish assemblages in our experimental unit (2B). Prior to the reconnection, the water chemistry in pools 2A and 2B were very similar. Afterwards, we found that the water chemistry in reconnected Pool 2B was more

  19. Community-based wetland comanagement in Bangladesh


    Sherwood, D.B.


    Metadata only record This chapter explains new solutions to problems resulting from top-down approaches to resource conservation and sustainability. The management of natural resources - in this case, wetlands - is complicated and risky. To address the risks involved with resource management, a case study was done in Bangladesh to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based comanagement. Using multidisciplinary approaches and adaptive management strategies, the Management of Aquatic Ecos...

  20. Spatial relationships of levees and wetland systems within floodplains of the Wabash Basin, USA (United States)

    Bray, E. N.; Morrison, R. R.; Nardi, F.; Annis, A.; Dong, Q.


    Given the unique biogeochemical, physical, and hydrologic services provided by floodplain wetlands, proper management of river systems should include an understanding of how floodplain modifications influences wetland ecosystems. The construction of levees can reduce river-floodplain connectivity, yet it is unclear how levees affect wetlands within a river system, let alone the cumulative impacts within an entire watershed. This paper explores spatial relationships between levee and floodplain wetland systems in the Wabash basin, United States. We used a hydrogeomorphic floodplain delineation technique to map floodplain extents and identify wetlands that may be hydrologically connected to river networks. We then spatially examined the relationship between levee presence, wetland area, and other river network attributes within discrete HUC-12 sub-basins. Our results show that cumulative wetland area is relatively constant in sub-basins that contain levees, regardless of maximum stream order within the sub-basin. In sub-basins that do not contain levees, cumulative wetland area increases with maximum stream order. However, we found that wetland distributions around levees can be complex, and further studies on the influence of levees on wetland habitat may need to be evaluated at finer-resolution spatial scales.

  1. Treatment efficiency of effluent prawn culture by wetland with floating aquatic macrophytes arranged in series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MNP Henares

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m3 with three treatments (constructed wetlands and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm arranged sequentially, a wetland with E. crassipes only (Ec and a wetland with S. molesta only (Sm. The means of suspended particulate material (SPM, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, P-orthophosphate (PO4-P and total phosphorus (TP of the treated effluents were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (P<0.05. The effluent treated in Ec and EcSm wetlands exhibited lower SPM concentrations. The Ec wetland reduced TIN, TKN, PO4-P and TP by 46.0, 43.7, 44.4 and 43.6%, respectively. In the EcSm wetland, the reduction of TIN (23.0%, TKN (33.7% and PO4-P (26.7% was similar to the Sm wetland (19.8% TIN, 30.9% TKN and 23.8% PO4-P. The Ec wetland was more efficient in treating pond effluent due likely to the higher root surface of E. crassipes, which forms an extensive area favorable to retention and adsorption of debris and absorption of nutrients.

  2. Assessment of biodiversities and spatial structure of Zarivar Wetland in Kurdistan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Reyahi-Khoram M, Hoshmand K. 2012. Assessment of biodiversities and spatial structure of Zarivar Wetland in Kurdistan Province, Iran. Biodiversitas 13: 130-134. Wetlands are valuable ecosystems that occupy about 6% of the world’s land surface. Iran has over 250 wetlands measuring about 2.5 million hectares. Zarivar wetland (ZW is the only natural aquatic ecosystem in Kurdistan province in Iran. The present research was carried out during 2009 through 2010 with the aim of recognizing the capabilities and limitations of ZW through documentary, extensive field visits and also direct field observations during the years of study. Geographic Information System (GIS has been used to evaluate the land as a main tool. The results of this research showed that ZW has a great talent regarding diversity of bird species and the ecological status of wetland has caused the said wetland welcome numerous species of birds. The results of this research showed that industrial pollutions are not considered as threats to the wetland but evacuation of agricultural runoff and development of Marivan city toward the wetland and the resulting pollution load could be introduced as an important part of the wetland threats. It is recommended to make necessary studies in the field of various physical and biological parameters of the wetland, and also the facing threats and opportunities.

  3. Growth Responses of Three Dominant Wetland Plant Species to Various Flooding and Nutrient Levels (United States)

    Barrett, S.; Shaffer, G. P.


    Coastal Louisiana is experiencing a greater rate of wetland loss than any other wetland system in the United States. This is primarily due to anthropogenic stressors such as flood control levees, backfilling and development of wetlands, and other hydrologic modifications. Methods employed to mitigate wetland loss include the construction of river diversions and assimilation wetlands, which can provide consistent sources of freshwater influx and nutrients to impounded swamps and marshes. It is well known that prolonged flooding causes strain on wetland plant communities and facilitates or exacerbates wetland degradation. However, because river diversions and assimilation wetlands bring high nutrient loads along with freshwater, there is debate over whether prolonged flooding or high influx of nutrients is the primary cause of stress in river diversion and assimilation wetland discharge areas. This mesocosm experiment addresses this question by isolating the effects of flooding and nutrients on the biomass of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum), maidencane (Panicum hemitomon), and cordgrass (Spartina patens) over the course of a growing season. The results of this study provide clarity as to whether flooding stress, high nutrient loads, or both cause a reduction in wetland plant productivity. By evaluating the growth responses of T. distichum, P. hemitomon, and S. patens at varying nutrient regimes, we gain insight on how these more dominant species will react to high nutrient discharges from large river diversions, such as those proposed in Louisiana's 2017 Master Plan.

  4. Designing electrical stimulated bioreactors for nerve tissue engineering (United States)

    Sagita, Ignasius Dwi; Whulanza, Yudan; Dhelika, Radon; Nurhadi, Ibrahim


    Bioreactor provides a biomimetic ecosystem that is able to culture cells in a physically controlled system. In general, the controlled-parameters are temperature, pH, fluid flow, nutrition flow, etc. In this study, we develop a bioreactor that specifically targeted to culture neural stem cells. This bioreactor could overcome some limitations of conventional culture technology, such as petri dish, by providing specific range of observation area and a uniform treatment. Moreover, the microfluidic bioreactor, which is a small-controlled environment, is able to observe as small number of cells as possible. A perfusion flow is applied to mimic the physiological environment in human body. Additionally, this bioreactor also provides an electrical stimulation which is needed by neural stem cells. In conclusion, we found the correlation between the induced shear stress with geometric parameters of the bioreactor. Ultimately, this system shall be used to observe the interaction between stimulation and cell growth.

  5. Role of Bioreactors in Microbial Biomass and Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liang [Chongqing University, Chongqing, China; Zhang, Biao [Chongqing University, Chongqing, China; Zhu, Xun [Chongqing University, Chongqing, China; Chang, Haixing [Chongqing University of Technology; Ou, Shawn [ORNL; Wang, HONG [Chongqing University, Chongqing, China


    Bioenergy is the world’s largest contributor to the renewable and sustainable energy sector, and it plays a significant role in various energy industries. A large amount of research has contributed to the rapidly evolving field of bioenergy and one of the most important topics is the use of the bioreactor. Bioreactors play a critical role in the successful development of technologies for microbial biomass cultivation and energy conversion. In this chapter, after a brief introduction to bioreactors (basic concepts, configurations, functions, and influencing factors), the applications of the bioreactor in microbial biomass, microbial biofuel conversion, and microbial electrochemical systems are described. Importantly, the role and significance of the bioreactor in the bioenergy process are discussed to provide a better understanding of the use of bioreactors in managing microbial biomass and energy conversion.

  6. Model parameters for representative wetland plant functional groups (United States)

    Williams, Amber S.; Kiniry, James R.; Mushet, David M.; Smith, Loren M.; McMurry, Scott T.; Attebury, Kelly; Lang, Megan; McCarty, Gregory W.; Shaffer, Jill A.; Effland, William R.; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V.


    Wetlands provide a wide variety of ecosystem services including water quality remediation, biodiversity refugia, groundwater recharge, and floodwater storage. Realistic estimation of ecosystem service benefits associated with wetlands requires reasonable simulation of the hydrology of each site and realistic simulation of the upland and wetland plant growth cycles. Objectives of this study were to quantify leaf area index (LAI), light extinction coefficient (k), and plant nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) concentrations in natural stands of representative plant species for some major plant functional groups in the United States. Functional groups in this study were based on these parameters and plant growth types to enable process-based modeling. We collected data at four locations representing some of the main wetland regions of the United States. At each site, we collected on-the-ground measurements of fraction of light intercepted, LAI, and dry matter within the 2013–2015 growing seasons. Maximum LAI and k variables showed noticeable variations among sites and years, while overall averages and functional group averages give useful estimates for multisite simulation modeling. Variation within each species gives an indication of what can be expected in such natural ecosystems. For P and K, the concentrations from highest to lowest were spikerush (Eleocharis macrostachya), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), smartweed (Polygonum spp.), cattail (Typha spp.), and hardstem bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus). Spikerush had the highest N concentration, followed by smartweed, bulrush, reed canary grass, and then cattail. These parameters will be useful for the actual wetland species measured and for the wetland plant functional groups they represent. These parameters and the associated process-based models offer promise as valuable tools for evaluating environmental benefits of wetlands and for evaluating impacts of various agronomic practices in

  7. Characterization and Application of a Disposable Rotating Bed Bioreactor for Mesenchymal Stem Cell Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Neumann


    Full Text Available Recruitment of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC into the field of tissue engineering is a promising development since these cells can be expanded vivo to clinically relevant numbers and, after expansion, retain their ability to differentiate into various cell lineages. Safety requirements and the necessity to obtain high cell numbers without frequent subcultivation of cells raised the question of the possibility of expanding MSC in one-way (single-use disposable bioreactors. In this study, umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC were expanded in a disposable Z 2000 H bioreactor under dynamic conditions. Z was characterized regarding residence time and mixing in order to evaluate the optimal bioreactor settings, enabling optimal mass transfer in the absence of shear stress, allowing an reproducible expansion of MSC, while maintaining their stemness properties. Culture of the UC-MSC in disposable Z 2000 H bioreactor resulted in a reproducible 8-fold increase of cell numbers after 5 days. Cells were shown to maintain specific MSC surface marker expression as well as trilineage differentiation potential and lack stress-induced premature senescence.

  8. Characterization and Application of a Disposable Rotating Bed Bioreactor for Mesenchymal Stem Cell Expansion. (United States)

    Neumann, Anne; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Heilkenbrinker, Alexandra; Loenne, Maren; Kasper, Cornelia


    Recruitment of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) into the field of tissue engineering is a promising development since these cells can be expanded vivo to clinically relevant numbers and, after expansion, retain their ability to differentiate into various cell lineages. Safety requirements and the necessity to obtain high cell numbers without frequent subcultivation of cells raised the question of the possibility of expanding MSC in one-way (single-use) disposable bioreactors. In this study, umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC) were expanded in a disposable Z 2000 H bioreactor under dynamic conditions. Z was characterized regarding residence time and mixing in order to evaluate the optimal bioreactor settings, enabling optimal mass transfer in the absence of shear stress, allowing an reproducible expansion of MSC, while maintaining their stemness properties. Culture of the UC-MSC in disposable Z 2000 H bioreactor resulted in a reproducible 8-fold increase of cell numbers after 5 days. Cells were shown to maintain specific MSC surface marker expression as well as trilineage differentiation potential and lack stress-induced premature senescence.

  9. Water-level fluctuation in wetlands as a function of landscape condition in the prairie pothole region (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.


    We evaluated water-level fluctuation (maximum water depth - minimum water depth/catchment size) in 12 temporary, 12 seasonal, and 12 semipermanent wetlands equally distributed among landscapes dominated by tilled agricultural lands and landscapes dominated by grassland. Water levels fluctuated an average of 14.14 cm in wetlands within tilled agricultural landscapes, while water levels in wetlands within grassland landscapes fluctuated an average of only 4.27 cm. Tillage reduces the natural capacity of catch meets to mitigate surface flow into wetland basins during precipitation events, resulting in greater water-level fluctuations in wetlands with tilled catchments. In addition, water levels in temporary and seasonal wetlands fluctuated an average of 13.74 cm and 11.82 cm, respectively, while water levels in semipermanent wetlands fluctuated only 2.77 cm. Semipermanent wetlands receive a larger proportion of their water as input from ground water than do either temporary or seasonal wetlands. This input of water from the ground has a stabilizing effect on water-levels of semipermanent wetlands. Increases in water-level fluctuation due to tillage or due to alteration of ground-water hydrology may ultimately affect the composition of a wetland's flora and fauna. In this paper, we also describe an inexpensive device for determining absolute maximum and minimum water levels in wetlands.

  10. Modeling of a membrane bioreactor for production of biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, Paola Andrea; Moncada, Jorge Andres; Cardona, Carlos Ariel; Ruiz, Orlando Simon


    Through the use of an enzymatic catalyst lipase, produced by Candida Antarctica a membrane bioreactor was modeled and simulated to obtain biodiesel from palm oil and ethanol. A conversion of 0.97 was reached for a residence time of 10.64 min. The membrane bioreactor was compared to a CSTR reactor, where a conversion of 0.76 was obtained. It was concluded that the membrane bioreactor is a better way of producing biodiesel than the CSTR

  11. Catalytic bioreactors and methods of using same (United States)

    Worden, Robert Mark; Liu, Yangmu Chloe


    Various embodiments provide a bioreactor for producing a bioproduct comprising one or more catalytically active zones located in a housing and adapted to keep two incompatible gaseous reactants separated when in a gas phase, wherein each of the one or more catalytically active zones may comprise a catalytic component retainer and a catalytic component retained within and/or thereon. Each of the catalytically active zones may additionally or alternatively comprise a liquid medium located on either side of the catalytic component retainer. Catalytic component may include a microbial cell culture located within and/or on the catalytic component retainer, a suspended catalytic component suspended in the liquid medium, or a combination thereof. Methods of using various embodiments of the bioreactor to produce a bioproduct, such as isobutanol, are also provided.

  12. Roofvogels in de Nederlandse wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Cornelis; Beemster, Nicolaas; Zijlstra, Menno; van Eerden, M; Daan, Serge


    Roofvogels in de Nederlandse wetlands (1995). C. Dijkstra, N. Beemster, M. Zijlstra, M. van Eerden, S. Daan RWS, RDIJ, Flevobericht nr. 381. ISBN 90-369-1147-8. Dit Flevobericht vormt de eindrapportage van het onderzoeksproject " De betekenis van grootschalige wetlands voor roofvogels". De verwerkte

  13. Carbon Storage in US Wetlands. (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Wetland soils contain some of the highest stores of soil carbon in the biosphere. However, there is little understanding of the quantity and distribution of carbon stored in US wetlands or of the potential effects of human disturbance on these stocks. ...

  14. Engineering stem cell niches in bioreactors


    Liu, Meimei; Liu, Ning; Zang, Ru; Li, Yan; Yang, Shang-Tian


    Stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and amniotic fluid stem cells have the potential to be expanded and differentiated into various cell types in the body. Efficient differentiation of stem cells with the desired tissue-specific function is critical for stem cell-based cell therapy, tissue engineering, drug discovery and disease modeling. Bioreactors provide a great platform to regulate the stem cell microenvironment, known as “ni...

  15. Disposable bioreactors: maturation into pharmaceutical glycoprotein manufacturing. (United States)

    Brecht, René


    Modern biopharmaceutical development is characterised by deep understanding of the structure activity relationship of biological drugs. Therefore, the production process has to be tailored more to the product requirements than to the existing equipment in a certain facility. In addition, the major challenges for the industry are to lower the high production costs of biologics and to shorten the overall development time. The flexibility for providing different modes of operation using disposable bioreactors in the same facility can fulfil these demands and support tailor-made processes.Over the last 10 years, a huge and still increasing number of disposable bioreactors have entered the market. Bioreactor volumes of up to 2,000 L can be handled by using disposable bag systems. Each individual technology has been made available for different purposes up to the GMP compliant production of therapeutic drugs, even for market supply. This chapter summarises disposable technology development over the last decade by comparing the different technologies and showing trends and concepts for the future.

  16. Climate Change and Intertidal Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline M. Ross


    Full Text Available Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause—the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the “squeeze” experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change.

  17. Climate change and intertidal wetlands. (United States)

    Ross, Pauline M; Adam, Paul


    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause-the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the "squeeze" experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change.

  18. Guidelines for Developing Wetlands in Agricultural Catchments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This publication presents the results of an international research project on optimizing the capture and storage of water by assessing nutrient using water conservation zones in agricultural landscapes. Eight countries from Asia-Pacific, Africa and Europe participated in the project. Field studies were established in all participating countries using isotopic and nuclear techniques to assess three types of water conservation zones that are used to harvest water for irrigation, crop production and improve downstream water quality. In addition, isotopic and nuclear techniques were used to collect data to identify the ideal locations in the landscapes for developing wetlands. The publication provides information to researchers working in the area of soil and water management, natural resource managers, policy makers and farmers. For those working to develop wetlands, information is provided to support planning, monitoring and evaluation.

  19. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Evaluating Wetland Restoration Projects in the Columbia River Estuary using Hydroacoustic Telemetry Arrays to Estimate Movement, Survival, and Residence Times of Juvenile Salmonids, Volume XXII (22).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Russell W.; Skalski, John R.


    Wetlands in the Columbia River estuary are actively being restored by reconnecting these habitats to the estuary, making more wetland habitats available to rearing and migrating juvenile salmon. Concurrently, thousands of acoustically tagged juvenile salmonids are released into the Columbia River to estimate their survival as they migrate through the estuary. Here, we develop a release-recapture model that makes use of these tagged fish to measure the success of wetland restoration projects in terms of their contribution to populations of juvenile salmon. Specifically, our model estimates the fraction of the population that enter the wetland, survival within the wetland, and the mean residence time of fish within the wetland. Furthermore, survival in mainstem Columbia River downstream of the wetland can be compared between fish that remained the mainstem and entered the wetland. These conditional survival estimates provide a means of testing whether the wetland improves the subsequent survival of juvenile salmon by fostering growth or improving their condition. Implementing such a study requires little additional cost because it takes advantage of fish already released to estimate survival through the estuary. Thus, such a study extracts the maximum information at minimum cost from research projects that typically cost millions of dollars annually.

  20. A meta-analysis of coastal wetland ecosystem services in Liaoning Province, China (United States)

    Sun, Baodi; Cui, Lijuan; Li, Wei; Kang, Xiaoming; Pan, Xu; Lei, Yinru


    Wetlands are impacted by economic and political initiatives, and their ecosystem services are attracting increasing public attention. It is crucial that management decisions for wetland ecosystem services quantify the economic value of the ecosystem services. In this paper, we aimed to estimate a monetary value for coastal wetland ecosystem services in Liaoning Province, China. We selected 433 observations from 85 previous coastal wetland economic evaluations (mostly in China) including detailed spatial and economic characteristics in each wetland, then used a meta-analysis scale transfer method to calculate the total value of coastal wetland ecosystem services in Liaoning Province. Our results demonstrated that, on average, the ecosystem services provided by seven different coastal wetland types were worth US40,648 per ha per year, and the total value was 28,990,439,041 in 2013. Shallow marine waters accounted for the largest proportion (83.97%). Variables with a significant positive effect on the ecosystem service values included GDP per capita, population density, distance from the wetland to the city center and the year of evaluation, while wetland size and latitude had negative relationships.

  1. Ten-Year Summary and Evaluation of Operations and Performance of the Utica Aquifer and North Lake Basin Wetlands Restoration Project, 2004-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    This document reviews the performance of the groundwater (and wetlands) restoration program implemented by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Utica, Nebraska, during the first ten years of this initiative (2004-2014). The results of the program for the first five-year period of operation were previously discussed in detail (Argonne 2011). The present report focuses on treatment system operational data and regulatory compliance monitoring results for the site during the second five-year period of operation (2010-2014), together with the results of (1) ongoing monitoring and (2) targeted groundwater sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analyses conducted at Utica in 2015 (following completion of the tenth year of systems operation), to assess the 10-year progress of the Utica remediation effort.

  2. In Vitro Model for Hepatotoxicity Studies Based on Primary Human Hepatocyte Cultivation in a Perfused 3D Bioreactor System. (United States)

    Knöspel, Fanny; Jacobs, Frank; Freyer, Nora; Damm, Georg; De Bondt, An; van den Wyngaert, Ilse; Snoeys, Jan; Monshouwer, Mario; Richter, Marco; Strahl, Nadja; Seehofer, Daniel; Zeilinger, Katrin


    Accurate prediction of the potential hepatotoxic nature of new pharmaceuticals remains highly challenging. Therefore, novel in vitro models with improved external validity are needed to investigate hepatic metabolism and timely identify any toxicity of drugs in humans. In this study, we examined the effects of diclofenac, as a model substance with a known risk of hepatotoxicity in vivo, in a dynamic multi-compartment bioreactor using primary human liver cells. Biotransformation pathways of the drug and possible effects on metabolic activities, morphology and cell transcriptome were evaluated. Formation rates of diclofenac metabolites were relatively stable over the application period of seven days in bioreactors exposed to 300 µM diclofenac (300 µM bioreactors (300 µM BR)), while in bioreactors exposed to 1000 µM diclofenac (1000 µM BR) metabolite concentrations declined drastically. The biochemical data showed a significant decrease in lactate production and for the higher dose a significant increase in ammonia secretion, indicating a dose-dependent effect of diclofenac application. The microarray analyses performed revealed a stable hepatic phenotype of the cells over time and the observed transcriptional changes were in line with functional readouts of the system. In conclusion, the data highlight the suitability of the bioreactor technology for studying the hepatotoxicity of drugs in vitro.

  3. In Vitro Model for Hepatotoxicity Studies Based on Primary Human Hepatocyte Cultivation in a Perfused 3D Bioreactor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Knöspel


    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of the potential hepatotoxic nature of new pharmaceuticals remains highly challenging. Therefore, novel in vitro models with improved external validity are needed to investigate hepatic metabolism and timely identify any toxicity of drugs in humans. In this study, we examined the effects of diclofenac, as a model substance with a known risk of hepatotoxicity in vivo, in a dynamic multi-compartment bioreactor using primary human liver cells. Biotransformation pathways of the drug and possible effects on metabolic activities, morphology and cell transcriptome were evaluated. Formation rates of diclofenac metabolites were relatively stable over the application period of seven days in bioreactors exposed to 300 µM diclofenac (300 µM bioreactors (300 µM BR, while in bioreactors exposed to 1000 µM diclofenac (1000 µM BR metabolite concentrations declined drastically. The biochemical data showed a significant decrease in lactate production and for the higher dose a significant increase in ammonia secretion, indicating a dose-dependent effect of diclofenac application. The microarray analyses performed revealed a stable hepatic phenotype of the cells over time and the observed transcriptional changes were in line with functional readouts of the system. In conclusion, the data highlight the suitability of the bioreactor technology for studying the hepatotoxicity of drugs in vitro.

  4. Remote sensing of wetlands applications and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Tiner, Ralph W; Klemas, Victor V


    Effectively Manage Wetland Resources Using the Best Available Remote Sensing Techniques Utilizing top scientists in the wetland classification and mapping field, Remote Sensing of Wetlands: Applications and Advances covers the rapidly changing landscape of wetlands and describes the latest advances in remote sensing that have taken place over the past 30 years for use in mapping wetlands. Factoring in the impact of climate change, as well as a growing demand on wetlands for agriculture, aquaculture, forestry, and development, this text considers the challenges that wetlands pose for remote sensing and provides a thorough introduction on the use of remotely sensed data for wetland detection. Taking advantage of the experiences of more than 50 contributing authors, the book describes a variety of techniques for mapping and classifying wetlands in a multitude of environments ranging from tropical to arctic wetlands including coral reefs and submerged aquatic vegetation. The authors discuss the advantages and di...

  5. Synthesis of supermacroporous cryogel for bioreactors continuous starch hydrolysis. (United States)

    Guilherme, Ederson Paulo Xavier; de Oliveira, Jocilane Pereira; de Carvalho, Lorendane Millena; Brandi, Igor Viana; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Sousa; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Cota, Junio; Mara Aparecida de Carvalho, Bruna


    A bioreactor was built by means of immobilizing alpha-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae by encapsulation, through cryopolymerization of acrylamide monomers for the continuous starch hydrolysis. The starch hydrolysis was evaluated regarding pH, the concentration of immobilized amylase on cryogel, the concentration of starch solution and temperature. The maximum value for starch hydrolysis was achieved at pH 5.0, concentration of immobilized enzyme 111.44 mg amylase /g cryogel , concentration of starch solution 45 g/L and temperature of 35°C. The immobilized enzyme showed a conversion ratio ranging from 68.2 to 97.37%, depending on the pH and temperature employed. Thus, our results suggest that the alpha-amylase from A. oryzae immobilized on cryogel monoliths represents a potential process for industrial production of maltose from starch hydrolysis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Leachate pretreatment for enhancing organic matter conversion in landfill bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Pinjing; Qu Xian; Shao Liming; Li Guojian; Lee Duujong


    Direct recycling of leachate from refuse of high food waste content was shown to ineffectively stabilize the refuse. This work aims at evaluating the effects of three pretreatments of leachate on the refuse stabilization efficiency were investigated. Pretreatment of leachate using an anaerobic upflow filtration bioreactor (UFB) or a well-decomposed waste layer could reduce the COD and provide methanogens, both were beneficial to establish early methanogenesis status. Using an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) to pretreat the leachate could reduce its COD to 1000 mg l -1 , but the fully developed methanogenesis phase would be built up in a later stage. The organic matters in the effluent leachate inhibited both the hydrolysis/acidogenesis and the methanogenesis steps in the refuse. With the dilution and acid neutralization effects by the recycled leachate, a favorable methanogenetic environment could be produced from the column's top, which moved downward along, and finally made the breakthrough of the column

  7. Model system studies with a phase separated membrane bioreactor (United States)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, Eric H.


    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestial simulation.

  8. Phase separated membrane bioreactor - Results from model system studies (United States)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, E. H.


    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestrial simulation.

  9. Treatment of dairy wastewater with a membrane bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Andrade


    Full Text Available Among the food industries, the dairy industry is considered to be the most polluting one because of the large volume of wastewater generated and its high organic load. In this study, an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR was used for the treatment of wastewater from a large dairy industry and two hydraulic retention times (HRT, 6 and 8 hours, were evaluated. For both HRTs removal efficiencies of organic matter of 99% were obtained. Despite high permeate flux (27.5 L/h.m², the system operated fairly stablely. The molecular weight distribution of feed, permeate and mixed liquor showed that only the low molecular weight fraction is efficiently degraded by biomass and that the membrane has an essential role in producing a permeate of excellent quality.

  10. Phase separated membrane bioreactor: Results from model system studies (United States)

    Petersen, G. R.; Seshan, P. K.; Dunlop, E. H.

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the oxygen is film diffusion controlled both externally and internally to the tubing and not by diffusion across the tube walls. Methods of upgrading the design to eliminate these resistances are proposed. Cell growth was obtained in the fermenter using Saccharomyces cerevisiae showing that this concept is capable of sustaining cell growth in the terrestial simulation.

  11. Analysis of chemical reaction kinetics of depredating organic pollutants from secondary effluent of wastewater treatment plant in constructed wetlands. (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Jiang, Dengling; Yang, Yong; Cao, Guoping


    Four subsurface constructed wetlands were built to treat the secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant in Tangshan, China. The chemical pollutant indexes of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were analyzed to evaluate the removal efficiency of organic pollutants from the secondary effluent of the wastewater treatment plant. In all cases, the subsurface constructed wetlands were efficient in treating organic pollutants. Under the same hydraulic loading condition, the horizontal flow wetlands exhibited better efficiency of COD removal than vertical flow wetlands: the removal rates in horizontal flow wetlands could be maintained at 68.4 ± 2.42% to 92.2 ± 1.61%, compared with 63.8 ± 1.19% to 85.0 ± 1.25% in the vertical flow wetlands. Meanwhile, the chemical reaction kinetics of organic pollutants was analyzed, and the results showed that the degradation courses of the four subsurface wetlands all corresponded with the first order reaction kinetics to a large extent.

  12. Atrazine remediation in wetland microcosms. (United States)

    Runes, H B; Bottomley, P J; Lerch, R N; Jenkins, J J


    Laboratory wetland microcosms were used to study treatment of atrazine in irrigation runoff by a field-scale-constructed wetland under controlled conditions. Three experiments, in which 1 ppm atrazine was added to the water column of three wetland, one soil control, and one water control microcosm, were conducted. Atrazine dissipation from the water column and degradate formation (deethylatrazine [DEA]; deisopropylatrazine [DIA]; and hydroxyatrazine [HA]) were monitored. Atrazine dissipation from the water column of wetland microcosms was biphasic. Less than 12% of the atrazine applied to wetland microcosms remained in the water column on day 56. Atrazine degradates were observed in water and sediment, with HA the predominant degradate. Analysis of day 56 sediment samples indicated that a significant portion of the initial application was detected as the parent compound and HA. Most probable number (MPN) assays demonstrated that atrazine degrader populations were small in wetland sediment. Wetland microcosms were able to reduce atrazine concentration in the water column via sorption and degradation. Based on results from this study, it is hypothesized that plant uptake contributed to atrazine dissipation from the water column.

  13. The emergence of treatment wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, S.


    Judging by the growing number of wetlands built for wastewater treatment around the world, this natural technology seems to have firmly established roots. After almost 30 years of use in wastewater treatment, constructed treatment wetlands now number over 500 in Europe and 600 in North America. Marsh-type surface flow systems are most common in North America, but subsurface flow wetlands, where wastewater flows beneath the surface of a gravel-rock bed, predominate in Europe. The inexpensive, low maintenance technology is in high demand in Central America, Eastern Europe, and Asia. New applications, from nitrate-contaminated ground water to effluent from high-intensity livestock operations, are also increasing. But in the United States, treatment-wetland technology has not yet gained national regulatory acceptance. Some states and EPA regions are eager to endorse them, but others are wary of this nontraditional method of treating wastewater. In part, this reluctance exists because the technology is not yet completely understood. Treatment wetlands also pose a potential threat to wildlife attracted to this new habitat -an ecosystem exposed to toxic compounds. New efforts are under way, however, to place the technology onto firmer scientific and regulatory ground. Long-term demonstration and monitoring field studies are currently probing the inner workings of wetlands and their water quality capabilities to provide better data on how to design more effective systems. A recent study of US policy and regulatory issues surrounding treatment wetlands has recommended that the federal government actively promote the technology and clear the regulatory roadblocks to enable wider use. Proponents argue that the net environmental benefits of constructed wetlands, such as restoring habitat and increasing wetlands inventory, should be considered. 8 refs., 6 photos

  14. Using Tradtional Ecological Knowledge to Protect Wetlands: the Swinomish Tribe's Wetland Cultural Assessment Project (United States)

    Mitchell, T.


    "Traditional" wetland physical assessment modules do not adequately identify Tribal cultural values of wetlands and thus wetlands may not be adequately protected for cultural uses. This Swinomish Wetlands Cultural Assessment Project has developed a cultural resource scoring module that can be incorporated into wetland assessments to better inform wetland protections. Local native knowledge was gathered about the traditional uses of 99 native wetland plant species. A cultural scoring matrix was developed based on the presence of traditionally used plants in several use categories including: construction, ceremonial, subsistence, medicinal, common use, plant rarity, and place of value for each wetland. The combined score of the cultural and physcial modules provides an overall wetland score that relates to proscribed buffer protection widths. With this local native knowledge incorporated into wetland assessments, we are protecting and preserving Swinomish Reservation wetlands for both cultural uses and ecological functionality through the Tribe's wetland protection law.

  15. Carbon sequestration in surface flow constructed wetland after 12 years of swine wastewater treatment (United States)

    Constructed wetlands used for the treatment of swine wastewater may potentially sequester significant amounts of carbon. In past studies, we evaluated the treatment efficiency of wastewater in marsh-pond-marsh design wetland system. The functionality of this system was highly dependent on soil carbo...

  16. Pharmaceutical proteins produced in plant bioreactor in recent years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant bioreactor, also called molecular farming, has enormous potential to produce recombinant proteins infinitely. Products expressed in plants have natural physico-chemical properties and bioactivities. Plant bioreactor could be a safe, economic and convenient production system, and can been widely applied in ...

  17. Wastewater treatments by membrane bioreactors (MBR); Bioreactores de membrana (MBR) para la depuracion de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardino Ferre, R.


    Wastewater treatments by membrane bioreactors (MBR), are a good alternative of treatment to the conventional processes when wish to obtain very high quality of the treated water or to try high load contaminants in low flow. Simultaneously, the article explains the significant reduction of the wastewater treatment plant space, eliminating the secondary septic tank. (Author) 7 refs.

  18. Evapotranspiration from drained wetlands: drivers, modeling, storage functions, and restoration implications (United States)

    Shukla, S.; Wu, C. L.; Shrestha, N.


    Abstract Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major component of wetland and watershed water budgets. The effect of wetland drainage on ET is not well understood. We tested whether the current understanding of insignificant effect of drainage on ET in the temperate region wetlands applies to those in the sub-tropics. Eddy covariance (EC) based ET measurements were made for two years at two previously drained and geographically close wetlands in the Everglades region of Florida. One wetland was significantly drained with 97% of its storage capacity lost. The other was a more functional wetland with 42% of storage capacity lost. Annual average ET at the significantly drained wetland was 836 mm, 34% less than the function wetland (1271 mm) and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Such differences in wetland ET in the same climatic region have not been observed. The difference in ET was mainly due to drainage driven differences in inundation and associated effects on net radiation (Rn) and local relative humidity. Two daily ET models, a regression (r2 = 0.80) and a Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) model (r2 = 0.84), were developed with the latter being more robust. These models, when used in conjunction with hydrologic models, improved ET predictions for drained wetlands. Predictions from an integrated model showed that more intensely drained wetlands at higher elevation should be targeted for restoration of downstream flows (flooding) because they have the ability to loose higher water volume through ET which increases available water storage capacity of wetlands. Daily ET models can predict changes in ET for improved evaluation of basin-scale effects of restoration programs and climate change scenarios.

  19. Modeling the effects of tile drain placement on the hydrologic function of farmed prairie wetlands (United States)

    Werner, Brett; Tracy, John; Johnson, W. Carter; Voldseth, Richard A.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Millett, Bruce


    The early 2000s saw large increases in agricultural tile drainage in the eastern Dakotas of North America. Agricultural practices that drain wetlands directly are sometimes limited by wetland protection programs. Little is known about the impacts of tile drainage beyond the delineated boundaries of wetlands in upland catchments that may be in agricultural production. A series of experiments were conducted using the well-published model WETLANDSCAPE that revealed the potential for wetlands to have significantly shortened surface water inundation periods and lower mean depths when tile is placed in certain locations beyond the wetland boundary. Under the soil conditions found in agricultural areas of South Dakota in North America, wetland hydroperiod was found to be more sensitive to the depth that drain tile is installed relative to the bottom of the wetland basin than to distance-based setbacks. Because tile drainage can change the hydrologic conditions of wetlands, even when deployed in upland catchments, tile drainage plans should be evaluated more closely for the potential impacts they might have on the ecological services that these wetlands currently provide. Future research should investigate further how drainage impacts are affected by climate variability and change.

  20. U.S. Pacific coastal wetland resilience and vulnerability to sea-level rise (United States)

    Thorne, Karen M.; MacDonald, Glen M.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Ambrose, Richard F.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Freeman, Chase; Janousek, Christopher; Brown, Lauren N.; Rosencranz, Jordan A.; Homquist, James; Smol, John P.; Hargan, Kathryn; Takekawa, John Y.


    We used a first-of-its-kind comprehensive scenario approach to evaluate both the vertical and horizontal response of tidal wetlands to projected changes in the rate of sea-level rise (SLR) across 14 estuaries along the Pacific coast of the continental United States. Throughout the U.S. Pacific region, we found that tidal wetlands are highly vulnerable to end-of-century submergence, with resulting extensive loss of habitat. Using higher-range SLR scenarios, all high and middle marsh habitats were lost, with 83% of current tidal wetlands transitioning to unvegetated habitats by 2110. The wetland area lost was greater in California and Oregon (100%) but still severe in Washington, with 68% submerged by the end of the century. The only wetland habitat remaining at the end of the century was low marsh under higher-range SLR rates. Tidal wetland loss was also likely under more conservative SLR scenarios, including loss of 95% of high marsh and 60% of middle marsh habitats by the end of the century. Horizontal migration of most wetlands was constrained by coastal development or steep topography, with just two wetland sites having sufficient upland space for migration and the possibility for nearly 1:1 replacement, making SLR threats particularly high in this region and generally undocumented. With low vertical accretion rates and little upland migration space, Pacific coast tidal wetlands are at imminent risk of submergence with projected rates of rapid SLR.

  1. Influence of agriculture on aquatic invertebrate communities of temporary wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, USA (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.


    We evaluated the influence of intensive agriculture on invertebrate communities of temporary wetlands as indicated by aquatic invertebrate resting eggs, shells, and cases remaining after wetlands dried. To facilitate the comparison, we sampled 19 wetlands within cropland areas and 19 wetlands within grassland areas. We found resting eggs, shells, and cases of significantly more taxa and greater numbers of cladoceran resting eggs (ephippia), planorbid and physid snail shells, and ostracod shells in wetlands within grasslands than in croplands. We also successfully incubated greater numbers of cladocerans and ostracods from soil samples collected from grassland sites. We were unable to detect differences in the viability of cladoceran ephippia between grassland and cropland wetlands, but our sample size was small due to an absence of ephippia in most cropland wetlands sampled; 74% of the cropland wetlands were devoid of cladoceran ephippia whereas ephippia were well represented in nearly all of our grassland sites. Our results corroborate findings of other investigators that prairie pothole wetlands have been negatively impacted by human activ-, ities. Our study demonstrates that aquatic invertebrates of temporary wetlands have, been negatively impacted by intensive agriculture and suggests that future studies need to assess the influence of agricultural practices on wetland-dependant wildlife.

  2. Wetland selection by breeding and foraging black terns in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States (United States)

    Steen, Valerie A.; Powell, Abby N.


    We examined wetland selection by the Black Tern (Chlidonias niger), a species that breeds primarily in the prairie pothole region, has experienced population declines, and is difficult to manage because of low site fidelity. To characterize its selection of wetlands in this region, we surveyed 589 wetlands throughout North and South Dakota. We documented breeding at 5% and foraging at 17% of wetlands. We created predictive habitat models with a machine-learning algorithm, Random Forests, to explore the relative role of local wetland characteristics and those of the surrounding landscape and to evaluate which characteristics were important to predicting breeding versus foraging. We also examined area-dependent wetland selection while addressing the passive sampling bias by replacing occurrence of terns in the models with an index of density. Local wetland variables were more important than landscape variables in predictions of occurrence of breeding and foraging. Wetland size was more important to prediction of foraging than of breeding locations, while floating matted vegetation was more important to prediction of breeding than of foraging locations. The amount of seasonal wetland in the landscape was the only landscape variable important to prediction of both foraging and breeding. Models based on a density index indicated that wetland selection by foraging terns may be more area dependent than that by breeding terns. Our study provides some of the first evidence for differential breeding and foraging wetland selection by Black Terns and for a more limited role of landscape effects and area sensitivity than has been previously shown.

  3. Desert wetlands in the geologic record (United States)

    Pigati, Jeff S.; Rech, Jason A.; Quade, Jay; Bright, Jordon; Edwards, L.; Springer, A.


    Desert wetlands support flora and fauna in a variety of hydrologic settings, including seeps, springs, marshes, wet meadows, ponds, and spring pools. Over time, eolian, alluvial, and fluvial sediments become trapped in these settings by a combination of wet ground conditions and dense plant cover. The result is a unique combination of clastic sediments, chemical precipitates, and organic matter that is preserved in the geologic record as ground-water discharge (GWD) deposits. GWD deposits contain information on the timing and magnitude of past changes in water-table levels and, therefore, are a potential source of paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic information. In addition, they can be important archeological and paleontological archives because desert wetlands provide reliable sources of fresh water, and thus act as focal points for human and faunal activities, in some of the world's harshest and driest lands. Here, we review some of the physical, sedimentological, and geochemical characteristics common to GWD deposits, and provide a contextual framework that researchers can use to identify and interpret geologic deposits associated with desert wetlands. We discuss several lines of evidence used to differentiate GWD deposits from lake deposits (they are commonly confused), and examine how various types of microbiota and depositional facies aid in reconstructing past environmental and hydrologic conditions. We also review how late Quaternary GWD deposits are dated, as well as methods used to investigate desert wetlands deeper in geologic time. We end by evaluating the strengths and limitations of hydrologic and climatic records derived from GWD deposits, and suggest several avenues of potential future research to further develop and utilize these unique and complex systems.

  4. Incorporating future change into current conservation planning: Evaluating tidal saline wetland migration along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coast under alternative sea-level rise and urbanization scenarios (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Griffith, Kereen T.; Osland, Michael J.


    In this study, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, quantified the potential for landward migration of tidal saline wetlands along the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coast under alternative future sea-level rise and urbanization scenarios. Our analyses focused exclusively on tidal saline wetlands (that is, mangrove forests, salt marshes, and salt flats), and we combined these diverse tidal saline wetland ecosystems into a single grouping, “tidal saline wetland.” Collectively, our approach and findings can provide useful information for scientists and environmental planners working to develop future-focused adaptation strategies for conserving coastal landscapes and the ecosystem goods and services provided by tidal saline wetlands. The primary product of this work is a public dataset that identifies locations where landward migration of tidal saline wetlands is expected to occur under alternative future sea-level rise and urbanization scenarios. In addition to identifying areas where landward migration of tidal saline wetlands is possible because of the absence of barriers, these data also identify locations where landward migration of these wetlands could be prevented by barriers associated with current urbanization, future urbanization, and levees.

  5. Low-cost sensor system for non-invasive monitoring of cell growth in disposable bioreactors


    Reinecke, Tobias; Biechele, Philipp; Schulte, V.; Scheper, Thomas; Zimmermann, Stefan


    To ensure productivity and product quality, the parameters of biotechnological processes need to be monitored. Along temperature or pH, one important parameter is the cell density in the culture medium. In this work, we present a low-cost sensor system for online cell growth monitoring in bioreactors via permittivity measurements based on coplanar transmission lines. To evaluate the sensor, E. coli cultivations are performed. We found a good correlation between optical density of the culture ...

  6. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor (United States)


    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  7. Tropical Wetlands as Carbon Sinks (United States)

    Jones, M. B.; Saunders, M.


    This presentation focuses on the tropical wetlands of sub-Saharan Africa. These are an understudied ecosystem in which large emergent grasses and sedges normally dominate and which have the potential to sequester significant amounts of carbon. Measurements of Net Primary Production of these wetlands show that they are some of the highest values recorded for any ecosystem. We have used eddy covariance to measure Net Ecosystem Exchange of pristine and disturbed wetlands and show that pristine systems can have sink strengths as strong as tropical forests while disturbed systems that have been reclaimed for agricultural purposes have a very much reduced carbon sink activity and may be net carbon sources. The management issues surrounding the use of these wetlands illustrate a direct conflict between the production of food crops for the local population and the maintenance of carbon sequestration as an ecosystem service.

  8. Bioreactor engineering of stem cell environments. (United States)

    Tandon, Nina; Marolt, Darja; Cimetta, Elisa; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana


    Stem cells hold promise to revolutionize modern medicine by the development of new therapies, disease models and drug screening systems. Standard cell culture systems have limited biological relevance because they do not recapitulate the complex 3-dimensional interactions and biophysical cues that characterize the in vivo environment. In this review, we discuss the current advances in engineering stem cell environments using novel biomaterials and bioreactor technologies. We also reflect on the challenges the field is currently facing with regard to the translation of stem cell based therapies into the clinic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Critical Review of Membrane Bioreactor Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naessens, W.; Maere, T.; Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios


    Membrane bioreactor technology exists for a couple of decades, but has not yet overwhelmed the market due to some serious drawbacks of which operational cost due to fouling is the major contributor. Knowledge buildup and optimisation for such complex systems can heavily benefit from mathematical...... modelling. In this paper, the vast literature on hydrodynamic and integrated modelling in MBR is critically reviewed. Hydrodynamic models are used at different scales and focus mainly on fouling and only little on system design/optimisation. Integrated models also focus on fouling although the ones...

  10. Hydrocarbon removal with constructed wetlands


    Eke, Paul Emeka


    Wetlands have long played a significant role as natural purification systems, and have been effectively used to treat domestic, agricultural and industrial wastewater. However, very little is known about the biochemical processes involved, and the use of constructed treatment wetlands in the removal of petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons from produced and/or processed water. Wastewaters from the oil industry contain aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and x...

  11. Five-year summary and evaluation of operations and performance of the Utica aquifer and North Lake Basin Wetlands restoration project in 2004-2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)


    This document reviews the performance of the groundwater (and wetlands) restoration program implemented by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Utica, Nebraska, during the first five years (2004-2009) of this initiative. The report summarizes treatment system operational data and regulatory compliance monitoring results for the site during this period, together with the results of the targeted groundwater sampling and analysis for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) conducted in early 2010 (following completion of the fifth year of systems operation), to assess the initial five years of progress of the Utica remediation effort. On the basis of the 2003 groundwater sampling results, a remedial system employing 4 extraction wells (GWEX1-GWEX4), with groundwater treatment by spray irrigation and conventional air stripping, was implemented with the concurrence of the CCC/USDA and the agencies (Table 1.1). The principal components of the system are shown in Figure 1.3 and are briefly described in Section 1.2. Operation of well GWEX4 and the associated air stripper began on October 29, 2004, and routine operation of wells GWEX1-GWEX3 and the spray irrigation treatment units began on November 22, 2004.

  12. Evaluating Trade-offs of a Large, Infrequent Diversion for Restoration of a Forested Wetland and Associated Ecosystem Services in the Mississippi delta (United States)

    Day, J.; Rutherford, J.; Weigman, A.; D'Elia, C.


    Flood control levees have eliminated the supply of sediment to Mississippi delta coastal wetlands, putting the delta on a trajectory for submergence in the 21st century. River diversions have been proposed as a method to provide a sustainable supply of sediment to the delta. Operating river diversions based on the size and frequency of natural crevasse events that were large (>5000 m3/s) and infrequent (active cost-benefit analysis (CBA) was conducted by combining model results with an ecosystem service valuation (ESV) and estimated costs. Land building is proportional to diversion size and inversely proportional to years inactive. Because benefits are assumed to scale linearly with land gain, and costs increase with diversion size, there are disadvantages to operating large diversions less often, compared to smaller diversions more often. However, infrequent operation would provide additional ES benefits to the broader Lake Pontchartrain ecosystem by minimizing long-term changes to water quality and salinity, reducing inundation time, and allowing for greater consolidation of soils between diversion pulses. Compared to diversions, marsh creation costs increase over time due to sea level rise and energy costs.

  13. Floodplain and Wetland Assessment for the Mortandad Wetland Enhancement and the DP Dissipater Projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathcock, Charles Dean [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    assessment to evaluate the potential impacts of implementing the proposed actions within the wetland and floodplain, as required by 10 CFR 1022.

  14. A data-model integration approach toward improved understanding on wetland functions and hydrological benefits at the catchment scale (United States)

    Yeo, I. Y.; Lang, M.; Lee, S.; Huang, C.; Jin, H.; McCarty, G.; Sadeghi, A.


    The wetland ecosystem plays crucial roles in improving hydrological function and ecological integrity for the downstream water and the surrounding landscape. However, changing behaviours and functioning of wetland ecosystems are poorly understood and extremely difficult to characterize. Improved understanding on hydrological behaviours of wetlands, considering their interaction with surrounding landscapes and impacts on downstream waters, is an essential first step toward closing the knowledge gap. We present an integrated wetland-catchment modelling study that capitalizes on recently developed inundation maps and other geospatial data. The aim of the data-model integration is to improve spatial prediction of wetland inundation and evaluate cumulative hydrological benefits at the catchment scale. In this paper, we highlight problems arising from data preparation, parameterization, and process representation in simulating wetlands within a distributed catchment model, and report the recent progress on mapping of wetland dynamics (i.e., inundation) using multiple remotely sensed data. We demonstrate the value of spatially explicit inundation information to develop site-specific wetland parameters and to evaluate model prediction at multi-spatial and temporal scales. This spatial data-model integrated framework is tested using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) with improved wetland extension, and applied for an agricultural watershed in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA. This study illustrates necessity of spatially distributed information and a data integrated modelling approach to predict inundation of wetlands and hydrologic function at the local landscape scale, where monitoring and conservation decision making take place.

  15. Mine-associated wetlands as avian habitat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstman, A.J.; Nawrot, J.R.; Woolf, A.


    Surveys for interior wetland birds at mine-associated emergent wetlands on coal surface mines in southern Illinois detected one state threatened and two state endangered species. Breeding by least bittern (Ixobrychus exilis) and common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) was confirmed. Regional assessment of potential wetland bird habitat south of Illinois Interstate 64 identified a total of 8,109 ha of emergent stable water wetlands; 10% were associated with mining. Mine-associated wetlands with persistent hydrology and large expanses of emergent vegetation provide habitat that could potentially compensate for loss of natural wetlands in Illinois

  16. Carbon dynamics, food web structure and reclamation strategies in Athabasca oil sands wetlands (CFRAW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciborowski, J.J.; Dixon, G.; Foote, L.; Liber, K.; Smits, J.E.


    The remediation and ecology of oilsands constructed wetlands was discussed with reference to a project known as the Carbon dynamics, Food web structure and Reclamation strategies in Athabasca oil sands Wetlands (CFRAW). This joint project between 7 mining partners and 5 universities documents how tailings in constructed wetlands modify maturation leading to natural conditions in a reclaimed landscape. Since wetlands are expected to make up 20-50 per cent of the final reclamation landscape of areas surface mined for oil sands in northeastern Alberta, the project focuses on how quickly wetlands amended with reclamation materials approach the conditions seen in reference wetland systems. This study provided a conceptual model of carbon pathways and budgets to evaluate how the allocation of carbon among compartments changes as newly formed wetlands mature in the boreal system. It is likely that succession and community development will accelerate if constructed wetlands are supplemented with stockpiled peat or topsoil. The bitumens and naphthenic acids found in wetlands constructed with mine tailings materials are initially toxic, but may ultimately serve as an alternate source of carbon once they degrade or are metabolized by bacteria. This study evaluated the sources, biological uptake, pathways, and movement through the food web of materials used by the biota in constructed wetlands, with particular reference to how productivity of new wetlands is maintained. Net ecosystem productivity is being monitored along with rates of organic carbon accumulation from microbial, algal, and macrophyte production, and influx of outside materials. The rates of leaf litter breakdown and microbial respiration are also being monitored to determine how constituents speed or slow food web processes of young and older wetlands. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope measurements indicate which sources are incorporated into the food web as wetlands age, and how this influences community

  17. Design and Validation of a Cyclic Strain Bioreactor to Condition Spatially-Selective Scaffolds in Dual Strain Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Matthew Goodhart


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to design and validate a unique bioreactor design for applying spatially selective, linear, cyclic strain to degradable and non-degradable polymeric fabric scaffolds. This system uses a novel three-clamp design to apply cyclic strain via a computer controlled linear actuator to a specified zone of a scaffold while isolating the remainder of the scaffold from strain. Image analysis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET woven scaffolds subjected to a 3% mechanical stretch demonstrated that the stretched portion of the scaffold experienced 2.97% ± 0.13% strain (mean ± standard deviation while the unstretched portion experienced 0.02% ± 0.18% strain. NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells were cultured on the PET scaffolds and half of each scaffold was stretched 5% at 0.5 Hz for one hour per day for 14 days in the bioreactor. Cells were checked for viability and proliferation at the end of the 14 day period and levels of glycosaminoglycan (GAG and collagen (hydroxyproline were measured as indicators of extracellular matrix production. Scaffolds in the bioreactor showed a seven-fold increase in cell number over scaffolds cultured statically in tissue culture plastic petri dishes (control. Bioreactor scaffolds showed a lower concentration of GAG deposition per cell as compared to the control scaffolds largely due to the great increase in cell number. A 75% increase in hydroxyproline concentration per cell was seen in the bioreactor stretched scaffolds as compared to the control scaffolds. Surprisingly, little differences were experienced between the stretched and unstretched portions of the scaffolds for this study. This was largely attributed to the conditioned and shared media effect. Results indicate that the bioreactor system is capable of applying spatially-selective, linear, cyclic strain to cells growing on polymeric fabric scaffolds and evaluating the cellular and matrix responses to the applied strains.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprihatin Suprihatin


    Full Text Available The low biodegradable wastewaters remain a challenge in wastewater treatment technology. The performance of membrane bioreactor systems with submerged hollow fiber micro- and ultrafiltration membrane modules were examined for purifying recalcitrant wastewaters of leachate of a municipal solid waste open dumping site and effluent of pulp and paper mill. The use of MF and UF membrane bioreactor systems showed an efficient treatment for both types wastewaters with COD reduction of 80-90%. The membrane process achieved the desirable effects of maintaining reasonably high biomass concentration and long sludge retention time, while producing a colloid or particle free effluent. For pulp and paper mill effluent a specific sludge production of 0.11 kg MLSS/kg COD removed was achieved. A permeate flux of about 5 L/m²h could be achieved with the submerged microfiltration membrane. Experiments using ultrafiltration membrane produced relatively low permeate fluxes of 2 L/m²h. By applying periodical backwash, the flux could be improved significantly. It was indicated that the particle or colloid deposition on membrane surface was suppressed by backwash, but reformation of deposit was not effectively be prevented by shear-rate effect of aeration. Particle and colloid started to accumulate soon after backwash. Construction of membrane module and operation mode played a critical role in achieving the effectiveness of aeration in minimizing deposit formation on the membrane surface.

  19. Use of wetlands for water quality improvement under the USEPA Region V Clean Lakes Program (United States)

    Landers, Judith C.; Knuth, Barbara A.


    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Region V Clean Lakes Program employs artificial and modified natural wetlands in an effort to improve the water quality of selected lakes. We examined use of wetlands at seven lake sites and evaluated the physical and institutional means by which wetland projects are implemented and managed, relative to USEPA program goals and expert recommendations on the use of wetlands for water quality improvement. Management practices recommended by wetlands experts addressed water level and retention, sheet flow, nutrient removal, chemical treatment, ecological and effectiveness monitoring, and resource enhancement. Institutional characteristics recommended included local monitoring, regulation, and enforcement and shared responsibilities among jurisdictions. Institutional and ecological objectives of the National Clean Lakes Program were met to some degree at every site. Social objectives were achieved to a lesser extent. Wetland protection mechanisms and appropriate institutional decentralization were present at all sites. Optimal management techniques were employed to varying degrees at each site, but most projects lack adequate monitoring to determine adverse ecological impacts and effectiveness of pollutant removal and do not extensively address needs for recreation and wildlife habitat. There is evidence that the wetland projects are contributing to improved lake water quality; however, more emphasis needs to be placed on wetland protection and long-term project evaluation.

  20. Nitrate fate and transport through current and former depressional wetlands in an agricultural landscape, Choptank Watershed, Maryland, United States (United States)

    Denver, J.M.; Ator, S.W.; Lang, M.W.; Fisher, T.R.; Gustafson, A.B.; Fox, R.; Clune, J.W.; McCarty, G.W.


    Understanding local groundwater hydrology and geochemistry is critical for evaluating the effectiveness of wetlands at mitigating agricultural impacts on surface waters. The effectiveness of depressional wetlands at mitigating nitrate (NO3) transport from fertilized row crops, through groundwater, to local streams was examined in the watershed of the upper Choptank River, a tributary of Chesapeake Bay on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Hydrologic, geochemical, and water quality data were collected from January of 2008 through December of 2009 from surface waters and networks of piezometers installed in and around current or former depressional wetlands of three major types along a gradient of anthropogenic alteration: (1) natural wetlands with native vegetation (i.e., forested); (2) prior-converted croplands, which are former wetlands located in cultivated fields; and (3) hydrologically restored wetlands, including one wetland restoration and one shallow water management area. These data were collected to estimate the orientation of groundwater flow paths and likely interactions of groundwater containing NO3 from agricultural sources with reducing conditions associated with wetlands of different types. Natural wetlands were found to have longer periods of soil saturation and reducing conditions conducive to denitrification compared to the other wetland types studied. Because natural wetlands are typically located in groundwater recharge areas along watershed divides, nitrogen (N) from nearby agriculture was not intercepted. However, these wetlands likely improve water quality in adjacent streams via dilution. Soil and geochemical conditions conducive to denitrification were also present in restored wetlands and prior-converted croplands, and substantial losses of agricultural NO3 were observed in groundwater flowing through these wetland sediments. However, delivery of NO3 from agricultural areas through groundwater to these wetlands resulting in opportunities for

  1. Nano-ceramic composite scaffolds for bioreactor-based bone engineering. (United States)

    Lv, Qing; Deng, Meng; Ulery, Bret D; Nair, Lakshmi S; Laurencin, Cato T


    Composites of biodegradable polymers and bioactive ceramics are candidates for tissue-engineered scaffolds that closely match the properties of bone. We previously developed a porous, three-dimensional poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA)/nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA) scaffold as a potential bone tissue engineering matrix suitable for high-aspect ratio vessel (HARV) bioreactor applications. However, the physical and cellular properties of this scaffold are unknown. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of n-HA in modulating PLAGA scaffold properties and human mesenchymal stem cell (HMSC) responses in a HARV bioreactor. By comparing PLAGA/n-HA and PLAGA scaffolds, we asked whether incorporation of n-HA (1) accelerates scaffold degradation and compromises mechanical integrity; (2) promotes HMSC proliferation and differentiation; and (3) enhances HMSC mineralization when cultured in HARV bioreactors. PLAGA/n-HA scaffolds (total number = 48) were loaded into HARV bioreactors for 6 weeks and monitored for mass, molecular weight, mechanical, and morphological changes. HMSCs were seeded on PLAGA/n-HA scaffolds (total number = 38) and cultured in HARV bioreactors for 28 days. Cell migration, proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and mineralization were characterized at four selected time points. The same amount of PLAGA scaffolds were used as controls. The incorporation of n-HA did not alter the scaffold degradation pattern. PLAGA/n-HA scaffolds maintained their mechanical integrity throughout the 6 weeks in the dynamic culture environment. HMSCs seeded on PLAGA/n-HA scaffolds showed elevated proliferation, expression of osteogenic phenotypic markers, and mineral deposition as compared with cells seeded on PLAGA scaffolds. HMSCs migrated into the scaffold center with nearly uniform cell and extracellular matrix distribution in the scaffold interior. The combination of PLAGA/n-HA scaffolds with HMSCs in HARV bioreactors may allow for the generation of engineered

  2. Spaceflight bioreactor studies of cells and tissues. (United States)

    Freed, Lisa E; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana


    Studies of the fundamental role of gravity in the development and function of biological organisms are a central component of the human exploration of space. Microgravity affects numerous physical phenomena relevant to biological research, including the hydrostatic pressure in fluid filled vesicles, sedimentation of organelles, and buoyancy-driven convection of flow and heat. These physical phenomena can in turn directly and indirectly affect cellular morphology, metabolism, locomotion, secretion of extracellular matrix and soluble signals, and assembly into functional tissues. Studies aimed at distinguishing specific effects of gravity on biological systems require the ability to: (i) control and systematically vary gravity, e.g. by utilizing the microgravity environment of space in conjunction with an in-flight centrifuge; and (ii) maintain constant all other factors in the immediate environment, including in particular concentrations and exchange rates of biochemical species and hydrodynamic shear. The latter criteria imply the need for gravity-independent mechanisms to provide for mass transport between the cells and their environment. Available flight hardware has largely determined the experimental design and scientific objectives of spaceflight cell and tissue culture studies carried out to date. Simple culture vessels have yielded important quantitative data, and helped establish in vitro models of cell locomotion, growth and differentiation in various mammalian cell types including embryonic lung cells [6], lymphocytes [2,8], and renal cells [7,31]. Studies done using bacterial cells established the first correlations between gravity-dependent factors such as cell settling velocity and diffusional distance and the respective cell responses [12]. The development of advanced bioreactors for microgravity cell and tissue culture and for tissue engineering has benefited both research areas and provided relevant in vitro model systems for studies of astronaut

  3. Effect of wetland management: are lentic wetlands refuges of plant-species diversity in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont of Colombia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna I. Murillo-Pacheco


    Full Text Available Accelerated degradation of the wetlands and fragmentation of surrounding vegetation in the Andean–Orinoco Piedmont are the main threats to diversity and ecological integrity of these ecosystems; however, information on this topic is of limited availability. In this region, we evaluated the value of 37 lentic wetlands as reservoirs of woody and aquatic plants and analyzed diversity and changes in species composition within and among groups defined according to management given by: (1 type (swamps, heronries, rice fields, semi-natural lakes, constructed lakes and fish farms and (2 origins (natural, mixed and artificial. A total of 506 plant species were recorded: 80% woody and 20% aquatic. Of these, 411 species (81% were considered species typical of the area (Meta Piedmont distribution. Diversity patterns seem to be driven by high landscape heterogeneity and wetland management. The fish farms presented the highest diversity of woody plants, while swamps ranked highest for aquatic plant diversity. Regarding wetland origin, the artificial systems were the most diverse, but natural wetlands presented the highest diversity of typical species and can therefore be considered representative ecosystems at the regional scale. Our results suggest that lentic wetlands act as refuges for native vegetation of Meta Piedmont forest, hosting 55% of the woody of Piedmont species and 29% of the aquatic species of Orinoco basin. The wetlands showed a high species turnover and the results indicated that small wetlands (mean ± SD: size = 11 ± 18.7 ha, with a small area of surrounding forest (10 ± 8.6 ha supported high local and regional plant diversity. To ensure long-term conservation of lentic wetlands, it is necessary to develop management and conservation strategies that take both natural and created wetlands into account.

  4. Disposable Bioreactors for Plant Micropropagation and Mass Plant Cell Culture (United States)

    Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

    Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco.

  5. Process technology of luwak coffee through bioreactor utilization (United States)

    Hadipernata, M.; Nugraha, S.


    Indonesia has an advantage in producing exotic coffee that is Luwak coffee. Luwak coffee is produced from the fermentation process in digestion of civet. Luwak coffee production is still limited due to the difficulty level in the use of civet animals as the only medium of Luwak coffee making. The research was conducted by developing technology of luwak coffee production through bioreactor utilization and addition the bacteria isolate from gastric of civet. The process conditions in the bioreactor which include temperature, pH, and bacteria isolate of civet are adjusted to the process that occurs in civet digestion, including peristaltic movement on the stomach and small intestine of the civet will be replaced by the use of propellers that rotate on the bioreactor. The result of research showed that proximat analysis data of artificial/bioreactor luwak coffee did not significant different with original luwak coffee. However, the original luwak coffee has higher content of caffeine compared to bioreactor luwak coffee. Based on the cuping test the bioreactor luwak coffee has a value of 84.375, while the original luwak coffee is 84.875. As the result, bioreactor luwak coffee has excellent taste that similiar with original luwak coffee taste.

  6. 78 FR 68719 - Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands (United States)


    ... of wetlands in Sec. 55.2(b)(11) to cover manmade wetlands in order to ensure that wetlands built for...] RIN 2501-AD51 Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HUD... wetlands and floodplains. With respect to wetlands, the rule codifies existing procedures for Executive...

  7. Biodegradation of phenolic waste liquors in stirred-tank, packed-bed, and fluidized-bed bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, D W; Hancher, G W; Chilcote, D D; Scott, C D


    The biological degradation of phenolic scrub liquors similar to those that arise in coal conversion processes was studied for symbiotic bacterial populations contained in a continuously stirred tank bioreactor, a three-phase packed-bed bioreactor, and a three-phase, fluidized-bed bioreactor. The conversions of phenol compounds were comparable in the three-phase, packed-bed bioreactor and the continuously stirred tank bioreactor; however, the packed-bed bioreactor degradation rates were as much as twice those in the continuously stirred tank bioreactor, and packed-bed bioreactor retention times were as low as one- tenth those of the continuously stirred tank bioreactors (minimum time was 12 hours).

  8. Stoichiometric and kinetic analysis of extreme halophilic Archaea on various substrates in a corrosion resistant bioreactor. (United States)

    Lorantfy, Bettina; Seyer, Bernhard; Herwig, Christoph


    Extreme halophilic Archaea are extremophile species which can thrive in hypersaline environments of up to 3-5 M sodium chloride concentration. Although their ecology and physiology are widely identified on the microbiological level, little emphasis has been laid on quantitative bioprocess development with extreme halophiles. The goal of this study was to establish, on the one hand, a methodological basis for quantitative bioprocess analysis of extreme halophilic Archaea with an extreme halophilic strain as an example. Firstly, as a novel usage, a corrosion resistant bioreactor setup for extreme halophiles has been implemented. Then, paying special attention to total bioprocess quantification approaches, an indirect method for biomass quantification using on-line process signals was introduced. Subsequently, robust quantitative data evaluation methods for halophiles could be developed, providing defined and controlled cultivation conditions in the bioreactor and therefore obtaining suitable quality of on-line as well as off-line datasets. On the other hand, new physiological results of extreme halophiles in bioreactor have also been obtained based on the quantitative methodological tools. For the first time, quantitative data on stoichiometry and kinetics were collected and evaluated on different carbon sources. The results on various substrates were interpreted, with proposed metabolic mechanisms, by linking to the reported primary carbon metabolism of extreme halophilic Archaea. Moreover, results of chemostat cultures demonstrated that extreme halophilic organisms show Monod-kinetics on different sole carbon sources. A diauxic growth pattern was described on a mixture of substrates in batch cultivations. In addition, the methodologies presented here enable one to characterize the utilized strain Haloferax mediterranei (HFX) as a potential new host organism. Thus, this study offers a strong methodological basis as well as a fundamental physiological assessment for

  9. Wetland Hydrology | Science Inventory | US EPA (United States)

    This chapter discusses the state of the science in wetland hydrology by touching upon the major hydraulic and hydrologic processes in these complex ecosystems, their measurement/estimation techniques, and modeling methods. It starts with the definition of wetlands, their benefits and types, and explains the role and importance of hydrology on wetland functioning. The chapter continues with the description of wetland hydrologic terms and related estimation and modeling techniques. The chapter provides a quick but valuable information regarding hydraulics of surface and subsurface flow, groundwater seepage/discharge, and modeling groundwater/surface water interactions in wetlands. Because of the aggregated effects of the wetlands at larger scales and their ecosystem services, wetland hydrology at the watershed scale is also discussed in which we elaborate on the proficiencies of some of the well-known watershed models in modeling wetland hydrology. This chapter can serve as a useful reference for eco-hydrologists, wetland researchers and decision makers as well as watershed hydrology modelers. In this chapter, the importance of hydrology for wetlands and their functional role are discussed. Wetland hydrologic terms and the major components of water budget in wetlands and how they can be estimated/modeled are also presented. Although this chapter does not provide a comprehensive coverage of wetland hydrology, it provides a quick understanding of the basic co


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Boon


    Full Text Available The compositional and structural characteristics of wetland vegetation play a vital role in the services that a wetland supplies. Apart from being important habitats, wetland vegetation also provide services such as flood attenuation and nutrient retention. South Africa is known to be a water scarce country. The protection and continuous monitoring of wetland ecosystems is therefore important. Factors such as site transformation and disturbance may completely change the vegetation of a wetland and the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV imagery can play a valuable role in high-resolution monitoring and mapping. This study assessed if the use of UAV RGB imagery can enhance the determination of the present vegetation state of a wetland. The WET-Health level two (detailed on-site evaluation methodology was followed for the vegetation assessment, where wetland health is a measure of the deviation of a wetland’s structure and function from its natural reference condition. The mapping of the disturbances classes was then undertaken using ultra-high resolution orthophotos, point clouds and digital surface models (DSM. The WET-Health vegetation module completed with the aid of the UAV products still indicates that the vegetation of the wetland is largely modified (“D” PES Category and that the vegetation of the wetland will further deteriorate (change score. These results are the same as determined in the baseline study. However a higher impact (activities taking place within the wetland score were determined. The assessment of various WET-Health vegetation indicators were significantly enhanced using the UAV imagery and derived products. The UAV products provided an accurate vantage point over the wetland and surroundings, and assisted to easily refine the assessment of the disturbance classes and disturbance units.

  11. Characterization of bioactivity in treatment wetlands utilising an enzymatic assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, J.L.; Werker, A.G.


    Microbial activity is a critical aspect of biological wastewater treatment which is not being routinely monitored as part of treatment wetland research and development. The level of microbial activity is a reference from which observed and variable treatment performance needs to be evaluated with respect to design and operating conditions. The purpose of the present study was to assess enzyme hydrolysis kinetics of the model substrate fluorescein diacetate (FDA) using activated sludge and to begin to relate these findings to wetland mesocosm in-situ enzyme activity measurements. In activated sludge samples, the FDA hydrolysis rate was found to correlate with microbial abundance measured as mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS). The ratio of biomass to substrate concentration was also found to influence the extent of FDA consumption and a critical saturation loading for activated sludge on FDA was estimated. Of the numerous empirical enzyme reaction models available in the literature, the Tessier model was determined to most closely fit the experimental data. FDA hydrolysis experiments conducted on activated sludge samples and laboratory wetland mesocosms at the same initial substrate concentration indicate that the enzyme assay is sensitive enough to exhibit characteristic reaction kinetics that can be used to quantify biomass concentrations present within laboratory treatment wetland mesocosms. In continued investigation, changes in mesocosm biomass levels as the wetland vegetation matures will be related to an equivalent MLVSS concentration and the biological treatment system performance. (author)

  12. Phytotoxicity testing of winery wastewater for constructed wetland treatment. (United States)

    Arienzo, Michele; Christen, Evan W; Quayle, Wendy C


    Rapid and inexpensive phytotoxicity bioassays for winery wastewater (WW) are important when designing winery wastewater treatment systems involving constructed wetlands. Three macrophyte wetland species (Phragmites australis, Schoenoplectus validus and Juncus ingens) were tested using a pot experiment simulating a wetland microcosm. The winery wastewater concentration was varied (0.5%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) and pH was corrected for some concentrations using lime as an amendment. The tolerance of the three aquatic macrophytes species to winery wastewater was studied through biomass production, total chlorophyll and nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium tissue concentrations. The results showed that at greater than 25% wastewater concentration all the macrophytes died and that Phragmites was the least hardy species. At less than 25% wastewater concentration the wetland microcosms were effective in reducing chemical oxygen demand, phenols and total soluble solids. We also evaluated the performance of two laboratory phytotoxicity assays; (1) Garden Cress (Lepidium sativum), and (2) Onion (Allium coepa). The results of these tests revealed that the effluent was highly toxic with effective concentration, EC(50), inhibition values, as low as 0.25%. Liming the WW increased the EC(50) by 10 fold. Comparing the cress and onion bioassays with the wetland microcosm results indicated that the thresholds for toxicity were of the same order of magnitude. As such we suggest that the onion and cress bioassays could be effectively used in the wine industry for rapid wastewater toxicity assessment.

  13. The Role of Bioreactors in Ligament and Tendon Tissue Engineering. (United States)

    Mace, James; Wheelton, Andy; Khan, Wasim S; Anand, Sanj


    Bioreactors are pivotal to the emerging field of tissue engineering. The formation of neotissue from pluripotent cell lineages potentially offers a source of tissue for clinical use without the significant donor site morbidity associated with many contemporary surgical reconstructive procedures. Modern bioreactor design is becoming increasingly complex to provide a both an expandable source of readily available pluripotent cells and to facilitate their controlled differentiation into a clinically applicable ligament or tendon like neotissue. This review presents the need for such a method, challenges in the processes to engineer neotissue and the current designs and results of modern bioreactors in the pursuit of engineered tendon and ligament.

  14. Fundamentals of membrane bioreactors materials, systems and membrane fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley


    This book provides a critical, carefully researched, up-to-date summary of membranes for membrane bioreactors. It presents a comprehensive and self-contained outline of the fundamentals of membrane bioreactors, especially their relevance as an advanced water treatment technology. This outline helps to bring the technology to the readers’ attention, and positions the critical topic of membrane fouling as one of the key impediments to its more widescale adoption. The target readership includes researchers and industrial practitioners with an interest in membrane bioreactors.

  15. Modelling across bioreactor scales: methods, challenges and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    that it is challenging and expensive to acquire experimental data of good quality that can be used for characterizing gradients occurring inside a large industrial scale bioreactor. But which model building methods are available? And how can one ensure that the parameters in such a model are properly estimated? And what......Scale-up and scale-down of bioreactors are very important in industrial biotechnology, especially with the currently available knowledge on the occurrence of gradients in industrial-scale bioreactors. Moreover, it becomes increasingly appealing to model such industrial scale systems, considering...

  16. Michigan Wetlands: Yours To Protect. A Citizen's Guide to Local Involvement in Wetland Protection. Second Edition. (United States)

    Cwikiel, Wilfred

    This guidebook is designed to assist concerned Michigan citizens, local governments, conservation organizations, landowners, and others in their efforts to initiate wetlands protection activities. Chapter 1 focuses on wetland functions, values, losses, and the urgent need to protect wetland resources. Chapter 2 discusses wetland identification and…

  17. Efficiencies of freshwater and estuarine constructed wetlands for phenolic endocrine disruptor removal in Taiwan. (United States)

    Hsieh, Chi-Ying; Yang, Lei; Kuo, Wen-Chien; Zen, Yi-Peng


    We examined the distribution and removal efficiencies of phenolic endocrine disruptors (EDs), namely nonylphenol diethoxylates (NP2EO), nonylphenol monoethoxylates (NP1EO), nonylphenol (NP), and octylphenol (OP), in wastewater treated by estuarine and freshwater constructed wetland systems in Dapeng Bay National Scenic Area (DBNSA) and along the Dahan River in Taiwan. Water samples were taken bimonthly at 30 sites in three estuarine constructed wetlands (Datan, Pengcun and Linbian right bank (A and B)) in DBNSA, for eight sampling campaigns. The average removal efficiencies were in the range of 3.13-97.3% for wetlands in DBNSA. The highest average removal occurred in the east inlet to the outlet of the Tatan wetland. The most frequently detected compound was OP (57.7%), whose concentration was up to 1458.7 ng/L in DBNSA. NP was seen in only 20.5% of the samples. The temporal variation of EDs showed a decrease across seasons, where summer>spring>winter>autumn in these constructed wetlands. The removal efficiencies of EDs by estuarine wetlands, in decreasing order, were Datan>Pengcun>Linbian right bank in DBNSA. Water samples collected at 18 sites in three freshwater constructed wetlands (Daniaopi, Hsin-Hai I, and Hsin-Hai II) along the riparian area of Dahan River. NP2EO was the most abundant compound, with a concentration of up to 11,200 ng/L. Removal efficiencies ranged from 55% to 91% for NP1EO, NP2EO, and NP in Hsin-Hai I. The average removal potential of EDs in freshwater constructed wetlands, in decreasing order, was Hsin-Hai II>Daniaopi>Hsin-Hai I constructed wetlands. The lowest concentrations of the selected compounds were observed in the winter. The highest removal efficiency of the selected phenolic endocrine disruptors was achieved by Hsin-Hai I wetland. The calculated risk quotients used to evaluate the ecological risk were up to 30 times higher in the freshwater wetlands along Dahan River than in the estuarine (DBNSA) constructed wetlands, indicating

  18. Mechanobiologic Research in a Microgravity Environment Bioreactor (United States)

    Guidi, A.; Dubini, G.; Tominetti, F.; Raimondi, M.

    A current problem in tissue culturing technology is the unavailability of an effective Bioreactor for the in vitro cultivation of cells and explants. It has, in fact, proved extremely difficult to promote the high-density three-dimensional in vitro growth of human tissues that have been removed from the body and deprived of their normal in vivo vascular sources of nutrients and gas exchange. A variety of tissue explants can be maintained for a short period of time on a supportive collagen matrix surrounded by culture medium. But this system provides only limited mass transfer of nutrients and wastes through the tissue, and gravity-induced sedimentation prevents complete three- dimensional cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Several devices presently on the market have been used with only limited success since each has limitations, which restrict usefulness and versatility. Further, no Bioreactor or culture vessel is known that will allow for unimpeded growth of three dimensional cellular aggregates or tissue. Extensive research on the effect of mechanical stimuli on cell metabolism suggests that tissues may respond to mechanical stimulation via loading-induced flow of the interstitial fluids. During the culture, cells are subject to a flow of culture medium. Flow properties such as flow field, flow regime (e.g. turbulent or laminar), flow pattern (e.g. circular), entity and distribution of the shear stress acting on the cells greatly influence fundamental aspects of cell function, such as regulation and gene expression. This has been demonstrated for endothelial cells and significant research efforts are underway to elucidate these mechanisms in various other biological systems. Local fluid dynamics is also responsible of the mass transfer of nutrients and catabolites as well as oxygenation through the tissue. Most of the attempts to culture tissue-engineered constructs in vitro have utilized either stationary cultures or systems generating relatively small

  19. Designated Wetlands and Setback Distances in Iowa (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This GIS layer depicts wetlands designated for protection in the state of Iowa. Designated wetland is defined in Iowa Code subsection 459.102(21) as follows: 21....

  20. Industry and forest wetlands: Cooperative research initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, J.P.; Lucier, A.A.; Haines, L.W.


    In 1989 the forest products industry responded to a challenge of the National Wetlands Policy Forum to initiate a cooperative research program on forest wetlands management organized through the National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI). The objective is to determine how forest landowners can manage wetlands for timber production while protecting other wetland functions such as flood storage, water purification, and food chain/wildlife habitat support. Studies supported by the NCASI in 9 states are summarized. Technical support on wetland regulatory issues to member companies is part of the research program. Since guidelines for recognizing wetlands for regulatory proposed have changed frequently, the NCASI has recommend an explicit link between wetland delineation and a classification system that considers difference among wetland types in vegetation, soils, hydrology, appearance, landscape position, and other factors. 16 refs

  1. 40 CFR 230.41 - Wetlands. (United States)


    ... through secondary impacts. Discharging fill material in wetlands as part of municipal, industrial or recreational development may modify the capacity of wetlands to retain and store floodwaters and to serve as a...

  2. Monitoring iron and manganese diagenesis in constructed wetlands with continuous gradient gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edenborn, H.M.; Brickett, L.A.; Dvorak, D.H.; Edenborn, S.L.


    Average removal rates for Fe and Mn in wetlands constructed for the treatment of coal mine drainage have been developed based on field observations, but few details are known about the spatial and temporal variation in metal diagenesis within these wetlands. The heterogeneous distribution of biological activity in constructed wetland sediments makes it difficult to assess the importance of specific diagenetic processes without taking large numbers of samples at great expense. In this study, continuous gradient gels were used to evaluate Pennsylvania. Continuous gradient gels provided rapid and detailed information on the regions of stability of Fe and Mn compounds within the wetland sediments. The resulting data were mapped and used to demonstrate how this technique can be used to assess the overall efficiency of constructed wetlands in the removal of Fe and Mn

  3. Removal and factors influencing removal of sulfonamides and trimethoprim from domestic sewage in constructed wetlands. (United States)

    Dan A; Yang, Yang; Dai, Yu-Nv; Chen, Chun-Xing; Wang, Su-Yu; Tao, Ran


    Twelve pilot-scale constructed wetlands with different configurations were set up in the field to evaluate the removal and factors that influence removal of sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfacetamide, sulfamethazine and sulfamethoxazole) and trimethoprim from domestic sewage. The treatments included four flow types, three substrates, two plants and three hydraulic loading rates across two seasons (summer and winter). Most target antibiotics were efficiently removed by specific constructed wetlands; in particular, all types of constructed wetlands performed well for the degradation of sulfapyridine. Flow types were the most important influencing factor in this study, and the best removal of sulfonamides was achieved in vertical subsurface-flow constructed wetlands; however, the opposite phenomenon was found with trimethoprim. Significant relationships were observed between antibiotic degradation and higher temperature and redox potential, which indicated that microbiological pathways were the most probable degradation route for sulfonamides and trimethoprim in constructed wetlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimating belowground carbon stocks in isolated wetlands of the Northern Everglades Watershed, central Florida, using ground penetrating radar (GPR) and aerial imagery (United States)

    McClellan, Matthew; Comas, Xavier; Hinkle, Ross; Sumner, David M.


    Peat soils store a large fraction of the global soil carbon (C) pool and comprise 95% of wetland C stocks. While isolated freshwater wetlands in temperate and tropical biomes account for more than 20% of the global peatland C stock, most studies of wetland soil C have occurred in expansive peatlands in northern boreal and subarctic biomes. Furthermore, the contribution of small depressional wetlands in comparison to larger wetland systems in these environments is very uncertain. Given the fact that these wetlands are numerous and variable in terms of their internal geometry, innovative methods are needed for properly estimating belowground C stocks and their overall C contribution to the landscape. In this study, we use a combination of ground penetrating radar (GPR), aerial imagery, and direct measurements (coring) in conjunction with C core analysis to develop a relation between C stock and surface area, and estimate the contribution of subtropical depressional wetlands to the total C stock of pine flatwoods at the Disney Wilderness Preserve (DWP), Florida. Additionally, GPR surveys were able to image collapse structures underneath the peat basin of depressional wetlands, depicting lithological controls on the formation of depressional wetlands at the DWP. Results indicate the importance of depressional wetlands as critical contributors to the landscape C budget at the DWP and the potential of GPR-based approaches for (1) rapidly and noninvasively estimating the contribution of depressional wetlands to regional C stocks and (2) evaluating the formational processes of depressional wetlands.

  5. Estimating Belowground Carbon Stocks in Isolated Wetlands of the Northern Everglades Watershed, Central Florida, Using Ground Penetrating Radar and Aerial Imagery (United States)

    McClellan, Matthew; Comas, Xavier; Benscoter, Brian; Hinkle, Ross; Sumner, David


    Peat soils store a large fraction of the global soil carbon (C) pool and comprise 95% of wetland C stocks. While isolated freshwater wetlands in temperate and tropical biomes account for more than 20% of the global peatland C stock, most studies of wetland soil C have occurred in expansive peatlands in northern boreal and subarctic biomes. Furthermore, the contribution of small depressional wetlands in comparison to larger wetland systems in these environments is very uncertain. Given the fact that these wetlands are numerous and variable in terms of their internal geometry, innovative methods are needed for properly estimating belowground C stocks and their overall C contribution to the landscape. In this study, we use a combination of ground penetrating radar (GPR), aerial imagery, and direct measurements (coring) in conjunction with C core analysis to develop a relation between C stock and surface area, and estimate the contribution of subtropical depressional wetlands to the total C stock of pine flatwoods at the Disney Wilderness Preserve (DWP), Florida. Additionally, GPR surveys were able to image collapse structures underneath the peat basin of depressional wetlands, depicting lithological controls on the formation of depressional wetlands at the DWP. Results indicate the importance of depressional wetlands as critical contributors to the landscape C budget at the DWP and the potential of GPR-based approaches for (1) rapidly and noninvasively estimating the contribution of depressional wetlands to regional C stocks and (2) evaluating the formational processes of depressional wetlands.

  6. Pre- and post-construction analysis of a wetland used for mine drainage control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, K.M.; Mitsch, W.J.


    A 0.39 ha constructed wetland in Athens County, Ohio is being evaluated for its ability to remove contaminants from acidic mine drainage. The wetland receives water flow from Lick run stream which is contaminated by two major abandoned underground mine seeps. The wetland effluent is then directed back into Lick Run, a tributary of the Hocking River. Data were collected 1.5 years prior to construction and 11 months following completion of the passive wetland system. Preconstruction data reported average spring quarter 1991 and 1992 iron concentrations in the stream at the future wetland influent and effluents sites to be 330 and 106 mg/l, while spring quarter 1993 showed iron levels at the wetland influent and effluent to be 64 and 3 mg/l, respectively. Iron removal percentages were 68% prior to the construction of the wetland and 95% following its completion. Preconstruction data were analyzed using a dynamic computer model and preliminary comparison with the first 11 months of the wetland data show the actual iron removal rates to be 4 g/m 2 day 1 compared to the predicted value of 6.5 g/m 2 day 1 (based on data collected from April 1991--March 1992, under similar hydrologic conditions)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Dongting Lake is internationally an important wetland. We studied and summarized the conception, function, classification and current situation of the wetland-landscape culture in this region. The results showed that the culture of Dongting Lake wetland was rich in diversity, which are the Rice Cultivation Culture, high-balustrade dwelling,Nuo Culture, Ship Culture, Dragon Boat Culture, Chu Culture, Ancient Architecture Landscape, Wetland Foodstuff andCuisine Culture, Civil Art, Historic Heritage and Cultural Relics, Revolutionary Sites and Ruins, and Production andLiving Culture, etc. We also evaluated the eeo-tourism value of wetland landscape culture, and analyzed its features andorientation. The results revealed that the south Dongting Lake wetland plays a key role on the Changjiang(Yangtze) Riverreaches civilization and Chinese civilization, even has great influence on the global civilization. We summarized that thesoul of the south Dongting Lake Culture was Wetland Culture, Water Culture, Rice Cultivation and Chu Culture. Thethoughts, principles and approaches of sustainable exploitation and utilization of the wetland landscape culture were formulated and suggested.

  8. Development of an Assessment Framework for Restored Forested Wetlands (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin; E.A. Nelson


    Development of an assessment framework and associated indicators that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a wetland restoration is critical to demonstrating the sustainability of restored sites. An interdisciplinary approach was developed to assess how succession is proceeding on a restored bottomland site in South Carolina relative to an undisturbed...

  9. Impacts of climate change on submerged and emergent wetland plants (United States)

    Frederick T. Short; Sarian Kosten; Pamela A. Morgan; Sparkle L Malone; Gregg E. Moore


    Submerged and emergent wetland plant communities are evaluated for their response to global climate change (GCC), focusing on seagrasses, submerged freshwater plants, tidal marsh plants, freshwater marsh plants and mangroves. Similarities and differences are assessed in plant community responses to temperature increase, CO2increase, greater UV-B exposure, sea...


    We used rapid survey techniques to map saubmergerd, floating and emergent vegetation in 10 coastal wetlands of Lake Superior. Density and structure of plant beds in "bay," "main channel," and "side channel" areas was evaluated from cover indices and presence/dominance by growth f...

  11. Hydrogeologic characterization and assessment of bioremediation of chlorinated benzenes and benzene in wetland areas, Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2009-12 (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Walker, Charles W.; Baker, Anna C.; Teunis, Jessica A.; Emily Majcher,; Brayton, Michael J.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.


    desorption from the sediments.When highly reducing, methanogenic, or sulfate-reducing conditions existed in the wetland groundwater, molar composition of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) showed that chlorobenzene and benzene were predominant, indicating biodegradation of the chlorinated benzenes through reductive dechlorination pathways. Temporal changes in redox conditions between 2009 and 2011–12 have shifted the locations in the wetland study area where reductive dechlorination is evident. Microbial community analyses of sediment showed relatively high cell numbers and diversity of populations (Dehalococcoides, Dehalobacter, Desulfitobacterium, and Geobacter) that are known to contain species capable of reductive dechlorination, confirming groundwater geochemistry evidence of the occurrence of reductive dechlorination. Natural attenuation was not sufficient, however, to reduce total VOC concentrations along upward groundwater flowpaths in the wetland sediments, most likely due to the additional source of contaminants in the upper sediments. In situ microcosms that were unamended except for the addition of 13C-labeled contaminants in some treatments, confirmed that the native microbial community was able to biodegrade the higher chlorinated benzenes through reductive dechlorination and that 1,2-dichlorobenzene, chlorobenzene, and benzene could be degraded to carbon dioxide through oxidation pathways. Microcosms that were bioaugmented with the anaerobic dechlorinating consortium WBC-2 and deployed in the wetland sediments showed reductive dechlorination of tri-, di-, and monochlorobenzene, and 13C-chlorobenzene treatments showed complete degradation of chlorobenzene to carbon dioxide under anaerobic conditions.Experiments with a continuous flow, fixed-film bioreactor seeded with native microorganisms in groundwater from the wetland area showed both aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of dichlorobenzenes, monochlorobenzene, and benzene, although

  12. Impact of hydraulic and carbon loading rates of constructed wetlands on contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, Fariya; Westerhoff, Paul; Herckes, Pierre


    Constructed wetlands remove trace organic contaminants via synergistic processes involving plant biomass that include hydrolysis, volatilization, sorption, biodegradation, and photolysis. Wetland design conditions, such as hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) and carbon loading rates (CLRs), influence these processes. Contaminant of emerging concern (CEC) removal by wetland plants was investigated at varying HLRs and CLRs. Rate constants and parameters obtained from batch-scale studies were used in a mechanistic model to evaluate the effect of these two loading rates on CEC removal. CLR significantly influenced CEC removal when wetlands were operated at HLR >5 cm/d. High values of CLR increased removal of estradiol and carbamazepine but lowered that of testosterone and atrazine. Without increasing the cumulative HLR, operating two wetlands in series with varying CLRs could be a way to improve CEC removal. -- Highlights: • A fate-predictive model was developed to evaluate the effect of loading rates on CEC removal in constructed wetlands. • Carbon loading rates (CLRs) can influence CEC removal when wetlands are operated at higher hydraulic loading rates (HLRs). • The effect of CLRs varies among CECs with different physico-chemical properties. • Combination of wetlands with different CLRs can optimize CEC removal without changing the net HLR. -- This article evaluates the effect of design loading rates on contaminant of emerging concern (CEC) removal in constructed wetlands

  13. Phosphorus and water recovery by a novel osmotic membrane bioreactor-reverse osmosis system. (United States)

    Luo, Wenhai; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D


    An osmotic membrane bioreactor-reverse osmosis (OMBR-RO) hybrid system integrated with periodic microfiltration (MF) extraction was evaluated for simultaneous phosphorus and clean water recovery from raw sewage. In this hybrid system, the forward osmosis membrane effectively retained inorganic salts and phosphate in the bioreactor, while the MF membrane periodically bled them out for phosphorus recovery with pH adjustment. The RO process was used for draw solute recovery and clean water production. Results show that phosphorus recuperation from the MF permeate was most effective when the solution pH was adjusted to 10, whereby the recovered precipitate contained 15-20% (wt/wt) of phosphorus. Periodic MF extraction also limited salinity build-up in the bioreactor, resulting in a stable biological performance and an increase in water flux during OMBR operation. Despite the build-up of organic matter and ammonia in the draw solution, OMBR-RO allowed for the recovery of high quality reused water. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance of an anaerobic, static bed, fixed film bioreactor for chlorinated solvent treatment (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Walker, Charles; Graves, Duane


    Anaerobic, fixed film, bioreactors bioaugmented with a dechlorinating microbial consortium were evaluated as a potential technology for cost effective, sustainable, and reliable treatment of mixed chlorinated ethanes and ethenes in groundwater from a large groundwater recovery system. Bench- and pilot-scale testing at about 3 and 13,500 L, respectively, demonstrated that total chlorinated solvent removal to less than the permitted discharge limit of 100 μg/L. Various planned and unexpected upsets, interruptions, and changes demonstrated the robustness and reliability of the bioreactor system, which handled the operational variations with no observable change in performance. Key operating parameters included an adequately long hydraulic retention time for the surface area, a constant supply of electron donor, pH control with a buffer to minimize pH variance, an oxidation reduction potential of approximately −200 millivolts or lower, and a well-adapted biomass capable of degrading the full suite of chlorinated solvents in the groundwater. Results indicated that the current discharge criteria can be met using a bioreactor technology that is less complex and has less downtime than the sorption based technology currently being used to treat the groundwater.

  15. Microbial biosafety of pilot-scale bioreactor treating MTBE and TBA-contaminated drinking water supply. (United States)

    Schmidt, Radomir; Klemme, David A; Scow, Kate; Hristova, Krassimira


    A pilot-scale sand-based fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) was utilized to treat both methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) from a contaminated aquifer. To evaluate the potential for re-use of the treated water, we tested for a panel of water quality indicator microorganisms and potential waterborne pathogens including total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Legionella pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolytica and Mycobacterium avium in both influent and treated waters from the bioreactor. Total bacteria decreased during FBBR treatment. E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., C. jejuni, V. cholerae, Y. enterocolytica and M. avium were not detected in aquifer water or bioreactor treated water samples. For those pathogens detected, including total coliforms, L. pneumophila and A. hydrophila, numbers were usually lower in treated water than influent samples, suggesting removal during treatment. The detection of particular bacterial species reflected their presence or absence in the influent waters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Physicochemical properties influencing denitrification rate and microbial activity in denitrification bioreactors (United States)

    Schmidt, C. A.


    The use of N-based fertilizer will need to increase to meet future demands, yet existing applications have been implicated as the main source of coastal eutrophication and hypoxic zones. Producing sufficient crops to feed a growing planet will require efficient production in combination with sustainable treatment solutions. The long-term success of denitrification bioreactors to effectively remove nitrate (NO¬3), indicates this technology is a feasible treatment option. Assessing and quantifying the media properties that affect NO¬3 removal rate and microbial activity can improve predictions on bioreactor performance. It was hypothesized that denitrification rates and microbial biomass would be correlated with total C, NO¬3 concentration, metrics of organic matter quality, media surface area and laboratory measures of potential denitrification rate. NO¬3 removal rates and microbial biomass were evaluated in mesocosms filled with different wood treatments and the unique influence of these predictor variables was determined using a multiple linear regression analysis. NO3 reduction rates were independent of NO¬3 concentration indicating zero order reaction kinetics. Temperature was strongly correlated with denitrification rate (r2=0.87; Q10=4.7), indicating the variability of bioreactor performance in differing climates. Fiber quality, and media surface area were strong (R>0.50), unique predictors of rates and microbial biomass, although C:N ratio and potential denitrification rate did not predict actual denitrification rate or microbial biomass. Utilizing a stepwise multiple linear regression, indicates that the denitrification rate can be effectively (r2=0.56;pdetergent fiber and surface area alone are quantified. These results will assist with the widespread implementation of denitrification bioreactors to achieve significant N load reductions in large watersheds. The nitrate reduction rate as a function of groundwater temperature for all treatments

  17. Specifically Designed Constructed Wetlands: A Novel Treatment Approach for Scrubber Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Rodgers Jr; James W. Castle; Chris Arrington: Derek Eggert; Meg Iannacone


    A pilot-scale wetland treatment system was specifically designed and constructed at Clemson University to evaluate removal of mercury, selenium, and other constituents from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater. Specific objectives of this research were: (1) to measure performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system in terms of decreases in targeted constituents (Hg, Se and As) in the FGD wastewater from inflow to outflow; (2) to determine how the observed performance is achieved (both reactions and rates); and (3) to measure performance in terms of decreased bioavailability of these elements (i.e. toxicity of sediments in constructed wetlands and toxicity of outflow waters from the treatment system). Performance of the pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems was assessed using two criteria: anticipated NPDES permit levels and toxicity evaluations using two sentinel toxicity-testing organisms (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas). These systems performed efficiently with varied inflow simulations of FGD wastewaters removing As, Hg, and Se concentrations below NPDES permit levels and reducing the toxicity of simulated FGD wastewater after treatment with the constructed wetland treatment systems. Sequential extraction procedures indicated that these elements (As, Hg, and Se) were bound to residual phases within sediments of these systems, which should limit their bioavailability to aquatic biota. Sediments collected from constructed wetland treatment systems were tested to observe toxicity to Hyalella azteca or Chironomus tetans. Complete survival (100%) was observed for H. azteca in all cells of the constructed wetland treatment system and C. tentans had an average of 91% survival over the three treatment cells containing sediments. Survival and growth of H. azteca and C. tentans did not differ significantly between sediments from the constructed wetland treatment system and controls. Since the sediments of the constructed

  18. Bacterial communities in batch and continuous-flow wetlands treating the herbicide S-metolachlor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, O.F.; Maillard, E.; Vuilleumier, S.; Imfeld, G.


    Knowledge of wetland bacterial communities in the context of pesticide contamination and hydrological regime is scarce. We investigated the bacterial composition in constructed wetlands receiving Mercantor Gold ® contaminated water (960 g L −1 of the herbicide S-metolachlor, > 80% of the S-enantiomer) operated under continuous-flow or batch modes to evaluate the impact of the hydraulic regime. In the continuous-flow wetland, S-metolachlor mass removal was > 40%, whereas in the batch wetland, almost complete removal of S-metolachlor (93–97%) was observed. Detection of ethanesulfonic and oxanilic acid degradation products further indicated S-metolachlor biodegradation in the two wetlands. The dominant bacterial populations were characterised by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 454 pyrosequencing. The bacterial profiles evolved during the first 35 days of the experiment, starting from a composition similar to that of inlet water, with the use of nitrate and to a lesser extent sulphate and manganese as terminal electron acceptors for microbial metabolism. Proteobacteria were the most abundant phylum, with Beta-, Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria representing 26%, 19% and 17% respectively of total bacterial abundance. Bacterial composition in wetland water changed gradually over time in continuous-flow wetland and more abruptly in the batch wetland. Differences in overall bacterial water structure in the two systems were modest but significant (p = 0.008), and S-metolachlor, nitrate, and total inorganic carbon concentrations correlated with changes in the bacterial profiles. Together, the results highlight that bacterial composition profiles and their dynamics may be used as bioindicators of herbicide exposure and hydraulic disturbances in wetland systems. - Highlights: • We evaluated the bacterial composition in wetlands treating S-metolachlor • Hydraulic regime impacted biogeochemical processes and S-metolachlor removal

  19. 40 CFR 257.9 - Wetlands. (United States)


    ... not locate such units in wetlands, unless the owner or operator can make the following demonstrations... actions (e.g., restoration of existing degraded wetlands or creation of man-made wetlands); and (5) Sufficient information is available to make a reasonable determination with respect to these demonstrations...

  20. North Dakota Wetlands Discovery Guide. Photocopy Booklet. (United States)

    Dietz, Nancy J., Ed.; And Others

    This booklet contains games and activities that can be photocopied for classroom use. Activities include Wetland Terminology, Putting on the Map, Erosional Forces, Water in...Water out, Who Lives Here?, Wetlands in Disguise, Dichotomous Plant Game, Algae Survey, Conducting an Algal Survey, Water Quality Indicators Guide, Farming Wetlands, Wetlands…

  1. Description of the Wetlands Research Programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walmsley, RD


    Full Text Available This report presents a rationale to the development of a multidisciplinary South African Wetland Research Programme. A definition of what is meant by the term wetland is given along with a general description of what types of wetland occur in South...

  2. Tidal wetlands of the Yaquina and Alsea River estuaries, Oregon: Geographic Information Systems layer development and recommendations for National Wetlands Inventory revisions (United States)

    Brophy, Laura S.; Reusser, Deborah A.; Janousek, Christopher N.


    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) layers of current, and likely former, tidal wetlands in two Oregon estuaries were generated by enhancing the 2010 National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data with expert local field knowledge, Light Detection and Ranging-derived elevations, and 2009 aerial orthophotographs. Data were generated for two purposes: First, to enhance the NWI by recommending revised Cowardin classifications for certain NWI wetlands within the study area; and second, to generate GIS data for the 1999 Yaquina and Alsea River Basins Estuarine Wetland Site Prioritization study. Two sets of GIS products were generated: (1) enhanced NWI shapefiles; and (2) shapefiles of prioritization sites. The enhanced NWI shapefiles contain recommended changes to the Cowardin classification (system, subsystem, class, and/or modifiers) for 286 NWI polygons in the Yaquina estuary (1,133 acres) and 83 NWI polygons in the Alsea estuary (322 acres). These enhanced NWI shapefiles also identify likely former tidal wetlands that are classified as upland in the current NWI (64 NWI polygons totaling 441 acres in the Yaquina estuary; 16 NWI polygons totaling 51 acres in the Alsea estuary). The former tidal wetlands were identified to assist strategic planning for tidal wetland restoration. Cowardin classifications for the former tidal wetlands were not provided, because their current hydrology is complex owing to dikes, tide gates, and drainage ditches. The scope of this project did not include the field evaluation that would be needed to determine whether the former tidal wetlands are currently wetlands, and if so, determine their correct Cowardin classification. The prioritization site shapefiles contain 49 prioritization sites totaling 2,177 acres in the Yaquina estuary, and 39 prioritization sites totaling 1,045 acres in the Alsea estuary. The prioritization sites include current and former (for example, diked) tidal wetlands, and provide landscape units appropriate for basin

  3. Gel layer formation on membranes in Membrane Bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Brink, P.F.H.


    The widespread application of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment is hampered by membrane fouling. Fouling increases energy demand, reduces process performance and creates the need for more frequent (chemical) membrane cleaning or replacement. Membrane fouling in MBRs is

  4. Thermophillic Sidestream Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors: The Shear Rate Dilemma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeison, D.A.; Telkamp, P.; Lier, van J.B.


    Anaerobic biomass retention under thermophilic conditions has proven difficult. Membrane filtration can be used as alternative way to achieve high sludge concentrations. This research studied the feasibility of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) under thermophilic conditions. A sidestream MBR

  5. Water reuse by membrane bioreactors (MBR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.; Huete, E.; Martinez, L. C.; Torres, A.


    This paper shows an up-to date overview of the use of membrane bioreactor (MBR) to obtain water treated for reusing it. Considering the existing rules. it has been presented a summary of published studies in which the quality of the effluent is analyzed in terms on physico-chemical and biological parameters. Furthermore, MBR results are compared with the conventional treatment ones. Due to the suitability of MBR technology for removing pathogens, particular attention has been paid to disinfection process and the mechanism that govern it. Results from reviewed studies of MBR have showed equal or better quality of water treated than conventional treatments (activated sludge plus disinfection tertiary treatment by the addition of antibacterial agents). (Author) 32 refs.

  6. The status of membrane bioreactor technology. (United States)

    Judd, Simon


    In this article, the current status of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for wastewater treatment is reviewed. Fundamental facets of the MBR process and membrane and process configurations are outlined and the advantages and disadvantages over conventional suspended growth-based biotreatment are briefly identified. Key process design and operating parameters are defined and their significance explained. The inter-relationships between these parameters are identified and their implications discussed, with particular reference to impacts on membrane surface fouling and channel clogging. In addition, current understanding of membrane surface fouling and identification of candidate foulants is appraised. Although much interest in this technology exists and its penetration of the market will probably increase significantly, there remains a lack of understanding of key process constraints such as membrane channel clogging, and of the science of membrane cleaning.

  7. Start-up Strategy for Continuous Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. da Costa


    Full Text Available Abstract - The start-up of continuous bioreactors is solved as an optimal control problem. The choice of the dilution rate as the control variable reduces the dimension of the system by making the use of the global balance equation unnecessary for the solution of the optimization problem. Therefore, for systems described by four or less mass balance equations, it is always possible to obtain an analytical expression for the singular arc as a function of only the state variables. The steady state conditions are shown to satisfy the singular arc expression and, based on this knowledge, a feeding strategy is proposed which leads the reactor from an initial state to the steady state of maximum productivity

  8. Cardiac tissue engineering using perfusion bioreactor systems (United States)

    Radisic, Milica; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wang, Yadong; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana


    This protocol describes tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cell populations on porous scaffolds (in some cases with an array of channels) and bioreactors with perfusion of culture medium (in some cases supplemented with an oxygen carrier). The overall approach is ‘biomimetic’ in nature as it tends to provide in vivo-like oxygen supply to cultured cells and thereby overcome inherent limitations of diffusional transport in conventional culture systems. In order to mimic the capillary network, cells are cultured on channeled elastomer scaffolds that are perfused with culture medium that can contain oxygen carriers. The overall protocol takes 2–4 weeks, including assembly of the perfusion systems, preparation of scaffolds, cell seeding and cultivation, and on-line and end-point assessment methods. This model is well suited for a wide range of cardiac tissue engineering applications, including the use of human stem cells, and high-fidelity models for biological research. PMID:18388955

  9. Production of oncolytic adenovirus and human mesenchymal stem cells in a single-use, Vertical-Wheel bioreactor system: Impact of bioreactor design on performance of microcarrier-based cell culture processes. (United States)

    Sousa, Marcos F Q; Silva, Marta M; Giroux, Daniel; Hashimura, Yas; Wesselschmidt, Robin; Lee, Brian; Roldão, António; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M; Serra, Margarida


    Anchorage-dependent cell cultures are used for the production of viruses, viral vectors, and vaccines, as well as for various cell therapies and tissue engineering applications. Most of these applications currently rely on planar technologies for the generation of biological products. However, as new cell therapy product candidates move from clinical trials towards potential commercialization, planar platforms have proven to be inadequate to meet large-scale manufacturing demand. Therefore, a new scalable platform for culturing anchorage-dependent cells at high cell volumetric concentrations is urgently needed. One promising solution is to grow cells on microcarriers suspended in single-use bioreactors. Toward this goal, a novel bioreactor system utilizing an innovative Vertical-Wheel™ technology was evaluated for its potential to support scalable cell culture process development. Two anchorage-dependent human cell types were used: human lung carcinoma cells (A549 cell line) and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Key hydrodynamic parameters such as power input, mixing time, Kolmogorov length scale, and shear stress were estimated. The performance of Vertical-Wheel bioreactors (PBS-VW) was then evaluated for A549 cell growth and oncolytic adenovirus type 5 production as well as for hMSC expansion. Regarding the first cell model, higher cell growth and number of infectious viruses per cell were achieved when compared with stirred tank (ST) bioreactors. For the hMSC model, although higher percentages of proliferative cells could be reached in the PBS-VW compared with ST bioreactors, no significant differences in the cell volumetric concentration and expansion factor were observed. Noteworthy, the hMSC population generated in the PBS-VW showed a significantly lower percentage of apoptotic cells as well as reduced levels of HLA-DR positive cells. Overall, these results showed that process transfer from ST bioreactor to PBS-VW, and scale-up was

  10. Nitrate Removal Rates in Denitrifying Bioreactors During Storm Flows (United States)

    Pluer, W.; Walter, T.


    Field denitrifying bioreactors are designed to reduce excess nitrate (NO3-) pollution in runoff from agricultural fields. Field bioreactors saturate organic matter to create conditions that facilitate microbial denitrification. Prior studies using steady flow in lab-scale bioreactors showed that a hydraulic retention time (HRT) between 4 and 10 hours was optimal for reducing NO3- loads. However, during storm-induced events, flow rate and actual HRT fluctuate. These fluctuations have the potential to disrupt the system in significant ways that are not captured by the idealized steady-flow HRT models. The goal of this study was to investigate removal rate during dynamic storm flows of variable rates and durations. Our results indicate that storm peak flow and duration were not significant controlling variables. Instead, we found high correlations (p=0.004) in average removal rates between bioreactors displaying a predominantly uniform flow pattern compared with bioreactors that exhibited preferential flow (24.4 and 21.4 g N m-3 d-1, respectively). This suggests that the internal flow patterns are a more significant driver of removal rate than external factors of the storm hydrograph. Designing for flow patterns in addition to theoretical HRT will facilitate complete mixing within the bioreactors. This will help maximize excess NO3- removal during large storm-induced runoff events.

  11. Impacts of human-induced environmental change in wetlands on aquatic animals. (United States)

    Sievers, Michael; Hale, Robin; Parris, Kirsten M; Swearer, Stephen E


    Many wetlands harbour highly diverse biological communities and provide extensive ecosystem services; however, these important ecological features are being altered, degraded and destroyed around the world. Despite a wealth of research on how animals respond to anthropogenic changes to natural wetlands and how they use created wetlands, we lack a broad synthesis of these data. While some altered wetlands may provide vital habitat, others could pose a considerable risk to wildlife. This risk will be heightened if such wetlands are ecological traps - preferred habitats that confer lower fitness than another available habitat. Wetlands functioning as ecological traps could decrease both local and regional population persistence, and ultimately lead to extinctions. Most studies have examined how animals respond to changes in environmental conditions by measuring responses at the community and population levels, but studying ecological traps requires information on fitness and habitat preferences. Our current lack of knowledge of individual-level responses may therefore limit our capacity to manage wetland ecosystems effectively since ecological traps require different management practices to mitigate potential consequences. We conducted a global meta-analysis to characterise how animals respond to four key drivers of wetland alteration: agriculture, mining, restoration and urbanisation. Our overarching goal was to evaluate the ecological impacts of human alterations to wetland ecosystems, as well as identify current knowledge gaps that limit both the current understanding of these responses and effective wetland management. We extracted 1799 taxon-specific response ratios from 271 studies across 29 countries. Community- (e.g. richness) and population-level (e.g. density) measures within altered wetlands were largely comparable to those within reference wetlands. By contrast, individual fitness measures (e.g. survival) were often lower, highlighting the potential

  12. Bioassessment of Choghakhor Wetland using Benthic Macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fathi


    Full Text Available In present study, besides investigating benthic communities and their demographics in Choghakhor wetland, the water quality has been evaluated and classified. Then, 10 stations were selected and sampling of benthos was done every 45 days since April 2010 to March 2011, with 3 replications at each station. Samples were obtained by Ekman grab Sampler (surface 400 cm2. The collected samples were separated and fixed by formalin (4%. The Macroinvertebrates samples were identified and counted in laboratory. Generally 25 families of benthic macroinvertebrates belonging to 5 classes and 12 orders were identified. The results were calculated as community measures, including total richness, Shannon - Wiener diversity index and Hilsenhoff Biological index at family level. The results obtained from temporal and spatial changes of data (Statgeraphics software and water qualitative classification using Shannon diversity index conformed to biological Hilsenhoff index. And finally, water quality of wetland was assessed to be polluted in average to high level. According to this study findings, it seems that, these indicators could be used as useful tools for evaluating water supplies quality.

  13. Hydrodynamic modelling of a tidal delta wetland using an enhanced quasi-2D model (United States)

    Wester, Sjoerd J.; Grimson, Rafael; Minotti, Priscilla G.; Booija, Martijn J.; Brugnach, Marcela


    Knowledge about the hydrological regime of wetlands is key to understand their physical and biological properties. Modelling hydrological and hydrodynamic processes within a wetland is therefore becoming increasingly important. 3D models have successfully modelled wetland dynamics but depend on very detailed bathymetry and land topography. Many 1D and 2D models of river deltas highly simplify the interaction between the river and wetland area or simply neglect the wetland area. This study proposes an enhanced quasi-2D modelling strategy that captures the interaction between river discharge and moon tides and the resulting hydrodynamics, while using the scarce data available. The water flow equations are discretised with an interconnected irregular cell scheme, in which a simplification of the 1D Saint-Venant equations is used to define the water flow between cells. The spatial structure of wetlands is based on the ecogeomorphology in complex estuarine deltas. The islands within the delta are modelled with levee cells, creek cells and an interior cell representing a shallow marsh wetland. The model is calibrated for an average year and the model performance is evaluated for another average year and additionally an extreme dry three-month period and an extreme wet three-month period. The calibration and evaluation are done based on two water level measurement stations and two discharge measurement stations, all located in the main rivers. Additional calibration is carried out with field water level measurements in a wetland area. Accurate simulations are obtained for both calibration and evaluation with high correlations between observed and simulated water levels and simulated discharges in the same order of magnitude as observed discharges. Calibration against field measurements showed that the model can successfully simulate the overflow mechanism in wetland areas. A sensitivity analysis for several wetland parameters showed that these parameters are all

  14. Effects of bamboo charcoal on fouling and microbial diversity in a flat-sheet ceramic membrane bioreactor. (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjie; Liu, Xiaoning; Wang, Dunqiu; Jin, Yue


    Membrane fouling is a problem in full-scale membrane bioreactors. In this study, bamboo charcoal (BC) was evaluated for its efficacy in alleviating membrane fouling in flat-sheet membrane bioreactors treating municipal wastewater. The results showed that BC addition markedly improved treatment performance based on COD, NH 4 + -N, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus levels. Adding BC slowed the increase in the trans-membrane pressure rate and resulted in lower levels of soluble microbial products and extracellular polymeric substances detected in the flat-sheet membrane bioreactor. BC has a porous structure, and a large quantity of biomass was detected using scanning electron microscopy. The microbial community analysis results indicated that BC increased the microbial diversity and Aminomonas, Anaerofustis, uncultured Anaerolineaceae, Anaerolinea, and Anaerotruncus were found in higher abundances in the reactor with BC. BC addition is an effective method for reducing membrane fouling, and can be applied to full-scale flat-sheet membrane bioreactors to improve their function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gas hold-up and oxygen mass transfer in three pneumatic bioreactors operating with sugarcane bagasse suspensions. (United States)

    Esperança, M N; Cunha, F M; Cerri, M O; Zangirolami, T C; Farinas, C S; Badino, A C


    Sugarcane bagasse is a low-cost and abundant by-product generated by the bioethanol industry, and is a potential substrate for cellulolytic enzyme production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of air flow rate (QAIR), solids loading (%S), sugarcane bagasse type, and particle size on the gas hold-up (εG) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) in three different pneumatic bioreactors, using response surface methodology. Concentric tube airlift (CTA), split-cylinder airlift (SCA), and bubble column (BC) bioreactor types were tested. QAIR and %S affected oxygen mass transfer positively and negatively, respectively, while sugarcane bagasse type and particle size (within the range studied) did not influence kLa. Using large particles of untreated sugarcane bagasse, the loop-type bioreactors (CTA and SCA) exhibited higher mass transfer, compared to the BC reactor. At higher %S, SCA presented a higher kLa value (0.0448 s−1) than CTA, and the best operational conditions in terms of oxygen mass transfer were achieved for %S 27.0 L min−1. These results demonstrated that pneumatic bioreactors can provide elevated oxygen transfer in the presence of vegetal biomass, making them an excellent option for use in three-phase systems for cellulolytic enzyme production by filamentous fungi.

  16. A risk analysis for production processes with disposable bioreactors. (United States)

    Merseburger, Tobias; Pahl, Ina; Müller, Daniel; Tanner, Markus


    : Quality management systems are, as a rule, tightly defined systems that conserve existing processes and therefore guarantee compliance with quality standards. But maintaining quality also includes introducing new enhanced production methods and making use of the latest findings of bioscience. The advances in biotechnology and single-use manufacturing methods for producing new drugs especially impose new challenges on quality management, as quality standards have not yet been set. New methods to ensure patient safety have to be established, as it is insufficient to rely only on current rules. A concept of qualification, validation, and manufacturing procedures based on risk management needs to be established and realized in pharmaceutical production. The chapter starts with an introduction to the regulatory background of the manufacture of medicinal products. It then continues with key methods of risk management. Hazards associated with the production of medicinal products with single-use equipment are described with a focus on bioreactors, storage containers, and connecting devices. The hazards are subsequently evaluated and criteria for risk evaluation are presented. This chapter concludes with aspects of industrial application of quality risk management.

  17. The role of reserves and anthropogenic habitats for functional connectivity and resilience of ephemeral wetlands. (United States)

    Uden, Daniel R; Hellman, Michelle L; Angeler, David G; Allen, Craig R

    Ecological reserves provide important wildlife habitat in many landscapes, and the functional connectivity of reserves and other suitable habitat patches is crucial for the persistence and resilience of spatially structured populations. To maintain or increase connectivity at spatial scales larger than individual patches, conservation actions may focus on creating and maintaining reserves and/or influencing management on non-reserves. Using a graph-theoretic approach, we assessed the functional connectivity and spatial distribution of wetlands in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska, USA, an intensively cultivated agricultural matrix, at four assumed, but ecologically realistic, anuran dispersal distances. We compared connectivity in the current landscape to the historical landscape and putative future landscapes, and evaluated the importance of individual and aggregated reserve and non-reserve wetlands for maintaining connectivity. Connectivity was greatest in the historical landscape, where wetlands were also the most densely distributed. The construction of irrigation reuse pits for water storage has maintained connectivity in the current landscape by replacing destroyed wetlands, but these pits likely provide suboptimal habitat. Also, because there are fewer total wetlands (i.e., wetlands and irrigation reuse pits) in the current landscape than the historical landscape, and because the distribution of current wetlands is less clustered than that of historical wetlands, larger and longer dispersing, sometimes nonnative species may be favored over smaller, shorter dispersing species of conservation concern. Because of their relatively low number, wetland reserves do not affect connectivity as greatly as non-reserve wetlands or irrigation reuse pits; however, they likely provide the highest quality anuran habitat. To improve future levels of resilience in this wetland habitat network, management could focus on continuing to improve the conservation status of non

  18. Lake Superior Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages and ... (United States)

    The role of the coastal margin and the watershed context in defining the ecology of even very large lakes is increasingly being recognized and examined. Coastal wetlands are both important contributors to the biodiversity and productivity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake-basin connection. We explored wetland-watershed connections and their relationship to wetland function and condition using data collected from 37 Lake Superior wetlands spanning a substantial geographic and geomorphic gradient. While none of these wetlands are particularly disturbed, there were nevertheless clear relationships between watershed landuse and wetland habitat and biota, and these varied consistently across wetland type categories that reflected the strength of connection to the watershed. For example, water clarity and vegetation structure complexity declined with decreasing percent natural land cover, and these effects were strongest in riverine wetlands (having generally large watersheds and tributary-dominated hydrology) and weakest in lagoon wetlands (having generally small watersheds and lake-dominate hydrology). Fish abundance and species richness both increased with decreasing percent natural land cover while species diversity decreased, and again the effect was strongest in riverine wetlands. Lagoonal wetlands, which lack any substantial tributary, consistently harbored the fewest species of fish and a composition different from the more watershed-lin

  19. The nitrogen abatement cost in wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystroem, Olof


    The costs of abating agricultural nitrogen pollution in wetlands are estimated. By linking costs for construction of wetlands to the denitrification capacity of wetlands, an abatement cost function can be formed. A construction-cost function and a denitrification function for wetlands is estimated empirically. This paper establishes a link between abatement costs and the nitrogen load on wetlands. Since abatement costs fluctuate with nitrogen load, ignoring this link results in incorrect estimates of abatement costs. The results demonstrate that wetlands have the capacity to provide low cost abatement of nitrogen compounds in runoff. For the Kattegatt region in Sweden, marginal abatement costs for wetlands are shown to be lower than costs of land use changing measures, such as extended land under fallow or cultivation of fuel woods, but higher than the marginal costs of reducing nitrogen fertilizer

  20. An Integrated Approach to Mitigation Wetland Site Selection: A Case Study in Gwacheon, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Lee


    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated approach to mitigation wetland site selection using functional landscape connectivity and landscape structure. This approach enables landscape designers to evaluate the relative priorities of mitigation wetland areas based on functional landscape connectivity and wildlife mobility, as well as landscape structure, composition, and configuration. The least-cost path method is used to evaluate candidate sites for mitigation wetlands with regard to wildlife movement. A set of assessments for landscape indices using FRAGSTATS was applied to identify suitable mitigation wetland areas on the basis of landscape connectivity, composition, and configuration. The study was conducted in Gwacheon, Korea, where there are plans for regional development that will change the landscape. In the first step, a group of 14 candidate sites is identified via analysis of functional landscape connectivity using the least-cost path method. In the second step, candidate mitigation wetland areas are ranked according to landscape connectivity and composition. The five mitigation wetland areas that were found to be suitable were analyzed based on landscape configuration at the class level. This study demonstrates that functional landscape connectivity and landscape structure are important aspects to consider when identifying suitable sites for mitigation wetland planning and restoration.

  1. In Situ Wetland Restoration Demonstration (United States)


    wetland habitats where: habitat disruption should be minimized; desirable flora or fauna might be harmed by traditional remedial excavation methods...However, it is possible that short-term impacts to hydrophytic flora and fauna may occur. Other potential challenges include the long-term physical

  2. Magellanic Wetlands : More than Moor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filipová, L.; Hédl, Radim; Dančák, M.


    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2013), s. 163-188 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0389 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : wetland * vegetation * environment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.612, year: 2013

  3. Nevada Test Site Wetlands Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen


    This report identifies 16 Nevada Test Site (NTS) natural water sources that may be classified by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as jurisdictional wetlands and identifies eight water sources that may be classified as waters of the United States. These water sources are rare, localized habitats on the NTS that are important to regional wildlife and to isolated populations of water tolerant plants and aquatic organisms. No field investigations on the NTS have been conducted in the past to identify those natural water sources which would be protected as rare habitats and which may fall under regulatory authority of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1997. This report identifies and summarizes previous studies of NTS natural water sources, and identifies the current DOE management practices related to the protection of NTS wetlands. This report also presents management goals specific for NTS wetlands that incorporate the intent of existing wetlands legislation, the principles of ecosystem management, and the interests of regional land managers and other stakeholders.

  4. Identification and Characterisation of Wetlands For A Correct Basin Management (United States)

    Quadrado, F.; Gomes, F.

    monitoring network does not take in account the specialities of these areas. Portugal presently has 12 sites desig- nated as Wetlands of International Importance, with a surface area of 66,096 hectares. This work pretend to identify and characterised the wetland areas in Portugal, evaluate their degradation and the requirements of the Water Framework Directive with regard to wetlands. Also the importance of this systems to the watershed management is dis- cussed and the improvements with the implementation of the new monitoring network on controlling and preserving water quality in wetlands areas.

  5. Effects of Bubble-Mediated Processes on Nitrous Oxide Dynamics in Denitrifying Bioreactors (United States)

    McGuire, P. M.; Falk, L. M.; Reid, M. C.


    To mitigate groundwater and surface water impacts of reactive nitrogen (N), agricultural and stormwater management practices can employ denitrifying bioreactors (DNBs) as low-cost solutions for enhancing N removal. Due to the variable nature of hydrologic events, DNBs experience dynamic flows which can impact physical and biological processes within the reactors and affect performance. A particular concern is incomplete denitrification, which can release the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. This study aims to provide insight into the effects of varying hydrologic conditions upon the operation of DNBs by disentangling abiotic and biotic controls on denitrification and N2O dynamics within a laboratory-scale bioreactor. We hypothesize that under transient hydrologic flows, rising water levels lead to air entrapment and bubble formation within the DNB porous media. Mass transfer of oxygen (O2) between trapped gas and liquid phases creates aerobic microenvironments that can inhibit N2O reductase (NosZ) enzymes and lead to N2O accumulation. These bubbles also retard N2O transport and make N2O unavailable for biological reduction, further enhancing atmospheric fluxes when water levels fall. The laboratory-scale DNB permits measurements of longitudinal and vertical profiles of dissolved constituents as well as trace gas concentrations in the reactor headspace. We describe a set of experiments quantifying denitrification pathway biokinetics under steady-state and transient hydrologic conditions and evaluate the role of bubble-mediated processes in enhancing N2O accumulation and fluxes. We use sulfur hexafluoride and helium as dissolved gas tracers to examine the impact of bubble entrapment upon retarded gas transport and enhanced trace gas fluxes. A planar optode sensor within the bioreactor provides near-continuous 2-D profiles of dissolved O2 within the bioreactor and allows for identification of aerobic microenvironments. We use qPCR to

  6. Metal pollution across the upper delta plain wetlands and its adjacent shallow sea wetland, northeast of China: implications for the filtration functions of wetlands. (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Ye, Siyuan; Yuan, Hongming; Ding, Xigui; Zhao, Guangming; Yang, Shixiong; He, Lei; Wang, Jin; Pei, Shaofeng; Huang, Xiaoyu


    Grain size and concentrations of organic carbon (Corg) and particulate metals (PMs) As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Al, Fe, and Mn of 373 surface sediment samples, salinities in 67 surface water samples, were analyzed in various environments, including the upper delta plain wetlands (UDPW), its adjacent shallow sea wetland (SSW) in the Liaodong Bay, and river channels that are running through the Liaohe Delta, to evaluate the spatial distribution, transportation environmental dynamics of metals, and the provenance of metal pollution and assess the filtration functions of wetlands. The concentrations of PMs for UDPW were generally higher by a factor of ~ 10-22% compared with its analogues in SSW, suggesting the accumulation of PMs within the UDPW indicates that the UDPW systems are efficiently physical and chemical traps for PMs of anthropogenic sources by retaining and storing pollutants flowing into the sea. However, there was sever sewage irrigation-induced Cd pollution with a geo-accumulation index of 0.62-3.11 in an area of ~ 86 km 2 of the adjacent shallow sea wetland, where large amount wetlands were historically moved for agriculture in the UDPW. Remarkably, the distributions of PMs were controlled by salinity-induced desorption and re-adsorption mechanisms and significantly dispersed the contamination coverage by the three-dimensional hydrodynamic and sedimentation processes that dominated by inputs of freshwater and ocean dynamics including NE-SW tidal currents and NE-E longshore drifts in the SSW of the Liaodong Bay. A high agreement between the UDPW and the SSW datasets in principal component analysis essentially reflects that the characteristics of PM sources in the SSW were actually inherited from that in the UDPW, with a much closer relationship among metals, organic matter, and fine particulates in SSW than that of UDPW, which was judged by their correlation coefficient range of 0.406-0.919 in SSW against those of 0.042-0.654 in UDPW.

  7. Event-Based Analysis of Rainfall-Runoff Response to Assess Wetland-Stream Interaction in the Prairie Pothole Region (United States)

    Haque, M. A.; Ross, C.; Schmall, A.; Bansah, S.; Ali, G.


    Process-based understanding of wetland response to precipitation is needed to quantify the extent to which non-floodplain wetlands - such as Prairie potholes - generate flow and transmit that flow to nearby streams. While measuring wetland-stream (W-S) interaction is difficult, it is possible to infer it by examining hysteresis characteristics between wetland and stream stage during individual precipitation events. Hence, to evaluate W-S interaction, 10 intact and 10 altered/lost potholes were selected for study; they are located in Broughton's Creek Watershed (Manitoba, Canada) on both sides of a 5 km creek reach. Stilling wells (i.e., above ground wells) were deployed in the intact and altered wetlands to monitor surface water level fluctuations while water table wells were drilled below drainage ditches to a depth of 1 m to monitor shallow groundwater fluctuations. All stilling wells and water table wells were equipped with capacitance water level loggers to monitor fluctuations in surface water and shallow groundwater every 15 minutes. In 2013 (normal year) and 2014 (wet year), 15+ precipitation events were identified and scatter plots of wetland (x-axis) versus stream (y-axis) stage were built to identify W-S hysteretic dynamics. Initial data analysis reveals that in dry antecedent conditions, intact and altered wetlands show clockwise W-S relations, while drained wetlands show anticlockwise W-S hysteresis. However, in wetter antecedent conditions, all wetland types show anticlockwise hysteresis. Future analysis will target the identification of thresholds in antecedent moisture conditions that determine significant changes in event wetland response characteristics (e.g., the delay between the start of rainfall and stream stage, the maximum water level rise in each wetland during each event, the delay between the start of rainfall and peak wetland stage) as well as hysteresis properties (e.g., gradient and area of the hysteresis loop).

  8. China's natural wetlands: past problems, current status, and future challenges (United States)

    Shuqing An; Harbin Li; Baohua Guan; Changfang Zhou; Zhongsheng Wang; Zifa Deng; Yingbiao Zhi; Yuhong Liu; Chi Xu; Shubo Fang; Jinhui Jiang; Hongli Li


    Natural wetlands, occupying 3.8% of China's land and providing 54.9% of ecosystem services, are unevenly distributed among eight wetland regions. Natural wetlands in China suffered great loss and degradation (e.g., 23.0% freshwater swamps, 51.2% coastal wetlands) because of the wetland reclamation during China's long history of civilization, and the...

  9. Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor (United States)

    de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

  10. Periodically operated bioreactors for the treatment of soils and leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvine, R.L.; Cassidy, D.P.


    Limited contaminant bioavailability at concentrations above the required cleanup level reduces biodegradation rate and renders solid-phase bioremediation more cost effective than complete treatment in a bioslurry reactor. Slurrying followed by solid-phase bioremediation combines the advantages and minimizes the weaknesses of each treatment method when used alone. Periodic aeration during solid-phase bioremediation has the potential to lower treatment costs relative to continuous aeration. A biological treatment system consisting of slurrying followed by periodic aeration in solid-phase sequencing batch reactors (SP-SBRs) was developed and tested in the laboratory using a silty loam contaminated predominantly with the plasticizer bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP) or (DEHP) and a silty clay loam contaminated with diesel fuel. The first experiment evaluated the effect of water content and mixing time during slurrying on subsequent treatment in continuously aerated solid-phase bioreactors. The second experiment compared treatment of slurried soil in SP-SBRs using three different periodic aeration strategies with continuous aeration

  11. Clofibric acid and gemfibrozil removal in membrane bioreactors. (United States)

    Gutierrez-Macias, Tania; Nacheva, Petia Mijaylova


    The removal of two blood lipid regulators, clofibric acid (CLA) and gemfibrozil (GFZ), was evaluated using two identical aerobic membrane bioreactors with 6.5 L effective volume each. Polysulfone ultrafiltration hollow fiber membranes were submerged in the reactors. Different operating conditions were tested varying the organic load (F/M), hydraulic residence time (HRT), biomass concentration measured as total suspended solids in the mixed liquor (MLTSS) and the sludge retention time (SRT). Complete GFZ removal was obtained with F/M of 0.21-0.48 kg COD kgTSS⁻¹ d⁻¹, HRT of 4-10 hours, SRT of 10-32 d and MLTSS of 6-10 g L⁻¹. The GFZ removal can be attributed to biodegradation and there was no accumulation of the compound in the biomass. The CLA removals improved with the SRT and HRT increase and F/M decrease. Average removals of 78-79% were obtained with SRT 16-32 d, F/M of 0.21-0.34 kgCOD kgTSS⁻¹ d⁻¹, HRT of 7-10 hours and MLTSS of 6-10 g L⁻¹. Biodegradation was found to be the main removal pathway.

  12. Nitrogen removal and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands receiving tile drainage water. (United States)

    Groh, Tyler A; Gentry, Lowell E; David, Mark B


    Loss of nitrate from agricultural lands to surface waters is an important issue, especially in areas that are extensively tile drained. To reduce these losses, a wide range of in-field and edge-of-field practices have been proposed, including constructed wetlands. We re-evaluated constructed wetlands established in 1994 that were previously studied for their effectiveness in removing nitrate from tile drainage water. Along with this re-evaluation, we measured the production and flux of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO, NO, and CH). The tile inlets and outlets of two wetlands were monitored for flow and N during the 2012 and 2013 water years. In addition, seepage rates of water and nitrate under the berm and through the riparian buffer strip were measured. Greenhouse gas emissions from the wetlands were measured using floating chambers (inundated fluxes) or static chambers (terrestrial fluxes). During this 2-yr study, the wetlands removed 56% of the total inlet nitrate load, likely through denitrification in the wetland. Some additional removal of nitrate occurred in seepage water by the riparian buffer strip along each berm (6.1% of the total inlet load, for a total nitrate removal of 62%). The dominant GHG emitted from the wetlands was CO, which represented 75 and 96% of the total GHG emissions during the two water years. The flux of NO contributed between 3.7 and 13% of the total cumulative GHG flux. Emissions of NO were 3.2 and 1.3% of the total nitrate removed from wetlands A and B, respectively. These wetlands continue to remove nitrate at rates similar to those measured after construction, with relatively little GHG gas loss. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Anaerobic membrane bio-reactors for severe industrial effluents and urban spill waters : The AMBROSIUS project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lier, J.B.; Ozgun, H.; Ersahin, M.E.; Dereli, R.K.


    With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors, combination of membrane and anaerobic processes become more and more attractive and feasible. In anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), biomass and particulate organic matter are physically retained inside the reactor,

  14. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.


    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become

  15. A dual flow bioreactor with controlled mechanical stimulation for cartilage tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitters, Tim; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Deus, F.D.; Costa, I.B.F.; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes


    In cartilage tissue engineering bioreactors can create a controlled environment to study chondrocyte behavior under mechanical stimulation or produce chondrogenic grafts of clinically relevant size. Here we present a novel bioreactor, which combines mechanical stimulation with a two compartment

  16. Macroinvertebrate abundance, water chemistry, and wetland characteristics affect use of wetlands by avian species in Maine (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Pendelton, G.W.; Bennatti, C.R.; Mingo, T.M.; Stromborg, K.L.


    Our objective was to determine use by avian species (e.g., piscivores, marsh birds, waterfowl, selected passerines) of 29 wetlands in areas with low (chemistry, basin characteristics, and avian use of different wetland types. Shallow, beaver (Castor canadensis)-created wetlands with the highest phosphorus levels and abundant and varied macrophyte assemblages supported greater densities of macroinvertebrates and numbers of duck broods (88.3% of all broods) in contrast to deep, glacial type wetlands with sparse vegetation and lower invertebrate densities that supported fewer broods (11.7%). Low pH may have affected some acid-intolerant invertebrate taxa (i.e., Ephemeroptera), but high mean numbers of Insecta per wetland were recorded from wetlands with a pH of 5.51. Other Classes and Orders of invertebrates were more abundant on wetlands with pH > 5.51. All years combined use of wetlands by broods was greater on wetlands with pH ≤ 5.51 (77.4%) in contract to wetlands with pH > 5.51 that supported 21.8% of the broods. High mean brood density was associated with mean number of Insecta per wetland. For lentic wetlands created by beaver, those habitats contained vegetative structure and nutrients necessary to provide cover to support invertebrate populations that are prey of omnivore and insectivore species. The fishless status of a few wetlands may have affected use by some waterfowl species and obligate piscivores.

  17. Engineered wetlands : an innovative environmental solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, S.; Davis, B.M. [Jacques Whitford NAWE, White Bear Lake, MN (United States)


    Engineered wetlands are now considered as an emerging technology for the in situ remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and waters. Engineered wetlands incorporate a horizontal subsurface flow gravel bed reactor lined with impermeable liners, and are equipped with forced bed aeration systems in order to enhance oxygen delivery to the wetland's aerobic micro-organisms. The wetlands typically emphasize specific characteristics of wetland ecosystems to improve treatment capacities. This article discussed an engineered wetlands installed at a set of pipeline terminals as well as at a former British Petroleum (BP) refinery. The pipeline terminal generated contact wastewater containing BTEX and ammonia, and a subsurface engineered wetland was built in 1998. To date, the 16,000{sup 2} foot wetland has treated a flow-equalized input of approximately 1.5 m{sup 3} per day of contaminants. At the refinery, a wetland treatment system was designed to treat 6000 m{sup 3} of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The treatment site consists of a golf course, river front trails, and a white water kayak course. A cascade aeration system was used for iron oxidation and air-stripping. A soil matrix biofilter was used for passive gas phase benzene removal, as well as for the removal of ferric hydroxide precipitates. It was concluded that engineered wetlands can offer long-term solutions to site remediation challenges. 1 fig.

  18. Engineered wetlands : an innovative environmental solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.; Davis, B.M.


    Engineered wetlands are now considered as an emerging technology for the in situ remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil and waters. Engineered wetlands incorporate a horizontal subsurface flow gravel bed reactor lined with impermeable liners, and are equipped with forced bed aeration systems in order to enhance oxygen delivery to the wetland's aerobic micro-organisms. The wetlands typically emphasize specific characteristics of wetland ecosystems to improve treatment capacities. This article discussed an engineered wetlands installed at a set of pipeline terminals as well as at a former British Petroleum (BP) refinery. The pipeline terminal generated contact wastewater containing BTEX and ammonia, and a subsurface engineered wetland was built in 1998. To date, the 16,000 2 foot wetland has treated a flow-equalized input of approximately 1.5 m 3 per day of contaminants. At the refinery, a wetland treatment system was designed to treat 6000 m 3 of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The treatment site consists of a golf course, river front trails, and a white water kayak course. A cascade aeration system was used for iron oxidation and air-stripping. A soil matrix biofilter was used for passive gas phase benzene removal, as well as for the removal of ferric hydroxide precipitates. It was concluded that engineered wetlands can offer long-term solutions to site remediation challenges. 1 fig

  19. Wetland restoration, flood pulsing, and disturbance dynamics (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.


    While it is generally accepted that flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics are critical to wetland viability, there is as yet no consensus among those responsible for wetland restoration about how best to plan for those phenomena or even whether it is really necessary to do so at all. In this groundbreaking book, Dr. Beth Middleton draws upon the latest research from around the world to build a strong case for making flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics integral to the wetland restoration planning process.While the initial chapters of the book are devoted to laying the conceptual foundations, most of the coverage is concerned with demonstrating the practical implications for wetland restoration and management of the latest ecological theory and research. It includes a fascinating case history section in which Dr. Middleton explores the restoration models used in five major North American, European, Australian, African, and Asian wetland projects, and analyzes their relative success from the perspective of flood pulsing and disturbance dynamics planning.Wetland Restoration also features a wealth of practical information useful to all those involved in wetland restoration and management, including: * A compendium of water level tolerances, seed germination, seedling recruitment, adult survival rates, and other key traits of wetland plant species * A bibliography of 1,200 articles and monographs covering all aspects of wetland restoration * A comprehensive directory of wetland restoration ftp sites worldwide * An extensive glossary of essential terms

  20. Functional study on two artificial liver bioreactors with collagen gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Bing


    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo improve the hollow fiber bioreactor of artificial liver. MethodsRat hepatocytes mixed with collagen solution were injected into the external cavity of a hollow fiber reactor to construct a bioreactor of hepatocytes suspended in collagen gel (group Ⅰ. Other rat hepatocytes suspended in solution were injected into the external cavity of a hollow fiber reactor with a layer of collagen on the wall of the external cavity to construct a bioreactor of collagen layer and hepatocytes (group Ⅱ. For each group, the culture solution circulated through the internal cavity of the hollow fiber bioreactor; the bioreactor was put in a culture box for 9 d, and the culture solution in the internal cavity was exchanged for new one every 24 h; the concentrations of albumin (Alb, urea, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the culture solution samples were measured to examine the hepatocyte function of the bioreactor. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 130. Continuous data were expressed as mean±SD, and comparison between groups was made by paired t test. ResultsFor groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ, Alb levels reached peak values on day 3 of culture (1.41±0.08 g/L and 0.65±0.05 g/L; from day 3 to 9, group I had a significantly higher Alb level than group Ⅱ (t>7.572, P<0.01. For groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ, urea levels reached peak values on days 3 and 5 of culture (1.73±0.14 mmol/L and 1.56±0.18 mmol/L; from days 5 to 9, group I had a significantly higher urea level than group Ⅱ (t>8.418, P<0.01. For groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ, LDH levels reached peak values on day 9 of culture (32.03±9.13 U/L and 70.17±25.28 U/L; from days 1 to 9, group I had a significantly lower LDH level than group Ⅱ(t>5.633, P<0.01. Therefore, the bioreactor of hepatocytes suspended in collagen gel (group Ⅰ showed a better hepatocyte function and less hepatic enzyme leakage compared with the bioreactor of collagen layer and hepatocytes (group Ⅱ. Conclusion

  1. Vortex breakdown in a truncated conical bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten [DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Herrada, Miguel A [E.S.I, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 (Spain); Shtern, Vladimir N, E-mail: [Shtern Research and Consulting, Houston, TX 77096 (United States)


    This numerical study explains the eddy formation and disappearance in a slow steady axisymmetric air–water flow in a vertical truncated conical container, driven by the rotating top disk. Numerous topological metamorphoses occur as the water height, H{sub w}, and the bottom-sidewall angle, α, vary. It is found that the sidewall convergence (divergence) from the top to the bottom stimulates (suppresses) the development of vortex breakdown (VB) in both water and air. At α = 60°, the flow topology changes eighteen times as H{sub w} varies. The changes are due to (a) competing effects of AMF (the air meridional flow) and swirl, which drive meridional motions of opposite directions in water, and (b) feedback of water flow on AMF. For small H{sub w}, the AMF effect dominates. As H{sub w} increases, the swirl effect dominates and causes VB. The water flow feedback produces and modifies air eddies. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors. (paper)

  2. Vortex breakdown in a truncated conical bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A; Shtern, Vladimir N


    This numerical study explains the eddy formation and disappearance in a slow steady axisymmetric air–water flow in a vertical truncated conical container, driven by the rotating top disk. Numerous topological metamorphoses occur as the water height, H w , and the bottom-sidewall angle, α, vary. It is found that the sidewall convergence (divergence) from the top to the bottom stimulates (suppresses) the development of vortex breakdown (VB) in both water and air. At α = 60°, the flow topology changes eighteen times as H w varies. The changes are due to (a) competing effects of AMF (the air meridional flow) and swirl, which drive meridional motions of opposite directions in water, and (b) feedback of water flow on AMF. For small H w , the AMF effect dominates. As H w increases, the swirl effect dominates and causes VB. The water flow feedback produces and modifies air eddies. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors. (paper)

  3. Mechanisms and Effectivity of Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors ... (United States)

    Mining-influenced water (MIW) is the main environmental challenges associated with the mining industry. Passive MIW remediation can be achieved through microbial activity in sulfate-reducing bioreactors (SRBRs), but their actual removal rates depend on different factors, one of which is the substrate composition. Chitinous materials have demonstrated high metal removal rates, particularly for the two recalcitrant MIW contaminants Zn and Mn, but their removal mechanisms need further study. We studied Cd, Fe, Zn, and Mn removal in bioactive and abiotic SRBRs to elucidate the metal removal mechanisms and the differences in metal and sulfate removal rates using a chitinous material as substrate. We found that sulfate-reducing bacteria are effective in increasing metal and sulfate removal rates and duration of operation in SRBRs, and that the main mechanism involved was metal precipitation as sulfides. The solid residues provided evidence of the presence of sulfides in the bioactive column, more specifically ZnS, according to XPS analysis. The feasibility of passive treatments with a chitinous substrate could be an important option for MIW remediation. Mining influenced water (MIW) remediation is still one of the top priorities for the agency because it addresses the most important environmental problem associated with the mining industry and that affects thousands of communities in the U.S. and worldwide. In this paper, the MIW bioremediation mechanisms are studied

  4. Application of the artificial intelligence to estimate the constructed wetland response to heavy metal removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elektorowicz, M. [Concordia Univ., Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail:; Balanzinski, M. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Mechnical Engineering, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Qasaimeh, A. [Concordia Univ., Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)


    Current design approaches lack essential parameters necessary to evaluate the removal of metals contained in wastewater which is discharged to constructed wetlands. As a result, there is no guideline for an accurate design of constructed wetlands. An artificial intelligence approach was used to assess constructed wetland design. For this purpose concentrations of bioavailable mercury were evaluated in conditions where initial concentrations of inorganic mercury, chloride concentrations and pH values changed. Fuzzy knowledge base was built based on results obtained from previous investigations performed in a greenhouse for floating plants, and from computations for mercury speciation. The Fuzzy Decision Support System (FDSS) used the knowledge base to find parameters that permit to generate the highest amount of mercury available for plants. The findings of this research can be applied to wetlands and all natural processes where correlations between them are uncertain. (author)

  5. Application of the artificial intelligence to estimate the constructed wetland response to heavy metal removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elektorowicz, M.; Balanzinski, M.; Qasaimeh, A.


    Current design approaches lack essential parameters necessary to evaluate the removal of metals contained in wastewater which is discharged to constructed wetlands. As a result, there is no guideline for an accurate design of constructed wetlands. An artificial intelligence approach was used to assess constructed wetland design. For this purpose concentrations of bioavailable mercury were evaluated in conditions where initial concentrations of inorganic mercury, chloride concentrations and pH values changed. Fuzzy knowledge base was built based on results obtained from previous investigations performed in a greenhouse for floating plants, and from computations for mercury speciation. The Fuzzy Decision Support System (FDSS) used the knowledge base to find parameters that permit to generate the highest amount of mercury available for plants. The findings of this research can be applied to wetlands and all natural processes where correlations between them are uncertain. (author)

  6. Nature versus nurture: functional assessment of restoration effects on wetland services using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (United States)

    Sundareshwar, P.V.; Richardson, C.J.; Gleason, R.A.; Pellechia, P.J.; Honomichl, S.


    Land-use change has altered the ability of wetlands to provide vital services such as nutrient retention. While compensatory practices attempt to restore degraded wetlands and their functions, it is difficult to evaluate the recovery of soil biogeochemical functions that are critical for restoration of ecosystem services. Using solution 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, we examined the chemical forms of phosphorus (P) in soils from wetlands located across a land-use gradient. We report that soil P diversity, a functional attribute, was lowest in farmland, and greatest in native wetlands. Soil P diversity increased with age of restoration, indicating restoration of biogeochemical function. The trend in soil P diversity was similar to documented trends in soil bacterial taxonomic composition but opposite that of soil bacterial diversity at our study sites. These findings provide insights into links between ecosystem structure and function and provide a tool for evaluating the success of ecosystem restoration efforts. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Groundwater connectivity of upland-embedded wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (United States)

    Neff, Brian; Rosenberry, Donald O.


    Groundwater connections from upland-embedded wetlands to downstream waterbodies remain poorly understood. In principle, water from upland-embedded wetlands situated high in a landscape should flow via groundwater to waterbodies situated lower in the landscape. However, the degree of groundwater connectivity varies across systems due to factors such as geologic setting, hydrologic conditions, and topography. We use numerical models to evaluate the conditions suitable for groundwater connectivity between upland-embedded wetlands and downstream waterbodies in the prairie pothole region of North Dakota (USA). Results show groundwater connectivity between upland-embedded wetlands and other waterbodies is restricted when these wetlands are surrounded by a mounding water table. However, connectivity exists among adjacent upland-embedded wetlands where water–table mounds do not form. In addition, the presence of sand layers greatly facilitates groundwater connectivity of upland-embedded wetlands. Anisotropy can facilitate connectivity via groundwater flow, but only if it becomes unrealistically large. These findings help consolidate previously divergent views on the significance of local and regional groundwater flow in the prairie pothole region.

  8. Microbial CH4 and N2O consumption in acidic wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen eKolb


    Full Text Available Acidic wetlands are global sources of the atmospheric greenhouse gases methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O. Consumption of both atmospheric gases has been observed in various acidic wetlands, but information on the microbial mechanisms underlying these phenomena is scarce. A substantial amount of CH4 is consumed in sub soil by aerobic methanotrophs at anoxic–oxic interfaces (e.g., tissues of Sphagnum mosses, rhizosphere of vascular plant roots. Methylocystis-related species are likely candidates that are involved in the consumption of atmospheric CH4 in acidic wetlands. Oxygen availability regulates the activity of methanotrophs of acidic wetlands. Other parameters impacting on the methanotroph-mediated CH4 consumption have not been systematically evaluated. N2O is produced and consumed by microbial denitrification, thus rendering acidic wetlands as temporary sources or sinks for N2O. Denitrifier communities in such ecosystems are diverse, and largely uncultured and/or new, and environmental factors that control their consumption activity are unresolved. Analyses of the composition of N2O reductase genes in acidic wetlands suggest that acid-tolerant Proteobacteria have the potential to mediate N2O consumption in such soils. Thus, the fragmented current state of knowledge raises open questions concerning methanotrophs and dentrifiers that consume atmospheric CH4 and N2O in acidic wetlands.

  9. Staying alive! Sensors used for monitoring cell health in bioreactors. (United States)

    O'Mara, P; Farrell, A; Bones, J; Twomey, K


    Current and next generation sensors such as pH, dissolved oxygen (dO) and temperature sensors that will help drive the use of single-use bioreactors in industry are reviewed. The current trend in bioreactor use is shifting from the traditional fixed bioreactors to the use of single-use bioreactors (SUBs). However as the shift in paradigm occurs there is now a greater need for sensor technology to play 'catch up' with the innovation of bioreactor technology. Many of the sensors still in use today rely on technology created in the 1960's such as the Clark-type dissolved oxygen sensor or glass pH electrodes. This is due to the strict requirements of sensors to monitor bioprocesses resulting in the use of traditional well understood methods, making it difficult to incorporate new sensor technology into industry. A number of advances in sensor technology have been achieved in recent years, a few of these advances and future research will also be discussed in this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Operation of a fluidized-bed bioreactor for denitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancher, C.W.; Taylor, P.A.; Napier, J.M.


    Two denitrification fluidized-bed bioreactors of the same length (i.e., 5 m) but with different inside diameters (i.e., 5 and 10 cm) have been operated on feed ranging in nitrate concentration from 200 to 2000 g/m 3 ; thus far, good agreement has been obtained. Two 10-cm-ID bioreactors operating in series have also been tested; the results are in accordance with predicted results based on the performance of a 5-cm-ID bioreactor. The overall denitrification rate in the dual 10-cm-ID bioreactor system was found to be 23 kg N(NO 3 - )/day-m 3 using feed with a nitrate concentration of 1800 g/m 3 . Data obtained in operating-temperature tests indicate that the maximum denitrification rate is achieved between 22 and 30 0 C. These data will form the basis of the design of our mobile pilot plant which consists of dual 20-cm-ID by 7.3-m-long bioreactors

  11. Wildlife health implications of sewage disposal in wetlands (United States)

    Friend, M.; Godfrey, P.J.; Kaynor, E.R.; Pelczarski, S.


    Wildlife health concerns associated with disposal of sewage effluent in wetlands are of three primary types: (1) introduction of pathogens, (2) introduction of pollutants that adversely impact on host body defense mechanisms, and (3) changes in the physical and chemical properties of wetlands that favor the development and maintenance of disease problems. Unlike the situation with human health concerns, introduction of pathogens is not the major concern regarding wildlife health. Instead, the focus of attention needs to be directed at environmental changes likely to take place as a result of effluent discharges into different types of wetlands. Unless these changes are adequately addressed from a disease perspective, marshes utilized for sewage disposal could become disease incubators and wildlife death traps. This result would be unfortunate because the backlash would likely negate the potentially beneficial aspects of the use of sewage wastewater for the creation of new wetlands and have a severe impact on progress being made towards evaluation of the compatibility of wildlife and sewage effluents.

  12. Inland wetland change detection using aircraft MSS [multispectral scanner] data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.R.; Ramsey, E.W.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Sharitz, R.R.; Christensen, E.J.


    Nontidal wetlands in a portion of the Savannah River swamp forest affected by reactor cooling water discharges were mapped using March 31, 1981 and April 29, 1985 high-resolution aircraft multispectral scanner (MSS) data. Due to the inherent distortion in the aircraft MSS data and the complex spectral characteristics of the wetland vegetation, it was necessary to implement multiple techniques in the registration and classification of the MSS imagery of the Pen Branch Delta on each date. In particular, it was necessary to use a piecewise-linear registration process over relatively small regions to perform image-to-image registration. When performing unsupervised classification, an iterative ''cluster busting'' technique was used, which simplified the cluster labeling process. These procedures allowed important wetland vegetation categories to be identified on each date. The multiple-date classification maps were then evaluated using a post-classification comparison technique yielding change classes that were of value in determining the extent of inland wetland change in this region

  13. Determining Hydroperiod for Boreal and Prairie Pothole Wetlands using SAR, Optical and LiDAR Remote Sensing Data Fusion (United States)

    Montgomery, J. S.; Hopkinson, C.; Brisco, B.; Patterson, S.; Chasmer, L.; Mahoney, C.


    and ground validation of the output classes is used to evaluate the data fusion approach (overall accuracies >80%, RMSE <4). The decision-tree modeling approach provides insight into dynamic wetland surface water changes that are important for wetland monitoring, conservation and land use development within western Canada.

  14. National Wetland Mitigation Banking Study Wetland Migitation Banking. (United States)


    habitat (i.e. number of snags, extent of exposed steep shoreline, etc.) rather than selecting species themselves as function indicators [ WWF 1992...etc.) that are converted to portray hydrologic, water quality, and habitat functions as well as wetland loss on watershed scales [ WWF 1992]. The...Natural Areas - include the Stewardship Program, a partnership program between the private and public sectors for conservation land acquisitions

  15. Wastewater treatment by a pilot system of artificial wetlands: removal evaluation of the organic load; Tratamiento de aguas residuales por un sistema piloto de humedales artificiales: evaluacion de la remocion de la carga organica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Aguilar, Mariana [Centro de Investigacion en Biotecnologia, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Colin Cruz, Arturo [Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Sanchez Salinas, Enrique; Ortiz Hernandez, Ma. Laura [Centro de Investigacion en Biotecnologia, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)


    Wastewater treatment is a priority at the global level, because it is important to have enough water of good quality, which will allow an improvement of environment, health and life quality. In Mexico, because of insufficient infrastructure, high costs, lack of maintenance and qualified staff, only 36 % of the generated wastewaters are treated, which generates the need for developing alternative technologies for their depuration. Artificial wetlands are an alternative due their high efficiency for removal of polluting agents and their low installation and maintenance costs. This paper evaluates the removal percentage of the organic charge of wastewaters in a treatment system of artificial wetlands of horizontal flux, with two vegetal species. The system was designed with three modules installed in a sequential way. At the first one, organisms of the species Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel were integrated; at the second, organisms of the species Typha dominguensis (Pers.) Steudel, and at the third, both species. The experimental modules were installed at the effluent of a primary treatment, which contains municipal wastewater coming from a research building. The following parameters were analyzed in the water: chemical oxygen demand (COD), ions of nitrogen (N-NO{sub 3}-, N-NO{sub 2}- y N-NH{sub 4}{sup +}) and total phosphorus. Additionally, the total count of bacteria associated to the system was evaluated. Results showed that the system is an option for the removal of organic matter and nutrients, of low operation and maintenance costs. [Spanish] El tratamiento de las aguas residuales es una cuestion prioritaria a nivel mundial, ya que es importante disponer de agua de calidad y en cantidad suficiente, lo que permitira una mejora del ambiente, la salud y la calidad de vida. En Mexico, debido a la insuficiente infraestructura, los altos costos, la falta de mantenimiento y de personal capacitado, solo 36 % de las aguas residuales generadas reciben

  16. Wetland Vegetation Integrity Assessment with Low Altitude Multispectral Uav Imagery (United States)

    Boon, M. A.; Tesfamichael, S.


    The use of multispectral sensors on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) was until recently too heavy and bulky although this changed in recent times and they are now commercially available. The focus on the usage of these sensors is mostly directed towards the agricultural sector where the focus is on precision farming. Applications of these sensors for mapping of wetland ecosystems are rare. Here, we evaluate the performance of low altitude multispectral UAV imagery to determine the state of wetland vegetation in a localised spatial area. Specifically, NDVI derived from multispectral UAV imagery was used to inform the determination of the integrity of the wetland vegetation. Furthermore, we tested different software applications for the processing of the imagery. The advantages and disadvantages we experienced of these applications are also shortly presented in this paper. A JAG-M fixed-wing imaging system equipped with a MicaScene RedEdge multispectral camera were utilised for the survey. A single surveying campaign was undertaken in early autumn of a 17 ha study area at the Kameelzynkraal farm, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Structure-from-motion photogrammetry software was used to reconstruct the camera position's and terrain features to derive a high resolution orthoretified mosaic. MicaSense Atlas cloud-based data platform, Pix4D and PhotoScan were utilised for the processing. The WET-Health level one methodology was followed for the vegetation assessment, where wetland health is a measure of the deviation of a wetland's structure and function from its natural reference condition. An on-site evaluation of the vegetation integrity was first completed. Disturbance classes were then mapped using the high resolution multispectral orthoimages and NDVI. The WET-Health vegetation module completed with the aid of the multispectral UAV products indicated that the vegetation of the wetland is largely modified ("D" PES Category) and that the condition is expected to

  17. Introduction to the Wetland Book 1: Wetland structure and function, management, and nethods (United States)

    Davidson, Nick C.; Middleton, Beth A.; McInnes, Robert J.; Everard, Mark; Irvine, Kenneth; Van Dam, Anne A.; Finlayson, C. Max; Finlayson, C. Max; Everard, Mark; Irvine, Kenneth; McInnes, Robert J.; Middleton, Beth A.; Van Dam, Anne A.; Davidson, Nick C.


    The Wetland Book 1 is designed as a ‘first port-of-call’ reference work for information on the structure and functions of wetlands, current approaches to wetland management, and methods for researching and understanding wetlands. Contributions by experts summarize key concepts, orient the reader to the major issues, and support further research on such issues by individuals and multidisciplinary teams. The Wetland Book 1 is organized in three parts - Wetland structure and function; Wetland management; and Wetland methods - each of which is divided into a number of thematic Sections. Each Section starts with one or more overview chapters, supported by chapters providing further information and case studies on different aspects of the theme.

  18. Uptake and Translocation of Iron by Native Tree Species In A Constructed Wetland Treating Landfill Leachates


    A. Snow; Abdel E. Ghaly; R. Cote; A. M. Snow


    A surface flow wetland was constructed in the Burnside Industrial Park, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, to treat stormwater runoff from the surrounding watersheds which are comprised primarily of commercial properties and two former landfills. The objectives of this study were: (a) to compare the uptake of iron by red maple, white birch and red spruce trees growing under flooded soil conditions in the constructed wetland and well drained soil conditions in a nearby reference site, (b) to evaluate the...

  19. EnviroAtlas - Potential Wetland Areas - Contiguous United States (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Potential Wetland Areas (PWA) dataset shows potential wetland areas at 30-meter resolution. Beginning two centuries ago, many wetlands were turned...

  20. Comparison between a conventional membrane bioreactor (C-MBR and a biofilm membrane bioreactor (BF-MBR for domestic wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Subtil


    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of biofilm carriers in a MBR on the performance of organic matter and nitrogen removal and the influence on membrane fouling were evaluated. The configurations studied included a Conventional Membrane Bioreactor (C-MBR and a Biofilm Membrane Bioreactor (BF-MBR operated in parallel, both fed with domestic wastewater. Regarding organic matter removal, no statistically significant differences were observed between C-MBR and BF-MBR, producing an effluent with a Soluble COD concentration of 27 ± 9.0 mgO2/L and 26 ±1.0 mgO2/L and BOD concentration of 6.0 ± 2.5 mgO2/L and 6.2 ± 2.1 mgO2/L, respectively. On the other hand, the BF-MBR produced a permeate with lower ammonia and total nitrogen concentrations, which resulted in a removal efficiency of 98% and 73%, respectively. It was also observed that the fouling rate was about 35% higher in the C-MBR than that for the BF-MBR, which also presented a reduction of total membrane resistance, about 29%, and increased operational cycle length around 7 days, compared to C-MBR.

  1. Balancing the risks of habitat alteration and environmental contamination in a contaminated forested wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleiler, J.A.; Daukas, G.; Richardson, N.


    The North Lawrence Oil Dump Site (NLODS) is an inactive hazardous waste site located adjacent to an extensive palustrine forested wetland in upstate New York. Waste oil and oil sludge were disposed of in a lagoon adjacent to the wetland during the 1960s. During periods of high water, oils escaped from the lagoon and were transported into the wetlands. High concentrations of lead and PCBs were detected in NLODS wetland sediments, and contaminants from the site were present in wetland's plant and animal tissues. However, contaminated portions of the wetlands appear to be physically undisturbed and provide high quality wildlife habitat. The results of an ecological risk assessment indicated that lead and PCB contamination in NLODS sediment may be impacting some components of the wetlands community. The risk management process considered both the toxicological risks associated with lead and PCB contamination, as well as the significant habitat destruction risks associated with remediation. Six potential PCB target cleanup levels were evaluated. Following removal of sediments with PCB contamination greater than 0.5 mg/kg, 3.5 acres of sediment with lead contamination in excess of 250 mg/kg (the New York State ''Severe Effect Level'') would remain. More than 1.5 of these acres would contain lead concentrations in excess of 1,000 mg/kg. Reducing lead levels to background concentrations would require more than 50 acres of wetlands alteration. The Record of Decision at the NLODS recognized the high quality habitat provided by the site's wetlands, and attempted to balance the risks from habitat alteration with the risks of environmental contamination

  2. Mapping wetland loss and restoration potential in Flanders (Belgium: an ecosystem service perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Decleer


    Full Text Available With the case of Flanders (northern part of Belgium we present an integrated approach to calculate accurate losses of wetlands, potentials for restoration, and their ecosystem services supplies and illustrate how these insights can be used to evaluate and support policy making. Flanders lost about 75% of its wetland habitats in the past 50-60 years, with currently only 68,000 ha remaining, often in a more or less degraded state. For five different wetland categories (excluding open waters we calculated that restoration of lost wetland is still possible for an additional total area of about 147,000 ha, assuming that, with time and appropriate measures and techniques, the necessary biophysical and ecological conditions can more or less be restored or created. Wetland restoration opportunities were mapped according to an open and forested landscape scenario. Despite the fact that for 49,000 ha wetland restoration is justifiable by the actual presence of an appropriate spatial planning and/or protection status, the official Flemish nature policy only foresees 7,400 to 10,600 ha of additional wetland (open waters excluded by 2050. The benefits of a more ambitious wetland restoration action program are underpinned by an explorative and quantified analysis of ecosystem service supply for each of the two scenarios, showing that the strongly increased supply of several important regulating and cultural ecosystem services might outweigh the decrease of food production, especially if extensive farming on temporary wet soils remains possible. Finally, we discuss the challenges of wetland restoration policies for biodiversity conservation and climate change.

  3. Development of a diatom-based multimetric index for acid mine drainage impacted depressional wetlands. (United States)

    Riato, Luisa; Leira, Manel; Della Bella, Valentina; Oberholster, Paul J


    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from coal mining in the Mpumalanga Highveld region of South Africa has caused severe chemical and biological degradation of aquatic habitats, specifically depressional wetlands, as mines use these wetlands for storage of AMD. Diatom-based multimetric indices (MMIs) to assess wetland condition have mostly been developed to assess agricultural and urban land use impacts. No diatom MMI of wetland condition has been developed to assess AMD impacts related to mining activities. Previous approaches to diatom-based MMI development in wetlands have not accounted for natural variability. Natural variability among depressional wetlands may influence the accuracy of MMIs. Epiphytic diatom MMIs sensitive to AMD were developed for a range of depressional wetland types to account for natural variation in biological metrics. For this, we classified wetland types based on diatom typologies. A range of 4-15 final metrics were selected from a pool of ~140 candidate metrics to develop the MMIs based on their: (1) broad range, (2) high separation power and (3) low correlation among metrics. Final metrics were selected from three categories: similarity to reference sites, functional groups, and taxonomic composition, which represent different aspects of diatom assemblage structure and function. MMI performances were evaluated according to their precision in distinguishing reference sites, responsiveness to discriminate reference and disturbed sites, sensitivity to human disturbances and relevancy to AMD-related stressors. Each MMI showed excellent discriminatory power, whether or not it accounted for natural variation. However, accounting for variation by grouping sites based on diatom typologies improved overall performance of MMIs. Our study highlights the usefulness of diatom-based metrics and provides a model for the biological assessment of depressional wetland condition in South Africa and elsewhere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Do geographically isolated wetlands influence landscape functions?


    Cohen, Matthew J.; Creed, Irena F.; Alexander, Laurie; Basu, Nandita B.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Craft, Christopher; D’Amico, Ellen; DeKeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lane, Charles R.; Lang, Megan


    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), those surrounded by uplands, exchange materials, energy, and organisms with other elements in hydrological and habitat networks, contributing to landscape functions, such as flow generation, nutrient and sediment retention, and biodiversity support. GIWs constitute most of the wetlands in many North American landscapes, provide a disproportionately large fraction of wetland edges where many functions are enhanced, and form complexes with other water bo...

  5. Treatment of wastewater with the constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, R.; Olivares, S.


    Constructed wetland is an environmental sound, actual and economic solution for the treatment of wastewater. The use of these constructed wetlands increased in the last few years, principally in developed countries. However there is not much information about the performance of these biological systems in tropical and subtropical climates. In these review the state of art of these technology is given, and also the advantage of the use of the constructed wetland for the wastewater treatment in our country

  6. Diverse characteristics of wetlands restored under the Wetlands Reserve Program in the Southeastern United States (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Joel M. Gramling


    The Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) restores converted or degraded wetlands on private working lands; however, the nature and outcomes of such efforts are undocumented in the Southeastern U.S. Identification of wetland types is needed to assess the program's conservation benefits, because ecological functions differ with hydrogeomorphic (HGM) type. We reviewed...

  7. Characteristic community structure of Florida's subtropical wetlands: the Florida wetland condition index (United States)

    Depending upon the classification scheme applied, there are between 10 and 45 different wetland types in Florida. Land use and land cover change has a marked effect on wetland condition, and different wetland types are affected differentially depending on many abiotic and biotic ...

  8. SLOSS or Not? Factoring Wetland Size Into Decisions for Wetland Conservation, Enhancement, Restoration, and Creation (United States)

    Mitigation or replacement of several small impacted wetlands or sites with fewer large wetlands can occur deliberately through the application of functional assessment methods (e.g., Adamus 1997) or coincidentally as the result of market-based mechanisms for wetland mitigation ba...

  9. Plantform Bioreactor for Mass Micropropagation of Date Palm. (United States)

    Almusawi, Abdulminam H A; Sayegh, Abdullah J; Alshanaw, Ansam M S; Griffis, John L


    A novel protocol for the commercial production of date palm through micropropagation is presented. This protocol includes the use of a semisolid medium alternation or in combination with a temporary immersion system (TIS, Plantform bioreactor) in date palm micropropagation. The use of the Plantform bioreactor for date palm results in an improved multiplication rate, reduced micropropagation time, and improved weaning success. It also reduces the cost of saleable units and thus improves economic return for commercial micropropagation. The use of the Plantform bioreactor successfully addresses other hindrances that can occur during the scale-up of date palm micropropagation, including asynchrony of somatic embryos, limited maturation of somatic embryos, and highly variable germination frequencies of embryos.

  10. Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Kleis, Stanley J.; Geffert, Sandara K.


    A prototype miniature bioreactor system is designed to serve as a laboratory benchtop cell-culturing system that minimizes the need for relatively expensive equipment and reagents and can be operated under computer control, thereby reducing the time and effort required of human investigators and reducing uncertainty in results. The system includes a bioreactor, a fluid-handling subsystem, a chamber wherein the bioreactor is maintained in a controlled atmosphere at a controlled temperature, and associated control subsystems. The system can be used to culture both anchorage-dependent and suspension cells, which can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Cells can be cultured for extended periods of time in this system, and samples of cells can be extracted and analyzed at specified intervals. By integrating this system with one or more microanalytical instrument(s), one can construct a complete automated analytical system that can be tailored to perform one or more of a large variety of assays.

  11. Bioreactor droplets from liposome-stabilized all-aqueous emulsions (United States)

    Dewey, Daniel C.; Strulson, Christopher A.; Cacace, David N.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Keating, Christine D.


    Artificial bioreactors are desirable for in vitro biochemical studies and as protocells. A key challenge is maintaining a favourable internal environment while allowing substrate entry and product departure. We show that semipermeable, size-controlled bioreactors with aqueous, macromolecularly crowded interiors can be assembled by liposome stabilization of an all-aqueous emulsion. Dextran-rich aqueous droplets are dispersed in a continuous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-rich aqueous phase, with coalescence inhibited by adsorbed ~130-nm diameter liposomes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and dynamic light scattering data indicate that the liposomes, which are PEGylated and negatively charged, remain intact at the interface for extended time. Inter-droplet repulsion provides electrostatic stabilization of the emulsion, with droplet coalescence prevented even for submonolayer interfacial coatings. RNA and DNA can enter and exit aqueous droplets by diffusion, with final concentrations dictated by partitioning. The capacity to serve as microscale bioreactors is established by demonstrating a ribozyme cleavage reaction within the liposome-coated droplets.

  12. Artificial wetlands - yes or no?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Václav; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Lusková, Věra


    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2004), s. 119-127 ISSN 1642-3593. [International Symposium on the Ecology of Fluvial Fishes /9./. Lodz, 23.06.2003-26.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6093007; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : floodplain * artificial wetlands * fish communities Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  13. Artificial wetland for wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias I, Carlos A; Brix, Hans


    The development of constructed wetland technology for wastewater treatment has gone a long way and from an experimental and unknown empirical method, which was capable of handling wastewater a sound technology was developed. Thanks to research, and the work of many public and private companies that have gather valuable operation information, constructed wetland technology has evolved to be a relievable, versatile and effective way to treat wastewater, run off, handle sludge and even improve environmental quality and provide recreation sites, while maintaining low operation and maintenance costs, and at the same time, producing water of quality that can meet stringent regulations, while being and environmental friendly solution to treat waste-waters. Constructed wetlands can be established in many different ways and its characteristics can differ greatly, according to the user needs, the geographic site and even the climatic conditions of the area. The following article deals with the general characteristics of the technology and the physical and chemical phenomena that govern the pollution reduction with in the different available systems

  14. Ecosystem services: developing sustainable management paradigms based on wetland functions and processes (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.; Smith, Loren M.; Conner, William H.; Burkett, Virginia R.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Hester, Mark W.; Zheng, Haochi


    In the late nineteenth century and twentieth century, there was considerable interest and activity to develop the United States for agricultural, mining, and many other purposes to improve the quality of human life standards and prosperity. Most of the work to support this development was focused along disciplinary lines with little attention focused on ecosystem service trade-offs or synergisms, especially those that transcended boundaries of scientific disciplines and specific interest groups. Concurrently, human population size has increased substantially and its use of ecosystem services has increased more than five-fold over just the past century. Consequently, the contemporary landscape has been highly modified for human use, leaving behind a fragmented landscape where basic ecosystem functions and processes have been broadly altered. Over this period, climate change also interacted with other anthropogenic effects, resulting in modern environmental problems having a complexity that is without historical precedent. The challenge before the scientific community is to develop new science paradigms that integrate relevant scientific disciplines to properly frame and evaluate modern environmental problems in a systems-type approach to better inform the decision-making process. Wetland science is a relatively new discipline that grew out of the conservation movement of the early twentieth century. In the United States, most of the conservation attention in the earlier days was on wildlife, but a growing human awareness of the importance of the environment led to the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969. Concurrently, there was a broadening interest in conservation science, and the scientific study of wetlands gradually gained acceptance as a scientific discipline. Pioneering wetland scientists became formally organized when they formed The Society of Wetland Scientists in 1980 and established a publication outlet to share wetland research

  15. Interactions Between Wetlands and Tidal Inlets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanchez, Alejandro


    This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) presents numerical simulations investigating how the loss of wetlands in estuaries modifies tidal processes in inlet navigation channels...

  16. Streamlined bioreactor-based production of human cartilage tissues. (United States)

    Tonnarelli, B; Santoro, R; Adelaide Asnaghi, M; Wendt, D


    Engineered tissue grafts have been manufactured using methods based predominantly on traditional labour-intensive manual benchtop techniques. These methods impart significant regulatory and economic challenges, hindering the successful translation of engineered tissue products to the clinic. Alternatively, bioreactor-based production systems have the potential to overcome such limitations. In this work, we present an innovative manufacturing approach to engineer cartilage tissue within a single bioreactor system, starting from freshly isolated human primary chondrocytes, through the generation of cartilaginous tissue grafts. The limited number of primary chondrocytes that can be isolated from a small clinically-sized cartilage biopsy could be seeded and extensively expanded directly within a 3D scaffold in our perfusion bioreactor (5.4 ± 0.9 doublings in 2 weeks), bypassing conventional 2D expansion in flasks. Chondrocytes expanded in 3D scaffolds better maintained a chondrogenic phenotype than chondrocytes expanded on plastic flasks (collagen type II mRNA, 18-fold; Sox-9, 11-fold). After this "3D expansion" phase, bioreactor culture conditions were changed to subsequently support chondrogenic differentiation for two weeks. Engineered tissues based on 3D-expanded chondrocytes were more cartilaginous than tissues generated from chondrocytes previously expanded in flasks. We then demonstrated that this streamlined bioreactor-based process could be adapted to effectively generate up-scaled cartilage grafts in a size with clinical relevance (50 mm diameter). Streamlined and robust tissue engineering processes, as the one described here, may be key for the future manufacturing of grafts for clinical applications, as they facilitate the establishment of compact and closed bioreactor-based production systems, with minimal automation requirements, lower operating costs, and increased compliance to regulatory guidelines.

  17. Biological reduction of nitrate wastewater using fluidized-bed bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Hancher, C.W.; Patton, B.D.; Kowalchuk, M.


    There are a number of nitrate-containing wastewater sources, as concentrated as 30 wt % NO 3 - and as large as 2000 m 3 /d, in the nuclear fuel cycle as well as in many commercial processes such as fertilizer production, paper manufacturing, and metal finishing. These nitrate-containing wastewater sources can be successfully biologically denitrified to meet discharge standards in the range of 10 to 20 gN(NO 3 - )/m 3 by the use of a fluidized-bed bioreactor. The major strain of denitrification bacteria is Pseudomonas which was derived from garden soil. In the fluidized-bed bioreactor the bacteria are allowed to attach to 0.25 to 0.50-mm-diam coal particles, which are fluidized by the upward flow of influent wastewater. Maintaining the bacteria-to-coal weight ratio at approximately 1:10 results in a bioreactor bacteria loading of greater than 20,000 g/m 3 . A description is given of the results of two biodenitrification R and D pilot plant programs based on the use of fluidized bioreactors capable of operating at nitrate levels up to 7000 g/m 3 and achieving denitrification rates as high as 80 gN(NO 3 - )/d per liter of empty bioreactor volume. The first of these pilot plant programs consisted of two 0.2-m-diam bioreactors, each with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 208 liters, operating in series. The second pilot plant was used to determine the diameter dependence of the reactors by using a 0.5-m-diam reactor with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 1200 liters. These pilot plants operated for a period of six months and two months respectively, while using both a synthetic waste and the actual waste from a gaseous diffusion plant operated by Goodyear Atomic Corporation

  18. Wetland Biomass Production: emergent aquatic management options and evaluations. A final subcontract report. [Includes a bibliography containing 686 references on Typha from biological abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, D.C.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Linton, P.J.


    The high yield potential and attractive chemical composition of Typha make it a particularly viable energy crop. The Minnesota research effort has demonstrated that total annual biomass yields equivalent to 30 dry tonnes/ha (13 tons/acre) are possible in planted stands. This compares with yields of total plant material between 9 and 16 dry tonnes/ha (4 to 7 tons/acre) in a typical Minnesota corn field. At least 50% of the Typha plant is comprised of a belowground rhizome system containing 40% starch and sugar. This high level of easily fermentable carbohydrate makes rhizomes an attractive feedstock for alcohol production. The aboveground portion of the plant is largely cellulose, and although it is not easily fermentable, it can be gasified or burned. This report is organized in a manner that focuses on the evaluation of the management options task. Results from stand management research performed at the University of Minnesota during 1982 and 1983 are integrated with findings from an extensive survey of relevant emergent aquatic plant research and utilization. These results and findings are then arranged in sections dealing with key steps and issues that need to be dealt with in the development of a managed emergent aquatic bio-energy system. A brief section evaluating the current status of rhizome harvesting is also included along with an indexed bibliography of the biology, ecology, and utilization of Typha which was completed with support from this SERI subcontract. 686 references, 11 figures, 17 tables.

  19. How critical are wetlands for provisioning ecosystem services in East Africa? (United States)

    Gettel, G. M.; van Dam, A. A.; Hes, E.; Irvine, K.


    East Africa is rapidly losing wetlands as the region intensifies agricultural development in rice, sugarcane, and aquaculture production. However, these wetlands are critically important to the livelihoods of region's most vulnerable smallholders, who depend on them for fisheries, water abstraction, and dry-season subsistence agriculture, including livestock grazing. At the same time, wetlands are used for their regulating services, including for water purification of waste-water in some of the region's largest capital cities (e.g. Kampala and Kigali). They also store an enormous, but poorly quantified amount of below-ground carbon and prevent excess nitrogen inputs to sensitive downstream ecosystems. Our research in papyrus wetlands in the Lake Victoria Basin aims to quantify trade-offs in provisioning and regulating services and link these services to socio-economic conditions of the smallholders. We present a framework for evaluating these trade-offs, which can ultimately be used for more informed management decisions for sustainable wetland management and for evaluating impacts on livelihoods. Specifically, we have found that papyrus wetlands can maintain many of their regulating functions, including high plant productivity and denitrification rates when native vegetation is allowed to grow back during wet-seasons, while during dry seasons they can be developed for economically important agricultural activities, including livestock grazing and crop production. This shows the possibility to include wetlands in management plans aimed to increase agricultural production without jeopardizing their ability to maintain other important regulating services. These patterns highlight the need to evaluate the regional importance of these wetlands for both food production and regulating services.

  20. Application of a constructed wetland system for polluted stream remediation (United States)

    Tu, Y. T.; Chiang, P. C.; Yang, J.; Chen, S. H.; Kao, C. M.


    ., Steroidobacter denitrificans, Hydrocarboniphaga effuse were responsible for nitrogen removal, and the dominant carbon degrading bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, H. effuse, Alcaligenes sp., Pseudomonas sp., Fusibacter sp., Chlofoflexi, Guggenheimella bovis, Bacillus pumilus) were responsible for carbon reduction. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and nucleotide sequence techniques provide a guide for microbial ecology evaluation, which can be used as an indication of contaminants removal. Results from this study show that constructed wetlands have the potential to be developed into an environmentally acceptable river water quality improvement and wastewater polishment alternative for practical application.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    There is provided a bioreactor which is provided with a lid (13) that facilitates access to the incubation cavity. Specifically the end wall of the incubation cavity is constituted by the lid (13) so that removal of the cap renders the incubation cavity fully accessible.......There is provided a bioreactor which is provided with a lid (13) that facilitates access to the incubation cavity. Specifically the end wall of the incubation cavity is constituted by the lid (13) so that removal of the cap renders the incubation cavity fully accessible....

  2. Hydraulic Behavior in The Downflow Hanging Sponge Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izarul Machdar


    Full Text Available Performance efficiency in a Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS bioreactor is associated with the amount of time that a wastewater remains in the bioreactor. The bioreactor is considered as a plug flow reactor and its hydraulic residence time (HRT depends on the void volume of packing material and the flow rate. In this study, hydraulic behavior of DHS bioreactor was investigated by using tracer method. Two types of sponge module covers, cylindrical plastic frame (module-1 and plastic hair roller (module-2, were investigated and compared. A concentrated NaCl solution used as an inert tracer and input as a pulse at the inlet of DHS bioreactor. Analysis of the residence time distribution (RTD curves provided interpretation of the index distribution or holdup water (active volume, the degree of short-circuiting, number of tanks in series (the plug flow characteristic, and the dispersion number. It was found that the actual HRT was primarily shorter than theoretical HRT of each test. Holdup water of the DHS bioreactor ranged from 60% to 97% and 36% to 60% of module-1 and module-2, respectively. Eventhough module-1 has higher effective volume than module-2, result showed that the dispersion numbers of the two modules were not significant difference. Furthermore, N-values were found larger at a higher flow rate. It was concluded that a DHS bioreactor design should incorporated a combination of water distributor system, higher loading rate at startup process to generate a hydraulic behavior closer to an ideal plug flow.ABSTRAKEfisiensi unjuk kerja bioreactor Downflow Hanging Sponge (DHS berkaitan dengan lamanya waktu tinggal limbah berada di dalam bioreaktor tersebut. Bioreaktor DHS dianggap sebagai seuatu reaktor aliran sumbat (plug flow dimana waktu tinggal hidraulik (HRT tergantung pada volume pori material isian dan laju alir. Dua jenis modul digunakan dalam penelitian ini, yang diberi nama dengan module-1 dan module-2 untuk melihat pengaruh jenis modul


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera


    Full Text Available The operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs for domestic wastewaters treatment was studied in laboratory scale, with the objective to define sustainable filtration conditions of the suspensions along the process. During continuous experiments, the organic matter degradation by anaerobic way showed an average DQOT removal of 85% and 93%. Indeed, the degradation generated biogas after 12 days of operation and its relative methane composition was of 60% after 25 days of operation. Additionally, the comparison between membrane bioreactors (MBRs performance in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in filterability terms, reported that both systems behave similarly once reached the stationary state.

  4. Understand the impacts of wetland restoration on peak flow and baseflow by coupling hydrologic and hydrodynamic models (United States)

    Gao, H.; Sabo, J. L.


    Wetlands as the earth's kidneys provides various ecosystem services, such as absorbing pollutants, purifying freshwater, providing habitats for diverse ecosystems, sustaining species richness and biodiversity. From hydrologic perspective, wetlands can store storm-flood water in flooding seasons and release it afterwards, which will reduce flood peaks and reshape hydrograph. Therefore, as a green infrastructure and natural capital, wetlands provides a competent alternative to manage water resources in a green way, with potential to replace the widely criticized traditional gray infrastructure (i.e. dams and dikes) in certain cases. However, there are few systematic scientific tools to support our decision-making on site selection and allow us to quantitatively investigate the impacts of restored wetlands on hydrological process, not only in local scale but also in the view of entire catchment. In this study, we employed a topographic index, HAND (the Height Above the Nearest Drainage), to support our decision on potential site selection. Subsequently, a hydrological model (VIC, Variable Infiltration Capacity) was coupled with a macro-scale hydrodynamic model (CaMa-Flood, Catchment-Based Macro-scale Floodplain) to simulate the impact of wetland restoration on flood peaks and baseflow. The results demonstrated that topographic information is an essential factor to select wetland restoration location. Different reaches, wetlands area and the change of roughness coefficient should be taken into account while evaluating the impacts of wetland restoration. The simulated results also clearly illustrated that wetland restoration will increase the local storage and decrease the downstream peak flow which is beneficial for flood prevention. However, its impact on baseflow is ambiguous. Theoretically, restored wetlands will increase the baseflow due to the slower release of the stored flood water, but the increase of wetlands area may also increase the actual evaporation

  5. Single bioreactor gastrointestinal tract simulator for study of survival of probiotic bacteria. (United States)

    Sumeri, Ingrid; Arike, Liisa; Adamberg, Kaarel; Paalme, Toomas


    The aim of the present study was to design an in vitro model system to evaluate the probiotic potential of food. A single bioreactor system-gastrointestinal tract simulator (GITS) was chosen for process simulation on account of its considerable simplicity compared to multi-vessel systems used in previous studies. The bioreactor was evaluated by studying the viability of four known probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533, Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) as a function of their physiological state. L. acidophilus and L. johnsonii survived in GITS better when introduced at an early stationary or exponential phase compared to being previously stored for 2 weeks at 4 degrees C. These two species were more resistant to bile salts and survived better than L. casei and L. rhamnosus GG. The latter two species gave large losses (up to 6 log) in plate counts independent of growth state due to the bile. However, experiments with some commercial probiotic products containing Lb. GG bacteria showed much better survival compared with model food (modified deMan-Rogosa-Sharpe growth medium), thus demonstrating the influence of the food matrix on the viability of bacteria. The study demonstrated that GITS can be successfully used for evaluation of viability of probiotic bacteria and functionality of probiotic food.

  6. Characterizing the Surface Connectivity of Depressional Wetlands: Linking Remote Sensing and Hydrologic Modeling Approaches (United States)

    Christensen, J.; Evenson, G. R.; Vanderhoof, M.; Wu, Q.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.


    Surface connectivity of wetlands in the 700,000 km2 Prairie Pothole Region of North America (PPR) can occur through fill-spill and fill-merge mechanisms, with some wetlands eventually spilling into stream/river systems. These wetland-to-wetland and wetland-to-stream connections vary both spatially and temporally in PPR watersheds and are important to understanding hydrologic and biogeochemical processes in the landscape. To explore how to best characterize spatial and temporal variability in aquatic connectivity, we compared three approaches, 1) hydrological modeling alone, 2) remotely-sensed data alone, and 3) integrating remotely-sensed data into a hydrological model. These approaches were tested in the Pipestem Creek Watershed, North Dakota across a drought to deluge cycle (1990-2011). A Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was modified to include the water storage capacity of individual non-floodplain wetlands identified in the National Wetland Inventory (NWI) dataset. The SWAT-NWI model simulated the water balance and storage of each wetland and the temporal variability of their hydrologic connections between wetlands during the 21-year study period. However, SWAT-NWI only accounted for fill-spill, and did not allow for the expansion and merging of wetlands situated within larger depressions. Alternatively, we assessed the occurrence of fill-merge mechanisms using inundation maps derived from Landsat images on 19 cloud-free days during the 21 years. We found fill-merge mechanisms to be prevalent across the Pipestem watershed during times of deluge. The SWAT-NWI model was then modified to use LiDAR-derived depressions that account for the potential maximum depression extent, including the merging of smaller wetlands. The inundation maps were used to evaluate the ability of the SWAT-depression model to simulate fill-merge dynamics in addition to fill-spill dynamics throughout the study watershed. Ultimately, using remote sensing to inform and validate

  7. Three approaches to the classification of inland wetlands. [Dismal Swamp, Tennessee, and Florida (United States)

    Gammon, P. T.; Malone, D.; Brooks, P. D.; Carter, V.


    In the Dismal Swamp project, seasonal, color-infrared aerial photographs and LANDSAT digital data were interpreted for a detailed analysis of the vegetative communities in a large, highly altered wetland. In Western Tennessee, seasonal high altitude color-infrared aerial photographs provided the hydrologic and vegetative information needed to map inland wetlands, using a classification system developed for the Tennessee Valley Region. In Florida, color-infrared aerial photographs were analyzed to produce wetland maps using three existing classification systems to evaluate the information content and mappability of each system. The methods used in each of the three projects can be extended or modified for use in the mapping of inland wetlands in other parts of the United States.

  8. Wise use of wetlands: current state of protection and utilization of Chinese wetlands and recommendations for improvement. (United States)

    Wang, Yanxia; Yao, Yong; Ju, Meiting


    Wetland protection and utilization sometimes appear to be in conflict, but promoting the wise use of wetlands can solve this problem. All countries face the challenge of sustainable development of wetlands to a greater or lesser extent, but the problem is especially urgent in developing countries, such as China, that want to accelerate their economic development without excessive environmental cost. Chinese wetlands contribute greatly to economic development, but improper use of these natural resources has endangered their existence. It is thus necessary to provide scientific guidance to managers and users of wetlands. In this paper, we analyze the present status of Chinese wetland protection and utilization, and discuss problems in six categories: a lack of public awareness of the need for wetland protection; insufficient funding for wetland protection and management; an imperfect legal system to protect wetlands; insufficient wetland research; lack of coordination among agencies and unclear responsibilities; and undeveloped technologies related to wetland use and protection. The wise use of Chinese wetlands will require improvements in four main areas: increased wetland utilization research, scientific management of wetland utilization, improved laws and regulations to protect wetlands, and wider dissemination of wetland knowledge. Based on these categories, we propose a framework for the optimization of wetland use by industry to provide guidance for China and other countries that cannot sacrifice economic benefits to protect their wetlands.

  9. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control (United States)

    Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; O’Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.


    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution of dragonflies naiads in wetlands La Vaca and Santa Maria del Lago, Bogota, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Pallares, Maria Ines; Guillot Monroy, Gabriel Hernando


    We evaluated the spatial and temporal variation in communities of dragonfly's naiads and their association to the habitat rehabilitation status in La Vaca and Santa Maria del Lago wetlands. Four samplings were carried out in several sites of each during a year. Macroinvertebrates were collected at the entry and exit flow, and in open waters of the wetlands using standard techniques. We found a gradient in the distribution of the abundance of nymphs in both wetlands, where naiads community had the highest number of individuals in the places located farther from the dumping sites. Comparing the community s composition between wetlands La Vaca and Santa Maria del Lago through the beta diversity, heterogeneity was found in both ecosystems. The gradient in the distribution of the abundance of naiads observed in both wetlands fits with to a response of the species in terms of tolerance to the environmental variables.

  11. Toxicity and metal speciation in acid mine drainage treated by passive bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neculita, C.M.; Vigneaul, B.; Zagury, G.J. [Ecole Polytechnic, Montreal, PQ (Canada)


    Sulfate-reducing passive bioreactors treat acid mine drainage (AMD) by increasing its pH and alkalinity and by removing metals as metal sulfide precipitates. In addition to discharge limits based on physicochemical parameters, however, treated effluent is required to be nontoxic. Acute and sublethal toxicity was assessed for effluent from 3.5-L column bioreactors filled with mixtures of natural organic carbon sources and operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) for the treatment of a highly contaminated AMD. Effluent was first tested for acute (Daphnia magna and Oncorhynchus mykiss) and sublethal (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ceriodaphnia dabia, and Lemna minor) toxicity. Acute toxicity was observed for D. magna, and a toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedure was then performed to identify potential toxicants. Finally, metal speciation in the effluent was determined using ultrafiltration and geochemical modeling for the interpretation of the toxicity results. The 10-d HRT effluent was nonacutely lethal for 0. mykiss but acutely lethal for D. magna. The toxicity to D. magna, however, was removed by 2 h of aeration, and the TIE procedure suggested iron as a cause of toxicity. Sublethal toxicity of the 10-d HRT effluent was observed for all test species, but it was reduced compared to the raw AMD and to a 7.3-d HRT effluent. Data regarding metal speciation indicated instability of both effluents during aeration and were consistent with the toxicity being caused by iron. Column bioreactors in operation for more than nine months efficiently improved the physicochemical quality of highly contaminated AMD at different HRTs.

  12. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management (United States)

    Leemhuis, Constanze; Amler, Esther; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Gabiri, Geofrey; Näschen, Kristian


    Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  13. East African wetland-catchment data base for sustainable wetland management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Leemhuis


    Full Text Available Wetlands cover an area of approx. 18 Mio ha in the East African countries of Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Tanzania, with still a relative small share being used for food production. Current upland agricultural use intensification in these countries due to demographic growth, climate change and globalization effects are leading to an over-exploitation of the resource base, followed by an intensification of agricultural wetland use. We aim on translating, transferring and upscaling knowledge on experimental test-site wetland properties, small-scale hydrological processes, and water related ecosystem services under different types of management from local to national scale. This information gained at the experimental wetland/catchment scale will be embedded as reference data within an East African wetland-catchment data base including catchment physical properties and a regional wetland inventory serving as a base for policy advice and the development of sustainable wetland management strategies.

  14. Optimization of Amylase and Protease Production from Aspergillus awamori in Single Bioreactor Through EVOP Factorial Design Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Negi


    Full Text Available Evolutionary operation (EVOP factorial design technique was explored in order to economically produce amylase and protease at their optimum level in a single bioreactor by modified solid-state fermentation. Maximum yields of amylase and protease were achieved, using wheat bran as a substrate by a highly potent, locally isolated strain of Aspergillus awamori: Nakazawa MTCC 6652. The strain had been induced previously, inferring the ability to produce both enzymes concomitantly in a single bioreactor with their maximum capacity. The highest secretion of amylase and protease were measured to be 9420.6 and 1930 U/g, respectively, at 37 °C. pH and relative humidity were found to be optimum at 4 and 85 %, evaluated through EVOP method.

  15. Biodegradation of high strength phenolic wastewater in a modified external loop inversed fluidized bed airlift bioreactor (EIFBAB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aye, T. T.; Loh, K-C. [National University of Singapore, Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, (Singapore)


    Phenol degradation at high concentrations was investigated in both batch and continuous mode, using a modified external loop inversed fluidized bed airlift bioreactor (EIFBAB). It was found that the modified EIFBAB, when operated at five litres/hour was capable of degrading 3,000 mg/L phenol. Under continuous operation the bioreactor was capable of degrading up to 5,000 mg/L phenol, with gradual acclimatization of the biofilm on the expanded polystyrene beads. Response of the system under shock loading was also evaluated. Results showed that the system was able to absorb the shock well up to 5,000 mg/L phenol. Although phenol breakthrough was evident in the effluent beyond 4,500 mg/L., the increase in effluent phenol concentration was gradual, and the effluent concentration did not increase beyond 1,000 mg/L phenol. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  16. Selection of suitable fertilizer draw solute for a novel fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis-anaerobic membrane bioreactor hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngjin


    In this study, a protocol for selecting suitable fertilizer draw solute for anaerobic fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis membrane bioreactor (AnFDFOMBR) was proposed. Among eleven commercial fertilizer candidates, six fertilizers were screened further for their FO performance tests and evaluated in terms of water flux and reverse salt flux. Using selected fertilizers, bio-methane potential experiments were conducted to examine the effect of fertilizers on anaerobic activity due to reverse diffusion. Mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) showed the highest biogas production while other fertilizers exhibited an inhibition effect on anaerobic activity with solute accumulation. Salt accumulation in the bioreactor was also simulated using mass balance simulation models. Results showed that ammonium sulphate and MAP were the most appropriate for AnFDFOMBR since they demonstrated less salt accumulation, relatively higher water flux, and higher dilution capacity of draw solution. Given toxicity of sulphate to anaerobic microorganisms, MAP appears to be the most suitable draw solution for AnFDFOMBR.

  17. Wetland management and rice farming strategies to decrease methylmercury bioaccumulation and loads from the Cosumnes River Preserve, California (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Fleck, Jacob; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; McQuillen, Harry; Heim, Wes


    We evaluated mercury (Hg) concentrations in caged fish (deployed for 30 days) and water from agricultural wetland (rice fields), managed wetland, slough, and river habitats in the Cosumnes River Preserve, California. We also implemented experimental hydrological regimes on managed wetlands and post-harvest rice straw management techniques on rice fields in order to evaluate potential Best Management Practices to decrease methylmercury bioaccumulation within wetlands and loads to the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. Total Hg concentrations in caged fish were twice as high in rice fields as in managed wetland, slough, or riverine habitats, including seasonal managed wetlands subjected to identical hydrological regimes. Caged fish Hg concentrations also differed among managed wetland treatments and post-harvest rice straw treatments. Specifically, Hg concentrations in caged fish decreased from inlets to outlets in seasonal managed wetlands with either a single (fall-only) or dual (fall and spring) drawdown and flood-up events, whereas Hg concentrations increased slightly from inlets to outlets in permanent managed wetlands. In rice fields, experimental post-harvest straw management did not decrease Hg concentrations in caged fish. In fact, in fields in which rice straw was chopped and either disked into the soil or baled and removed from the fields, fish Hg concentrations increased from inlets to outlets and were higher than Hg concentrations in fish from rice fields subjected to the more standard post-harvest practice of simply chopping rice straw prior to fall flood-up. Finally, aqueous methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations and export were highly variable, and seasonal trends in particular were often opposite to those of caged fish. Aqueous MeHg concentrations and loads were substantially higher in winter than in summer, whereas caged fish Hg concentrations were relatively low in winter and substantially higher in summer. Together, our results highlight the


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This study therefore examined the processes involved in the valuation of wetland resources for ... of the subsistence uses of wetland resources are also not ... hydrological cycle, playing a key role in the provision ..... Management Strategies at the River Basin Scale. A ... Using. GIS: A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty.

  19. Carbon Cycling in Wetland Forest Soils (United States)

    Carl C. Trettin; Martin F. Jurgensen


    Wetlands comprise a small proportion (i.e., 2 to 3%) of earth's terrestrial surface, yet they contain a significant proportion of the terrestrial carbon (C) pool. Soils comprise the largest terrestrial C pool (ca. 1550 Pg C in upper 100 cm; Eswaran et al., 1993; Batjes, 1996), and wetlands contain the single largest component, with estimates ranging between 18...

  20. Stochastic modeling of wetland-groundwater systems (United States)

    Bertassello, Leonardo Enrico; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Park, Jeryang; Jawitz, James W.; Botter, Gianluca


    Modeling and data analyses were used in this study to examine the temporal hydrological variability in geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs), as influenced by hydrologic connectivity to shallow groundwater, wetland bathymetry, and subject to stochastic hydro-climatic forcing. We examined the general case of GIWs coupled to shallow groundwater through exfiltration or infiltration across wetland bottom. We also examined limiting case with the wetland stage as the local expression of the shallow groundwater. We derive analytical expressions for the steady-state probability density functions (pdfs) for wetland water storage and stage using few, scaled, physically-based parameters. In addition, we analyze the hydrologic crossing time properties of wetland stage, and the dependence of the mean hydroperiod on climatic and wetland morphologic attributes. Our analyses show that it is crucial to account for shallow groundwater connectivity to fully understand the hydrologic dynamics in wetlands. The application of the model to two different case studies in Florida, jointly with a detailed sensitivity analysis, allowed us to identify the main drivers of hydrologic dynamics in GIWs under different climate and morphologic conditions.

  1. Diversity patterns of temporary wetland macroinvertebrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although macroinvertebrates are potentially useful for assessing the condition of temporary wetlands, little is yet known about them. Macroinvertebrate assemblages were assessed in 138 temporary wetlands in the south-western Cape, recording 126 taxa. However, predicted richness estimates were all higher than the ...

  2. Advancing the use of minirhizotrons in wetlands (United States)

    C. M. Iversen; M. T. Murphy; M. F. Allen; J. Childs; D. M. Eissenstat; E.A. Lilleskov; T. M. Sarjala; V. L. Sloan; P. F. Sullivan


    Background. Wetlands store a substantial amount of carbon (C) in deep soil organic matter deposits, and play an important role in global fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane. Fine roots (i.e., ephemeral roots that are active in water and nutrient uptake) are recognized as important components of biogeochemical cycles in nutrient-limited wetland ecosystems. However,...

  3. Macroinvertebrate variation in endorheic depression wetlands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aquatic macroinvertebrates are rarely used in wetland assessments due to their variation. However, in terms of biodiversity, these invertebrates form an important component of wetland fauna. Spatial and temporal variation of macroinvertebrate assemblages in endorheic depressions (locally referred to as 'pans') in ...

  4. The carbon balance of North American wetlands (United States)

    Scott D. Bridgham; J. Patrick Megonigal; Jason K. Keller; Norman b. Bliss; Carl Trettin


    We examine the carbon balance of North American wetlands by reviewing and synthesizing the published literature and soil databases. North American wetlands contain about 220 Pg C, most of which is in peat. They are a small to moderate carbon sink of about 49 Tg C yr-l, although the uncertainty around this estimate is greater than 100%, with the...

  5. Pesticide mitigation capacities of constructed wetlands (United States)

    Matthew T. Moore; Charles M. Cooper; Sammie Smith; John H. Rodgers


    This research focused on using constructed wetlands along field perimeters to buffer receiving water against potential effects of pesticides associated with storm runoff. The current study incorporated wetland mesocosm sampling following simulated runoff events using chlorpyrifos, atrazine, and metolachlor. Through this data collection and simple model analysis,...

  6. Cometabolic bioreactor demonstration at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, A.J.; Donaldson, T.L.; Jennings, H.L.; Morris, M.I.; Palumbo, A.V.; Herbes, S.E.


    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted a demonstration of cometabolic technology for bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chlorinated solvents. The technology demonstration was located at a seep from the K-1070-C/D Classified Burial Ground at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The technology demonstration was designed to evaluate the performance of two different types of cometabolic processes. In both cases, the TCE is cometabolized in the sense that utilization of a different primary substrate is necessary to obtain the simultaneous cometabolism of TCE. Trichloroethylene alone is unable to support growth and maintenance of the microorganisms. Methanotrophic (methane-utilizing) technology was demonstrated first; aromatic-utilizing microorganisms were demonstrated later. The demonstration was based on scaleup of laboratory and bench-scale prototype equipment that was used to establish the technical feasibility of the processes.This report documents the operation of the methanotrophic bioreactor system to treat the seep water at the demonstration site. The initial objectives were to demonstrate stable operation of the bioreactors and associated equipment, including the pretreatment and effluent polishing steps; and evaluate the biodegradation of TCE and other organics in the seep water for the three operating modes--air oxidation pretreatment, steam-stripping pretreatment, and no pretreatment

  7. Norfloxacin degradation by Bacillus subtilis strains able to produce biosurfactants on a bioreactor scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jałowiecki Łukasz


    Full Text Available The discharge of antibiotics into the environment has become a major concern since this group of pharmaceuticals influence on microbial communities not only by its mode of action, but also because of the risk of a worldwide dispersal of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG. Antibiotics residues have been found in various environments such as waters, sediments, and soils. Moreover, most WWTPs are not designed to treat such kind of pollutants, which remain incompletely removed. Currently, biodegradation processes which involved bacterial strains with increased degradation capabilities is one of the most promising technique. The aim of this study was to evaluate the norfloxacin biodegradation potential of the three Bacillus subtilis strains named T-1, T’-1 and I’-1a on a bioreactor scale. The aerobic degradation was conducted in a 5-liter bioreactor on minimal salts medium in co-metabolic culture supplemented with glucose. The degradation rate of norfloxacin was determined with the HPLC technique. The surface tension was determined using ring method in order to observe the changes in biosurfactants production. Also, the biofilm formation abilities of the bacteria with two quantitative methods, crystal violet (CV method and TTC-based test and enzymes production were evaluated.

  8. Resveratrol production in bioreactor: Assessment of cell physiological states and plasmid segregational stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida S. Afonso


    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a plant secondary metabolite commonly found in peanuts and grapevines with significant health benefits. Recombinant organisms can produce large amounts of resveratrol and, in this work, Escherichia coli BW27784 was used to produce resveratrol in bioreactors while monitoring cell physiology and plasmid stability through flow cytometry and real-time qPCR, respectively. Initially, the influence of culture conditions and precursor addition was evaluated in screening assays and the data gathered was used to perform the bioreactor assays, allowing the production of 160 μg/mL of resveratrol. Cellular physiology and plasmid instability affected the final resveratrol production, with lower viability and plasmid copy numbers associated with lower yields. In sum, this study describes new tools to monitor the bioprocess, evaluating the effect of culture conditions, and its correlation with cell physiology and plasmid segregational stability, in order to define a viable and scalable bioprocess to fulfill the need for larger quantities of resveratrol.

  9. Design and efficacy of a single-use bioreactor for heart valve tissue engineering. (United States)

    Converse, Gabriel L; Buse, Eric E; Neill, Kari R; McFall, Christopher R; Lewis, Holley N; VeDepo, Mitchell C; Quinn, Rachael W; Hopkins, Richard A


    Heart valve tissue engineering offers the promise of improved treatments for congenital heart disorders; however, widespread clinical availability of a tissue engineered heart valve (TEHV) has been hindered by scientific and regulatory concerns, including the lack of a disposable, bioreactor system for nondestructive valve seeding and mechanical conditioning. Here we report the design for manufacture and the production of full scale, functional prototypes of such a system. To evaluate the efficacy of this bioreactor as a tool for seeding, ovine aortic valves were decellularized and subjected to seeding with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). The effects of pulsatile conditioning using cyclic waveforms tuned to various negative and positive chamber pressures were evaluated, with respect to the seeding of cells on the decellularized leaflet and the infiltration of seeded cells into the interstitium of the leaflet. Infiltration of hMSCs into the aortic valve leaflet was observed following 72 h of conditioning under negative chamber pressure. Additional conditioning under positive pressure improved cellular infiltration, while retaining gene expression within the MSC-valve interstitial cell phenotype lineage. This protocol resulted in a subsurface pilot population of cells, not full tissue recellularization. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 249-259, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Introducing Textiles as Material of Construction of Ethanol Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osagie A. Osadolor


    Full Text Available The conventional materials for constructing bioreactors for ethanol production are stainless and cladded carbon steel because of the corrosive behaviour of the fermenting media. As an alternative and cheaper material of construction, a novel textile bioreactor was developed and examined. The textile, coated with several layers to withstand the pressure, resist the chemicals inside the reactor and to be gas-proof was welded to form a 30 L lab reactor. The reactor had excellent performance for fermentative production of bioethanol from sugar using baker’s yeast. Experiments with temperature and mixing as process parameters were performed. No bacterial contamination was observed. Bioethanol was produced for all conditions considered with the optimum fermentation time of 15 h and ethanol yield of 0.48 g/g sucrose. The need for mixing and temperature control can be eliminated. Using a textile bioreactor at room temperature of 22 °C without mixing required 2.5 times longer retention time to produce bioethanol than at 30 °C with mixing. This will reduce the fermentation investment cost by 26% for an ethanol plant with capacity of 100,000 m3 ethanol/y. Also, replacing one 1300 m3 stainless steel reactor with 1300 m3 of the textile bioreactor in this plant will reduce the fermentation investment cost by 19%.

  11. Numerical study of fluid motion in bioreactor with two mixers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheleva, I., E-mail: [Department of Heat Technology, Hydraulics and Ecology, Angel Kanchev University of Rousse, 8 Studentska str., 7017 Rousse (Bulgaria); Lecheva, A., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Angel Kanchev University of Rousse, 8 Studentska str., 7017 Rousse (Bulgaria)


    Numerical study of hydrodynamic laminar behavior of a viscous fluid in bioreactor with multiple mixers is provided in the present paper. The reactor is equipped with two disk impellers. The fluid motion is studied in stream function-vorticity formulation. The calculations are made by a computer program, written in MATLAB. The fluid structure is described and numerical results are graphically presented and commented.

  12. Membrane bioreactor biomass characteristics and microbial yield at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, a laboratory-scale MBR and SBR were operated in parallel and at very low MCRTs (3 d, 2 d, 1 d and 0.5 d) to assess the relative bioreactor performance, biomass characteristics, and microbial yield. This study confirmed that the MBR maintains higher solids levels and better overall effluent quality than ...

  13. Integrated sensor array for on-line monitoring micro bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krommenhoek, E.E.


    The “Fed��?batch on a chip��?��?project, which was carried out in close cooperation with the Technical University of Delft, aims to miniaturize and parallelize micro bioreactors suitable for on-line screening of micro-organisms. This thesis describes an electrochemical sensor array which has been

  14. Modelling and characterization of an airlift-loop bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaan, P.


    An airlift-loop reactor is a bioreactor for aerobic biotechnological processes. The special feature of the ALR is the recirculation of the liquid through a downcomer connecting the top and the bottom of the main bubbling section. Due to the high circulation-flow rate, efficient mixing and

  15. The kinetics of crossflow dynamic membrane bioreactor | Li | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crossflow dynamic membrane bioreactor (CDMBR) kinetics was investigated by treating caprolactam wastewater over a period of 180 d. The removal efficiencies of organic substances and nitrogen averaged over 99% and 80%, respectively. The observed sludge yield was only 0.14 g SS·g-1 COD·d-1 at an SRT of 30 d ...


    The presentation focuses on the improvements to engineered features of a passive technology that has been used for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). This passive remedial technology, a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bioreactor, takes advantage of the ability of SRB that,...

  17. Anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactors for high strength wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersahin, M.E.; Gimenez Garcia, J.B.; Ozgun, H.; Tao, Y.; Van Lier, J.B.


    A laboratory scale external anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) treating high strength wastewater was operated to assess the effect of gas sparging velocity and organic loading rate on removal efficiency and dynamic membrane (DM) filtration characteristics. An increase in gas sparging

  18. Microfluidic bioreactors for culture of non-adherent cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Pranjul Jaykumar; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Kwasny, Dorota


    Microfluidic bioreactors (μBR) are becoming increasingly popular for cell culture, sample preparation and analysis in case of routine genetic and clinical diagnostics. We present a novel μBR for non-adherent cells designed to mimic in vivo perfusion of cells based on diffusion of media through...

  19. Thiosulphate conversion in a methane and acetate fed membrane bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez Zuluaga, D.A.; Timmers, P.H.A.; Plugge, C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Weijma, J.


    The use of methane and acetate as electron donors for biological reduction of thiosulphate in a 5-L laboratory membrane bioreactor was studied and compared to disproportionation of thiosulphate as competing biological reaction. The reactor was operated for 454 days in semi-batch mode; 30 % of its

  20. Shell of Planet Earth – Global Batch Bioreactor.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanika, Jiří; Šolcová, Olga; Kaštánek, P.


    Roč. 40, č. 11 (2017), s. 1959-1965 ISSN 0930-7516 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : critical raw materials * global batch bioreactor * planet earth Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.051, year: 2016

  1. Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors For Cost-Effective Municipal Water Reuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgün, H.


    In recent years, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology has been increasingly researched for municipal wastewater treatment as a means to produce nutrient-rich, solids free effluents with low levels of pathogens, while occupying a small footprint. An AnMBR can be used not only for on-site


    This report focuses on three field campaigns performed in 2002 and 2003 to measure fugitive emissions at a bioreactor landfill in Louisville, KY, using an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The study uses optical remote sensing-radial plume mapping. The horizontal...

  3. Cell culture experiments planned for the space bioreactor (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Cross, John H.


    Culturing of cells in a pilot-scale bioreactor remains to be done in microgravity. An approach is presented based on several studies of cell culture systems. Previous and current cell culture research in microgravity which is specifically directed towards development of a space bioprocess is described. Cell culture experiments planned for a microgravity sciences mission are described in abstract form.

  4. Enhancing inhibited fermentations through a dynamic electro-membrane bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Garde, Arvid; Rype, Jens-Ulrik

    produced in the bioreactor) with hydroxide ions, which maintained a pH close to optimal growing conditions. The ion-exchange was in turn regulated by a PID control unit, which adjusted the electrical current output between the REED electrodes to match the growing production speed of lactic acid, which...

  5. Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering of Cartilage (United States)

    Concaro, S.; Gustavson, F.; Gatenholm, P.

    The cartilage regenerative medicine field has evolved during the last decades. The first-generation technology, autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) involved the transplantation of in vitro expanded chondrocytes to cartilage defects. The second generation involves the seeding of chondrocytes in a three-dimensional scaffold. The technique has several potential advantages such as the ability of arthroscopic implantation, in vitro pre-differentiation of cells and implant stability among others (Brittberg M, Lindahl A, Nilsson A, Ohlsson C, Isaksson O, Peterson L, N Engl J Med 331(14):889-895, 1994; Henderson I, Francisco R, Oakes B, Cameron J, Knee 12(3):209-216, 2005; Peterson L, Minas T, Brittberg M, Nilsson A, Sjogren-Jansson E, Lindahl A, Clin Orthop (374):212-234, 2000; Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Feyerabend F, Petersen JP, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, et al. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 27(4):273-280, 2005; Portner R, Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, J Biosci Bioeng 100(3):235-245, 2005; Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, Portner R, J Biotechnol 121(4):486-497, 2006; Heyland J, Wiegandt K, Goepfert C, Nagel-Heyer S, Ilinich E, Schumacher U, et al. Biotechnol Lett 28(20):1641-1648, 2006). The nutritional requirements of cells that are synthesizing extra-cellular matrix increase along the differentiation process. The mass transfer must be increased according to the tissue properties. Bioreactors represent an attractive tool to accelerate the biochemical and mechanical properties of the engineered tissues providing adequate mass transfer and physical stimuli. Different reactor systems have been [5] developed during the last decades based on different physical stimulation concepts. Static and dynamic compression, confined and nonconfined compression-based reactors have been described in this review. Perfusion systems represent an attractive way of culturing constructs under dynamic conditions. Several groups showed increased matrix

  6. Avaliação de aspectos hidraúlicos e hidrológicos de sistemas alagados construídos de fluxo subsuperficial Evaluating hydrological and hydraulic aspects in subsurface-flow constructed wetland systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozart da Silva Brasil


    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve-se como objetivo avaliar os aspectos hidráulicos e hidrológicos de quatro sistemas alagados construídos (SACs, cultivados com taboa (Typha sp. e utilizados no tratamento de esgoto doméstico pré-decantado em tanque séptico. O sistema foi alimentado com uma taxa de aplicação hidráulica (q constante de 60, 47, 23 e 35 litro m-2 d-1, respectivamente, nos SACs 1, 2, 3 e 4, tendo recebido monitoramento e medição da condutividade hidráulica e evapotranspiração no sistema. Foram realizados balanços hídricos mensais, durante um período de seis meses. Os resultados evidenciaram que: a condutividade hidráulica no meio suporte é reduzida com o tempo de funcionamento do sistema; e o sistema de tratamento apresentou evapotranspiração média de 9,3 mm d-1, resultando num coeficiente da cultura (Kc da taboa com variação de 2,22 a 4,58.This work was conducted to evaluate both hydrological and hydraulic aspects in four constructed wetland systems (SACs, that were cropped with Typha sp. and used in the treatment of the domestic wastewater presettled in septic tank. The system was fed a constant water application ratio (q of 60, 47, 23 and 35 liter m-2 d-1 in SACs 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, besides being monitored. The hydraulic conductivity and evapotranspiration were also measured. Water balances were monthly accomplished during six-months period. The results evidenced the hydraulic conductivity in the supportive medium to be reduced during the operating time of the system, as well as the treatment system showed an average evapotranspiration of 9.3mm d-1, as resulting into a cropping coefficient (Kc of the Typha sp. ranging from 2.22 to 4.58.

  7. Are isolated wetlands groundwater recharge hotspots? (United States)

    Webb, A.; Wicks, C. M.; Brantley, S. T.; Golladay, S. W.


    Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) are a common landscape feature in the mantled karst terrain of the Dougherty Plain physiographic district in Southwestern Georgia. These wetlands support a high diversity of obligate/facultative wetland flora and fauna, including several endangered species. While the ecological value of these wetlands is well documented, the hydrologic effects of GIWs on larger watershed processes, such as water storage and aquifer recharge, are less clear. Our project seeks to understand the spatial and temporal variation in recharge across GIWs on this mantled karst landscape. In particular, our first step is to understand the role of isolated wetlands (presumed sinkholes) in delivering water into the underlying aquifer. Our hypothesis is that many GIWs are actually water-filled sinkholes and are locations of focused recharge feeding either the underlying upper Floridan aquifer or the nearby creeks. If we are correct, then these sinkholes should exhibit "drains", i.e., conduits into the limestone bedrock. Thus, the purposes of our initial study are to image the soil-limestone contact (the buried epikarstic surface) and determine if possible subsurface drains exist. Our field work was conducted at the Joseph W Jones Ecological Research Center. During the dry season, we conducted ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys as grids and lines across a large wetland and across a field with no surface expression of a wetland or sinkhole. We used GPR (200 MHz antenna) with 1-m spacing between antenna and a ping rate of 1 ping per 40 centimeters. Our results show that the epikarstic surface exhibits a drain underneath the wetland (sinkhole) and that no similar feature was seen under the field, even though the survey grid and spacing were similar. As our project progresses, we will survey additional wetlands occurring across varying soil types to determine the spatial distribution between surface wetlands and subsurface drains.

  8. Is wetland mitigation successful in Southern California? (United States)

    Cummings, D. L.; Rademacher, L. K.


    Wetlands perform many vital functions within their landscape position; they provide unique habitats for a variety of flora and fauna and they act as treatment systems for upstream natural and anthropogenic waste. California has lost an estimated 91% of its wetlands. Despite the 1989 "No Net Loss" policy and mitigation requirements by the regulatory agencies, the implemented mitigation may not be offsetting wetlands losses. The "No Net Loss" policy is likely failing for numerous reasons related to processes in the wetlands themselves and the policies governing their recovery. Of particular interest is whether these mitigation sites are performing essential wetlands functions. Specific questions include: 1) Are hydric soil conditions forming in mitigation sites; and, 2) are the water quality-related chemical transformations that occur in natural wetlands observed in mitigation sites. This study focuses on success (or lack of success) in wetlands mitigation sites in Southern California. Soil and water quality investigations were conducted in wetland mitigation sites deemed to be successful by vegetation standards. Observations of the Standard National Resource Conservation Service field indicators of reducing conditions were made to determine whether hydric soil conditions have developed in the five or more years since the implementation of mitigation plans. In addition, water quality measurements were performed at the inlet and outlet of these mitigation sites to determine whether these sites perform similar water quality transformations to natural wetlands within the same ecosystem. Water quality measurements included nutrient, trace metal, and carbon species measurements. A wetland location with minimal anthropogenic changes and similar hydrologic and vegetative features was used as a control site. All sites selected for study are within a similar ecosystem, in the interior San Diego and western Riverside Counties, in Southern California.

  9. Transport of pesticides and artificial tracers in vertical-flow lab-scale wetlands (United States)

    Durst, Romy; Imfeld, Gwenaël.; Lange, Jens


    Wetland systems can be hydrologically connected to a shallow aquifer and intercept upward flow of pesticide-contaminated water during groundwater discharge. However, pesticide transport and attenuation through wetland sediments (WSs) intercepting contaminated water is rarely evaluated quantitatively. The use of artificial tracers to evaluate pesticide transport and associated risks is a fairly new approach that requires evaluation and validation. Here we evaluate during 84 days the transport of two pesticides (i.e., isoproturon (IPU) and metalaxyl (MTX)) and three tracers (i.e., bromide (Br), uranine (UR), and sulforhodamine B (SRB)) in upward vertical-flow vegetated and nonvegetated lab-scale wetlands. The lab-scale wetlands were filled with outdoor WSs and were continuously supplied with tracers and the pesticide-contaminated water. The transport of IPU and UR was characterized by high solute recovery (approximately 80%) and low retardation compared to Br. The detection of desmethylisoproturon in the wetlands indicated IPU degradation. SRB showed larger retardation (>3) and lower recovery (approximately 60%) compared to Br, indicating that sorption controlled SRB transport. MTX was moderately retarded (approximately 1.5), and its load attenuation in the wetland reached 40%. In the vegetated wetland, preferential flow along the roots decreased interactions between solutes and sediments, resulting in larger pesticide and tracer recovery. Our results show that UR and IPU have similar transport characteristics under the tested subsurface-flow conditions, whereas SRB may serve as a proxy for less mobile and more persistent pesticides. Since UR and SRB are not significantly affected by degradation, their use as proxies for fast degrading pollutants may be limited. We anticipate our results to be a starting point for considering artificial tracers for investigating pesticide transport in environments at groundwater/surface-water interfaces.

  10. Modeling natural wetlands: A new global framework built on wetland observations (United States)

    Matthews, E.; Romanski, J.; Olefeldt, D.


    Natural wetlands are the world's largest methane (CH4) source, and their distribution and CH4 fluxes are sensitive to interannual and longer-term climate variations. Wetland distributions used in wetland-CH4 models diverge widely, and these geographic differences contribute substantially to large variations in magnitude, seasonality and distribution of modeled methane fluxes. Modeling wetland type and distribution—closely tied to simulating CH4 emissions—is a high priority, particularly for studies of wetlands and CH4 dynamics under past and future climates. Methane-wetland models either prescribe or simulate methane-producing areas (aka wetlands) and both approaches result in predictable over- and under-estimates. 1) Monthly satellite-derived inundation data include flooded areas that are not wetlands (e.g., lakes, reservoirs, and rivers), and do not identify non-flooded wetlands. 2) Models simulating methane-producing areas overwhelmingly rely on modeled soil moisture, systematically over-estimating total global area, with regional over- and under-estimates, while schemes to model soil-moisture typically cannot account for positive water tables (i.e., flooding). Interestingly, while these distinct hydrological approaches to identify wetlands are complementary, merging them does not provide critical data needed to model wetlands for methane studies. We present a new integrated framework for modeling wetlands, and ultimately their methane emissions, that exploits the extensive body of data and information on wetlands. The foundation of the approach is an existing global gridded data set comprising all and only wetlands, including vegetation information. This data set is augmented with data inter alia on climate, inundation dynamics, soil type and soil carbon, permafrost, active-layer depth, growth form, and species composition. We investigate this enhanced wetland data set to identify which variables best explain occurrence and characteristics of observed

  11. Multisensor earth observations to characterize wetlands and malaria epidemiology in Ethiopia (United States)

    Midekisa, Alemayehu; Senay, Gabriel; Wimberly, Michael C.


    Malaria is a major global public health problem, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The spatial heterogeneity of malaria can be affected by factors such as hydrological processes, physiography, and land cover patterns. Tropical wetlands, for example, are important hydrological features that can serve as mosquito breeding habitats. Mapping and monitoring of wetlands using satellite remote sensing can thus help to target interventions aimed at reducing malaria transmission. The objective of this study was to map wetlands and other major land cover types in the Amhara region of Ethiopia and to analyze district-level associations of malaria and wetlands across the region. We evaluated three random forests classification models using remotely sensed topographic and spectral data based on Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) and Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, respectively. The model that integrated data from both sensors yielded more accurate land cover classification than single-sensor models. The resulting map of wetlands and other major land cover classes had an overall accuracy of 93.5%. Topographic indices and subpixel level fractional cover indices contributed most strongly to the land cover classification. Further, we found strong spatial associations of percent area of wetlands with malaria cases at the district level across the dry, wet, and fall seasons. Overall, our study provided the most extensive map of wetlands for the Amhara region and documented spatiotemporal associations of wetlands and malaria risk at a broad regional level. These findings can assist public health personnel in developing strategies to effectively control and eliminate malaria in the region.

  12. Estimation of Net Groundwater Recharge Using Natural Drawdown Events in Subtropical Isolated Wetland Ecosystems (United States)

    Perkins, D. B.; Min, J.; Jawitz, J. W.


    Restoration of ditched and drained wetlands in the Lake Okeechobee basin, Florida, USA is currently under study for possible amelioration of anthropogenic phosphorus enrichment of the lake. To date most research in this area has focused on the biogeochemical role of these wetlands. Here we focus on the dynamic hydrology of these systems and the resulting control on biogeochemical cycling. Four depressional wetlands in the basin were monitored for approximately three years to understand the interaction between wetland surface water and adjacent upland groundwater system. A coupled hydrologic-biogeochemical model was created to evaluate restoration scenarios. Determining wetland-scale hydraulic conductivity was an important aspect of the hydrologic model. Based on natural drawdown events observed at wetland-upland well pairs, hydraulic conductivities of top sandy soil layers surrounding the isolated wetlands were calculated using the Dupuit equation under a constrained water budget framework. The drawdown-based hydraulic conductivity estimates of 1.1 to 18.7 m/d (geometric mean of 4.8 m/d) were about three times greater than slug test- based values (1.5 ± 1.1 m/d), which is consistent with scale-dependent expectations. Model-based net groundwater recharge rate at each depressional wetland was predicted based on the estimated hydraulic conductivities, which corresponded to 50 to 72% of rainfall in the same period. These variances appeared to be due to the relative difference of ditch bottom elevation controlling the surface runoff as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the sandy aquifer. Results from this study have implications for nutrient loads to Lake Okeechobee via groundwater as well as water quality monitoring and management strategies aimed to reduce solute export (especially P) from the upstream catchment area to Lake Okeechobee.

  13. Environmental attitudes and preference for wetland conservation in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Suziana Binti


    components. A handful of responses in Class 4 were respondents more likely to be in the ‘Risk of overuse’ group and less likely to be ‘Anthropocentric’. The result suggests that natural resource managers need to evaluate people's concerns over environmental protection to understand potentially conflicting...... the influence of environmental attitude on preference and the willingness to pay (WTP) for wetland conservation. The study reported here employs a discrete choice experiment to investigate household's WTP for a set of wetland attributes. A scale-adjusted latent class (SALC) model is applied to identify a latent...... preference structure combining choice attributes with attitude measures derived from the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). We identified four NEP components in the respondent population to integrate with SALC model, and this revealed four latent classes and two scale classes which varied in their preferences...

  14. Plants in constructed wetlands help to treat agricultural processing wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Grismer


    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, wineries in the western United States and sugarcane processing for ethanol in Central and South America have experienced problems related to the treatment and disposal of process wastewater. Both winery and sugarcane (molasses wastewaters are characterized by large organic loadings that change seasonally and are detrimental to aquatic life. We examined the role of plants for treating these wastewaters in constructed wetlands. In the greenhouse, subsurface-flow flumes with volcanic rock substrates and plants steadily removed approximately 80% of organic-loading oxygen demand from sugarcane process wastewater after about 3 weeks of plant growth; unplanted flumes removed about 30% less. In field studies at two operational wineries, we evaluated the performance of similar-sized, paired, subsurface constructed wetlands with and without plants; while both removed most of the oxygen demand, removal rates in the planted system were slightly greater and significantly different from those of the unplanted system under field conditions.

  15. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments. (United States)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F; Bell, Scott


    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  16. Model estimation of land-use effects on water levels of northern Prairie wetlands (United States)

    Voldseth, R.A.; Johnson, W.C.; Gilmanov, T.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Millett, B.V.


    Wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region exist in a matrix of grassland dominated by intensive pastoral and cultivation agriculture. Recent conservation management has emphasized the conversion of cultivated farmland and degraded pastures to intact grassland to improve upland nesting habitat. The consequences of changes in land-use cover that alter watershed processes have not been evaluated relative to their effect on the water budgets and vegetation dynamics of associated wetlands. We simulated the effect of upland agricultural practices on the water budget and vegetation of a semipermanent prairie wetland by modifying a previously published mathematical model (WETSIM). Watershed cover/land-use practices were categorized as unmanaged grassland (native grass, smooth brome), managed grassland (moderately heavily grazed, prescribed burned), cultivated crops (row crop, small grain), and alfalfa hayland. Model simulations showed that differing rates of evapotranspiration and runoff associated with different upland plant-cover categories in the surrounding catchment produced differences in wetland water budgets and linked ecological dynamics. Wetland water levels were highest and vegetation the most dynamic under the managed-grassland simulations, while water levels were the lowest and vegetation the least dynamic under the unmanaged-grassland simulations. The modeling results suggest that unmanaged grassland, often planted for waterfowl nesting, may produce the least favorable wetland conditions for birds, especially in drier regions of the Prairie Pothole Region. These results stand as hypotheses that urgently need to be verified with empirical data.

  17. Vertical flow constructed wetlands: kinetics of nutrient and organic matter removal. (United States)

    Pérez, M M; Hernández, J M; Bossens, J; Jiménez, T; Rosa, E; Tack, F


    The kinetics of organic matter and nutrient removal in a pilot vertical subsurface wetland with red ferralitic soil as substrate were evaluated. The wetland (20 m(2)) was planted with Cyperus alternifolius. The domestic wastewater that was treated in the wetland had undergone a primary treatment consisting of a septic moat and a buffer tank. From the sixth week of operation, the performance of the wetland stabilized, and a significant reduction in pollutant concentration of the effluent wastewater was obtained. Also a significant increase of dissolved oxygen (5 mg/l) was obtained. The organic matter removal efficiency was greater than 85% and the nutrient removal efficiency was greater than 75% in the vertical subsurface wetland. Nitrogen and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal could be described by a first-order model. The kinetic constants were 3.64 and 3.27 d(-1) for BOD and for total nitrogen, respectively. Data on the removal of phosphorus were adapted to a second-order model. The kinetic constant was 0.96 (mg/l)(-1) d(-1). The results demonstrated the potential of vertical flow constructed wetlands to clean treated domestic wastewater before discharge into the environment.

  18. Treatment of atrazine in nursery irrigation runoff by a constructed wetland. (United States)

    Runes, Heather B; Jenkins, Jeffrey J; Moore, James A; Bottomley, Peter J; Wilson, Bruce D


    To investigate the treatment capability of a surface flow wetland at a container nursery near Portland, Oregon, atrazine was introduced during simulated runoff events. Treatment efficiency was evaluated as the percent atrazine recovered (as percent of applied) in the water column at the wetland's outlet. Atrazine treatment efficiency at the outlet of the constructed wetland during a 7-d period ranged from 18-24% in 1998 (experiments 1-3) and 16-17% in 1999 (experiments 4 and 5). Changes in total flow, or frequency and intensity of runoff events did not affect treatment. For experiment 6 in 1999, where the amount, frequency, and duration of runoff events exceeded all other experiments, treatment was compromised. For all experiments, deethylatrazine (DEA) and deisopropylatrazine (DIA) accounted for 13-21% of the initial application. Hydroxyatrazine (HA) was rarely detected in the water. Organic carbon adsorption coefficients (Koc) were determined from batch equilibrium sorption isotherms with wetland sediment, and they decreased in the order of HA > DIA > atrazine > DEA. Static water-sediment column experiments indicated that sorption is an important mechanism for atrazine loss from water passing through the constructed wetland. The results of the MPN assay indicated the existence in the wetland of a low-density population of microorganisms with the potential to mineralize atrazine's ethyl side chain.

  19. Temporal Data Fusion Approaches to Remote Sensing-Based Wetland Classification (United States)

    Montgomery, Joshua S. M.

    This thesis investigates the ecology of wetlands and associated classification in prairie and boreal environments of Alberta, Canada, using remote sensing technology to enhance classification of wetlands in the province. Objectives of the thesis are divided into two case studies, 1) examining how satellite borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), optical (RapidEye & SPOT) can be used to evaluate surface water trends in a prairie pothole environment (Shepard Slough); and 2) investigating a data fusion methodology combining SAR, optical and Lidar data to characterize wetland vegetation and surface water attributes in a boreal environment (Utikuma Regional Study Area (URSA)). Surface water extent and hydroperiod products were derived from SAR data, and validated using optical imagery with high accuracies (76-97% overall) for both case studies. High resolution Lidar Digital Elevation Models (DEM), Digital Surface Models (DSM), and Canopy Height Model (CHM) products provided the means for data fusion to extract riparian vegetation communities and surface water; producing model accuracies of (R2 0.90) for URSA, and RMSE of 0.2m to 0.7m at Shepard Slough when compared to field and optical validation data. Integration of Alberta and Canadian wetland classifications systems used to classify and determine economic value of wetlands into the methodology produced thematic maps relevant for policy and decision makers for potential wetland monitoring and policy development.

  20. 76 FR 79145 - Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands (United States)


    ...] RIN 2501-AD51 Floodplain Management and Protection of Wetlands Correction In proposed rule document... Type of proposed action Type of proposed action (new Wetlands or 100- Non-wetlands area reviewable... construction in wetlands locations. \\2\\ Or those paragraphs of Sec. 55.20 that are applicable to an action...