Sample records for weta hemideina maori

  1. Recrystallization in a Freezing Tolerant Antarctic Nematode, Panagrolaimus davidi, and a Alpine Weta, Hemideina maori (Orthoptera; Stenopelmatidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramløv, Hans; Wharton, David A.; Wilson, Peter W.


    The ability of haemolymph from the freezing tolerant weta,Hemideina maori,and supernatant from homogenates of the freezing tolerant nematodePanagrolaimus davidito inhibit the recrystallization of ice was examined using the “splat freezing” technique and annealing on a cryomicroscope stage...

  2. Microbial community structure in the gut of the New Zealand insect Auckland tree weta (Hemideina thoracica). (United States)

    Waite, David W; Dsouza, Melissa; Biswas, Kristi; Ward, Darren F; Deines, Peter; Taylor, Michael W


    The endemic New Zealand weta is an enigmatic insect. Although the insect is well known by its distinctive name, considerable size, and morphology, many basic aspects of weta biology remain unknown. Here, we employed cultivation-independent enumeration techniques and rRNA gene sequencing to investigate the gut microbiota of the Auckland tree weta (Hemideina thoracica). Fluorescence in situ hybridisation performed on different sections of the gut revealed a bacterial community of fluctuating density, while rRNA gene-targeted amplicon pyrosequencing revealed the presence of a microbial community containing high bacterial diversity, but an apparent absence of archaea. Bacteria were further studied using full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences, with statistical testing of bacterial community membership against publicly available termite- and cockroach-derived sequences, revealing that the weta gut microbiota is similar to that of cockroaches. These data represent the first analysis of the weta microbiota and provide initial insights into the potential function of these microorganisms.

  3. Maori English (United States)

    Maclagan, Margaret; King, Jeanette; Gillon, Gail


    The Maori language is the language of the indigenous people of New Zealand. Today, not all Maori speak the Maori language, and many Maori as well as non-Maori speak Maori English, the fastest growing of the main varieties of New Zealand English. This paper provides a background to the linguistic situation of the Maori populace in New Zealand,…

  4. Youth Development: Maori Styles (United States)

    Ware, Felicity; Walsh-Tapiata, Wheturangi


    Despite the innovative approach of the Youth Development Strategy Aotearoa and the applicability of its Rangatahi Development Package, the diverse realities and experiences of Maori youth are still presenting unique challenges to national policy in Aotearoa New Zealand. A Maori youth research approach that utilised a combination of action research…

  5. Maori Mentors: Expectations and Perceptions (United States)

    Barnett, Shirley; Te Wiata, Ina


    This article is informed by a kaupapa Maori methodology and reports on a "by Maori for Maori" peer mentoring programme. The programme, offered by the College of Business at Massey University, focuses on Maori students who are studying at a distance. We outline the programme and the experiences and perceptions from kanohi ki te kanohi…

  6. WetA bridges cellular and chemical development in Aspergillus flavus.

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    Ming-Yueh Wu

    Full Text Available Bridging cellular reproduction and survival is essential for all life forms. Aspergillus fungi primarily reproduce by forming asexual spores called conidia, whose formation and maturation is governed by the central genetic regulatory circuit BrlA→AbaA→WetA. Here, we report that WetA is a multi-functional regulator that couples spore differentiation and survival, and governs proper chemical development in Aspergillus flavus. The deletion of wetA results in the formation of conidia with defective cell walls and no intra-cellular trehalose, leading to reduced stress tolerance, a rapid loss of viability, and disintegration of spores. WetA is also required for normal vegetative growth, hyphal branching, and production of aflatoxins. Targeted and genome-wide expression analyses reveal that WetA exerts feedback control of brlA and that 5,700 genes show altered mRNA levels in the mutant conidia. Functional category analyses of differentially expressed genes in ΔwetA RNA-seq data indicate that WetA contributes to spore integrity and maturity by properly regulating the metabolic pathways of trehalose, chitin, α-(1,3-glucan, β-(1,3-glucan, melanin, hydrophobins, and secondary metabolism more generally. Moreover, 160 genes predicted to encode transcription factors are differentially expressed by the absence of wetA, suggesting that WetA may play a global regulatory role in conidial development. Collectively, we present a comprehensive model for developmental control that bridges spore differentiation and survival in A. flavus.

  7. Maori-Inspired Masks (United States)

    Henn-Percarpio, Cynthia


    During a recent summer, the author participated in a Hands Across the Water Teacher Exchange Program to New Zealand. This experience gave her the opportunity to see how people in a different country live on a day-to-day basis. For her, one of the more interesting aspects of New Zealand was its indigenous culture, the Maori. In this activity, the…

  8. Reducing Maori and Pacific Inequalities


    The Treasury


    Over the last fifty years the Maori and non-Maori populations have slowly and unevenly become more similar on a range of key demographic, social and economic outcomes. This has principally been driven by increased geographic and social proximity between the two groups. There is evidence that similar processes may be operating for migrant peoples from the Pacific. Many Maori and Pacific people do better than the population median. Conversely, on most outcomes, a much greater number of people o...

  9. Promoting the Maori Language to Non-Maori: Evaluating the New Zealand Government's Approach (United States)

    de Bres, Julia


    New Zealand's two main government Maori language planning agencies, the Maori Language Commission and the Ministry of Maori Development, have engaged for some time in language planning targeting the attitudes and behaviours of non-Maori New Zealanders towards the Maori language. This activity is undertaken on the basis that the attitudes and…

  10. Maori-Pasifika relations: A problematic paradox?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, A.H.M. van


    Maori people maintain ambiguous relations with the rest of the Pacific. Genealogical relationships continue to be celebrated in ongoing connections across a wide range of domains and discourses, but the colonial history of New Zealand has also turned Maori into a community of indigenous people that

  11. A Maori Pedagogy: Weaving the Strands Together (United States)

    Stucki, Paora


    Literature on Maori pedagogy up until now has been disparate, some dealing with methodological issues, some with learning theory, some with environment and so forth. This article seeks to build one comprehensive picture of Maori pedagogy by weaving the myriad disparate themes in the literature into one unifying model. It is based on an EdD study…

  12. Supervising Research in Maori Cultural Contexts: A Decolonizing, Relational Response (United States)

    Berryman, Mere; Glynn, Ted; Woller, Paul


    We have collaborated for 25 years as indigenous Maori and non-Maori researchers undertaking research with Maori families, their schools and communities. We have endeavored to meet our responsibilities to the Maori people (indigenous inhabitants of New Zealand) and communities with whom we have researched, as well as meet the requirements and…

  13. Exploring "Whakaaro": A Way of Responsive Thinking in Maori Research (United States)

    Mika, Carl; Southey, Kim


    The experience of researching as a Maori student within academia will often raise questions about how and whether the student's research privileges Maori world views and articulates culturally specific epistemologies. This study offers some theorising, from the perspectives of a Maori doctoral student and her Maori supervisor (the authors of this…

  14. Lost in Translation: Western Representations of Maori Knowledge (United States)

    Mika, Carl; Stewart, Georgina


    We recently attended a conference at which a non-Maori presenter, drawing on a particular metaphor already established by Maori writers, related Maori natural world features to a research method. The presentation was useful because it highlighted several issues that call for our concern as Maori philosophers. In this article, we outline these…

  15. Exploring Goals and Motivations of Maori Heritage Language Learners (United States)

    Te Huia, Awanui


    Motivations of Maori heritage language learners are explored within this qualitative study. "Te reo" Maori (the Maori language) is currently classed as endangered (Reedy et al., 2011), which calls for the exploration of the motivational experiences of Maori heritage language learners. A total of 19 interviews with beginner, intermediate…

  16. Kaupapa Maori Methodology: Trusting the Methodology through Thick and Thin (United States)

    Hiha, Anne Aroha


    Kaupapa Maori is thoroughly theorised in academia in Aotearoa and those wishing to use it as their research methodology can find support through the writing of a number of Maori academics. What is not so well articulated, is the experiential voice of those who have used Kaupapa Maori as research methodology. My identity as a Maori woman…

  17. Maori challenges and crown responsibilities: Maori policymaker ideas on smokefree policy options. (United States)

    Gifford, Heather; Parata, Kiri; Thomson, George


    To determine obstacles/opportunities within policy processes, for smokefree interventions appropriate to Maori. In particular, to explore Maori policymakers' ideas on how to achieve progress on smokefree homes, cars and community property. Documents and interviews with 16 senior Maori officials and Members of Parliament, and nine interviews in two case studies, were used to explore Maori policymakers' ideas for (i) Progress, within relevant policy processes, on smoking in homes, cars and community property; (ii) Particular interventions that the interviewees felt were most and least effective, practical, sustainable, politically feasible or desirable in some way; (iii) The context, and obstacles and opportunities for such interventions. The case studies were of a Maori health service and a group of Maori District Health Board managers. Several key themes emerged from the research including, (i) children as drivers for change, (ii) strong national and local indigenous leadership needed for change, (iii) delivering smokefree messages as part of wider healthy living approaches, (iv) targeting of the messages for greatest impact for Maori, (v) need for a Maori approach, not a general approach, (vi) central and local government having a significant role in the prevention of tobacco harm, (vii) ideas on how tobacco tax revenue should be spent on tobacco control, and (viii) the rights of children to smokefree environments. Results indicate that indigenous specific approaches and indigenous leadership are critical for Maori tobacco-free advances. Harnessing indigenous values and principles related to health, family and children was the preferred method of these Maori policymakers for delivering social marketing messages.

  18. "Canaries in the Coal Mine": The Reframing of Biculturalism and Non-Maori Participation in Maori Language Learning (United States)

    Lourie, Megan


    Maori language education policy documents reflect an underlying ambivalence about the desired outcomes for non-Maori learners participating in "as-a-subject" Maori language learning. The view of the Maori language as a national language may be in the process of being replaced by a view that identifies the language primarily as a cultural…

  19. Communicating Culture: An Exploratory Study of the Key Concepts in Maori Culture on Maori Web Sites

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    Zlatko J Kovacic


    Full Text Available We examine how accurately the belief system or cultural concepts of Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, is reconstructed in the virtual world of the Internet. Nine Maori web sites were searched using a list of 44 key concepts in Maori culture. We registered how many pages within a particular web site contain each of the key concepts. These numbers were set up in a data matrix for further statistical analysis. The Multidimensional Scaling method was used to construct a spatial representation of Maori web sites in the space generated by the key concepts in Maori culture. Using the correlation coefficients between derived dimensions and the key concepts we interpreted three dimensions as General Cultural, Intra-tribe Dynamics and Educational. The position of each Maori web site in this space has been located and described.

  20. Te Reo Maori Ka Rere: "Talknology" and Maori Language as a Language of Choice (United States)

    Lemon, Ruth


    This opinion piece aims to grow awareness of a range of technological initiatives that are supporting Maori language regeneration. These initiatives have been chosen because they have communities of users. This piece could be useful to educators who want to learn about the options that are available in this area, or students of Maori language for…

  1. Listening and Learning from Rangatahi Maori: The Voices of Maori Youth (United States)

    Berryman, Mere; Eley, Elizabeth; Copeland, David


    This paper presents three stories-over-time of the secondary schooling experiences of New Zealand's rangatahi Maori--or Maori youth. The stories span fifteen years of New Zealand schooling and are told from three perspectives: the experiences of the students as told in their own words; the voices of youth within the prevailing political contexts…

  2. Ka Whanau mai te Reo: Honouring Whanau, Upholding Reo Maori (United States)

    Bright, Nicola; Barnes, Alex; Hutchings, Jessica


    This is the first report from a 3-year (2012-2015) kaupapa Maori research project that investigates how best to support the continuity of reo Maori development of whanau as they transition between kohanga reo, kura kaupapa primary, wharekura, secondary and beyond. It aims to provide useful information about the reo Maori education options that are…

  3. Living and Learning as Maori: Language Stories from Three Generations (United States)

    Tocker, Kimai


    Through tracing in detail the story of schooling for three individuals, this article provides a rich description of the way that education impacted on the lives of many Maori between the early 1900s and the year 2000. Although there is extensive research on the historical colonising effects of schooling on Maori and te reo Maori (the Maori…

  4. Theoretical Claims and Empirical Evidence in Maori Education Discourse (United States)

    Rata, Elizabeth


    Post-Marxist critical sociology of education has influenced the development of indigenous ("kaupapa") Maori educational theory and research. Its effects are examined in four claims made for Maori education by indigenous theorists. The claims are: indigenous kaupapa Maori education is a revolutionary initiative; it is a cultural solution…

  5. "We Are Family": Maori Success in Foundation Programmes (United States)

    McMurchy-Pilkington, Colleen


    This paper considers the question: What constitutes an optimal learning environment for Maori learners in foundation programmes? Using Kaupapa Maori methodology, nearly 100 adult Maori (Indigenous) students in Aotearoa/New Zealand were interviewed from a range of tertiary providers of foundation programmes. State-funded foundation programmes that…

  6. Maori Men and the Grief of SIDS (United States)

    Edwards, Shane; McCreanor, Tim; Ormsby, Manga; Tuwhangai, Nick; Tipene-Leach, David


    The loss of a baby is always hard to cope with and the grieving process is likely to be difficult. Interventions to work with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) families have improved grieving outcomes for many but the needs of Maori fathers are not well understood or catered to by existing services. This article presents narrative data from…

  7. Brown Bodies, White Coats: Postcolonialism, Maori Women and Science (United States)

    McKinley, Elizabeth


    In Aotearoa New Zealand journeys of discovery and colonization were also scientific journeys that brought "Maori woman" under the intellectual control of the emerging "scientific" academy. This paper argues that the historical construction of "Maori woman" through the discourses of Enlightenment science continues to…

  8. Maori in the Kingdom of the Gaze: Subjects or Critics? (United States)

    Mika, Carl; Stewart, Georgina


    For Maori, a real opportunity exists to flesh out some terms and concepts that Western thinkers have adopted and that precede disciplines but necessarily inform them. In this article, we are intent on describing one of these precursory phenomena--Foucault's Gaze--within a framework that accords with a Maori philosophical framework. Our discussion…

  9. Being Maori: Culturally Relevant Assessment in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Rameka, Lesley Kay


    Concern has been raised about the under-achievement of Maori children in education. The problem has tended to be located with Maori children rather than with assessments. Clearly if one takes a sociocultural perspective achievement is situated. Although studies in early childhood education have examined and developed assessment tools and…

  10. Maori University Graduates: Indigenous Participation in Higher Education (United States)

    Theodore, Reremoana; Tustin, Karen; Kiro, Cynthia; Gollop, Megan; Taumoepeau, Mele; Taylor, Nicola; Chee, Kaa-Sandra; Hunter, Jackie; Poulton, Richie


    Maori, the indigenous population of New Zealand, are gaining university qualifications in greater numbers. This article describes the history of Maori university graduates, their current situation and the implications for indigenous futures. Section one provides a brief overview of historical policies and practices that, similar to those used on…

  11. Maori Identification, Alcohol Behaviour and Mental Health: A Review (United States)

    Ebbett, Erin; Clarke, Dave


    The impact of Maori identification on alcohol behaviour and mental health and has been neglected in the psychological literature. This paper consists of a review of literature on the history of alcohol use in New Zealand and its impact on indigenous Maori, on their cultural identity and on their mental health. Previous research has been primarily…

  12. Using Mobile Technology to Encourage Mathematical Communication in Maori-Medium Pangarau Classrooms (United States)

    Allen, Piata


    Maori-medium pangarau classrooms occupy a unique space within the mathematics education landscape. The language of instruction is an endangered minority language and many teachers and learners in Maori-medium pangarau classrooms are second language (L2) learners of te reo Maori. Mobile technology could be used in Maori-medium pangarau classrooms…

  13. Perfecting the Partnership: Revitalising the Maori Language in New Zealand Education and Society 1987-2014 (United States)

    Benton, Richard A.


    This paper looks at aspects of Maori language revitalisation since the passage of the Maori Language Act, 1987 which gave official status to the language. It is a sequel to an article on Maori language in education published in this journal the following year [Benton, R. A. (1988). "The Maori language in New Zealand education."…

  14. Putting "Maori" in the Mainstream: Student Teachers' Reflections of a Culturally Relevant Pedagogy (United States)

    Sexton, Steven S.


    This paper reports on student teachers' experiences of an education program that was explicitly designed to be grounded in both Kaupapa Maori and mainstream pedagogy. This program started from the Kaupapa Maori view to be Maori as Maori. This was then supported by mainstream epistemology of New Zealand focused good teaching practice. A Kaupapa…

  15. Transitioning from Maori-Medium to English-Medium Education: Emerging Findings of a Pilot Study (United States)

    Hill, Richard


    Maori-bilingual education in New Zealand has come a long way towards injecting life into the Maori language. However, only a small number of families commit to bilingual education for the long term. This paper discusses why Maori parents either turn away from Maori-bilingual education or prematurely transition to English-medium schools. It then…

  16. Maori experiences and perceptions of gout and its treatment: a kaupapa Maori qualitative study

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    Te Karu L


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of gout among Maori is one of the highest in the world. This study explores the perceptions, understanding and treatment of gout among Maori. METHODS: A qualitative general inductive approach was used, guided by kaupapa Maori principles. Participants included 12 Maori aged 48-79 years with gout. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken, taped and transcribed. Themes were identified from transcripts. FINDINGS: Participants described overwhelming sufferance due to gout, which was sometimes considered inevitable. All participants believed or had been informed that gout is caused by food and/or drink. This led to feelings of self-blame and blame from partners and employers. Whanau (family were a resource for information and a support when independence was limited. Rongoa (traditional medicine played a role in the lives of rural but not urban participants. Many reported stoicism, putting up with pain and putting others before themselves, as the 'Maori way'. Medicines used for gout management were predominantly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, colchicine and prednisone, with allopurinol only playing a role late in the disease. Medications were often poorly understood and consequently improperly used. Relationships with health professionals were important, but cultural, financial and time barriers impaired access and understanding. Gout had a huge, negative impact on the lives of participants. CONCLUSION: The quality of lives of many people with gout could be improved by better understanding through educational campaigns for health professionals and the community. Culturally sensitive health care systems and a paradigm shift in gout management and early preventive treatment are needed.

  17. Cultural/Community Mentoring with Maori and Pacific Electrical Apprentices

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    Chris Holland


    Full Text Available New Zealand government policy documents over the last decade have committed to supporting Maori and Pasifika learners, yet still today there is little real support in place for learners in apprenticeships. There is even less support in place that acknowledges the cultural dimension of learning in the workplace. This paper discusses the establishment and review of a development project which sets out to provide culturally supportive mentoring for Maori and Pasifika apprentices. The project sought to do this by engaging experienced Maori and Pasifika tradesmen who were located in the local communities of their learners.

  18. Barriers to Maori sole mothers’ primary health care access

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    Lee R


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: International research consistently shows that sole mothers experience poorer health and suboptimal health care access. New Zealand studies on sole mothers' health report similar findings. The aim of this exploratory research was to better understand the experiences of Maori sole mothers' access to health services, particularly primary health care, for personal health needs. METHODS: This qualitative study employed a general inductive design informed by a Kaupapa Maori approach, providing guidance on appropriate cultural protocols for recruiting and engaging Maori participants. Distributing written information and snowballing techniques were used to purposively recruit seven Maori sole mothers. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews which were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using general inductive thematic analysis to identify commonalities and patterns in participants' experiences. FINDINGS: The dominant themes that emerged captured and described participants' experiences in accessing health care. The major barrier to access reported was cost. Compounding cost, transport difficulties and location or scheduling of services were additional barriers to health service accessibility. Child-related issues also posed a barrier, including prioritising children's needs and childcare over personal health needs. CONCLUSION: The findings illuminate Maori sole mothers' experiences of accessing health care and the complex socioeconomic inequalities affecting access options and uptake of services. Further investigation of barriers to access is needed. The study has implications for addressing barriers to access at policy, funding and practice levels to improve health outcomes and equitable health care access for Maori sole mothers.

  19. Characteristics of sarcoidosis in Maori and Pacific Islanders. (United States)

    Wilsher, Margaret L; Young, Lisa M; Hopkins, Raewyn; Cornere, Megan


    Ethnicity is strongly associated with variable clinical presentation in sarcoidosis but the association between ethnicity and clinical characteristics has not previously been described in patients of Polynesian ancestry, Maori and Pacific Islander (PI). The objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of sarcoidosis in Maori and PI patients and determine if those were different to European patients. A retrospective review of the medical records of 406 patients (69 Maori/PI) attending a specialist interstitial lung disease (ILD) clinic. The population (207 females, mean age at presentation: 36) reflected the current New Zealand census data (2013) with only people of Indian ethnicity over-represented. Parenchymal lung involvement was uncommon in Maori and PI patients (21% Scadding stage 2, 2% stage 3), and no patient had extensive pulmonary fibrosis (stage 4). Computed tomography (CT) patterns of sarcoid parenchymal lung involvement were less commonly reported for Maori/PI. There were no differences in respect of baseline lung function or requirement for treatment. Ocular and skin involvement occurred more frequently in Maori and PI (P = 0.0045, P = 0.03), and erythema nodosum was more common in Caucasians (P = 0.0008). People of Polynesian ancestry appear to have less pulmonary and more extra-pulmonary manifestations of sarcoidosis. This adds to our knowledge that sarcoidosis heterogeneity is influenced by ethnicity. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  20. Regional differences in incidence of gastric and colonic cancer in the Maori of New Zealand (United States)

    Thompson, A


    Background: It is known that there are ethnic differences in cancer in New Zealand between Maori (the indigenous people) and non-Maori, however, until now no regional comparisons have been made. Study design: A retrospective study of patients diagnosed at Whangarei Hospital, New Zealand between 1995 and 1997 with gastric or colonic cancer was combined with population data from the 1996 census for Whangarei District to calculate incidence figures. The incidence of cancer was compared to national rates. Results: Between 1995 and 1997, 19 Maori and 24 non-Maori were diagnosed with gastric cancer, and 10 Maori and 125 non-Maori with colonic cancer. The age standardised rates (per 100 000) for Maori and non-Maori with gastric caner were 68.3 and 7.9 respectively. Gastric cancer is known to be increased in the Maori, but in Whangarei was significantly higher than the national Maori rates (20.5). There was no difference in the rate of colonic cancer in the Maori and non-Maori in Whangarei, again this differs from the national trends, in which the Maori are protected against cancer. Conclusion: This study highlights that there is still much more to be learnt in understanding the aetiology of gastrointestinal cancers, to explain such strong regional differences. PMID:12151659

  1. An Old Problem with New Directions: Maori Language Revitalisation and the Policy Ideas of Youth (United States)

    Albury, Nathan John


    Legislative changes are afoot in New Zealand that are formalising an ideological shift in policy that decreasingly positions the Maori language a matter of interethnic national identity but increasingly as one for Maori self-determination. The Waitangi Tribunal (WAI262, Waitangi Tribunal, 2011) established that, from here on, Maori language policy…

  2. Nga Tuakiri o te Tangata: Being Maori in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Rameka, Lesley


    Before the arrival of Europeans in Aotearoa, New Zealand and their subsequent settlement in the 1800s, there was no concept of a Maori identity. Over time, however, as a result of rapid colonisation, Maori became a minority population in New Zealand. Consequently, the term Maori as normal or usual, began to lose its meaning (Webber, 2008), and…

  3. Looking Back to Look Forward: Maori Cultural Values and the Impact on Career (United States)

    Reid, Lynette


    The career stories of 22 Maori in this study expressed the dynamic cultural contexts in which career processes have been enacted. A new typology of cultural career identities was developed focusing on diversity among Maori on issues pertaining to what being Maori means to them and the subsequent influence on participants' career stories. The three…

  4. Developing a Maori Language Mathematics Lexicon: Challenges for Corpus Planning in Indigenous Language Contexts (United States)

    Trinick, Tony; May, Stephen


    Over the last 25 years, there has been significant modernisation and elaboration of the Maori language mathematics lexicon and register to support the teaching of (Western) mathematics as a component of Maori-medium schooling. These developments are situated within the wider Maori language revitalisation movement in Aotearoa/New Zealand, of which…

  5. Maori Cultural Efficacy and Subjective Wellbeing: A Psychological Model and Research Agenda (United States)

    Houkamau, Carla A.; Sibley, Chris G.


    Maori, the indigenous peoples of New Zealand, experience a range of negative outcomes. Psychological models and interventions aiming to improve outcomes for Maori tend to be founded on a "culture-as-cure" model. This view promotes cultural efficacy as a critical resilience factor that should improve outcomes for Maori. This is a founding…

  6. Genetics of club foot in Maori and Pacific people (United States)

    Chapman, C.; Stott, N; Port, R. V.; Nicol, R.


    The role of major gene and multifactorial inheritance in the aetiology of club foot in the New Zealand Polynesian population was studied using 287 New Zealand Maori and Pacific club foot families. The club foot family data were analysed by complex segregation analysis under the mixed model using the computer program POINTER. This analysis shows that the best genetic model for club foot in this population is a single dominant gene with a penetrance of 33% and a predicted gene frequency of 0.9%. These data provide a scientific foundation for molecular studies in the Maori and Polynesian population to identify putative club foot genes.

Keywords: club foot; New Zealand Maori; complex segregation analysis PMID:10978359

  7. Whiti Ki Runga! Gifted and Talented Maori Learners (United States)

    Macfarlane, Angus; Moltzen, Roger


    The importance of identifying and nurturing the gifts and talents of young people is now more widely accepted in New Zealand than it has been in the past. In this country the approach to meeting this challenge must reflect an understanding and acknowledgement of Maori conceptions of giftedness and talent. It is proposed here that the…

  8. Early Intervention Services: Effectively Supporting Maori Children and their Families (United States)

    Berryman, Mere; Woller, Paul


    This paper examines Early Intervention (EI) service provision from within one Ministry of Education region in New Zealand. It does this in order to better understand what works well and what needs to change if children from Maori families, of Early Childhood age, are to be provided with the most effective EI services. By engaging with Maori…

  9. Improving Access to Health Care Among New Zealand’s Maori Population (United States)

    Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Pearce, Neil


    The health status of indigenous peoples worldwide varies according to their unique historical, political, and social circumstances. Disparities in health between Maoris and non-Maoris have been evident for all of the colonial history of New Zealand. Explanations for these differences involve a complex mix of components associated with socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, availability of health care, and discrimination. Improving access to care is critical to addressing health disparities, and increasing evidence suggests that Maoris and non-Maoris differ in terms of access to primary and secondary health care services. We use 2 approaches to health service development to demonstrate how Maori-led initiatives are seeking to improve access to and quality of health care for Maoris. PMID:16507721

  10. Calciphylaxis - A case study in a patient with Maori heritage. (United States)

    Kingi, Lawrence; Grech, Roger; Lam, Michael; Dissanayake, Ajith; Otter, Simon


    This case history describes a rare complaint - Calciphylaxis, seen in a New Zealand Maori patient undergoing renal dialysis. This condition causes non-healing tissue ulceration, typically with sepsis and is associated with a very high mortality rate. The need for vigilance among health professionals is highlighted, including the risk factors that may faciliate an early diagnosis; together with the value associated with a multi-disciplinary team approach to management. Copyright © 2016 Tissue Viability Society. All rights reserved.

  11. The Juxtaposition of Maori Words with English Concepts. 'Hauora, Well-Being' as Philosophy (United States)

    Heaton, Sharyn


    Within the New Zealand curriculum, hauora has been co-opted as an underlying and interdependent concept at the heart of the learning area of health and physical education. Hauora is identified as a Maori philosophy of well-being, advocating a Maori world view of hauora. Contemporary understandings of hauora as a Maori philosophy of health are…

  12. Educational Achievement in Maori: The Roles of Cultural Identity and Social Disadvantage (United States)

    Marie, Dannette; Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.


    The present study investigates the roles of Maori cultural identity and socio-economic status in educational outcomes in a New Zealand birth cohort studied from birth to the age of 25. There were statistically significant (all p values less than 0.01) associations between cultural identity and educational outcomes, with those of Maori ethnic…

  13. Patterns of Social Expectations among Maori and European Children in New Zealand. (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Petrie, Keith J.


    Assessed social expectations of 163 Maori and European New Zealanders aged 9 and 12 in response to videotaped social encounters. Ethnic differences were greater among younger children. Among Maori children, an enculturated pattern was associated with less assertiveness and lower self-concept, but was not with cross-ethnic acceptance. (SLD)

  14. Te Kotahitanga: Addressing Educational Disparities Facing Maori Students in New Zealand (United States)

    Bishop, Russell; Berryman, Mere; Cavanagh, Tom; Teddy, Lani


    The major challenges facing education in New Zealand today are the continuing social, economic and political disparities within our nation, primarily between the descendants of the European colonisers and the Indigenous Maori people. These disparities are also reflected in educational outcomes. In this paper, an Indigenous Maori Peoples' solution…

  15. Huakina Mai: A Kaupapa Maori Approach to Relationship and Behaviour Support (United States)

    Savage, Catherine; Macfarlane, Sonja; Macfarlane, Angus; Fickel, Letitia; Hemi, Hemi Te


    This article presents the developmental stages of a nationwide whole-school strengths-based behavioural intervention by Maori and centring on Maori interests; an initiative that has the potential to transform educational success and opportunities. The initial phase involved a cycle of data collection. This was conducted via a series of focus…

  16. What Can Pakeha Learn from Engaging in Kaupapa Maori Educational Research? Working Paper 1 (United States)

    Barnes, Alex


    This working paper focuses on how Pakeha have become involved in Maori-determined and controlled educational research, and what issues inhibit and facilitate their work. This paper focuses on the experiences of four Pakeha educational researchers who have been engaged in different forms of kaupapa Maori research since the early 1990s. Placing…

  17. "Mainstreaming" Te Reo Maori: Beyond Indifference and Tokenism in the Classroom (United States)

    Ngapo, Koro


    This paper examines why Maori language needs to be taught accurately at the early stages of initial teacher education programmes and continue for the duration of a teacher education student's degree. If teacher education faculties are permitting their students to mispronounce Maori names or words, they are in fact doing a disservice, not only to…

  18. Steady-State Clozapine and Norclozapine Pharmacokinetics in Maori and European Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Menkes


    Discussion: Clozapine bioavailability does not vary between Maori and European patients, and thus does not need to be considered in prescribing decisions. Additional studies are needed to identify if there are differences between Maori and European populations for drugs metabolized by other enzyme pathways.

  19. Equity in New Zealand University Graduate Outcomes: Maori and Pacific Graduates (United States)

    Theodore, Reremoana; Taumoepeau, Mele; Kokaua, Jesse; Tustin, Karen; Gollop, Megan; Taylor, Nicola; Hunter, Jackie; Kiro, Cynthia; Poulton, Richie


    Higher education confers significant private and social benefits. Maori and Pacific peoples are under-represented within New Zealand universities and have poorer labour market outcomes (e.g., lower wages, under-represented in skilled professions). A New Zealand tertiary education priority is to boost Maori and Pacific success in an effort to…

  20. Exploring the Role of Identity in Maori Heritage Language Learner Motivations (United States)

    Te Huia, Awanui


    Substantially less is known about the motivations of indigenous heritage language learners than the motivations of learners of colonial languages. This study explores the motivations of Maori indigenous New Zealanders and the identity-related motivations they have for learning their heritage language. Interviews with 19 Maori language learners…

  1. Nga Manu Korero: Revitalizing Communication, Customs and Cultural Competencies amongst Maori Students, Teachers, Whanau and Communities (United States)

    Tinirau, Rawiri; Gillies, Annemarie


    The Nga Manu Speech Contest has grown to be one of the biggest and most positive events for New Zealand secondary school students where competitors articulate their thoughts and aspirations in both Maori and English. The contest is acknowledged as an avenue that enhances language and cultural development amongst Maori youth, yet no formal…

  2. Maori on the Silver Screen: the evolution of indigenous feature filmmaking in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, E.


    This article examines the evolution of Maori filmmaking since the 1980s and explores this Indigenous cinema in the context of developments in the New Zealand film industry. With Barry Barclay’s idea of ‘Fourth Cinema’ in mind, it focuses on the predominantly state-funded production of Maori feature

  3. Speech Language Assessments in Te Reo in a Primary School Maori Immersion Unit (United States)

    Naidoo, Kershni


    This research originated from the need for a speech and language therapy assessment in te reo Maori for a particular child who attended a Maori immersion unit. A Speech and Language Therapy te reo assessment had already been developed but it needed to be revised and normative data collected. Discussions and assessments were carried out in a…

  4. Reducing smoking in pregnancy among Maori women: "aunties" perceptions and willingness to help

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esdonk, T.; Glover, M.; Kira, A.; Wagemakers, A.


    Maori (the indigenous people of New Zealand) women have high rates of smoking during pregnancy and 42 % register with a lead maternity carer (LMC) after their first trimester, delaying receipt of cessation support. We used a participatory approach with Maori community health workers (‘‘Aunties’’) to

  5. Being, Flow and Knowledge in Maori Arts Education: Assessing Indigenous Creativity (United States)

    Hindle, Rawiri; Hynds, Anne S.; Phillips, Hazel; Rameka, Lesley


    This article reflects on issues of Indigenous creativity in Maori arts education, along with what we see as problematic tensions of the assessment of intangible elements. Our writing is motivated by a desire to start a global dialogue on Indigenous/Maori epistemologies, pedagogies and ontologies, and the contradictions and tensions that threaten…

  6. Multiple identifications and the dialogical self: Maori youngsters and the cultural renaissance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, A.H.M. van


    The renaissance of Maori culture and tradition has played a significant role in the political campaigns of New Zealand's indigenous population over the past few decades. At the same time, however, it has brought to light that many Maori youngsters are unable to construct a cultural identity in terms

  7. Science in the Maori-Medium Curriculum: Assessment of Policy Outcomes in Putaiao Education (United States)

    Stewart, Georgina


    This second research paper on science education in Maori-medium school contexts complements an earlier article published in this journal (Stewart, 2005). Science and science education are related domains in society and in state schooling in which there have always been particularly large discrepancies in participation and achievement by Maori. In…

  8. "Ahakoa He Iti": Early Childhood Pedagogies Affirming of Maori Children's Rights to Their Culture (United States)

    Rau, Cheryl; Ritchie, Jenny


    Research Findings: This paper considers the position of tamariki Maori, the indigenous children of Aotearoa (a Maori name for New Zealand), in relation to the impact of colonization on their rights, including a focus on the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the current educational policy arena. It then provides an…

  9. Te Rita Papesch: Case Study of an Exemplary Learner of Maori as an Additional Language (United States)

    Ratima, Matiu Tai; Papesch, Te Rita


    This paper presents a case study of the life experiences of one exemplar adult second language Maori learner--Te Rita Papesch. Te Rita was one of 17 participants who were interviewed as a part of the first author's PhD study which sought to answer the question: what factors lead to the development of proficiency in te reo Maori amongst adult…

  10. Decolonisation through Critical Career Research and Action: Maori Women and Accountancy (United States)

    McNicholas, Patty; Humphries, Maria


    The call for a just social order in Aotearoa (New Zealand) includes the transformation of mono-cultural institutions such as the accountancy profession. Maori women accountants in this research expressed concern about maintaining their identity as Maori while participating in the corporate culture of the firms in which they are employed. These…

  11. Maori Potential: Barriers to Creating Culturally-Responsive Learning Environments in Aotearoa/new Zealand: Te Timatanga O Te Ara--Kei Whea Te Ara? (United States)

    Henderson, Lesleigh


    New Zealand Education reforms aligned with raising Maori student success are yet to result in Maori students reaching their educational potential (Howard, 2010; ERO, 2008; 2010). Why do many New Zealand teachers struggle to create and deliver programmes which allow Maori learners to succeed as Maori? What barriers and enablers exist today in New…

  12. Early Maori settlement impacts in northern coastal Taranaki, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmshurst, J.M.; Higham, T.F.G.; Allen, H.; Johns, D.; Phillips, C.


    Pollen and charcoal analyses of sediments from northern coastal Taranaki, New Zealand, show that Maori settlement impacts on the vegetation began with the burning of tall coastal forest in the mid-17th century. Forest was replaced with a fern-shrubland, and small wetlands expanded with changing hydrological conditions. This forest clearance was much later than in most regions of the country, where major forest disturbance and clearance began between AD 1200 and AD 1400. However, Maori were known to be using the forested coastal Taranaki landscape from at least AD 1300 to hunt the now extinct moa, and to collect shellfish, but neither of these activities necessarily required forest clearance or permanent settlement. Preserved rat-gnawed seeds in the wetland deposits provide evidence for the presence of the introduced kiore (Polynesian rat, Rattus exulans) in coastal Taranaki from about AD 1200, significantly before forest clearance or permanent human settlement. Although kiore were present in the coastal forests for as much as 400 years before forest clearance, the pollen records do not show any changes in forest composition during this time. (author). 58 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Energy expenditure and metabolism in Maori, Pacific Island and New Zealand European men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, E.; Laulu, M.S.; Mitchelson, E.; Plank, L.


    Obesity is an important risk factor for many diseases that contribute to premature death and illness. Particularly for Maori and Pacific Island people in New Zealand, death rates from diabetes, stroke and coronary heart disease are much higher than those of other New Zealanders. We hypothesise that the greater prevalence of obesity in Pacific Island and Maori groups compared to NZ European is related to metabolic differences. We have already shown significant differences in body composition and metabolism in young NZ European and Polynesian women. The goal of the proposed study is to determine whether such differences are also present among young NZ European, Pacific Island and Maori males. (author)

  14. Meteor Beliefs Project: Meteors in the Maori astronomical traditions of New Zealand (United States)

    Britton, Tui R.; Hamacher, Duane W.


    We review the literature for perceptions of meteors in the Maori culture of Aotearoa or New Zealand. We examine representations of meteors in religion, story, and ceremony. We find that meteors are sometimes personified as gods or children, or are seen as omens of death and destruction. The stories we found highlight the broad perception of meteors found throughout the Maori culture, and note that some early scholars conflated the terms comet and meteor.

  15. Cross-sectional study on prevalence, causes and avoidable causes of visual impairment in Maori children. (United States)

    Chong, Cheefoong; Dai, Shuan


    To provide information and comparison pertaining to visual impairment of Maori children with other children in New Zealand in particular: prevalence of blindness, causes of visual impairment, and avoidable causes of visual impairment. Retrospective data collection utilising the WHO/PBL eye examination record for children with blindness and low vision at Blind and Low Vision Education Network New Zealand (BLENNZ), Homai. Individuals not of Maori ethnicity or over the age of 16 were excluded from the study. 106 blind and 64 low-vision Maori children were studied. The main cause of blindness in Maori children is cortical visual impairment. Twenty-eight percent of causes of blindness in this population are potentially avoidable with non-accidental injury as the main cause. The prevalence of blindness and low vision in children amounts to 0.05% and 0.03%, respectively. The prevalence and causes of childhood blindness are comparable to the other ethnic groups in New Zealand. The main difference lies in avoidable causes of blindness, which appeared to be much higher in the Maori population. The leading cause of avoidable blindness in Maori children is caused by non-accidental injuries.

  16. Archaeomagnetic studies of Maori Hangi Stones from New Zealand (United States)

    Kinger, R.; Turner, G. M.; McFadgen, B.


    Global palaeosecular variation models still suffer from a paucity of high quality data from the SW Pacific region. Over the past two years we have worked to fill this gap with archaeomagnetic data - directions and palaeointensities - by studying the thermoremanent magnetization of Maori hangi cooking stones. Used as heat retainers, these stones are heated, frequently above the Curie temperatures of constituent magnetic minerals, before being buried in earth ovens. After removal of the food, hangi sites are often abandoned with the stones still in situ, carrying a record of the magnetic field in which they were last cooled. We have sampled a range of archaeological hangi sites throughout New Zealand, dating to early prehistoric times (ca 700 BP). The stones vary in lithology from andesites, originating from the central North Island volcanoes, favoured by Maori for their durability and with NRM intensities up to 30 A/m, to greywackes and schists from the main axial ranges, with NRMs as weak as 10-4A/m. In all cases, we have independently oriented and retrieved several stones, and we have made several specimens from each stone, either by drilling (standard cylindrical specimens) or sawing (pseudo-cubes) in the laboratory. We have calculated site mean palaeomagnetic directions from principal component analysis of thermal demagnetization data, discarding the data of stones that show evidence of disturbance. We have carried out palaeointensity experiments using a Coe/Thellier method with pTRM and tail checks, and with selection criteria modified to the situation. Rock magnetic experiments contribute to our understanding of the mineralogy, domain state and blocking temperature spectra. The palaeodirections fall between declinations of 348o and 24.5o, and inclinations of -46.4o and -72.4o, with palaeointensities between 43.7±1.4 and 81.3±6.1 mT. Most fall within the expected range of secular variation for New Zealand. However the palaeointensity of 81.34±6.08mT, from an

  17. Steady-State Clozapine and Norclozapine Pharmacokinetics in Maori and European Patients. (United States)

    Menkes, David B; Glue, Paul; Gale, Christopher; Lam, Frederic; Hung, Cheung-Tak; Hung, Noelyn


    Clozapine is the most effective drug for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but its use is limited by toxicity. Because ethnicity has been reported to affect clozapine metabolism, we compared its steady state pharmacokinetics in New Zealand Maori and European patients. Clozapine and norclozapine steady state bioavailability was assessed over 24h under fasting and fed conditions in 12 Maori and 16 European patients treated for chronic psychotic illnesses with stable once-daily clozapine doses. Plasma clozapine and norclozapine concentrations were assessed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry; pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using standard non-compartmental methods, and compared using unpaired t-tests. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC, C max and C min ) for clozapine and norclozapine were virtually identical in Maori and European subjects, under both fed and fasted conditions. Clozapine bioavailability does not vary between Maori and European patients, and thus does not need to be considered in prescribing decisions. Additional studies are needed to identify if there are differences between Maori and European populations for drugs metabolized by other enzyme pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Maori tribal organisations in New Zealand history: From neglect to recognition, and the implications for the assimilation policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, A.H.M. van


    In New Zealand there has been a remarkable shift in government policy towards Maori tribes since the mid-1980s. Although the colonial history of the country is characterized by a consistent neglect of the tribal principle of Maori socio-political organisation, recently the government has gradually

  19. The Impact of Policy and Legislation on Maori Children with Special Needs in Aotearoa/New Zealand (United States)

    Fortune, Kiri


    The purpose of this article is to review literature related to the impact of policy and legislation on Maori children with special needs. The historical perceptions of disability for Maori will be discussed and the impacts of western influences and policy will be reviewed. The article investigates relevant studies and literature, both national and…

  20. In search of Mahutonga: a possible supernova recorded in Maori astronomical traditions? (United States)

    Green, David A.; Orchiston, Wayne

    Maori astronomical traditions refer to Mahutonga, which can be interpreted as a possible record of a southern supernova (SN) in or near Crux. A search for any known "young" supernova remnants in this region does not reveal any obvious candidate to associate with this possible supernova. Relaxing the positional constraint somewhat, the SN of A.D. 185 near a Centauri is nearby. If this is associated with Mahutonga, then the Maori term must be a relic of an earlier Proto-Polynesian record.

  1. Maori in Partnership: A Peer Mentoring Model for Tertiary Indigenous Staff in New Zealand (United States)

    Kensington-Miller, Barbara; Ratima, Matiu


    This article presents a professional development programme which brought an indigenous minority group of tertiary staff together. We describe a peer-mentoring model, piloted in 2009 at The University of Auckland, New Zealand with university staff in order to promote staff advancement. The participants were all Maori, the indigenous people of New…

  2. Te Reo Maori: Indigenous Language Acquisition in the Context of New Zealand English (United States)

    Reese, Elaine; Keegan, Peter; McNaughton, Stuart; Kingi, Te Kani; Carr, Polly Atatoa; Schmidt, Johanna; Mohal, Jatender; Grant, Cameron; Morton, Susan


    This study assessed the status of te reo Maori, the indigenous language of New Zealand, in the context of New Zealand English. From a broadly representative sample of 6327 two-year-olds ("Growing Up in New Zealand"), 6090 mothers (96%) reported their children understood English, and 763 mothers (12%) reported their children understood…

  3. Voice and Biliteracy in Indigenous Language Revitalization: Contentious Educational Practices in Quechua, Guarani, and Maori Contexts (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.


    This article considers instances of biliterate educational practice in contexts of indigenous language revitalization involving Quechua in the South American Andes, Guarani in Paraguay, and Maori in Aotearoa/New Zealand. In these indigenous contexts of sociohistorical and sociolinguistic oppression, the implementation of multilingual language…

  4. The Effect of Indigenous Politics on English Language Provision in New Zealand's Maori Schools (United States)

    Rata, Elizabeth; Tamati, Tauwehe


    An ambivalence characterising the provision of English language instruction in New Zealand's Maori schools is traced to the establishment of the schools in the recent period of biculturalism and retribalisation, and to the role of the schools in indigenous ideology. The article discusses the effects of the ambivalence on English language provision…

  5. Maori Wellbeing and Being-in-the-World: Challenging Notions for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychological research and practice in New Zealand has a long history of a positivist inspired epistemology and a pragmatic evidence-based approach to therapeutic treatment. There is a growing realization that a more meaningful interface between research and practice is required to accommodate indigenous Maori ...

  6. Ko Wai Au? Who Am I? Examining the Multiple Identities of Maori Youth (United States)

    Faircloth, Susan C.; Hynds, Anne; Jacob, Helen; Green, Clint; Thompson, Patrick


    In this paper, we present preliminary findings from a unique collaborative research project involving six Deaf Maori rangatahi (youth) in Tamaki Makaurau (Auckland), Aotearoa New Zealand. This study utilized kaupapa whanau (research family) protocols, established in consultation with two cultural advisory groups within New Zealand and the young…

  7. The Poukai ceremony of the Maori King Movement: An ethnohistorical interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, A.H.M. van


    The poukai is a ceremonial gathering held on 28 days a year at different Marae [1] or ceremonial centres supporting the K ngitanga, or Maori King Movement, which is largely based within the Tainui confederation of tribes in the Waikato region of New Zealand's North Island. The K ngitanga was

  8. Hospitalizations for Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 among Maori and Pacific Islanders, New Zealand (United States)

    Verrall, Ayesha; Norton, Katherine; Rooker, Serena; Dee, Stephen; Olsen, Leeanne; Tan, Chor Ee; Paull, Sharon; Allen, Richard


    Community transmission of influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was followed by high rates of hospital admissions in the Wellington region of New Zealand, particularly among Maori and Pacific Islanders. These findings may help health authorities anticipate the effects of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in other communities. PMID:20031050

  9. 'It's whanaungatanga and all that kind of stuff': Maori cancer patients' experiences of health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slater T


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There are unacceptable ethnic differences in cancer survival in Aotearoa/New Zealand. For people with cancer, quality of life and survival are shaped by access to care, but research on Maori access to, and through, cancer care is limited. Internationally, research has shown that primary care plays an important role in providing patient-centred, holistic care and information throughout the cancer care journey. Additionally, Maori health providers provide practical support and facilitate access to all levels of health care. Here we describe the cancer journeys of Maori patients and whanau and identify factors that may facilitate or inhibit access to and through cancer care services. METHODS: Twelve Maori patients affected by cancer and their whanau (family in the lower North Island took part in face-to-face semi-structured interviews exploring their experiences of cancer screening, diagnosis, treatment, survival and palliative care. FINDINGS: Three key areas were identified that impacted upon the cancer care journey: the experience of support; continuity of care; and the impact of financial and geographic determinants. CONCLUSION: Primary care plays a key role in support and continuity of care across the cancer journey. Alongside interpersonal rapport, a long-term relationship with a primary health provider facilitated a more positive experience of the cancer care journey, suggesting that patients with a 'medical home' are happier with their care and report less problems with coordination between services. Positive, longstanding relationships with general practitioners and Maori health providers assisted patients and whanau with the provision and understanding of information, alongside practical support.

  10. Investigating antenatal nutrition education preferences in South-East Queensland, including Maori and Pasifika women. (United States)

    Cruickshank, Andrea; Porteous, Helen E; Palmer, Michelle A


    Little is reported about the nutrition-related needs and preferences of women seeking maternity services, particularly Maori and Pasifika (M&P) women who have higher chronic disease rates in Queensland. Nutrition-related knowledge, needs, behaviours and education preferences were compared between women of M&P ancestry and non-Maori and Pasifika women (NMP). Women (≥18 years) admitted to the postnatal ward were surveyed. Anthropometry, dietary quality, nutrition education preferences, country of birth and ancestry were collected. Analysis included chi-squared and t-tests. The survey was completed by 399 eligible women. Country of birth data suggested 4% of respondents were Pasifika and failed to separately identify New Zealand Maori, whereas 18% of respondents (n=73) reported M&P ancestry. Descriptors were similar between groups (28±5 years; 91% any breastfeeding; 18% gestational diabetes mellitus; p>0.05). However M&P women were less often university educated (M&P:6(9%); NMP:71(22%), p2 children (M&P: 30(54%); NMP:70(30%), p75%) women did not know their recommended weight gain. Many respondents reported inadequate intake of vegetables (95%), fruit (29%) and dairy (69%) during pregnancy. Two-fifths (38-41%) reported interest in perinatal nutrition education, with topics including healthy eating postpartum. Findings enable targeted service delivery according to women's preferences. Collecting ancestral and maternal data to facilitate the provision of appropriate nutrition education may be critical for achieving optimal maternal outcomes in Maori and Pasifika women. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Establishing the date of Maori environmental impact in New Zealand through pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlone, M.S.; Wilmshurst, J.M. [Landcare Research, Lincoln, (New Zealand)


    Full text: Over the last decade there has been an intense debate about whether New Zealand prehistory is long ( > 1500 years) or short ( < 800 years). Pollen and charcoal analyses have played a key role in this debate by helping to pinpoint the transition from relatively undisturbed environments to those deforested by anthropogenic fires. Problems with in situ contamination, reworking of sediments, confusion of natural with anthropogenic impacts, and different theoretical expectations of growth, spread and impact of early Maori populations have led to disparate conclusions. We review pollen based studies carried out on a variety of fossil sites, including peat bogs, swamps, estuaries and lakes, and contribute new results. Different sedimentary environments show varying susceptibilities to contamination and have resulted in a wide spread of ages for initial Maori impact. Datable materials least susceptible to contamination by old or young carbon are pure peat and macrofossils, whereas lake, swamp and silty sediments are most susceptible. Analysis of the radiocarbon ages obtained for the start of Maori deforestation show that ages falling in the `long` prehistory period are exclusively derived from lake sediments and swamps. In contrast, the bulk of the ages falling in the `short` prehistory period are from pure peat and selected plant fragments. We conclude from our analysis of radiocarbon ages for pollen based deforestation that the first evidence of Maori environmental impact began about 700-550 calendar years BP (1250-1400 AD). Finer age resolution is limited by dating techniques, site limitations and the uncertainty associated with identifying the first signs of human impact. The period we have identified corresponds with the oldest dated archaeological sites and supports the short prehistory hypothesis. We discuss how to distinguish reliable fossil sites from those that have a high risk of giving misleading results.

  12. Establishing the date of Maori environmental impact in New Zealand through pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlone, M.S.; Wilmshurst, J.M.


    Full text: Over the last decade there has been an intense debate about whether New Zealand prehistory is long ( > 1500 years) or short ( < 800 years). Pollen and charcoal analyses have played a key role in this debate by helping to pinpoint the transition from relatively undisturbed environments to those deforested by anthropogenic fires. Problems with in situ contamination, reworking of sediments, confusion of natural with anthropogenic impacts, and different theoretical expectations of growth, spread and impact of early Maori populations have led to disparate conclusions. We review pollen based studies carried out on a variety of fossil sites, including peat bogs, swamps, estuaries and lakes, and contribute new results. Different sedimentary environments show varying susceptibilities to contamination and have resulted in a wide spread of ages for initial Maori impact. Datable materials least susceptible to contamination by old or young carbon are pure peat and macrofossils, whereas lake, swamp and silty sediments are most susceptible. Analysis of the radiocarbon ages obtained for the start of Maori deforestation show that ages falling in the 'long' prehistory period are exclusively derived from lake sediments and swamps. In contrast, the bulk of the ages falling in the 'short' prehistory period are from pure peat and selected plant fragments. We conclude from our analysis of radiocarbon ages for pollen based deforestation that the first evidence of Maori environmental impact began about 700-550 calendar years BP (1250-1400 AD). Finer age resolution is limited by dating techniques, site limitations and the uncertainty associated with identifying the first signs of human impact. The period we have identified corresponds with the oldest dated archaeological sites and supports the short prehistory hypothesis. We discuss how to distinguish reliable fossil sites from those that have a high risk of giving misleading results

  13. Engaging Maori in Biobanking and Genetic Research: Legal, Ethical, and Policy Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Beaton


    Full Text Available Publically funded biobanking initiatives and genetic research should contribute towards reducing inequalities in health by reducing the prevalence and burden of disease. It is essential that Maori and other Indigenous populations share in health gains derived from these activities. The Health Research Council of New Zealand has funded a research project (2012-2015 to identify Maori perspectives on biobanking and genetic research, and to develop cultural guidelines for ethical biobanking and genetic research involving biospecimens. This review describes relevant values and ethics embedded in Maori indigenous knowledge, and how they may be applied to culturally safe interactions between biobanks, researchers, individual participants, and communities. Key issues of ownership, privacy, and consent are also considered within the legal and policy context that guides biobanking and genetic research practices within New Zealand. Areas of concern are highlighted and recommendations of international relevance are provided. To develop a productive environment for "next-generation" biobanking and genomic research,"‘next-generation" regulatory solutions will be required.

  14. Ka Pu Te Ruha, Ka Hao Te Rangatahi: Changes in Maori Warfare between the Period Prior to First European Contact and the End of the New Zealand Wars (United States)


    attached to a six-foot long shaft. This spear would be used in a manner similar to the Zulu assegai and was intended to keep the victim in close...Christianity. The aim of the founder was peaceful opposition of dispossessing Maori from the land and strengthening Maori identity. 43 The movement became

  15. Te Reo Maori as a Subject: The Impact of Language Ideology, Language Practice, and Language Management on Secondary School Students' Decision Making (United States)

    Jeurissen, Maree


    Te reo Maori, the Indigenous language of Aotearoa (New Zealand), remains 'endangered' despite concentrated ongoing efforts to reverse declining numbers of speakers. Most of these efforts have focused on te reo Maori immersion education settings as these were considered the most effective means to ensure the survival of the language (May &…

  16. Bi-Cultural Aotearoa/New Zealand: Provision of Psychological Services to the Maori Population of Rural New Zealand: Combining Best Practice with Cultural Considerations (United States)

    Little, Steven G.; Akin-Little, Angeleque; Johansen, Anita


    New Zealand is considered a bi-cultural country with both the majority European and the minority/indigenous Maori cultures are supposedly given equal weight within the psyche and policies of the country. In reality, however, individuals of Maori descent tend to be over-represented in negative socio-economic and educational dimensions. A higher…

  17. Emergency Department Length of Stay for Maori and European Patients in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Prisk


    Full Text Available Introduction: Emergency department length of stay (ED LOS is currently used in Australasia as a quality measure. In our ED, Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, have a shorter ED LOS than European patients. This is despite Maori having poorer health outcomes overall. This study sought to determine drivers of LOS in our provincial New Zealand ED, particularly looking at ethnicity as a determining factor. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study that reviewed 80,714 electronic medical records of ED patients from December 1, 2012, to December 1, 2014. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out on raw data, and we used a complex regression analysis to develop a predictive model of ED LOS. Potential covariates were patient factors, temporal factors, clinical factors, and workload variables (volume and acuity of patients three hours prior to and two hours after presentation by a baseline patient. The analysis was performed using R studio 0.99.467. Results: Ethnicity dropped out in the stepwise regression procedure; after adjusting for other factors, a specific ethnicity effect was not informative. Maori were, on average, younger, less likely to receive bloodwork and radiographs, less likely to go to our observation area, less likely to have a general practitioner, and more likely to be discharged and to self-discharge; all of these factors decreased their length of stay. Conclusion: Length of stay in our ED does not seem to be related to ethnicity alone. Patient factors had only a small impact on ED LOS, while clinical factors, temporal factors, and workload variables had much greater influence. [West J Emerg Med. 2017;17(4438-448.

  18. Emergency Department Length of Stay for Maori and European Patients in New Zealand. (United States)

    Prisk, David; Godfrey, A Jonathan R; Lawrence, Anne


    Emergency department length of stay (ED LOS) is currently used in Australasia as a quality measure. In our ED, Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, have a shorter ED LOS than European patients. This is despite Maori having poorer health outcomes overall. This study sought to determine drivers of LOS in our provincial New Zealand ED, particularly looking at ethnicity as a determining factor. This was a retrospective cohort study that reviewed 80,714 electronic medical records of ED patients from December 1, 2012, to December 1, 2014. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out on raw data, and we used a complex regression analysis to develop a predictive model of ED LOS. Potential covariates were patient factors, temporal factors, clinical factors, and workload variables (volume and acuity of patients three hours prior to and two hours after presentation by a baseline patient). The analysis was performed using R studio 0.99.467. Ethnicity dropped out in the stepwise regression procedure; after adjusting for other factors, a specific ethnicity effect was not informative. Maori were, on average, younger, less likely to receive bloodwork and radiographs, less likely to go to our observation area, less likely to have a general practitioner, and more likely to be discharged and to self-discharge; all of these factors decreased their length of stay. Length of stay in our ED does not seem to be related to ethnicity alone. Patient factors had only a small impact on ED LOS, while clinical factors, temporal factors, and workload variables had much greater influence.

  19. Investigation of Maori ovens on the old Lyttelton waterfront (M36/229)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, A.


    The Canterbury earthquakes of 2011 caused widespread damage in the historic Lyttelton town centre. One of the many casualties was the former Lyttelton post office building. Constructed in 1875, the building as well as the parcel of land on which it was constructed was deemed archaeological and an emergency archaeological authority was obtained by the Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Agency prior to the building and its foundations being removed. During the removal of the foundations in August 2011 archaeological deposits associated with pre-contact Maori occupation were encountered. (author)

  20. Which family--what therapy: Maori culture, families and family therapy in New Zealand. (United States)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Dean, Peter; Smith, Barry; Mellsop, Graham W


    New Zealand is a relatively young and small country which has seen steady migration for nearly seven centuries. Despite a long history of rivalry and hostility between Maori and European values, the country has also seen some significant synergism between the two cultures. For the last three decades Asians have also migrated at a significant pace. The country faces the challenge of delivering quality mental health services to such cultures which are bifurcated in being socio-centric (Maori, Pacific Islanders and Asian total 32% combined) or ego-centric (European total 68%). Significant progress has been made in including families of the mentally ill in their treatment and care planning. Legislative requirements have been introduced for the family to be consulted in the treatment of those who are being compelled to receive psychiatric care under the Mental Health Act. Models of family therapy developed through innovation meeting the unique local needs or adaptation of existing models from overseas are being used. An overview of such family therapy modalities is presented.

  1. Application of the modified PGW method for determining the smoking attributable fraction of deaths in New Zealand Maori, Pacific and non-Maori non-Pacific populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sandiford


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Preston, Glei and Wilmoth recently proposed a new method for estimating smoking-attributable mortality in high income countries and an improvement to the method was proposed by Rostron. The method greatly simplifies estimation of smoking attributable fractions but additional testing has been recommended to validate the approach. OBJECTIVE We apply the Rostron (PGW-R method to ethnic groups in New Zealand and compare the results with published estimates from other sources with the purpose of determining their consistency and exploring possible reasons for any divergence. METHODS Four different sources were identified with ethnic-specific estimates of smoking attributable mortality fractions (SAMFfor Maori, Pacific Island and European/Other ethnic groups in New Zealand for periods between 1995 and 1999. These employed a variety of direct and indirect estimation techniques. The results were compared with PGW-R method estimates for the same period and ethnic groups. RESULTS Although the PGW-R method produced SAMF estimates that were within 5Š of those derived using the Peto-Lopez method for the European/other and total populations (in males and females, there were significant discrepancies between them in the Maori and Pacific SAMF estimates. Results using direct methods from a census linkage study were inconsistent with both the Peto-Lopez and the PGW-R method. Seven possible explanations for these discrepancies were considered and discussed but none could fully account for the differences. CONCLUSIONS The results of this work raise questions not only about the validity of the PGW-R method, but also about the accuracy of the estimates derived from the Peto-Lopez and direct methods, at least in these populations. Further research should examine the applicability of the key assumptions of the PGW method. Other work to determine the effects of possible misclassification bias in the direct method estimates would also aid interpretation of

  2. An investigation of child restraint/seatbelt usage in motor vehicles by Maori in Northland New Zealand (United States)

    Brewin, M; Peters, T


    Method: Observational surveys were conducted at the two main car parks (McDonald's and the largest supermarket) to determine the number of passengers restrained, the type of restraints, and correct use. Observations were restricted to those who were obviously Maori, based upon the local knowledge of the observer. In addition, face to face questionnaires were administered to Maori whanau/caregivers involved in the care of two or more children for more than three days a week. Results: A total of 788 participants were observed. Babies were those most likely to have all occupants restrained correctly (97%), followed by toddlers (66%), adults (56%), and school age children (48%); 138 interviews were conducted. Females (86%) were significantly more likely to ensure that all passengers were restrained on short journeys compared to males (67%; p<0.05). Respondents under 45 (80%) were significantly less likely to restrain child passengers compared to people aged 45 or older (91%; p<0.05). Discussion: This study highlights the problem that larger families in this study had in providing correct child restraints for all their children. PMID:12642567

  3. [Polymorphisms of the multiple drug resistance gene (MDR1) in Mapuche, Mestizo and Maori populations in Chile]. (United States)

    Wielandt, Ana María; Vollrath, Valeska; Chianale, José


    There are significant differences in drug responses among different ethnic groups. The multidrug transporter P-gp, encoded by the MDR1 gene, plays a key role in determining drug bioavailability, and an association between a polymorphism in exon 26 (C3435T) and lower P-gp expression has been found. The co-segregation of this polymorphism with the polymorphism in exon 12 (C1236T) and in exon 21 (G2677T/A) determines several MDR1 haplotypes in humans. To characterize the polymorphisms of exons 26, 21 and 12 of the MDR1 gene in different Chilean populations. Using a polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism technique, we studied the allelic frequencies and the distribution of MDR1 haplotypes in 3 Chilean populations: Mestizo (n=104), Mapuche (n=96, living in the National Reservation of the Huapi Island, Ranico Lake) and Maori (n=52, living in Eastern Island). The frequency of the normal MDR1*1 haplotype, without mutations, was lower in Mapuches than in Mestizos or Maoris (p0.0.5), but lower than the frequencies reported in Caucasians or Asians (p<0.05). We found significant differences in the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms of the MDR1 gene in Chilean populations, related to the ethnic origins of our ancestors.

  4. Examining the Potential of Critical and Kaupapa Maori Approaches to Leading Education Reform in New Zealand's English-Medium Secondary Schools (United States)

    Berryman, Mere; Egan, Margaret; Ford, Therese


    This paper discusses expectations, policies and practices that currently underpin education within the New Zealand context. It acknowledges the ongoing failure of this policy framework to positively influence reform for Indigenous Maori students in regular, state-funded schools and highlights the need for extensive change in the positioning and…

  5. Awhina Revolution: A Bayesian Analysis of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Completion Rates from a Program for Maori and Pacific Success in STEM Disciplines (United States)

    Richardson, Ken; Clark, Zaramasina; Gaines, Michael; Kingi, Hautahi; Miller, Sonja; Pearson, Willie, Jr.; Richardson, Liz


    Maori and Pacific students generally do not attain the same levels of tertiary success as New Zealanders of European descent, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects. Te Ropu Awhina (Awhina), an equity initiative at Victoria University of Wellington in New Zealand between 1999 and 2015, aimed to produce…

  6. An innovative team-based stop smoking competition among Maori and Pacific Island smokers: rationale and method for the study and its evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glover, M.; Bosman, A.; Wagemakers, A.; Kira, A.; Paton, C.; Cowie, N.


    Maori and Pacific Island people have significantly higher smoking rates compared to the rest of the New Zealand population. The main aim of this paper is to describe how knowledge of Indigenous people’s practices and principles can be combined with proven effective smoking cessation support into a

  7. Central obesity and risk for type 2 diabetes in Maori, Pacific and European young men in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, E.; Laulu, M.S.; Mitchelson, E.; Plank, L.


    Thirty healthy male volunteers between the ages of 18 and 27 and of a wide range of fatness were recruited for this study. Equal numbers (10) self identified as belonging to each of the Maori Pacific and European ethnic groups. Originally it was intended that 90 men(30 in each group) should be measured but the cost and availability of the doubly-labelled water prevented this. Specific measurements undertaken included resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry, total energy expenditure over 14 days by the doubly-labelled water technique; total and regional body fat from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; anthropometry (body mass index, skinfold thicknesses and girths); fat and carbohydrate utilisation from respiratory quotients and from carbon-13 analysis of expired breath; and dietary intake of macronutrients. Glucose tolerance, insulin, thyroid hormone, leptin and blood lipid determinations were also performed. The groups did not differ significantly in BMI, height body mass or fat mass - but the European group had significantly lower subscapular to triceps skinfolds and fat free mass than the Maori and Pacific group. Resting metabolic rate adjusted for fat mass and fat free mass was not different among the groups. Carbon-13 in expired breath was positively correlated to the subscapular to triceps skinfold ratio and insulin. Reported intake of dietary fibre was negatively related to blood lipids and subscapular to triceps skinfold ratio. Central obesity showed strong associations with biochemical measures of Type 2 diabetes risk These findings emphasise the relationships between body composition and fat distribution with risk of diabetes independent of ethnicity. (author)

  8. Central obesity and risk for type 2 diabetes in Maori, Pacific and European young men in New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rush, E; Laulu, M S [Department of Applied Science, Auckland Institute of Technology, Auckland (New Zealand); Mitchelson, E [Department of Nursing, Unitec Institute of Technology, Auckland (New Zealand); Plank, L [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand)


    Thirty healthy male volunteers between the ages of 18 and 27 and of a wide range of fatness were recruited for this study. Equal numbers (10) self identified as belonging to each of the Maori Pacific and European ethnic groups. Originally it was intended that 90 men(30 in each group) should be measured but the cost and availability of the doubly-labelled water prevented this. Specific measurements undertaken included resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry, total energy expenditure over 14 days by the doubly-labelled water technique; total and regional body fat from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; anthropometry (body mass index, skinfold thicknesses and girths); fat and carbohydrate utilisation from respiratory quotients and from carbon-13 analysis of expired breath; and dietary intake of macronutrients. Glucose tolerance, insulin, thyroid hormone, leptin and blood lipid determinations were also performed. The groups did not differ significantly in BMI, height body mass or fat mass - but the European group had significantly lower subscapular to triceps skinfolds and fat free mass than the Maori and Pacific group. Resting metabolic rate adjusted for fat mass and fat free mass was not different among the groups. Carbon-13 in expired breath was positively correlated to the subscapular to triceps skinfold ratio and insulin. Reported intake of dietary fibre was negatively related to blood lipids and subscapular to triceps skinfold ratio. Central obesity showed strong associations with biochemical measures of Type 2 diabetes risk These findings emphasise the relationships between body composition and fat distribution with risk of diabetes independent of ethnicity. (author)

  9. Te Ira Tangata: A Zelen randomised controlled trial of a treatment package including problem solving therapy compared to treatment as usual in Maori who present to hospital after self harm

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    Wikiriwhi Karen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, who present to hospital after intentionally harming themselves, do so at a higher rate than non-Maori. There have been no previous treatment trials in Maori who self harm and previous reviews of interventions in other populations have been inconclusive as existing trials have been under powered and done on unrepresentative populations. These reviews have however indicated that problem solving therapy and sending regular postcards after the self harm attempt may be an effective treatment. There is also a small literature on sense of belonging in self harm and the importance of culture. This protocol describes a pragmatic trial of a package of measures which include problem solving therapy, postcards, patient support, cultural assessment, improved access to primary care and a risk management strategy in Maori who present to hospital after self harm using a novel design. Methods We propose to use a double consent Zelen design where participants are randomised prior to giving consent to enrol a representative cohort of patients. The main outcome will be the number of Maori scoring below nine on the Beck Hopelessness Scale. Secondary outcomes will be hospital repetition at one year; self reported self harm; anxiety; depression; quality of life; social function; and hospital use at three months and one year. Discussion A strength of the study is that it is a pragmatic trial which aims to recruit Maori using a Maori clinical team and protocol. It does not exclude people if English is not their first language. A potential limitation is the analysis of the results which is complex and may underestimate any effect if a large number of people refuse their consent in the group randomised to problem solving therapy as they will effectively cross over to the treatment as usual group. This study is the first randomised control trial to explicitly use cultural assessment and management. Trial

  10. Engaging indigenous Maori and inward migrating Asian professionals into a Pakeha (White European)-dominated Balint community in New Zealand. (United States)

    McMichael, Timothy


    This inquiry began with two questions: How can the established predominately Pakeha/Caucasian (White European) Balint community in New Zealand more successfully engage both indigenous populations of both Maori and Pacifica origin into Balint work? And what is the existing Balint community doing to address the lack of Asian members of the Balint community in New Zealand, at a time when Asian health professionals are being recruited into the health sector at an increasingly high rate in comparison to White European entrants to the profession? These questions, and their preliminary answers presented here, invite the reader to reflect on both the challenges and opportunities in reaching out to groups different from our own. The author hopes readers may begin to see what can be done to allow new entrants to benefit from all that participation in Balint work offers while not losing sight of the uniqueness which each person can bring. It is hoped that sharing such questions and their subsequent explorations will help Balint leaders feel more confident in reaching out to a wider ethic and cultural mix within their local populations and encouraging them to enter the exciting world of the Balint group.

  11. Extremely low Helicobacter pylori prevalence in North Sulawesi, Indonesia and identification of a Maori-tribe type strain: a cross sectional study. (United States)

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Tuda, Josef; Suzuki, Rumiko; Kido, Yasutoshi; Kawamoto, Fumihiko; Matsuda, Miyuki; Tantular, Indah S; Pusarawati, Suhintam; Nasronudin; Harijanto, Paul N; Yamaoka, Yoshio


    Sulawesi in Indonesia has a unique geographical profile with assumed separation from Sundaland. Studies of Helicobacter pylori in this region are rare due to the region's rural location and lack of endoscopy equipment. Indirect methods are, therefore, the most appropriate for measuring H. pylori infection in these areas; with the disposable gastric brush test, we can obtain gastric juice as well as small gastric tissue samples for H. pylori culture. We investigated the prevalence of H. pylori infection and evaluated human migration patterns in the remote areas of North Sulawesi. We recruited a total of 251 consecutive adult volunteers and 131 elementary school children. H. pylori infection was determined by urine antibody test. A gastric brush test was used to culture H. pylori. We used next-generation and polymerase chain reaction based sequencing to determine virulence factors and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The overall H. pylori prevalence was only 14.3% for adults and 3.8% for children, and 13.6% and 16.7% in Minahasanese and Mongondownese participants, respectively. We isolated a single H. pylori strain, termed -Manado-1. Manado-1 was East Asian type cagA (ABD type), vacA s1c-m1b, iceA1 positive/iceA2 negative, jhp0562-positive/β-(1,3) galT-negative, oipA "on", and dupA-negative. Phylogenetic analyses showed the strain to be hspMaori type, a major type observed in native Taiwanese and Maori tribes. Our data support that very low H. pylori infection prevalence in Indonesia. Identification of hspMaori type H. pylori in North Sulawesi may support the hypothesis that North Sulawesi people migrated from north.

  12. Evaluation of the Good Start Program: a healthy eating and physical activity intervention for Maori and Pacific Islander children living in Queensland, Australia. (United States)

    Mihrshahi, Seema; Vaughan, Lisa; Fa'avale, Nicola; De Silva Weliange, Shreenika; Manu-Sione, Inez; Schubert, Lisa


    Reducing the prevalence of obesity and chronic disease are important priorities. Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Australia have higher rates of obesity and chronic disease than the wider Australian population. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the Good Start program, which aims to improve knowledge, attitudes and practices related to healthy eating and physical activity amongst Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Queensland. The intervention was delivered to children aged 6-19 years (N = 375) in schools by multicultural health workers. Class activities focused on one message each term related to healthy eating and physical activity using methods such as cooking sessions and cultural dance. The evaluation approach was a quantitative uncontrolled pre-post design. Data were collected each term pre- and post-intervention using a short questionnaire. There were significant increases in knowledge of correct servings of fruit and vegetables, knowledge of sugar and caffeine content of common sugar-sweetened drinks, recognition of the consequences of marketing and upsizing, and the importance of controlling portion size (all P well as the importance of physical activity for preventing heart disease (P emphasis on reducing intake of junk food may be beneficial. The study has shown that the Good Start Program was effective in engaging children from Maori and Pacific Island backgrounds and in improving knowledge, and some attitudes and practices, related to healthy eating and physical activity. The evaluation contributes valuable information about components and impacts of this type of intervention, and considerations relevant to this population in order to successfully change behaviours and reduce the burden of chronic disease.

  13. Central obesity and risk for type 2 diabetes in Maori, Pacific and European young men in New Zealand. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, E.


    Weight gain is associated with the incidence of Type 2 diabetes. Maori and Pacific people in New Zealand have a greater prevalence of obesity and Type 2 diabetes compared to NZ European people. We hypothesised that this difference is related to metabolic and fat distribution differences as previously demonstrated in a study of Polynesian and European women. Thirty healthy male volunteers between the ages of 18 and 27 years were selected for a wide range of fatness. Equal numbers, 10 in each group, self-identified as belonging to either the Maori, Pacific or European ethnic groups. Specific measurements undertaken included resting metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry; total energy expenditure over 14 days by the doubly-labelled water technique; total and regional body fat from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; anthropornetry (body mass index, skinfold thicknesses and girths); fat and carbohydrate utilisation from respiratory quotients and from carbon-13 analysis of expired breath; and dietary intake of macronutrients. Glucose tolerance, insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin, thyroid hormone, leptin and blood lipid determinations were also performed and HOMA and ISIO-120 indices calculated

  14. Evaluation of the Good Start Program: a healthy eating and physical activity intervention for Maori and Pacific Islander children living in Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Mihrshahi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing the prevalence of obesity and chronic disease are important priorities. Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Australia have higher rates of obesity and chronic disease than the wider Australian population. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the Good Start program, which aims to improve knowledge, attitudes and practices related to healthy eating and physical activity amongst Maori and Pacific Islander communities living in Queensland. Methods The intervention was delivered to children aged 6–19 years (N = 375 in schools by multicultural health workers. Class activities focused on one message each term related to healthy eating and physical activity using methods such as cooking sessions and cultural dance. The evaluation approach was a quantitative uncontrolled pre-post design. Data were collected each term pre- and post-intervention using a short questionnaire. Results There were significant increases in knowledge of correct servings of fruit and vegetables, knowledge of sugar and caffeine content of common sugar-sweetened drinks, recognition of the consequences of marketing and upsizing, and the importance of controlling portion size (all P < 0.05. There was also increases in knowledge of physical activity recommendations (P < 0.001, as well as the importance of physical activity for preventing heart disease (P < 0.001 and improving self-esteem (P < 0.001. In terms of attitudes, there were significant improvements in some attitudes to vegetables (P = 0.02, and sugar-sweetened drinks (P < 0.05. In terms of practices and behaviours, although the reported intake of vegetables increased significantly (P < 0.001, the proportion of children eating discretionary foods regularly did not change significantly, suggesting that modifying the program with an increased emphasis on reducing intake of junk food may be beneficial. Conclusion The study has shown that the Good

  15. Application of a Genetic Algorithm in a Collaborative Process to Resolve Hydrology and Physical Reality with Both Western and Maori Cultural Values (United States)

    Sheer, D.; Sheer, A.; Lebherz, S.


    Lakes Rotorua and Rotoiti are two sizeable, culturally and economically important lakes on the North Island of New Zealand. Rotorua outflows traverse the short Ohau Channel before entering Lake Rotoiti. Ohau channel flows are partially controlled by a stoplog structure. Rotoiti outflows to the Kaituna River are fully controlled by the Okere Gate structure. The structures are managed by Environment Bay of Plenty (EBOP), a government agency. Management objectives include maintaining minimum lake levels to support recreational boating, restricting maximum lake levels to avoid residential flooding, minimum instream flows below the lower lake to maintain aquatic ecosystems, limits on maximum releases to control erosion and prevent flooding. In addition, management seeks to provide for a minimum annual variation in lake levels to control the growth of aquatic plants in the littoral zone and to periodically expose beaches with important cultural value to the indigenous Maori population. The levels necessary to expose beaches may be lower than the minimum levels desired to support boating. Records of beach exposure are scant; the existence of beaches may depend on climate cycles. There is flow dependent recreational rafting below Okere Gates. This rafting is economically valuable, but is also contentious because the reach of Kaituna River flows through important Maori cultural areas, including grave sites. The Maoris have expressed a preference for replacing the Okere Gates with a fixed stepped weir, although the existing gates can be relatively easily operated to reproduce the flows over any of the fixed weir designs so far proposed. HydroLogics created a model of the two-lake system using its OASIS software system. The inflows to the lakes were estimated based on available historical flow and lake level data and on flow estimates derived from Mike-11 modeling of historical lake outlet configurations. A custom genetic algorithm (GA) was created to “wrap” the

  16. Kaupapa Maori, Philosophy and Schools (United States)

    Stewart, Georgina


    Goals for adding philosophy to the school curriculum centre on the perceived need to improve the general quality of critical thinking found in society. School philosophy also provides a means for asking questions of value and purpose about curriculum content across and between subjects, and, furthermore, it affirms the capability of children to…

  17. Social disparities in the prevalence of diabetes in Australia and in the development of end stage renal disease due to diabetes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Australia and Maori and Pacific Islanders in New Zealand

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    Kathleen Hill


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disparities in health status occur between people with differing socioeconomic status and disadvantaged groups usually have the highest risk exposure and the worst health outcome. We sought to examine the social disparities in the population prevalence of diabetes and in the development of treated end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes which has not previously been studied in Australia and New Zealand in isolation from type 2 diabetes. Methods This observational study examined the population prevalence of diabetes in a sample of the Australian population (7,434,492 using data from the National Diabetes Services Scheme and of treated end stage renal disease due to diabetes using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry. The data were then correlated with the Australian Bureau of Statistics Socioeconomic Indexes for Areas for an examination of socioeconomic disparities. Results There is a social gradient in the prevalence of diabetes in Australia with disease incidence decreasing incrementally with increasing affluence (Spearman’s rho = .765 p < 0.001. There is a higher risk of developing end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes for males with low socioeconomic status (RR 1.20; CI 1.002–1.459 in comparison to females with low socioeconomic status. In Australia and New Zealand Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, Maori and Pacific Islanders appear to have a low risk of end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes but continue to carry a vastly disproportionate burden of end stage renal disease due to type 2 diabetes (RR 6.57 CI 6.04–7.14 & 6.48 CI 6.02–6.97 respectively p < 0.001 in comparison to other Australian and New Zealanders. Conclusion Whilst low socioeconomic status is associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes the inverse social gradient seen in this study has not previously been reported. The social disparity seen in relation to treated end stage

  18. Social disparities in the prevalence of diabetes in Australia and in the development of end stage renal disease due to diabetes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Australia and Maori and Pacific Islanders in New Zealand. (United States)

    Hill, Kathleen; Ward, Paul; Grace, Blair S; Gleadle, Jonathan


    Disparities in health status occur between people with differing socioeconomic status and disadvantaged groups usually have the highest risk exposure and the worst health outcome. We sought to examine the social disparities in the population prevalence of diabetes and in the development of treated end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes which has not previously been studied in Australia and New Zealand in isolation from type 2 diabetes. This observational study examined the population prevalence of diabetes in a sample of the Australian population (7,434,492) using data from the National Diabetes Services Scheme and of treated end stage renal disease due to diabetes using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry. The data were then correlated with the Australian Bureau of Statistics Socioeconomic Indexes for Areas for an examination of socioeconomic disparities. There is a social gradient in the prevalence of diabetes in Australia with disease incidence decreasing incrementally with increasing affluence (Spearman's rho = .765 p < 0.001). There is a higher risk of developing end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes for males with low socioeconomic status (RR 1.20; CI 1.002-1.459) in comparison to females with low socioeconomic status. In Australia and New Zealand Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, Maori and Pacific Islanders appear to have a low risk of end stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes but continue to carry a vastly disproportionate burden of end stage renal disease due to type 2 diabetes (RR 6.57 CI 6.04-7.14 & 6.48 CI 6.02-6.97 respectively p < 0.001) in comparison to other Australian and New Zealanders. Whilst low socioeconomic status is associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes the inverse social gradient seen in this study has not previously been reported. The social disparity seen in relation to treated end stage renal disease due to type 2 diabetes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait

  19. Speaking the Unspoken: Racism, Sport and Maori

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    Holly Raima Hippolite


    Full Text Available In this paper, we argue that the intersection of two key ideologies – New Zealand’s purported history of good race relations, and the positive contribution sport is believed to make to racial equality – has created an environment in which it is difficult to talk about, let alone discuss constructively, Māori experiences of racism in the sport context. Our aim is to put the issue on the agenda by engaging with 10 experienced Māori sport participants, coaches and administrators whose experiences demonstrate the existence of, and pain caused by, cultural and institutional racism in New Zealand sport. In this aim, we do not seek to hide behind a veil of neutrality or objectivity. Rather, following a kaupapa Māori research approach, our interest is in bringing to light the voices, frustrations and concerns of Māori in order to contribute to a much-needed conversation.

  20. Reintroducing Maori ethnomathematical activities into the classroom: traditional Maori spatial orientation concepts

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    Tony Trinick


    Full Text Available Las practicas matemáticas maoríes fueron excluidas de la escolarización en Aotearoa / Nueva Zelanda durante más de 150 años, como resultado de las políticas explícitas que impiden el uso de la lengua y cultura indígena. Como consecuencia de la gama de políticas asimilacionistas, para la década de 1970, el idioma maorí fue considerado en peligro de extinción. En respuesta a la peligrosa situación de la lengua, las comunidades maoríes crearon sus propias escuelas, en un principio fuera del sistema estatal, para apoyar la revitalización de la lengua y la cultura. Sin embargo, la reintroducción de los conocimientos culturales en áreas como las matemáticas no ha igualado los esfuerzos de revitalización del idioma. Muchas prácticas etnomatemáticas originales ya no son de uso general en la comunidad indígena y las prácticas valoradas por la mayoría de Europa siguen siendo la norma en los programas escolares exigidos por el estado. Orientación espacial es un ejemplo del contenido de los planes de estudio de matemáticas que se basa en perspectivas matemáticas occidentales. Para proporcionar una perspectiva maorí, este documento se basa en entrevistas con los ancianos y los datos históricos para examinar términos de orientación espacial maoríes y los marcos espaciales de las referencias que se derivan de estos. Los estudiantes en una escuela Māori-medium school fueron probados en su comprensión de su conocimiento tradicional. Como consecuencia de ello, una serie de actividades de aprendizaje basadas en conceptos maoríes de orientación espacial se desarrolló y probó. Los resultados de estas actividades de aprendizaje mostraron el aumento de algunos entendimientos sobre conceptos maoríes de orientación espacial.

  1. Maori intellectual property rights and the formation of ethnic boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, A.H.M. van


    This article questions and contextualizes the emergence of a discourse of intellectual property rights in Māori society. It is argued that Māori claims regarding intellectual property function primarily to demarcate ethnic boundaries between Māori and non-Māori. Māori consider the reinforcement of

  2. Taking Culture into Account: A Maori Perspective on Visual Impairment (United States)

    Bevan-Brown, Jill; Walker, Taingunguru


    The authors open this article by noting that there is substantial research evidence showing that ethnic culture affects how disability is perceived and managed, and that taking a person's culture into account maximizes the effectiveness of the person's education. Jill Bevan-Brown and Taingunguru Walker, address this gap in knowledge by describing…

  3. Pre-European Maori fishing at Foxton, Manawatu, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.; Leach, F.; Greig, K.; Leach, P.


    Fish remains from excavations in four areas of the Foxton archaeological site (S24/3) were analysed. The 4109 identified bones produced a Minimum Mumber of Individuals of 1040 fish from 8 families. The assemblage was dominated by New Zealand snapper (Pagrus auratus, Family Sparidae), which comprised 80% of the total MNI. Kahawai (Arripis trutta, Family Arripidae) contributed 15% and other families only minor amounts. Snapper decreased in abundance and kahawai increased from the lower to the upper layers. The Foxton catch at all periods is different from other assemblages studied from central New Zealand. This partly reflects the local marine environment, which lacks rocky shores and reefs, but we also hypothesise that it is related to warmer surface sea water conditions in Cook Strait in the early phase of the New Zealand prehistoric period. Size frequency diagrams were constructed for snapper and kahawai. It was found that the mean fork length and mean ungutted weight of snapper increased over time. Similar changes have been observed for other species in archaeological sites in New Zealand. (author). 26 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs

  4. Work of the Gods: Tatai Arorangi (Maori Astronomy) (United States)

    Leather, Kay; Hall, Richard

    Knowledgeable elders of ancient times, and their descendants today, studied the heavens and the stars - such was matai whetu, study of the stars - to identify the heavenly bodies and their relationships to each other. The knowledge gained was arranged in whakapapa, genealogies. Recitation of the star names was known as tatai whetu; navigation across the seas was tatai aro rangi: finding the appropriate path by the stars. The maramataka, or literally moon calendar, and the seasons were determined by the heliacal rising (rising just before the Sun) of certain stars. Knowledge of their world was the tool the ancients used to order their lives. From the first twitch in Te Kore, which gave life, to the continuous flow of creation, carried in the waters of life, even unto the breath of life, which allows creatures to move under their own mana, all the universe shares the tapu and the mana of the gods.

  5. Safeguarding seeds and Maori intellectual property through partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Scheele


    Full Text Available The Nagoya Protocol is a recent binding international instrument that articulates the need to recognise the rights of indigenous peoples regarding their biological resources and cultural knowledge and strengthens the mechanisms to do so. New Zealand has not signed this protocol because of the overriding importance of the Treaty of Waitangi in New Zealand’s domestic affairs, and the need to ensure that government options are not limited concerning the development of domestic policy on access to biological resources. In particular, policy makers and legislators are waiting for the government response to a 2011 Waitangi Tribunal report (Ko Aotearoa Tēnei on a far-reaching and complex claim (WAI 262 concerning the place of Māori traditional knowledge, culture and identity in contemporary New Zealand law and government policies and practice. Especially pertinent to this paper is the report’s section on Māori rights relating to biological and genetic resources. In accordance with the recommendation within Ko Aotearoa Tēnei, the principle of partnership, built on the explicit Treaty premise of Crown and Māori as formal equals, is presented here as the overarching framework and mechanism by which government agencies and Māori can work together to safeguard such resources. Core concepts and values are elucidated that underpin the Māori relationship to indigenous flora and fauna and are integral to the protection of cultural knowledge of seeds and plants. Examples are given of plant species regarded as taonga (treasures and how they are conserved, and a case study is presented of institutional stewardship of harakeke (New Zealand flax weaving varieties. Seed bank facilities are also evaluated regarding their incorporation of Māori values and rights under the Treaty of Waitangi.

  6. Promoting a Minority Language to Majority Language Speakers: Television Advertising about the Maori Language Targeting Non-Maori New Zealanders (United States)

    de Bres, Julia


    It has been claimed that the success of minority language policy initiatives may only be achievable if at least some degree of 'tolerability' of these initiatives is secured among majority language speakers. There has, however, been little consideration in the language planning literature of what practical approaches might be used to influence the…

  7. Predictors of Academic Success for Maori, Pacific and Non-Maori Non-Pacific Students in Health Professional Education: A Quantitative Analysis (United States)

    Wikaire, Erena; Curtis, Elana; Cormack, Donna; Jiang, Yannan; McMillan, Louise; Loto, Rob; Reid, Papaarangi


    Tertiary institutions internationally aim to increase student diversity, however are struggling to achieve equitable academic outcomes for indigenous and ethnic minority students and detailed exploration of factors that impact on success is required. This study explored the predictive effect of admission variables on academic outcomes for health…

  8. Civic Action and Play: Examples from Maori, Aboriginal Australian and Latino Communities (United States)

    Adair, Jennifer Keys; Phillips, Louise; Ritchie, Jenny; Sachdeva, Shubhi


    Using data from an international, comparative study of civic action in preschools in New Zealand, Australia and the US, we consider some of the types of civic action that are possible when time and space are offered for children to use their agency to initiate, work together and collectively pursue ideas and things that are important to the group.…

  9. Looking Maori predicts decreased rates of home ownership : Institutional racism in housing based on perceived appearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houkamau, C.A.; Sibley, C.G.


    This study examined differences in rates of home ownership among Māori (the indigenous peoples of New Zealand). We identified systematic factors that predicted why some Māori were more likely to own their own home (partially or fully) relative to other Māori. Data were drawn from a large national

  10. Regaining Authority: Setting the Agenda in Maori Heritage through the Control and Shaping of Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard O'Regan


    Full Text Available Conflict or a reconciliation of it is a common theme in discussions on indigenous peoples’ heritage. Whereas conflict is often expressed in claims of ownership and control, sometimes legally contested, this article suggests that the pragmatic issue of possessing and shaping the associated data is equally important to indigenous peoples’ attempt to reclaim their treasures. This idea is explored through case studies of the experience of the Ngai Tahu tribe of the South Island of New Zealand regarding the future of ancestral human remains and their rock art heritage.

  11. Maximum Intervention: Renewal of a Maori Waka by George Nuku and National Museums Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Stable


    Full Text Available National Museums Scotland (NMS has in its collections a Mäori war canoe (A.UC.767 or 'Waka Taua 'from New Zealand'.' The 'Waka' had been held in the Museum stores for many years and due to its incompleteness and poor state of repair had not been on public display. It was proposed that the 'Waka' be restored with the intention of it being a focal point of a new permanent gallery in the Royal Museum in Edinburgh dedicated to South Pacific cultures and communities. The gallery was being developed as one part of a £44 million redevelopment of Royal Museum building. Due to its poor condition assistance was sought to help in the restoration, reconstruction and visual interpretation of the 'Waka'. NMS commissioned George Nuku, a Mäori carver, to remake  missing parts. Nuku uses a variety of mediums to carve including Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA. This made a clear distinction between new and original material that could be easily read by the public and reflected Nuku’s conceptual vision of creating physical “ghosts” influenced by the original carvings. Due to the composite construction and condition of the canoe the  project became more complex and  involved. This paper describes how the renewal was done and relationships that developed between the artist, curator and conservator.

  12. The Maori and the Pakeha in C. K. Stead's novel Talking about O'Dwyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver


    Full Text Available The article focuses on a recent novel by the contemporary New Zealand author C.K. Stead, Talking about O'Dwyer. It represents an indictment of war per se, war as a collective madness and its consequences for the life destinies of every single individual caught in it. The Second World War and the independence war in Croatia in the 1990s are minutely described and juxtaposed in this work: both brought to the people, as all wars, suffering and death and have radically changed and marked their lives and relationships. C.K. Stead writes about four locales in very different time periods, New Zealand, Oxford, and especially Croatia and Greece, where the two wars that affect the lives of the protagonists took place.

  13. The revised Multidimensional Model of MAori Identity and Cultural Engagement (MMM-ICE2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houkamau, C.A.; Sibley, C.G.


    We update and validate the revised Multidimensional Model of Māori Identity and Cultural Engagement (MMM-ICE2) by including a seventh Perceived Appearance subscale. The MMM-ICE2 is designed to assess the subjective experiences, efficacy and evaluation of different facets of identity for Māori (the

  14. "If We Lose Their Language We Lose Our History": Knowledge and Disposition in Maori Language Acquisition Policy (United States)

    Albury, Nathan John


    Localising knowledge and dispositions helps to predict the likely success of top-down language policies. In so far as language acquisition is a pillar of language revitalisation policy, then community perspectives on learning a minority language deserve attention. This article presents the knowledge, dispositions, and ideas of around 1,300…

  15. Interior lives : the age and interpretation of perishable artefacts from Maori rockshelter sites in inland Otago, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.; White, M.; Petchey, F.


    Rockshelter and similar sites in inland Otago have produced a relatively large number of M?ori artefacts made in readily perishable materials such as flax leaves and fibre, tussock grass or tapa (bark) cloth. Regional preservation is clearly related broadly to the relatively arid climate. However, AMS radiocarbon dates on 11 samples from 10 sites shows that while a few date to the 17th century or earlier, the ages of most cluster in the 18th to early 19th centuries. We argue that this represents a phase of accelerated deposition in which material was left behind deliberately, as logistically-determined storage for future use in a strategic plan for exploiting inland resources. We propose that such a process of 'furnishing the landscape' with useful artefacts and stored raw materials became possible when territorial security was achieved by the extension of immigrant tribal authority over the inland region. (author).

  16. Reading and Writing Gains for Maori Students in Mainstream Schools: Effective Partnerships in the Rotorua Home and School Literacy Project. (United States)

    Glynn, Ted; Berryman, Mere; Glynn, Vin

    The Rotorua Energy Charitable Trust with support from the Ministry of Education funded a home and school literacy project in nine Rotorua primary schools. The project funded each school to train a home-school liaison worker (either a school staff member or a community person) to assist schools in developing a working partnership with the students'…

  17. Interpretation in Maori cultural tourism in New Zealand: Exploring the perspectives of indigenous and non-indigenous guides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer, Trisha


    Full Text Available Cultural tourism experiences provide opportunities for cultural exchange between the host culture and visitors. With growing interest in indigenous tourism, the extent of indigenous control over cultural content and representation becomes increasingly important. In mana-ging interpretation processes, guides have an influential role in facilitating understanding and appreciation in visitors, thereby fostering respect for indigenous cultural heritage. In a guided tour this exchange is facilitated by the tour guide who needs to consider the diversity of the visitors’ characteristics. By taking a visitor-centred approach to guiding and interpretation, guides adjust the way the experience is managed so that it is interesting, meaningful and relevant.

  18. Partnership for Change: Promoting Effective Leadership Practices for Indigenous Educational Success in Aotearoa New Zealand (United States)

    Santamaría, Andrés P.; Webber, Melinda; Santamaría, Lorri J.; Dam, Lincoln I.


    In early 2014, a team of researchers was invited into partnership with the Maori Success Initiative (MSI), a national, indigenous led network of Maori and non-Maori principals committed to working collaboratively to raise Maori student achievement. Working with over sixty principals across six regional clusters throughout Aotearoa New Zealand,…

  19. Indigenous Maori and Tongan Perspectives on the Role of Tongan Language and Culture in the Community and in the University in Aotearoa--New Zealand (United States)

    Kepa, Mere; Atu, Linita Manu


    Po Ako, a community-based project, was created to break the experience of absence--cultural alienation and educational exclusion--overwhelming the Tongan students in Aotearoa New Zealand. In January 1991, not a single Tongan student attending Mt. Roskill Grammar School in Auckland passed the national examination for a School Certificate. In May…

  20. Navigating the Unfamiliar in a Quest towards Culturally Responsive Pedagogy in the Classroom (United States)

    Baskerville, Delia


    This paper examines a New Zealand "Pakeha" (European) teacher's professional development experience working with "Maori" (indigenous people of New Zealand), and their protocols and practices. A "Maori kaumatua" (male leader) experienced in theatre direction, acting, and psychiatric nursing led "Maori"…

  1. The Centrality of Relationships for Pedagogy: The "Whanaungatanga" Thesis (United States)

    Bishop, Russell; Ladwig, James; Berryman, Mere


    "Te Kotahitanga" is a research and professional development project that seeks to reduce educational disparities between indigenous Maori students and their non-Maori peers in New Zealand secondary schools. While evidence of the impact of the project on teachers' practice and the associated gains made by Maori students has been published…

  2. Menuraamat kinodes / Timo Diener

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Diener, Timo


    15. detsembril esilinastus üle maailma Christopher Paolini raamatu järgi valminud film "Eragon", kus mängib peaosa noor näitleja Edward Speelers, režissöör on Stefen Fangmeier, eriefekte lõid firmad WETA ja Industrial Lights&Magic

  3. Maorská kultura


    Pirunčíková, Libuše


    This project is trying to get into Maori 's history, culture and conflicts of Maori's population. It describes inhabiting New Zealand by Moari, discovering these islands by Abel Janszoon Tasman and conflicts that came up during the conquering of New Zealand by European colonists, because of the diversity of both cultures. The important part of Maori's history includes war conflicts until mid 20's, when the renesaince of the falling culture started to happened. Since the end of the world war I...

  4. Home | CTIO (United States)

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  5. Nora's Voice. (United States)

    Rameka, Nora; Stalker, Joyce


    The cultural and gender issues raised by a Maori adult educator (Nora Rameka) are framed by the interviewer (Joyce Stalker) who comments on methodological difficulties and compromises that were necessary in order to have Maori perspectives represented in this issue. (SK)

  6. Adolescence in New Zealand. Volume Two: Wider Perspectives. (United States)

    Stewart, Robert A. C., Ed.

    This is the second of a two-volume collection of research-based readings dealing with the New Zealand adolescent. This volume considers the areas of drugs and delinquency, as well as the world of work and Maori-pakeha differences. The following topics are included: marihuana use; vocational aspiration; alcohol and tobacco use; Maori-pakeha…

  7. Developing an Effective Education Reform Model for Indigenous and Other Minoritized Students (United States)

    Bishop, Alan Russell; Berryman, Mere Anne; Wearmouth, Janice Barbara; Peter, Mira


    Educational disparities between indigenous Maori students and those of the majority continue to be a major issue in New Zealand. Te Kotahitanga, an iterative research and development programme, which commenced in 2001, supports teachers to implement a relationship-based pedagogy in their classrooms in order to improve Maori students' achievement…

  8. Te Kotahitanga: Culturally Responsive Professional Development for Teachers (United States)

    Bishop, Russell; Berryman, Mere


    Te Kotahitanga is a research and professional development project that aims to support teachers to raise the achievement of New Zealand's indigenous Maori students in public/mainstream classrooms. An Effective Teaching Profile, developed from the voices of Maori students, their families, principals and some of their teachers, provides direction…

  9. Pacific ethnic groups and frequent hospital presentation: A fair target? (United States)

    Irvine, Zoe


    In New Zealand, Pacific health figures are traditionally presented for all Pacific ethnic groups combined. Use of EDs and urgent care clinics is high compared with Maori and non-Maori, non-Pacific (nMnP) use. By controlling for proximity to the hospital and socioeconomic status, we demonstrate greater variation between Pacific ethnic groups than between Pacific and nMnP, or between Maori and nMnP groups. We discuss the significance of subpopulation variation in use of urgent care services. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  10. Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand......Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...

  11. Cultural Appropriation in Games : A Comparative Study Between Far Cry 3 (2012), Overwatch (2016) and Horizon Zero Dawn (2017)


    Svensson, Tova


    This thesis is a comparative study between Far Cry 3 (2012), Overwatch (2016) and Horizon Zero Dawn (2017) to determine how game developers appropriate minority cultures in character design. The character designs are compared to the cultures of origin to determine whether they have been appropriated and to what extent. Far Cry 3 appropriates Maori and Samoan cultures, Horizon Zero Dawn appropriates native American cultures, and Overwatch appropriates both Maori and native American cultures. A...

  12. The practice of surrogacy in New Zealand. (United States)

    Anderson, Lynley; Snelling, Jeanne; Tomlins-Jahnke, Huia


    Commercial surrogacy is prohibited in New Zealand by the Human Assisted Reproductive Technology Act 2004 (HART Act). However, altruistic clinic-assisted surrogacy is permitted. Couples wishing to attempt altruistic surrogacy must apply for approval to a statutorily appointed ethics committee. One of seven principles that underpin the HART Act stipulates that the needs, values and beliefs of Maori (NZ's indigenous population) should be considered and treated with respect. This paper reviews the outcomes of surrogacy applications since the HART Act was established and the uptake of surrogacy by Maori. The authors examined the demographic data provided to the ethics committee by way of surrogacy applications and the outcome data provided by fertility clinics. This paper reviews the outcomes for surrogacy applications: the number accepted/declined, the number of live births, those applications discontinued and uptake by Maori. Of 104 applications for surrogacy between 2005 and 2010, 4 (3.8%) were declined. By July 2011, of 100 approved, there have been 26 (26%) live births; 52 (52%) were discontinued, and 22 (22%) remain ongoing. Maori are much less likely to utilise surrogacy. Of the 104 original applications, 9 (8.6%) Maori women were willing to act as a surrogate, and 2 (1.9%) were intended mothers. 7 (6.7%) Maori were partners of a surrogate, with 2 (1.9%) intending mothers having Maori partners. The process of surrogacy applications is comprehensive and robust, resulting in few being declined. Further research is required to discover why applications are discontinued and why, despite explicit attempts to meet the needs of Maori, few utilise surrogacy. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Kia Kaha: Improving Classroom Performance through Developing Cultural Awareness. (United States)

    Rubie, Christine

    A study of 24 Maori children in grades 3-6 who were invited to perform at a children's festival in Turkey and two control groups (control 1, n=24; control 2, n=23) of Maori children who did not participate in the festival examined the effect of an intense cultural program on children's self-esteem, locus of control, and academic performance.…

  14. 'Mystic fires of Tamaatea' : attempts to creatively rewrite New Zealand's cultural and tectonic past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, J.; Hulme, K.; McFadgen, B.


    'Mystic fires of Tamaatea' is the title given to a section of a book entitled 'Tsunami: the underrated hazard' written by Edward Bryant and published by Cambridge University Press in 2001. In it the author links New Zealand evidence for widespread forest destruction and Maori place-names and legends with the 15th century timing of an apparent Tunguska-type meteor impact in the South Island of New Zealand, Chinese, and Japanese meteor sightings, comets, and m ega - tsunamis in Australia. This paper critically reviews the lines of evidence used, and finds no evidence, either Maori or geological, for a 15th century meteor impact in New Zealand. In the book, all Maori place-names have been incorrectly translated, the radiocarbon chronology is incorrect, and there is no consideration of the numerous potential tsunami sources that were active in New Zealand in the 15th century. (author). 49 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Whakapapa, genealogy and genetics. (United States)

    Evans, Donald


    This paper provides part of an analysis of the use of the Maori term whakapapa in a study designed to test the compatibility and commensurability of views of members of the indigenous culture of New Zealand with other views of genetic technologies extant in the country. It is concerned with the narrow sense of whakapapa as denoting biological ancestry, leaving the wider sense of whakapapa as denoting cultural identity for discussion elsewhere. The phenomenon of genetic curiosity is employed to facilitate this comparison. Four levels of curiosity are identified, in the Maori data, which penetrate more or less deeply into the psyche of individuals, affecting their health and wellbeing. These phenomena are compared with non-Maori experiences and considerable commonalities are discovered together with a point of marked difference. The results raise important questions for the ethical application of genetic technologies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Locating the global: culture, language and science education for indigenous students (United States)

    McKinley, Elizabeth


    The international literature suggests the use of indigenous knowledge (IK) and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) contexts in science education to provide motivation and self-esteem for indigenous students is widespread. However, the danger of alienating culture (as knowledge) from the language in which the worldview is embedded seems to have been left out of the philosophical and pedagogical debates surrounding research and comment in the field. This paper argues that one of the main ways in which indigenous knowledge systems will survive and thrive is through the establishment of programmes taught through indigenous languages so that a dialectal relationship between language and knowledge is established that continues to act as the wellspring. The article concludes by reviewing the situation in Aotearoa New Zealand with respect to the indigenous population, Maori, and the recent science education initiatives in te reo Maori (Maori language).

  17. Equity in statin use in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris P


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Preventive medications such as statins are used to reduce cardiovascular risk. There is some evidence to suggest that people of lower socioeconomic position are less likely to be prescribed statins. In New Zealand, Maori have higher rates of cardiovascular disease. AIM: This study aimed to investigate statin utilisation by socioeconomic position and ethnicity in a region of New Zealand. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which data were collected on all prescriptions dispensed from all pharmacies in one city during 2005/6. Linkage with national datasets provided information on patients' age, gender and ethnicity. Socioeconomic position was identified using the New Zealand Index of Socioeconomic Deprivation 2006. RESULTS: Statin use increased with age until around 75 years. Below age 65 years, those in the most deprived socioeconomic areas were most likely to receive statins. In the 55-64 age group, 22.3% of the most deprived population received a statin prescription (compared with 17.5% of the mid and 18.6% of the least deprived group. At ages up to 75 years, use was higher amongst Maori than non-Maori, particularly in middle age, where Maori have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. In the 45-54 age group, 11.6% of Maori received a statin prescription, compared with 8.7% of non-Maori. DISCUSSION: Statin use approximately matched the pattern of need, in contrast to other studies which found under-treatment of people of low socioeconomic position. A PHARMAC campaign to increase statin use may have increased use in high-risk groups in New Zealand.

  18. Excavations at Pukearuhe (N99/49), North Taranaki, 1968

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.; Prickett, N.


    The 1968 salvage excavations at Pukearuhe (N99/49), north Taranaki, are reported. Pukearuhe was for long a Ngati Tama fortification; in the period 1865-1885 it was occupied by european forces, firstly, imperial troops and Taranaki military settlers, later, armed constabulary. Ngati Tama and european occupation was based on the powerful strategic situation of Pukearuhe at the northern gateway into Taranaki. Excavations revealed evidence of the Maori and European occupation. Radiocarbon dates were obtained for Maori occupation. European material adds to the knowledge of sites relating to the period of military conflict in Taranaki which extended from 1860 to the early 1880s

  19. Support Needs of Families Living with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    Searing, Billie Margaret Jean; Graham, Fiona; Grainger, Rebecca


    This study examined the perceived availability and helpfulness of supports used by caregivers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in New Zealand, particularly for caregivers who are Maori, and who live rurally. Caregivers (N = 92) completed the Family Support Scale with comparisons analysed using t tests. Free text comments were invited and…

  20. Work and Psychiatric Illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Implications for Career Practice (United States)

    Southern, Annie; Miller, Judi


    This paper aims to examine the influence of Maori culture upon psychiatric service provision in Aotearoa/New Zealand and the implications of this for career counselling of people with experience of mental illness in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The research explored the experiences of a group of women in Aotearoa/New Zealand who have been diagnosed with…

  1. Using a Realist Research Methodology in Policy Analysis (United States)

    Lourie, Megan; Rata, Elizabeth


    The article describes the usefulness of a realist methodology in linking sociological theory to empirically obtained data through the development of a methodological device. Three layers of analysis were integrated: 1. the findings from a case study about Maori language education in New Zealand; 2. the identification and analysis of contradictions…

  2. Performing Manaaki and New Zealand Refugee Theatre (United States)

    Hazou, Rand T.


    In September 2015, and in response to the Syrian refugee crisis, there were widespread calls in New Zealand urging the Government to raise its annual Refugee Quota. Maori Party co-leader Marama Fox argued that New Zealand could afford to take on more refugees as part of its global citizenship and suggested that New Zealand's policy might be shaped…

  3. The Universal and the Particular in Education. (United States)

    Partington, Geoffrey


    Compares two historical reactions from universalism to particularism: (1) the Enlightenment and its rejection by nationalism and romanticism; and (2) liberal education and its rejection as imperialist and patriarchal. Explores the relationships between the West and three groups (South Pacific Islanders, Maori, and Aborigines) that were…

  4. Current Chinese Leadership Travels Abroad, May 1984 - June 1986 (United States)


    Minister of Maori Affairs. Hu said his vist to New Zealand was a complete success. They npxt flew to an air force base outside Auckland . on 21 April...Democratic Republic Mla Xusheng ( GDP portion of the tour only) _ý Chinese Deputy Director of the Soviet Union and Easi’C European Affairs Department

  5. Interview with Eddie Reisch (United States)

    Owen, Hazel


    Eddie Reisch is currently working as a policy advisor for Te Reo Maori Operational Policy within the Student Achievement group with the Ministry of Education in New Zealand, where he has implemented and led a range of e-learning initiatives and developments, particularly the Virtual Learning Network (VLN). He is regarded as one of the leading…

  6. Journal of Mormon History Vol. 22, No. 2, 1996



    CONTENTS ARTICLES --Joseph Smith's 1891 Millennial Prophecy: The Quest for Apocalpytic Deliverance Dan Erickson, 1 --The Mantle of Joseph: Creation of a Mormon Miracle Reid L Harper, 35 --From Tolerance to "House Cleaning": LDS Leadership Response to Maori Marriage Customs, 1890-1990 Marjorie Newton, 72 --Before Stakehood: The Mission Years in Brisbane, Australia Ross Geddes, 92 --Colonizing the Muddy River Valley: A New ...

  7. Diverse Complexities, Complex Diversities: Resisting "Normal Science" in Pedagogical and Research Methodologies. A Perspective from Aotearoa (New Zealand) (United States)

    Ritchie, Jenny


    This paper offers an overview of complexities of the contexts for education in Aotearoa, which include the need to recognise and include Maori (Indigenous) perspectives, but also to extend this inclusion to the context of increasing ethnic diversity. These complexities include the situation of worsening disparities between rich and poor which…

  8. Examining the Impediments to Indigenous Strategy and Approaches in Mainstream Secondary Schools (United States)

    Hynds, Anne; Averill, Robin; Penetito, Wally; Meyer, Luanna; Hindle, Rawiri; Faircloth, Susan


    Noted Maori scholar Russell Bishop identified three impediments to developing Indigenous principles and practices in schools within colonized countries. These include confusion about the culture of Indigenous children, uneven programme implementation and issues with measuring student achievement. In this article, we present results from a mixed…

  9. The “Oriental Renaissance” in the Pacific: Orientalism, Language and Ethnogenesis in the British Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Ballantyne


    Full Text Available This paper suggests that the “Oriental Renaissance” was a crucial, often overlooked, thread in the intellectual life of the Australasian colonies. British imperial networks, together with the circulation of learned periodicals and monographs, ensured that British Orientalism profoundly shaped the intellectual culture of nineteenth century New Zealand and that it was particularly prominent in debates over the origins and identity of Maori. Linguistic comparison provided the most important evidence for establishing the relationships between and the ultimate origins of the peoples of the Pacific. Many scholars attempted to establish that Maori belonged to the Indo-European family and that their origins could be traced back to north India while the others suggested that Maori culture was too primitive to be “Aryan” and that it exhibited greater affinities with the Dravidian cultures of South India. Ultimately these conflicting positions were synthesised in a more generalised form of Indocentric anthropology that emerged in the 1890s and focused particularly on the supposed debts of Maori religion to Hinduism.

  10. Can Schools Save Indigenous Languages? Policy and Practice on Four Continents: Palgrave Studies in Minority Languages and Communities (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H., Ed.


    This volume offers a close look at four cases of indigenous language revitalization: Maori in Aotearoa/New Zealand, Sami in Scandinavia, Hnahno in Mexico and Quechua and other indigenous languages in Latin America. Essays by experts from each case are in turn discussed in international perspective by four counterpart experts. This book is divided…

  11. An Indigenous Model of Career Satisfaction: Exploring the Role of Workplace Cultural Wellbeing (United States)

    Haar, Jarrod M.; Brougham, Dave M.


    Despite career satisfaction models being well established, little is understood about the career satisfaction of indigenous employees. Using a sample of 172 Maori employees, the indigenous people of New Zealand, we tested a career satisfaction model with a cultural wellbeing factor over and above established factors of human capital,…

  12. Cardiovascular risk management of different ethnic groups with type 2 diabetes in primary care in New Zealand. (United States)

    Elley, C Raina; Kenealy, Tim; Robinson, Elizabeth; Bramley, Dale; Selak, Vanessa; Drury, Paul L; Kerse, Ngaire; Pearson, Janet; Lay-Yee, Roy; Arroll, Bruce


    To examine cardiovascular preventive and renal protective treatment for different ethnic groups with diabetes in primary care. The study population included patients with type 2 diabetes attending an annual review in New Zealand primary care during 2004. Primary care data were linked to hospital admission data to identify previous cardiovascular disease (CVD). For those without previous CVD, 5-year cardiovascular risk was calculated. Proportions on, and predictors of appropriate treatment according to guidelines were investigated. Data were available on 29,179 patients. Maori and Pacific participants had high rates of obesity, poor glycaemic control and albuminuria. Two thirds of all participants with previous CVD (68% of Maori and 70% of Pacific) and 44% with high CVD risk received appropriate CVD treatment; 73% of Maori, 62% of Pacific and 65% of European patients with albuminuria received ACE-inhibitors. Those with high CVD risk were more likely, and those that were young were less likely, to receive anti-hypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment after controlling for other factors. Maori and Pacific people were receiving similar high rates of appropriate CVD and renal preventive drug therapy to Europeans, but their prevalence of smoking, obesity, raised HbA1c and albuminuria were substantially higher. Non-drug components of preventive care also need to be addressed to reduce major ethnic disparities in diabetes-related morbidity and mortality in New Zealand.

  13. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems - Vol 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


  14. Talking past each other: Conceptual confusion in 'culture' and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is premised on the idea, arising partially from anthropological critique, that while cultural designations (e.g. Maori or Muslim) might serve as important political and identity markers, they obscure rather than reveal the actual influences the subject is exposed to, and which condition subjective experience as seen through ...

  15. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology - Vol 8, No 2 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maori Wellbeing and Being-in-the-World: Challenging Notions for Psychological Research and Practice in New Zealand · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Gabriel Rossouw. ...

  16. Radiocarbon dates for Rangitoto and Motutapu, a consideration of dating accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, R.G.


    The carbon dates for the eruptions of Rangitoto and the occupation of Maori sites on Motutapu contain inconsistencies which are explicable only after the dates have been corrected to allow for the nature of the dating method. The only date which is reasonably established is a 14th or 15th century dating for the ash shower covering Motutapu. (auth.)

  17. Childhood Pyogenic Osteomyelitis in Abakaliki, South East Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 20, 2018 ... [3] In general, growing children are the most vulnerable to pyogenic bone infection. However, in a recent published report, the relatively higher risk of osteomyelitis among Polynesians and Maori children compared to European children in New Zealand[2] indicates ethnicity bias in the risk of childhood bone.

  18. "Community of Practice" as a Framework for Supporting Tertiary Teachers' Informal Workplace Learning (United States)

    Viskovic, Alison R.


    This article discusses aspects of the informal learning of tertiary teachers in a polytechnic, a wananga (Maori tertiary institution) and a university in New Zealand. Case studies showed that they gained their teaching knowledge and skills mainly on the job, through informal, experiential learning, and much less through formal courses,…

  19. Restorative Practice in New Zealand Schools: Social Development through Relational Justice (United States)

    Drewery, Wendy


    This article proposes that restorative justice practices (RJPs), as used in New Zealand schools, are better understood as an instrument of social development than a behaviour management practice. Concerns about the achievement of Maori students are relocated, from an individualised psychological and pedagogical problem to an interdisciplinary…

  20. What Helps and Hinders Indigenous Student Success in Higher Education Health Programmes: A Qualitative Study Using the Critical Incident Technique (United States)

    Curtis, Elana; Wikaire, Erena; Kool, Bridget; Honey, Michelle; Kelly, Fiona; Poole, Phillippa; Barrow, Mark; Airini; Ewen, Shaun; Reid, Papaarangi


    Tertiary institutions aim to provide high quality teaching and learning that meet the academic needs for an increasingly diverse student body including indigenous students. "Tatou Tatou" is a qualitative research project utilising Kaupapa "Maori" research methodology and the Critical Incident Technique interview method to…

  1. "Who Is Sylvia?" Reflections on Personality, Pedagogy, and Populism: A Review Essay. (United States)

    Rooke, Patricia T.


    Reviews "Sylvia? The Biography of Sylvia Ashton-Warner," by L. Hood. Uses a feminist approach to examine the life of the New Zealand teacher whose teaching methods with Maori children led to international acclaim and imitation. Discusses the dynamics between pedagogy and personality. Contains 40 references. (Author/SV)

  2. Toward Conceptualising Cultural Diversity: An Indigenous Critique. (United States)

    Manu'atu, Linita; Kepa, Mere

    This paper, written from the perspectives of indigenous Maori and Tongan researchers, critiques the Auckland Secondary Schools Principals Association's (ASSPA) perspective that culture disrupts students' schooling. It discusses the relations of schooling to the cultural and political forces inside and outside of school; the relations of indigenous…

  3. Kia Tangi Te Titi--Permission to Speak (United States)

    Whitinui, Paul


    This book explores what constitutes successful schooling for Maori students in the 21st century. Editor Paul Whitinui has drawn together academic contributions from diverse fields of matauranga (education), matauranga hinengaro (psychology), whakaako hauora (health), akoranga takakau-a-ora (sport and leisure) and others. The book aims to provide a…

  4. Defining the period of moa extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.


    Few aspects of New Zealand's prehistory have engaged scientific and public attention so consistently as two interlinked questions of moa extinction; when did moas become extinct and why? Answers offered over the last 160 years have run the gamut from chronological antiquity by evolutionary senescence, to within the 19th century Maori and European disturbance. (author)

  5. Cosmology and Prehistory: Imagination on the Rise. Spotlight: Montessori Potpourri. (United States)

    Hallenberg, Harvey


    Presents the Maori cosmological perspective and the modern theory of evolution. Explains how these two creation stories can coexist. Discusses life on earth during its first 3 billion years, including concepts of singularity, Big Bang, time, space, matter, gravity, stars, planets, seas, and life. (DLH)

  6. Including People with Disabilities: An Indigenous Perspective (United States)

    Bevan-Brown, Jill


    Being victims of racial prejudice, religious intolerance, poverty, disempowerment and language loss it could be expected that indigenous people would be supportive of the Inclusion Movement with its philosophy of valuing and acceptance of all people. This supposition is examined for Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand. In…

  7. A Sense of Deja Vu across the Tasman? What Australians Might Learn from the New Zealand Experience with the Te Kotahitanga Professional Development Programme (United States)

    Openshaw, Roger


    Throughout Australasia, indigenous educational issues remain a subject of considerable debate. In New Zealand, Maori underachievement in education has long been a matter of widespread concern. Currently the most highly visible professional development programme now operating in New Zealand mainstream secondary schools, Te Kotahitanga claims to…

  8. Tawhiao's Unstated Heteroglossia: Conversations with Bakhtin (United States)

    Mika, Carl Te Hira; Tiakiwai, Sarah-Jane


    In the face of land confiscations and other forms of imperialism characteristic of the 19th century in Aotearoa/New Zealand, the second Maori King Tawhiao devised a number of sayings that seem at first glance to be entirely mythical. Highly metaphorical and poetic, they appear to refer, as Bakhtin would have it in his discussion of the epic, to a…

  9. "Kia whakatomuri te haere whakamua": "I Walk Backwards into the Future with My Eyes Fixed on My Past" (United States)

    Rameka, Lesley


    This "whakatauki" or "proverb" speaks to Maori perspectives of time, where the past, the present and the future are viewed as intertwined, and life as a continuous cosmic process. Within this continuous cosmic movement, time has no restrictions--it is both past and present. The past is central to and shapes both present and…

  10. Cultural Competencies and Planning for Teaching Mathematics: Preservice Teachers Responding to Expectations, Opportunities, and Resources (United States)

    Wilson, Susanna; McChesney, Jane; Brown, Liz


    In this article, the authors report on a small-scale study set in a context of a firstyear mathematics education course for preservice primary teachers. Professional documentation from three different sources were analysed in relation to the national document "Tataiako: Cultural Competencies for Teachers of Maori Learners," which was…

  11. Inclusion in Aotearoa/New Zealand: From Rhetoric to Reality. (United States)

    McDonald, Trevor


    This article argues that the education system in Aotearoa/New Zealand relegates children with disabilities, along with Maori and children of minority groups, to the margins of education. It stresses the need for teachers to focus on ways in which inclusion practices are reinforcing the marginal position of many students. (Contains references.)…

  12. Diet selectivity in a terrestrial forest invertebrate, the Auckland tree wētā, across three habitat zones. (United States)

    Brown, Matthew B G J; Gemmill, Chrissen E C; Miller, Steven; Wehi, Priscilla M


    Insects are important but overlooked components of forest ecosystems in New Zealand. For many insect species, information on foraging patterns and trophic relationships is lacking. We examined diet composition and selectivity in a large-bodied insect, the Auckland tree wētā Hemideina thoracica , in three habitat zones in a lowland New Zealand forest. We asked whether H. thoracica selectively forage from available plant food sources, and whether these choices were lipid-rich compared to nonpreferred available plants. We also identified the proportion of invertebrates in their frass as a proxy for omnivory. From reconnaissance plot sampling, together with fecal fragment analysis, we report that more than 93% of individual tree wētā had eaten invertebrates before capture. Additionally, wētā in the highest elevation hillslope habitat zone consumed significantly fewer species of plants on average than wētā on the low-elevation terrace habitat. Upper hillslope wētā also had the highest average number of invertebrate fragments in their frass, significantly more than wētā in the low-elevation terrace habitat zone. Wētā showed high variability in the consumption of fruit and seeds across all habitat zones. Generally, we did not observe diet differences between the sexes (although it appears that male wētā in the mid-hillslope habitat ate fruits and seeds more voraciously than females), suggesting that the sexes have similar niche breadths and display similar degrees of omnivorous behavior. Extraction of leaf lipids demonstrated a range of lipid content values in available plants, and Ivlev's Electivity Index indicated that plant species which demonstrated high electivity tended to have higher concentrations of lipids in their leaves. Our findings indicate that H. thoracica forage omnivorously and selectively, and hence play multiple roles in native ecosystems and food webs.

  13. The Great, Late Lesbian and Bisexual Women's Discrimination Survey. (United States)

    Rankine, J


    SUMMARY This 1992 New Zealand survey of discrimination against 261 lesbian and bisexual women found comparable rates of public abuse and workplace discrimination to those reported by surveys in other developed countries. The women reported higher rates of assault in public places than a random sample of New Zealand women. Indigenous Maori women reported higher rates of assault, threats, verbal abuse, and workplace discrimination than the non-Maori women surveyed. Aggression against the women was often in response to public expression of affection for another woman or to rejection of men's public sexual advances. The respondents reported hostile educational environments that coincided with peer harassment of students attracted to their own gender. Around two-thirds of the women had hidden their sexuality on some occasions at work to avoid discrimination. No significant differences between the discrimination experiences of lesbian and bisexual women emerged, although the bisexual sample was too small for statistical analysis.

  14. The development and application of New Zealand obsidian hydration dating, 1996-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, P.J.; Barker, P.; Irwin, G.J.; Jones, M.; Stevenson, C.; Sutton, D.G.


    This article is to inform readers of the continuing development of New Zealand obsidian hydration dating, which has been funded by the Foundation of Research, Science and Technology. This research seeks to date Aotearoa/New Zealand's past on the basis of refinement and strategic application of obsidian hydration dating (OHD), which was successfully developed during 1993-94. It has four objectives. These are: to improve the accuracy and precision of hydration rim measurement using a non-destructive technique; to control and reduce other sources of dating error; to evaluate recently published alternative models of initial Maori colonization and dispersal along the east coast, North Cape to the Bluff; and, to carry out a high resolution dating of the archaeological evidence of pre-European Maori settlement and fortification in the Hauraki Gulf. The rationale of each of these objectives, and the methods used, are outlined. (author). 47 refs., 1 appendix

  15. Does the granting of legal privileges as an indigenous people help to reduce health disparities? Evidence from New Zealand and Malaysia. (United States)

    Phua, Kai-Lit


    Both the Maori of New Zealand and the Orang Asli of Malaysia are indigenous peoples who have been subjected to prejudice, discrimination and displacement in its various forms by other ethnic groups in their respective countries. However, owing to changes in the socio-political climate, they have been granted rights (including legal privileges) in more recent times. Data pertaining to the health and socio-economic status of the Maori and the Orang Asli are analysed to see if the granting of legal privileges has made any difference for the two communities. One conclusion is that legal privileges (and the granting of special status) do not appear to work well in terms of reducing health and socio-economic gaps.

  16. Exploring the history of New Zealand astronomy trials, tribulations, telescopes and transits

    CERN Document Server

    Orchiston, Wayne


    Professor Orchiston is a foremost authority on the subject of New Zealand astronomy, and here are the collected papers of his fruitful studies in this area, including both those published many years ago and new material.  The papers herein review traditional Maori astronomy, examine the appearance of nautical astronomy practiced by Cook and his astronomers on their various stopovers in New Zealand during their three voyagers to the South Seas, and also explore notable nineteenth century New Zealand observatories historically, from significant telescopes now located in New Zealand to local and international observations made during the 1874 and 1882 transits of Venus and the nineteenth and twentieth century preoccupation of New Zealand amateur astronomers with comets and meteors. New Zealand astronomy has a truly rich history, extending from the Maori civilization in pre-European times through to the years when explorers and navigators discovered the region, up to pioneering research on the newly emerging fie...

  17. Prehistoric horticultural adaptation of soils in the middle Waikato Basin : review and evidence from S14/201 and S14/185, Hamilton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumbley, W.; Higham, T.F.G.; Low, D.J.


    The middle Waikato Basin contains extensive evidence, reviewed here, for the modification of soils for horticulture (gardening) by pre-European Maori. We investigated an area of Maori gardens at archaeological sites S14/201 and S14/185 in Hamilton City. Two groups of multiple, near-circular hollows, each about 0.3 m in diameter and infilled with gravelly sand, were exposed during the site excavations. The hollows, extending through modified A horizon materials into upper B horizon materials, are interpreted as representing the lower part of small truncated mounds (puke) that had been built up by early Maori for growing kumara (Ipomoea batatas). The hollows were grouped in a distinctive quincunx-like pattern in which four hollows formed the corners of a square with one hollow in the centre. The characteristics and layout of the hollows match historical descriptions of mounds used by Maori gardeners. We also used particle-sized analysis to quantify the extent to which upper horizons of the antedecent soils had been modified by the addition of gravel and sand excavated from borrow pits in adjacent volcanogenic alluvium (Hinuera Formation). A radiocarbon date obtained from charcoal found in a fireplace under the modified A horizon and near the hollows suggests that the site was occupied in the late fifteenth century. Identification to species level of charcoal fragments found in the modified soil suggests that site S14/201 may have been cleared of large podocarp trees not long before gardening activities began. This conclusion is supported by similar evidence from another site on the same stretch of the Waikato River. If so, such late (localised) deforestation contrasts with evidence from other palaeoenvironmental studies that shows regional deforestation began considerably earlier (about AD 1300) in the Waikato region. (author). 63 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Small Numbers, Big Challenges: Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Incidence and Survival in New Zealand. (United States)

    Ballantine, Kirsten R; Watson, Heidi; Macfarlane, Scott; Winstanley, Mark; Corbett, Robin P; Spearing, Ruth; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Yi, Ma; Sullivan, Michael J


    This study was undertaken to determine cancer survival and describe the unique spectrum of cancers diagnosed among New Zealand's adolescents and young adult (AYA) population. Registrations for 1606 15-24 year olds diagnosed with a new primary malignant tumor between 2000 and 2009 were obtained from the New Zealand Cancer Registry and classified according to AYA diagnostic group and subgroup, age, sex, and prioritized ethnicity. Age-standardized incidence rates (IRs) per million person years and 5-year relative survival ratios were calculated. Cancer incidence was 228.6 per million for adolescents aged 15-19 years and 325.7 per million for young adults aged 20-24 years. Overall IRs were consistent across all ethnic groups but there were unique ethnic differences by tumor group including a higher incidence of bone tumors, carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract, and gonadal germ cell tumors among Maori, a higher incidence of leukemia among Pacific peoples, and a higher incidence of melanoma among non-Maori/non-Pacific peoples. Five-year relative survival for adolescents (75.1%) and AYA overall (80.6%) appeared poorer than had been achieved in other high-income countries. Maori (69.5%) and Pacific (71.3%) AYA had lower 5-year survival compared to non-Maori/non-Pacific peoples (84.2%). The survival disparities observed require further investigation to identify and address the causes of these inferior outcomes. The newly established AYA Cancer Network Aotearoa has been tasked with improving cancer survival and care and ensuring equality of access for New Zealand AYAs with cancer.

  19. Southeast Asia Report (United States)


    Relief Work Fund, was aimed at giving work to unem- ployed Maori youth in the cities so they were gainfully employed . Police and Labor department...Mr Hawke, at Davos in Switzerland in which he called for: A COMMITMENT to halt farm sub- sidy increases. REDUCTION in the gap between in...general indicators include: • Growth in numbers employed of about 30,000 between August 1984 and August 1986. • Total unemployment, including those

  20. Designing an Early Childhood Environment: A Community-Built Playscape on Matakana Island, New Zealand (United States)

    Christie, Toni; Christie, Robin


    Across the mouth of the Tauranga Harbour lies a piece of paradise, Te Moutere o Matakana--Matakana Island. It is blessed with an ocean beach with white sand and a mean surf break, tidal flats, wetlands, fertile pasture, and a native and exotic forest. It is home to a maori language nest for the local children--Te Kohanga Reo o te Moutere o…

  1. Idiopathic chondrolysis - diagnostic difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Scougall, J.; Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney


    Four cases of idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip in three white girls and one Maori girl are reported. The authors stress the causes why a disease with characteristic clinical and radiographic appearances and normal biochemical findings presents diagnostic difficulties. It is suspected that idiopathic chondrolysis is a metabolic disorder of chondrocytes, triggered by environment circumstances in susceptible individuals. Idiopathic chondrolysis is probably one of the most common causes of coxarthrosis in women. (orig.)

  2. Outcomes of work–life balance on job satisfaction, life satisfaction and mental health: a study across seven cultures


    Haar, Jarrod M.; Russo, Marcello; Suñé Torrents, Albert; Ollier-Malaterre, Ariane


    This study investigates the effects of work–life balance (WLB) on several individual outcomes across cultures. Using a sample of 1416 employees from seven distinct populations – Malaysian, Chinese, New Zealand Maori, New Zealand European, Spanish, French, and Italian – SEM analysis showed thatWLB was positively related to job and life satisfaction and negatively related to anxiety and depression across the seven cultures. Individualism/collectivism and gender egalitarianism moderated these re...

  3. Effects of Work-Life Balance on Job and Life Satisfaction, Stress and Anxiety across Cultures


    Haar, Jarrod M.; Suñé Torrents, Albert; Russo, Marcello; Ollier-Malaterre, Ariane


    This study investigates work-life balance and its outcomes across collectivistic (Malaysia, China, and New Zealand Maori) and individualistic (Spain, France, Italy and New Zealand European) cultures. Using a sample of 1416 employees, SEM analysis showed that work-life balance was positively related to job and life satisfaction and negatively related to anxiety and depression across collectivistic and individualistic cultures. Respondents from collectivistic cultures reported lower levels of s...

  4. An exploratory study of parental knowledge of early childhood oral health care in Southland, New Zealand. (United States)

    Chia, Leonard; Densie, Ian; Morgan, Christian


    The primary objective was to clearly assess the oral health care knowledge of Southland parents. The secondary objective was to identify whether inequalities exist between parents with different ethnicity, education or income. An exploratory study based on a simple online/ paper questionnaire. Participants were recruited through Southland early childcare centres. Researchers contacted 115 centres, 66 agreed to participate and 58 returned questionnaires. Questionnaires were distributed to each centre to be completed by the parents. The questionnaire was able to be completed online or as a paper copy. Centres were supplied with dental brochures, which were distributed after the questionnaires were returned. Questionnaires were collated and the responses analysed. Six hundred and seventy questionnaires were returned, 213 online and 457 paper copies. The typical participant was a mother (93.9%), age 34 years (median), a non-smoker (86.3%), non-Maori (87.1%), with a university degree (33.9%) and an annual household income between $60,001 and $100,000 (36.5%). Twenty of the 47 questions were selected to reflect parental knowledge. Overall, 65.1% of the respondents answered all 20 questions correctly. Differences in knowledge were identified between mothers and other participants (65.4% vs. 59.4%), smokers and non-smokers (61.3% vs. 65.7%), Maori and non-Maori (61.6% vs. 65.6%) and education level (Primary 58.0% vs. Degree 68.7%) (P knowledge in early childhood oral health care. Participants who identified as non-mothers (fathers, step-fathers, legal care givers or other), smokers, Maori or low education displayed significantly less knowledge. Further education and oral health care promotion may be needed to improve this disparity.

  5. Indigenous ancestral sayings contribute to modern conservation partnerships: examples using Phormium tenax. (United States)

    Wehi, Priscilla M


    Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) is central to indigenous worldviews and practices and is one of the most important contributions that indigenous people can bring to conservation management partnerships. However, researchers and managers may have difficulty accessing such knowledge, particularly where knowledge transmission has been damaged. A new methodological approach analyzes ancestral sayings from Maori oral traditions for ecological information about Phormium tenax, a plant with high cultural value that is a dominant component in many threatened wetland systems, and frequently used in restoration plantings in New Zealand. Maori ancestral sayings record an association with nectar-feeding native parrots that has only rarely been reported, as well as indications of important environmental parameters (rainfall and drought) for this species. These sayings provide evidence of indigenous management that has not been reported from interviews with elders, including evidence of fire use to create Phormium cultivations. TEK in Maori ancestral sayings imply landscape-scale processes in comparison to intensive, small-scale management methods often reported in interviews. TEK in ancestral sayings can be used to generate new scientific hypotheses, negotiate collaborative pathways, and identify ecological management strategies that support biodiversity retention. TEK can inform restoration ecology, historical ecology, and conservation management of species and ecosystems, especially where data from pollen records and archaeological artifacts are incomplete.

  6. VelC positively controls sexual development in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Soo Park

    Full Text Available Fungal development and secondary metabolism is intimately associated via activities of the fungi-specific velvet family proteins including VeA, VosA, VelB and VelC. Among these, VelC has not been characterized in Aspergillus nidulans. In this study, we characterize the role of VelC in asexual and sexual development in A. nidulans. The velC mRNA specifically accumulates during the early phase of sexual development. The deletion of velC leads to increased number of conidia and reduced production of sexual fruiting bodies (cleistothecia. In the velC deletion mutant, mRNA levels of the brlA, abaA, wetA and vosA genes that control sequential activation of asexual sporulation increase. Overexpression of velC causes increased formation of cleistothecia. These results suggest that VelC functions as a positive regulator of sexual development. VelC is one of the five proteins that physically interact with VosA in yeast two-hybrid and GST pull down analyses. The ΔvelC ΔvosA double mutant produced fewer cleistothecia and behaved similar to the ΔvosA mutant, suggesting that VosA is epistatic to VelC in sexual development, and that VelC might mediate control of sex through interacting with VosA at specific life stages for sexual fruiting.

  7. Comparative Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses Reveal a FluG-Mediated Signaling Pathway Relating to Asexual Sporulation of Antrodia camphorata. (United States)

    Li, Hua-Xiang; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Zhu, Qing; Gong, Jin-Song; Geng, Yan; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong; Ma, Yan-He


    Medicinal mushroom Antrodia camphorata sporulate large numbers of arthroconidia in submerged fermentation, which is rarely reported in basidiomycetous fungi. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying this asexual sporulation (conidiation) remain unclear. Here, we used comparative transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to elucidate possible signaling pathway relating to the asexual sporulation of A. camphorata. First, 104 differentially expressed proteins and 2586 differential cDNA sequences during the culture process of A. camphorata were identified by 2DE and RNA-seq, respectively. By applying bioinformatics analysis, a total of 67 genes which might play roles in the sporulation were obtained, and 18 of these genes, including fluG, sfgA, SfaD, flbA, flbB, flbC, flbD, nsdD, brlA, abaA, wetA, ganB, fadA, PkaA, veA, velB, vosA, and stuA might be involved in a potential FluG-mediated signaling pathway. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of the 18 genes in the proposed FluG-mediated signaling pathway were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. In summary, our study helps elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the asexual sporulation of A. camphorata, and provides also useful transcripts and proteome for further bioinformatics study of this valuable medicinal mushroom. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Stable carbon isotope ratios as indicators of marine versus terrestrial inputs to the diets of wild and captive tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cree, A.; Cartland-Shaw, L.; Tyrrell, C.; Lyon, G.L.


    Stable carbon isotope analysis was used to examine feeding relationships of wild tuatara on Stephens Island and captive tuatara in New Zealand institutions. We first measured delta 13 C in three food items of wild tuatara. Pectoral muscle of fairy prions (a seabird eaten seasonally by tuatara) was significantly enriched in 13 C compared with whole bodies of wild insects (darkling beetles and tree weta). Values for delta 13 C in blood cells varied significantly among wild tuatara of different life-history stages. Male tuatara were more enriched in 13 C than were females or juveniles, suggesting that males prey more heavily on seabirds. Insect foods of captive tuatara varied dramatically in delta/sup 13/C; this is attributed to differential consumption of plant material derived from the C 3 and C 4 photosynthetic pathways. Blood cells from four different groups of captive tuatara differed significantly in delta 13 C. This was perhaps related to assimilation of insects with different delta 13 C values, and cannot be attributed to differences in seabird predation as captive tuatara do not have access to seabirds. For wild tuatara on Stephens Island, stable carbon isotope analysis provides support for the dietary information available from behavioural observations, gut analyses and measurements of plasma composition. (author). 47 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  9. Transcription factor Afmac1 controls copper import machinery in Aspergillus fumigatus. (United States)

    Kusuya, Yoko; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Sakai, Kanae; Yaguchi, Takashi; Gonoi, Tohru; Takahashi, Hiroki


    Copper (Cu) is an essential metal for all living organisms, although it is toxic in excess. Filamentous fungus must acquire copper from its environment for growth. Despite its essentiality for growth, the mechanisms that maintain copper homeostasis are not fully understood in filamentous fungus. To gain insights into copper homeostasis, we investigated the roles of a copper transcription factor Afmac1 in the life-threatening fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, a homolog of the yeast MAC1. We observed that the Afmac1 deletion mutant exhibited not only significantly slower growth, but also incomplete conidiation including a short chain of conidia and defective melanin. Moreover, the expressions of the copper transporters, ctrA1, ctrA2, and ctrC, and metalloreductases, Afu8g01310 and fre7, were repressed in ∆Afmac1 cells, while those expressions were induced under copper depletion conditions in wild-type. The expressions of pksP and wetA, which are, respectively, involved in biosynthesis of conidia-specific melanin and the late stage of conidiogenesis, were decreased in the ∆Afmac1 strain under minimal media condition. Taken together, these results indicate that copper acquisition through AfMac1 functions in growth as well as conidiation.

  10. Role of the Talaromyces marneffei (Penicillium marneffei) sakA gene in nitrosative stress response, conidiation and red pigment production. (United States)

    Nimmanee, Panjaphorn; Tam, Emily W T; Woo, Patrick C Y; Vanittanakom, Pramote; Vanittanakom, Nongnuch


    Stress-activated MAPK pathways are systems used to regulate the stress adaptation of most fungi. It has been shown that in Talaromyces marneffei (Penicillium marneffei), a pathogenic dimorphic fungus, the sakA gene is involved, not only in tolerance against oxidative and heat stresses, but also in playing a role in asexual development, yeast cell generation in vitro and survival inside macrophage cell lines. In this study, the role of the T. marneffei sakA gene on the nitrosative stress response and the regulation of gene expression were investigated. The susceptibility of the sakA mutant to NaNO2 was investigated using drop dilution assay and the expression of genes of interest were determined by RT-PCR, comparing them to the wild-type and complemented strains. The results demonstrated that the T. marneffei sakA gene played a role in the stress response to NaNO2, the expression of genes functioning in conidial development (brlA, abaA and wetA) and red pigment biosynthesis (pks3, rp1, rp2 and rp3). These findings suggest that T. marneffei sakA is broadly involved in a wide variety of cell activities, including stress response, cell morphogenesis, asexual development and pigmentation. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  11. Geometric Nonlinear Computation of Thin Rods and Shells (United States)

    Grinspun, Eitan


    We develop simple, fast numerical codes for the dynamics of thin elastic rods and shells, by exploiting the connection between physics, geometry, and computation. By building a discrete mechanical picture from the ground up, mimicking the axioms, structures, and symmetries of the smooth setting, we produce numerical codes that not only are consistent in a classical sense, but also reproduce qualitative, characteristic behavior of a physical system----such as exact preservation of conservation laws----even for very coarse discretizations. As two recent examples, we present discrete computational models of elastic rods and shells, with straightforward extensions to the viscous setting. Even at coarse discretizations, the resulting simulations capture characteristic geometric instabilities. The numerical codes we describe are used in experimental mechanics, cinema, and consumer software products. This is joint work with Miklós Bergou, Basile Audoly, Max Wardetzky, and Etienne Vouga. This research is supported in part by the Sloan Foundation, the NSF, Adobe, Autodesk, Intel, the Walt Disney Company, and Weta Digital.

  12. 'Changes in Tone, Setting, and Publisher: Indigenous Literatures of Australia and New Zealand from the 1980s to Today'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Henningsgaard


    Full Text Available This article examines four novels written since 1980 by two Aboriginal Australian authors and two Maori authors. Two of the four novels were written near the beginning of this period and feature settings that are contemporary with their publication; The Day of the Dog by Aboriginal Australian author Archie Weller was published in 1981, while Once Were Warriors by Maori author Alan Duff was published in 1990. The other two novels (That Deadman Dance by Aboriginal Australian author Kim Scott and The Trowenna Sea by Maori author Witi Ihimaera are works of historical fiction written in the last decade. The shift in tone between the earlier novels and the more recent novels is particularly remarkable. Coupled with the shift in tone, the settings have changed. It is tempting to ascribe the shifts in tone and setting over this 30-year period to the changing social and political realities surrounding the issue of indigenous relations in the two nations. And these factors undoubtedly played an important role in the aforementioned shifts; indigenous authors writing today are responding to a different social and political reality compared to indigenous authors writing in the 1980s and early 1990s. What this explanation overlooks, however, are the concurrent changes in the publication of indigenous literature and how these might contribute to the types of changes noted above. Indigenous writers are now writing for an international literary marketplace. This article makes it clear that there are significant implications to the shift from indigenous literature being published by small to medium-sized local publishing houses, to indigenous literature being published by the local arm of a multinational conglomerate.

  13. Extending “Continuity of Care” to include the Contribution of Family Carers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Wong-Cornall


    Full Text Available Background: Family carers, as a “shadow workforce”, are foundational to the day-to-day integration of health service delivery for older family members living with complex health needs. This paper utilises Haggerty’s model of continuity of care to explore the contribution of family carers’ to the provision of care and support for an older family member’s chronic condition within the context of health service delivery.  Methods: We analysed data from interviews of 13 family carers in a case study of primary health care in New Zealand – a Maori Provider Organisation – to determine the alignment of family caregiving with the three levels of continuity of care (relational continuity, informational continuity, and management continuity.  Results: We found alignment of family caregiving tasks, responsibilities, and relationships with the three levels of continuity of care. Family carers 1 partnered with providers to extend chronic care to the home; 2 transferred and contributed information from one provider/service to another; 3 supported consistent and flexible management of care.  Discussion: The Maori Provider Organisation supported family carer-provider partnership enabled by shared Maori cultural values and social mandate of building family-centred wellbeing. Relational continuity was the most important level of continuity of care; it sets precedence for family carers and providers to establish the other levels – informational and management – continuity of care for their family member cared for. Family carers need to be considered as active partners working alongside responsive primary health care providers and organisation in the implementation of chronic care.

  14. Hypertension and its treatment in a New Zealand multicultural workforce. (United States)

    Scragg, R; Baker, J; Metcalf, P; Dryson, E


    To investigate ethnic variations in blood pressure levels and the likelihood of hypertension being treated in a multicultural New Zealand workforce. An employed population of 5651 staff aged 40 to 64 years at worksites in Auckland and Tokoroa, who recorded their current prescribed medication, were measured for blood pressure, weight and height. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Mean blood pressure levels were higher in men than women, and increased with age and BMI. Compared with Europeans, mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in Maori (by 5 to 6 mmHg), Pacific Islanders (by 4 to 6 mmHg) and Asians (by 1 to 5 mmHg) after controlling for age and blood pressure treatment. This increase in Maori and Pacific Islanders, compared with Europeans, was approximately halved after also controlling for BMI, but still remained statistically significant (p < 0.05). In contrast, ethnic differences in BMI did not explain any of the blood pressure increase in Asians. In analyses restricted to hypertensive participants, the likelihood of hypertension being treated was higher in women than men (odds ratio (OR) = 3.42; 95% CI 2.13, 5.47), and lower in Maori (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.19, 0.58), Pacific Islanders (OR 0.27; 95% CI 0.16, 0.47) and Asians (OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.10, 0.86) than Europeans. These results suggest that the likelihood of hypertension being treated is related to sex and ethnic group; and that other unknown factors, in addition to increased BMI levels, explain the higher blood pressure levels in Polynesians compared to Europeans.

  15. An archaeological sequence for Codfish Island (Whenua Hou), Southland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, I.; Anderson, A.


    Recent archaeological investigations on Codfish Island, Southland, New Zealand are described. The form and contents of the archaeological deposits along with a series of radiocarbon dates provide the basis for outlining the sequence of human settlement on the island. Initial settlement between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries AD is proposed; there are no strong indications of later prehistoric settlement. The island was reoccupied during the first decade of the nineteenth century by sealing gangs, and from about 1825 to 1850 there was a substantial settlement of former sealers, Maori women and their descendants. Some implications for understanding the colonisation history of New Zealand are considered. (author). 20 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  16. Epidemiology of diabetes in New Zealand: revisit to a changing landscape. (United States)

    Joshy, Grace; Simmons, David


    The aim of this review is to describe the evolution of the burden of diabetes, its risk factors and complications in New Zealand, and the current national strategies underway to tackle a condition likely to impact on the national ability to afford other health services. The MEDLINE database from 1990 was searched for New Zealand-specific diabetes studies. The Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry (ANZDATA) Reports from 1990-2004 and Ministry of Health (MoH) publications and reports were also reviewed. Key contact people working in the field of diabetes care in every district health board (DHB) were contacted, and information on current initiatives for diabetes control and prevention were collected. The prevalence of diabetes (known and undiagnosed), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)/impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and gestational diabetes are tabulated by ethnic group. The latest New Zealand Health Survey (NZHS) result of known diabetes: European 2.9%, Maori 8%, Pacific 10.1%, Asian 8.4%. Diabetes risk factors have been examined and the reported rates have been compiled. Maori and Pacific people have a particularly high prevalence of diabetes risk factors (e.g. obesity, physical inactivity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome) compared with Europeans. The profile of diabetic patients in New Zealand has been summarised using publications on their clinical characteristics. The latest available data on ethnic specific clinical characteristics are a decade old. With the suboptimal participation in the Get Checked program: 63% Europeans/Others, 27% Maori, 92% Pacific (possibly overestimated) people in 2004, the results may not be representative. The burden of diabetes complications and diabetes related mortality has been reviewed. A high proportion of Maori and Pacific dialysis patients and new renal disease patients from the ANZDATA registry have diabetes comorbidity. The inadequacy of official statistics in New Zealand and the scarcity of indepth

  17. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.


    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  18. ‘Alois Riegl and the Maori’: Alois Riegl ‘Ornament from New Zealand’, originally published as ‘Neuseeländische Ornamentik’, Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien, vol. 20, new ser, vol, 10, 1890, 84-87.

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    Karl Johns


    Full Text Available Riegl’s lecture about Maori ornament was held before the Anthropological Society in Vienna in 1890 and anticipates much of what he then said in his Stilfragen. After reiterating his milestone criticism of the ‘materialist’ theories of Semper and his followers, he suggests that the spiral motif was used for more profound and spontaneous reasons at the knee of a figure and the point of a canoe because of its complexity in being read in more than one direction, with and without other intervening elements. It seems to have arisen independently in various places with widely varying climates and cultures.

  19. Recurrent Breast Abscesses due to Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii, a Human Pathogen Uncommon in Caucasian Women

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    Anne Le Flèche-Matéos


    Full Text Available Background. Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii (Ck was first described in 1998 from human sputum. Contrary to what is observed in ethnic groups such as Maori, Ck is rarely isolated from breast abscesses and granulomatous mastitis in Caucasian women. Case Presentation. We herein report a case of recurrent breast abscesses in a 46-year-old Caucasian woman. Conclusion. In the case of recurrent breast abscesses, even in Caucasian women, the possible involvement of Ck should be investigated. The current lack of such investigations, probably due to the difficulty to detect Ck, may cause the underestimation of such an aetiology.

  20. Proteomic analyses reveal the key roles of BrlA and AbaA in biogenesis of gliotoxin in Aspergillus fumigatus. (United States)

    Shin, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Young Hwan; Yu, Jae-Hyuk


    The opportunistic human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus primarily reproduces by forming a large number of asexual spores (conidia). Sequential activation of the central regulators BrlA, AbaA and WetA is necessary for the fungus to undergo asexual development. In this study, to address the presumed roles of these key developmental regulators during proliferation of the fungus, we analyzed and compared the proteomes of vegetative cells of wild type (WT) and individual mutant strains. Approximately 1300 protein spots were detectable from 2-D electrophoresis gels. Among these, 13 proteins exhibiting significantly altered accumulation levels were further identified by ESI-MS/MS. Markedly, we found that the GliM and GliT proteins associated with gliotoxin (GT) biosynthesis and self-protection of the fungus from GT were significantly down-regulated in the ΔabaA and ΔbrlA mutants. Moreover, mRNA levels of other GT biosynthetic genes including gliM, gliP, gliT, and gliZ were significantly reduced in both mutant strains, and no and low levels of GT were detectable in the ΔbrlA and ΔabaA mutant strains, respectively. As GliT is required for the protection of the fungus from GT, growth of the ΔbrlA mutant with reduced levels of GliT was severely impaired by exogenous GT. Our studies demonstrate that AbaA and BrlA positively regulate expression of the GT biosynthetic gene cluster in actively growing vegetative cells, and likely bridge morphological and chemical development during the life-cycle of A. fumigatus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Size and shape of soil humic acids estimated by viscosity and molecular weight. (United States)

    Kawahigashi, Masayuki; Sumida, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko


    Ultrafiltration fractions of three soil humic acids were characterized by viscometry and high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) in order to estimate shapes and hydrodynamic sizes. Intrinsic viscosities under given solute/solvent/temperature conditions were obtained by extrapolating the concentration dependence of reduced viscosities to zero concentration. Molecular mass (weight average molecular weight (M (w)) and number average molecular weight (M (n))) and hydrodynamic radius (R(H)) were determined by HPSEC using pullulan as calibrant. Values of M (w) and M (n) ranged from 15 to 118 x 10(3) and from 9 to 50 x 10(3) (g mol(-1)), respectively. Polydispersity, as indicated by M (w)/M (n), increased with increasing filter size from 1.5 to 2.4. The hydrodynamic radii (R(H)) ranged between 2.2 and 6.4 nm. For each humic acid, M (w) and [eta] were related. Mark-Houwink coefficients calculated on the basis of the M (w)-[eta] relationships suggested restricted flexible chains for two of the humic acids and a branched structure for the third humic acid. Those structures probably behave as hydrated sphere colloids in a good solvent. Hydrodynamic radii of fractions calculated from [eta] using Einstein's equation, which is applicable to hydrated sphere colloids, ranged from 2.2 to 7.1 nm. These dimensions are fit to the size of nanospaces on and between clay minerals and micropores in soil particle aggregates. On the other hand, the good agreement of R(H) values obtained by applying Einstein's equation with those directly determined by HPSEC suggests that pullulan is a suitable calibrant for estimation of molecular mass and size of humic acids by HPSEC.

  2. Accounting for the NCEA : Has the Transition to Standards-based Assessment Achieved its Objectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Agnew


    Full Text Available This paper identifies trends in secondary school accounting participation and achievement during the firstfive years of the full implementation of the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA in NewZealand schools. NCEA marks a shift from a norm-referenced assessment regime to standards-basedassessment. Literature suggests that standards-based assessment increases the academic performance ofminority ethnic groups (such as Maori and Pacific Island students, and low socio-economic status (SESstudents. The author pays particular attention to these groups and his analysis reveals some interestingresults: in accounting, the NCEA has not met expectations for these students. From 2004 to 2008, thenumber of low SES accounting students has dropped, as has the number of accounting standards entered andthe rates of achievement. Likewise, there has been no significant improvement in the academic performanceof Maori students taking accounting standards, while Pacific Island students have experienced a significantdecrease in achievement. The author also discusses how studying high school accounting impacts on tertiarylevel study and offers some future implications of this research.

  3. Prototype of a laser guide star wavefront sensor for the Extremely Large Telescope (United States)

    Patti, M.; Lombini, M.; Schreiber, L.; Bregoli, G.; Arcidiacono, C.; Cosentino, G.; Diolaiti, E.; Foppiani, I.


    The new class of large telescopes, like the future Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), are designed to work with a laser guide star (LGS) tuned to a resonance of atmospheric sodium atoms. This wavefront sensing technique presents complex issues when applied to big telescopes for many reasons, mainly linked to the finite distance of the LGS, the launching angle, tip-tilt indetermination and focus anisoplanatism. The implementation of a laboratory prototype for the LGS wavefront sensor (WFS) at the beginning of the phase study of MAORY (Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics Relay) for ELT first light has been indispensable in investigating specific mitigation strategies for the LGS WFS issues. This paper presents the test results of the LGS WFS prototype under different working conditions. The accuracy within which the LGS images are generated on the Shack-Hartmann WFS has been cross-checked with the MAORY simulation code. The experiments show the effect of noise on centroiding precision, the impact of LGS image truncation on wavefront sensing accuracy as well as the temporal evolution of the sodium density profile and LGS image under-sampling.

  4. New Zealand evidence for the impact of primary healthcare investment in Capital and Coast District Health Board. (United States)

    Tan, Lee; Carr, Julia; Reidy, Johanna


    This paper provides New Zealand evidence on the effectiveness of primary care investment, measured through the Capital and Coast District Health Board's (DHB) Primary Health Care Framework. The Framework was developed in 2002/2003 to guide funding decisions at a DHB level, and to provide a transparent basis for evaluation of the implementation of the Primary Health Care Strategy in this district. The Framework used a mixed method approach; analysis was based on quantitative and qualitative data. This article demonstrates the link between investment in primary health care, increased access to primary care for high-need populations, workforce redistribution, and improved health outcomes. Over the study period, ambulatory sensitive hospitalisations and emergency department use reduced for enrolled populations and the District's immunisation coverage improved markedly. Funding and contracting which enhanced both 'mainstream' and 'niche' providers combined with community-based health initiatives resulted in a measurable impact on a range of health indicators and inequalities. Maori primary care providers improved access for Maori but also for their enrolled populations of Pacific and Other ethnicity. Growth and redistribution of primary care workforce was observed, improving the availability of general practitioners, nurses, and community workers in poorer communities.

  5. Creating intoxigenic environments: marketing alcohol to young people in Aotearoa New Zealand. (United States)

    McCreanor, Tim; Barnes, Helen Moewaka; Kaiwai, Hector; Borell, Suaree; Gregory, Amanda


    Alcohol consumption among young people in New Zealand is on the rise. Given the broad array of acute and chronic harms that arise from this trend, it is a major cause for alarm and it is imperative that we improve our knowledge of key drivers of youth drinking. Changes wrought by the neoliberal political climate of deregulation that characterised the last two decades in many countries including Aotearoa (Aotearoa is a Maori name for New Zealand) New Zealand have transformed the availability of alcohol to young people. Commercial development of youth alcohol markets has seen the emergence of new environments, cultures and practices around drinking and intoxication but the ways in which these changes are interpreted and taken up are not well understood. This paper reports findings from a qualitative research project investigating the meaning-making practices of young people in New Zealand in response to alcohol marketing. Research data included group interviews with a range of Maori and Pakeha young people at three time periods. Thematic analyses of the youth data on usages of marketing materials indicate naturalisation of tropes of alcohol intoxication. We show how marketing is used and enjoyed in youth discourses creating and maintaining what we refer to as intoxigenic social environments. The implications are considered in light of the growing exposure of young people to alcohol marketing in a discussion of strategies to manage and mitigate its impacts on behaviour and consumption.

  6. Human papillomavirus vaccination in Auckland: reducing ethnic and socioeconomic inequities. (United States)

    Poole, Tracey; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Petousis-Harris, Helen; Desmond, Natalie; Exeter, Daniel; Pointon, Leah; Jayasinha, Ranmalie


    The New Zealand HPV publicly funded immunisation programme commenced in September 2008. Delivery through a school based programme was anticipated to result in higher coverage rates and reduced inequalities compared to vaccination delivered through other settings. The programme provided for on-going vaccination of girls in year 8 with an initial catch-up programme through general practices for young women born after 1 January 1990 until the end of 2010. To assess the uptake of the funded HPV vaccine through school based vaccination programmes in secondary schools and general practices in 2009, and the factors associated with coverage by database matching. Retrospective quantitative analysis of secondary anonymised data School-Based Vaccination Service and National Immunisation Register databases of female students from secondary schools in Auckland District Health Board catchment area. Data included student and school demographic and other variables. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and significance for univariables. Multivariable logistic regression estimated strength of association between individual factors and initiation and completion, adjusted for all other factors. The programme achieved overall coverage of 71.5%, with Pacific girls highest at 88% and Maori at 78%. Girls higher socioeconomic status were more likely be vaccinated in general practice. School-based vaccination service targeted at ethic sub-populations provided equity for the Maori and Pacific student who achieved high levels of vaccination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Respiratory virus detection during hospitalisation for lower respiratory tract infection in children under 2 years in South Auckland, New Zealand. (United States)

    Trenholme, Adrian A; Best, Emma J; Vogel, Alison M; Stewart, Joanna M; Miller, Charissa J; Lennon, Diana R


    To describe respiratory virus detection in children under 2 years of age in a population admitted with lower respiratory infection and to assess correlation with measures of severity. Nasopharyngeal aspirates from infants admitted with lower respiratory tract infection (n = 1645) over a 3-year time period were tested by polymerase chain reaction. We collected epidemiological and clinical data on all children. We assessed the correlation of presence of virus with length of hospital stay, intensive care admission and consolidation on chest X-ray. Of the children admitted 34% were Maori, 43% Pacific and 75% lived in areas in the bottom quintile for socio-economic deprivation. A virus was found in 94% of those tested including 30% with multiple viruses. Picornavirus was present in 59% including 34% as the sole virus. Respiratory syncytial virus was found in 39%. Virus co-detection was not associated with length of stay, chest X-ray changes or intensive care unit admission. In this disadvantaged predominately Maori and Pacific population, picornavirus is commonly found as a sole virus, respiratory syncytial virus is frequent but immunisation preventable influenza is infrequent. We did not find that co-detection of viruses was linked to severity. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. The distribution and frequency of blood lipid testing by sociodemographic status among adults in Auckland, New Zealand. (United States)

    Exeter, Daniel J; Moss, Lauren; Zhao, Jinfeng; Kyle, Cam; Riddell, Tania; Jackson, Rod; Wells, Susan


    National cardiovascular disease (CVD) guidelines recommend that adults have cholesterol levels monitored regularly. However, little is known about the extent and equity of cholesterol testing in New Zealand. To investigate the distribution and frequency of blood lipid testing by sociodemographic status in Auckland, New Zealand. We anonymously linked five national health datasets (primary care enrolment, laboratory tests, pharmaceuticals, hospitalisations and mortality) to identify adults aged ≥25 years without CVD or diabetes who had their lipids tested in 2006-2010, by age, gender, ethnicity and area of residence and deprivation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the likelihood of testing associated with these factors. Of the 627 907 eligible adults, 66.3% had at least one test between 2006 and 2010. Annual testing increased from 24.7% in 2006 to 35.1% in 2010. Testing increased with age similarly for men and women. Indian people were 87% more likely than New Zealand European and Others (NZEO) to be tested, Pacific people 8% more likely, but rates for Maori were similar to NZEO. There was marked variation within the region, with residents of the most deprived areas less likely to be tested than residents in least deprived areas. Understanding differences within and between population groups supports the development of targeted strategies for better service utilisation. While lipid testing has increased, sociodemographic variations persist by place of residence, and deprivation. Of the high CVD risk populations, lipid testing for Maori and Pacific is not being conducted according to need.

  9. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Amphetamine-Associated Cardiomyopathy in South Auckland, New Zealand. (United States)

    Kueh, Shaw-Hua Anthony; Gabriel, Ruvin S; Lund, Mayanna; Sutton, Tim; Bradley, Joshua; Kerr, Andrew J; Looi, Jen-Li


    Amphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy (AAC) is becoming an increasingly recognised entity. The characteristics and outcomes of these patients are poorly understood. Thirty patients admitted with heart failure and echocardiographic evidence of cardiomyopathy between 2005 and 2014 and who had a documented history of amphetamine abuse that was considered an important factor in the causation of their cardiomyopathy were retrospectively identified. Mean age at presentation was 40±10 years with a male predominance (n=25, 83%). The majority were of indigenous Maori ethnicity. At presentation, four patients were in cardiogenic shock. Five patients required intensive care unit (ICU) admission for inotropic support and mechanical ventilation. Fifteen had severe left ventricular (LV) dilation (mean LV end-diastolic dimension 6.8±1.0cm) and all patients had severe LV dysfunction (mean LV ejection fraction 22±8%). Despite optimal heart failure therapy, LV size remained significantly dilated with minimal improvement in LV function. During median follow-up of 18 months, five patients died from end-stage heart failure and 17 had at least one readmission with decompensated heart failure. Amphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy was seen predominantly in young indigenous Maori men. They presented with severe cardiomyopathy, often requiring ICU admission. Severe LV dilation and significant LV dysfunction persisted despite treatment and mortality was high. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Barriers to early initiation of antenatal care in a multi-ethnic sample in South Auckland, New Zealand. (United States)

    Corbett, Sarah; Chelimo, Carol; Okesene-Gafa, Kara


    To identify barriers to early initiation of antenatal care amongst pregnant women in South Auckland, New Zealand. Women in late pregnancy (>37 weeks gestation) or who had recently delivered (18 weeks (late bookers). The ethnic composition of the sample was: 43% Pacific Peoples, 20% Maori, 14% Asian, and 21% European or other ethnicities. The multivariate analysis indicated that women were significantly more likely to book late for antenatal care if they had limited resources (OR=1.86; 95% CI=1.17-2.93), no tertiary education (OR=1.96; 95% CI=1.23-3.15), or were not living with a husband/partner (OR=2.34; 95% CI=1.48-3.71). In addition, the odds of late booking for antenatal care was almost six times higher among Maori (OR=5.70; 95% CI=2.57-12.64) and Pacific (OR=5.90; 95% CI=2.83-12.29) women compared to those of European and other ethnicities. Late booking for antenatal care in the Counties Manukau District Health Board area (South Auckland) is associated with sociodemographic factors, social deprivation, and inadequate social support.

  11. The Urewera Mural: Becoming Gift and the Hau of Disappearence

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    Isabel McIntosh


    Full Text Available In this article I discuss the seeming 'theft' of the Urewera Mural in 1997, using the term ‘cultural activism’ to describe the mural’s removal, because it acted as a catalyst to refocus the spotlight on specific Maori land claim issues. The Urewera Mural was targeted because it was portrayed as an object of white cultural value with significant representations for Pakeha. Te Kaha’s intention was for Pakeha to lose something of value and to experience how Maori have felt since colonisation when their land, their cultural value, was taken. Stephen Muecke writes that ‘cultural activism can have the same result as political activism, but it doesn’t look the same ... It is a tactical “bringing out” of culture as a valuable and scarce “statement” ’. I suggest cultural activism is, thus, ‘performative’ political activism; for when protestors dress up and ‘perform’ their protest, a media identity is created that is beyond the political message, and so more memorable.

  12. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in a New Zealand multiracial workforce. (United States)

    Scragg, R; Baker, J; Metcalf, P; Dryson, E


    A cross sectional survey was carried out among a multiracial workforce of 5677 staff aged 40 to 64 years at worksites in Auckland and Tokoroa to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). The prevalences of diabetes mellitus and IGT were both similar for men and women, but increased with age. The relative risks for diabetes mellitus and for IGT were both inversely associated with gross annual household income, independent of age and ethnicity, being 1.61 (95% Cl = 1.10, 2.37) and 1.80 (95% Cl = 1.21, 2.67) respectively, in the lowest income group (less than $30,000) compared with the highest (greater than $40,000). Compared with Europeans, the relative risk of diabetes mellitus was significantly increased among Maori (3.63; 95% Cl = 2.48, 5.32), Pacific Islanders (2.34; 95% Cl = 1.50, 3.66) and Asians (5.97; 95% Cl = 2.61, 13.65), after controlling for age, income and body mass index. The increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Maori and Pacific Islanders, but not in Asians, could be partly attributed to their increased levels of obesity compared with Europeans. However, other factors, in addition to obesity, explain the increased diabetes prevalence in nonEuropean groups.

  13. Pertussis (whooping cough) epidemiology in Waikato, New Zealand: 2000-2009. (United States)

    Wall, Richard; Bell, Anita; Theobald, Jason


    To describe the epidemiology of pertussis in the Waikato region of New Zealand between 2000 and 2009, and to identify any differences in case characteristics between epidemic and non-epidemic periods. Waikato pertussis notification data for the period 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2009 was analysed to identify any trends in the rates and distribution of key variables. Characteristics of case notifications were compared between an identified epidemic and non-epidemic period. Pertussis notification rates in the Waikato region were higher than national rates but followed a similar yearly pattern. Epidemics were identified in the years 2000 and 2004. The age distribution of pertussis cases changed over the decade with an increasing percentage in older age groups. Notification rates were higher in Europeans than Maori and in the least deprived NZDep group compared to the most deprived. In contrast, hospitalisation rates were higher in Maori than Europeans and in the most deprived NZDep groups. No clear differences in case characteristics were identified between an epidemic and non-epidemic period. The epidemiology of pertussis in Waikato is similar to that reported elsewhere in New Zealand. Further studies are required to clearly identify whether there are differences in case characteristics between epidemic and non-epidemic periods.

  14. Developing an indigenous surgical workforce for Australasia. (United States)

    Aramoana, Jaclyn; Alley, Patrick; Koea, Jonathan B


    Progress has been made in Australia and New Zealand to increase the numbers of indigenous students (Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and Maori) entering primary medical qualification courses. In New Zealand, up to 20 Maori are graduating annually, with similar numbers possible in Australia, creating a potential opportunity to develop an indigenous surgical workforce. A literature review identified factors utilized by medical schools to attract indigenous students into medical careers and the interventions necessary to ensure successful graduation. A further search identified those factors important in encouraging indigenous medical graduates to enter specialist training programmes and achieve faculty appointments. All medical schools have utilized elements of a 'pipeline approach' encompassing contact with students at secondary school level to encourage aspirational goals and assist with suitable subject selection. Bridging courses can ensure students leaving school have appropriate skill sets before entering medical degree courses. Extensive practical help is available during primary medical qualification study. The elements necessary for primary medical qualification success - dedicated and focused study, developing appropriate skill sets, mentoring, support, and an institutional and collegial commitment to success - are also the elements required for postgraduate achievement. The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) is primarily involved in training rather than service provision. The increasing numbers of indigenous medical graduates in both Australia and New Zealand represent an opportunity for the College to contribute to improving indigenous health status by implementing specific measures to increase numbers of indigenous surgeons. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  15. Sibutramine usage in New Zealand: an analysis of prescription data by the Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme. (United States)

    Hill, Geraldine R; Ashton, Janelle; Harrison-Woolrych, Mira


    To describe patterns of sibutramine usage in New Zealand during the first 3 years of marketing using data acquired during post-marketing safety surveillance. Demographic and prescription data were examined from a nationwide cohort of 17 298 patients prescribed sibutramine between 1 February 2001 and 31 March 2004. Outcome measures were age and sex distribution of the cohort; period prevalence of sibutramine usage for each ethnic group; duration of treatment and reasons for cessation of therapy. Limited BMI data were also examined. About 0.5% of the NZ population were prescribed sibutramine in the period studied. Overwhelmingly, the highest users of sibutramine were NZ European women aged 30-59 years. Maori and Pacific Peoples were under-represented in the cohort, despite the higher prevalence of obesity among these populations. Sibutramine usage was predominantly short-term: 59% of the cohort used sibutramine for 90 days or less, half of whom used it for only 1 month. There has been extensive use of sibutramine in New Zealand. Sibutramine has been relatively under-utilised by Maori and Pacific ethnic groups, compared to New Zealand Europeans, despite their higher prevalence of obesity. A number of factors may have contributed to the predominantly short-term use of this medicine, including the cost of the medicine to the consumer, weight loss not meeting expectations and adverse effects of the medicine.

  16. Dietary Protection Against Free Radicals: A Case for Multiple Testing to Establish Structure-activity Relationships for Antioxidant Potential of Anthocyanic Plant Species

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    Chiara Cheng Lim


    Full Text Available DNA damage by reactive species is associated with susceptibility to chronic human degenerative disorders. Anthocyanins are naturally occurring antioxidants, that may prevent or reverse such damage. There is considerable interest in anthocyanic food plants as good dietary sources, with the potential for reducing susceptibility to chronic disease. While structure-activity relationships have provided guidelines on molecular structure in relation to free hydroxyl- radical scavenging, this may not cover the situation in food plants where the anthocyanins are part of a complex mixture, and may be part of complex structures, including anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs. Additionally, new analytical methods have revealed new structures in previously-studied materials. We have compared the antioxidant activities of extracts from six anthocyanin-rich edible plants (red cabbage, red lettuce, blueberries, pansies, purple sweetpotato skin, purple sweetpotato flesh and Maori potato flesh using three chemical assays (DPPH, TRAP and ORAC, and the in vitro Comet assay. Extracts from the flowering plant, lisianthus, were used for comparison. The extracts showed differential effects in the chemical assays, suggesting that closely related structures have different affinities to scavenge different reactive species. Integration of anthocyanins to an AVI led to more sustained radical scavenging activity as compared with the free anthocyanin. All but the red lettuce extract could reduce endogenous DNA damage in HT-29 colon cancer cells. However, while extracts from purple sweetpotato skin and flesh, Maori potato and pansies, protected cells against subsequent challenge by hydrogen peroxide at 0oC, red cabbage extracts were pro-oxidant, while other extracts had no effect. When the peroxide challenge was at 37oC, all of the extracts appeared pro-oxidant. Maori potato extract, consistently the weakest antioxidant in all the chemical assays, was more effective in the

  17. SNP Analysis and Whole Exome Sequencing: Their Application in the Analysis of a Consanguineous Pedigree Segregating Ataxia

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    Sarah L. Nickerson


    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia encompasses a large and heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders. We employed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis and whole exome sequencing to investigate a consanguineous Maori pedigree segregating ataxia. We identified a novel mutation in exon 10 of the SACS gene: c.7962T>G p.(Tyr2654*, establishing the diagnosis of autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS. Our findings expand both the genetic and phenotypic spectrum of this rare disorder, and highlight the value of high-density SNP analysis and whole exome sequencing as powerful and cost-effective tools in the diagnosis of genetically heterogeneous disorders such as the hereditary ataxias.

  18. The indigenous and the imported: The New Zealand school system (United States)

    Snook, Ivan


    New Zealand (Aotearoa) was colonized from Britain and the colonizers imposed on the indigenous Maori people a foreign view of education. From then on tradition has vied with local adaptations to produce a school system with substantial traces of the `Old Country' but with many local features. The curriculum for boys continued to dominate, with that for girls struggling to make itself felt. There has been constant debate about `basics' and `frills' though these terms have not been clearly defined. More recently there has been more serious consideration of the curriculum but this has been overtaken by a `market forces' view of schooling. A new administration system comes into operation on 1st October 1989. The future is unclear but it is reasonable to hope that there will continue a dialectic which may one day produce a genuine synthesis suited to the multicultural nature of Aotearoa.

  19. Predation Risk within Fishing Gear and Implications for South Australian Rock Lobster Fisheries (United States)

    Briceño, Felipe; Linnane, Adrian Joseph; Quiroz, Juan Carlos; Gardner, Caleb; Pecl, Gretta Tatyana


    Depredation of southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) within fishing gear by the Maori octopus (Pinnoctopus cordiformis) has economic and ecological impacts on valuable fisheries in South Australia. In addition, depredation rates can be highly variable resulting in uncertainties for the fishery. We examined how in-pot lobster predation was influenced by factors such as lobster size and sex, season, fishing zone, and catch rate. Using mixed modelling techniques, we found that in-pot predation risk increased with lobster size and was higher for male lobsters. In addition, the effect of catch rate of lobsters on predation risk by octopus differed among fishing zones. There was both a seasonal and a spatial component to octopus predation, with an increased risk within discrete fishing grounds in South Australia at certain times of the year. Information about predation within lobster gear can assist fishery management decision-making, potentially leading to significant reduction in economic losses to the fishery. PMID:26489035

  20. Predation Risk within Fishing Gear and Implications for South Australian Rock Lobster Fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Briceño

    Full Text Available Depredation of southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii within fishing gear by the Maori octopus (Pinnoctopus cordiformis has economic and ecological impacts on valuable fisheries in South Australia. In addition, depredation rates can be highly variable resulting in uncertainties for the fishery. We examined how in-pot lobster predation was influenced by factors such as lobster size and sex, season, fishing zone, and catch rate. Using mixed modelling techniques, we found that in-pot predation risk increased with lobster size and was higher for male lobsters. In addition, the effect of catch rate of lobsters on predation risk by octopus differed among fishing zones. There was both a seasonal and a spatial component to octopus predation, with an increased risk within discrete fishing grounds in South Australia at certain times of the year. Information about predation within lobster gear can assist fishery management decision-making, potentially leading to significant reduction in economic losses to the fishery.

  1. Thyroid cancer in French Polynesia: a population based case control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brindel, P.; Doyon, F.; Adjadj, E.; Vathaire, F. de; Drozdovitch, V.; Bouville, A.; Paoaafaite, J.; Teuri, J.


    Full text of publication follows: Because a previous study had shown that registered thyroid cancer incidence is higher among natives of French Polynesia (FP) than in other Maori populations from Hawaii and New-Zealand, a case-control study of thyroid cancer coordinated by Unit 605 of INSERM was conducted in FP. The main objective was to assess the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by France between 1966 and 1974 on such a high incidence. The study included 600 subjects born and residing in FP: 229 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, aged up to 30 years old at start of nuclear weapons testing and 371 control s matched on gender and birth date randomly selected from t he FP registry of births. Face to face interviews were conducted from 2002 to 2004 by specialized investigators native from FP who received a specific formation for this study. Addresses were collected from the territorial medical insurance, which covers all the inhabitants, whatever their professional status. Detailed information about nutrition at time of interview and at the end of adolescence was collected by means of a semi-quantitative method using pictures. Data concerning residence, hormonal and reproductive life, familial and personal background of thyroid pathologies and cancers, and professional and environmental exposure to carcinogens were also collected. For each study subject, radiation thyroid dose was estimated taking into account residential history and dietary habits of the subject and deposition densities of radionuclides reconstructed for each island where the subject resided during the testing period. The iodine intake will be estimated from the dietary questionnaire, as well as from mass-spectrometry measurements of stable iodine in nail clippings, which were collected during the interviews. Among the 229 cases, 89% were females, 54% declared themselves as of pure Maori origin, another 36% of Maori-Asian or Maori

  2. Vitamin D status of psychiatric inpatients in New Zealand’s Waikato region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menkes David B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in New Zealand, confers multiple health risks, and may be particularly common among people with psychiatric illness. We studied vitamin D status in an unselected sample of adult psychiatric inpatients in Hamilton (latitude 37.5 S during late winter. Methods We recruited 102 consenting subjects and measured 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 levels in venous blood using a competitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. In addition to descriptive statistics, we used one-sample t-tests to determine the extent to which ethnic and diagnostic subgroups fell below the vitamin D deficiency threshold of 50 nM. Results 75 subjects (74% had vitamin D levels Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in the psychiatric inpatient setting in New Zealand and may be relevant to poor physical health outcomes, notably among Maori and those with schizophrenia. These findings support proposals to provide vitamin D supplementation, particularly during the winter months.

  3. Study of Colombia North Wiwa El Encanto Amerindians HLA- genes: Pacific Islanders relatedness. (United States)

    Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio; Palacio-Grüber, Jose; Juarez, Ignacio; Muñiz, Ester; Hernández, Ennio; Bayona, Brayan; Campos, Cristina; Nuñez, Jorge; Lopez-Nares, Adrian; Martin-Villa, Manuel; Silvera, Carlos


    We have studied Wiwa/Sanja Amerindians HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and DQB1 allele frequencies and extended haplotypes in 52 unrelated individuals from "El Encanto" town at Guanachaca riverside. High frequency alleles were in general present in other Amerindian populations. Also, three extended haplotypes and eight ones were respectively both "new found" and already described in Amerindians from North, Central and South America, including Lakota-Sioux, Mayas, Teeneks, Quechua and Aymaras. Analyses of HLA-A*24:02 and -C*01:02 Wiwa high frequency alleles suggested a specific relatedness with another Amerindian and Pacific Islander ethnic groups (these two particular alleles bearing in high frequencies); they include New Zealand Maoris, Taiwanese, Japanese, Papua New Guinea, and Samoans among others. This may indicate that selective forces are maintaining these two alleles high frequency within this wide American/Pacific area. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Foraminifera Population from South Africa Coast Line (Indian and Atlantic Oceans

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    Engin Meriç


    Full Text Available Cape Town is the second-largest city of the Republic of South Africa. Research is conducted in 3 different stations: Maori Bay, which lies in the southwest of Cape Town, and Pyramid Rock and Partridge Points which lies in the False Bay, southeast part of Cape Town. Samples are taken from young sediments at 10.00 and 20.00 m depths, and collected by scuba-diving method. The aim of the study is to investigate the living benthic foraminifera assemblages in the Atlantic Ocean, and to compare these assemblages with the southeastern part of the Atlantic Ocean, the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and Western Pacific assemblages. Moreover, the aim of the study is to determine whether there are any benthic foraminifera forms reaching to the Mediterranean from Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean or Red Sea via Suez Channel.

  5. Excavations and chronology at the Redcliffs Flat site, Canterbury, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomb, C.


    The Redcliffs Flat site is one of a number of early Maori archaeological sites that cluster near the mouth of the estuary of the Avon and Heathcote rivers. Although several have been the subject of archaeological investigations, the chronology and extent of the Redcliffs Flat site remain poorly understood. Recent excavations associated with the redevelopment of a suburban section allow some progress to be made on both fronts. A small excavation here yielded a surprising amount of faunal, lithic and stratigraphic information. The site is shown to have extended to close to the edge of the estuary at the time of occupation and a radiocarbon date on a fragment of moa eggshell confirms the fourteenth to early fifteenth century status of the site. The radiocarbon chronology of the sites of the wider Redcliffs area is reviewed in light of this result. (author). 41 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Cultural distribution of obsidian along the Waikato-King Country coastline, North Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, P.R.


    Analysis of obsidian artefact assemblages from fifteen 'early' (pre-AD 1500) Maori sites along an almost 150 km long stretch of the Waikato-King Country coastline in the western North Island shows that while most are dominated by material from Mayor Island, they also contain a significant proportion of 'grey' obsidian (grey in transmitted light) from two main source areas - Taupo, and Cooks Beach-Hahei on Coromandel Peninsula. The presence of obsidian from these two source areas in a relatively large number of 'early' sites is suggestive of a well-developed exchange network, involving a continuing connection with the same sources over a considerable period of time, perhaps 50-100 years. Possible transportation routes for the obsidian are discussed. (author). 25 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The obsidian sources of Northland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, P.R.


    Four sources of obsidian have previously been recognized in Northland, but more recent field observations and new chemical analyses indicate there are three (Pungaere, Otoroa and Huruiki). Obsidian from these sources can be readily distinguished on the basis of visual characteristics and chemical attributes. The Pungaere obsidian, which is peralkaline in composition, is characterized chemically by unusually high Zr, high Rb, and very low Ba and Sr concentrations. Only two of the sources (Pungaere and Huruiki) appear to have been exploited by pre-European Maori. Available analyses of artefact assemblages suggest that Pungaere obsidian was widely distributed throughout Northland from the fourteenth century, but use of the Huruiki source may have been more limited. (author). 36 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Obsidian sources of the Coromandel Volcanic Zone, nortthern New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, P.R.


    The Coromandel Volcanic Zone includes nine geographically discrete obsidian sources (Fanal, Awana, Te Ahumata, Cooks Beach, Hahei, Tairua, Whangamata, Maratoto and Waihi). Each has a distinctive chemical composition, and some can also be differentiated on the basis of visual characteristics of the obsidian. Chemically, the three northern sources (Fanal, Awana, Te Ahumata), constituting the 'Great Barrier Group', are distinguished by high Rb concentrations and a high Rb/Sr ratio. Obsidian from six of the sources is known to have been utilized by pre-European Maori for the manufacture of flake tools, but at present there is no evidence for exploitation of the Awana, Maratoto and Tairua deposits. (author). 54 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Periodicity, duration, and function of occupation at Tauroa Point, Northland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.S.


    Three coastal sites at Tauroa Point, Northland, New Zealand were explored using varied archaeological techniques. At least seven, and possibly more, distinct occupations were identified, the earliest dating to about the fourteenth century AD. The analysis presented here centres on defining the periodicity, duration, and nature of pre-European Maori activities on this coast over time. Geomorphic evidence, radiocarbon dates, feature characteristics, fauna and artefact assemblages, and wood charcoal data are used in this endeavour. Indications are that the earliest occupation was the most extended, followed by repeated ephemeral visits between AD 1400 and 1650, and intensified but short-term coastal occupations after AD 1650. These occupations all took place within a geomorphically active environment, yet were variably affected by erosion and aggradation; in at least one locality the build-up of dune sands intensified after site abandonment. (author). 54 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05006-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AE017355_2391( AE017355 |pid:none) Bacillus thuringiensis serovar ... 33 3.8 DQ194420_1( DQ194420 |pid:none) Kikihia sp. 'aotea east' cytochrom... 33 6.6 AF313507_1( AF313507 |pid:none) Maoricicada cassiope cytoch...toc... 33 6.6 DQ194397_1( DQ194397 |pid:none) Maoricicada nigra nigra voucher M.... 33 6.6 AF205156_1( AF205...otermes brevis voucher BYU IG... 33 6.6 DQ194417_1( DQ194417 |pid:none) Maoricicada oromelaena voucher M.o..... 6.6 DQ194392_1( DQ194392 |pid:none) Maoricicada otagoensis maceweni vo... 33 6.6 AF205144_1( AF205144 |pid:

  11. The chronology of Moncks Cave, Canterbury, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomb, C.


    Moncks Cave is a key site in understanding the nature and course of change to Maori culture during the early period of New Zealand prehistory because of the range of both perishable and non-perishable artefacts found there in 1889. Understood to have been completely excavated at that time, the interpretation of the material culture of the site has been rendered difficult by the absence of chronological or stratigraphic provenance data. Recent investigations at Moncks Cave revealed several intact cultural deposits, including both faunal and artefactual remains. Eleven radiocarbon determinations on marine shell suggest that the cave was occupied some time between the mid-fourteenth and mid-fifteenth centuries AD. Although the dates cannot be directly correlated with any particular artefact, the results have important implications for the interpretation of the place of the site and its contents as a whole in the context of the New Zealand prehistoric sequence. (author). 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. Radiocarbon dating the end of moa-hunting in New Zealand prehistory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.


    For over 150 years, New Zealand scientists and prehistorians have investigated and debated when the last moa (Aves : Dinornithiformes) was hunted and killed by humans (see Anderson 1989). Prior to the introduction of radiocarbon dating into New Zealand archaeology in the mid-1950s, theories on when moa predation ended were based on Maori oral tradition, dubious eye witness accounts, moa bones found on the surface of the ground and arbitrary archaeological excavations of large culling sites. Radiocarbon dating provided an absolute chronological tool for determining when the remains of moa found in prehistoric context were deposited, meaning the activity of moa-hunting could be more easily attributed to a particular period in New Zealand prehistory. (author)

  13. Were moas really hunted to extinction in less than 100 years?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkes, O.


    Three months ago New Zealand archaeologists were surprised to read in their daily newspapers that moas had been eaten to extinction by Maori moahunters in less than 100 years. The claim had been made in the US journal 'Science' by Richard Holdaway, formerly with Canterbury University, and Chris Jacomb of Canterbury Museum. It seems to me there are a number of weaknesses in the original paper, which should have been thrashed out locally before going for prestigious exposure overseas. The rapid extinction claim is based first of all on a 'Leslie matrix model' of moa population dynamics, and secondly on some recent carbon dates of a single archaeological site, Monck's Cave, near Christchurch. 21 refs

  14. Blood and Books: Performing Code Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Friedman


    Full Text Available Code switching is a linguistic term that identifies ways individuals use communication modes and registers to negotiate difference in social relations. This essay suggests that arts-based inquiry, in the form of choreography and performance, provides a suitable and efficacious location within which both verbal and nonverbal channels of code switching can be investigated. Blood and Books, a case study of dance choreography within the context of post-colonial Maori performance in Aotearoa/New Zealand, is described and analyzed for its performance of code switching. The essay is framed by a discussion of how arts-based research within tertiary higher education requires careful negotiation in the form of code switching, as performed by the author's reflexive use of vernacular and formal registers in the essay. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802462

  15. Proteomic analyses reveal the key roles of BrlA and AbaA in biogenesis of gliotoxin in Aspergillus fumigatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang-Soo, E-mail: [Division of Life Science, Daejeon University, Daejeon, 300-716 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hwan [Biomedical Omics Team, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), Ohcang, 368-883 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Analytical Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Bio-Analytical Science, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Jae-Hyuk, E-mail: [Departments of Bacteriology and Genetics, The University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI, 53706 (United States)


    The opportunistic human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus primarily reproduces by forming a large number of asexual spores (conidia). Sequential activation of the central regulators BrlA, AbaA and WetA is necessary for the fungus to undergo asexual development. In this study, to address the presumed roles of these key developmental regulators during proliferation of the fungus, we analyzed and compared the proteomes of vegetative cells of wild type (WT) and individual mutant strains. Approximately 1300 protein spots were detectable from 2-D electrophoresis gels. Among these, 13 proteins exhibiting significantly altered accumulation levels were further identified by ESI-MS/MS. Markedly, we found that the GliM and GliT proteins associated with gliotoxin (GT) biosynthesis and self-protection of the fungus from GT were significantly down-regulated in the ΔabaA and ΔbrlA mutants. Moreover, mRNA levels of other GT biosynthetic genes including gliM, gliP, gliT, and gliZ were significantly reduced in both mutant strains, and no and low levels of GT were detectable in the ΔbrlA and ΔabaA mutant strains, respectively. As GliT is required for the protection of the fungus from GT, growth of the ΔbrlA mutant with reduced levels of GliT was severely impaired by exogenous GT. Our studies demonstrate that AbaA and BrlA positively regulate expression of the GT biosynthetic gene cluster in actively growing vegetative cells, and likely bridge morphological and chemical development during the life-cycle of A. fumigatus. - Highlights: • Proteome analyses of WT and mutants reveal 13 differentially expressed proteins. • The GliT and GliM proteins are significantly down-regulated by ΔabaA and ΔbrlA. • Expression of other gliotoxin biosynthetic genes is lowered by ΔabaA and ΔbrlA. • Growth of ΔbrlA strain lacking GliT is completely inhibited by exogenous gliotoxin. • BrlA and AbaA play key roles in biogenesis of gliotoxin in Aspergillus fumigatus.

  16. Proteomic analyses reveal the key roles of BrlA and AbaA in biogenesis of gliotoxin in Aspergillus fumigatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Young Hwan; Yu, Jae-Hyuk


    The opportunistic human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus primarily reproduces by forming a large number of asexual spores (conidia). Sequential activation of the central regulators BrlA, AbaA and WetA is necessary for the fungus to undergo asexual development. In this study, to address the presumed roles of these key developmental regulators during proliferation of the fungus, we analyzed and compared the proteomes of vegetative cells of wild type (WT) and individual mutant strains. Approximately 1300 protein spots were detectable from 2-D electrophoresis gels. Among these, 13 proteins exhibiting significantly altered accumulation levels were further identified by ESI-MS/MS. Markedly, we found that the GliM and GliT proteins associated with gliotoxin (GT) biosynthesis and self-protection of the fungus from GT were significantly down-regulated in the ΔabaA and ΔbrlA mutants. Moreover, mRNA levels of other GT biosynthetic genes including gliM, gliP, gliT, and gliZ were significantly reduced in both mutant strains, and no and low levels of GT were detectable in the ΔbrlA and ΔabaA mutant strains, respectively. As GliT is required for the protection of the fungus from GT, growth of the ΔbrlA mutant with reduced levels of GliT was severely impaired by exogenous GT. Our studies demonstrate that AbaA and BrlA positively regulate expression of the GT biosynthetic gene cluster in actively growing vegetative cells, and likely bridge morphological and chemical development during the life-cycle of A. fumigatus. - Highlights: • Proteome analyses of WT and mutants reveal 13 differentially expressed proteins. • The GliT and GliM proteins are significantly down-regulated by ΔabaA and ΔbrlA. • Expression of other gliotoxin biosynthetic genes is lowered by ΔabaA and ΔbrlA. • Growth of ΔbrlA strain lacking GliT is completely inhibited by exogenous gliotoxin. • BrlA and AbaA play key roles in biogenesis of gliotoxin in Aspergillus fumigatus

  17. Influence of smoking by family and best friend on adolescent tobacco smoking: results from the 2002 New Zealand national survey of year 10 students. (United States)

    Scragg, Robert; Laugesen, Murray


    To compare the relative importance on adolescent smoking of the influence from parental smoking and peer smoking. National New Zealand crosssectional survey of 14,936 female and 14,349 male Year 10 students (aged 14 and 15 years) who answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire in November 2002. Adolescents with both parents smoking had the highest smoking risk compared with those with one or neither parent smoking. The relative risk of adolescent daily smoking associated with both parents smoking, compared with neither, varied with ethnicity, being 2.34 (95% Cl 2.05-2.67) in Maori, 2.87 (2.21-3.73) in Pacific Islanders, 11.37 (7.87-16.42) in Asian, and 4.92 (4.35-5.55) in European/Other students, adjusting for age and sex. These values were lower than the adjusted relative risks of daily adolescent smoking associated with having a best friend who smoked: 4.18 (3.59-4.88) in Maori, 5.19 (3.98-6.76) in Pacific Island, 14.35 (9.48-21.71) in Asian and 10.18 (9.07-11.43) in European/Other students. Adolescent smoking was also positively associated with pocket money amount and living in a home where smoking was allowed, both parental-related factors. Combined exposure to one or more of the following factors - parental smoking, pocket money >$5 per week and smoking in the house - explained 64% of daily adolescent smoking, very similar to the 67% attributable to best friend smoking. Parental behaviour is a key determinant of smoking by New Zealand adolescents and explains a similar proportion of daily adolescent smoking to that by peer smoking.

  18. The burden of stomach cancer in indigenous populations: a systematic review and global assessment. (United States)

    Arnold, Melina; Moore, Suzanne P; Hassler, Sven; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Forman, David; Bray, Freddie


    Stomach cancer is a leading cause of cancer death, especially in developing countries. Incidence has been associated with poverty and is also reported to disproportionately affect indigenous peoples, many of whom live in poor socioeconomic circumstances and experience lower standards of health. In this comprehensive assessment, we explore the burden of stomach cancer among indigenous peoples globally. The literature was searched systematically for studies on stomach cancer incidence, mortality and survival in indigenous populations, including Indigenous Australians, Maori in New Zealand, indigenous peoples from the circumpolar region, native Americans and Alaska natives in the USA, and the Mapuche peoples in Chile. Data from the New Zealand Health Information Service and the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program were used to estimate trends in incidence. Elevated rates of stomach cancer incidence and mortality were found in almost all indigenous peoples relative to corresponding non-indigenous populations in the same regions or countries. This was particularly evident among Inuit residing in the circumpolar region (standardised incidence ratios (SIR) males: 3.9, females: 3.6) and in Maori (SIR males: 2.2, females: 3.2). Increasing trends in incidence were found for some groups. We found a higher burden of stomach cancer in indigenous populations globally, and rising incidence in some indigenous groups, in stark contrast to the decreasing global trends. This is of major public health concern requiring close surveillance and further research of potential risk factors. Given evidence that improving nutrition and housing sanitation, and Helicobacter pylori eradication programmes could reduce stomach cancer rates, policies which address these initiatives could reduce inequalities in stomach cancer burden for indigenous peoples.

  19. Decolonizing the Archives: The Work of New Zealand's Waitangi Tribunal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Buchanan


    Full Text Available If history is to be decolonized, then the archives it is made from must be too. This article uses the work of the Waitangi Tribunal in Aotearoa New Zealand to explore how this might be possible. The tribunal is a permanent commission of inquiry that investigates contemporary and historical breaches of the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi. Tribunal hearings are rich sites of public history-making. A hearing involves the research and production of ‘traditional’ and ‘historical’ tribal narratives as well as the performance of dozens of individual testimonies from Maori. By collecting and archiving the family and tribal histories that Maori claimants have chosen to speak, write or sing before it, the tribunal has made the private public. In the process, the colonial archive has been expanded, democratised and decolonised. This article argues that while the work of the tribunal is necessarily constrained by its brief to investigate post-contact grievances, the voluminous and precious archive generated by inquiries and by the settlement process that sometimes follows, provide the seeds for other more satisfying and challenging stories about New Zealand’s past and present. It reads the archives generated by the Taranaki inquiry to demonstrate how a significant feature of claimant testimony is the challenge it poses to conceptions of time that are central to academic history-making. The subaltern histories shared at tribunal hearings collapse the distinctions between past and present, placing ‘historical actors’ and ‘historical events’ on the same stage as present ones. Tribunal archives, then, are a new and overlooked collection of documentary evidence that refuses to locate colonisation in the past. The tribunal archives challenge historians to rethink ‘history’ and ‘the colonial archive’. If colonisation is something that is not over yet then the colonial archive is still being created (by bodies like the tribunal. It is a collection

  20. Population Genetic Structure and Isolation by Distance of Helicobacter pylori in Senegal and Madagascar (United States)

    Linz, Bodo; Vololonantenainab, Clairette Romaine Raharisolo; Seck, Abdoulaye; Carod, Jean-François; Dia, Daouda; Garin, Benoit; Ramanampamonjy, Rado Manitrala; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Raymond, Josette; Breurec, Sebastien


    Helicobacter pylori has probably infected the human stomach since our origins and subsequently diversified in parallel with their human hosts. The genetic population history of H. pylori can therefore be used as a marker for human migration. We analysed seven housekeeping gene sequences of H. pylori strains isolated from 78 Senegalese and 24 Malagasy patients and compared them with the sequences of strains from other geographical locations. H. pylori from Senegal and Madagascar can be placed in the previously described HpAfrica1 genetic population, subpopulations hspWAfrica and hspSAfrica, respectively. These 2 subpopulations correspond to the distribution of Niger-Congo speakers in West and most of subequatorial Africa (due to Bantu migrations), respectively. H. pylori appears as a single population in Senegal, indicating a long common history between ethnicities as well as frequent local admixtures. The lack of differentiation between these isolates and an increasing genetic differentiation with geographical distance between sampling locations in Africa was evidence for genetic isolation by distance. The Austronesian expansion that started from Taiwan 5000 years ago dispersed one of the 10 subgroups of the Austronesian language family via insular Southeast Asia into the Pacific and Madagascar, and hspMaori is a marker for the entire Austronesian expansion. Strain competition and replacement of hspMaori by hpAfrica1 strains from Bantu migrants are the probable reasons for the presence of hspSAfrica strains in Malagasy of Southeast Asian descent. hpAfrica1 strains appear to be generalist strains that have the necessary genetic diversity to efficiently colonise a wide host spectrum. PMID:24498084

  1. Undetected rheumatic heart disease revealed using portable echocardiography in a population of school students in Tairawhiti, New Zealand. (United States)

    Cramp, Geoffrey; Stonehouse, Mary; Webb, Rachel; Webb, Rachel; Chaffey-Aupouri, Gina; Wilson, Nigel


    The aim of this programme was to find undetected rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in students from selected schools in the Tairawhiti region (eastern part of the North Island) of New Zealand. Portable echocardiography was used to scan students in 5 urban and rural schools in Tairawhiti where the population is predominantly Maori. The age range of students in the urban schools was 10-13 years and in the rural schools 5-17 years. Those with abnormal echocardiograms were referred for a paediatric consultation, with hospital-based echocardiography if required for the clarification of diagnoses and further management. A total of 685 students, representing over 95% of the schools' students, consented to having echocardiographic scanning. After repeat hospital based echocardiography for 11 students, a total of 52 scans were regarded as abnormal. In this population definite (n=4) or probable (n=7) RHD was found in 11 students a prevalence of 1.61% (95%CIs 0.80-2.85). Possible RHD was found in 19 students. Previously undetected confirmed (n=1) or probable (n=7) RHD was found in 8 students a prevalence of 1.17% (95%CIs 0.51-2.29). Congenital heart defects (CHD) were found in 22 students a prevalence of 3.21% (95%CIs 2.02-4.83). Echocardiography was a popular modality and detected a significant burden of previously unknown RHD in this young Maori population who are now receiving penicillin. However, echocardiography detected a greater prevalence of possible RHD for which optimum management is at present uncertain. Echocardiography also detected students with a range of severity of CHD. Screening with echocardiography for RHD would involve a significant use of public health, paediatric and cardiac resources with 7.6% of students and their families requiring clinical consultations and ongoing management of the abnormal echocardiographic results.

  2. Five-year follow-up of an acute psychiatric admission cohort in Auckland, New Zealand. (United States)

    Wheeler, Amanda; Moyle, Stuart; Jansen, Carol; Robinson, Elizabeth; Vanderpyl, Jane


    This paper describes a follow-up of acute psychiatric hospital contact in Auckland, New Zealand for an admission cohort in the 5-years past an index admission (published in the NZMJ in 2005). A 5-year follow-up study of hospital psychiatric service utilisation by 924 patients admitted (index admission) in Auckland during 2000. Hospital admissions within New Zealand for this population were extracted from electronic records. Relevant demographic information (gender, age and ethnicity) and clinical data (primary diagnosis at index admission and admission history) were included for each person. Descriptive analysis of inpatient data and negative binomial regression models were conducted. Of 924 patients, 38.5% had no readmissions anywhere in New Zealand in the 5-years following index discharge. 41.0% were readmitted within 12 months and 61.4% were readmitted within 5 years of index discharge. Only 5.6% experienced an admission every year for the 5-years post index admission. Readmission was least likely for those with index discharge diagnosis of depression. A history of admissions prior to index admission and Maori ethnicity were characteristics associated with higher numbers of readmission. Those who were younger, or a diagnosis of schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder or previous admissions tended to have longer total length of stay over the 5-years. More than a third of patients had no further hospital contact and the two factors associated with readmission were a history of previous admissions and Maori ethnicity. Reliable community-based data needs to be a priority to enable exploration of community service utilisation and impact of service alternatives to hospital for acute care.

  3. Increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes in New Zealand children Auckland, New Zealand. (United States)

    Sjardin, Natalia; Reed, Peter; Albert, Ben; Mouat, Fran; Carter, Phillipa J; Hofman, Paul; Cutfield, Wayne; Gunn, Alistair; Jefferies, Craig


    It is important to understand whether type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing in childhood for health-care planning and clinical management. The aim of this study is to examine the incidence of T2DM in New Zealand children, aged Auckland, New Zealand. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from a population-based referral cohort from 1995 to 2015. Hundred and four children presented with T2DM over the 21-year period. The female:male ratio was 1.8:1, at mean (standard deviation) age 12.9 (1.9) years, body mass index standard deviation score +2.3 (0.5), blood sugar 15.3 (8.5) mmol/L, HbA1c 76 (28) mmol/mol. At diagnosis, 90% had acanthosis nigricans and 48% were symptomatic. In all, 33% were Maori, 46% Pacific Island, 15% Asian/Middle Eastern and 6% European. There was a progressive secular increase of 5% year on year in incidence. The overall annual incidence of T2DM <15 years of age was 1.5/100 000 (1.2-1.9) (95% confidence interval), with higher rates in Pacific Island (5.9/100 000) and Maori (4.1/100 000). The incidence of T2DM in children <15 years of age in New Zealand has increased progressively at 5%/year over the last 21 years. The risk was disproportionately associated with girls and children from high-risk ethnic groups. © 2018 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. Health promotion funding, workforce recruitment and turnover in New Zealand. (United States)

    Lovell, Sarah A; Egan, Richard; Robertson, Lindsay; Hicks, Karen


    Almost a decade on from the New Zealand Primary Health Care Strategy and amidst concerns about funding of health promotion, we undertook a nationwide survey of health promotion providers. To identify trends in recruitment and turnover in New Zealand's health promotion workforce. Surveys were sent to 160 organisations identified as having a health focus and employing one or more health promoter. Respondents, primarily health promotion managers, were asked to report budget, retention and hiring data for 1 July 2009 through 1 July 2010. Responses were received from 53% of organisations. Among respondents, government funding for health promotion declined by 6.3% in the year ended July 2010 and health promoter positions decreased by 7.5% (equalling 36.6 full-time equivalent positions). Among staff who left their roles, 79% also left the field of health promotion. Forty-two organisations (52%) reported employing health promoters on time-limited contracts of three years or less; this employment arrangement was particularly common in public health units (80%) and primary health organisations (57%). Among new hires, 46% (n=55) were identified as Maori. Low retention of health promoters may reflect the common use of limited-term employment contracts, which allow employers to alter staffing levels as funding changes. More than half the surveyed primary health organisations reported using fixed-term employment contracts. This may compromise health promotion understanding, culture and institutional memory in these organisations. New Zealand's commitment to addressing ethnic inequalities in health outcomes was evident in the high proportion of Maori who made up new hires.

  5. Prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies (United States)

    Ospina, Maria B; Voaklander, Donald C; Stickland, Michael K; King, Malcolm; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Rowe, Brian H


    BACKGROUND: Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have considerable potential for inequities in diagnosis and treatment, thereby affecting vulnerable groups. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in asthma and COPD prevalence between adult Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, specialized databases and the grey literature up to October 2011 were searched to identify epidemiological studies comparing asthma and COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adult populations. Prevalence ORs (PORs) and 95% CIs were calculated in a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Of 132 studies, eight contained relevant data. Aboriginal populations included Native Americans, Canadian Aboriginals, Australian Aboriginals and New Zealand Maori. Overall, Aboriginals were more likely to report having asthma than non-Aboriginals (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.23 to 1.60]), particularly among Canadian Aboriginals (POR 1.80 [95% CI 1.68 to 1.93]), Native Americans (POR 1.41 [95% CI 1.13 to 1.76]) and Maori (POR 1.64 [95% CI 1.40 to 1.91]). Australian Aboriginals were less likely to report asthma (POR 0.49 [95% CI 0.28 to 0.86]). Sex differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginals and their non-Aboriginal counterparts were not identified. One study compared COPD prevalence between Native and non-Native Americans, with similar rates in both groups (POR 1.08 [95% CI 0.81 to 1.44]). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in asthma prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations exist in a variety of countries. Studies comparing COPD prevalence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations are scarce. Further investigation is needed to identify and account for factors associated with respiratory health inequalities among Aboriginal peoples. PMID:23248798

  6. Indigenous Suicide and Colonization: The Legacy of Violence and the Necessity of Self-Determination

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    Keri Lawson-Te Aho


    Full Text Available Contemporary indigenous first nations psychologists have developed an alternative frame for viewing suicide that not only shifts the focus from individual-level to group-level explanations, but challenges discourses that position group-level influences as "risk factors" that can be easily subsumed within standard repertoires for suicide prevention. First nations psychologists show the violent legacy of colonization has left a dark shadow on the contemporary lives of young people, so that around the world, suicide rates for indigenous peoples are much higher than for non-indigenous peoples in the same country. These arguments, which rely on historical accounts, cannot be neatly demonstrated using empirical data, but form an important part of a self-determination movement among indigenous peoples, directly challenging unequal power relations in society as a means to seek redress for particular issues of inequity like rates of youth suicide. We present a theoretical case study and analysis of contemporary suicide among Maori youth in New Zealand. In a traditional Maori conceptualization, individual well-being is sourced and tied to the well-being of the collective cultural identity. Therefore, individual pain is inseparable from collective pain and the role of the collective becomes that of carrying individuals who are suffering. The state of kahupo or spiritual blindness (Kruger, Pitman, et al. 2004 is characterized by a loss of hope, meaning, and purpose and an enduring sense of despair. It bears the symptoms of chronic dissociation or separation of the physical from the spiritual and vice versa. We describe community empowerment practices and social policy environments that offer pathways forward from colonization towards tino rangatiratanga, or indigenous self-determination, noting significant obstacles along the way.

  7. The determinants of fat intake in a multi-ethnic New Zealand population. Fletcher Challenge--University of Auckland Heart and Health Study Management Committee. (United States)

    Swinburn, B A; Walter, L; Ricketts, H; Whitlock, G; Law, B; Norton, R; Jackson, R; MacMahon, S


    The New Zealand diet is high in total and saturated fat and this is likely to be contributing to the increasing prevalence of obesity and relatively high rates of coronary heart disease in New Zealand. The identification of subgroups with a high-fat intake will enable nutrition-related public health strategies to be better targeted. Subjects from two surveys were included in the study: 7574 employees from a large multinational workforce survey and 2447 people aged 35-84 years selected from a stratified random sample of the electoral roll in central Auckland. Fat and saturated fat intake were assessed by short questionnaire which gave a dietary fat habits (DFH) score and supplemented by a six-item food frequency questionnaire. The DFH scores were higher in males than in females at all ages, and there was an inverse relationship with age which was stronger for males. Age-adjusted scores showed significantly higher DFH scores for Maori than for Europeans. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with higher DFH scores in males. Current smoking and heavy drinking (in males) were associated with significantly higher DFH scores after controlling for socioeconomic status. The results of the limited food frequency questionnaire supported the trends in DFH scores. The subgroups with high total and saturated fat intakes which should be a priority for public health action are young and middle-aged males, Maori and lower socioeconomic status males. The clustering of high-fat intake with smoking and heavy drinking should be considered when developing preventative strategies.

  8. PA12 Is digital storytelling ka pai for new zealand māori? using digital storytelling as a method to explore whānau end of life caregiving experiences: a pilot study. (United States)

    Williams, Lisa; Moeke-Maxwell, Tess; Kothari, Shuchi; Pearson, Sarina; Gott, Merryn; Black, Stella; Frey, Rosemary; Wharemate, Rawiri; Hansen, Whio


    Māori regard stories as a preferred method for imparting knowledge through waiata (song), moteatea (poetry), kauwhau (moralistic tale), pakiwaitara (story) and purakau (myths). Storytelling is also an expression of tinorangatiratanga (self-determination); Māori have the right to manage their knowledge, which includes embodiment in forms transcending typical western formulations. Digital storytelling is a process by which 'ordinary people' create short autobiographical videos. It has found application in numerous disciplines including public health and has been used to articulatethe experiences of those often excluded from knowledge production. To explore the use of digital storytelling as a research method for learning about whānau (family) experiences providing end of life care for kaumātua (older people). Eight Māori and their nominated co-creators attended a three-day digital story telling workshop led by co-researchers Shuchi Kothari and Sarina Pearson. They were guided in the creation of first-person digital stories about caring for kaumātua. The videos were shared at a group screening, and participants completed questionnaires about the workshop and their videos. A Kaupapa Māori narrative analysis was applied to their stories to gain new perspectives on Māori end of life caregiving practices. (Kaupapa Maori research privileges Maori worldviews and indigenous knowledge systems.) Digital storytelling is an appropriate method as Māori is an oral/aural society. It allows Māori to share their stories with others, thus promoting community support at the end of life, befitting a public health approach. Digital storytelling can be a useful method for Māori to express their experiences providing end of life caregiving. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  9. Cannabis 'tinny' houses in New Zealand: implications for the use and sale of cannabis and other illicit drugs in New Zealand. (United States)

    Wilkins, Chris; Reilly, James L; Casswell, Sally


    To examine the impact of the emergence of cannabis 'tinny' houses on the use and sale of cannabis and other illicit drugs in New Zealand. A national sample of 5800 people aged 13-45 years were interviewed about their drug use using a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) system as part of the 2001 National Drug Survey. A question on cannabis procurement was used to create two subgroups of cannabis buyers for further analysis: (i) 'tinny' house buyers--those who had purchased 'some', 'most' or 'all' of their cannabis from a 'tinny' house (n = 145) and (ii) personal market buyers--those who had purchased 'none' or 'hardly any' of their cannabis from a 'tinny' house (n = 342). The two groups of cannabis buyers were compared for a range of variables. ['Tinny' houses are residential properties converted for the 'supermarket' sale of cannabis and other illicit drugs to anyone who attends the premises with cash.] Those purchasing cannabis from 'tinny' houses were significantly more likely than those purchasing cannabis from the personal market to smoke one joint or more on a typical occasion, to purchase cannabis weekly or more often, to purchase small weights of cannabis, to be sold lower quality cannabis than they paid for, to know their cannabis dealer sells other illicit drug types and to use high potency strains of cannabis. There was no significant difference between the 'tinny' house and personal market cannabis buyers with respect to the frequency of cannabis use, prices paid for the same weights of cannabis, levels of other victimization, levels of other drug use or levels of encouragement by cannabis sellers to purchase other drug types. Those purchasing cannabis from 'tinny' houses were more likely to be aged 15-17 years old and to be of Maori ethnicity than those purchasing cannabis from the personal market. Cannabis 'tinny' houses attracted more adolescent and more Maori clientele. However, 'tinny' houses did not appear to be contributing to the spread

  10. Misperceptions of "light" cigarettes abound: National survey data

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    Thomson George


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many smokers believe that "light" cigarettes are less harmful than regular cigarettes, which is at variance with the scientific evidence. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC aims to address this problem in Article 11 which deals with misleading labelling of tobacco products. In this study we aimed to determine smokers' use and beliefs concerning "light" and "mild" cigarettes ("lights", including in relation to ethnicity, deprivation and other socio-demographic characteristics. Methods The New Zealand (NZ arm of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey (ITC Project uses as its sampling frame the NZ Health Survey. This is a national sample with boosted sampling of Maori, Pacific peoples and Asians. From this sample we surveyed adult smokers (n = 1376 about use and beliefs relating to "light" cigarettes. We assessed the associations with smoking "lights" after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, and smoking-related behaviours and beliefs. Results Many smokers of "lights" believed that smoking "lights" made it easier to quit smoking (25%, that "lights" are less harmful (42%, and that smokers of "lights" take in less tar (43%. Overall most "lights" smokers (60% had at least one of these three beliefs, a proportion significantly higher than for smokers of "regular" cigarettes at 45% (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.29 – 2.96. While "lights" smokers had significantly lower tobacco consumption and were more aware of smoking harms, they were no more likely to be intending to quit or have made a previous quit attempt. By ethnicity, both Maori and Pacific people were less likely to smoke "lights" than Europeans (aOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.35 – 0.80 and aOR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.05 – 0.40 respectively. In contrast there was no significant difference by level of deprivation. Roll-your-own (RYO tobacco smokers were less likely to smoke "light" forms of RYO tobacco while both older and women

  11. Welcoming a monster to the world: Myths, oral tradition, and modern societal response to volcanic disasters (United States)

    Cashman, Katharine V.; Cronin, Shane J.


    Volcanic eruptions can overwhelm all senses of observers in their violence, spectacle and sheer incredibility. When an eruption is catastrophic or unexpected, neither individuals nor communities can easily assimilate the event into their world view. Psychological studies of disaster aftermaths have shown that trauma can shake the very foundations of a person's faith and trigger a search - supernatural, religious, or scientific - for answers. For this reason, the ability to rapidly comprehend a traumatic event by "accepting" the catastrophe as part the observer's world represents an important component of community resilience to natural hazards. A relationship with the event may be constructed by adapting existing cosmological, ancestral, or scientific frameworks, as well as through creative and artistic expression. In non-literate societies, communal perceptions of an event may be transformed into stories that offer myth-like explanations. As these stories make their way into oral traditions, they often undergo major changes to allow transmission through generations and, in some cases, to serve political or religious purposes. Disaster responses in literate societies are no different, except that they are more easily recorded and therefore are less prone to change over time. Here we explore ways in which the language, imagery and metaphor used to describe volcanic events may link disparate societies (both present and past) in their search for understanding of volcanic catastrophes. Responses to modern eruptions (1980 Mount St Helens, USA, and 1995-present Soufriere Hills, Montserrat) provide a baseline for examining the progression to older historic events that have already developed oral traditions (1886 Tarawera, New Zealand) and finally to oral traditions many hundreds of years old in both the Pacific Northwest US and New Zealand (NZ). We see that repeated volcanism over many generations produces rich webs of cosmology and history surrounding volcanoes. NZ Maori

  12. Strategies for obtaining obsidian in pre-European contact era New Zealand. (United States)

    McCoy, Mark D; Carpenter, Jonathan


    Archaeological evidence of people's choices regarding how they supply themselves with obsidian through direct access and different types of exchanges gives us insight in to mobility, social networks, and property rights in the distant past. Here we use collections of obsidian artefacts that date to a period of endemic warfare among Maori during New Zealand's Late Period (1500-1769 A.D.) to determine what strategies people engaged in to obtain obsidian, namely (1) collecting raw material directly from a natural source, (2) informal trade and exchange, and (3) formal trade and exchange. These deposits represent a good cross-section of Late Period archaeology, including primary working of raw material at a natural source (Helena Bay), undefended sites where people discarded rubbish and worked obsidian (Bream Head), and a heavily fortified site (Mt. Wellington). We find that most of the obsidian described here was likely obtained directly from natural sources, especially those located on off-shore islands within about 60-70 km of sites. A smaller amount comes from blocks of material transported from an off-shore island a greater distance away, called Mayor Island, in a formal trade and exchange network. This study demonstrates the value of conducting tandem lithic technology and geochemical sourcing studies to understand how people create and maintain social networks during periods of warfare.

  13. Strategies for obtaining obsidian in pre-European contact era New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D McCoy

    Full Text Available Archaeological evidence of people's choices regarding how they supply themselves with obsidian through direct access and different types of exchanges gives us insight in to mobility, social networks, and property rights in the distant past. Here we use collections of obsidian artefacts that date to a period of endemic warfare among Maori during New Zealand's Late Period (1500-1769 A.D. to determine what strategies people engaged in to obtain obsidian, namely (1 collecting raw material directly from a natural source, (2 informal trade and exchange, and (3 formal trade and exchange. These deposits represent a good cross-section of Late Period archaeology, including primary working of raw material at a natural source (Helena Bay, undefended sites where people discarded rubbish and worked obsidian (Bream Head, and a heavily fortified site (Mt. Wellington. We find that most of the obsidian described here was likely obtained directly from natural sources, especially those located on off-shore islands within about 60-70 km of sites. A smaller amount comes from blocks of material transported from an off-shore island a greater distance away, called Mayor Island, in a formal trade and exchange network. This study demonstrates the value of conducting tandem lithic technology and geochemical sourcing studies to understand how people create and maintain social networks during periods of warfare.

  14. Diabetes epidemic in the Asia Pacific region: has hemoglobin A1C finally earned its place as a diagnostic tool?

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    Alexandra Bagley


    Full Text Available Two-third of the world's population lives in the Asia Pacific region where prevalence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportion. With China and India being the most populous nations on the globe, it is believed that over 150 million diabetes reside in the region with more than 95% being of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Furthermore, other Pacific islands in the region have high rates of T2DM including Tonga, Fiji, French Polynesia, and Nauru. The latter has the highest prevalence of T2DM per population in the world. Over the past two decades, in Australia and New Zealand, the prevalence of T2DM has more than doubled, mainly amongst the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and Maori peoples respectively. With the increasing prevalence of diabetes in the Asia Pacific region coupled with the limited number of resources, use of a reliable and effective mode of diagnosis for T2DM is warranted. Yet to date, only New Zealand has adopted the American Diabetes Association recommendation of using hemoglobin A1C in the diagnosis of the disease. The aim of this review is to discuss the clinical usefulness of hemoglobin A1C and highlight its diagnostic role in the Asia Pacific region where T2DM is increasingly encountered.

  15. Folate knowledge and consumer behaviour among pregnant New Zealand women prior to the potential introduction of mandatory fortification. (United States)

    Mallard, Simonette R; Houghton, Lisa A


    To reduce the risk of neural tube defects, the New Zealand Ministry of Health recommends women take supplemental folic acid from at least one month preconception until the end of the twelfth week of pregnancy, as well as consume folate-rich foods. A postpartum survey was conducted to describe folate knowledge and consumer behaviour among pregnant New Zealand women prior to the potential implementation of mandatory folic acid fortification of bread in May 2012. Increasing knowledge of folic acid recommendations was associated with higher supplement uptake among women who planned their pregnancies (p=0.001 for linear trend). Folic acid information failed to adequately reach some socio-demographic subgroups before conception, even when pregnancy was planned, including: indigenous Maori, Pacific and Asian women, younger women, women with large families, and women with lower educational attainment and income. Only half of all women surveyed knew some bread contained added folic acid, and among these women, less than 2% consistently chose voluntarily fortified bread during the periconceptional period by inspecting labels. Sixty-one percent of women indicated they were either in favour of mandatory fortification, or held no opinion on the matter, while 4% were opposed to the addition of folic acid to bread. Approximately one-third (35%) of women agreed with voluntary fortification. Future health promotion initiatives should be tailored toward women who are younger, less educated, with lower income, multiparous or of minority ethnicity status. Nonetheless, mandatory folic acid fortification may be required to attain the desired degree of equity.

  16. Parental attitudes towards the uptake of smoking by children. (United States)

    Glover, Marewa; Paynter, Janine; Wong, Grace; Scragg, Robert; Nosa, Vili; Freeman, Becky


    Factors related to parental smoking and parenting practice have a big effect on adolescent smoking. More in-depth information about these relationships can be used to inform interventions. This study investigated Maori, Pacific Islander, New Zealand European and Asian parent attitudes and practices in relation to smoking uptake in children. Parents of children aged 8-15 years, recruited through the researchers' community networks and the media, participated in focus groups or interviews run by ethnically matched facilitators. Areas addressed included parents' beliefs about children smoking, their actions, and their suggestions for tobacco control activities. The data were analysed thematically. Parents believed that parental smoking, peer pressure and smoking role models in the media influenced smoking uptake in children. They said they would be disappointed if their children started smoking, but their confidence in influencing them varied. Many talked to their children about the health consequences of smoking, including their own negative perceptions of smoking and smokers. Most had smoke-free homes. The parents who smoked tried to avoid smoking around children. There was a good deal of commonality across the different ethnic groups. Important differences related to the provision of interventions. Parents believed in the value of a smoke-free lifestyle and wanted to protect their children from smoking. Important strategies to prevent smoking in children may include supporting parents to quit, informing them that discouraging children of any age from smoking can be effective, and providing culturally appropriate education and resources to facilitate parent/child communication about smoking.

  17. The two faces of Robert Fitzroy, Captain of HMS Beagle and governor of New Zealand. (United States)

    Paul, Diane B; Stenhouse, John; Spencer, Hamish G


    Robert FitzRoy, Captain of HMS Beagle and second governor of New Zealand, has two contradictory reputations among modern academics. Evolutionary biologists and Darwin scholars generally view FitzRoy as a supporter of slavery, famously quarrelling with the abolitionist Darwin over that topic during a Brazilian stopover early in the voyage of HMS Beagle. He is also regarded as a political and religious reactionary, taking a biblically creationist position at the infamous 1860 Oxford meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. New Zealand historians, however, view his record as governor much more positively. They emphasize that FitzRoy was wildly unpopular with the British settlers because of his enlightened insistence that the native Maori should be treated fairly. We outline the history of these seemingly inconsistent views and examine the evidence for each. We conclude by suggesting that a more nuanced account of FitzRoy's career would surely be more thought-provoking as well as respectful of the facts.

  18. R-rated film viewing and adolescent smoking. (United States)

    Laugesen, Murray; Scragg, Robert; Wellman, Robert J; DiFranza, Joseph R


    As smoking is very common in R-rated films, we sought to determine if viewing R-rated films is associated with adolescent smoking. Three annual cross-sectional surveys conducted of 88,505 Year 10 students of largely European, Maori, Asian or Pacific Islander ethnicity in secondary schools in New Zealand between 2002 and 2004. Outcomes of interest were: intention to smoke among never smokers; past experimentation with smoking among current non-smokers; current smoking status; and current frequency of smoking. Dose-response relationships were observed between the frequency of viewing R-rated films and all outcome measures controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, peer smoking, parental smoking, socioeconomic status, pocket money and household smoking rules. Compared to never viewing R-rated films, viewing at least weekly nearly tripled the relative risk (2.81; 95% confidence interval 2.57, 3.09) of never smokers being susceptible to smoking, and more than doubled the risk of both past experimentation (2.28; 95% CI 2.12, 2.45) and smoking>/=monthly (2.31; 95% CI 2.10, 2.54). Each of these risks was seen across all ethnic groups. Our results extend the association that has been demonstrated between viewing R-rated films and current smoking in American youth by demonstrating the same association in youth of different ethnic and cultural backgrounds in New Zealand.

  19. Overview: the 2nd Indigenous Cardiovascular Health Conference of the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. (United States)

    Brown, Alex; Kritharides, Leonard


    Recent years have seen the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ) focus its attention on improving outcomes for Indigenous people within Australia and New Zealand. The most visible of these activities has been the convening of conferences devoted specifically to understanding and overcoming the burden of cardiovascular disparities experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders within Australia and Maori and Pacific Islander populations within New Zealand. Following from the success of the first meeting, the second was held in Alice Springs in 2011. Alongside plenary sessions discussing primary prevention, improved care, secondary prevention and the social and cultural determinants of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), targeted workshops outlined the issues and priority activities for the CSANZ into the future. These included discussion of Workforce, Improving Chronic Care, Reducing the burden of Rheumatic Heart Disease and Reducing Disparities in Hospital Care. Copyright © 2012 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolite profiling and quantification of phytochemicals in potato extracts using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Chong, Esther Swee Lan; McGhie, Tony K; Heyes, Julian A; Stowell, Kathryn M


    Potatoes contain a diverse range of phytochemicals which have been suggested to have health benefits. Metabolite profiling and quantification were conducted on plant extracts made from a white potato cultivar and 'Urenika', a purple potato cultivar traditionally consumed by New Zealand Maori. There is limited published information regarding the metabolite profile of Solanum tuberosum cultivar 'Urenika'. Using ultra-high- performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS), a total of 31 compounds were identified and quantified in the potato extracts. The majority of the compounds were identified for the first time in 'Urenika'. These compounds include several types of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) derivatives, and hydroxycinnamic amides (HCAA). Six classes of compounds, namely organic acids, amino acids, HCA, HCAA, flavonols and glycoalkaloids, were present in both extracts but quantities varied between the two extracts. The unknown plant metabolites in both potato extracts were assigned with molecular formulae and identified with high confidence. Quantification of the metabolites was achieved using a number of appropriate standards. High-resolution mass spectrometry data critical for accurate identification of unknown phytochemicals were achieved and could be added to potato or plant metabolomic database. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Archaeological excavation of T10/993 at Matarangi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furey, L.


    This report describes the excavation of a small midden site, T10/993, representative of a number of like sites in the sand dunes at Matarangi on the east coast of the Coromandel Peninsula. Few sites of this type have been investigated archaeologically yet they are the remains of a very important part of the Maori economic cycle. The sites could be termed shellfish processing sites. The excavation was a condition imposed by Historic Places Trust on the granting of an authority to modify sites T10/993 and 994 (HPT Authority no. 1997/42), prior to destruction of the sites (Furey 1998). Matarangi Beach Estates commissioned the author to undertake an archaeological site survey of a grassed area at Matarangi Beach which was to be Stage 14 of the urban housing development. The area was in excess of 13 hectares. Two sites were found, T10/993 and 994, and recommendations made for monitoring of the dunes as the topsoil was removed (Furey 1997a). (author). 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  2. End-stage kidney disease among indigenous peoples of Australia and New Zealand. (United States)

    McDonald, Stephen P


    Although possessing different anthropological origins, there are similarities in the epidemiology of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) among the indigenous peoples of Australia (the Australian Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders) and New Zealand (Maori and Pacific Peoples). In both countries there is a substantially increased rate of ESKD among these groups. This is more marked in Australia than in New Zealand, but in both countries the relative rate (in comparison to non-indigenous rates) as well as absolute rate have nearly stabilized in recent years. The excess risk affects females particularly-in contrast to the non-indigenous picture. Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia, there is a strong age interaction, with the most marked risk being among those aged 25 to 45 years. Indigenous peoples are less likely to be treated with home dialysis, and much less likely to receive a kidney transplant. In particular, rates of living donation are very low among indigenous groups in both countries. Outcomes during dialysis treatment and during transplantation are inferior to those of nonindigenous ones, even after adjustment for the higher prevalence of comorbidities. The underlying causes for these differences are complex, but the slowing and possible stabilization of incident rate changes is heartening.

  3. The need for a culturally-tailored gatekeeper training intervention program in preventing suicide among Indigenous peoples: a systematic review. (United States)

    Nasir, Bushra Farah; Hides, Leanne; Kisely, Steve; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Black, Emma; Gill, Neeraj; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Toombs, Maree


    Suicide is a leading cause of death among Indigenous youth worldwide. The aim of this literature review was to determine the cultural appropriateness and identify evidence for the effectiveness of current gatekeeper suicide prevention training programs within the international Indigenous community. Using a systematic strategy, relevant databases and targeted resources were searched using the following terms: 'suicide', 'gatekeeper', 'training', 'suicide prevention training', 'suicide intervention training' and 'Indigenous'. Other internationally relevant descriptors for the keyword "Indigenous" (e.g. "Maori", "First Nations", "Native American", "Inuit", "Metis" and "Aboriginal") were also used. Six articles, comprising five studies, met criteria for inclusion; two Australian, two from USA and one Canadian. While pre and post follow up studies reported positive outcomes, this was not confirmed in the single randomised controlled trial identified. However, the randomised controlled trial may have been underpowered and contained participants who were at higher risk of suicide pre-training. Uncontrolled evidence suggests that gatekeeper training may be a promising suicide intervention in Indigenous communities but needs to be culturally tailored to the target population. Further RCT evidence is required.

  4. Cancer epidemiology in the pacific islands - past, present and future. (United States)

    Moore, Malcolm A; Baumann, Francine; Foliaki, Sunia; Goodman, Marc T; Haddock, Robert; Maraka, Roger; Koroivueta, Josefa; Roder, David; Vinit, Thomas; Whippy, Helen J D; Sobue, Tomotaka


    The Pacific Ocean contains approximately 25,000 islands, stretching from Papua New Guinea to Easter Island, populated by mixtures of Melanesians, Micronesians and Polynesians, as well as migrant groups from Asia and Europe. The region encompasses a third of the surface of the earth although it is sparsely populated at a total of around 9 million. With the exception of some of the more populated islands, such as New Zealand and Hawaii, few surveys of chronic diseases have been conducted, but it is increasingly recognized that obesity, diabetes and associated conditions are emerging public health problems and clearly there is a need for cooperation to optimize control. Here we focus on cancer registry and epidemiological findings for Papua New Guinea, the Solomons, Vanuatu, Samoa, New Caledonia, Fiji, Polynesia, French Polynesia, Maori in New Zealand, Native Hawaiians, Micronesia, including Guam, and Aboriginal populations in Australia as assessed by PubMed searches and perusal of the International Agency for Cancer Research descriptive epidemiology database. Overall, the major cancers in males are oral and liver in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, and lung and prostate elsewhere (Fiji being exceptional in demonstrating a predominance of esophageal cancer), whereas in females it is breast and either cervix or lung, depending largely on whether cervical cancer screening program is active. In certain locations thyroid cancer is also very prevalent in females. The similarities and variation point to advantages for collaborative research to provide the evidence-base for effective cancer control programs in the region.

  5. A retrospective study of New Zealand case law involving assisted reproduction technology and the social recognition of 'new' family. (United States)

    Legge, M; Fitzgerald, R; Frank, N


    The New Zealand Human Assisted Reproductive Technology (HART) Act became law in 2004. In this article, we provide a retrospective analysis of New Zealand case law from September 1990 to March 2004, leading up to the creation of the HART Act. We examine the new understandings of parenting (developed through the routine use of ART in New Zealand) which the case law attempted to test. We examine these concepts against the previous understandings of family enshrined in the pre-existing legislation, which formed the basis for judicial rulings in the various cases to which we refer. In conclusion, we provide a brief summary of the 2004 HART legislation and draw comparisons between the old and new legislative and bureaucratic frameworks that define and support New Zealand family structure. We suggest that a change in cultural backdrop is occurring from the traditional western ideology of the nuclear family towards the traditional Maori concept of family formation, which includes a well-accepted traditional practice of guardianship and a more open and extended family structure. This 'new' structure reflects the contemporary lived experience of family kinship in western societies as individualized and open to choice.

  6. Predictors of intent to vaccinate against HPV/cervical cancer: a multi-ethnic survey of 769 parents in New Zealand. (United States)

    Rose, Sally B; Lawton, Beverley A; Lanumata, Tolotea S; Hibma, Merilyn; Baker, Michael G


    To identify factors predictive of parents' intent to have their daughters' receive the HPV/cervical cancer vaccine. 3123 questionnaires were distributed to parents recruited from 14 socioeconomically diverse schools in 2008. Survey questions were structured around the health beliefs model. The main outcome measure was intent to seek vaccination for daughter(s). A quarter of parents completed questionnaires (769/3123). Two-thirds of respondents (67%) indicated they would want their daughter(s) to receive the vaccine, with no significant differences by ethnicity. Intent to vaccinate was significantly associated with having fewer negative views on vaccination (OR 0.47, 95%CI 0.37-0.59), having adequate information about the vaccine, perceiving HPV infection and cervical cancer as serious and likely to occur (OR 1.2, 95%CI 1.05-1.36), and considering efficacy and safety of the vaccine important (OR 1.17, 95%CI 1.06-1.28) (pHPV-related facts was lowest among Maori and Pacific parents (pparents were more likely to have concerns about vaccination impacting negatively on girls' sexual behaviour. Strategies will be needed to provide detailed information outlining HPV prevalence and consequences, vaccine safety and efficacy to ensure all parents and their daughters are adequately informed when deciding on vaccination.

  7. Human dietary exposure to heavy metals via the consumption of greenshell mussels (Perna canaliculus Gmelin 1791) from the Bay of Islands, northern New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, Adele L.H.; Raumati Hook, G.; Greening, Gail E.; Gibbs-Smith, Emma; Gardner, Jonathan P.A.


    Cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and tin (Sn) concentrations were determined using ICP-MS in soft tissues (wet wt.) from whole greenshell mussels (Perna canaliculus) collected from Urapukapuka-Rawhiti Island, Opua Marina, Waitangi Bridge and Opua Wharf from the Bay of Islands, northern New Zealand (NZ). All samples had metal concentrations well below the Food Standards Australia and New Zealand (FSANZ) maximum limits and were comparable to, or less than, concentrations observed in previous NZ studies. Based on the average values detected in the current study, the concentrations of heavy metals ingested in a 'typical diet' containing greenshell mussels are below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). However, Maori (indigenous people of New Zealand), Pacific Islanders and Asians consume a far greater quantity of seafood (and therefore heavy metals) than the general public of New Zealand and could potentially consume enough shellfish to exceed the PTWI for Cd (but not for Hg, As, Pb or Sn). Although our results, based on the current PTWIs, indicate no significant health risk to greenshell mussel consumers in this region, PTWIs change over time; concentrations which were thought to be safe are later found to be harmful. Additionally, differences in individual human susceptibilities to various toxins could increase the risk of harm for consumers with low tolerance to heavy metals. We suggest that a survey of the frequency, amount and species consumed by groups whose diet may be largely shellfish-based is required to enable a more comprehensive risk assessment to be made.

  8. Priority-setting in New Zealand: translating principles into practice. (United States)

    Ashton, T; Cumming, J; Devlin, N


    In May 1998 the New Zealand Health Funding Authority released a discussion paper which proposed a principles-based approach to setting purchasing priorities that incorporates the economic methods of programme budgeting and marginal analysis, and cost-utility analysis. The principles upon which the process was to be based are effectiveness, cost, equity of health outcomes, Maori health and acceptability. This essay describes and critiques issues associated with translating the principles into practice, most particularly the proposed methods for evaluating the effectiveness and measuring the cost of services. It is argued that the proposals make an important contribution towards the development of a method for prioritizing services which challenges our thinking about those services and their goals, and which is systematic, explicit, and transparent. The shift towards 'thinking at the margin' and systematically reviewing the value for money of competing claims on resources is likely to improve the quality of decision-making compared with the status quo. This does not imply that prioritization can, or should, be undertaken by means of any simple formula. Any prioritization process should always be guided by informed judgement. The approach is more appropriate for some services than for others. Key methodological issues that need further consideration include the choice of instrument for measuring health gains, the identification of marginal services, how to combine qualitative and quantitative information, and how to ensure consistency across different levels of decision-making.

  9. Volunteering predicts happiness among older Māori and non-Māori in the New Zealand health, work, and retirement longitudinal study. (United States)

    Dulin, Patrick L; Gavala, Jhanitra; Stephens, Christine; Kostick, Marylynne; McDonald, Jennifer


    This study sought to understand the relationship between volunteer activity and happiness among a sample of older adult New Zealanders. It specifically sought to determine if ethnicity (Māori vs. non-Māori) and economic living standards (ELS) functioned as moderators of the relationship between volunteering and happiness. Data were garnered from the 2008 administration of the New Zealand Health, Work, and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Correlational and multiple regression procedures were employed to examine study hypotheses. Results from multiple regression analyses showed that the amount of volunteering per week was a unique predictor of the overall level of happiness. Moderation analyses indicated that ethnicity did not function as a moderator of the relationship between volunteering and happiness, but ELS did. Those with low ELS evidenced a stronger relationship between volunteering and happiness than those with high ELS. Results also indicated that Maori and those with low ELS volunteered more frequently than non-Māori and those with high ELS. This study provides evidence that volunteering is related to increased happiness, irrespective of ethnicity. It also provides further evidence that the relationship between volunteering and happiness is moderated by economic resources. Older individuals at the low end of the economic spectrum are likely to benefit more from volunteering than those at the high end.

  10. Vitamin D status of psychiatric inpatients in New Zealand's Waikato region. (United States)

    Menkes, David B; Lancaster, Kaye; Grant, Michael; Marsh, Reginald W; Dean, Peter; du Toit, Stephen A


    Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in New Zealand, confers multiple health risks, and may be particularly common among people with psychiatric illness. We studied vitamin D status in an unselected sample of adult psychiatric inpatients in Hamilton (latitude 37.5 S) during late winter. We recruited 102 consenting subjects and measured 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 levels in venous blood using a competitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. In addition to descriptive statistics, we used one-sample t-tests to determine the extent to which ethnic and diagnostic subgroups fell below the vitamin D deficiency threshold of 50 nM. 75 subjects (74%) had vitamin D levels vitamin D levels with age (r = 0.45, p Vitamin D also varied by diagnosis, with schizophrenia associated with markedly lower levels than mania and depression (p Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in the psychiatric inpatient setting in New Zealand and may be relevant to poor physical health outcomes, notably among Maori and those with schizophrenia. These findings support proposals to provide vitamin D supplementation, particularly during the winter months.

  11. Towards integrated catchment management, Whaingaroa, New Zealand. (United States)

    van Roon, M; Knight, S


    The paper examines progress towards integrated catchment management and sustainable agriculture at Whaingaroa (Raglan), New Zealand. Application of the Canadian "Atlantic Coastal Action Program" model (ACAP) has been only partially successful within New Zealand's bicultural setting. Even before the introduction of the ACAP process there existed strong motivation and leadership by various sectors of the community. A merging of resource management planning and implementation processes of the larger community and that of the Maori community has not occurred. Research carried out by Crown Research Institutes has clearly shown the actions required to make pastoral farming more sustainable. There are difficulties in the transference to, and uptake of, these techniques by farmers. An examination of the socio-economic context is required. There has been a requirement on local government bodies to tighten their focus as part of recent reform. This has occurred concurrently with a widening of vision towards integrated and sustainable forms of management. This (as well as a clear belief in empowerment of local communities) has lead to Council reliance on voluntary labour. There is a need to account for the dynamic interaction between social and political history and the geological and biophysical history of the area. As part of a re-examination of sustainable development, New Zealand needs to reconcile the earning of the bulk of its foreign income from primary production, with the accelerating ecological deficit that it creates. A sustainability strategy is required linking consumer demand, property rights and responsibilities.

  12. Radiocarbon dates on desiccated moa (Dinornithiformes) flesh from inland Otago, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.; Rowe, L.; Petchey, F.; White, M.


    Remains of soft tissues from extinct moa (Dinornithiformes), mainly desiccated sinew, muscle, skin, and feathers have been recovered rather seldom but their distribution is distinctive. Of 22 records of such finds accumulated between 1864 and 1987, 15 came from inland Otago, west of Dunedin in the southern South Island. Most were found in the late nineteenth century in rockshelters, clefts or alluvial sediments and were regarded at the time as ev dence of the survival of moa up to about AD 1800. Improbable as this latter point is, it has not been tested by radiocarbon dating until now. Our particular impetus to do so, however, arises in another way. It is from research, again largely within inland Otago, on Maori artefacts which have also been made from various other kinds of soft tissues (flax, grasses, dog skin, bird skin, feathers etc.). A series of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates on these shows that they are exclusively late, post-AD 1650, which begs the question of why the age range does not extend across the full prehistoric period, beginning about AD 1300. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. A possible early muttonbirder's fire on Poutama, a Rakiura titi island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, D.; Newman, J.; Moller, H.; Wixon, J.


    Muttonbirding for sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus) on islands around Rakiura is an ongoing traditional activity of local Maori. There is little archaeological evidence to pinpoint the onset of large-scale birding, so some researchers have suggested that widespread systematic muttonbirding only began in protohistoric times. We present AMS radiocarbon data from an archaeological fire found 65 cm subsurface on Poutama, an island off Rakiura. Duplicate analyses of charcoal and a single analysis of underlying peat were used to date the fire, constrained by C accumulation calculations and chemical and isotopic analysis. By comparing C:N ratios and C accumulation calculations with literature values, the peat result (176 ± 55 BP) was shown to be invalid because of contamination via bioturbation. The combined charcoal radiocarbon data were consistent with being estimates of a single value (326 ± 42 BP). After calibration, the fire was dated at AD 1470-1660 (95% confidence interval). Carbon-13 analysis was consistent with charcoal from different individual plants. The C accumulation rate (61-96 g C m -2 yr -1 ) was at the upper end of literature values, consistent with a high nutrient and well-oxygenated soil environment. Our results highlight the need for more systematic data collection and experimentation to better assess the time of onset of systematic muttonbirding. (author). 46 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Gaining environmental resource consents: a New Zealand experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, K.N.; Pritchard, N.E.


    In 1991 the Electricity Corporation of New Zealand was faced with the renewal of existing permits and rights under the requirements of the newly-passed Resource Management Act. Specifically for Huntly Power Station a strategy was required to ensure new Consents were gained to replace Water Rights and a Clean Air Act Licence due to expire in 1994. Key aspects of the Act are environmental protection, a requirement to consider Maori cultural concerns, and the need for a public participation stage in the Consents process. This paper documents aspects of the work completed to ensure Huntly gained its new Air and Water Resource Consents and indicates follow-up work in progress. Most attention in the water area focused on the discharge of condenser cooling water into the Waikato River with studies on fish health, migration and breeding habits being carried out. A novel solution involving the installation of 'Iowa Vanes' in the river has been decided on to optimize effective mixing of the cooling water with the river channel in front of the Station and thus minimize the effect of warm water entering the river. (author). 3 figs., 3 refs

  15. Public health strategies for Mäori. (United States)

    Durie, M


    When the New Zealand Department of Public Health was established in 1900, Maöri health status was compromised to the extent that survival itself was threatened. The remarkable turnaround was unexpected and owes much to pioneer Maöri professionals, especially the first Maöri medical practitioner, Dr. Maui Pomare, who graduated in the United States in 1899. As "Medical Officer to the Maöris," and later as Minister of Health, he made major changes through a five-part strategy: recognizing Maöri community leaders as leaders in health, improving access to societal goods and services (especially housing and education), appealing to cultural practices that were linked to good health, wise use of political power, and developing a skilled Maori health workforce to complement community leadership. Although mental health disorders and lifestyle illnesses have largely replaced infectious diseases, malnutrition, and tuberculosis, Pomare's strategy has continuing relevance and warrants serious consideration as a model for health promotion.

  16. Healing the victim, the young offender, and the community via restorative justice: an international perspective. (United States)

    Goren, S


    The 1990s saw the enactment of much "get tough with young offenders" legislation in the United States. At the same, problems with our present punishment and treatment model, in which many youngsters cycle repeatedly through the justice and mental health systems, raised interest in restorative justice, a community-based alternative model emphasizing a balanced, negotiated approach to the needs of victims, offenders, and the community. After summarizing the philosophical bases underlying both models, this article describes the practice of restorative justice in New Zealand, where it was pioneered. Restorative justice has special relevance for Maori community in New Zealand and minority communities in the United States, where youth are consistently overrepresented in the courts, detention centers, and jails, and in which the juvenile justice system is seen as hostile and biased. Outcome data from New Zealand and early outcome research from the United States suggest that the restorative model, in which offenses are understood as a breakdown in social bonds, offers a hopeful alternative for offending youngsters, their families, and their communities.

  17. Dietary intake in midlife and associations with standard of living, education and nutrition literacy. (United States)

    Wall, Catherine L; Gearry, Richard B; Pearson, John; Parnell, Winsome; Skidmore, Paula M L


    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in New Zealand, but risk factors may be decreased by consuming a heart healthy diet. This pilot study investigated whether participants met the guidelines for a heart healthy diet and whether a novel heart healthy dietary pattern could be identified using principal components analysis (PCA). The second aim of this project was to assess if higher education, standard of living and nutrition literacy are associated with a heart healthy dietary pattern. This exploratory study was undertaken using data from the first participants enrolled in the Canterbury Health Ageing and Lifecourse study: an observational study of 50 year olds in the Canterbury District Health Board region. Eighty-two people were selected from the General and Maori electoral role and interviewed prior to the 22 February 2011 Christchurch Earthquake. PCA was conducted to identify dietary patterns, based on intake of specific nutrients as indicated by the New Zealand and international heart healthy dietary guidelines. 62 participants completed questionnaires and an estimated food record. No participants met all five of the heart healthy dietary guidelines. One dietary pattern was produced by PCA: a "higher CVD risk" pattern. Regression analysis indicated that higher standard of living, education and nutrition literacy were inversely associated with a "higher CVD risk" pattern. Higher standard of living, education and nutrition literacy were associated with a healthier dietary eating pattern. However, as no participants met all the dietary recommendations more education and support is needed to help people meet these.

  18. Demographic variation in community-based MRSA skin and soft tissue infection in Auckland, New Zealand. (United States)

    Ritchie, Stephen R; Fraser, John D; Libby, Eric; Morris, Arthur J; Rainey, Paul B; Thomas, Mark G


    To estimate the burden of skin and soft tissue infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and to determine the effects of ethnicity and age on the rate of skin and soft tissue due to MRSA in the Auckland community. We reviewed the culture and susceptibility results of all wound swabs processed by Auckland's only community microbiology laboratory in 2007. Demographic data for a random sample of 1000 people who had a wound swab collected and for all people from whom a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain was isolated were obtained and compared to demographic data for the total population of Auckland. S. aureus was isolated from 23853/47047 (51%) wound swab cultures performed in 2007; the estimated annual incidence of S. aureus isolation from a wound swab was 1847/100,000 people; and the estimated annual incidence of MRSA isolation from a wound swab was 145/100,000 people. Maori and Pacific people had higher rates of non-multiresistant MRSA infection compared with New Zealand European and Asian people; elderly New Zealand European people had much higher rates of multiresistant MRSA infections compared with people from other ethnic groups. S. aureus is a very common cause of disease in the community and the incidence of infection with MRSA subtypes varies with ethnicity.

  19. The New Zealand Liver Transplant Unit: Auckland District Health Board. (United States)

    Munn, Stephen R; Evans, Helen M; Gane, Edward J


    New Zealand is a geographically isolated country with 4.55 million inhabitants. It has endemic hepatitis B (HBV) infection that is especially evident in Maori and Pacific Island communities and impacts indications for liver transplantation. The country has a socialised medical system that allows for full coverage of the assessment for, and completion of liver transplants in suitable recipients. Between February 1998 and December 2014, the New Zealand Liver Transplant Unit (NZLTU) had performed 595 liver transplants in 568 patients, indicating a crude re-transplant rate of 4.8%. Overall 1, 5, and 10 year patient survival rates for all adult (96%, 89%, and 81%, respectively) and pediatric (93%, 92%, and 92%, respectively) recipients compare very favourably with international outcomes from Europe and the United States. Eligibility criteria could be modestly expanded if deceased donor rates improved from the current level of around 10 per million of population per year. This somewhat meagre supply of deceased donor organs, along with significant waiting list attrition, has necessitated the use of living donors, which have been used in more than 50 recipients to date. Despite these limitations, the NZLTU has contributed to improvements in the outcome of transplantation for HBV and hepatitis C through the development of effective antiviral prophylaxis regimes. Furthermore, innovative changes have been made to the manner in which pediatric patients are transitioned to the adult service.

  20. A tale of two cities: paradoxical intensity of traffic calming around Auckland schools. (United States)

    Hopgood, Timothy; Percival, Teuila; Stewart, Joanna; Ameratunga, Shanthi


    The school journey is a common context for child pedestrian injuries in New Zealand, with children from low socioeconomic, Maori or Pacific families being at increased risk. The extent to which evidence-based environmental strategies that can address this problem are equitably implemented is unclear. To determine if there is a difference in the distribution of traffic-calming modifications around schools in areas of high and low socioeconomic deprivation in Auckland and Manukau Cities, New Zealand. From a list of the most and least socioeconomically deprived schools in Auckland and Manukau Cities, 40 of each were randomly selected. The number of modifications within a 1 km radius of these schools was recorded in December 2009 or January 2010. The association of deprivation and region with the numbers of traffic-calming modifications was examined using a general linear model. Socioeconomically least deprived schools had more traffic-calming interventions than the most deprived schools (least square mean (LSM): 25 versus 18; p=0.05), and Auckland schools had more interventions than Manukau schools (LSM: 27 versus 16; p=0.001). Traffic-calming measures were observed more commonly in less deprived areas where the risks of child pedestrian injuries are generally lower. This apparent paradox could result in increasing socioeconomic inequities in the distribution of child pedestrian injuries.

  1. Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in Auckland children during the Hib vaccination era: 1995-2009. (United States)

    Leung, Bonnie; Taylor, Susan; Drinkovic, Dragana; Roberts, Sally; Carter, Phil; Best, Emma


    To characterise Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) invasive disease in the era of Hib vaccination, in children of the greater Auckland region of New Zealand. Identification of sterile site culture positive Hib via the Auckland hospital laboratories databases and national laboratory surveillance database in the time period; 1995 to 2009. There were a total of 26 cases in the Auckland Region. Over the 15-year period, the annual incidence of invasive Hib disease was 0.61 per 100,000 (95% CI: 0.4-0.9) for children aged under 15 years and 1.65 per 100,000 (95% CI: 1.1-2.5) for children aged under 5 years. Ninety-two percent were under 5 years and 54% were under 1 year. Sixty percent of the children were of Maori and Pacific ethnicity. The predominant diagnosis was meningitis, accounting for 15 cases (60%). There were no fatalities. Forty-eight percent of affected children were completely unimmunised with the Hib vaccine which has been fully funded on the National Immunisation Schedule since 1994. Since the introduction of the Hib vaccine, the disease rates have greatly reduced in the Auckland region. Although ethnic disparities have improved amongst the cases that occur, immunisation rates in cases are low and infants remain most at risk. Current emphasis on intensifying immunisation programmes to achieve higher vaccination rates and timeliness of delivery will help in efforts to achieve elimination of the disease in New Zealand.

  2. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection and Vaccine Implications, Auckland, New Zealand (United States)

    Safar, Atheer; Stewart, Joanna; Trenholme, Adrian; Drinkovic, Dragana; Peat, Briar; Taylor, Susan; Read, Kerry; Roberts, Sally; Voss, Lesley


    We aimed to assess the effect of invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infection and the potential effects of a multivalent GAS vaccine in New Zealand. During January 2005–December 2006, we conducted prospective population-based laboratory surveillance of Auckland residents admitted to all public hospitals with isolation of GAS from normally sterile sites. Using emm typing, we identified 225 persons with confirmed invasive GAS infection (median 53 years of age; range 0–97 years). Overall incidence was 8.1 cases per 100,00 persons per year (20.4/100,000/year for Maori and Pacific Islanders; 24.4/100,000/year for persons >65 years of age; 33/100,000/year for infants Auckland’s lowest socioeconomic quintile. Twenty-two persons died, for an overall case-fatality rate of 10% (63% for toxic shock syndrome). Seventy-four percent of patients who died had an underlying condition. To the population in our study, the proposed 26-valent vaccine would provide limited benefit. PMID:21749758

  3. Symptom presentations and other characteristics of colorectal cancer patients and the diagnostic performance of the Auckland Regional Grading Criteria for Suspected Colorectal Cancer in the South Auckland population. (United States)

    Hsiang, John C; Bai, Wayne; Lal, Dinesh


    This study reviews the presenting symptoms of colorectal cancer in the ethnically diverse Middlemore Hospital referral population of South Auckland, New Zealand. The performance of the newly introduced Auckland Regional Grading Criteria as prediction tool for selecting colorectal cancer cases referred from primary care was evaluated in this group. Retrospective review of all colorectal cancer (CRC) cases diagnosed between January 2006 and January 2011. Information extracted from case note review was used to grade patients using the Auckland Regional Grading Criteria. A total of 799 patients were included. The commonest symptoms were: rectal bleeding (25.5-42.3%) and change in bowel habit (20.6-26.8%). Low-risk symptoms including abdominal pain (16.3-46.8%) and weight loss (18.4-26.1%) were not uncommon. 64.4% of Maori and 64.9% of Pacific patients had stage III or IV cancers. Pacific patients had more stage IV disease, 37.7% (pAuckland Regional Grading Criteria would miss 24.7% of the patients with CRC in the referral population. While rectal bleeding and change in bowel habit are frequent presenting symptoms, low-risk atypical symptoms including constipation, weight loss and abdominal pain were not uncommon. Significant proportion of Pacific patients present with late-stage disease. The current Auckland Regional grading criteria would miss significant proportion of our study population with colorectal cancer.

  4. Genetically modified organisms in New Zealand and cultural issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, R.; Roberts, M.


    One of the ironies of the current debate in New Zealand about genetic modification is that it highlights the age-old conflict between science and religion, and in so doing demonstrates that modem society is still caught in the dilemma posed by these two views of the world. Two case studies are presented that demonstrate the distance between proponents and opponents of genetic modification (GM), and the difficulty of resolution within the secular-based framework of quantitative risk assessment applied by the Environmental Risk Management Authority (ERMA) and decision-making committees. Alternative frameworks suggested by Maori are beginning to emerge, and along with the results of several government-funded research projects in this area, should make a valuable contribution to a new framework that more equitably incorporates the fundamental principles of both knowledge systems. If this aim is achieved, it will be of considerable interest to other indigenous peoples in the world who are also faced with real and perceived threats to their cultural beliefs and values originating from new biotechnologies. (author)

  5. Sociocultural barriers to cervical screening in South Auckland, New Zealand. (United States)

    Lovell, Sarah; Kearns, Robin A; Friesen, Wardlow


    Cervical screening has been subject to intense media scrutiny in New Zealand in recent years prompted by a series of health system failings through which a number of women developed cervical cancer despite undergoing regular smears. This paper considers why underscreening persists in a country where cervical screening has a high profile. It explores how the promotion of cervical screening has impacted on the decisions of women to undergo a smear test. Ideas of risk and the new public health are deployed to develop a context for thinking about screening as a form of governing the body. Qualitative interviews with 17 women who were overdue for a cervical smear were undertaken in 2001-2002, yielding understandings of their knowledge of screening and their reasons for postponement. Nine providers of screening services were also interviewed. Concurrent with socioeconomic limitations, concerns over exposing one's body loomed large in women's reasons for delaying being screened. In particular, feelings of shyness and embarrassment were encountered among Maori and Pacific women for whom exposing bodies in the process of smear taking compromises cultural beliefs about sacredness. We conclude that medicalization of the body has, paradoxically, assisted many women in dealing with the intrusion of screening. For others, compliance with the exhortations to be screened brings a high emotional and cultural cost which should at least be considered in health policy debates.

  6. Involving the stakeholders in the curriculum process: a recipe for success? (United States)

    Keogh, Johannes J; Fourie, Willem J; Watson, Sheona; Gay, H


    The Department of Nursing and Health Studies at the Manukau Institute of Technology (MIT) in Auckland, New Zealand, decided to involve stakeholders from the health care sector in developing a new curriculum. After implementing the new curriculum, the process was evaluated using a content analysis as qualitative research design. Seven individual interviews and one Focus group interview were conducted with the stakeholders to determine their experiences during the process. Ethical permission was sought from the MIT ethical committee. The analyses of the collected data enabled the researchers to identify six main categories. The categories were: "Existing Programme", "The need to change", "The curriculum development process", "The stakeholders", "Personnel", and "Ethnic minorities". From the collected data, it was clear that a new curriculum was necessary to enable the graduates to meet the health care needs of the New Zealand population, especially after the primary health care policy was introduced in New Zealand. It was also clear that the curriculum development process could be a painful process for all concerned, but a strong leadership could cement a feeling of "collegiality" between stakeholders and teaching staff. The importance of considering the rights of ethnic minorities is clearly stated in the Treaty of Waitangi, safeguarding the rights of the Maori People, and therefore applied rigorously in the development process. In this project, the collaborative process was very successful, and the stakeholders actually expressed feelings of "Ownership" of the curriculum.

  7. Third sector primary health care in New Zealand. (United States)

    Crampton, P; Dowell, A C; Bowers, S


    To describe key organisational characteristics of selected third sector (non-profit and non-government) primary health care organisations. Data were collected, in 1997 and 1998, from 15 third sector primary care organisations that were members of a network of third sector primary care providers, Health Care Aotearoa (HCA). Data were collected by face-to-face interviews of managers and key informants using a semi-structured interview schedule, and from practice computer information systems. Overall the populations served were young: only 4% of patients were aged 65 years or older, and the ethnicity profile was highly atypical, with 21.8% European, 36% Maori, 22.7% Pacific Island, 12% other, and 7.5% not stated. Community services card holding rates were higher than recorded in other studies, and registered patients tended to live in highly deprived areas. HCA organisations had high patient to doctor ratios, in general over 2000:1, and there were significant differences in management structures between HCA practices and more traditional general practice. Third sector organisations provide services for populations that are disadvantaged in many respects. It is likely that New Zealand will continue to develop a diverse range of primary care organisational arrangements. Effort is now required to measure quality and effectiveness of services provided by different primary care organisations serving comparable populations.

  8. Some prehistory of New Zealand intensive care medicine. (United States)

    Trubuhovich, R V


    In taking 1960 as the foundation year for the practice of intensive care medicine in New Zealand, this paper briefly looks into the previous two centuries for some interventions in life-threatening conditions. With the help of descriptions in early 19th century journals and books by perceptive observers, the author focuses on some beliefs and practices of the Maori people during pre-European and later times, as well as aspects of medical treatment in New Zealand for early settlers and their descendents. Dr Laurie Gluckman's book Tangiwai has proved a valuable resource for New Zealand's medical history prior to 1860, while the recent publication of his findings from the examination of coroners' records for Auckland, 1841 to 1864, has been helpful. Drowning is highlighted as a common cause of accidental death, and consideration is given to alcohol as a factor. Following the 1893 foundation of the New Zealand Medical Journal, a limited number of its papers which are historically relevant to today's intensive care are explored: topics include tetanus, laryngeal diphtheria, direct cardiac massage, traumatic shock, thiopentone management for fitting and the ventilatory failure due to poliomyelitis.

  9. Italy in Postcolonial Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concilio, Carmen


    Full Text Available In this essay, I would like to explore the representations of Italy through the eyes of three outstanding postcolonial writers: Jhumpa Lahiri, Michael Ondaatje and Nuruddin Farah. Even though Italy is an oasis of art and culture, Jhumpa Lahiri looks at it with a profound sense of both admiration and sadness in Hema and Kaushik (2008. Her scrutiny of the ancient, pre-imperial ruins of the Etruscan period leads her characters to question life, death and marital life. Similarly, Ondaatje opposes an Italian Renaissance villa to the debris left behind by war in his well-known The English Patient (1992. His Punjabi character Kirpal Singh mentions Gabicce Mare, a place that soon after World War II will become a memorial and cemetery for the Indian troops who fought and died for the liberation of Italy. This discourse is picked up by Helena Janaczeck, a Polish-Italian writer who combines a narrative on Polish migration in Italy with an elegiac narrative about the cemetery and memorial in Cassino, where a Maori goes to visit the tombs of his ancestor, who also participated with the Commonwealth troops in World War II. Nuruddin Farah too, who provides a reportage on Somali immigrants to Italy, seems to consider the country as a springboard either to other North European destinations or to a possible destiny back home. All three writers present Italy according to varied and unusual perspectives.

  10. Plunging ranulas: high-resolution ultrasound for diagnosis and surgical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Prabha; Jain, Ravi; Morton, Randall P.; Ahmad, Zahoor


    We see a high incidence of plunging ranulas, particularly in Maori and Polynesian populations. We have investigated the usefulness of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of plunging ranulas and present our findings. Thirty-three new cases were examined over 4 years (June 2004 to October 2008). High-resolution ultrasound was very successful in determining the extent of the plunging ranula, confirming the cystic nature of the lesion, assessing the status of the mylohyoid muscle (a defect demonstrated in 100% of our cases) and evaluating the sublingual gland for rupture or herniation. Correlation with surgical findings was available for 30 cases. There was excellent ultrasonographic and surgical correlation, particularly with respect to submandibular space cystic collection (29 of 30 cases, 96.7%) and mylohyoid defects (27 of 30 cases, 90%). With the considerations of cost, accessibility and the fact that many of our patients are young (median of 20 years), ultrasound is recommended as the preferred examination for plunging ranula. (orig.)

  11. Plunging ranulas: high-resolution ultrasound for diagnosis and surgical management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Prabha [Middlemore Hospital, Counties Manakau, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 93311, Otahuhu, Auckland (New Zealand); Jain, Ravi [Waikato Hospital, Department of Plastic Surgery, Hamilton (New Zealand); Morton, Randall P.; Ahmad, Zahoor [Middlemore Hospital, Counties Manakau, Department of ENT Surgery, P.O. Box 93311, Otahuhu, Auckland (New Zealand)


    We see a high incidence of plunging ranulas, particularly in Maori and Polynesian populations. We have investigated the usefulness of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of plunging ranulas and present our findings. Thirty-three new cases were examined over 4 years (June 2004 to October 2008). High-resolution ultrasound was very successful in determining the extent of the plunging ranula, confirming the cystic nature of the lesion, assessing the status of the mylohyoid muscle (a defect demonstrated in 100% of our cases) and evaluating the sublingual gland for rupture or herniation. Correlation with surgical findings was available for 30 cases. There was excellent ultrasonographic and surgical correlation, particularly with respect to submandibular space cystic collection (29 of 30 cases, 96.7%) and mylohyoid defects (27 of 30 cases, 90%). With the considerations of cost, accessibility and the fact that many of our patients are young (median of 20 years), ultrasound is recommended as the preferred examination for plunging ranula. (orig.)

  12. Changes in the landsnail fauna of Lady Alice Island, northeastern New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, F.J.


    A small coastal dunefield on Lady Alice Island off northern New Zealand incorporates a stratigraphic record of the historic period and much if not all of the period of prehistoric Maori occupation of the island. Fossil landsnail faunas from the dunefield are closely comparable with those from present-day dune shrubland habitats and differ from contiguous hillslope forest and shrubland faunas. Three of the landsnail species are no longer extant on Lady Alice Island. Two are large species (Amborhytida tarangensis, Placostylus hongii) that are inferred to have become extinct following the introduction of kiore (Rattus exulans) to the island. Failure to find any snail shells with breakages characteristic of rat predation suggests that kiore may not have established on the island until the early 19th century. The other smaller species of landsnail (Phrixgnathus paralaomiformis) probably became extinct in the late 19th or early 20th century as a result of habitat disturbance from fires and cattle. (author). 56 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  13. A missense mutation in ALDH18A1, encoding Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), causes an autosomal recessive neurocutaneous syndrome. (United States)

    Bicknell, Louise S; Pitt, James; Aftimos, Salim; Ramadas, Ram; Maw, Marion A; Robertson, Stephen P


    There are several rare syndromes combining wrinkled, redundant skin and neurological abnormalities. Although phenotypic overlap between conditions has suggested that some might be allelic to one another, the aetiology for many of them remains unknown. A consanguineous New Zealand Maori family has been characterised that segregates an autosomal recessive connective tissue disorder (joint dislocations, lax skin) associated with neurological abnormalities (severe global developmental delay, choreoathetosis) without metabolic abnormalities in four affected children. A genome-screen performed under a hypothesis of homozygosity by descent for an ancestral mutation, identified a locus at 10q23 (Z = 3.63). One gene within the candidate interval, ALDH18A1, encoding Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), was considered a plausible disease gene since a missense mutation had previously been shown to cause progressive neurodegeneration, cataracts, skin laxity, joint dislocations and metabolic derangement in a consanguineous Algerian family. A missense mutation, 2350C>T, was identified in ALDH18A1, which predicts the substitution H784Y. H784 is invariant across all phyla and lies within a previously unrecognised, conserved C-terminal motif in P5CS. In an in vivo assay of flux through this metabolic pathway using dermal fibroblasts obtained from an affected individual, proline and ornithine biosynthetic activity of P5CS was not affected by the H784Y substitution. These data suggest that P5CS may possess additional uncharacterised functions that affect connective tissue and central nervous system function.

  14. Debt on graduation, expected place of practice, and career aspirations of Auckland Medical School students. (United States)

    O'Grady, G; Fitzjohn, J


    To determine the debt level that current Auckland medical students expect to graduate with, and evaluate this debt in the context of their career aspirations and intended place of practice. Simple check-box and fill-in-the-blank surveys were distributed to Auckland University medical students in Years 1 through to 5 during their second week of scheduled lectures in March 2000. Students were asked to provide demographic details, then complete sections on debt and career aspirations. 70% of Auckland medical students participated. Average expected debt was between $60000 to $70000. Predicted size of graduation debt was significantly related with plans to practice medicine overseas, and this trend was especially strong among females. In addition, Maori and Polynesian students bear a disproportionate level of the student debt burden compared to Pakeha and Asian groups. 77% of students indicated a preference for working in private or hospital specialty work. Student debt will have major effects on the composition of the New Zealand medical workforce over coming years. More attention must be paid to the national picture of medical student indebtedness if adequate workforce planning is to be possible.

  15. The effect of ethnicity on different ways of expressing cardiovascular treatment benefits and patient decision-making. (United States)

    Raval, Manjri; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Wells, Susan


    The way information is presented to communicate risk and treatment benefit affects patients' understanding and perception of their risk and can influence their decisions. To assess the effect of ethnicity on patient preferences for different ways of expressing risk and treatment benefits. Using tailored questionnaires, we surveyed Ma¯ori , Pacific and Indian peoples of known CVD risk to assess format preferences encouraging them to take medication or assist their understanding of possible treatment benefits. Statistical analysis determined any association of ethnicity with patient preferences. Of the 376 participants, 50% identified as New Zealand (NZ) European; 15% Maori ; 25% Pacific and 10% Indian ethnicity. Patients preferred positive framing of risk (66%). Relative risk was the format reported as most encouraging to take medication and to understand risk, with natural frequencies least preferable, although Pacific people significantly preferred natural frequencies (pmake decisions on treatment compared to NZ European/Other and Ma¯ori participants (pdecision-making should be considered when tailoring effective communication in primary care. However, individual preferences cannot be presumed and a combination of methods should routinely be used.

  16. Recurrent Merkel cell carcinoma of the testis with unknown primary site: a case report. (United States)

    Mweempwa, Angela; Tan, Alvin; Dray, Michael


    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine tumor that commonly arises in the skin. It is rare for it to occur in the testes. There are only seven cases of testicular Merkel cell carcinoma reported in the literature. A 66-year-old Maori man presented to our hospital with left testicular swelling. His alpha-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin levels were within normal limits. His lactate dehydrogenase concentration was elevated to 267 U/L. Ultrasound imaging confirmed a large testicular mass, and he underwent left orchiectomy. His histological examination revealed a neuroendocrine tumor with an immunostaining pattern suggesting Merkel cell carcinoma. He presented to our hospital again 3 months later with right testicular swelling that was confirmed on ultrasound sonography to be a tumor. He underwent a right orchiectomy, and his histological examination revealed metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. A primary lesion was not identified, and computed tomographic imaging did not reveal spread to other organs. He received six cycles of adjuvant carboplatin and etoposide chemotherapy and remained disease-free 18 months after completion of chemotherapy. Given the paucity of studies, standard adjuvant treatment for testicular Merkel cell carcinoma remains uncertain, although platinum-based chemotherapy seems to be an appropriate option.

  17. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Anceaux


    Full Text Available - L. Sluimers, M.E. Osborne, Strategic hamlets in South Viet-nam. A survey and a comparison. Southeast Asia Program, Department of Asian Studies, Data Paper no. 55. Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1965. XII, 66 blz., X, krt. - L. Sluimers, F.B. Weinstein, Vietnam’s unheld elections: The failure to carry out the 1956 reunification elections and the effect on Hanoi’s present outlook. Data Paper: No. 60, Southeast Asia Program. Department of Asian Studies. Cornell University. Ithaca, Cornell University Press, 1966. VII, 65 blz., XIII. - L. Sluimers, D.E. Weatherbee, Ideology in Indonesia: Sukarno’s Indonesian revolution. Monograph Series No. 8. Southeast Asia Studies, Yale University, 1966. X, 135 blz., VII. - J.H.A. Logemann, Donald E. Weatherbee, Ideology in Indonesia: Soekarno’s Indonesian Revolution. Southeast Asia Studies Monograph Series no. 8. Yale University, 1967. 135 pp., Charts, glossary. - H.J. de Graaf, A.B. Ward, Rajah’s servant. With a preface by Robert M. Pringle and Otto C. Doering III. Data Paper: No. 61. South East Asia Program. Department of Asian Studies. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. Nov. 1966. - J.C. Anceaux, Viktor Krupa, Morpheme and word in Maori. (Janua Linguarum, Series Practica. XLVI. Mouton & Co., The Hague 1966. 83 pp. - G.D. van Wengen, Surinam. Grammofoonplaat, uitgave Philips. Serie: “Song and sound the World Around”. Stereo 831 231 PY (ook als mono speelbaar, 33 1/3 t.

  18. Palaeotsunamis and their significance for prehistoric coastal communities (United States)

    Goff, J. R.


    The damage caused by large tsunamis to human populations at the coast has been all too evident over the past few years. However, while we have seen the immediate after-effects of such events, we are less familiar with the longer term changes associated with them. Using prehistoric New Zealand as a case study, the talk first addresses the wider geological context associated with a tsunami - what caused it and what were the consequences for the physical environment? Prehistoric Maori lived predominantly in coastal settlements, particularly during their early settlement period. They had far ranging canoe trade routes and made widespread use of intertidal and coastal resources. As such it is possible to determine much of the ecological and societal ramifications of a 15th century tsunami inundation. The 15th century tsunami is recorded in numerous purakau or oral recordings. These form part of Maori Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK), but the event can also be identified through archaeological, geological and palaeo-ecological indicators. One of several purakau from the 15th century refers to the "Coming of the Sand". This centres on a place called Potiki-taua, where Potiki and his group settled. Mango-huruhuru, the old priest, built a large house on low land near the sea while Potiki-roa and his wife put theirs on higher ground further inland. Mango-huruhuru's house had a rocky beach in front of it that was unsuitable for landing canoes and so he decided to use his powers to bring sand from Hawaiki. After sunset he sat on his roof and recited a karakia (prayer/chant). On conclusion a dark cloud with its burden of sand reached the shore. The women called out "A! The sea rises; the waves and the sand will overwhelm us". The people fell where they stood and were buried in the sand along with the house and cultivations and all the surrounding country, and with them, the old priest and his youngest daughter (memorialised and turned into a rock which stands there

  19. Incidence of stroke in women in Auckland, New Zealand. Ethnic trends over two decades: 1981-2003. (United States)

    Dyall, Lorna; Carter, Kristie; Bonita, Ruth; Anderson, Craig; Feigin, Valery; Kerse, Ngaire; Brown, Paul


    .73-0.96), increasing trends in event rates in Pacific women were observed (2.71 95% CI 1.00-7.29). The rate of stroke for Maori women did not change significantly over time. Over half of the women who had a stroke event reported that they had high blood pressure; one in four reported that they had diabetes. The proportion of women who smoked declined over time but increases in body mass index (BMI) indicated weight gains in women over time. These trends were consistent across ethnic groups. Women's survival after 1 month following their stroke has improved by 39% (pNew Zealand European women in particular) in Auckland over the past 20 years but there also was a trend towards increasing stroke incidence in Maori, Pacific, and Asian women. These divergent trends are likely to be associated with different trends in the prevalence of risk factors in these ethnic populations. Targeted stroke prevention programmes are needed in New Zealand to meet the needs of specific ethnic groups as well as the needs of providing ongoing care and support to women following their stroke.

  20. A New Zealand Scientific Perspective on 20+ Years of Efforts to Introduce Policies Setting Limits on Emissions: What's the Way Forward? (United States)

    Baisden, T. W.


    political process, the mechanisms by which science is incorporated in decision-making are likely to require simplicity and accessibility to democratic processes. Science must support both simple rules and verification. It must also allow a shared way forward to be identified across a quorum of the many identities present in society, such that the science communication and projection of outcomes is widely acceptable. New Zealand's constitutional recognition of Maori people, and their indigenous right to participate in decision making has formed a perhaps surprising role in successes to date by ensuring the inclusion of Maori identities. Ultimately, the implementation of these points, through science and other pre-requisites, will be critical in restoring confidence to the process of dealing with climate change and the setting of other limits. A major challenge presented by failure so far to control emissions related to climate change is that we now need to prepare to incorporate not just climate mitigation, but also climate impacts and adaptation and other environmental limits within many singular decisions made by businesses and government.

  1. Overweight and obesity in 4-5-year-old children in New Zealand: results from the first 4 years (2009-2012) of the B4School Check programme. (United States)

    Rajput, Nitin; Tuohy, Pat; Mishra, Suryaprakash; Smith, Ash; Taylor, Barry


    We describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity in four-year-old children in New Zealand, variations with ethnicity and socio-economic status, and changes over the study duration using body mass index (BMI) measurements collected as part of the B4School Check programme. Demographic and BMI data were extracted for all children measured between 2009 and 2012. Overweight and obesity rates were estimated using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) 2012 standards and the 85th (overweight) and 95th (obese) percentiles for BMI-for-age of the World Health Organization (WHO) 2006, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 and UK 1990 reference standards. A total of 168,744 BMI measurements were included in the analysis with a coverage rate of 66.5%. Mean BMI was 16.30 kg/m(2) in girls and 16.44 kg/m(2) in boys. Mean BMI z-score (WHO 2006 standards) was 0.601 in girls and 0.785 in boys. Using WHO 2006 standards, 16.9% of girls and 19.6% of boys were overweight and 13.8% of girls and 18.7% of boys were obese. Using IOTF standards, 18.3% of girls and 16.2% of boys were overweight and 5.7% of girls and 4.7% of boys were found obese. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in Pacific and Maori children and those living in more socio-economically deprived areas than other children. No definite time-trends were observed over the study duration. The study reaffirms the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in pre-school children in New Zealand, and demonstrates the variations in prevalence when using different reference standards. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. Impact of the "Like Minds, Like Mine" anti-stigma and discrimination campaign in New Zealand on anticipated and experienced discrimination. (United States)

    Thornicroft, Calum; Wyllie, Allan; Thornicroft, Graham; Mehta, Nisha


    The "Like Minds, Like Mine" anti-stigma and discrimination programme has been running in New Zealand since 1997. We aimed to investigate the nature and degree of anticipated and experienced discrimination reported by people with mental illness, and their views on whether the campaign was contributing to reductions in stigma and discrimination. Questionnaires were sent to randomly selected people who were representative of those who had recently used mental health services in New Zealand. The measure used was the modified Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12), adding questions on the effect of "Like Minds, Like Mine", and also assessing overall changes in discrimination in the previous 5 years. A total of 1135 participants completed the questionnaire. This included 225 Ma-ori, 196 Pacific, and 152 Asian persons. Over half of all participants reported improvement in discrimination over the previous 5 years, and 48% thought that the "Like Minds Like Mine" programme had assisted in reducing discrimination "moderately" or "a lot". Nevertheless, a clear majority (89%) reported experiencing at least "a little" unfair treatment in the previous 12 months due to their mental health problems. The primary source of both positive and negative discrimination was the family. Many (57%) participants had concealed or hidden their mental health problems from others, and 33% had stopped themselves from applying for work because they anticipated discrimination. Family, friendship, and social life were the most common areas of discrimination reported by the participants; however, many believed the overall level of discrimination had reduced over the previous 5 years. Overall, these results characterize the nature of stigma and discrimination anticipated and experienced by people with mental health problems and indicate modest but clear and positive recent progress in their reduction.

  3. Effects of Health-Related Food Taxes and Subsidies on Mortality from Diet-Related Disease in New Zealand: An Econometric-Epidemiologic Modelling Study. (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Genc, Murat; Scarborough, Peter; Rayner, Mike; Mizdrak, Anja; Nnoaham, Kelechi; Blakely, Tony


    Health-related food taxes and subsidies may promote healthier diets and reduce mortality. Our aim was to estimate the effects of health-related food taxes and subsidies on deaths prevented or postponed (DPP) in New Zealand. A macrosimulation model based on household expenditure data, demand elasticities and population impact fractions for 18 diet-related diseases was used to estimate effects of five tax and subsidy regimens. We used price elasticity values for 24 major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, and food expenditure data from national Household Economic Surveys. Changes in mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and other diet-related diseases were estimated. A 20% subsidy on fruit and vegetables would result in 560 (95% uncertainty interval, 400 to 700) DPP each year (1.9% annual all-cause mortality). A 20% tax on major dietary sources of saturated fat would result in 1,500 (950 to 2,100) DPP (5.0%), and a 20% tax on major dietary sources of sodium would result in 2,000 (1300 to 2,700) DPP (6.8%). Combining taxes on saturated fat and sodium with a fruit and vegetable subsidy would result in 2,400 (1,800 to 3,000) DPP (8.1% mortality annually). A tax on major dietary sources of greenhouse gas emissions would generate 1,200 (750 to 1,700) DPP annually (4.0%). Effects were similar or greater for Maori and low-income households in relative terms. Health-related food taxes and subsidies could improve diets and reduce mortality from diet-related disease in New Zealand. Our study adds to the growing evidence base suggesting food pricing policies should improve population health and reduce inequalities, but there is still much work to be done to improve estimation of health impacts.

  4. The New Zealand Asthma and Allergy Cohort Study (NZA2CS: Assembly, Demographics and Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epton Michael J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and allergy are highly prevalent in industrialised countries. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have identified a number of potential risk factors for these conditions, including genetic and environmental factors, with significant gene-environment relationships. Birth cohort studies have been proposed as an important tool to explore these risk factors, particularly exposures in early life that are associated with later disease or protection from disease. This paper describes the establishment of a birth cohort in New Zealand. Methods A birth cohort was established in 1996 in Christchurch and Wellington and infants recruited between 1997–2001. Expectant mothers were recruited by midwives. Children and mothers have undergone assessment by serial questionnaires, environmental assessment including mould and allergen exposure, skin-prick testing, and at age six years are undergoing full assessment for the presence of asthma, atopy and allergic disease, including genetic assessment. Results A total of 1105 children have been recruited, and the retention rate at fifteen months was 91.4%. 15.2% of the children at recruitment have been identified as Maori. A positive family history of asthma, eczema or hay fever has been reported in 84% of children. All children have now been assessed at fifteen months and 685 children from the cohort have reached age six years and have completed the six year assessment. Conclusion The cohort is fully assembled, and assessment of children is well advanced, with good retention rates. The study is well placed to address many current hypotheses about the risk factors for allergic disease and asthma.

  5. Community-based asthma care: trial of a "credit card" asthma self-management plan. (United States)

    D'Souza, W; Crane, J; Burgess, C; Te Karu, H; Fox, C; Harper, M; Robson, B; Howden-Chapman, P; Crossland, L; Woodman, K


    Although asthma self-management plans are widely recommended as essential in the long-term treatment of adult asthma, there have been few studies examining their use. Our objective was to assess the effect of a "credit card" adult asthma self-management plan in a community experiencing major health problems from asthma, by means of a before and after intervention trial of the efficacy of the "credit card" plan, when introduced through community-based asthma clinics. The participants were 69 Maori people with asthma. The "credit card" plan consisted of written guidelines for the self-management of asthma, based on self-assessment of asthma severity, printed on a plastic card. On one side, management guidelines were based on the interpretation of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) recordings, whilst the reverse side was based on symptoms. The outcome measures used were before and after comparison of markers of asthma morbidity and requirement for acute medical treatment; and a structured questionnaire assessing the acceptability and use of the credit card plan. Following the introduction of the plan, the mean PEFR increased from 347 to 389 l.min-1, the percentage of nights woken fell from 30.4 to 16.9%, and the number of days "out of action" fell from 3.8 to 1.7%. The requirements for acute medical treatment also fell during the intervention period. Most participants commented favourably on the content and usefulness of the plan. In the situation of worsening asthma, 28% of subjects found the peak flow side of the card most helpful, 7% the symptoms side, and 48% found both sides equally helpful.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. International Perspectives of Ethical Approval: The New Zealand scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette McCallin Ph.D.


    Full Text Available The paper “Navigating the process of ethical approval” (Carey, 2010 raises many issues about the influence Institutional Ethics Committees have on research methodology and what can or cannot take place in research. Carey draws attention to the ethical challenges classic grounded theory researchers face when an ethical proposal that follows the principles of the methodology is presented to an Ethics Committee, whose main responsibility is the protection of participants. Ethics committees not only guide researchers on acceptable ethical practice, but are charged with monitoring ethical standards and ensuring researchers act in accordance with professional expectations for researchers within the jurisdiction. These committees aim to ensure consistency of ethical practice in research. While there is generally some flexibility in the review process researchers often find ethical requirements constraining, as guidelines are primarily prescriptive and are designed to ensure consistency in the application of universal ethical principles in research. In New Zealand, consistency includes paying attention to broader socio-cultural responsibilities to society that includes promoting awareness of the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumer Rights 1996, the Health Information Privacy Code 1994, and promoting ethical practices which involve Maori (the local indigenous people in research proposals as much as possible (Ministry of Health, 2006. So while researchers in training assume that their prime interest concerns the management of a research topic and methodology, they quickly find out that ethical guidelines influence research design. Even though there is an international code of ethics (Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 2005 that defines ethical standards for researchers around the world, each country has its own specific requirements depending on the context. In this paper, ethical drivers in the New Zealand context are outlined and

  7. Deaths and hospital admissions as a result of home injuries among young and middle-aged New Zealand adults. (United States)

    Kool, Bridget; Chelimo, Carol; Robinson, Elizabeth; Ameratunga, Shanthi


    New Zealand lacks a comprehensive national profile of home injuries, this information is necessary to develop effective targeted injury prevention initiatives. This study describes the epidemiology of unintentional home injuries resulting in death or admission to hospital among young and middle-age New Zealanders. Cases were selected from Ministry of Health public hospital discharge (2000-2009) and mortality data (1998-2007), and included all 20-64 year olds where the place of injury occurrence was classified as 'home'. Only initial hospitalisations with a stay of 24 hours or longer were included. The circumstances of injury were coded according to the ICD-10 external cause categories. Mean annual rates of death or hospitalisation were calculated using census and intercensal denominator data. On average 4000 young and middle-age adults are admitted to hospital and 60 die annually as a result of unintentional injuries sustained at home. Overall, mortality rates were highest amongst males, older adults (50 to 64 years), and Māori. The leading causes of unintentional home injury deaths were poisoning, falls, and burns. Hospitalisation rates were highest among males, the older age groups (> 40 years), and Maori. As age increased so did the incidence of hospital admission. The leading contributors resulting in admission to hospital were falls, cutting or piercing, overexertion, and poisoning. Injuries due to falls had the highest median length of hospital stay and in-hospital mortality rate. As deprivation increased so did the frequency of hospital admissions due to fall and cutting or piercing injuries. Poisonings and falls are the leading causes of unintentional home injury death among young and middle-aged New Zealanders. In addition, falls are a significant contributor to home injury resulting in admission to hospital. The large numbers of home injuries occurring each year in New Zealand, mean that even moderately successful injury prevention interventions could

  8. Globalization and the cultural safety of an immigrant Muslim community. (United States)

    Baker, Cynthia


    This paper reports a study the aim of which was to further understanding of cultural safety by focusing on the social health of a small immigrant community of Muslims in a relatively homogeneous region of Canada following the terror attacks on 11 September 2001 (9/11). The aftermath of 9/11 negatively affected Muslims living in many centers of Western Europe and North America. Little is known about the social health of Muslims in smaller areas with little cultural diversity. Developed by Maori nurses, the cultural safety concept captures the negative health effects of inequities experienced by the indigenous people of New Zealand. Nurses in Canada have used the concept to understand the health of Aboriginal peoples. It has also been used to investigate the nursing care of immigrants in a Canadian metropolitan centre. Findings indicated, however, that the dichotomy between culturally safe and unsafe groups was blurred. The methodology was qualitative, based on the constructivist paradigm. A purposive sample of 26 Muslims of Middle Eastern, Indian or Pakistani origin and residing in the province of New Brunswick, Canada were interviewed in 2002-2003. Findings. Participants experienced a sudden transition from cultural safety to cultural risk following 9/11. Their experience of cultural safety included a sense of social integration in the community and invisibility as a minority. Cultural risk stemmed from being in the spotlight of an international media and becoming a visible minority. Cultural risk is not necessarily rooted in historical events and may be generated by outside forces rather than by longstanding inequities in relationships between groups within the community. Nurses need to think about the cultural safety of their practices when caring for members of socially disadvantaged cultural minority groups as this may affect the health services delivered to them.

  9. Land-use history as a guide for forest conservation and management. (United States)

    Whitlock, Cathy; Colombaroli, Daniele; Conedera, Marco; Tinner, Willy


    Conservation efforts to protect forested landscapes are challenged by climate projections that suggest substantial restructuring of vegetation and disturbance regimes in the future. In this regard, paleoecological records that describe ecosystem responses to past variations in climate, fire, and human activity offer critical information for assessing present landscape conditions and future landscape vulnerability. We illustrate this point drawing on 8 sites in the northwestern United States, New Zealand, Patagonia, and central and southern Europe that have undergone different levels of climate and land-use change. These sites fall along a gradient of landscape conditions that range from nearly pristine (i.e., vegetation and disturbance shaped primarily by past climate and biophysical constraints) to highly altered (i.e., landscapes that have been intensely modified by past human activity). Position on this gradient has implications for understanding the role of natural and anthropogenic disturbance in shaping ecosystem dynamics and assessments of present biodiversity, including recognizing missing or overrepresented species. Dramatic vegetation reorganization occurred at all study sites as a result of postglacial climate variations. In nearly pristine landscapes, such as those in Yellowstone National Park, climate has remained the primary driver of ecosystem change up to the present day. In Europe, natural vegetation-climate-fire linkages were broken 6000-8000 years ago with the onset of Neolithic farming, and in New Zealand, natural linkages were first lost about 700 years ago with arrival of the Maori people. In the U.S. Northwest and Patagonia, the greatest landscape alteration occurred in the last 150 years with Euro-American settlement. Paleoecology is sometimes the best and only tool for evaluating the degree of landscape alteration and the extent to which landscapes retain natural components. Information on landscape-level history thus helps assess current

  10. Barriers to blood glucose monitoring in a multiethnic community. (United States)

    Zgibor, Janice C; Simmons, David


    We studied a multiethnic community to determine factors associated with blood glucose monitoring (BGM) and to determine the independent association between barriers to diabetes care and BGM. A total of 323 participants (35.6% European, 32.2% Maori, and 32.2% Pacific Islander) from the South Auckland Diabetes Project (free of major complications by self-report) completed a qualitative survey to determine barriers to diabetes care. Five barriers to diabetes care categories were generated including internal psychological (self efficacy/health beliefs), external psychological (psychosocial environment), internal physical (comorbidities/side effects of treatment), external physical (finance/access to care), and educational (knowledge of diabetes/services) barriers. Characteristics associated with BGM greater than or equal to twice weekly were female sex, HbA(1c) >8%, higher diabetes knowledge scores, and insulin use. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that those reporting external physical barriers (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.26-0.84), external psychological barriers (0.55, 0.30-1.0), and internal psychological barriers (0.56, 0.32-1.0) were less likely to perform BGM independent of ethnicity, insulin use, age, sex, diabetes knowledge, and glycemic control. Further multivariate analyses demonstrated that those reporting external physical barriers, particularly related to personal finance, were less likely to perform BGM. These data demonstrate that patient-reported barriers to diabetes care are associated with BGM, particularly in relation to financial, psychosocial, and self-efficacy issues. Understanding these barriers and overcoming them within the context of the patient's ethnic environment may lead to increased participation in self-care.

  11. Cultural Memory Inscribed in the Skin: Symbols of Nation as Tattoo Art in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bell


    Full Text Available In New Zealand there is a strand of cultural memory popularly known as 'kiwiana'. The term embraces everyday popular cultural practices - beach activities in summer, food rituals  - as well as an array of vintage artefacts.  The latter are locally manufactured items originating mainly in the 1940s-50s, when import restrictions limited the availability of household goods.  Local makers created products for the domestic market, for instance grocery items (and their logo-bearing containers, household crockery and toys. Those items, intrinsically representations of white (pakeha culture, are fondly recalled by the baby boomers, and have become popular collectibles.  Images of the same items have now become prevalent as decorative motifs on home wares and clothing.Recently a further celebratory strand of kiwiana has now appeared: the inscription of its motifs as extensive permanent skin tattoos. While Maori have always practiced meaningful skin tattoo, and whilst body tattoos in general have joined the realm of fashion, this is something new.  Here we see a recasting of the kiwiana images of popular cultural memory, now drawn onto the body.  One wearer of such a tattoo, a 26 year old plumber, said 'I love New Zealand. I am very proud of who we are and I wouldn't change being a kiwi for the world'. His design, a map of New Zealand on his back in filled with kiwiana items, shows his personal subscription to the populist representations that are utilised as apolitical definition of kiwi­ ness.  Kiwiana tattoo as a growing everyday practice is the focus of this paper.

  12. Sheet-gravel evidence for a late Holocene tsunami run-up on beach dunes, Great Barrier Island, New Zealand (United States)

    Nichol, Scott L.; Lian, Olav B.; Carter, Charles H.


    A semi-continuous sheet of granule to cobble-size clasts forms a distinctive deposit on sand dunes located on a coastal barrier in Whangapoua Bay, Great Barrier Island, New Zealand. The gravel sheet extends from the toe of the foredune to 14.3 m above mean sea level and 200 m landward from the beach. Clasts are rounded to sub-rounded and comprise lithologies consistent with local bedrock. Terrestrial sources for the gravel are considered highly unlikely due to the isolation of the dunes from hillslopes and streams. The only source for the clasts is the nearshore to inner shelf of Whangapoua Bay, where gravel sediments have been previously documented. The mechanism for transport of the gravel is unlikely to be storm surge due to the elevation of the deposit; maximum-recorded storm surge on this coast is 0.8 m above mean high water spring tide. Aeolian processes are also discounted due to the size of clasts and the elevation at which they occur. Tsunami is therefore considered the most probable mechanism for gravel transport. Minimum run-up height of the tsunami was 14.3 m, based on maximum elevation of gravel deposits. Optical ages on dune sands beneath and covering the gravel allow age bracketing to 0-4.7 ka. Within this time frame, numerous documented regional seismic and volcanic events could have generated the tsunami, notably submarine volcanism along the southern Kermadec arc to the east-southeast of Great Barrier Island where large magnitude events are documented for the late Holocene. Radiocarbon ages on shell from Maori middens that appear to have been reworked by tsunami run-up constrain the age of this event to post ca. 1400 AD. Regardless of the precise age of this event, the well-preserved nature of the Whangapoua gravel deposit provides for an improved understanding of the high degree of spatial variability in tsunami run-up.

  13. Application of stable isotopic techniques in the prevention of degenerative diseases like obesity and NIDDM in developing societies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, P.; Iyengar, V.; Sawaya, A.


    Economic development in developing societies characterized by industrialization, urbanization and globalization has seen the emergence of an epidemic of diet and life-style related chronic degenerative diseases. A research project has been initiated under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria, under its Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) to promote the use of stable isotopic techniques to document the extent of the problem and to understand the determinants of this epidemic. The principal objectives of this CRP involving countries both in the North and the South are to define the magnitude of the problem of obesity and non-insulin Dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in developing countries, to identify the vulnerable groups at increased risk and to attempt to describe the metabolic and physiological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. These comparative international studies of obesity and NIDDM are looking at the effects of childhood malnutrition (Brazil and socio-economic differentials (Mexico) on adult risk factors; the composition of the daily diet on obesity (Chile); levels of patterns of physical activity of older adults (China) as well as their influence on weight gain and obesity (Cuba, Nigeria); the impact of body composition and energy expenditure on the evolution frank diabetes from impaired glucose tolerance (Jamaica), and of body compositional changes and the role of inflammatory cytokines on impaired glucose tolerance (India). The last study conducted in New Zealand was aimed at comparing the energy expenditures of Maori (Pacific Island) with New Zealanders of European descent. The findings of the CRP of the MEA in this area carried out in several countries are presented in this article. (author)

  14. Conflicted Heritage: Values, Visions and Practices in the Management and Preservation of Cultural and Environmental Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Kearsley


    Full Text Available Cultural heritage has become of great importance in a number of areas, including self-identity, community identity and as an economic sector through cultural tourism. Most definitions of heritage now accept that it is a perceptual construct with many meanings, both for those who identify and manage it and for those who consume it in various ways. Because heritage can be seen in many lights, the potential for conflict between users, managers and those who own heritage is high. This article examines the nature of heritage and heritage landscapes and discusses the many symbolic and economic benefits that can ensue; the changing nature of the markets for heritage is described. The various monetary and opportunity costs of heritage are discussed and the resultant conflicts outlined. The article goes on to examine the contradictions and conflicts inherent in the concept of authenticity and the issues involved in various modes of interpretation. Here the article asks that if heritage is accepted as that which ‘we’ wish to preserve, then who are ‘we’? This question is explored in the context of the impacts of tourism upon heritage in Southern New Zealand, including the impacts of recent development, perceptions of crowding and the nature of wilderness. Inter-cultural perceptions are explained through the differing perceptions of, and attitudes to, the natural world held by Maori and by others. The article concludes by noting that, while much heritage research is still based upon the product and its presentation, future studies will need to learn more on consumers, their attitudes , expectations and values.

  15. Cross-Cultural Understanding for Global Sustainability: Messages and Meanings from Asian Cultural Landscapes (United States)

    Singh, R.


    Concept of 'multifunctionality' of cultural landscapes is a reflection of imbued meaning and aesthetics inherent there and also human manifestation of this spirit through existence and aliveness by human creation, love and continuance in various cultures and traditions. This sense helps envisioning landscapes that cross urban-rural divides in sustainable and an integrated way - characterised by wholeness and ecospirituality that developed in the cultural history of landscape sustainability. That is how, the idea of 'wholeness' (cosmality) is transformed into 'holiness' (sacrality) ― evolved and represented with sacred ecology and visualised through the cosmic frames of sacredscapes in Asian region that survived there as part of lifeworld. Understanding, feeling, living with, practicing and passing on these inherent meanings and aesthetics provide peace, solace and deeper feelings to human mind which are the ethereal breathe of sustainability. The rethinking should be based on the foundational value ― the reasoning that underlies the ethical sense of deeper understanding of Man-Nature Interrelatedness, the basic philosophy of coexistence ― referred in different cultures in their own ways, like multicultural co-living ('Old-comer') in Korea, harmonious coexistence (tabunka kyosei) in Japan, harmonious society (xiaokang) in China, wahi tapu (sacred places) in Maori's New Zealand, global family (vasudhaiva kutumbakam) in Indian thought, and also African humanism (ubuntu) in South Africa. Think universally, see globally, behave regionally, act locally but insightfully; this is an appeal for shared wisdom for global sustainability in making our cultural landscapes mosaic of happy, peaceful and sustainable places crossing all the borders and transitions, especially interwoven links among Korea, Japan, China, and India.

  16. Evaluating FINDRISC as a screening tool for type 2 diabetes among overweight adults in the PREVIEW:NZ cohort. (United States)

    Silvestre, Marta Paulino; Jiang, Yannan; Volkova, Katya; Chisholm, Hannah; Lee, Wonjoo; Poppitt, Sally Diana


    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a high (≥12) Finnish diabetes risk (FINDRISC) score in identifying undiagnosed prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in an New Zealand population of overweight and obese individuals, across a variety of ethnic groups. We estimated the efficacy of elevated FINDRISC scores in predicting prediabetes and T2D in 424 overweight adults with no prior diagnosis recruited for the PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Interventions in Europe and Worldwide (PREVIEW) study. All participants who completed the FINDRISC questionnaire during a pre-screening phase with a score of ≥12 were then screened using a 2h oral glucose tolerance test (2h-OGTT) to identify undiagnosed dysglycaemia. Of the 424 participants, 65% (n=280) were pre-diabetic and 7% (n=32) had undiagnosed T2D. A higher FINDRISC score was significantly associated with prediabetes and T2D (P=0.02). There was a significant association between ethnicity and glycaemic status (normal vs prediabetes/T2D, P=0.02). Increasing the FINDRISC cut-off to ≥15 resulted in a non-significant increase in the proportion of participants correctly classified with dysglycaemia. ROC-AUC=0.6 with sensitivity=0.6026 (95% CI: 0.5459-0.6573) and specificity=0.5536 (95% CI: 0.4567-0.6476). Isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was more efficient in predicting dysglycaemia than isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). The FINDRISC questionnaire is a useful and efficacious screening tool to identify unknown prediabetes and T2D in overweight New Zealanders, particularly in Maori individuals. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk factors for injury in rugby union football in New Zealand: a cohort study. (United States)

    Chalmers, David J; Samaranayaka, Ari; Gulliver, Pauline; McNoe, Bronwen


    To identify risk factors for injury in amateur club rugby. Prospective cohort design; with follow-up over the 2004 season. Amateur club rugby in New Zealand. Participants Seven hundred and four male rugby players, aged 13 years and over. Assessment of risk factors The study investigated the independent effect on injury incidence of age, ethnicity, rugby experience, height, weight, body mass index, physical activity, cigarette smoking, previous injury, playing while injured, grade, position, training, time of season, warm-up, foul play, weather conditions, ground conditions and protective equipment. Generalised Poisson regression was used to estimate the effect of each factor after adjusting for all other factors. Game injury, defined as 'any event that resulted in an injury requiring medical attention or causing a player to miss at least one scheduled game or team practice'. A total of 704 players, representing 6263 player-games, contributed information on injury and exposure. Evidence was obtained of the effect on injury incidence of increasing age, Pacific Island versus Maori ethnicity (injury rate ratio (IRR)=1.48, 1.03-2.13), ≥40 h strenuous physical activity per week (IRR=1.54, 1.11-2.15), playing while injured (IRR=1.46, 1.20-1.79), very hard ground condition (IRR=1.50, 1.13-2.00), foul-play (IRR=1.87, 1.54-2.27) and use of headgear (IRR=1.23, 1.00-1.50). Opportunities for injury prevention might include promoting injury-prevention measures more vigorously among players of Pacific Island ethnicity, ensuring injured players are fully rehabilitated before returning to play, reducing the effects of ground hardness through ground preparation and stricter enforcement of the laws relating to foul play.

  18. Evidence of increased chromosomal abnormalities in French Polynesian thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violot, D.; M'kacher, R.; Dossou, J.; Adjadj, E.; Vathaire, F. de; Parmentier, C.


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in thyroid cancer patients before and after radioactive iodine administration in order to assess cytogenetic particularity in Polynesian thyroid cancer patients. Chromosomal abnormalities were studied in 30 Polynesian patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, prior to and 4 days after 131 I administration. Unstable chromosomal abnormalities were counted in peripheral blood lymphocytes using a conventional cytogenetic method. Peripheral blood was irradiated in vitro at different doses (0.5, 1 and 2 Gy) in order to establish the dose-response of the lymphocytes. Control groups were composed of 50 European thyroid cancer patients before and after first administration of 131 I, and of ten European healthy donors. In addition, in vitro irradiation assays were performed at different doses (0.5, 1 and 2 Gy). The relative risk of spontaneous dicentrics before any radiation treatment was 2.9 (95% CI 1.7-5.1) times higher among Polynesian thyroid patients than among European thyroid cancer patients. After in vitro irradiation, the rise in frequency of dicentrics was similar in the Polynesian thyroid cancer group and the European thyroid patients and healthy donors. Four days after administration of 3.7 GBq 131 I, the relative risk for a dicentric per cell was 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.5) times higher in Polynesian than in European patients. This can be explained by higher 131 I retention in Polynesian compared with European patients. The results obtained revealed an increased frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities in Polynesian thyroid cancer patients compared with European control patients. These preliminary findings are compatible with possible previous environmental aggression and therefore imply a need for further investigations on larger series including, in particular, French Polynesian healthy donors. In addition to French Polynesians, Maori and Hawaiian control groups could be useful. (orig.)

  19. Non-compliance with growth hormone treatment in children is common and impairs linear growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne S Cutfield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: GH therapy requires daily injections over many years and compliance can be difficult to sustain. As growth hormone (GH is expensive, non-compliance is likely to lead to suboptimal growth, at considerable cost. Thus, we aimed to assess the compliance rate of children and adolescents with GH treatment in New Zealand. METHODS: This was a national survey of GH compliance, in which all children receiving government-funded GH for a four-month interval were included. Compliance was defined as ≥ 85% adherence (no more than one missed dose a week on average to prescribed treatment. Compliance was determined based on two parameters: either the number of GH vials requested (GHreq by the family or the number of empty GH vials returned (GHret. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. FINDINGS: 177 patients were receiving GH in the study period, aged 12.1 ± 0.6 years. The rate of returned vials, but not number of vials requested, was positively associated with HVSDS (p < 0.05, such that patients with good compliance had significantly greater linear growth over the study period (p<0.05. GHret was therefore used for subsequent analyses. 66% of patients were non-compliant, and this outcome was not affected by sex, age or clinical diagnosis. However, Maori ethnicity was associated with a lower rate of compliance. INTERPRETATION: An objective assessment of compliance such as returned vials is much more reliable than compliance based on parental or patient based information. Non-compliance with GH treatment is common, and associated with reduced linear growth. Non-compliance should be considered in all patients with apparently suboptimal response to GH treatment.

  20. Under-utilisation of preventive medication in patients with cardiovascular disease is greatest in younger age groups (PREDICT-CVD 15). (United States)

    Mehta, Suneela; Wells, Sue; Riddell, Tania; Kerr, Andrew; Pylypchuk, Romana; Marshall, Roger; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Chan, Wing Cheuk; Thornley, Simon; Crengle, Sue; Harrison, Jeff; Drury, Paul; Elley, C Raina; Bell, Fionna; Jackson, Rod


    Blood pressure-lowering (BPL) and lipid-lowering (LL) medications together reduce estimated absolute five-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by >40%. International studies indicate that the proportion of people with CVD receiving pharmacotherapy increases with advancing age. To compare BPL and LL medications, by sociodemographic characteristics, for patients with known CVD in primary care settings. The study population included patients aged 35-74 with known CVD assessed in primary care from July 2006 to October 2009 using a web-based computerised decision support system (PREDICT) for risk assessment and management. Clinical data linked anonymously to national sociodemographic and pharmaceutical dispensing databases. Differences in dispensing BPL and LL medications in six months before first PREDICT assessment was analysed according to age, sex, ethnicity and deprivation. Of 7622 people with CVD, 1625 <55 years old, 2862 were women and 4609 lived in deprived areas (NZDep quintiles 4/5). The study population included 4249 European, 1556 Maori, 1151 Pacific and 329 Indian peoples. BPL medications were dispensed to 81%, LL medications to 73%, both BPL and LL medications to 67%, and 87% received either class of medication. Compared with people aged 65-75, people aged 35-44 were 30-40% less likely and those aged 45-54 were 10-15% less likely to be dispensed BPL, LL medications or both. There were minimal differences in likelihood of dispensing according to sex, ethnicity or deprivation. BPL and LL medications are under-utilised in patients with known CVD in New Zealand. Only two-thirds of patients in this cohort are on both. Younger patients are considerably less likely to be on recommended medications.

  1. Development and validation of a predictive risk model for all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Robinson, Tom E; Elley, C Raina; Kenealy, Tim; Drury, Paul L


    Type 2 diabetes is common and is associated with an approximate 80% increase in the rate of mortality. Management decisions may be assisted by an estimate of the patient's absolute risk of adverse outcomes, including death. This study aimed to derive a predictive risk model for all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes. We used primary care data from a large national multi-ethnic cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes in New Zealand and linked mortality records to develop a predictive risk model for 5-year risk of mortality. We then validated this model using information from a separate cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. 26,864 people were included in the development cohort with a median follow up time of 9.1 years. We developed three models initially using demographic information and then progressively more clinical detail. The final model, which also included markers of renal disease, proved to give best prediction of all-cause mortality with a C-statistic of 0.80 in the development cohort and 0.79 in the validation cohort (7610 people) and was well calibrated. Ethnicity was a major factor with hazard ratios of 1.37 for indigenous Maori, 0.41 for East Asian and 0.55 for Indo Asian compared with European (P<0.001). We have developed a model using information usually available in primary care that provides good assessment of patient's risk of death. Results are similar to models previously published from smaller cohorts in other countries and apply to a wider range of patient ethnic groups. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Application of stable isotopic techniques in the prevention of degenerative diseases like obesity and NIDDM in developing societies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, P [Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome (Italy); [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Iyengar, V [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Sawaya, A [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); and others


    Economic development in developing societies characterized by industrialization, urbanization and globalization has seen the emergence of an epidemic of diet and life-style related chronic degenerative diseases. A research project has been initiated under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria, under its Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) to promote the use of stable isotopic techniques to document the extent of the problem and to understand the determinants of this epidemic. The principal objectives of this CRP involving countries both in the North and the South are to define the magnitude of the problem of obesity and non-insulin Dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in developing countries, to identify the vulnerable groups at increased risk and to attempt to describe the metabolic and physiological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. These comparative international studies of obesity and NIDDM are looking at the effects of childhood malnutrition (Brazil and socio-economic differentials (Mexico) on adult risk factors; the composition of the daily diet on obesity (Chile); levels of patterns of physical activity of older adults (China) as well as their influence on weight gain and obesity (Cuba, Nigeria); the impact of body composition and energy expenditure on the evolution frank diabetes from impaired glucose tolerance (Jamaica), and of body compositional changes and the role of inflammatory cytokines on impaired glucose tolerance (India). The last study conducted in New Zealand was aimed at comparing the energy expenditures of Maori (Pacific Island) with New Zealanders of European descent. The findings of the CRP of the MEA in this area carried out in several countries are presented in this article. (author)

  3. The effects of land application of farm dairy effluent on groundwater quality : West Coast 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, T.M.; Hawke, R.M.


    Land application of agricultural effluent is becoming a standard farming practice. The application of farm dairy effluent to land, as opposed to direct discharge to waterways, is the preferred method for disposal in New Zealand as regulatory authorities move to protect and enhance water quality and meet Maori spiritual and cultural values. Land application recognises the nutrient value of dairy effluent; however, it is not without risks. Careful management of land application of the effluent is required because of the potential nutrient and bacterial contamination of groundwater. In 2001, 19 groundwater bores were sampled on four occasions to assess the effects of farm dairy effluent on groundwater quality. Elevated (> 1.6 g m -3 nitrate-nitrogen concentrations were found in 14 of these bores (43 of 74 samples). The available long-term data shows statistically significant increasing trends in nitrate-nitrogen and chloride over the period 1998 to 2007. The nitrate-nitrogen and chloride results suggest effluent is the source of the elevated nitrate-nitrogen; however, the nitrogen isotope analysis indicates that the source of the nitrate-nitrogen may be from fertiliser or soil organic matter (average δ 15 N value of 3.5 permille). Spatially isolated occurrences of bacterial contamination were also recorded: in 7 bores and 12% of all samples analysed. Groundwater dating, using chlorofluorocarbons, suggested that the groundwater in the region was young (8 to 12 years). Overall, the spatial and temporal data suggests human influences are affecting groundwater quality on the West Coast. (author). 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Why the tuberculosis incidence rate is not falling in New Zealand. (United States)

    Das, Dilip; Baker, Michael; Venugopal, Kamalesh; McAllister, Susan


    To assess the role of migration from high-incidence countries, HIV/AIDS infection, and prevalence of multi-drug resistant organisms as contributors to tuberculosis (TB) incidence in New Zealand (NZ) relative to ongoing local transmission and reactivation of disease. TB notification data and laboratory data for the period 1995 to 2004 and population data from the 1996 and 2001 Census were used to calculate incidence rates of TB by age and ethnicity, country of birth (distinguishing high and low -incidence countries), and interval between migration and onset of disease. Published reports of multi-drug-resistant TB for the period 1995 to 2004 were reviewed. Anonymous HIV surveillance data held by AIDS Epidemiology Group were matched with coded and anonymised TB surveillance data to measure the extent of HIV/AIDS coinfection in notified TB cases. Migration of people from high-TB incidence countries is the main source of TB in NZ. Of those who develop TB, a quarter does so within a year of migration, and a quarter of this group (mainly refugees) probably enter the country with pre-existing disease. Rates of local TB transmission and reactivation of old disease are declining steadily for NZ-born populations, except for NZ-born Maori and Pacific people under 40. HIV/AIDS and multi-drug-resistant organisms are not significant contributors to TB incidence in NZ and there is no indication that their role is increasing. TB incidence is not decreasing in NZ mainly due to migration of TB infected people from high-incidence countries and subsequent development of active disease in some of them in NZ. This finding emphasises the importance of regional and global TB control initiatives. Refugees and migrants are not acting as an important source of TB for most NZ-born populations. Those caring for them should have a high level of clinical suspicion for TB.

  5. The incidence, clinical features, and treatment of type 2 diabetes in children Auckland, New Zealand, 1995–2007. (United States)

    Jefferies, Craig; Carter, Philippa; Reed, Peter W; Cutfield, Wayne; Mouat, Fran; Hofman, Paul L; Gunn, Alistair Jan


    The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing in adolescents in most western countries. The time-course of glycemic control and impact of early treatment remain poorly understood. To determine the change in incidence of T2DM, and the time-course of glycemic control in a regional pediatric cohort with T2DM. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on 52 patients with T2DM from a population-based treatment referral cohort from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2007. The annual incidence of new cases of T2DM in children Auckland region of New Zealand from 1995 [0.5/100,000; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.0–2.2] to 2007 (2.5/100,000; 95% CI 1.0–5.5). The average annual incidence per 100,000 over the entire period was 1.3 (95% CI 1.0–1.8) overall, 0.1 (0.0–0.4) in Europeans, and 3.4 in both Maori (2.0–5.3) and Pacifica (2.2–5.0). Fifty-seven percent of children were symptomatic at presentation. Fifty-eight percent of patients were treated with insulin from diagnosis, most of whom were symptomatic (p = 0.003). Follow-up data were available for 48 patients with a mean of 2.4 yr. Although insulin therapy was associated with a greater fall in HbA1c values in the first 12 months of treatment (to a nadir of 7.1 vs. 8.1%, p 9% in both groups. Therapy did not affect body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS). The incidence of T2DM in childhood or adolescence increased markedly over a 13-yr period in the Auckland region. Long-

  6. Epidemiology, disease burden and outcomes of cirrhosis in a large secondary care hospital in South Auckland, New Zealand. (United States)

    Hsiang, J C; Bai, W W; Raos, Z; Stableforth, W; Upton, A; Selvaratnam, S; Gane, E J; Gerred, S J


    Liver cirrhosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality; however, little is known about its impact in New Zealand. We aim to determine the disease burden, epidemiology and outcomes of cirrhotic patients. This is a retrospective study of cirrhosis patients under secondary public hospital care in a geographically defined region, between the years 2000 and 2011. Cirrhosis complications and mortality was recorded. Poisson log-linear regression analysis was performed for incidence rate ratio (IRR) and Cox regression analysis was used to analyse time-related events. Seven hundred and forty-six cirrhotic patients were analysed; most were European/Other (39.9%), Pacific islanders (21.6%), Southeast Asian/Chinese (17.8%) and Maori (12.3%). 68.4% were male. The common primary aetiologies for cirrhosis were chronic hepatitis B (CHB) cirrhosis (37.3%), alcoholic liver disease (ALD) cirrhosis (24.1%), chronic hepatitis C (CHC) cirrhosis (22.3%) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) cirrhosis (16.4%). The hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mortality rates were highest in NAFLD and CHB cirrhosis groups (3.0 and 3.1 per 100 patient-year respectively), compared with ALD and CHC groups (2.2 and 1.4 per 100 patient-year, all P < 0.05 respectively). Patients with ALD and NAFLD cirrhosis had the highest all-cause and non-HCC mortality rate compared with viral hepatitis cirrhosis groups. The IRR for HCC incidence, liver-related mortality and HCC mortality were 1.087, 1.098 and 1.114, respectively (all P < 0.001), suggesting increasing incidence and disease burden over the study period. The number of cirrhotic patients in secondary care is increasing steadily. Cirrhosis complications and mortality rates are also rising, particularly the incidence and mortality of HCC. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  7. Pathways to reduce diabetic ketoacidosis with new onset type 1 diabetes: Evidence from a regional pediatric diabetes center: Auckland, New Zealand, 2010 to 2014. (United States)

    Gunn, Eleanor R; Albert, Benjamin B; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S; Gunn, Alistair J; Jefferies, Craig A


    There has been little change in the incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in children and adolescents in most developed countries. To assess potentially modifiable antecedents of DKA in children Auckland (New Zealand) from 2010 to 2014. DKA and severity were defined according to the ISPAD 2014 guidelines. A total of 263 children presented with new onset T1DM during the 5-year study period at 9.0 years of age (range 1.0-14.7), of whom 61% were NZ-European, 14% Maori, 13% Pacifica, and 11% other. A total of 71 patients (27%) were in DKA, including 31 mild, 20 moderate, and 20 severe DKA. DKA was associated with no family history of T1DM, higher glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values at presentation, self-presenting to secondary care, health care professional contacts in the 4 weeks before final presentation, and greater deprivation. Although a delay in referral from primary care for laboratory testing was common (81/216), only delay for more than 48 hours was associated with increased risk of DKA (11/22 > 48 h vs 12/59 referred at <48 h, P = .013). These data suggest that in addition to lack of family awareness potentially modifiable risk factors for new onset DKA include prolonged delay for laboratory testing and a low index of medical suspicion for T1DM leading to delayed diagnosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The epidemiology of plunging ranula in South Auckland. (United States)

    Chin, Seung Joon; Zeng, Irene S L; Morton, Randall P


    Estimate the incidence rate and provide basic descriptive epidemiologic characteristics of plunging ranulas in a multi-ethnic population. Case series with chart review. The study group comprised all Counties Manukau Health (CMH, Manukau City, Auckland, New Zealand) patients presenting to the CMH Department of Otolaryngology with a diagnosis of plunging ranula from January 2001 to December 2013, as recorded in the departmental case register. Non-CMH domicile patients were excluded. South Auckland comprised the base population, as serviced by CMH. The 2006 New Zealand census data was used for population demographics. A total of 134 cases of plunging ranula were identified. The overall annual crude incidence rate was 2.4 per 100,000 person-years. The gender specific incidence rate for males was 3.2 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.5. 3.9) and for females was 2.0 per 100,000 (95% CI: 1.5, 2.6). The overall age-adjusted annual incidence rate was 2.6 per 100,000 (95% CI: 2.1, 3.0). The age-adjusted incidence was highest among Maori (6.7 per 100,000, 95% CI 4.9, 8.4), followed by Pacific Island (4.4 per 100,000, 95% CI 3.2, 5.6), Asian (0.7 per 100,000, 95% CI 0.2, 1.2), and European population (0.6 per 100,000, 95% CI 0.3, 0.8). We have quantified for the first time the age-specific and age-adjusted incidence rates for plunging ranula by gender and ethnicity. The results show a likely underlying genetic predisposition for this condition, possibly with a superimposed environmental acquired factor relating to external, minor blunt trauma to the neck. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:2739-2743, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Brain abscess in the computed tomography era: A 10-year experience from Auckland, New Zealand (United States)

    Holland, DJ; Cooper, B; Garner, J; Ellis-Pegler, R; Mee, E


    Notes were reviewed for 68 patients with brain abscess diagnosed at Auckland Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand between 1978 and 1988. Mean age was 30 years (range one week to 74 years). There were 48 men and 40% were Maori or Pacific Island Polynesians. Seventy-two per cent of patients had headache, 54% had fever and 72% had lateralizing neurological signs. Thirty-one per cent of abscesses were associated with contiguous infection (otic, sinus, dental). Forty-four per cent were in the frontal lobe. Two abscesses were sterile; 197 bacterial isolates were cultured from the remainder. Fifty-four per cent contained obligate anaerobes, which were the only isolates in 22%. Streptococcus anginosus was the single most common isolate present in 22% of the abscesses. Amoxycillin plus metronidazole provided cover for approximately 95% of the total isolates on the basis of sensitivity testing. Treatment was with surgery and antibiotics in all but three patients, who were cured with antibiotics alone. Sixty per cent had a definitive regimen of penicillin (or ampicillin/amoxycillin) and/or metronidazole, always intravenous initially but subsequently often orally. Median duration of antibiotic treatment was 57 days (range 28 to 206). Seventy-five per cent had initial aspiration, 9% open drainage and 7% were excised initially. Seventy-one per cent had a good functional outcome. Mortality was 8.8%. Factors associated with a poor outcome were trauma as a cause, and delays after admission of more than seven days to diagnosis and/or operation. PMID:22346451

  10. The prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety, and the level of life stress and worry in New Zealand Māori and non-Māori women in late pregnancy. (United States)

    Signal, T Leigh; Paine, Sarah-Jane; Sweeney, Bronwyn; Muller, Diane; Priston, Monique; Lee, Kathryn; Gander, Philippa; Huthwaite, Mark


    To describe the prevalence of symptoms of depression and anxiety, and the level of life stress and worry in late pregnancy for Māori and non-Māori women. In late pregnancy, women completed a questionnaire recording their prior history of mood disorders; self-reported current depressive symptoms (⩾13 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), current anxiety symptoms (⩾6 on the anxiety items from the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), significant life stress (⩾2 items on life stress scale) and dysfunctional worry (>12 on the Brief Measure of Worry Scale). Data were obtained from 406 Māori women (mean age = 27.6 years, standard deviation=6.3 years) and 738 non-Māori women (mean age = 31.6 years, standard deviation=5.3 years). Depressive symptoms (22% vs 15%), anxiety symptoms (25% vs 20%), significant life stress (55% vs 30%) and a period of poor mood during the current pregnancy (18% vs 14%) were more prevalent for Māori than non-Maori women. Less than 50% of women who had experienced ⩾2 weeks of poor mood during the current pregnancy had sought help. Being young was an independent risk factor for depressive symptoms, significant life stress and dysfunctional worry. A prior history of depression was also consistently associated with a greater risk of negative affect in pregnancy. Antenatal mental health requires at least as much attention and resourcing as mental health in the postpartum period. Services need to specifically target Māori women, young women and women with a prior history of depression.

  11. Estimating Regions of Oceanographic Importance for Seabirds Using A-Spatial Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Richard Woodrow Humphries

    Full Text Available Advances in GPS tracking technologies have allowed for rapid assessment of important oceanographic regions for seabirds. This allows us to understand seabird distributions, and the characteristics which determine the success of populations. In many cases, quality GPS tracking data may not be available; however, long term population monitoring data may exist. In this study, a method to infer important oceanographic regions for seabirds will be presented using breeding sooty shearwaters as a case study. This method combines a popular machine learning algorithm (generalized boosted regression modeling, geographic information systems, long-term ecological data and open access oceanographic datasets. Time series of chick size and harvest index data derived from a long term dataset of Maori 'muttonbirder' diaries were obtained and used as response variables in a gridded spatial model. It was found that areas of the sub-Antarctic water region best capture the variation in the chick size data. Oceanographic features including wind speed and charnock (a derived variable representing ocean surface roughness came out as top predictor variables in these models. Previously collected GPS data demonstrates that these regions are used as "flyways" by sooty shearwaters during the breeding season. It is therefore likely that wind speeds in these flyways affect the ability of sooty shearwaters to provision for their chicks due to changes in flight dynamics. This approach was designed to utilize machine learning methodology but can also be implemented with other statistical algorithms. Furthermore, these methods can be applied to any long term time series of population data to identify important regions for a species of interest.

  12. Effects of Health-Related Food Taxes and Subsidies on Mortality from Diet-Related Disease in New Zealand: An Econometric-Epidemiologic Modelling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliona Ni Mhurchu

    Full Text Available Health-related food taxes and subsidies may promote healthier diets and reduce mortality. Our aim was to estimate the effects of health-related food taxes and subsidies on deaths prevented or postponed (DPP in New Zealand.A macrosimulation model based on household expenditure data, demand elasticities and population impact fractions for 18 diet-related diseases was used to estimate effects of five tax and subsidy regimens. We used price elasticity values for 24 major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, and food expenditure data from national Household Economic Surveys. Changes in mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and other diet-related diseases were estimated.A 20% subsidy on fruit and vegetables would result in 560 (95% uncertainty interval, 400 to 700 DPP each year (1.9% annual all-cause mortality. A 20% tax on major dietary sources of saturated fat would result in 1,500 (950 to 2,100 DPP (5.0%, and a 20% tax on major dietary sources of sodium would result in 2,000 (1300 to 2,700 DPP (6.8%. Combining taxes on saturated fat and sodium with a fruit and vegetable subsidy would result in 2,400 (1,800 to 3,000 DPP (8.1% mortality annually. A tax on major dietary sources of greenhouse gas emissions would generate 1,200 (750 to 1,700 DPP annually (4.0%. Effects were similar or greater for Maori and low-income households in relative terms.Health-related food taxes and subsidies could improve diets and reduce mortality from diet-related disease in New Zealand. Our study adds to the growing evidence base suggesting food pricing policies should improve population health and reduce inequalities, but there is still much work to be done to improve estimation of health impacts.

  13. What is behind smoker support for new smokefree areas? National survey data

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    Wilson Nick


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some countries have started to extend indoor smokefree laws to cover cars and various outdoor settings. However, policy-modifiable factors around smoker support for these new laws are not well described. Methods The New Zealand (NZ arm of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey (ITC Project derives its sample from the NZ Health Survey (a national sample. From this sample we surveyed adult smokers (n = 1376. Results For the six settings considered, 59% of smokers supported at least three new completely smokefree areas. Only 2% favoured smoking being allowed in all the six new settings. Support among Maori, Pacific and Asian smokers relative to European smokers was elevated in multivariate analyses, but confidence intervals often included 1.0. Also in the multivariate analyses, "strong support" by smokers for new smokefree area laws was associated with greater knowledge of the second-hand smoke (SHS hazard, and with behaviours to reduce SHS exposure towards others. Strong support was also associated with reporting having smokefree cars (aOR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.21 - 2.34; and support for tobacco control regulatory measures by government (aOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.32 - 2.01. There was also stronger support by smokers with a form of financial stress (not spending on household essentials. Conclusions Smokers from a range of population groups can show majority support for new outdoor and smokefree car laws. Some of these findings are consistent with the use of public health strategies to support new smokefree laws, such as enhancing public knowledge of the second-hand smoke hazard.

  14. The Vitamin D Assessment (ViDA) Study: design of a randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, acute respiratory infection, falls and non-vertebral fractures. (United States)

    Scragg, Robert; Waayer, Debbie; Stewart, Alistair W; Lawes, Carlene M M; Toop, Les; Murphy, Judy; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Camargo, Carlos A


    Observational studies have shown that low vitamin D status is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, acute respiratory infection, falls and non-vertebral fractures. We recruited 5110 Auckland adults, aged 50-84 years, into a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to test whether vitamin D supplementation protects against these four major outcomes. The intervention is a monthly cholecalciferol dose of 100,000IU (2.5mg) for an estimated median 3.3 years (range 2.5-4.2) during 2011-2015. Participants were recruited primarily from family practices, plus community groups with a high proportion of Maori, Pacific, or South Asian individuals. The baseline evaluation included medical history, lifestyle, physical measurements (e.g. blood pressure, arterial waveform, lung function, muscle function), and a blood sample (stored at -80°C for later testing). Capsules are being mailed to home addresses with a questionnaire to collect data on non-hospitalized outcomes and to monitor adherence and potential adverse effects. Other data sources include New Zealand Ministry of Health data on mortality, hospitalization, cancer registrations and dispensed pharmaceuticals. A random sample of 438 participants returned for annual collection of blood samples to monitor adherence and safety (hypercalcemia), including repeat physical measurements at 12 months follow-up. The trial will allow testing of a priori hypotheses on several other endpoints including: weight, blood pressure, arterial waveform parameters, heart rate variability, lung function, muscle strength, gait and balance, mood, psoriasis, bone density, and chronic pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Flavor or Forethought: Tuhoe Traditional Management Strategies for the Conservation of Kereru (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae novaeseelandiae in New Zealand

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    Philip O'B. Lyver


    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge from indigenous cultures about wildlife populations can offer insights beneficial for management in the face of global climate change. Semistructured interviews and workshops conducted with Maori elders from the Tuhoe tribe in the Te Urewera region of New Zealand provided knowledge about traditional management strategies for New Zealand pigeon (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae novaeseelandiae, known locally as kereru, as well as signals of changes in local climate patterns and how these influence kereru. We used a population simulation exercise to demonstrate the feasibility of a harvest management strategy used by the Tuhoe to sustain kereru. Our models also indicated how potential changes in climate and subsequent decisions about harvest timing might affect a theoretical kereru population. Elders identified mana (authority, mauri (essence or life force, tikanga (traditional custom, and ture (societal guidelines, and the use of tohu (signals or markings, tapu (sacredness, muru (social deterrent, and rahui (temporary harvest bans as key elements and ideologies in the traditional management of kereru. They linked an increased climatic warming trend to delays of three to four months in the fruiting of some trees, such as toromiro (Podocarpus ferrugineus, deemed important for kereru nutrition and body condition. The Tuhoe have traditionally harvested both adult and newly fledged kereru when they are feeding on toromiro fruit, so a three- to four-month delay in fruiting could potentially defer the harvest until the prebreeding period. Our simulation models demonstrated that harvesting kereru adults and fledglings in the postbreeding stage had less impact on population abundance than only harvesting adults only during the prebreeding phase. The model indicated that the Tuhoe would need to re-evaluate their harvest strategy if climate-induced delays in toromiro fruiting were to become more frequent. This study emphasizes how using both

  16. Light to Moderate Alcohol Consumption Is Protective for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Normal Weight and Overweight Individuals but Not the Obese

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    Patricia A. Metcalf


    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association between alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM overall and by body mass index. Methods. Cross-sectional study of employed individuals. Daily alcohol intakes were calculated from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire by 5,512 Maori, Pacific Island, and European workers (3,992 men, 1520 women aged 40 years and above. Results. There were 170 new cases of T2DM. Compared to the group with no alcohol consumption and adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, the group consuming alcohol had relative risks of T2DM of 0.23 (95% CI: 0.08, 0.65 in normal weight individuals, 0.38 (0.18, 0.81 in overweight individuals, and 0.99 (0.59, 1.67 in obese individuals. After further adjusting for total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, smoking habit, physical activity, socioeconomic status, body mass index, and hypertension, the relative risks of T2DM were 0.16 (0.05, 0.50 in normal weight individuals, 0.43 (0.19, 0.97 in overweight individuals, and 0.92 (0.52, 1.60 in overweight individuals. Across the categories of alcohol consumption, there was an approximate U-shaped relationship for new cases of T2DM. There was no significant association between alcohol consumption and IGT. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption was protective against diagnosis of T2DM in normal and overweight individuals but not in the obese.

  17. Natural vs human-induced changes at the Tauranga Harbour area (New Zealand): a time -series acoustic seabed classification comparison (United States)

    Capperucci, Ruggero Maria; Bartholomä, Alexander; Renken, Sabrina; De Lange, Willem


    The Tauranga Harbour Bay (New Zealand) is a mesotidal estuary system, enclosed by the Matakana barrier island. It hosts the leading export port in New Zealand and the second largest import port by value. Coastal changes are well documented over the last decades, mainly at the southern entrance of the area, between Matakana Island and Mt. Maunganui. It is an extremely dynamic environment, where natural processes are strongly influenced by human activities. In particular, the understanding of the recent evolution of the system is crucial for policymakers. In fact, the cumulative impact due to the maintenance of the port (mainly dredging activities, shipping, facilities construction, but also increasing tourism) and its already approved expansion clashes with the claim of the local Maori communities, which recently leaded to a court action. A hydroacoustic multiple-device survey (Side-scan Sonar SSS, Multibeam Echo-sounder MBES and Single Beam Echo-sounder) coupled with sediment sampling was carried out in March 2011 over an area of 0.8 km2, southern Matakana Island, along the Western Channel. The area is not directly impacted by dredging activities, resulting in an optimal testing site for assessing indirect effects of human disturbance on coastal dynamics. The main goals were: 1. To test the response of different acoustic systems in such a highly dynamic environment; 2. To study the influence of dredging activities on sediment dynamics and habitat changes, by means of comparing the current data with existing ones, in order to distinguish between natural and human induced changes Results demonstrate a good agreement between acoustic classifications from different systems. They seem to be mainly driven by the sediment distribution, with a distinctive fingerprint given by shells and shell fragments. Nevertheless, the presence of relevant topographic features (i.e. large bedform fields) influences swath-looking systems (SSS and MBES). SSS and MBES classifications tend

  18. The future of population registers: linking routine health datasets to assess a population's current glycaemic status for quality improvement. (United States)

    Chan, Wing Cheuk; Jackson, Gary; Wright, Craig Shawe; Orr-Walker, Brandon; Drury, Paul L; Boswell, D Ross; Lee, Mildred Ai Wei; Papa, Dean; Jackson, Rod


    To determine the diabetes screening levels and known glycaemic status of all individuals by age, gender and ethnicity within a defined geographic location in a timely and consistent way to potentially facilitate systematic disease prevention and management. Retrospective observational study. Auckland region of New Zealand. 1 475 347 people who had utilised publicly funded health service in New Zealand and domicile in the Auckland region of New Zealand in 2010. The health service utilisation population was individually linked to a comprehensive regional laboratory repository dating back to 2004. The two outcomes measures were glycaemia-related blood testing coverage (glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting and random glucose and glucose tolerance tests), and the proportions and number of people with known dysglycaemia in 2010 using modified American Diabetes Association (ADA) and WHO criteria. Within the health service utilisation population, 792 560 people had had at least one glucose or HbA1c blood test in the previous 5.5 years. Overall, 81% of males (n=198 086) and 87% of females (n=128 982) in the recommended age groups for diabetes screening had a blood test to assess their glycaemic status. The estimated age-standardised prevalence of dysglycaemia was highest in people of Pacific Island ethnicity at 11.4% (95% CI 11.2% to 11.5%) for males and 11.6% (11.4% to 11.8%) for females, followed closely by people of Indian ethnicity at 10.8% (10.6% to 11.1%) and 9.3% (9.1% to 9.6%), respectively. Among the indigenous Maori population, the prevalence was 8.2% (7.9% to 8.4%) and 7% (6.8% to 7.2%), while for 'Others' (mainly Europeans) it was 3% (3% to 3.1%) and 2.2% (2.1% to 2.2%), respectively. We have demonstrated that the data linkage between a laboratory repository and national administrative datasets has the potential to provide a systematic and consistent individual level clinical information that is relevant to medical auditing for a large geographically defined

  19. A theory-based video messaging mobile phone intervention for smoking cessation: randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Whittaker, Robyn; Dorey, Enid; Bramley, Dale; Bullen, Chris; Denny, Simon; Elley, C Raina; Maddison, Ralph; McRobbie, Hayden; Parag, Varsha; Rodgers, Anthony; Salmon, Penny


    Advances in technology allowed the development of a novel smoking cessation program delivered by video messages sent to mobile phones. This social cognitive theory-based intervention (called "STUB IT") used observational learning via short video diary messages from role models going through the quitting process to teach behavioral change techniques. The objective of our study was to assess the effectiveness of a multimedia mobile phone intervention for smoking cessation. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 6-month follow-up. Participants had to be 16 years of age or over, be current daily smokers, be ready to quit, and have a video message-capable phone. Recruitment targeted younger adults predominantly through radio and online advertising. Registration and data collection were completed online, prompted by text messages. The intervention group received an automated package of video and text messages over 6 months that was tailored to self-selected quit date, role model, and timing of messages. Extra messages were available on demand to beat cravings and address lapses. The control group also set a quit date and received a general health video message sent to their phone every 2 weeks. The target sample size was not achieved due to difficulty recruiting young adult quitters. Of the 226 randomized participants, 47% (107/226) were female and 24% (54/226) were Maori (indigenous population of New Zealand). Their mean age was 27 years (SD 8.7), and there was a high level of nicotine addiction. Continuous abstinence at 6 months was 26.4% (29/110) in the intervention group and 27.6% (32/116) in the control group (P = .8). Feedback from participants indicated that the support provided by the video role models was important and appreciated. This study was not able to demonstrate a statistically significant effect of the complex video messaging mobile phone intervention compared with simple general health video messages via mobile phone. However, there was

  20. Survey of maternal sleep practices in late pregnancy in a multi-ethnic sample in South Auckland, New Zealand. (United States)

    Cronin, Robin S; Chelimo, Carol; Mitchell, Edwin A; Okesene-Gafa, Kara; Thompson, John M D; Taylor, Rennae S; Hutchison, B Lynne; McCowan, Lesley M E


    The Auckland Stillbirth study demonstrated a two-fold increased risk of late stillbirth for women who did not go to sleep on their left side. Two further studies have confirmed an increased risk of late stillbirth with supine sleep position. As sleep position is modifiable, we surveyed self-reported late pregnancy sleep position, knowledge about sleep position, and views about changing going-to-sleep position. Participants in this 2014 survey were pregnant women (n = 377) in their third trimester from South Auckland, New Zealand, a multi-ethnic and predominantly low socio-economic population. An ethnically-representative sample was obtained using random sampling. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors independently associated with non-left sided going-to-sleep position in late pregnancy. Respondents were 28 to 42 weeks' gestation. Reported going-to-sleep position in the last week was left side (30%), right side (22%), supine (3%), either side (39%) and other (6%). Two thirds (68%) reported they had received advice about sleep position. Non-left sleepers were asked if they would be able to change to their left side if it was better for their baby; 87% reported they would have little or no difficulty changing. Women who reported a non-left going-to-sleep position were more likely to be of Maori (aOR 2.64 95% CI 1.23-5.66) or Pacific (aOR 2.91 95% CI 1.46-5.78) ethnicity; had a lower body mass index (BMI) (aOR 0.93 95% CI 0.89-0.96); and were less likely to sleep on the left-hand side of the bed (aOR 3.29 95% CI 2.03-5.32). Maternal going-to-sleep position in the last week was side-lying in 91% of participants. The majority had received advice to sleep on their side or avoid supine sleep position. Sleeping on the left-hand side of the bed was associated with going-to-sleep on the left side. Most non-left sleepers reported their sleeping position could be modified to the left side suggesting a public health intervention about sleep

  1. ANDRILL Education and Public Outreach: A Legacy of the IPY (United States)

    Rack, F. R.; Huffman, L. T.; Reed, J.; Harwood, D. M.; Berg, M.; Diamond, J.; Fox, A.; Dahlman, L. E.; Levy, R. H.


    include project outcomes, video journals, ARISE blogs, and other resources. The web pages continue to provide key educational outcomes by providing resources for students, teachers and the general public. The FLEXHIBIT banners and posters focus on five (5) Antarctic themes with a booklet of polar science activities. The banners are translated into German, Italian, French, Spanish, and Kiwi English with Maori subheadings. Smaller FLEXHIBIT posters with activities on the backs have been bundled into Teachers Packets that include two DVDs of ANDRILL’s educational content. The FLEXHIBIT posters have been translated into Italian, Spanish and Arabic. ANDRILL has demonstrated the value of EPO and has invested time and resources to improve polar and climate science literacy. ANDRILL’s EPO efforts give teachers, students and the public exposure to key scientific findings regarding climate change and the new knowledge interpreted from the ANDRILL cores.

  2. Water cycle meets media cycle: Hydrology engagement and social media in New Zealand (United States)

    Collins, D. B.; Woods, R. A.


    The dispersal of scientific knowledge is an on-going challenge for the research community, particularly for the more applied disciplines such as hydrology. To a large degree this arises because key stakeholders do not readily follow the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Even publicly accessible technical reports may be out of sight from many in both the research and stakeholder communities. The challenge to science communication is further compounded by an increasing pressure to raise the hydrological literacy of the public, as water resource management decisions become increasingly collaborative. In these situations, the diversification of communication channels and more rapid interactions between stakeholders and scientists can be of great value. The use of social media in the communication and advancement of hydrological science in New Zealand is a case in point. Two such initiatives are described here: a hydrology blog and a crowd-sourcing data collection campaign using Facebook. The hydrology blog, Waiology (a variant of "hydrology" with the Greek prefix for water replaced by its Maori equivalent), was set up with two main goals in mind: to foster greater understanding and appreciation of hydrology among the New Zealand public, and to more rapidly share new hydrological knowledge within the New Zealand hydrological community. In part, it has also been an experiment to test whether this mode of engagement is worthwhile. Measuring the success of the initiative has proven difficult, but has led to a suite of metrics that collectively gauge popular and professional interest and use of the material. To name a few, this includes visit statistics (taking note of the institution of the visitor), subscriptions, and non-internet citations. Results indicate that, since the blog's inception in mid-2011, it has become a valued resource for the NZ hydrological community and an interesting website for the general public. The second example centered on the use of Facebook

  3. A comparative analysis of cardiovascular disease risk profiles of five Pacific ethnic groups assessed in New Zealand primary care practice: PREDICT CVD-13. (United States)

    Grey, Corina; Wells, Sue; Riddell, Tania; Pylypchuk, Romana; Marshall, Roger; Drury, Paul; Elley, Raina; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Gentles, Dudley; Erick-Peletiy, Stephanie; Bell, Fionna; Kerr, Andrew; Jackson, Rod


    Data on the cardiovascular disease risk profiles of Pacific peoples in New Zealand is usually aggregated and treated as a single entity. Little is known about the comparability or otherwise of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk between different Pacific groups. To compare CVD risk profiles for the main Pacific ethnic groups assessed in New Zealand primary care practice to determine if it is reasonable to aggregate these data, or if significant differences exist. A web-based clinical decision support system for CVD risk assessment and management (PREDICT) has been implemented in primary care practices in nine PHOs throughout Auckland and Northland since 2002, covering approximately 65% of the population of these regions. Between 2002 and January 2009, baseline CVD risk assessments were carried out on 11,642 patients aged 35-74 years identifying with one or more Pacific ethnic groups (4933 Samoans, 1724 Tongans, 1366 Cook Island Maori, 880 Niueans, 1341 Fijians and 1398 people identified as Other Pacific or Pacific Not Further Defined). Fijians were subsequently excluded from the analyses because of a probable misclassification error that appears to combine Fijian Indians with ethnic Fijians. Prevalences of smoking, diabetes and prior history of CVD, as well as mean total cholesterol/HDL ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and Framingham 5-year CVD risk were calculated for each Pacific group. Age-adjusted risk ratios and mean differences stratified by gender were calculated using Samoans as the reference group. Cook Island women were almost 60% more likely to smoke than Samoan women. While Tongan men had the highest proportion of smoking (29%) among Pacific men, Tongan women had the lowest smoking proportion (10%) among Pacific women. Tongan women and Niuean men and women had a higher burden of diabetes than other Pacific ethnic groups, which were 20-30% higher than their Samoan counterparts. Niuean men and women had lower blood pressure levels than all

  4. Hazard assessment for a submarine landslide generated local-source tsunami from Kaikoura Canyon (United States)

    DuBois, J.


    The Kaikoura Canyon, sediment sink for the Canterbury rivers north of Christchurch, comes to within 500 meters of shore at Goose Bay and accumulates approximately 1.5x106 m3 of sediment each year (Lewis and Barnes, 1999). This sediment, which has accumulated to about seventy meters in thickness (Walters et al., 2006), exhibits tensional fractures, is located in a tectonically active area and could result in catastrophic failure and potentially a local-source tsunami (Lewis and Banes, 1999; Lewis, 1998; Walters et al, 2006). Evidence suggests that this may have happened in the last two hundred years (Lewis, 1998; Lewis and Barnes 1999) and with a return period on the nearby Alpine and Hope faults also in the range of a one to two hundred years (Walters et al, 2006) could happen again relatively soon. A review of the historical record and oral traditions for Kaikoura shows that historically Kaikoura has been affected by 11 events of which 10 are from distant sources and one, though debatable, is possibly from a local source. There are some preserved traditions for the Kaikoura area. These taniwha stories from near Oaro and from the Lyell Creek have been repeated and changed though time though the general essence remains the same. These taniwha legends, though not conclusive, indicate a dangerous shoreline where people have been killed in the past, possibly by flooding or tsunami. Archaeological investigations at Kaikoura found evidence of a Maori occupational layers interrupted by water-worn stones, a "lens of clean gravel between occupation layers" and in other areas of the excavation, the gravels separate discontinuous periods of occupation (Fomison 1963; Foster, 2006). Additionally "pea-gravel" sized greywacke pebbles were found dispersed throughout sections of the South Bay shore platforms, though they were attributesd to slopewash (Duckmanton, 1974) this is less likely since the nearby hills are limestone. A geological investigation along the Kaikoura Coast, at