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Sample records for westinghouse tubular sofc

  1. SOFC mini-tubulares basadas en YSZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campana, R.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Tubular SOFC have the advantage over planar SOFC of the low temperature sealing and more resistance to thermal shock. On the other hand the volumetric power density of tubular Fuel Cells goes with the inverse of the tube diameter which added to the faster warm-up kinetics makes low diameter tubular SOFC favorable for low power applications. Anode supported tubular SOFC of 3mm diameter and 150 mm length with YSZ electrolyte were fabricated and tested by V-I measurements using H2-Ar (5, 10, 100 vol% as fuel and air for the cathode. The NiO-YSZ tubes of about 400 μm thickness were produced by hydrostatic pressure and then coated with an YSZ film of 15-20 μm. The electrolyte was deposited using a manual aerograph. After sintering either Pt paste or LSF (with YSZ or SDC coatings of about 20-50 μm thickness were deposited for the cathode. The OCV of the cells were excellent, very close to the expected Nernst law prediction indicating that there were not gas leaks. The maximun electrical power of the cell was near to 500mW/cm2 at 850ºC operation temperature. Complex impedance measurements of the cells were performed in order to determine the resistance of the different cell components.

    La principal ventaja de las SOFC tubulares frente a las planares es el sellado de la cámara anódica y catódica a bajas temperaturas. Además la densidad de energía volumétrica de las pilas tubulares es inversamente proporcional al diámetro del tubo, que añadido a los tiempos cortos de encendido y apagado hacen que las mini-tubulares sean interesantes para usos de baja potencia. Se han fabricado y caracterizado SOFC tubulares soportadas en ánodo de 3mm de diámetro y de 150 mm de longitud, 400μm de espesor, con electrolito de YSZ depositado por spray de 15-20 μm. Los tubos de NiO-YSZ son producidos por prensado isostático. La caracterización eléctrica se ha realizado empleando H2-Ar como combustible an

  2. Current status of Westinghouse tubular solid oxide fuel cell program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W.G. [Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    In the last ten years the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) development program at Westinghouse has evolved from a focus on basic material science to the engineering of fully integrated electric power systems. Our endurance for this cell is 5 to 10 years. To date we have successfully operated at power for over six years. For power plants it is our goal to have operated before the end of this decade a MW class power plant. Progress toward these goals is described.

  3. Thermodynamic model and parametric analysis of a tubular SOFC module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanari, Stefano

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been considered in the last years as one of the most promising technologies for very high-efficiency electric energy generation from natural gas, both with simple fuel cell plants and with integrated gas turbine-fuel cell systems. Among the SOFC technologies, tubular SOFC stacks with internal reforming have emerged as one of the most mature technology, with a serious potential for a future commercialization. In this paper, a thermodynamic model of a tubular SOFC stack, with natural gas feeding, internal reforming of hydrocarbons and internal air preheating is proposed. In the first section of the paper, the model is discussed in detail, analyzing its calculating equations and tracing its logical steps; the model is then calibrated on the available data for a recently demonstrated tubular SOFC prototype plant. In the second section of the paper, it is carried out a detailed parametric analysis of the stack working conditions, as a function of the main operating parameters. The discussion of the results of the thermodynamic and parametric analysis yields interesting considerations about partial load SOFC operation and load regulation, and about system design and integration with gas turbine cycles.

  4. Power generation characteristics of tubular type SOFC by wet process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajiri, H.; Nakayama, T. [Kyushu Electric Power Company, Inc., Fukuoka (Japan); Kuroishi, M. [TOTO Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The development of a practical solid oxide fuel cell requires improvement of a cell performance and a cell manufacturing technology suitable for the mass production. In particular tubular type SOFC is thought to be superior in its reliability because its configuration can avoid the high temperature sealing and reduce the thermal stress resulting from the contact between cells. The authors have fabricated a tubular cell with an air electrode support by a wet processing technique, which is suitable for mass production in improving a power density. To enhance the power output of the module, the Integrated Tubular-Type (ITT) cell has been developed. This paper reports the performance of the single cells with various active anode areas and the bundle with series-connected 9-ITT cells with an active anode area of 840 cm{sup 2}.

  5. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, E.R.; Cracraft, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the Westinghouse Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) development activities and current program status. The Westinghouse goal is to develop a cost effective cell that can operate for 50,000 to 100,000 hours. Progress toward this goal will be discussed and test results presented for multiple single cell tests which have now successfully exceeded 56,000 hours of continuous power operation at temperature. Results of development efforts to reduce cost and increase power output of tubular SOFCs are described.

  6. Development and fabrication of a new concept planar-tubular solid oxide fuel cell (PT-SOFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.; Chen, F. [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 Anhui (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Ding, D. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Gao, J. [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 Anhui (China)

    2011-06-15

    The paper reports a new concept of planar-tubular solid oxide fuel cell (PT-SOFC). Emphasis is on the fabrication of the required complex configuration of Ni-yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) porous anode support by tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) based gelcasting, particularly the effects of solid loading, amounts of monomers and dispersant on the rheological behaviour of suspension, the shrinkage of a wet gelcast green body upon drying, and the properties of final sample after sintering at 1350 C and reduction from NiO-YSZ to Ni-YSZ. The results show that the gelcasting is a powerful method for preparation of the required complex configuration anode support. The anode support resulted from an optimised suspension with the solid loading of 25 vol% has uniform microstructure with 37% porosity, bending strength of 44 MPa and conductivity of 300 S cm{sup -} {sup 1} at 700 C, meeting the requirements for an anode support of SOFC. Based on the as-prepared anode support, PT-SOFC single cell of Ni-YSZ/YSZ/LSCF has been fabricated by slurry coating and co-sintering technique. The cell peak power density reaches 63, 106 and 141 mW cm {sup -} {sup 2} at 700, 750 and 800 C, respectively, using hydrogen as fuel and ambient air as oxidant. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Analysis and optimization of a tubular SOFC, using nuclear hydrogen as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Daniel G.; Parra, Lazaro R.G.; Fernandez, Carlos R.G., E-mail: dgr@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas, Habana (Cuba). Dept. de Ingenieria Nuclear; Lira, Carlos A.B.O., E-mail: cabol@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    One of the main areas of hydrogen uses as an energy carrier is in fuel cells of high standards as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The SOFCs are fuel cells operate at high temperatures making them ideal for use in large power systems, suitable for distributed generation of electricity. Optimization and analysis of these electrochemical devices is an area of great current study. The computational fluid dynamics software (CFD) have unique advantages for analyzing the influence of design parameters on the efficiency of fuel cells. This paper presents a SOFC design cell which employ as fuel hydrogen produced by thermochemical water splitting cycle (I-S). There will be done the optimization of the main parameters thermodynamic and electrochemical cell operating to achieve top performance. Also will be estimate the cell efficiency and a production-consumption hydrogen system. (author)

  8. Analysis and optimization of a tubular SOFC, using nuclear hydrogen as fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Daniel G.; Parra, Lazaro R.G.; Fernandez, Carlos R.G.; Lira, Carlos A.B.O.

    2013-01-01

    One of the main areas of hydrogen uses as an energy carrier is in fuel cells of high standards as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The SOFCs are fuel cells operate at high temperatures making them ideal for use in large power systems, suitable for distributed generation of electricity. Optimization and analysis of these electrochemical devices is an area of great current study. The computational fluid dynamics software (CFD) have unique advantages for analyzing the influence of design parameters on the efficiency of fuel cells. This paper presents a SOFC design cell which employ as fuel hydrogen produced by thermochemical water splitting cycle (I-S). There will be done the optimization of the main parameters thermodynamic and electrochemical cell operating to achieve top performance. Also will be estimate the cell efficiency and a production-consumption hydrogen system. (author)

  9. Parametric exergy analysis of a tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack through finite-volume model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, F.; Ferruzzi, G.; Vanoli, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a very detailed local exergy analysis of a tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack. In particular, a complete parametric analysis has been carried out, in order to assess the effects of the synthesis/design parameters on the local irreversibilities in the components of the stack. A finite-volume axial-symmetric model of the tubular internal reforming Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stack under investigation has been used. The stack consists of: SOFC tubes, tube-in-tube pre-reformer and tube and shell catalytic burner. The model takes into account the effects of heat/mass transfer and chemical/electrochemical reactions. The model allows one to predict the performance of a SOFC stack once a series of design and operative parameters are fixed, but also to investigate the source and localization of inefficiency. To this scope, an exergy analysis was implemented. The SOFC tube, the pre-reformer and the catalytic burner are discretized along their longitudinal axes. Detailed models of the kinetics of the reforming, catalytic combustion and electrochemical reactions are implemented. Pressure drops, convection heat transfer and overvoltages are calculated on the basis of the work previously developed by the authors. The heat transfer model includes the contribution of thermal radiation, so improving the models previously used by the authors. Radiative heat transfer is calculated on the basis of the slice-to-slice configuration factors and corresponding radiosities. On the basis of this thermochemical model, an exergy analysis has been carried out, in order to localize the sources and the magnitude of irreversibilities along the components of the stack. In addition, the main synthesis/design variables were varied in order to assess their effect on the exergy destruction within the component to which the parameter directly refers ('endogenous' contribution) and on the exergy destruction of all remaining components ('exogenous' contribution). Then, this analysis

  10. Development of a Low Cost 10kW Tubular SOFC Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessette, Norman [Acumentrics Corporation, Westwood, MA (United States); Litka, Anthony [Acumentrics Corporation, Westwood, MA (United States); Rawson, Jolyon [Acumentrics Corporation, Westwood, MA (United States); Schmidt, Douglas [Acumentrics Corporation, Westwood, MA (United States)

    2013-06-06

    The DOE program funded from 2003 through early 2013 has brought the Acumentrics SOFC program from an early stage R&D program to an entry level commercial product offering. The development work started as one of the main core teams under the DOE Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program administered by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the DOE. During the first phase of the program, lasting approximately 3-4 years, a 5kW machine was designed, manufactured and tested against the specification developed by NETL. This unit was also shipped to NETL for independent verification testing which validated all of the results achieved while in the laboratory at Acumentrics. The Acumentrics unit passed all criteria established from operational stability, efficiency, and cost projections. Passing of the SECA Phase I test allowed the program to move into Phase II of the program. During this phase, the overall objective was to further refine the unit meeting a higher level of performance stability as well as further cost reductions. During the first year of this new phase, the NETL SECA program was refocused towards larger size units and operation on coal gasification due to the severe rise in natural gas prices and refocus on the US supply of indigenous coal. At this point, the program was shifted to the U.S. DOE’s Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) division located in Golden, Colorado. With this shift, the focus remained on smaller power units operational on gaseous fuels for a variety of applications including micro combined heat and power (mCHP). To achieve this goal, further enhancements in power, life expectancy and reductions in cost were necessary. The past 5 years have achieved these goals with machines that can now achieve over 40% electrical efficiency and field units that have now operated for close to a year and a half with minimal maintenance. The following report details not only the first phase while under the SECA program

  11. A consortium approach to commercialized Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Allan

    Westinghouse is developing its tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) for a variety of applications in stationary power generation markets. By pressurizing a SOFC and integrating it with a gas turbine (GT), power systems with efficiencies as high as 70-75% can be obtained. The first such system will be tested in 1998. Because of their extraordinarily high efficiency (60-70%) even in small sizes the first SOFC products to be offered are expected to be integrated SOFC/GT power systems in the 1-7 MW range, for use in the emerging distributed generation (DG) market segment. Expansion into larger sizes will follow later. Because of their modularity, environmental friendliness and expected cost effectiveness, and because of a worldwide thrust towards utility deregulation, a ready market is forecasted for baseload distributed generation. Assuming Westinghouse can complete its technology development and reach its cost targets, the integrated SOFC/GT power system is seen as a product with tremendous potential in the emerging distributed generation market. While Westinghouse has been a leader in the development of power generation technology for over a century, it does not plan to manufacture small gas turbines. However, GTs small enough to integrate with SOFCs and address the 1-7 MW market are generally available from various manufacturers. Westinghouse will need access to a new set of customers as it brings baseload plants to the present small market mix of emergency and peaking power applications. Small cogeneration applications, already strong in some parts of the world, are also gaining ground everywhere. Small GT manufacturers already serve this market, and alliances and partnerships can enhance SOFC commercialization. Utilities also serve the DG market, especially those that have set up energy service companies and seek to grow beyond the legal and geographical confines of their current regulated business. Because fuel cells in general are a new product, because small

  12. Simulation of a tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack using AspenPlusTM unit operation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Croiset, E.; Douglas, P.L.; Fowler, M.W.; Entchev, E.

    2005-01-01

    The design of a fuel cell system involves both optimization of the fuel cell stack and the balance of plant with respect to efficiency and economics. Many commercially available process simulators, such as AspenPlus TM , can facilitate the analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. A SOFC system may include fuel pre-processors, heat exchangers, turbines, bottoming cycles, etc., all of which can be very effectively modelled in process simulation software. The current challenge is that AspenPlus TM or any other commercial process simulators do not have a model of a basic SOFC stack. Therefore, to enable performing SOFC system simulation using one of these simulators, one must construct an SOFC stack model that can be implemented in them. The most common approach is to develop a complete SOFC model in a programming language, such as Fortran, Visual Basic or C++, first and then link it to a commercial process simulator as a user defined model or subroutine. This paper introduces a different approach to the development of a SOFC model by utilizing existing AspenPlus TM functions and existing unit operation modules. The developed ''AspenPlus TM SOFC'' model is able to provide detailed thermodynamic and parametric analyses of the SOFC operation and can easily be extended to study the entire power plant consisting of the SOFC and the balance of plant without the requirement for linking with other software. Validation of this model is performed by comparison to a Siemens-Westinghouse 100 kW class tubular SOFC stack. Sensitivity analyses of major operating parameters, such as utilization factor (U f ), current density (I c ) and steam-carbon ratio (S/C), were performed using the developed model, and the results are discussed in this paper

  13. HIGH-TEMPERATURE TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL GENERATOR DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.E. Veyo

    1998-09-01

    During the Westinghouse/USDOE Cooperative Agreement period of November 1, 1990 through November 30, 1997, the Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell has evolved from a 16 mm diameter, 50 cm length cell with a peak power of 1.27 watts/cm to the 22 mm diameter, 150 cm length dimensions of today's commercial prototype cell with a peak power of 1.40 watts/cm. Accompanying the increase in size and power density was the elimination of an expensive EVD step in the manufacturing process. Demonstrated performance of Westinghouse's tubular SOFC includes a lifetime cell test which ran for a period in excess of 69,000 hours, and a fully integrated 25 kWe-class system field test which operated for over 13,000 hours at 90% availability with less than 2% performance degradation over the entire period. Concluding the agreement period, a 100 kW SOFC system successfully passed its factory acceptance test in October 1997 and was delivered in November to its demonstration site in Westervoort, The Netherlands.

  14. Fundamental researches of SOFC in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demin, A.K.; Neuimin, A.D.; Perfiliev, M.V. [Institute of High Temperatures Electrochemistry, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    1996-04-01

    The main results of research on ZrO{sub 2}-based solid electrolytes, electrodes and interconnects are reviewed. The mathematical models of the processes in SOFC are considered. Two types of SOFC stacks composed of tubular and block cells, as well the results of their tests are described.

  15. Design and performance of tubular flat-plate solid oxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, T.; Ikeda, D.; Kanagawa, H. [NTT Integrated Information & Energy Systems Labs., Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    With the growing interest in conserving the environmental conditions, much attention is being paid to Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), which has high energy-conversion efficiency. Many organizations have conducted studies on tubular and flat type SOFCs. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) has studied a combined tubular flat-plate SOFC, and already presented the I-V characteristics of a single cell. Here, we report the construction of a stack of this SOFC cell and successful generation tests results.

  16. Advances in tubular solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, S.C. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The design, materials and fabrication processes for the earlier technology Westinghouse tubular geometry cell have been described in detail previously. In that design, the active cell components were deposited in the form of thin layers on a ceramic porous support tube (PST). The tubular design of these cells and the materials used therein have been validated by successful electrical testing for over 65,000 h (>7 years). In these early technology PST cells, the support tube, although sufficiently porous, presented an inherent impedance to air flow toward air electrode. In order to reduce such impedance to air flow, the wall thickness of the PST was first decreased from the original 2 mm (the thick-wall PST) to 1.2 mm (the thin-wall PST). The calcia-stabilized zirconia support tube has now been completely eliminated and replaced by a doped lanthanum manganite tube in state-of-the-art SOFCs. This doped lanthanum manganite tube is extruded and sintered to about 30 to 35 percent porosity, and serves as the air electrode onto which the other cell components are fabricated in thin layer form. These latest technology cells are designated as air electrode supported (AES) cells.

  17. Westinghouse European trainee program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, G.

    2010-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company is proud of giving its employees the possibility to work and act globally. The company's European Trainee Program provides an opportunity to work within different fields of business within Westinghouse, participating in a wide range of projects and experiencing and learning from the different cultures of the company. In 2006 the first Trainee Program started with seven Swedish Trainees. During these eighteen months they worked 12 months in Sweden and then went off to six-month-assignments in France and in the US. In April 2008, the first European Trainee Program was launched with ten Trainees from four different countries: five from Sweden, two from Germany, two from Spain and one from Belgium. As with the previous program, its length was eighteen months. During the first year, the European Trainees had the opportunity to work in various areas within their country of hire, as well as to visit different Westinghouse headquarters in Europe and the US to learn more about the global business. Their kick-off session took place in Vaesteraas, Sweden in April 2008. During four days, the Trainees participated in group dynamic exercises as well as presentations of the business of Westinghouse abroad and in Sweden. Two of the most interesting parts of this session were the visits to the Fuel Factory and to the Field Services mock-ups. The second session took place in June 2008 in Monroeville, Pennsylvania (USA), where Westinghouse had its main headquarters, nowadays located in Cranberry, PA. During two weeks, the trainees got to know even more about Westinghouse through visits, lectures and forums for open discussions. The visits comprised for example the tubing factory at Blairsville, the Field Services main headquarters in Madison and the George Westinghouse Research and Technology Park near Pittsburgh. The meetings included presentations of each Westinghouse business unit, detailed information about future projects and round table discussions

  18. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, S.B.; Brown, R.L.; Cantrell, J.R.; Wilcox, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste

  19. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aitken, S.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brown, R.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Wilcox, D.P. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., West Valley, NY (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste.

  20. High temperature sealing method : induction brazing for SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Y.H.; Lee, S.B.; Song, R.H.; Shin, D.R. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, T.H. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Advanced Fuel Cell Research Center

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the use of induction brazing as a high temperature sealing method for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Nickel-based brazing alloys were modified using reactive titanium-hydride (TiH2). The gas sealing properties of the induction brazing process on anode-supported tubular SOFCs and ferritic stainless steel were evaluated. Brazing alloys BNi-2 and BNi-4 were not wetted in a yttria-silica-zircon (YSZ) electrolyte. The brazing alloy with added TiH2 showed good wettability with the YSZ electrolyte as a result of the formation of a TiOX layer. Only the BNi-4 alloy joined with the YSZ electrolyte. An open circuit voltage (OCV) value was used to estimate the gas tightness of the brazed cell. It was concluded that the BNi-4 TiH2 modified alloy is a suitable sealing material for SOFCs operating in temperatures up to 750 degrees C.

  1. SOFC interface studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse; West, Keld

    performance and inductive hysteresis phenomena often observed in SOFC kinetic studies (\\ref{TJ01}). Fig.\\,\\ref{cath_laser} shows the YSZ surface developed below a Pt point electrode polarised at -0.10\\, V at $1000^\\circ$C for a period of 85 days. The structural as well as the compositional changes...

  2. Tubular combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Ishizuka, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Tubular combustors are cylindrical tubes where flame ignition and propagation occur in a spatially confined, highly controlled environment, in a nearly flat, elongated geometry. This allows for some unique advantages where extremely even heat dispersion is required over a large surface while still maintaining fuel efficiency. Tubular combustors also allow for easy flexibility in type of fuel source, allowing for quick changeover to meet various needs and changing fuel pricing. This new addition to the MP sustainable energy series will provide the most up-to-date research on tubular combustion--some of it only now coming out of private proprietary protection. Plentiful examples of current applications along with a good explanation of background theory will offer readers an invaluable guide on this promising energy technology. Highlights include: * An introduction to the theory of tubular flames * The "how to" of maintaining stability of tubular flames through continuous combustion * Examples of both small-scal...

  3. Facts and figures, an International Energy Agency SOFC task report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossel, U G; Dubal, L [ed.

    1992-04-15

    The report covers the following themes: SOFC chemistry, properties of SOFC gases and materials, electrochemistry, electric current flow in SOFC elements, SOFC configurations, mass flow phenomena and linearized SOFC performance analysis. figs., tabs., 27 refs.

  4. Progress in understanding SOFC electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hansen, Karin Vels; Jørgensen, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The literature of SOFC electrode kinetics and mechanisms is full of contradicting details in case of both the SOFC anode and cathode processes. Only weak patterns may be identified. One interpretation is that each of the reported data sets reflects a laboratory specific nature of each of the elec...

  5. Innovation and future in Westinghouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congedo, T.; Dulloo, A.; Goosen, J.; Llovet, R.

    2007-01-01

    For the past six years, Westinghouse has used a Road Map process to direct technology development in a way that integrates the efforts of our businesses to addresses the needs of our customers and respond to significant drivers in the evolving business environment. As the nuclear industry experiences a resurgence, it is ever more necessary that we increase our planning horizon to 10-15 years in the future so as to meet the expectations of our customers. In the Future Point process, driven by the methods of Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), Westinghouse considers multiple possible future scenarios to plan long term evolutionary and revolutionary development that can reliably create the major products and services of the future market. the products and services of the future stretch the imagination from what we provide today. However, the journey to these stretch targets prompts key development milestones that will help deliver ideas useful for nearer term products. (Author) 1 refs

  6. Fabrication of cathode supported tubular solid oxide electrolysis cell for high temperature steam electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Le; Wang, Shaorong; Qian, Jiqin; Xue, Yanjie; Liu, Renzhu

    2011-01-15

    In recent years, hydrogen has been identified as a potential alternative fuel and energy carrier for the future energy supply. Water electrolysis is one of the important hydrogen production technologies which do not emit carbon dioxide. High temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) consumes even less electrical energy than low temperature water electrolysis. Theoretically, HTSE using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) can efficiently utilize renewable energy to produce hydrogen, and it is also possible to operate the SOEC in reverse mode as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to produce electricity. Tubular SOFC have been widely investigated. In this study, tubular solid oxide cells were fabricated by dip-coating and cosintering techniques. In SOEC mode, results suggested that steam ratio had a strong impact on the performance of the tubular cell; the tubular SOEC preferred to be operated at high steam ratio in order to avoid concentration polarization. The microstructure of the tubular SOEC should therefore be optimized for high temperature steam electrolysis.

  7. Westinghouse support for Spanish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebollo, R.

    1999-01-01

    One of the major commitments Westinghouse has with the nuclear industry is to provide to the utilities the support necessary to have their nuclear units operating at optimum levels of availability and safety. This article outlines the organization the Energy Systems Business Unit of Westinghouse has in place to fulfill this commitment and describes the evolution of the support Westinghouse is providing to the operation o f the Spanish Nuclear Power plants. (Author)

  8. Westinghouse AP1000 licensing maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, T.; Vijuk, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    The Westinghouse AP1000 Program is aimed at making available a nuclear power plant that is economical in the U.S deregulated electrical power industry in the near-term. The AP1000 is two-loop 1000 MWe pressurizer water reactor (PWR). It is an up rated version of the AP600. The AP1000 uses passive safety systems to provide significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, safety, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. The AP1000 uses proven technology, which builds on over 35 years of operating PWR experience. The AP1000 received Final Design Approval by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC) in September 2004. The AP1000 meets the US utility requirements. The AP1000 and its sister plant the AP600 have gone through a very through and complete licensing review. This paper describes the U.S. NRC review efforts of both the AP600 and the AP1000. The detail of the review and the independent calculations, evaluations and testing is discussed. The AP600 licensing documentation was submitted in 1992. The U.S. NRC granted Final Design Approval in 1999. During the intervening 7 years, the U.S. NRC asked thousands of questions, performed independent safety analysis, audited Westinghouse calculations and analysis, and performed independent testing. The more significant areas of discussion will be described. For the AP1000 Westinghouse first engaged the U.S. NRC in pre-certification discussions to define the extent of the review required, since the design is so similar to the AP600. The AP1000 licensing documentation was submitted in March 2002. The U.S. NRC granted Final Design Approval in September 2004. During the intervening 2 1/2 years, the U.S. NRC asked hundreds of questions, performed independent safety analysis, audited Westinghouse calculations and analysis, and performed independent testing. The more significant areas of discussion will be described. The implications of this review and approval on AP1000 applications in

  9. Development of 10kW SOFC module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisatome, N.; Nagata, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan); Kakigami, S. [Electric Power Development Co., Inc., Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Mitsubishi Heavy industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been developing tubular type Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) since 1984. A 1 kW module of SOFC has been continuously operated for 3,000 hours with 2 scheduled thermal cycles at Electric Power Development Co., Inc. (EPDC) Wakamatsu Power Station in 1993. We have obtained of 34% (HHV as H{sub 2}) module efficiency and deterioration rate of 2% Per 1,000 hours in this field test. As for next step, we have developed 10 kW module in 1995. The 10 kW module has been operated for 5,000 hours continuously. This module does not need heating support to maintain the operation temperature, and the module efficiency was 34% (HHV as H{sub 2}). On the other hand, we have started developing the technology of pressurized SOFC. In 1996, pressurized MW module has been tested at MHI Nagasaki Shipyard & Machinery, Works. We are now planning the development of pressurized 10 kW module.

  10. Standard Technical Specifications, Westinghouse plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This NUREG contains improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Westinghouse Plants and documents the positions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission based on the Westinghouse Owners Group's proposed STS. This document is the result of extensive technical meetings and discussions among the NRC staff, the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, the NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the interim Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specification Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated February 6, 1987. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. This document, Volume 3, contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS

  11. Standard Technical Specifications, Westinghouse Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This NUREG contains improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Westinghouse Plants and documents the positions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission based on the Westinghouse Owners Group's proposed STS. This document is the result of extensive technical meetings and discussions among the NRC staff, the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, the NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the interim Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specification Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated February 6, 1987. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. Volume 1 contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the unproved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS which contain information on safety limits, reactivity control systems, power distribution limits, and instrumentation

  12. Standard Technical Specifications, Westinghouse plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This NUREG contains improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Westinghouse Plants and documents the positions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission based on the Westinghouse Owners Group's proposed STS. This document is the result of extensive technical meetings and discussions among the NRC staff, the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, the NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the interim Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specification Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated February 6, 1987. The improved STS will be used as the basis for individual nuclear power plant licensees to develop improved plant-specific technical specifications. This report contains three volumes. This document, Volume 1, contains the Specifications for all chapters and sections of the improved STS. Volume 2 contains the Bases for Chapters 2.0 and 3.0, and Sections 3.1--3.3 of the improved STS. Volume 3 contains the Bases for Sections 3.4--3.9 of the improved STS

  13. Reactor physics methods development at Westinghouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, E.; Mayhue, L.; Zhang, B.

    2007-01-01

    The current state of reactor physics methods development at Westinghouse is discussed. The focus is on the methods that have been or are under development within the NEXUS project which was launched a few years ago. The aim of this project is to merge and modernize the methods employed in the PWR and BWR steady-state reactor physics codes of Westinghouse. (author)

  14. SOFC Operation with Real Biogas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Winiwarter, Anna; Langnickel, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Biogas is a valuable energy source and will be available in future in systems relying on renewables. It is an attractive fuel for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which are able to utilize the carbon contained in the biogas and which produce electricity with high efficiency. In the current paper......, state‐of‐the‐art SOFCs were studied regarding performance and durability in relation to biogas as fuel and considering important contaminants, specifically sulfur. First, the catalytic behavior in relevant synthetic biogas mixtures was studied and the potential of dry reforming was demonstrated....... Successful long term operation of an SOFC under both, conditions of steam and dry reforming, i.e., addition of steam or CO2 to avoid carbon formation was shown. For the steam reforming case a remarkable period of 3,500 h, hereof 3,000 h in the presence of H2S was achieved. Finally, a real biogas from...

  15. Perovskites synthesis to SOFC anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendler, L.P.; Chinelatto, A.L.; Chinelatto, A.S.A.; Ramos, K.

    2012-01-01

    Perovskite structure materials containing lanthanum have been widely applied as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) electrodes, due to its electrical properties. Was investigated the obtain of the perovskite structure LaCr 0,5 Ni 0,5 O 3 , by Pechini method, and its suitability as SOFC anode. The choice of this composition was based on the stability provided by chromium and the catalytic properties of nickel. After preparing the resins, the samples were calcined at 300 deg C, 600 deg C, 700 deg C and 850 deg C. The resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction to determine the existing phases. Furthermore, were performed other analysis, like X-ray fluorescence, He pycnometry, specific surface area by BET isotherm and scanning electronic microscopy (author)

  16. Requirements management at Westinghouse Electric Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Field studies and surveys made in various industry branches support the Westinghouse opinion that qualitative systems engineering and requirements management have a high value in the development of complex systems and products. Two key issues causing overspending and schedule delays in projects are underestimation of complexity and misunderstandings between the different sub-project teams. These issues often arise when a project jumps too early into detail design. Good requirements management practice before detail design helps the project teams avoid such issues. Westinghouse therefore puts great effort into requirements management. The requirements management methodology at Westinghouse rests primarily on four key cornerstones: 1 - Iterative team work when developing requirements specifications, 2 - Id number tags on requirements, 3 - Robust change routine, and 4 - Requirements Traceability Matrix. (authors)

  17. Distal renal tubular acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this disorder. Alternative Names Renal tubular acidosis - distal; Renal tubular acidosis type I; Type I RTA; RTA - distal; Classical RTA Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Bose A, Monk RD, Bushinsky DA. Kidney ...

  18. MHI - Westinghouse joint FBR tank plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.H.; Vijuk, R.M.; Aoki, I.; Messhil, T.

    1988-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems Division have combined their experience and capabilities to design a tank type fast breeder reactor plant. This tank type reactor has been refined and improved during the last three years to better compete in cost, safety, and operation with alternative power plants. This Mitsubishi/Westinghouse joint design offers economic advantages due to the use of steel structures, modular construction, nitrogen cells for the intermediate loops, reactor cavity air cooling and the use of the guard vessel as the containment vessel. Inherent characteristics in the reactor design provide protection to the public and the plant investment

  19. Westinghouse small modular reactor design and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinn, R.; Godfrey, M. [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township, Pennsilvania (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The AP1000 is currently under construction in both China and the US with the first one scheduled to come on line in late 2013. Nuclear power is a proven, safe, plentiful and clean source of power generation, and Westinghouse Electric Company, the pioneer and global leader in nuclear plant design and construction, is ready with the AP1000™ pressurized water reactor (PWR). The AP1000, based on the proven performance of Westinghouse-designed PWRs, is an advanced 1154 MWe nuclear power plant that uses the forces of nature and simplicity of design to enhance plant safety and operations and reduce construction costs.

  20. Toshiba-Westinghouse, the new electronuclear giant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guezel, J.Ch.

    2006-01-01

    Toshiba, so far a minor actor of the world nuclear industry, won in summer 2005 in front of General Electric and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, the takeover bid launched by the public British organization BNFL which controls Westinghouse. In case of success of this operation, Toshiba will own a quarter of the world nuclear capacities and will become the first competitor of Areva. The main objective of Toshiba is to win market shares abroad thanks to the prospects offered by Westinghouse's technologies in particular in China which is one of the most targeted market today. Short paper. (J.S.)

  1. Towards Multi Fuel SOFC Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Bang-Møller, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Complete Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) plants fed by several different fuels are suggested and analyzed. The plants sizes are about 10 kW which is suitable for single family house with needs for both electricity and heat. Alternative fuels such as, methanol, DME (Di-Methyl Ether) and ethanol...... are also considered and the results will be compared with the base plant fed by Natural Gas (NG). A single plant design will be suggested that can be fed with methanol, DME and ethanol whenever these fuels are available. It will be shown that the plant fed by ethanol will have slightly higher electrical...

  2. Experimental investigations and modeling of direct internal reforming of biogases in tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzini, A.; Leone, P.; Pieroni, M.; Santarelli, M. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, IT-10129, Torino (Italy); Beretta, D.; Ginocchio, S. [Centro Ricerca e Sviluppo, Edison S.p.a, Via La Pira 2, IT-10028 Trofarello, Torino (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Biogas-fed Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) systems can be considered as interesting integrated systems in the framework of distributed power generation. In particular, bio-methane and bio-hydrogen produced from anaerobic digestion of organic wastes represent renewable carbon-neutral fuels for high efficiency electrochemical generators. With such non-conventional mixtures fed to the anode of the SOFC, the interest lies in understanding the multi-physics phenomena there occurring and optimizing the geometric and operation parameters of the SOFC, while avoiding operating and fuel conditions that can lead to or accelerate degradation processes. In this study, an anode-supported (Ni-YSZ) tubular SOFC was considered; the tubular geometry enables a relatively easy separation of the air and fuel reactants and it allows one to evaluate the temperature field of the fuel gas inside the tube, which is strictly related to the electrochemical and heterogeneous chemical reactions occurring within the anode volume. The experiments have been designed to analyze the behavior of the cell under different load and fuel utilization (FU) conditions, providing efficiency maps for both fuels. The experimental results were used to validate a multi-physics model of the tubular cell. The model showed to be in good agreement with the experimental data, and was used to study the sensitive of some selected geometrical parameters modification over the cell performances. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Quality assurance plan, Westinghouse Water Reactor Divisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    The Quality Assurance Program used by Westinghouse Nuclear Energy Systems Water Reactor Divisions is described. The purpose of the program is to assure that the design, materials, and workmanship on Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) equipment meet applicable safety requirements, fulfill the requirements of the contracts with the applicants, and satisfy the applicable codes, standards, and regulatory requirements.

  4. Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Programe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulyak, Nick

    2014-01-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (> 225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) in which all primarycomponents associated with the nuclear steam supply system, including the steam generator and the pressurizer, are housed within the reactor vessel. The Westinghouse SMR utilizes passive safety systems and proven components from the AP1000 plant design with a compact containment that houses the integral reactor vessel and the passive safety systems. This paper describes the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR, the key drivers influencing the design of the Westinghouse SMR and the unique passive safety features of the Westinghouse SMR. Several critical motivators contributed to the development and integration of the Westinghouse SMR design. These design drivers include safety, economics, reactor expertise and experience, research and development requirements, functionality of systems and components, size of the systems and vessels, simplicity of design, and licensing requirements. The Westinghouse SMR safety system design is passive, is based largely on the passive safety systems used in the AP1000 reactor, and provides mitigation of all design basis accidents without the need for offsite AC electrical power for a period of seven days. The economics of the Westinghouse SMR challenges the established approach of large Light Water Reactors (LWR) that utilized the economies of scale to reach economic competiveness. To serve the market expectation of smaller capital investment and cost competitive energy, a modular design approach is implemented within the Westinghouse SMR. The Westinghouse SMR building layout integrates the three basic design constraints of modularization; transportation, handling and module-joining technology. The integral Westinghouse SMR design eliminates large loop piping, which significantly reduces the flow area of postulated loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs). The Westinghouse SMR containment is a high

  5. Westinghouse-DOE integration: Meeting the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, S.V.

    1992-01-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation (WEC) is in a unique position to affect national environmental management policy approaching the 21st Century. Westinghouse companies are management and operating contractors (MOC,s) at several environmentally pivotal government-owned, contractor operated (GOCO) facilities within the Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear defense complex. One way the WEC brings its companies together is by activating teams to solve specific DOE site problems. For example, one challenging issue at DOE facilities involves the environmentally responsible, final disposal of transuranic and high-level nuclear wastes (TRUs and HLWS). To address these disposal issues, the DOE supports two Westinghouse-based task forces: The TRU Waste Acceptance Criteria Certification Committee (WACCC) and the HLW Vitrification Committee. The WACCC is developing methods to characterize an estimated 176,287 cubic meters of retrievably stored TRUs generated at DOE production sites. Once characterized, TRUs could be safely deposited in the WIPP repository. The Westinghouse HLW Vitrification Committee is dedicated to assess appropriate methods to process an estimated 380,702 cubic meters of HLWs currently stored in underground storage tanks (USTs). As planned, this processing will involve segregating, and appropriately treating, low level waste (LLW) and HLW tank constituents for eventual disposal. The first unit designed to process these nuclear wastes is the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Initiated in 1973, the DWPF project is scheduled to begin operations in 1991 or 1992. Westinghouse companies are also working together to achieve appropriate environmental site restoration at DOE sites via the GOCO Environmental Restoration Committee

  6. Possible Future SOFC - ST Based Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rokni, Masoud; Scappin, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid systems consisting Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) on the top of a Steam Turbine (ST) are investigated. The plants are fired by natural gas. A desulfurization reactor removes the sulfur content in the NG while a pre-reformer break down the heavier hydrocarbons. The pre-treated fuel enters then into the anode side of the SOFC. The gases from the SOFC stacks enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The off-gases now enter into a heat recovery steam generator to produce steam for a ...

  7. Use of wastewater treatment plant biogas for the operation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Jillian; Champagne, Pascale; Peppley, Brant

    2017-12-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) perform well on light hydrocarbon fuels, and the use of biogas derived from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of municipal wastewater sludges could provide an opportunity for the CH 4 produced to be used as a renewable fuel. Greenhouse gas (GHG), NO x , SO x , and hydrocarbon pollutant emissions would also be reduced. In this study, SOFCs were operated on AD derived biogas. Initially, different H 2 dilutions were tested (N 2 , Ar, CO 2 ) to examine the performance of tubular SOFCs. With inert gases as diluents, a decrease in cell performance was observed, however, the use of CO 2 led to a higher decrease in performance as it promoted the reverse water-gas shift (WGS) reaction, reducing the H 2 partial pressure in the gas mixture. A model was developed to predict system efficiency and GHG emissions. A higher electrical system efficiency was noted for a steam:carbon ratio of 2 compared to 1 due to the increased H 2 partial pressure in the reformate resulting from higher H 2 O concentration. Reductions in GHG emissions were estimated at 2400 tonnes CO 2 , 60 kg CH 4 and 18 kg N 2 O. SOFCs were also tested using a simulated biogas reformate mixture (66.7% H 2 , 16.1% CO, 16.5% CO 2 , 0.7% N 2 , humidified to 2.3 or 20 mol% H 2 O). Higher humidification yielded better performance as the WGS reaction produced more H 2 with additional H 2 O. It was concluded that AD-derived biogas, when cleaned to remove H 2 S, Si compounds, halides and other contaminants, could be reformed to provide a clean, renewable fuel for SOFCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dynamic model with experimental validation of a biogas-fed SOFC plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Andrea, G.; Gandiglio, M.; Lanzini, A.; Santarelli, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 60% of DIR into the SOFC anode reduces the air blower parasitic losses by 14%. • PID-controlled cathode airflow enables fast thermal regulation of the SOFC. • Stack overheating occurs due to unexpected reductions in the cathode airflow. • Current ramp rates higher than +0.30 A/min lead to an excessive stack overheating. - Abstract: The dynamic model of a poly-generation system based on a biogas-fed solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) plant is presented in this paper. The poly-generation plant was developed in the framework of the FP7 EU-funded project SOFCOM ( (www.sofcom.eu)), which consists of a fuel-cell based polygeneration plant with CO_2 capture and re-use. CO_2 is recovered from the anode exhaust of the SOFC (after oxy-combustion, cooling and water condensation) and the Carbon is fixed in the form of micro-algae in a tubular photobioreactor. This work focuses on the dynamic operation of the SOFC module running on steam-reformed biogas. Both steady state and dynamic operation of the fuel cell stack and the related Balance-of-Plant (BoP) has been modeled in order to simulate the thermal behavior and performance of the system. The model was validated against experimental data gathered during the operation of the SOFCOM proof-of-concept showing good agreement with the experimental data. The validated model has been used to investigate further on the harsh off-design operation of the proof-of-concept. Simulation results provide guidelines for an improved design of the control system of the plant, highlighting the feasible operating region under safe conditions and means to maximize the overall system efficiency.

  9. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-06-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the "Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells" Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  10. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-01-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the 'Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells' Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  11. The ways of SOFC systems efficiency increasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demin, A.K.; Timofeyeva, N.

    1996-04-01

    The efficiency of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is described. This paper considers methods to lift the fuel utilization and/or the average cell voltage with the goal of increasing the cell efficiency by improved cell designs.

  12. How Westinghouse is consolidating its international lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-12-01

    The second of a series of profiles of major industrial groups in the world's nuclear industry, examines the attitudes and objectives of some of the executives now responsible for directing the widespread and complex international nuclear business of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Against the background of new management thinking in the group, the article discusses the significance of the emphasis on plant standardization of reliability, and on productivity in manufacturing.

  13. Human plan of capital of Westinghouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, B.; Gutierrez Elso, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    After three decades of nuclear standstill, the Nuclear Renaissance resulted in a changing environment, Nuclear Companies should prepare and adapt to different challenges: the fast growing of the organization, the loss of talent to other more attractive industrial fields and the transfer and management of knowledge to young engineers that have not participated in the building of nuclear plants. In this article different Westinghouse initiatives in this respect are commented. (Author)

  14. Westinghouse AP600 advanced nuclear plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, W.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the cooperative US Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Program and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Westinghouse AP600 team has developed a simplified, safe, and economic 600-megawatt plant to enter into a new era of nuclear power generation. Designed to satisfy the standards set by DOE and defined in the ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD), the Westinghouse AP600 is an elegant combination of innovative safety systems that rely on dependable natural forces and proven technologies. The Westinghouse AP600 design simplifies plant systems and significant operation, inspections, maintenance, and quality assurance requirements by greatly reducing the amount of valves, pumps, piping, HVAC ducting, and other complex components. The AP600 safety systems are predominantly passive, depending on the reliable natural forces of gravity, circulation, convection, evaporation, and condensation, instead of AC power supplies and motor-driven components. The AP600 provides a high degree of public safety and licensing certainty. It draws upon 40 years of experience in light water reactor components and technology, so no demonstration plant is required. During the AP600 design program, a comprehensive test program was carried out to verify plant components, passive safety systems components, and containment behavior. When the test program was completed at the end of 1994, the AP600 became the most thoroughly tested advanced reactor design ever reviewed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The test results confirmed the exceptional behavior of the passive systems and have been instrumental in facilitating code validations. Westinghouse received Final Design Approval from the NRC in September 1998. (author)

  15. The integrated project SOFC600 development of low-temperature SOFC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rietveld, B.; Van Berkel, F.; Zhang-Steenwinkel, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Project SOFC600 unites 21 partners jointly working on the research and development of SOFC stack components for operation at 600oC. The project is funded by the European Commission within the 6th Framework Programme. Low-temperature operation is considered essential for achieving c...

  16. Leak rate analysis of the Westinghouse Reactor Coolant Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, T.; Jeanmougin, N.; Lofaro, R.; Prevost, J.

    1985-07-01

    An independent analysis was performed by ETEC to determine what the seal leakage rates would be for the Westinghouse Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) during a postulated station blackout resulting from loss of ac electric power. The object of the study was to determine leakage rates for the following conditions: Case 1: All three seals function. Case 2: No. 1 seal fails open while Nos. 2 and 3 seals function. Case 3: All three seals fail open. The ETEC analysis confirmed Westinghouse calculations on RCP seal performance for the conditions investigated. The leak rates predicted by ETEC were slightly lower than those predicted by Westinghouse for each of the three cases as summarized below. Case 1: ETEC predicted 19.6 gpm, Westinghouse predicted 21.1 gpm. Case 2: ETEC predicted 64.7 gpm, Westinghouse predicted 75.6 gpm. Case 3: ETEC predicted 422 gpm, Westinghouse predicted 480 gpm. 3 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Performance and long term degradation of 7 W micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells for portable applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrell, M.; Morata, A.; Kayser, P.; Kendall, M.; Kendall, K.; Tarancón, A.

    2015-07-01

    Micro-tubular SOFCs have shown an astonishing thermal shock resistance, many orders of magnitude larger than planar SOFCs, opening the possibility of being used in portable applications. However, only few studies have been devoted to study the degradation of large-area micro-tubular SOFCs. This work presents microstructural, electrochemical and long term degradation studies of single micro-tubular cells fabricated by high shear extrusion, operating in the intermediate range of temperatures (T∼700 °C). A maximum power of 7 W per cell has been measured in a wide range of fuel utilizations between 10% and 60% at 700 °C. A degradation rate of 360 mW/1000 h (8%) has been observed for cells operated over more than 1500 h under fuel utilizations of 40%. Higher fuel utilizations lead to strong degradations associated to nickel oxidation/reduction processes. Quick thermal cycling with heating ramp rates of 30 °C /min yielded degradation rates of 440 mW/100 cycles (9%). These reasonable values of degradation under continuous and thermal cycling operation approach the requirements for many portable applications including auxiliary power units or consumer electronics opening this typically forbidden market to the SOFC technology.

  18. Criticality safety training at Westinghouse Hanford Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.A.; Paglieri, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    In 1972 the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) established a comprehensive program to certify personnel who handle fissionable materials. As the quantity of fissionable material handled at WHC has increased so has the scope of training to assure that all employes perform their work in a safe manner. This paper describes training for personnel engaged in fuel fabrication and handling activities. Most of this training is provided by the Fissionable Material Handlers Certification Program. This program meets or exceeds all DOE requirements for training and has been attended by more than 475 employes. Since the program was instituted, the rate of occurrence of criticality safety limit violations has decreased by 50%

  19. Westinghouse Water Reactor Divisions quality assurance plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    The Quality Assurance Program used by Westinghouse Water Reactor Divisions is described. The purpose of the program is to assure that the design, materials, and workmanship on Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) equipment meet applicable safety requirements, fulfill the requirements of the contracts with the applicants, and satisfy the applicable codes, standards, and regulatory requirements. This program satisfies the NRC Quality Assurance Criteria, 10CFR50 Appendix B, to the extent that these criteria apply to safety related NSSS equipment. Also, it follows the regulatory position provided in NRC regulatory guides and the requirements of ANSI Standard N45.2.12 as identified in this Topical Report

  20. Westinghouse Hanford Company environmental surveillance annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.W.; Johnson, A.R.; McKinney, S.M.; Perkins, C.J.; Webb, C.R.

    1992-07-01

    This document presents the results of near-facility operational environmental monitoring in 1991 of the 100, 200/600, and 300/400 Areas of the Hanford Site, in south-central Washington State, as performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. These activities are conducted to assess and to control the impacts of operations on the workers and the local environment and to monitor diffuse sources. Surveillance activities include sampling and analyses of ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sediments, soil, and biota. Also, external radiation measurements and radiological surveys are taken at waste disposal sites, radiologically controlled areas, and roads

  1. Development of Osaka gas type planar SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iha, M.; Shiratori, A.; Chikagawa, O. [Murata Mfg. Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Osaka Gas Co. has been developing a planar type SOFC (OG type SOFC) which has a suitable structure for stacking. Murata Mfg. Co. has begun to develop the OG type SOFC stack through joint program since 1993. Figure 1 shows OG type cell structure. Because each cell is sustained by cell holders acting air manifold, the load of upper cell is not put on the lower cells. Single cell is composed of 3-layered membrane and LaCrO{sub 3} separator. 5 single cells are mounted on the cell holder, connected with Ni felt electrically, and bonded by glassy material sealant. We call the 5-cell stack a unit. Stacking 13 units, we succeeded 870 W generation in 1993. But the power density was low, 0.11 Wcm{sup -2} because of crack in the electrolyte and gas leakage at some cells.

  2. SOFC: Processes and characteristics of ageing behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerganov, T.; Grigorov, S.; Kozhukharov, S.

    2005-01-01

    The high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is convenient for the environmental friendly and efficient conversion of chemical into electric energy. During the last decade the development of planar SOFC stacks with metallic interconnects has made considerable progress in both size and power density. The improvement of durability in long-term operation of planar SOFC components is one of the main fields for stationary applications. Ageing of stacks can be caused by various processes, e.g. corrosion of metallic plates, degradation of ceramic parts and chemical interactions on electrodes/electrolyte or interconnect/electrode interface. Namely, these processes are object of the overview in the present work. The most important characteristics of ageing behavior are subjected to analysis and discussion, as well. Moreover a correlation between ageing process and single cell performance will be given

  3. Recent Development of SOFC Metallic Interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu JW, Liu XB

    2010-04-01

    Interest in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) stems from their higher e±ciencies and lower levels of emitted pollu- tants, compared to traditional power production methods. Interconnects are a critical part in SOFC stacks, which connect cells in series electrically, and also separate air or oxygen at the cathode side from fuel at the anode side. Therefore, the requirements of interconnects are the most demanding, i:e:, to maintain high elec- trical conductivity, good stability in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and close coe±cient of thermal expansion (CTE) match and good compatibility with other SOFC ceramic components. The paper reviewed the interconnect materials, and coatings for metallic interconnect materials.

  4. Ceramic materials for SOFCs: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhukharov, V.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the main parts of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs are build from ceramic materials. Namely the ceramic materials and composites, used for SOFCs manufacturing, are objects of the overview in the present work. The analysis carried out covers the last current publications in the field discussed. Special attention and examination in details have been done on patents state-of-the-art. After a background and short classification of the ceramic SOFCs materials the attention is focused on cathode, electrolyte, anode, interconnection and sealing materials. Their requirements, structure, thermal stability, composition control and behavior, processing and performance are the object of overview. A correlation has been made between the phase diagrams oxygen incorporation and transport, and SOFC advantages, generally for materials of lanthanum- base perovskite family. In order to analyze the innovative investigations regarding the patent branch of the SOFCs development and application, an object of review was patents from Japan, USA, Germany and European Union. Some examples of the inventions with accent on the ceramic materials are shown. In addition the tendency regarding R & D activities of SOFCs development materials from the leading companies in the world is analyzed. On the base of the most important technological and economical parameters of cell cathode/electrolyte/anode materials an attempt for evaluation and correlation has been made and innovative conceptions are shown.

    Es bien sabido que los componentes principales de las celdas de combustible de óxido sólido (SOFCs estan constituidos por materiales cerámicos. Dichos materiales cerámicos y materiales compuestos que se utilizan en la fabricación de SOFCs son objeto de estudio en el presente trabajo. El análisis llevado a cabo incluye la revisión de las últimas publicaciones en la materia, con una especial atención y examen minucioso sobre las patentes m

  5. Study on dynamic performance of SOFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Haiyang; Liang, Qianchao; Wen, Qiang; Zhu, Runkai

    2017-05-01

    In order to solve the problem of real-time matching of load and fuel cell power, it is urgent to study the dynamic response process of SOFC in the case of load mutation. The mathematical model of SOFC is constructed, and its performance is simulated. The model consider the influence factors such as polarization effect, ohmic loss. It also takes the diffusion effect, thermal effect, energy exchange, mass conservation, momentum conservation. One dimensional dynamic mathematical model of SOFC is constructed by using distributed lumped parameter method. The simulation results show that the I-V characteristic curves are in good agreement with the experimental data, and the accuracy of the model is verified. The voltage response curve, power response curve and the efficiency curve are obtained by this way. It lays a solid foundation for the research of dynamic performance and optimal control in power generation system of high power fuel cell stack.

  6. Westinghouse Advances in Passive Plant Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, H. J.; Manager, General; Gerstenhaber, E.

    1993-01-01

    On June 26, 1992, Westinghouse submitted the Ap600 Standard Safety Analysis Report and comprehensive PIRA results to the U. S. NRC for review as part of the Ap600 design certification program. This major milestone was met on time on a schedule set more than 3 years before submittal and is the result of the cooperative efforts of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Requirements Program, and the Westinghouse Ap600 design team. These efforts were initiated in 1985 to develop a 600 MW advanced light water reactor plant design based on specific technical requirements established to provide the safety, simplicity, reliability, and economics necessary for the next generation of nuclear power plants. The Ap600 design achieves the ALRR safety requirements through ample design margins, simplified safety systems based on natural driving forces, and on a human-engineered man-machine interface system. Extensive Probabilistic Risk evolution, have recently shown that even if none of the active defense-in-depth safety systems are available, the passive systems alone meet safety goals. Furthermore, many tests in an extensive test program have begun or have been completed. Early tests show that passive safety perform well and meet design expectations

  7. Reliability of Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by tests on tubular joints are presented. The joints are T-joints and the loading is static. It is the intention in continuation of these tests to perform tests on other types of joints (e.g. Y-joints) and also with dynamic loading. The purpose...... of the test is partly to obtain empirical data for the ultimate load-carrying capacity of tubular T-joints and partly to obtain some experience in performing tests with tubular joints. It is well known that tubular joints are usually designed in offshore engineering on the basis of empirical formulas obtained...... by experimental test results. Therefore, there is a need for performing experimental tests in this area....

  8. Status of the TMI SOFC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, R.C.; Petrik, M.A.; Cable, T.L. [Technology Management, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31

    TMI has completed preliminary engineering designs for complete 20kW SOFC systems modules for stationary distributed generation applications using pipeline natural gas [sponsored by Rochester Gas and Electric (Rochester, New York) and EPRI (Palo Alto, California)]. Subsystem concepts are currently being tested.

  9. Status of SOFC development at Siemens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drenckhahn, W.; Blum, L.; Greiner, H. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The Siemens SOFC development programme reached an important milestone in June 1995. A stack operating with hydrogen and oxygen produced a peak power of 10.7 kW at a current density of 0.7 A/cm{sup 2} and was running for more than 1400 hours. The SOFC configuration is based on a flat metal separator plate using the multiple cell array design. Improved PENs, functional layer and joining technique were implemented. Based on this concept, a 100 kW plant was designed The SOFC development at Siemens has been started in 1990 after a two years preparation phase. The first period with the goal of the demonstration of a 1 kW SOFC stack operation ended in 1993. This important milestone was finally reached in the begin of 1994. The second project phase with the final milestone of a 20 kW module operation will terminate at the end of 1996. This result will form a basis for the next phase in which a 50 to 100 kW pilot plant will be built and tested.

  10. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) materials

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanan, R

    2018-01-01

    Developing materials for SOFC applications is one of the key topics in energy research. The book focuses on manganite structured materials, such as doped lanthanum chromites and lanthanum manganites, which have interesting properties: thermal and chemical stability, mixed ionic and electrical conductivity, electrocatalytic activity, magnetocaloric property and colossal magnetoresistance (CMR).

  11. Possible Future SOFC - ST Based Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Scappin, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid systems consisting Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) on the top of a Steam Turbine (ST) are investigated. The plants are fired by natural gas. A desulfurization reactor removes the sulfur content in the NG while a pre-reformer break down the heavier hydrocarbons. The pre-treated fuel enters...

  12. Westinghouse GOCO conduct of casualty drills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ames, C.P.

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to provide Westinghouse Government Owned Contractor Operated (GOCO) Facilities with information that can be used to implement or improve drill programs. Elements of this guide are highly recommended for use when implementing a new drill program or when assessing an existing program. Casualty drills focus on response to abnormal conditions presenting a hazard to personnel, environment, or equipment; they are distinct from Emergency Response Exercises in which the training emphasis is on site, field office, and emergency management team interaction. The DOE documents which require team training and conducting drills in nuclear facilities and should be used as guidance in non-nuclear facilities are: DOE 5480.19 (Chapter 1 of Attachment I) and DOE 5480.20 (Chapter 1, paragraphs 7 a. and d. of continuing training). Casualty drills should be an integral part of the qualification and training program at every DOE facility

  13. Westinghouse Hanford Company waste minimization actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1988-09-01

    Companies that generate hazardous waste materials are now required by national regulations to establish a waste minimization program. Accordingly, in FY88 the Westinghouse Hanford Company formed a waste minimization team organization. The purpose of the team is to assist the company in its efforts to minimize the generation of waste, train personnel on waste minimization techniques, document successful waste minimization effects, track dollar savings realized, and to publicize and administer an employee incentive program. A number of significant actions have been successful, resulting in the savings of materials and dollars. The team itself has been successful in establishing some worthwhile minimization projects. This document briefly describes the waste minimization actions that have been successful to date. 2 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Helium leak testing the Westinghouse LCP coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, P.A.; Attaar, M.H.; Hordubay, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    The tests, equipment, and techniques used to check the Westinghouse LCP coil for coolant flow path integrity and helium leakage are unique in terms of test sensitivity and application. This paper will discuss the various types of helium leak testing done on the LCP coil as it enters different stages of manufacture. The emphasis will be on the degree of test sensitivity achieved under shop conditions, and what equipment, techniques and tooling are required to achieve this sensitivity (5.9 x 10 -8 scc/sec). Other topics that will be discussed are helium flow and pressure drop testing which is used to detect any restrictions in the flow paths, and the LCP final acceptance test which is the final leak test performed on the coil prior to its being sent for testing. The overall allowable leak rate for this coil is 5 x 10 -6 scc/sec. A general evaluation of helium leak testing experience are included

  15. Westinghouse technologies and integration with Toshiba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Tetsuya; Tanazawa, Takeshi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    With Westinghouse Electric Company (WEC) now a member of the Toshiba Group, Toshiba is capable of supplying both boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems. WEC is well experienced worldwide in the nuclear business and by integrating the technologies of both Toshiba and WEC. Toshiba will be able to provide a greater range of services in the global market. We will build a cooperative structure not only for the maintenance service and fuel businesses but also for the development of innovative reactors while aiming for global expansion with the AP 1000 PWR, the most advanced PWR in the nuclear power plant business. We will continue making efforts so as to be able to provide all types of products and services as one-stop solutions regardless of the type of reactor. (author)

  16. Update of operations with Westinghouse steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, D.D.; Fletcher, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    Westinghouse commercial steam generators in operation now number 112, of which 98 are tubed with Inconel 600, the remainder with stainless steel. The implementation of all volatile treatment (AVT) was reported. It was noted that several plants had exhibited some tube corrosion during their initial periods using AVT; this observation indicated that the transition from phosphate chemistry control to AVT may have been subject to certain residual effects due to incomplete removal of phosphated deposits. As inspection results from steam generators operated on AVT became more generally available with the passage of time, a pattern of results emerged that seemed to correlate with the operating experience with phosphate chemistry control. Specifically, all the plants that experienced corrosion problems had from 1 to 8 yr of operational history using phosphates, while those with less than a year's experience using phosphates tended to be less affected by corrosion problems

  17. Westinghouse Hanford Company Engineering Indoctrination Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, K.J.

    1991-02-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has recognized that a learning curve exists in its engineering design programs. A one-year training program is under way to shorten this learning curve by introducing new engineers, both recent graduates and experienced new hires, to both company standards and intuitive engineering design processes. The participants are organized into multi-disciplined teams and assigned mentor engineers who assist them in completing a team project. Weekly sessions alternate between information presentations and time to work on team design projects. The presentations include information that is applicable to the current phase of the design project as well as other items of interest, such as site tours, creative thinking, and team brainstorming techniques. 1 fig

  18. Human plan of capital of Westinghouse; Plan de capital humano de Westinghouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, B.; Gutierrez Elso, J. E.

    2008-07-01

    After three decades of nuclear standstill, the Nuclear Renaissance resulted in a changing environment, Nuclear Companies should prepare and adapt to different challenges: the fast growing of the organization, the loss of talent to other more attractive industrial fields and the transfer and management of knowledge to young engineers that have not participated in the building of nuclear plants. In this article different Westinghouse initiatives in this respect are commented. (Author)

  19. Westinghouse and nuclear renaissance. The Westinghouse AP1000 - a technology solution for Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirst, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Westinghouse AP1000 nuclear reactor design has been chosen by both China and the United States as the preferred technology in their new reactor programs. With four reactors in China and six in the United States under contract, in addition to the only Generation III+ design with NRC certification as well as the European Utility Requirements certification, the AP1000 has both a strong global customer base and regulatory certainty to facilitate its adoption in the Slovak Republic. (author)

  20. Master of engineering program for Westinghouse Electric Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.H.; Diethorn, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    In August of 1985, Westinghouse Corporation, via a grant to the nuclear engineering department at Pennsylvania State University, provided its professional employees the opportunity to earn a master of engineering (M. Eng.) degree in nuclear engineering in a program of evening study in the Pittsburgh area. Faculty members from the nuclear engineering department, which is 135 miles from Westinghouse, and adjunct faculty from the professional ranks of Westinghouse provided the instruction at the Westinghouse training center facility in Monroeville, Pennsylvania, A 3-yr 30-credit program was originally planned, but this was extended to a fourth year to accommodate the actual student progress toward the degree. A fifth year was added for students to complete their engineering paper. There have been benefits to both Westinghouse and Penn State from this program. Advanced education for its employees has met a Westinghouse need. For Penn State, there has been an increase in interaction with Westinghouse personnel, and this has now led to cooperative research programs with them

  1. Westinghouse experience in the transfer of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Westinghouse experience with transfer of technical information is two-sided. First is our experience in learning, and the second is our experience in teaching others. Westinghouse conducts a special school to which government, academic and industry people are invited. There are many problems involved in all technology transfers; these include: keeping information current, making certain changes are compatible with the supplier's manufacturing capability and also suitable to the receiver, patent right and proprietary information. The building, testing and maintenance of the unit on the line - and then a succession of its sister plant is the basis for the Westinghouse leadership

  2. Tubular closure device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klahn, F.C.; Nolan, J.H.; Wills, C.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to a closure mechanism for closing openings such as the bore of a conduit and for releasably securing members within the bore. More particularly, this invention relates to a closure mechanism for tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holders used in nuclear reactors

  3. Status of SOFCo SOFC technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privette, R.; Perna, M.A.; Kneidel, K. [SOFCo, Alliance, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    SOFCo, a Babcock & Wilcox/Ceramatec Research & Development Limited Partnership, is a collaborative research and development venture to develop technologies related to planar, solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). SOFCo has successfully demonstrated a kW-class, solid-oxide fuel cell module operating on pipeline natural gas. The SOFC system design integrates the air preheater and the fuel processor with the fuel cell stacks into a compact test unit; this is the platform for multi-kW modules. The cells, made of tape-cast zirconia electrolyte and conventional electrode materials, exhibit excel lent stability in single-cell tests approaching 40,000 hours of operation. Stack tests using 10-cm and 15-cm cells with ceramic interconnects also show good performance and stability in tests for many thousands of hours.

  4. Mechanistic Enhancement of SOFC Cathode Durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachsman, Eric [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Durability of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under “real world” conditions is an issue for commercial deployment. In particular cathode exposure to moisture, CO2, Cr vapor (from interconnects and BOP), and particulates results in long-term performance degradation issues. Here, we have conducted a multi-faceted fundamental investigation of the effect of these contaminants on cathode performance degradation mechanisms in order to establish cathode composition/structures and operational conditions to enhance cathode durability.

  5. SOFC Systems with Improved Reliability and Endurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein [Fuelcell Energy, Incorporated, Danbury, CT (United States)

    2015-12-31

    The overall goal of this U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project was the development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology suitable for ultra-efficient central power generation systems utilizing coal and natural gas fuels and featuring greater than 90% carbon dioxide capture. The specific technical objective of this project was to demonstrate, via analyses and testing, progress towards adequate stack life (≥ 4 years) and stack performance stability (degradation rate ≤ 0.2% per 1000 hours) in a low-cost SOFC stack design. This final technical report summarizes the progress made during the project period of 27 months. Significant progress was made in the areas of cell and stack technology development, stack module development, sub-scale module tests, and Proof-of-Concept Module unit design, fabrication and testing. The work focused on cell and stack materials and designs, balance-of-plant improvements, and performance evaluation covering operating conditions and fuel compositions anticipated for commercially-deployed systems. In support of performance evaluation under commercial conditions, this work included the design, fabrication, siting, commissioning, and operation of a ≥ 50 kWe proof-of-concept module (PCM) power plant, based upon SOFC cell and stack technology developed to date by FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) under the Office of Fossil Energy’s Solid Oxide Fuel Cells program. The PCM system was operated for at least 1000 hours on natural gas fuel at FCE’s facility. The factory cost of the SOFC stack was estimated to be at or below the DOE’s high-volume production cost target (2011 $).

  6. Westinghouse says cartel rigged U.S. uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    On Oct. 15, 1976, Westinghouse filed a complaint in Federal court in Chicago charging that 29 U.S. and foreign uranium producers damaged Westinghouse by illegally rigging the uranium market; they also link the Atomic Industrial Forum to the U.S. activities of this cartel. Background information is presented for the charge, which has become the focal point of Westinghouse's defense against the uranium supply breach of contract suits filed against the firm by 27 electric utilities (3 filed in county court in Pittsburgh, 24 jointly in Federal court in Virginia). Westinghouse attorneys say that most of the evidence they have shows the existence of a cartel in the past, but they hope to show it is still operating in the U.S

  7. Westinghouse introduces new fuel for PWRs and BWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, W L; McClintock, D C

    1985-09-01

    In response to utility demands for improved fuel performance, reduced fuel cycle costs, and enhanced operating margins, Westinghouse recently introduced advanced fuel assembly designs for both types of LWR - Vantage 5 for PWRs, and Quad+ for BWRs.

  8. Efficiency of SOFC type fuel cells; Eficiencia de celulas combustiveis do tipo SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Alexandre Alves do; Matos, Francisco F.; Boaventura, Jaime S.; Benedicto, Joao Paulo S.; Alencar, Marcelo [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Fisico-Quimica

    2006-07-01

    production of electric energy, mainly due to the fact that it is virtually no pollutant. Typically, the SOFC is constituted of at least seven distinct phases: fuel, anode, electrolyte substrate (separating the two electrodes), cathode, air, and electrical inter connectors (completing the electrical circuit). Thermodynamics clearly shows that electrochemical systems only can be reversible when homogeneous, what it is not case of the Sofc. Therefore, the application of equilibrium thermodynamics to these systems is incorrect. This work proposes that the Sofc can be better depicted from reactions between adsorbed species. The efficiency then is calculated as the ratio between the free energy of these reactions to the combustion heat. Thermodynamic parameter estimative is developed for the global and adsorbed species reactions. (author)

  9. APWR - Mitsubishi, Japan/Westinghouse, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeba, Y.; Weiss, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear power generated by light water reactors accounts for approximately 1/3 of Japan's power supply. Development of the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (APWR) was initiated by five PWR electric power companies (Hokkaido, Kansai, Shikoku, Kyushu and Japan Atomic Power), Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, and Westinghouse, with a view to providing a nuclear power source to meet future energy demand in Japan. The APWR was developed based on the results of the Improvement and Standardization Program, promoted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, with reconsideration of the needs of age, such as construction cost reduction, enhanced safety and increased reliability. One of the important concepts of the APWR is its large power rating that decreases the construction cost per unit of electric generation capacity. Though the electric output was lower at the early stage of basic design than it is now, uprating to approximately 1530 MW is achieved based on the results of design progress and high efficiency improvements to the steam turbine and reactor coolant pumps. Furthermore, the APWR remarkably enhances reliability, safety operability and maintainability by introducing new technologies that include a radial reflector and advanced accumulators. The first APWR is planned to be built at Tsuruga No. 3 and No. 4 by the Japan Atomic Power Company and will be the largest commercial operation plant in the early 21st century. (author)

  10. Standardized Technical Specifications for Westinghouse PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Standard Technical Specification (STS) has been structured for the broadest possible use on Westinghouse plants currently being reviewed for an Operating License. Accordingly, the document contains specifications applicable to plants (1) with either 3 or 4 loops and (2) with and without loop stop valves. In addition, four separate and discrete containment specification sections are provided for each of the following containment types: Atmospheric, Ice Condenser, Sub-Atmospheric, and Dual. Optional specifications are provided for those features and systems which may be included in individual plant designs but are not generic in their scope of application. Alternate specifications are provided in a limited number of cases to cover situations where alternate specification requirements are necessary on a generic basis because of design differences. The format of the STS addresses the categories required by 10 CFR 50 and consists of six sections covering the areas of: Definitions, Safety Limits and Limiting Safety System Settings, Limiting Conditions for Operation, Surveillance Requirements, Design Features, and Administrative Controls

  11. Life cycle assessment of an SOFC/GT process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olausson, Pernilla

    1999-06-01

    For the last few years much effort has been put into the research on different kinds of fuel cells, since these are considered to be both an efficient and environment friendly way to convert energy. The fuel cell studied here is the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that works at a high temperature (800-1000 C) and today achieves a stand-alone electric efficiency of approximately 50%. When integrating the SOFC in a gas turbine process (SOFC/GT process) an efficiency of 70-75% can be reached. The SOFC and the SOFC/GT process are considered to be environment friendly regarding the discharges during operation. Especially formation of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) is low since the SOFC temperatures are low compared to NO{sub x} formation temperatures. To study the whole environmental impact of the SOFC/GT process a life cycle assessment (LCA) is carried out to find the `hot spots` in the process` life cycle. Since the SOFC/GT process is under development today the collected data are mainly from literature and articles based on laboratory results. When performing the LCA only the SOFC-module and the gas turbine are included. A collection of data of all processes included, extraction of minerals, processing of raw material, production of the components, operation of the SOFC/GT process and transports between all these processes. These data are then added up and weighted in impact categories to evaluate the total environmental impact of the SOFC/GT process. All these steps are performed according to the ISO 14040-series. The stand-alone most contributing phase during the life cycle of the SOFC/GT process was found to be the production of the SOFC. All processes during the production of the SOFC are carried out under laboratory circumstances, which require more energy and materials than if the processes were commercialised and optimised. For the SOFC/GT process to be competitive with other energy converting processes regarding the discharges of emissions to the air, the use of

  12. Development of a fuel flexible, air-regulated, modular, and electrically integrated SOFC-system (FlameSOFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, S.; Trimis, D. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Thermal Engineering; Valldorf, J. [VDI/VDE Innovation + Technik GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The present paper summarizes experimental results from the operation of the SOFC based micro-CHP unit developed within the framework of the project FlameSOFC. The project is co-financed by the European Commission as an Integrated Project within the 6{sup th} framework program. The objective is the development of an innovative SOFC-based micro-CHP system capable of operating with different gaseous and liquid fuels and fulfilling the technological and market requirements at a European level. The partners involved in the FlameSOFC project bring together a sufficient number of important European actors on the scientific, research and industry level including SMEs and industrial partners from the heating sector. The presented work concerns the operation of the 2{sup nd} phase prototype FlameSOFC system, with a 1 kW{sub el.} SOFC stack and natural gas as feedstock. (orig.)

  13. The Westinghouse Advanced Passive Pressurized Water Reactor, AP1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schene, R.

    2009-01-01

    Featuring proven technology and innovative passive safety systems, the Westinghouse AP1000 pressurized water reactor can achieve competitive generation costs in the current electricity market without emitting harmful greenhouse gases and further harming the environment. Westinghouse Electric Company, the pioneer in nuclear energy once again sets a new industry standard with the AP1000. The AP1000 is a two-loop pressurized water reactor that uses simplified, innovative and effective approach to safety. With a gross power rating of 3415 megawatt thermal and a nominal net electrical output of 1117 megawatt electric, the AP1000 is ideal for new base load generation. The AP1000 is the safest and most economical nuclear power plant available in the worldwide commercial marketplace, and is the only Generation III+ reactor to receive a design certification from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Based on nearly 20 years of research and development, the AP1000 builds and improves upon the established technology of major components used in current Westinghouse designed plants. These components, including steam generators, digital instrumentation and controls, fuel, pressurizers, and reactor vessels, are currently in use around the world and have years of proven, reliable operating experience. Historically, Westinghouse plant designs and technology have forged the cutting edge technology of nuclear plant around the world. Today, nearly 50 percent of the world's 440 nuclear plants are based on Westinghouse technology. Westinghouse continues to be the nuclear industry's global leader. (author)

  14. High-fidelity stack and system modeling for tubular solid oxide fuel cell system design and thermal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattke, K. J.; Braun, R. J.; Colclasure, A. M.; Goldin, G.

    Effective thermal integration of system components is critical to the performance of small-scale (design and simulation tool for a highly-integrated tubular SOFC system. The SOFC is modeled using a high fidelity, one-dimensional tube model coupled to a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Recuperative heat exchange between SOFC tail-gas and inlet cathode air and reformer air/fuel preheat processes are captured within the CFD model. Quasi one-dimensional thermal resistance models of the tail-gas combustor (TGC) and catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx) complete the balance of plant (BoP) and SOFC coupling. The simulation tool is demonstrated on a prototype 66-tube SOFC system with 650 W of nominal gross power. Stack cooling predominately occurs at the external surface of the tubes where radiation accounts for 66-92% of heat transfer. A strong relationship develops between the power output of a tube and its view factor to the relatively cold cylinder wall surrounding the bundle. The bundle geometry yields seven view factor groupings which correspond to seven power groupings with tube powers ranging from 7.6-10.8 W. Furthermore, the low effectiveness of the co-flow recuperator contributes to lower tube powers at the bundle outer periphery.

  15. Review of the micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell. Part I. Stack design issues and research activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawlor, V. [Department of Eco-Energy Engineering, Upper Austrian University of Applied Sciences, A-4600 Wels (Austria); Department of Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Griesser, S. [Department of Eco-Energy Engineering, Upper Austrian University of Applied Sciences, A-4600 Wels (Austria); Buchinger, G. [eZelleron GmbH, Collenbusch str. 22, 01324 Dresden (Germany); Olabi, A.G. [Department of Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Cordiner, S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica - Universita di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Meissner, D. [Department of Eco-Energy Engineering, Upper Austrian University of Applied Sciences, A-4600 Wels (Austria); Department of Material Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate 19086 (Estonia)

    2009-09-05

    Fuel cells are devices that convert chemical energy in hydrogen enriched fuels into electricity electrochemically. Micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFCs), the type pioneered by K. Kendall in the early 1990s, are a variety of SOFCs that are on the scale of millimetres compared to their much larger SOFC relatives that are typically on the scale of tens of centimetres. The main advantage of the MT-SOFC, over its larger predecessor, is that it is smaller in size and is more suitable for rapid start up. This may allow the SOFC to be used in devices such as auxiliary power units, automotive power supplies, mobile electricity generators and battery re-chargers. The following paper is Part I of a two part series. Part I will introduce the reader to the MT-SOFC stack and its applications, indicating who is researching what in this field and also specifically investigate the design issues related to multi-cell reactor systems called stacks. Part II will review in detail the combinations of materials and methods used to produce the electrodes and electrolytes of MT-SOFC's. Also the role of modelling and validation techniques used in the design and improvement of the electrodes and electrolytes will be investigated. A broad range of scientific and engineering disciplines are involved in a stack design. Scientific and engineering content has been discussed in the areas of thermal-self-sustainability and efficiency, sealing technologies, manifold design, electrical connections and cell performance optimisation. (author)

  16. Westinghouse waste simulation and optimization software tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennicken, Kim; Aign, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    Applications for dynamic simulation can be found in virtually all areas of process engineering. The tangible benefits of using dynamic simulation can be seen in tighter design, smoother start-ups and optimized operation. Thus, proper implementation of dynamic simulation can deliver substantial benefits. These benefits are typically derived from improved process understanding. Simulation gives confidence in evidence based decisions and enables users to try out lots of 'what if' scenarios until one is sure that a decision is the right one. In radioactive waste treatment tasks different kinds of waste with different volumes and properties have to be treated, e.g. from NPP operation or D and D activities. Finding a commercially and technically optimized waste treatment concept is a time consuming and difficult task. The Westinghouse Waste Simulation and Optimization Software Tool will enable the user to quickly generate reliable simulation models of various process applications based on equipment modules. These modules can be built with ease and be integrated into the simulation model. This capability ensures that this tool is applicable to typical waste treatment tasks. The identified waste streams and the selected treatment methods are the basis of the simulation and optimization software. After implementing suitable equipment data into the model, process requirements and waste treatment data are fed into the simulation to finally generate primary simulation results. A sensitivity analysis of automated optimization features of the software generates the lowest possible lifecycle cost for the simulated waste stream. In combination with proven waste management equipments and integrated waste management solutions, this tool provides reliable qualitative results that lead to an effective planning and minimizes the total project planning risk of any waste management activity. It is thus the ideal tool for designing a waste treatment facility in an optimum manner

  17. Westinghouse waste simulation and optimization software tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennicken, Kim; Aign, Jorg [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Applications for dynamic simulation can be found in virtually all areas of process engineering. The tangible benefits of using dynamic simulation can be seen in tighter design, smoother start-ups and optimized operation. Thus, proper implementation of dynamic simulation can deliver substantial benefits. These benefits are typically derived from improved process understanding. Simulation gives confidence in evidence based decisions and enables users to try out lots of 'what if' scenarios until one is sure that a decision is the right one. In radioactive waste treatment tasks different kinds of waste with different volumes and properties have to be treated, e.g. from NPP operation or D and D activities. Finding a commercially and technically optimized waste treatment concept is a time consuming and difficult task. The Westinghouse Waste Simulation and Optimization Software Tool will enable the user to quickly generate reliable simulation models of various process applications based on equipment modules. These modules can be built with ease and be integrated into the simulation model. This capability ensures that this tool is applicable to typical waste treatment tasks. The identified waste streams and the selected treatment methods are the basis of the simulation and optimization software. After implementing suitable equipment data into the model, process requirements and waste treatment data are fed into the simulation to finally generate primary simulation results. A sensitivity analysis of automated optimization features of the software generates the lowest possible lifecycle cost for the simulated waste stream. In combination with proven waste management equipments and integrated waste management solutions, this tool provides reliable qualitative results that lead to an effective planning and minimizes the total project planning risk of any waste management activity. It is thus the ideal tool for designing a waste treatment facility in an optimum manner

  18. Implementation of the Westinghouse WRB-2 CHF correlation in VIPRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasmier, L.K.; Haksoo Kim

    1992-01-01

    As part of the reload transient and thermal-hydraulic methods development effort within Commonwealth Edison Company (CECo), the WRB-2 critical heat flux (CHF) correlation has been implemented into the VIPRE-01 thermal-hydraulic analysis code to support Westinghouse 17X17 Vantage 5 fuel. CECo is in the process of switching from Westinghouse optimized fuel assembly (OFA) fuel to Vantage 5 fuel at CECo's six pressurized water reactors. CECo performs the neutronic portion of the reload analysis using Westinghouse's ANC/PHOENIX. The transient and thermal-hydraulic analysis will be performed using the RETRAN and VIPRE codes once the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has completed their review of CECo methodology. Previously, CECo had implemented and received NRC approval to use the Westinghouse WRB-1 CHF correlation in the VIPRE-01 code to support 15X15 and 17X17 OFA fuel designs. Since the WRB-1 CHF correlation is not applicable for 17X17 Vantage 5 fuel, it was necessary to implement the WRB-2 CHF correlation in the VIPRE code. The WRB-2 correlation was developed by Westinghouse using a database applicable to 17X17 OFA and Vantage 5 fuel and the THINC thermal-hydraulic analysis code. At CECo, the WRB-2 correlation had been implemented into VIPRE-01/MOD-02. The results produced at CECo have been statistically compared to those produced by Westinghouse. Owen's method was used to determine the VIPRE/WRB-02 thermal limit. The thermal limit for 17X17 OFA and Vantage 5 fuel use in VIPRE/WRB-2 is in excellent agreement with the value calculated by Westinghouse using THINC/WRB-2

  19. Cathode-Electrolyte Interfaces with CGO Barrier Layers in SOFC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knibbe, Ruth; Hjelm, Johan; Menon, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    Electron microscopy characterization across the cathode–electrolyte interface of two different types of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC) is performed to understand the origin of the cell performance disparity. One IT-SOFC cell had a sprayed-cosintered Ce0.90Gd0.01O1.95 (CGO...

  20. Integrating a SOFC Plant with a Steam Turbine Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Scappin, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is integrated with a Steam Turbine (ST) cycle. Different hybrid configurations are studied. The fuel for the plants is assumed to be natural gas (NG). Since the NG cannot be sent to the anode side of the SOFC directly, a desulfurization reactor is used to remove...

  1. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Development in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Søren; Larsen, Peter Halvor; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2007-01-01

    on larger anode-supported cells as well as a new generation of SOFCs based on porous metal supports and new electrode and electrolyte materials. The SOFC program comprises development of next generation of cells and multi stack modules for operation at lower temperature with increased durability...

  2. Technology watch of stationary solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) 2012; Teknikbevakning av stationaera fastoxidbraensleceller (SOFC) 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Martin; Sunden, Bengt

    2013-03-15

    The first solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was developed in 1937. However, the commercialization has waited. In 2012, 20MW of SOFC-systems are expected to be delivered to customers, compared to 1.3 MW in 2008. It is mainly in specific niche markets, such as on-site power generation for data centers, small-scale CHP for individual households and as military applications, where SOFC systems are available today. The future potential is enormous in the just mentioned areas as well as for APUs in trucks and other vehicles as well as for MW-scale distributed power generation. There are public research program, support for demonstration projects and investment support to private households as well as companies in various terms around the world. EU invests SEK 666 million (distributed at hydrogen, fuel cells for transportation, stationary systems and cogeneration) in the FCH-JU program only in 2012, compared with SEK 1.59 billion in the Japanese program (of which 125 million is directed to SOFC research and 740 million to the ENE-FARM project to be distributed between PEMFC and SOFC). The German hydrogen and fuel cell program is SEK 12 billion during 2006-2016 (of which 54% to transportation applications, 36% to stationary applications and 10% to special applications), compared with the Finnish program that invest SEK 1.3 billion in 2007-2013. The federal SECA program directs SEK 160 million to SOFC research. Denmark goes slightly over SEK 115 million annually in public funds for fuel cell research. The trend is that the proportion of public funding for demonstration projects and support to customers for purchasing pre-commercial products is increasing at the expense of basic research funding. Note that the listed research programs involve different types of fuel cells, and information regarding the percentage that goes to SOFCs is not specified for each case. Research continues to deliver new advances. Researchers at Harvard have shown that a SOFC, with vanadium oxide in the

  3. Solid oxide fuel cells, SOFC, in future power generation; Fastoxidbraensleceller, SOFC, i framtida kraftgenerering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Kent; Baafaelt, M

    1997-02-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, SOFC, is a very promising technological area for generating electricity in the future. Especially for small scale cogeneration. SOFC is an excellent choice due to its high efficiencies at small power plant sizes. The expected size of the power plants is 10-20 MWe but larger ones might be built. An important part of the assumptions in this report is the SOFC electric efficiency dependence of the pressure in the process. The electric efficiency is assumed to be 50% at atmospheric pressure and 55% at 10 atmospheres. These assumptions lead to a formula that describes the electric efficiency as a function of the pressure. The parametric study shows that the pressure has a very large influence of the electric efficiency. At low pressure and high Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT) the electric efficiency will be higher than at high pressure and low TIT. The post intercooler temperature and the pressure drop over the SOFC unit have a moderate effect on the electric efficiency. In the process calculations the TIT is shown to have a very small influence on the plant efficiencies. Consequently, by lowering the TIT, the need for blade cooling and tougher materials can be avoided, with only a small electric efficiency decrease. The recuperator is a central part of the process. It evens out the influence from other parts in the process. This is one of the reasons why the polytropic efficiencies of the compressor and the expander have such a low influence on the process efficiency. The report shows that to receive high efficiencies in a SOFC/GT power plant, the points mentioned below should be taken into consideration: The pressure in the process should be approximately 4 bar; The compressor should have an intercooler; The TIT should be below the temperature where blade cooling is needed; No steam cycle should be connected after the gas turbine at sizes of 5-20 MW. 32 refs, 67 figs, 9 tabs, 15 appendices

  4. Integrated Gasification SOFC Plant with a Steam Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Steam Turbine (ST) plant is integrated with a gasification plant. Wood chips are fed to the gasification plant to produce biogas and then this gas is fed into the anode side of a SOFC cycle to produce electricity and heat. The gases from the SOFC stacks...... enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The offgases after the burner are now used to generate steam in a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The generated steam is expanded in a ST to produce additional power. Thus a triple hybrid plant based on a gasification plant, a SOFC plant...... and a steam plant is presented and studied. The plant is called as IGSS (Integrated Gasification SOFC Steam plant). Different systems layouts are presented and investigated. Electrical efficiencies up to 56% are achieved which is considerably higher than the conventional integrated gasification combined...

  5. Study of Operating Parameters for Accelerated Anode Degradation in SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploner, Alexandra; Hagen, Anke; Hauch, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications require lifetimes of several years on the system level. A big challenge is to demonstrate such exceptionally long lifetimes in ongoing R&D projects. Accelerated or compressed testing are alternative methods to obtain this. Activities in this area have been...... carried out without arriving at a generally accepted methodology. This is mainly due to the complexity of degradation mechanisms on the single SOFC components as function of operating parameters. In this study, we present a detailed analysis of approx. 180 durability tests regarding degradation of single...... SOFC components as function of operating conditions. Electrochemical impedance data were collected on the fresh and long-term tested SOFCs and used to de-convolute the individual losses of single SOFC cell components – electrolyte, cathode and anode. The main findings include a time-dependent effect...

  6. Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor nuclear steam supply system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memmott, M. J.; Harkness, A. W.; Van Wyk, J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 600 Cranberry Woods Drive, Cranberry Twp. PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), in which all of the components typically associated with the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear power plant are incorporated within a single reactor pressure vessel. This paper is the first in a series of four papers which describe the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR. Also described in this series are the key drivers influencing the design of the Westinghouse SMR and the unique passive safety features of the Westinghouse SMR. Several critical motivators contributed to the development and integration of the Westinghouse SMR design. These design driving motivators dictated the final configuration of the Westinghouse SMR to varying degrees, depending on the specific features under consideration. These design drivers include safety, economics, AP1000{sup R} reactor expertise and experience, research and development requirements, functionality of systems and components, size of the systems and vessels, simplicity of design, and licensing requirements. The Westinghouse SMR NSSS consists of an integral reactor vessel within a compact containment vessel. The core is located in the bottom of the reactor vessel and is composed of 89 modified Westinghouse 17x17 Robust Fuel Assemblies (RFA). These modified fuel assemblies have an active core length of only 2.4 m (8 ft) long, and the entirety of the core is encompassed by a radial reflector. The Westinghouse SMR core operates on a 24 month fuel cycle. The reactor vessel is approximately 24.4 m (80 ft) long and 3.7 m (12 ft) in diameter in order to facilitate standard rail shipping to the site. The reactor vessel houses hot and cold leg channels to facilitate coolant flow, control rod drive mechanisms (CRDM), instrumentation and cabling, an intermediate flange to separate flow and instrumentation and facilitate simpler refueling, a pressurizer, a straight tube, recirculating steam

  7. Performance of the Westinghouse WWER-1000 fuel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoglund, J.; Riznychenko, O.; Latorre, R.; Lashevych, P.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005 six (6) Westinghouse WWER-1000 Lead Test Assemblies (LTAs) were loaded in the South Ukraine Unit 3. This design has demonstrated full compatibility with resident fuel designs and all associated fuel handling and reactor components. Operations have further demonstrated adequacy of performance margins and the reliability requirements for multiple cycles of operation. The LTA's have now been discharged after completing the planned four cycles of operation and having reached an average assembly burnup in excess of 43 MWd/kgU. Post Irradiation Examinations were performed after completion of each cycle. The final LTA inspection program at end of Cycle 20 in 2010 yielded satisfactory results on all counts, and it was concluded that the 6 Westinghouse LTA's performed as expected during their operational regimes. Very good performance was demonstrated in the WWER-1000 reactor environment for the Zr-1%Nb as grid material, and ZIRLO fuel cladding and structural components. Control Rod Assemblies drop times and drag forces were all within the accepted values. The LTA program demonstrated that this fuel design is suitable for full core applications. However, the topic of fuel assembly distortion resistance was re-visited and Westinghouse therefore considered operational experience and design features from multiple development programs to enhance the basic Westinghouse WWER-1000 fuel design for Ukrainian reactors. The design now includes features that further mitigate assembly bow while at the same time improving the fuel cycle economy. This paper describes briefly the development of the Westinghouse WWER-1000 fuel design and how test results and operational experiences from multiple sources have been utilized to produce a most suitable fuel design. Early in 2011 a full region of the Westinghouse WWER-1000 design completed another full cycle of operation at South Ukraine Unit 3, all with excellent results. All 42 fuel assemblies were examined for visible damage or non

  8. Electrode design for direct-methane micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell (MT-SOFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabuni, Mohamad Fairus; Li, Tao; Punmeechao, Puvich; Li, Kang

    2018-04-01

    Herein, a micro-structured electrode design has been developed via a modified phase-inversion method. A thin electrolyte integrated with a highly porous anode scaffold has been fabricated in a single-step process and developed into a complete fuel cell for direct methane (CH4) utilisation. A continuous and well-dispersed layer of copper-ceria (Cu-CeO2) was incorporated inside the micro-channels of the anode scaffold. A complete cell was investigated for direct CH4 utilisation. The well-organised micro-channels and nano-structured Cu-CeO2 anode contributed to an increase in electrochemical reaction sites that promoted charge-transfer as well as facilitating gaseous fuel distribution, resulting in outstanding performances. Excellent electrochemical performances have been achieved in both hydrogen (H2) and CH4 operation. The power density of 0.16 Wcm-2 at 750 °C with dry CH4 as fuel is one of the highest ever reported values for similar anode materials.

  9. Tubular closure mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalen, D.D.; Mitchem, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to a closure mechanism for tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holder used in nuclear reactors. The closure mechanism is composed of a latching member which includes a generally circular chamber with a plurality of elongated latches depending therefrom. The latching member circumscribes part of an actuator member which is disposed within the latching member so as to be axially movable. The axial movement of the actuator actuates positioning of the latches between positions in which the latches are locked and secured within the actuator member. Means, capable of being remotely manipulated, are provided to move the actuator in order to position the latches and load the articles within the tube

  10. Westinghouse fuel manufacturing systems: a step change in performance improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutyala, Meena

    2009-01-01

    Today's competitive electrical generation industry demands that nuclear power plant operators minimize total operating costs, including fuel cycle cost while maintaining flawless fuel performance. The mission of Westinghouse Nuclear Fuel is to be the industry's most responsive supplier of flawless, value added fuel products and services, as judged by our customers. As nuclear is fast becoming the choice of many countries, existing manufacturing plants and facilities are once again running at full capacity. In this context Westinghouse Nuclear Fuel is committed to deliver a step change in performance improvement worldwide through its manufacturing operations by the introduction of a set of fundamentals collectively named the 'Westinghouse Fuel Manufacturing System' (WFMS), whose key principles are discussed in this paper. (author)

  11. Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, Charles John-Paul [Cummins Power Generation; Fuchs, Benjamin S. [Cummins Power Generation; Booten, Chuck W. [Protonex Technology, LLC

    2010-03-31

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) Diesel Fueled SOFC for Class 7/Class 8 On-Highway Truck Auxiliary Power (SOFC APU) development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) contract DE-FC36-04GO14318. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner development leading to successful demonstration of the SOFC APU objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant SOFC APU Milestones: Demonstrated: Operation meeting SOFC APU requirements on commercial Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel. SOFC systems operating on dry CPOX reformate. Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC APU system without inert gas purge. Developed: Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. Demonstrated efficient SOFC output power conditioning. Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods.

  12. Westinghouse accident tolerant fuel program. Current results and future plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Sumit; Xu, Peng; Lahoda, Edward; Hallstadius, Lars; Boylan, Frank [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Hopkins, SC (United States)

    2016-07-15

    This paper discusses the current status, results from initial tests, as well as the future direction of the Westinghouse's Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) program. The current preliminary testing is addressed that is being performed on these samples at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) test reactor, initial results from these tests, as well as the technical learning from these test results. In the Westinghouse ATF approach, higher density pellets play a significant role in the development of an integrated fuel system.

  13. Standard Technical Specifications for Westinghouse pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgilio, M.J.

    1980-09-01

    The Standard Technical Specifications for Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors (W-STS) is a generic document prepared by the U.S. NRC for use in the licensing process of current Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors. The W-STS sets forth the Limits, Operating Conditions and other requirements applicable to nuclear reactor facility operation as set forth in by Section 50.36 of 10 CFR Part 50 for the protection of the health and safety of the public. This document is revised periodically to reflect current licensing requirements

  14. MHI-Westinghouse joint FBR tank plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.H.; Vijuk, R.M.; Aoki, I.; Meshii, T.

    1987-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems Division have combined their experience and capabilities to design a tank type fast breeder reactor plant. This tank type reactor has been refined and improved during the last three years to better compete in cost, satety, and operation with alternative power plants. This Mitsubishi/Westinghouse joint design offers economic advantages due to the use of steel structures, modular construction, nitrogen cells for the intermediate loops, reactor cavity air cooling and the use of the guard vessel as the containment vessel. Inherent characteristics in the reactor design provide protection to the public and the plant investment. (author)

  15. Status of Westinghouse coal-fueled combustion turbine programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalzo, A.J.; Amos, D.J.; Bannister, R.L.; Garland, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    Developing clean, efficient, cost effective coal utilization technologies for future power generation is an essential part of our National Energy Strategy. Westinghouse is actively developing power plants utilizing advanced gasification, atmospheric fluidized beds (AFB), pressurized fluidized beds (PFB), and direct firing technology through programs sponsored by the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE). The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is sponsoring the Direct Coal-Fired Turbine program. This paper presents the status of current and potential Westinghouse Power Generation Business Unit advanced coal-fueled power generation programs as well as commercial plans

  16. The characteristics of the Westinghouse accident procedures and the main differences with SOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yan; Gan Peijiang; Sun Chen

    2014-01-01

    In this note, the Westinghouse operation file system is summarized. The structures of procedures, design methods, implementation logics of the Westinghouse accident procedures are discussed. And compared with the SOP principles, the main differences are clarified. (authors)

  17. Power generation efficiency of an SOFC-PEFC combined system with time shift utilization of SOFC exhaust heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Shin' ya [Power Engineering Lab., Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Kouen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 0908507 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    A microgrid, with little environmental impact, is developed by introducing a combined SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) and PEFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system. Although the SOFC requires a higher operation temperature compared to the PEFC, the power generation efficiency of the SOFC is higher. However, if high temperature exhaust heat may be used effectively, a system with higher total power generation efficiency can be built. Therefore, this paper investigates the operation of a SOFC-PEFC combined system, with time shift operation of reformed gas, into a microgrid with 30 houses in Sapporo, Japan. The SOFC is designed to correspond to base load operation, and the exhaust heat of the SOFC is used for production of reformed gas. This reformed gas is used for the production of electricity for the PEFC, corresponding to fluctuation load of the next day. Accordingly, the reformed gas is used with a time shift operation. In this paper, the relation between operation method, power generation efficiency, and amount of heat storage of the SOFC-PEFC combined system to the difference in power load pattern was investigated. The average power generation efficiency of the system can be maintained at nearly 48% on a representative day in February (winter season) and August (summer season). (author)

  18. Overview of expert systems applications in Westinghouse Nuclear Fuel Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Expert system applications have been introduced in several nuclear fuel activities, including engineering and manufacturing. This technology has been successfully implemented on the manufacturing floors to provide on-line process control at zirconium tubing and fuel fabrication plants. This paper provides an overview of current applications at Westinghouse with respect to fuel fabrication, zirconium tubing, zirconium production, and core design

  19. An Overview of Westinghouse Realistic Large Break LOCA Evaluation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Frepoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1988 amendment of the 10 CFR 50.46 rule in 1988, Westinghouse has been developing and applying realistic or best-estimate methods to perform LOCA safety analyses. A realistic analysis requires the execution of various realistic LOCA transient simulations where the effect of both model and input uncertainties are ranged and propagated throughout the transients. The outcome is typically a range of results with associated probabilities. The thermal/hydraulic code is the engine of the methodology but a procedure is developed to assess the code and determine its biases and uncertainties. In addition, inputs to the simulation are also affected by uncertainty and these uncertainties are incorporated into the process. Several approaches have been proposed and applied in the industry in the framework of best-estimate methods. Most of the implementations, including Westinghouse, follow the Code Scaling, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU methodology. Westinghouse methodology is based on the use of the WCOBRA/TRAC thermal-hydraulic code. The paper starts with an overview of the regulations and its interpretation in the context of realistic analysis. The CSAU roadmap is reviewed in the context of its implementation in the Westinghouse evaluation model. An overview of the code (WCOBRA/TRAC and methodology is provided. Finally, the recent evolution to nonparametric statistics in the current edition of the W methodology is discussed. Sample results of a typical large break LOCA analysis for a PWR are provided.

  20. Factory Acceptance Test Procedure Westinghouse 100 ton Hydraulic Trailer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftanas, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    This Factory Acceptance Test Procedure (FAT) is for the Westinghouse 100 Ton Hydraulic Trailer. The trailer will be used for the removal of the 101-SY pump. This procedure includes: safety check and safety procedures; pre-operation check out; startup; leveling trailer; functional/proofload test; proofload testing; and rolling load test

  1. Westinghouse independent safety review of Savannah River production reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, W.D.; McShane, W.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Liparulo, N.J.; McAdoo, J.D.; Strawbridge, L.E. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Nuclear and Advanced Technology Div.); Toto, G. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Nuclear Services Div.); Fauske, H.K. (Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (USA)); Call, D.W. (Westinghouse Savannah R

    1989-04-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation has performed a safety assessment of the Savannah River production reactors (K,L, and P) as requested by the US Department of Energy. This assessment was performed between November 1, 1988, and April 1, 1989, under the transition contract for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company's preparations to succeed E.I. du Pont de Nemours Company as the US Department of Energy contractor for the Savannah River Project. The reviewers were drawn from several Westinghouse nuclear energy organizations, embody a combination of commercial and government reactor experience, and have backgrounds covering the range of technologies relevant to assessing nuclear safety. The report presents the rationale from which the overall judgment was drawn and the basis for the committee's opinion on the phased restart strategy proposed by E.I. du Pont de Nemours Company, Westinghouse, and the US Department of Energy-Savannah River. The committee concluded that it could recommend restart of one reactor at partial power upon completion of a list of recommended upgrades both to systems and their supporting analyses and after demonstration that the organization had assimilated the massive changes it will have undergone.

  2. Westinghouse independent safety review of Savannah River production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, W.D.; McShane, W.J.; Liparulo, N.J.; McAdoo, J.D.; Strawbridge, L.E.; Call, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation has performed a safety assessment of the Savannah River production reactors (K, L, and P) as requested by the US Department of Energy. This assessment was performed between November 1, 1988, and April 1, 1989, under the transition contract for the Westinghouse Savannah River Company's preparations to succeed E.I. du Pont de Nemours ampersand Company as the US Department of Energy contractor for the Savannah River Project. The reviewers were drawn from several Westinghouse nuclear energy organizations, embody a combination of commercial and government reactor experience, and have backgrounds covering the range of technologies relevant to assessing nuclear safety. The report presents the rationale from which the overall judgment was drawn and the basis for the committee's opinion on the phased restart strategy proposed by E.I. du Pont de Nemours ampersand Company, Westinghouse, and the US Department of Energy-Savannah River. The committee concluded that it could recommend restart of one reactor at partial power upon completion of a list of recommended upgrades both to systems and their supporting analyses and after demonstration that the organization had assimilated the massive changes it will have undergone. 37 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  3. Westinghouse, DOE see apples, oranges in IG staffing report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-01-01

    The operator of the Energy Department's Savannah River weapons plant has at least 1,800 more employees than it needs, and could save $400 million over a five-year period by cutting its staff accordingly, a DOE inspector general study says. Most of the boat - 1,206 employees - was attributed to excessive numbers of managers, with the inspector general concluding that Westinghouse Savannah River Co. had roughly twice as many layers of management than two other DOE weapons contractors. The study also concluded that Westinghouse in fiscal year 1992 significantly understated its actual staffing levels in reports to DOE, failing to disclose 1,765 full-time employees or the equivalent hours worked. Through such underreporting Westinghouse was able to open-quotes circumvent staffing ceilings established by the department,close quotes the study added. Overall, DOE Inspector General John Layton said Westinghouse's staff levels substantially exceeded those needed for efficient operation of the South Carolina nuclear weapons facility. Layton based his analysis on efficiency standards attained by other DOE weapons plant contractors, such as Martin Marietta Energy Systems at DOE's Oak Ridge, Tenn., plant and EG ampersand G Rocky Flats, as well as widely utilized worker performance requirements used by the Navy and private sector companies that perform work similar to that done at Savannah River

  4. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, S.

    1997-01-01

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties

  5. Perspective of the Westinghouse steam generator secondary side maintenance approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramaley, D. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Historically, Westinghouse had developed a set of steam generator secondary maintenance guidelines focused around performing recurring activities each outage without direct regards to the age, deposit loading, operational status, or corrosion status of the steam generator. Through the evolution of steam generator design and steam generator condition data, Westinghouse now uses a proactive assessment and planning approach for utilities. Westinghouse works with utilities to develop steam generator secondary maintenance plans for long term steam generator viability. Westinghouse has developed a portfolio of products to allow utilities to optimize steam generator operability and develop programs aimed at maintaining the steam generator secondary side in a favorable condition for successful long term operation. Judicious use of the means available for program development should allow for corrosion free operation, long term full power operation at optimum thermal efficiency, and leveling of outage expenditures over a long period of time. This paper will review the following required elements for an effective steam generator secondary side strategy: • Assessment: In order to develop an appropriate maintenance strategy, actions must be taken to obtain an accurate picture of the SG secondary side condition. • Forecasting: Using available data predictions are developed for future steam generator conditions and required maintenance actions. • Action: Cost effective engineering and maintenance actions must be completed at the appropriate time as designated by the plan. • Evaluation of Results: Following execution of maintenance tactics, it is necessary to revise strategy and develop technology enhancements as appropriate. (author)

  6. Experimental analysis of performance degradation of micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells fed by different fuel mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calise, F.; Restucccia, G.; Sammes, N.

    This paper analyzes the thermodynamic and electrochemical dynamic performance of an anode supported micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) fed by different types of fuel. The micro-tubular SOFC used is anode supported, consisting of a NiO and Gd 0.2Ce 0.8O 2- x (GDC) cermet anode, thin GDC electrolyte, and a La 0.6Sr 0.4Co 0.2Fe 0.8O 3- y (LSCF) and GDC cermet cathode. The fabrication of the cells under investigation is briefly summarized, with emphasis on the innovations with respect to traditional techniques. Such micro-tubular cells were tested using a Test Stand consisting of: a vertical tubular furnace, an electrical load, a galvanostast, a bubbler, gas pipelines, temperature, pressure and flow meters. The tests on the micro-SOFC were performed using H 2, CO, CH 4 and H 2O in different combinations at 550 °C, to determine the cell polarization curves under several load cycles. Long-term experimental tests were also performed in order to assess degradation of the electrochemical performance of the cell. Results of the tests were analyzed aiming at determining the sources of the cell performance degradation. Authors concluded that the cell under investigation is particularly sensitive to the carbon deposition which significantly reduces cell performance, after few cycles, when fed by light hydrocarbons. A significant performance degradation is also detected when hydrogen is used as fuel. In this case, the authors ascribe the degradation to the micro-cracks, the change in materials crystalline structure and problems with electrical connections.

  7. Expandable tubulars for use in geologic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray, Jeffery A.; Svedeman, Steven; Walter, David; Mckeighan, Peter; Siebanaler, Shane; Dewhurst, Peter; Hobson, Steven; Foss, Doug; Wirz, Holger; Sharpe, Aaron; Apostal, Michael

    2014-08-12

    An expandable tubular includes a plurality of leaves formed from sheet material that have curved surfaces. The leaves extend around a portion or fully around the diameter of the tubular structure. Some of the adjacent leaves of the tubular are coupled together. The tubular is compressed to a smaller diameter so that it can be inserted through previously deployed tubular assemblies. Once the tubular is properly positioned, it is deployed and coupled or not coupled to a previously deployed tubular assembly. The tubular is useful for all types of wells and boreholes.

  8. Tubular closure mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalen, D.D.; Mitchem, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for closing the bore of a tube and releasably securing articles within the tube under longitudinal load. A latching member has a cylindrical section and several circumferentially-spaced elongated latches hanging down from one end of the cylinder. An elongated actuator has integral cam and spline and is partly located within the latch with the cam radially contacting the latches and the spline projecting into the circumferential spaces between the latches. The actuator is axially movable between a position in which the latches are locked to the tube walls and a position in which the latches are secured from contact with the tube walls. Means are provided for axially moving the actuator such that the cam positions the latches; and means are also provided for engaging the articles within the tube. The closure is particularly applicable to tubular irradiation surveillance specimen assembly holders used in reactors

  9. Deposition and characterisation of epitaxial oxide thin films for SOFCs

    KAUST Repository

    Santiso, José ; Burriel, Mó nica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent advances in the use of thin films, mostly epitaxial, for fundamental studies of materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. These studies include the influence of film microstructure, crystal orientation

  10. Hybrid Metal/Electrolyte Monolithic Low Temperature SOFCs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cochran, Joe

    2004-01-01

    The program objective is to develop SOFCs, operating in the 500-700 degrees C range, based on Metal/Electrolyte square cell honeycomb formed by simultaneous powder extrusion of electrolyte and metal...

  11. Study of a SOFC-PEM hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillman, B.; Bjornbom, P.; Sylwan, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' In the present project a system study of a SOFC-PEM hybrid system is in progress. Positive synergy effects are expected when combining a SOFC system with a PEM system. By combining the advantages of each fuel cell type it is promising that the hybrid system has higher overall efficiency than a SOFC-only system or a reformer-PEM system. A SOFC stack produces electricity and a reformate gas that can be further processed to hydrogen by the shift reaction. The produced hydrogen can be used by PEM stack in order to produce further electricity. In the PEM system case the complex fuel reformer processing could be eliminated. The simulations were performed with the flowsheeting simulation software Aspen Plus. (author)

  12. Electrically Conductive and Protective Coating for Planar SOFC Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2017-12-04

    Ferritic stainless steels are preferred interconnect materials for intermediate temperature SOFCs because of their resistance to oxidation, high formability and low cost. However, their protective oxide layer produces Cr-containing volatile species at SOFC operating temperatures and conditions, which can cause cathode poisoning. Electrically conducting spinel coatings have been developed to prevent cathode poisoning and to maintain an electrically conductive pathway through SOFC stacks. However, this coating is not compatible with the formation of stable, hermetic seals between the interconnect frame component and the ceramic cell. Thus, a new aluminizing process has been developed by PNNL to enable durable sealing, prevent Cr evaporation, and maintain electrical insulation between stack repeat units. Hence, two different types of coating need to have stable operation of SOFC stacks. This paper will focus on the electrically conductive coating process. Moreover, an advanced coating process, compatible with a non-electrically conductive coating will be

  13. SOFC anode reduction studied by in situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is a promising part of future energy approaches due to a relatively high energy conversion efficiency and low environmental pollution. SOFCs are typically composed of ceramic materials which are highly complex at the nanoscale. TEM is routinely applied ex situ...... for studying these nanoscale structures, but only few SOFC studies have applied in situ TEM to observe the ceramic nanostructures in a reactive gas environment at elevated temperatures. The present contribution focuses on the reduction of an SOFC anode which is a necessary process to form the catalytically...... active Ni surface before operating the fuel cells. The reduction process was followed in the TEM while exposing a NiO/YSZ (YSZ = Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2) model anode to H2 at T = 250-1000⁰C. Pure NiO was used in reference experiments. Previous studies have shown that the reduction of pure Ni...

  14. Modelling effects of current distributions on performance of micro-tubular hollow fibre solid oxide fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doraswami, U.; Droushiotis, N.; Kelsall, G.H.

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional model, considering mass, momentum, energy and charge conservation, was developed and the equations solved to describe the physico-chemical phenomena occurring within a single, micro-tubular hollow fibre solid oxide fuel cell (HF-SOFC). The model was used to investigate the spatial distributions of potential, current and reactants in a 10 mm long HF-SOFC. The predicted effects of location of current collectors, electrode conductivities, cathode thickness and porosity were analysed to minimise the ranges of current density distributions and maximise performance by judicious design. To decrease the computational load, azimuthal symmetry was assumed to model 50 and 100 mm long reactors in 2-D. With connectors at the same end of the HF-SOFC operating at a cell voltage of 0.5 V and a mean 5 kA m -2 , axial potential drops of ca. 0.14 V in the cathode were predicted, comparable to the cathode activation overpotential. Those potential drops caused average current densities to decrease from ca. 6.5 to ca.1 kA m -2 as HF-SOFC length increased from 10 to 100 mm, at which much of the length was inactive. Peak power densities were predicted to vary from 3.8 to -2 , depending on the location of the current collectors; performance increased with increasing cathode thickness and decreasing porosity.

  15. Overview of the Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor building layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronje, J. M. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Centurion (South Africa); Van Wyk, J. J.; Memmott, M. J. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), in which all of the components typically associated with the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear power plant are incorporated within a single reactor pressure vessel. This paper is the third in a series of four papers, which describe the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR. It focuses in particular upon the plant building layout and modular design of the Westinghouse SMR. In the development of small modular reactors, the building layout is an area where the safety of the plant can be improved by applying new design approaches. This paper will present an overview of the Westinghouse SMR building layout and indicate how the design features improve the safety and robustness of the plant. The Westinghouse SMR is designed with no shared systems between individual reactor units. The main buildings inside the security fence are the nuclear island, the rad-waste building, the annex building, and the turbine building. All safety related equipment is located in the nuclear island, which is a seismic class 1 building. To further enhance the safety and robustness of the design, the reactor, containment, and most of the safety related equipment are located below grade on the nuclear island. This reduces the possibility of severe damage from external threats or natural disasters. Two safety related ultimate heat sink (UHS) water tanks that are used for decay heat removal are located above grade, but are redundant and physically separated as far as possible for improved safety. The reactor and containment vessel are located below grade in the center of the nuclear island. The rad-waste and other radioactive systems are located on the bottom floors to limit the radiation exposure to personnel. The Westinghouse SMR safety trains are completely separated into four unconnected quadrants of the building, with access between quadrants only allowed

  16. Mechanistic modelling of a cathode-supported tubular solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanwarangkul, R.; Croiset, E.; Pritzker, M. D.; Fowler, M. W.; Douglas, P. L.; Entchev, E.

    A two-dimensional mechanistic model of a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) considering momentum, energy, mass and charge transport is developed. The model geometry of a single cell comprises an air-preheating tube, air channel, fuel channel, anode, cathode and electrolyte layers. The heat radiation between cell and air-preheating tube is also incorporated into the model. This allows the model to predict heat transfer between the cell and air-preheating tube accurately. The model is validated and shows good agreement with literature data. It is anticipated that this model can be used to help develop efficient fuel cell designs and set operating variables under practical conditions. The transport phenomena inside the cell, including gas flow behaviour, temperature, overpotential, current density and species concentration, are analysed and discussed in detail. Fuel and air velocities are found to vary along flow passages depending on the local temperature and species concentrations. This model demonstrates the importance of incorporating heat radiation into a tubular SOFC model. Furthermore, the model shows that the overall cell performance is limited by O 2 diffusion through the thick porous cathode and points to the development of new cathode materials and designs being important avenues to enhance cell performance.

  17. Tubular nanostructured materials for bioapplications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jining; Chen, Linfeng; Srivatsan, Malathi; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2009-03-01

    Tubular nanomaterials possess hollow structures as well as high aspect ratios. In addition to their unique physical and chemical properties induced by their nanoscale dimensions, their inner voids and outer surfaces make them ideal candidates for a number of biomedical applications. In this work, three types of tubular nanomaterials including carbon nanotubes, hematite nanotubes, and maghemite nanotubes, were synthesized by different chemical techniques. Their structural and crystalline properties were characterized. For potential bioapplications of tubular nanomaterials, experimental investigations were carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of using carbon nanotubes, hematite nanotubes, and maghemite nanotubes in glucose sensing, neuronal growth, and drug delivery, respectively. Preliminary results show the promise of tubular nanomaterials in future biomedical applications.

  18. Drop testing of the Westinghouse fresh nuclear fuel package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.; Sanders, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    The Westinghouse Columbia Fuel Fabrication Facility has decided to develop and certify a new fresh fuel package design (type A, fissile) that has the capability to transport more highly enriched fuel than was previously possible. A prototype package was tested in support of the Safety Analysis Report of the Packaging (SARP). This paper provides detailed information on the tests and test results. A first prototype test was carried out at the STF, and the design did not give the safety margin that Westinghouse wanted for their containers. The data from the test were used to redesign the connection between the clamping frame and the pressure pad, and the tests were reinitiated. Three packages were then tested at the STF. All packages met the acceptance criteria and acceleration information was obtained that provided an indication of the behavior of the cradle and strongback which holds the fuel assemblies and nuclear poison in place. (J.P.N.)

  19. Chemical-cleaning process evaluation: Westinghouse steam generators. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleary, W.F.; Gockley, G.B.

    1983-04-01

    The Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG)/Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Steam Generator Secondary Side Chemical Cleaning Program, under develpment since 1978, has resulted in a generic process for the removal of accumulated corrosion products and tube deposits in the tube support plate crevices. The SGOG/EPRI Project S150-3 was established to obtain an evaluation of the generic process in regard to its applicability to Westinghouse steam generators. The results of the evaluation form the basis for recommendations for transferring the generic process to a plant specific application and identify chemical cleaning corrosion guidelines for the materials in Westinghouse Steam Generators. The results of the evaluation, recommendations for plant-specific applications and corrosion guidelines for chemical cleaning are presented in this report

  20. Drop testing of the Westinghouse fresh nuclear fuel package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.; Sanders, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the Westinghouse Columbia Fuel Fabrication Facility has been faced with increasing pressure from utilities that wished to take the fuel in their nuclear power plants to higher burnups. To help accommodate this trend, Westinghouse has determined that it needs the ability to increase the enrichment of the fresh fuel it delivers to its customers. One critical step in this process is to certify a new (Type A, fissile) fresh fuel package design that has the capability to transport fuel with a higher enrichment than was previously available. A prototype package was tested in support of the Safety Analysis Report of the Packaging. This paper provides detailed information on those tests and their results

  1. Ni/Ni-YSZ current collector/anode dual layer hollow fibers for micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanawka, K.; Othman, M.H.D.; Droushiotis, N.; Wu, Z.; Kelsall, G.; Li, K. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    A co-extrusion technique was employed to fabricate a novel dual layer NiO/NiO-YSZ hollow fiber (HF) precursor which was then co-sintered at 1,400 C and reduced at 700 C to form, respectively, a meshed porous inner Ni current collector and outer Ni-YSZ anode layers for SOFC applications. The inner thin and highly porous ''mesh-like'' pure Ni layer of approximately 50 {mu}m in thickness functions as a current collector in micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), aiming at highly efficient current collection with low fuel diffusion resistance, while the thicker outer Ni-YSZ layer of 260 {mu}m acts as an anode, providing also major mechanical strength to the dual-layer HF. Achieved morphology consisted of short finger-like voids originating from the inner lumen of the HF, and a sponge-like structure filling most of the Ni-YSZ anode layer, which is considered to be suitable macrostructure for anode SOFC system. The electrical conductivity of the meshed porous inner Ni layer is measured to be 77.5 x 10{sup 5} S m{sup -1}. This result is significantly higher than previous reported results on single layer Ni-YSZ HFs, which performs not only as a catalyst for the oxidation reaction, but also as a current collector. These results highlight the advantages of this novel dual-layer HF design as a new and highly efficient way of collecting current from the lumen of micro-tubular SOFC. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Engineering human factors into the Westinghouse advanced control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easter, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    By coupling the work of the Riso Laboratory in Denmark on human behaviour with new digital computation and display technology, Westinghouse has developed a totally new control room design. This design features a separate, co-ordinated work station to support the systems management role in decision making, as well as robust alarm and display systems. This coupling of the functional and physical data presentation is now being implemented in test facilities. (author)

  3. Simulator testing of the Westinghouse aware alarm management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera, J P; Easter, J R; Roth, E M [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Over the last year, Westinghouse engineers and operators from the Beznau nuclear power station (KKB), owned by the Nordostschweizerische Krafwerke AG of Baden, Switzerland, have been installing and testing the Westinghouse AWARE Alarm Management System in Beznau/SNUPPS operator training simulator, owned and operated by the Westinghouse Electric Corp., in Waltz Mill, PA, USA. The testing has focused primarily on validating the trigger logic data base and on familiarizing the utility`s training department with the operation of the system in a real-time environment. Some of the tests have included plant process scenarios in which the computerized Emergency Procedures were available and used through the COMPRO (COMputerized PROcedures) System in conjunction with the AWARE System. While the results to date are qualitative from the perspective of system performance and improvement in message presentation, the tests have generally confirmed the expectations of the design. There is a large reduction in the number of messages that the control room staff must deal with during major process abnormalities, yet at times of relative minor disturbances, some additional messages are available which add clarification, e.g., ``Pump Trouble`` messages. The ``flow`` of an abnormality as it progresses from one part of the plant`s processes to another is quite visible. Timing of the messages and the lack of message avalanching is proving to give the operators additional time to respond to messages. Generally, the anxiety level to ``do something`` immediately upon a reactor trip appears to be reduced. (author). 8 refs.

  4. Simulator testing of the Westinghouse aware alarm management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera, J.P.; Easter, J.R.; Roth, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Over the last year, Westinghouse engineers and operators from the Beznau nuclear power station (KKB), owned by the Nordostschweizerische Krafwerke AG of Baden, Switzerland, have been installing and testing the Westinghouse AWARE Alarm Management System in Beznau/SNUPPS operator training simulator, owned and operated by the Westinghouse Electric Corp., in Waltz Mill, PA, USA. The testing has focused primarily on validating the trigger logic data base and on familiarizing the utility's training department with the operation of the system in a real-time environment. Some of the tests have included plant process scenarios in which the computerized Emergency Procedures were available and used through the COMPRO (COMputerized PROcedures) System in conjunction with the AWARE System. While the results to date are qualitative from the perspective of system performance and improvement in message presentation, the tests have generally confirmed the expectations of the design. There is a large reduction in the number of messages that the control room staff must deal with during major process abnormalities, yet at times of relative minor disturbances, some additional messages are available which add clarification, e.g., ''Pump Trouble'' messages. The ''flow'' of an abnormality as it progresses from one part of the plant's processes to another is quite visible. Timing of the messages and the lack of message avalanching is proving to give the operators additional time to respond to messages. Generally, the anxiety level to ''do something'' immediately upon a reactor trip appears to be reduced. (author). 8 refs

  5. Characterization of ceria-based SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doshi, R.; Routbort, J.; Krumpelt, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operating at low temperatures (500-700{degrees}C) offer many advantages over the conventional zirconia-based fuel cells operating at higher temperatures. Reduced operating temperatures result in: (1) Application of metallic interconnects with reduced oxidation problems (2) Reduced time for start-up and lower energy consumption to reach operating temperatures (3) Increased thermal cycle ability for the cell structure due to lower thermal stresses of expansion mismatches. While this type of fuel cell may be applied to stationary applications, mobile applications require the ability for rapid start-up and frequent thermal cycling. Ceria-based fuel cells are currently being developed in the U.K. at Imperial College, Netherlands at ECN, and U.S.A. at Ceramatec. The cells in each case are made from a doped ceria electrolyte and a La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 1-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 3} cathode.

  6. Development status of planar SOFCs at Sanyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Yasuo; Akiyama, Yukinori; Yasuo, Takashi [SANYO Electric Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A 2 kW class combined cell stacked module (182 cm{sup 2} X 4X 17) was examined. An output power of 2.47 kW and output power density of 0.20 W/cm{sup 2} were obtained at the current density of 0.3 A/cm{sup 2}. The temperature uniformity is an important factor to develop large scale SOFC modules. Therefore, in this 2 kW class module, one cell was divided into four smaller unit cells to decrease temperature difference across these cells. Moreover, an internal heat-exchanging duct was arranged to spend the surplus heat effectively in the middle of the module. As for the basic research, the followings were investigated to improve thermal cycle characteristics. One was to adopt a silica/alumina-based sealing, material in order to absorb the thermal expansion difference between the electrolyte and the separator. Deterioration was quite small after 12 thermal cycles with a 150 by 150 mm single cell. The other was to use a heat-resisting ferritic alloy as a separator in a 50 by 50 mm single cell in order to decrease the thermal expansion coefficient of the separator. High performance was obtained for 2000 hours at 900{degrees}C in an endurance test and deterioration was quite small after a thermal cycle.

  7. Development of cofired type planar SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taira, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Sadaaki; Zhou, Hua-Bing [Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    We have developed fabrication process for planar SOFC fabricated with cofired anode/electrolyte/cathode multilayers and interconnects. By cofiring technique for the multilayers, we expect to reduce the thickness of the electrolyte layers, resulting in decrease of innerimpedance, and achieve low production cost. On the other hand, the cofiring technique requires that the sintering temperature, the shrinkage profiles and the thermal expansion characteristics of all component materials should be compatible with the other. It is, therefore, difficult to cofire the multilayers with large area. Using the multilayers with surface area of 150cm{sup 2}, we fabricated the multiple cell stacks. The maximum power of 5x4 multiple cell stack (5 planes of cells in series, 4 cells in parallel in each planes 484cm{sup 2} effective electrode area of each cell planes) was 601W (0.25Wcm{sup -2}, Uf=40%). However, the terminal voltage of the multiple cell stack decreased by the cause of cell cracking, gas leakage and degradation of cofired multilayers. This paper presents the improvements of cofired multilayers, and the performance of multiple cell stacks with the improved multilayers.

  8. Long-term commitment of Japanese gas utilities to PAFCs and SOFCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kiyokazu; Kasahara, Komei

    Tokyo Gas and Osaka Gas have been committed to addressing the energy- and environment-related issues of Japan through promotion of natural gas, an energy friendly to the environment. Being aware of the diversifying market needs (e.g. efficient energy utilization, rising demand for electricity, etc.), active efforts have been made in marketing gas-fired air-conditioning and co-generation systems. In this process, a high priority has also been placed on fuel cells, particularly for realizing their market introduction. Since their participation in the TARGET Program in USA in 1972, the two companies have been involved with the field testing and operation of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs), whose total capacity has amounted to 12.4 MW. The two companies have played a vital role in promoting and accelerating fuel cell development through the following means: (1) giving incentives to manufacturers through purchase of units and testing, (2) giving feedback on required specifications and technical problems in operation, and (3) verifying and realizing long-term operation utilizing their maintenance techniques. It has been expected that the primary goal of the cumulative operation time of 40 000 h shall be achieved in the near future. Work has also been in progress to develop SOFC. In the joint R&D of a 25-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with Westinghouse, the record operation time of 13 000 h has been achieved. Though still twice as much as the average price of competing equipment, the commercialization of PAFCs is close at hand. By utilizing government spending and subsidies for field testing, work will be continued to verify reliability and durability of PAFCs installed at users' sites. These activities have been expected to contribute to realizing economically viable systems and enhance market introduction. The superlative advantages of fuel cells, particularly their environment-friendly qualities, should be best taken advantage of at an appropriate time. In

  9. Manufacturing of anode supported SOFCs: Processing parameters and their influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramousse, Severine; Menon, Mohan; Brodersen, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of low cost, highly reliable and reproducible manufacturing processes has been focused for commercialization of SOFC technology. A major challenge in the production chain is the manufacture of anode-supported planar SOFC's single cells in which each layer in a layered structure...... contains a complex microstructure. In order to improve the cell performance as well as reducing the processing costs, it has been found necessary to consider the process chain holistically, because successful manufacture of such a cell and the achievement of optimal final properties depend on each...... of the processing steps and their interdependence. A large database for several thousand anode-supported SOFCs manufactured annually at the Risoe National Laboratory in collaboration with Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S has been constructed. This enables a statistical analysis of the various controlling parameters. Some...

  10. Deposition and characterisation of epitaxial oxide thin films for SOFCs

    KAUST Repository

    Santiso, José

    2010-10-24

    This paper reviews the recent advances in the use of thin films, mostly epitaxial, for fundamental studies of materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. These studies include the influence of film microstructure, crystal orientation and strain in oxide ionic conducting materials used as electrolytes, such as fluorites, and in mixed ionic and electronic conducting materials used as electrodes, typically oxides with perovskite or perovskite-related layered structures. The recent effort towards the enhancement of the electrochemical performance of SOFC materials through the deposition of artificial film heterostructures is also presented. These thin films have been engineered at a nanoscale level, such as the case of epitaxial multilayers or nanocomposite cermet materials. The recent progress in the implementation of thin films in SOFC devices is also reported. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  11. In-Situ Raman Characterization of SOFC Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Maher, Robert C.; Offer, Gregory; Brandon, Nigel P.; Cohen, Lesley F.

    2012-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have many advantages when compared to other fuel cell technologies, particularly for distributed stationary applications. As a consequence they are becoming ever more economically competitive with incumbent energy solutions. However, as with all technologies, improvements in durability, efficiency and cost is required before they become feasible alternatives. Such improvements are enabled through improved understanding of the critical material interactions occurring during operation. Raman spectroscopy is a noninvasive and non-destructive optical characterization tool which is ideally suited to the study of these critical chemical processes occurring within operational SOFCs. In this paper we will discuss advantages of using Raman characterization for understanding these important chemical processes occurring within SOFCs. We will present the specific examples of the type of measurement possible and discuss the direction of future research. © 2012 Materials Research Society.

  12. Synchrotron Investigations of SOFC Cathode Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idzerda, Yves

    2013-09-30

    The atomic variations occurring in cathode/electrolyte interface regions of La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3-δ} (LSCF) cathodes and other SOFC related materials have been investigated and characterized using soft X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) and diffuse soft X-ray Resonant Scattering (XRS). X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy in the soft X-ray region (soft XAS) is shown to be a sensitive technique to quantify the disruption that occurs and can be used to suggest a concrete mechanism for the degradation. For LSC, LSF, and LSCF films, a significant degradation mechanism is shown to be Sr out-diffusion. By using the XAS spectra of hexavalent Cr in SrCrO4 and trivalent Cr in Cr2O3, the driving factor for Sr segregation was identified to be the oxygen vacancy concentration at the anode and cathode side of of symmetric LSCF/GDC/LSCF heterostructures. This is direct evidence of vacancy induced cation diffusion and is shown to be a significant indicator of cathode/electrolyte interfacial degradation. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is used to identify the occupation of the A-sites and B-sites for LSC, LSF, and LSCF cathodes doped with other transition metals, including doping induced migration of Sr to the anti-site for Sr, a significant cathode degradation indicator. By using spatially resolved valence mapping of Co, a complete picture of the surface electrochemistry can be determined. This is especially important in identifying degradation phenomena where the degradation is spatially localized to the extremities of the electrochemistry and not the average. For samples that have electrochemical parameters that are measured to be spatially uniform, the Co valence modifications were correlated to the effects of current density, overpotential, and humidity.

  13. Thermal stress analysis of a planar SOFC stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Kuang; Chen, Tsung-Ting; Chyou, Yau-Pin; Chiang, Lieh-Kwang

    The aim of this study is, by using finite element analysis (FEA), to characterize the thermal stress distribution in a planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack during various stages. The temperature profiles generated by an integrated thermo-electrochemical model were applied to calculate the thermal stress distributions in a multiple-cell SOFC stack by using a three-dimensional (3D) FEA model. The constructed 3D FEA model consists of the complete components used in a practical SOFC stack, including positive electrode-electrolyte-negative electrode (PEN) assembly, interconnect, nickel mesh, and gas-tight glass-ceramic seals. Incorporation of the glass-ceramic sealant, which was never considered in previous studies, into the 3D FEA model would produce more realistic results in thermal stress analysis and enhance the reliability of predicting potential failure locations in an SOFC stack. The effects of stack support condition, viscous behavior of the glass-ceramic sealant, temperature gradient, and thermal expansion mismatch between components were characterized. Modeling results indicated that a change in the support condition at the bottom frame of the SOFC stack would not cause significant changes in thermal stress distribution. Thermal stress distribution did not differ significantly in each unit cell of the multiple-cell stack due to a comparable in-plane temperature profile. By considering the viscous characteristics of the glass-ceramic sealant at temperatures above the glass-transition temperature, relaxation of thermal stresses in the PEN was predicted. The thermal expansion behavior of the metallic interconnect/frame had a greater influence on the thermal stress distribution in the PEN than did that of the glass-ceramic sealant due to the domination of interconnect/frame in the volume of a planar SOFC assembly.

  14. Fuel flow distribution in SOFC stacks revealed by impedance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Hjelm, Johan; Barfod, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    As SOFC technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires application of advanced methods for detailed electrical and electrochemical characterization during operation. An oper......As SOFC technology is moving closer to a commercial break through, methods to measure the “state-of-health” of operating stacks are becoming of increasing interest. This requires application of advanced methods for detailed electrical and electrochemical characterization during operation...... utilizations. The fuel flow distribution provides important information about the operating limits of the stack when high electrical efficiency is required....

  15. Study of variables for accelerating lifetime testing of SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploner, Alexandra; Hagen, Anke; Hauch, Anne

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications require lifetimes of several years on the system level. A big challenge is to proof/confirm/demonstrate such exceptionally long lifetimes.Accelerated or compressed testing are possible methods. Activities in this area have been carried out without arriving...... at different current load cycling profiles revealed a strong deviation between predicted and measured lifetime [3].In this study, we present a detailed analysis of durability results for degradation mechanisms of single SOFC components as function of operating conditions. Electrochemical impedance data...

  16. Production and Reliability Oriented SOFC Cell and Stack Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauth, Martin; Lawlor, Vincent; Cartellieri, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents an innovative development methodology for a production and reliability oriented SOFC cell and stack design aiming at improving the stacks robustness, manufacturability, efficiency and cost. Multi-physics models allowed a probabilistic approach to consider statistical variations...... in production, material and operating parameters for the optimization phase. A methodology for 3D description of spatial distribution of material properties based on a random field models was developed and validated by experiments. Homogenized material models on multiple levels of the SOFC stack were...... and output parameters and to perform a sensitivity analysis were developed and implemented. The capabilities of the methodology is illustrated on two practical cases....

  17. Westinghouse AP1000 Electrical Generation Costs - Meeting Marketplace Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, C. Keith

    2002-01-01

    The re-emergence of nuclear power as a leading contender for new base-load electrical generation is not an occurrence of happenstance. The nuclear industry, in general, and Westinghouse, specifically, have worked diligently with the U.S. power companies and other nuclear industry participants around the world to develop future plant designs and project implementation models that address prior problem areas that led to reduced support for nuclear power. In no particular order, the issues that Westinghouse, as an engineering and equipment supply company, focused on were: safety, plant capital costs, construction schedule reductions, plant availability, and electric generation costs. An examination of the above criteria quickly led to the conclusion that as long as safety is not compromised, simplifying plant designs can lead to positive progress of the desired endpoints for the next and later generations of nuclear units. The distinction between next and later generations relates to the readiness of the plant design for construction implementation. In setting requirement priorities, one axiom is inviolate: There is no exception, nor will there be, to the Golden Rule of business. In the electric power generation industry, once safety goals are met, low generation cost is the requirement that rules, without exception. The emphasis in this paper on distinguishing between next and later generation reactors is based on the recognition that many designs have been purposed for future application, but few have been able to attain the design pedigree required to successfully meet the requirements for next generation nuclear units. One fact is evident: Another generation of noncompetitive nuclear plants will cripple the potential for nuclear to take its place as a major contributor to new electrical generation. Only two plant designs effectively meet the economic tests and demonstrate both unparalleled safety and design credibility due to extensive progress toward engineering

  18. Westinghouse AP1000 advanced passive plant: design features and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, S.J.; Cummins, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    The Westinghouse AP1000 Program is aimed at implementing the AP1000 plant to provide a further major improvement in plant economics while maintaining the passive safety advantages established by the AP600. An objective is to retain to the maximum extent possible the plant design of the AP600 so as to retain the licensing basis, cost estimate, construction schedule, modularization scheme, and the detailed design from the AP600 program. Westinghouse and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff have embarked on a program to complete Design Certification for the AP1000 by 2004. A pre-certification review phase was completed in March 2002 and was successful in establishing the applicability of the AP600 test program and AP600 safety analysis codes to the AP1000 Design Certification. On March 28, 2002, Westinghouse submitted to US NRC the AP1000 Design Control Document and Probabilistic Risk Assessment, thereby initiating the formal design certification review process. The results presented in these documents verify the safety performance of the API 000 and conformance with US NRC licensing requirements. Plans are being developed for implementation of a series of AP1000 plants in the US. Key factors in this planning are the economics of AP1000, and the associated business model for licensing, constructing and operating these new plants. Similarly plans are being developed to get the AP1000 design reviewed for use in the UK. Part of this planning has been to examine the AP1000 design relative to anticipated UK safety and licensing issues. (author)

  19. Effect of Gas Pressure on Polarization of SOFC Cathode Prepared by Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Xin; Wang, Zhun-Zhun; Liu, Shuai; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2013-06-01

    A cermet-supported tubular SOFC was fabricated using thermal spray. The cell performance was investigated at temperatures from 750 to 900 °C and pressures from 0.1 to 0.5 MPa to examine the effect of operating gas pressure on the cell performance. The influence of gas pressure on the cathodic polarization was studied through the electrochemical impedance approach to examine the controlling electrochemical processes during cell operation. Results show that increasing the operating gas pressure improves the power output performance significantly. When the gas pressure is increased from 0.1 to 0.3 MPa, the maximum power density is increased by a factor of 32% at a temperature of 800 °C. The cathode polarization decreases significantly with the increase of the gas pressure. The electrochemical analysis shows that the main control processes of the cathode reaction are the oxygen species transfer at the three-phase boundary and oxygen diffusion on the surface or in the bulk of the cathode, which are enhanced with increasing gas pressure.

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) - Stirling hybrid plants using alternative fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    A novel hybrid power system (∼10 kW) for an average family home is proposed. The system investigated contains a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) on top of a Stirling engine. The off-gases produced in the SOFC cycle are fed to a bottoming Stirling engine, at which additional power is generated...... to that of a stand-alone Stirling engine or SOFC plant. For the combined SOFC and Stirling configuration, the overall power production was increased by approximately 10% compared to that of a stand-alone SOFC plant. System efficiencies of approximately 60% are achieved, which is remarkable for such small plant sizes...

  1. Plant Characteristics af a Multi-Fuel Sofc-Stirling Hybrid Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    A novel hybrid system ( kWe) for an average family house including heating is proposed. The system investigated, contains of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) on top of a Stirling engine. The off-gases produced in the SOFC cycle is fed to the bottoming Stirling engine wherein additional power...... efficiency compared with the stand alone Stirling engine or SOFC plant. For the SOFC and Stirling combined configuration, the overall power production has increased by about 10% compared to the stand alone SOFC plant. System efficiencies of about 60% are achieved which is remarkable for such small plant...

  2. The Westinghouse Hanford Company Operational Environmental Monitoring Program CY-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.W.

    1993-10-01

    The Operational Environmental Monitoring Program (OEMP) provides facility-specific environmental monitoring to protect the environment adjacent to facilities under the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and assure compliance with WHC requirements and local, state, and federal environmental regulations. The objectives of the OEMP are to evaluate: compliance with federal (DOE, EPA), state, and internal WHC environmental radiation protection requirements and guides; performance of radioactive waste confinement systems; and trends of radioactive materials in the environment at and adjacent to nuclear facilities and waste disposal sites. This paper identifies the monitoring responsibilities and current program status for each area of responsibility

  3. Westinghouse integrated cementation facility. Smart process automation minimizing secondary waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrmann, H.; Jacobs, T.; Aign, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Westinghouse Cementation Facility described in this paper is an example for a typical standardized turnkey project in the area of waste management. The facility is able to handle NPP waste such as evaporator concentrates, spent resins and filter cartridges. The facility scope covers all equipment required for a fully integrated system including all required auxiliary equipment for hydraulic, pneumatic and electric control system. The control system is based on actual PLC technology and the process is highly automated. The equipment is designed to be remotely operated, under radiation exposure conditions. 4 cementation facilities have been built for new CPR-1000 nuclear power stations in China

  4. The Westinghouse Series 1000 Mobile Phone: Technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Brian

    1993-01-01

    Mobile satellite communications will be popularized by the North American Mobile Satellite (MSAT) system. The success of the overall system is dependent upon the quality of the mobile units. Westinghouse is designing our unit, the Series 1000 Mobile Phone, with the user in mind. The architecture and technology aim at providing optimum performance at a low per unit cost. The features and functions of the Series 1000 Mobile Phone have been defined by potential MSAT users. The latter portion of this paper deals with who those users may be.

  5. Westinghouse use of artificial intelligence in signal interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses Westinghouse's use of artificial intelligence to assist inspectors who routinely monitor the thousands of tubes in nuclear steam generators. Using the AI technology has made the inspection process easier to learn and to apply. The system uses pattern recognition to identify off-normal conditions. As part of the in-service inspection program for nuclear power reactors, utilities make a practice of inspecting the condition of the large heat exchangers that produce the steam that turns the electric turbine generator. The same data are presented for inspection using form, motion, and color to call attention to off-normal signal patterns

  6. Piping benchmark problems for the Westinghouse AP600 Standardized Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezler, P.; DeGrassi, G.; Braverman, J.; Wang, Y.K.

    1997-01-01

    To satisfy the need for verification of the computer programs and modeling techniques that will be used to perform the final piping analyses for the Westinghouse AP600 Standardized Plant, three benchmark problems were developed. The problems are representative piping systems subjected to representative dynamic loads with solutions developed using the methods being proposed for analysis for the AP600 standard design. It will be required that the combined license licensees demonstrate that their solutions to these problems are in agreement with the benchmark problem set

  7. Westinghouse Hanford Company risk management strategy for retired surplus facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.E.; Coles, G.A.; Shultz, M.V.; Egge, R.G.

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes an approach that facilitates management of personnel safety and environmental release risk from retired, surplus Westinghouse Hanford Company-managed facilities during the predemolition time frame. These facilities are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1,450-km 2 (570-mi 2 ) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The production reactors are located in the 100 Area and the chemical separation facilities are located in the 200 Area. This paper also includes a description of the risk evaluation process, shows applicable results, and includes a description of comparison costs for different risk reduction options

  8. Westinghouse Hanford Company special nuclear material vault storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisch, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    Category 1 and 2 Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) require storage in vault or vault type rooms as specified in DOE orders 5633.3A and 6430.1A. All category 1 and 2 SNM in dry storage on the Hanford site that is managed by Westinghouse Hanford Co (WHC) is located in the 200 West Area at Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) facilities. This document provides current and projected SNM vault inventories in terms of storage space filled and forecasts available space for possible future storage needs

  9. Testing of a cathode fabricated by painting with a brush pen for anode-supported tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Renzhu; Zhao, Chunhua; Li, Junliang; Wang, Shaorong; Wen, Zhaoyin; Wen, Tinglian [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2010-01-15

    We have studied the properties of a cathode fabricated by painting with a brush pen for use with anode-supported tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The porous cathode connects well with the electrolyte. A preliminary examination of a single tubular cell, consisting of a Ni-YSZ anode support tube, a Ni-ScSZ anode functional layer, a ScSZ electrolyte film, and a LSM-ScSZ cathode fabricated by painting with a brush pen, has been carried out, and an improved performance is obtained. The ohmic resistance of the cathode side clearly decreases, falling to a value only 37% of that of the comparable cathode made by dip-coating at 850 C. The single cell with the painted cathode generates a maximum power density of 405 mW cm{sup -2} at 850 C, when operating with humidified hydrogen. (author)

  10. Effects of Pretreatment Methods on Electrodes and SOFC Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Bin Jung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available tapes (anode, electrolyte and paste (cathode were choosen to prepare anode-supported cells for solid oxide fuel cell applications. For both anode-supported cells or electrolyte-supported cells, the anode needs pretreatment to reduce NiO/YSZ to Ni/YSZ to increase its conductivity as well as its catalytic characteristics. In this study, the effects of different pretreatments (open-circuit, closed-circuit on cathode and anodes as well as SOFC performance are investigated. To investigate the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode alone, a Pt cathode is utilized as reference for comparison with the LSM cathode. The characterization of the electrical resistance, AC impedance, and SOFC performance of the resulting electrodes and/or anode-supported cell were carried out. It’s found that the influence of open-circuit pretreatment on the LSM cathode is limited. However, the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on both the LSM cathode and NiO/YSZ anode and the resulting SOFC performance is profound. The effect of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode is attributed to its change of electronic/pore structure as well as catalytic characteristics. With closed-circuit pretreatment, the SOFC performance improved greatly from the change of LSM cathode (and Pt reference compared to the Ni/YSZ anode.

  11. Multilayer tape cast SOFC – Effect of anode sintering temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Birkl, Christoph; Brodersen, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Multilayer tape casting (MTC) is considered a promising, cost-efficient, up-scalable shaping process for production of planar anode supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Multilayer tape casting of the three layers comprising the half cell (anode support/active anode/electrolyte) can potentially...

  12. Simulation of SOFCs based power generation system using Aspen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pianko-Oprych Paulina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a thermodynamic Aspen simulation model for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, SOFCs, based power generation system. In the first step, a steady-state SOFCs system model was developed. The model includes the electrochemistry and the diffusion phenomena. The electrochemical model gives good agreement with experimental data in a wide operating range. Then, a parametric study has been conducted to estimate effects of the oxygen to carbon ratio, O/C, on reformer temperature, fuel cell temperature, fuel utilization, overall fuel cell performance, and the results are discussed in this paper. In the second step, a dynamic analysis of SOFCs characteristic has been developed. The aim of dynamic modelling was to find the response of the system against the fuel utilization and the O/C ratio variations. From the simulations, it was concluded that both developed models in the steady and dynamic state were reasonably accurate and can be used for system level optimization studies of the SOFC based power generation system.

  13. Enhanced Westinghouse WWER-1000 fuel design for Ukraine reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, M.; Shah, H.

    2015-01-01

    Westinghouse has completed design, development, and region quantity delivery of an enhanced Westinghouse fuel assembly for WWER-1000 reactors to support continued safe reactor operations. The enhanced design builds on the successful performance of an earlier generation design which has operated in the South Ukraine 3 reactor for multiple cycles without any fuel rod failures. Incorporated design enhancements include a thicker spacer grid outer strap, an enhanced spacer grid outer strap profile to limit the risk for, and impact of, mechanical interaction/interference with coresident fuel, an all Alloy 718 grid structure for improved stability and strength, and improvements to the top and bottom nozzles. Capable of meeting increased lateral loads generated from using a higher axial trip limit for the refueling machine crane, the design was verified by extensive mechanical and thermalhydraulic testing, which included a newly developed fuel assembly-to-fuel assembly handling test rig to assess performance during bounding core loading and unloading conditions. Through these extensive design enhancements and comprehensive testing program, the enhanced WWER-1000 design provides additional performance, handling, and reliability margins for safe reactor operation. (authors)

  14. Westinghouse loading pattern search methodology for complex core designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Y.A.; Alsop, B.H.; Johansen, B.J.; Morita, T.

    1991-01-01

    Pressurized water reactor core designs have become more complex and must meet a plethora of design constraints. Trends have been toward longer cycles with increased discharge burnup, increased burnable absorber (BA) number, mixed BA types, reduced radial leakage, axially blanketed fuel, and multiple-batch feed fuel regions. Obtaining economical reload core loading patterns (LPs) that meet design criteria is a difficult task to do manually. Automated LP search tools are needed. An LP search tool cannot possibly perform an exhaustive search because of the sheer size of the combinatorial problem. On the other hand, evolving complexity of the design features and constraints often invalidates expert rules based on past design experiences. Westinghouse has developed a sophisticated loading pattern search methodology. This methodology is embodied in the LPOP code, which Westinghouse nuclear designers use extensively. The LPOP code generates a variety of LPs meeting design constraints and performs a two-cycle economic evaluation of the generated LPs. The designer selects the most appropriate patterns for fine tuning and evaluation by the design codes. This paper describes the major features of the LPOP methodology that are relevant to fulfilling the aforementioned requirements. Data and examples are also provided to demonstrate the performance of LPOP in meeting the complex design needs

  15. Disposition of weapons-grade plutonium in Westinghouse reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsaed, A.A.; Adams, M.

    1998-03-01

    The authors have studied the feasibility of using weapons-grade plutonium in the form of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in existing Westinghouse reactors. They have designed three transition Cycles from an all LEU core to a partial MOX core. They found that four-loop Westinghouse reactors such as the Vogtle power plant are capable of handling up to 45 percent weapons-grade MOX loading without any modifications. The authors have also designed two kinds of weapons-grade MOX assemblies with three enrichments per assembly and four total enrichments. Wet annular burnable absorber (WABA) rods were used in all the MOX feed assemblies, some burned MOX assemblies, and some LEU feed assemblies. Integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA) was used in the rest of the LEU feed assemblies. The average discharge burnup of MOX assemblies was over 47,000 MWD/MTM, which is more than enough to meet the open-quotes spent fuel standard.close quotes One unit is capable of consuming 0.462 MT of weapons-grade plutonium per year. Preliminary analyses showed that important reactor physics parameters for the three transitions cycles are comparable to those of LEU cores including boron levels, reactivity coefficients, peaking factors, and shutdown margins. Further transient analyses will need to be performed

  16. Seismic risk analysis for the Westinghouse Electric facility, Cheswick, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This report presents the results of a detailed seismic risk analysis of the Westinghouse Electric plutonium fuel development facility at Cheswick, Pennsylvania. This report focuses on earthquakes. The historical seismic record was established after a review of available literature, consultation with operators of local seismic arrays and examination of appropriate seismic data bases. Because of the aseismicity of the region around the site, an analysis different from the conventional closest approach in a tectonic province was adapted. Earthquakes as far from the site as 1,000 km were included, as were the possibility of earthquakes at the site. In addition, various uncertainties in the input were explicitly considered in the analysis. For example, allowance was made for both the uncertainty in predicting maximum possible earthquakes in the region and the effect of the dispersion of data about the best fit attenuation relation. The attenuation relationship is derived from two of the most recent, advanced studies relating earthquake intensity reports and acceleration. Results of the risk analysis, which include a Bayesian estimate of the uncertainties, are presented as return period accelerations. The best estimate curve indicates that the Westinghouse facility will experience 0.05 g every 220 years and 0.10 g every 1400 years. The accelerations are very insensitive to the details of the source region geometries or the historical earthquake statistics in each region and each of the source regions contributes almost equally to the cumulative risk at the site

  17. Validation of COMMIX with Westinghouse AP-600 PCCS test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.G.; Chien, T.H.; Ding, J.; Sha, W.T.

    1993-01-01

    Small-scale test data for the Westinghouse AP-600 Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) have been used to validate the COMMIX computer code. To evaluate the performance of the PCCS, two transient liquid-film tracking models have been developed and implemented in the CO code. A set of heat transfer models and a mass transfer model based on heat and mass transfer analogy were used for the analysis of the AP-600 PCCS. It was found that the flow of the air stream in the annulus is a highly turbulent forced convection and that the flow of the air/steam mixture in the containment vessel is a mixed convection. Accordingly, a turbulent-forced-convection heat transfer model is used on the outside of the steel containment vessel wall and a mixed-convection heat transfer model is used on the inside of the steel containment vessel wall. The results from the CO calculations are compared with the experimental data from Westinghouse PCCS small-scale tests for average wall heat flux, evaporation rate, containment vessel pressure, and vessel wall temperature and heat flux distributions; agreement is good. The CO calculations also provide detailed distributions of velocity, temperature, and steam and air concentrations

  18. Performance of the Westinghouse WWER-1000 fuel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Höglund, J.; Jansson, A.; Latorre, R.; Davis, D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, six (6) Westinghouse WWER-1000 Lead Test Assemblies (LTAs) were loaded in South Ukraine Unit 3 (SU3). The LTAs completed the planned four cycles of operation and reached an average assembly burnup in excess of 43 MWd/ kgU. Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) inspections were performed after completion of each cycle and it was concluded that the 6 Westinghouse LTAs performed as expected during their operational regimes. In 2010, a full region of 42 assemblies of an enhanced WWER-1000 fuel design for Ukrainian reactors, designated WFA, was loaded in SU3. The WFA includes features that further mitigate assembly bow while at the same time improving the fuel cycle economy. In 2015, 26 WFAs completed their planned four cycles of operation reaching an average assembly burnup in excess of 42 MWd/ kgU. Currently 36 WFAs continue operating their fourth cycle in SU3. In addition, South Ukraine Unit 2 (SU2) has been loaded with WFAs and 27 assemblies have completed two cycles of operation reaching an average assembly burnup above 24 MWd/kgU. PIE for the WFAs has been completed after each cycle of operation. All assemblies have been examined for visible damage or non-standard position of fuel assembly components during unloading and reloading. All WFAs have also been subject to the standard leak testing process, with all fuel rods found to be hermetically sealed and non-leaking. Each outage, six WFAs have been subject to a more extensive inspection program. In 2012, 2013, and 2015, the Westinghouse Fuel Inspection and Repair Equipment (FIRE) workstation were used for the SU3 inspections. Excellent irradiation fuel performance has been observed and measured on all WFAs. The fuel assembly growth, rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) drag forces, oxide thickness, total fuel rod-to-nozzle gap channel closure, and fuel assembly bow data were within the bounds of the Westinghouse experience database. Results and concluding remarks from the PIEs are provided in this paper. In

  19. Market orientated design studies for SOFC based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nietsch, T.; Clark, J.

    1999-07-01

    This report examines the development status of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology, assesses its commercial potential for heat and power generation in the UK and identifies key development areas for both the SOFC stack and associated system components. A range of Distributed Generation (DG) and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) applications were considered in arriving at these recommendations. The project commenced with initial surveys of leading SOFC technology companies and centres world-wide. These surveys were conducted in parallel with consultations with key operator organisations in the UK which enabled the requirements of these organisations within the UK Energy Supply Industry to be identified. As a result of the initial survey, over 30 fuel cell based power plants, of size ranging from 1 kW{sub e} to 20 MW{sub e} for both DG and CHP applications, were identified. Outline designs of these applications were then set up and simulated. These candidate systems were then assessed against each other in terms of efficiency, cost of electricity, specific costs, technical risk and market potential for the UK industry. The final ranking obtained was then confirmed with the key operator organisations. On the basis of the ranking process noted above, nine SOFC based power generation/CHP applications were chosen for more detailed investigation in terms of their potential in both UK and overseas markets. Detailed simulations were conducted for each application to allow study of: the influence of efficiency on the economics of the different plants/stacks; the combination of stack and Balance of Plant (BoP) costs; and the cost and availability of key balance of plant devices. These systems were then again assessed in terms of the criteria noted for the outline stage. Finally key development areas for both SOFC stacks and associated Balance of Plant devices were identified. (author)

  20. 77 FR 56241 - Notice of Withdrawal of Final Design Approval; Westinghouse Electric Company; Advanced Passive 1000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0131] Notice of Withdrawal of Final Design Approval; Westinghouse Electric Company; Advanced Passive 1000 By letter dated December 10, 2010, Westinghouse Electric... final design approval (FDA) for the Advanced Passive 1000 (AP1000) design upon the completion of...

  1. Investigation of new materials for SOFC applications; Untersuchungen zum Einsatz neuer Werkstoffe fuer SOFC-Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wackerl, J.

    2007-05-04

    Fuel cells based on solid oxides ('SOFC') are excellent alternative devices for power generation, when they are operated at high temperature, e.g. above 600 C. Having only fixed parts for the power generating part of the device is only one advantage of the fuel cell. Due to their unique design, these devices offer a maximum of efficiency for energy conversion compared to conventional power generating systems, which are mainly based on turbines. One aim of this thesis is the examination of alternative electrolyte and cathode materials for the SOFC applications at reduced temperatures, which means in the temperature range between 600 C and 750 C. For the first main task, several materials from the oxygen ion conducting electrolytes were selected. Different strontium and magnesium doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) materials with additional transition metal doping were selected and prepared via two different preparation methods. The optimum calcining conditions were determined using thermal analysis methods. The results of the structural analysis of the sintered electrolyte materials were used to select the most suitable electrolyte materials. As a result, LSGM and iron doped LSGM (LSGMF) were the most promising materials. Further investigations were carried out on LSGMF materials with different strontium content. The influence of chemical cation non-stoichiometry on the perovskite material was investigated. Therefore, measurements to gather information about the crystallographic structure, morphology, electrochemistry and electrical conductivity were carried out. For a selected sample, the correlations between single effects, such as the crystallographic structure, and the electrical properties are shown by combining the different analysis methods. It could be shown that both the electrochemistry and the crystallographic structure have a significant influence on the electrical conductivity of the LSGMF materials. The second aim of the thesis was the selection

  2. Dynamic model of a micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack including an integrated cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Martin; Brouwer, Jacob; Winkler, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    A novel dynamic micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell (MT-SOFC) and stack model including an integrated cooling system is developed using a quasi three-dimensional, spatially resolved, transient thermodynamic, physical and electrochemical model that accounts for the complex geometrical relations between the cells and cooling-tubes. The modeling approach includes a simplified tubular geometry and stack design including an integrated cooling structure, detailed pressure drop and gas property calculations, the electrical and physical constraints of the stack design that determine the current, as well as control strategies for the temperature. Moreover, an advanced heat transfer balance with detailed radiative heat transfer between the cells and the integrated cooling-tubes, convective heat transfer between the gas flows and the surrounding structures and conductive heat transfer between the solid structures inside of the stack, is included. The detailed model can be used as a design basis for the novel MT-SOFC stack assembly including an integrated cooling system, as well as for the development of a dynamic system control strategy. The evaluated best-case design achieves very high electrical efficiency between around 75 and 55% in the entire power density range between 50 and 550 mW /cm2 due to the novel stack design comprising an integrated cooling structure.

  3. Westinghouse containment filtered venting system wet scrubber technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensson, S.; Nilsson, P-O.

    2014-01-01

    Following the Fukushima event Westinghouse has further developed and enhanced its filtered containment venting system (FCVS) product line. The filtration efficiency of the proven FILTRA-MVSS system installed at all Swedish NPPs as well as at the Muhelberg plant in Switzerland has been enhanced and a new wet scrubber design, SVEN (Safety Venting), based on the FILTRA-MVSS tradition, developed. To meet increased filtration requirements for organic iodine these two wet scrubber products have been complemented with a zeolite module. The offering of a select choice of products allows for a better adjustment to the specific constraints and needs of each nuclear power station that is planning for the installation of such a system. The FILTRA-MVSS (MVSS=Multi Venturi Scrubber System) is a wet containment filtered vent system that uses multiple venturies to create an interaction between the vent gases and the scrubber media allowing for removal of aerosols and gaseous iodines in a very efficient manner. The FILTRA-MVSS was originally developed to meet stringent requirements on autonomy and maintained filtration efficiency over a wide range of venting conditions. The system was jointly developed in the late 80's by ABB Atom and ABB Flaekt, today Westinghouse and Alstom. Following installations in Sweden and Switzerland the system was further developed by replacement of the gravel-bed moisture separator with a standard demister and by addition of a set of sintered metal fibre filter cartridges placed after the moisture separator step. The system is today offered as a modular steel tank design to simplify installation at site. To reduce complexity and delivery time Westinghouse has developed an alternative design in which the venturi module is replaced by a submerged metal fibre filter cartridges module. This new wet scrubber design, SVEN (patent pending), provides a flexible, compact, and lower weight system, while still preserving and even enhancing the filtration

  4. Continued maturing of SOFC cell production technology and development and demonstration of SOFC stacks. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-08-15

    The overall objective of the 6385 project was to develop stack materials, components and stack technology including industrial relevant manufacturing methods for cells components and stacks. Furthermore, the project should include testing and demonstration of the stacks under relevant operating conditions. A production of 6.829 cells, twenty 75-cell stacks and a number of small stacks was achieved. Major improvements were also made in the manufacturing methods and in stack design. Two test and demonstration activities were included in the project. The first test unit was established at H.C. OErsted power plant at the Copenhagen waterfront in order to perform test of SOFC stacks. The unit will be used for tests in other projects. The second demonstration unit is the alpha prototype demonstration in a system running on natural gas in Finland. The alpha prototype demonstration system with 24 TOFC (Topsoe Fuel Cell) stacks was established and started running in October 2007 and operational experience was gained in the period from October 2007 to February 2008. (auther)

  5. The Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division Management and Supervisor Training Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbreath, B.

    1992-01-01

    The Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division (WID) is the management and operating contractor (MOC) for the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Waste Isolation Plant (WIPP). Managers and supervisors at DOE facilities such as the WIPP are required to complete extensive training. To meet this requirement, WID created a self-paced, self-study program known as Management and Supervisor Training (MAST). All WID managers and supervisors are required to earn certification through the MAST program. Selected employees are permitted to participate in MAST with prior approval from their manager and the Human Resources Manager. Initial MAST certification requires the completion of 31 modules. MAST participants check out modules and read them when convenient. When they are prepared, participants take module examinations. To receive credit for a given module, participants must score at least 80 percent on the examination. Lessons learned from the development, implementation, and administration are presented in this paper

  6. Westinghouse plans global new builds for AP1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitev, Lubomir [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-10-15

    Interview with Danny Roderick, Westinghouse Electric Company, President and Chief Executive Officer since September 2012, about perspectives and future plans for AP1000 new build worldwide. Within three to four years there wille be 'shovels in the ground' for three new AP1000 reactors in the UK, as well as new units in China and Bulgaria. Four AP1000 reactors are under construction in the United States at Vogtle and VC Summer, and soon at Turkey Point. Additionally Danny Roderick spoke about the acquisition of NuGen, technology transfer, the influence of the Ukraine crises on the nuclear market in East Europe and the future need for more nuclear worldwide and in the UK and Bulgaria.

  7. Standard technical specifications for Westinghouse pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.C.

    1979-07-01

    This Standard Technical Specification (STS) has been structured for the broadest possible use on Westinghouse plants currently being reviewed for an Operating License. Accordingly, the document contains specifications applicable to plants with (1) either 3 or 4 loops and (2) with and without loop stop valves. In addition, four separate and discrete containment specification sections are provided for each of the following containment types: Atmospheric, Ice Condenser, Sub-Atmospheric, and Dual. Optional specifications are provided for those features and systems which may be included in individual plant designs but are not generic in their scope of application. Alternate specifications are provided in a limited number of cases to cover situations where alternate specification requirements are necessary on a generic basis because of design differences. This revision of the STS does not typically include requirements which may be added or revised as a result of the NRC staff's further review of the Three Mile Island incident

  8. Westinghouse plans global new builds for AP1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitev, Lubomir

    2014-01-01

    Interview with Danny Roderick, Westinghouse Electric Company, President and Chief Executive Officer since September 2012, about perspectives and future plans for AP1000 new build worldwide. Within three to four years there wille be 'shovels in the ground' for three new AP1000 reactors in the UK, as well as new units in China and Bulgaria. Four AP1000 reactors are under construction in the United States at Vogtle and VC Summer, and soon at Turkey Point. Additionally Danny Roderick spoke about the acquisition of NuGen, technology transfer, the influence of the Ukraine crises on the nuclear market in East Europe and the future need for more nuclear worldwide and in the UK and Bulgaria.

  9. Westinghouse Nuclear Core Design Training Center - a design simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, S.; Pritchett, J.; Altman, D.

    1992-01-01

    The emergence of more powerful computing technology enables nuclear design calculations to be done on workstations. This shift to workstation usage has already had a profound effect in the training area. In 1991, the Westinghouse Electric Corporation's Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division (CNFD) developed and implemented a Nuclear Core Design Training Center (CDTC), a new concept in on-the-job training. The CDTC provides controlled on-the-job training in a structured classroom environment. It alllows one trainer, with the use of a specially prepared training facility, to provide full-scope, hands-on training to many trainees at one time. Also, the CDTC system reduces the overall cycle time required to complete the total training experience while also providing the flexibility of individual training in selected modules of interest. This paper provides descriptions of the CDTC and the respective experience gained in the application of this new concept

  10. The emergency response guidelines for the Westinghouse pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekens, J.P.; Bastien, R.; Prokopovich, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Three Mile Island accident has demonstrated that the guidance provided for mitigating the consequences of design basis accidents could be inadequate when multiple incidents, failures or errors occur during or after the accident. Westinghouse and the Westinghouse Owners Group have developed new Emergency Response Guidelines (E.R.G.). The E.R.G. are composed of two independent sets of procedures and of a systematic tool to continuously evaluate the plant safety throughout the response to an accident. a) The Optimal Recovery Guidelines are entered each time the reactor is tripped or the Emergency Core Cooling System is actuated. An immediate verification of the automatic protective actuations is performed and the accident diagnosis process is initiated. When nature of the accident is identified, the operator is transferred to the applicable recovery procedure and subprocedures. A permanent rediagnosis is performed throughout the application of the optimal Recovery Guidelines and cross connections are provided to the adequate procedure if an error in diagnosis is identified. b) Early in the course of the accident, the operating staff initiates monitoring of the Critical Safety Functions. These are defined as the set of functions ensuring the integrity of the physical barriers against radioactivity release. The review of these functions is peformed continuously through a cyclic application of the status trees. c) The Function Restoration Guidelines are entered when the Critical Safety Function monitoring identifies a challenge to one of the functions. Depending on the severity of the challenge, the transfer to a Function Restoration Guideline can be immediate for a severe challenge or delayed for a minor challenge. Those guidelines are independent of the scenario of the accident, but only based on plant parameters and equipment availability

  11. Niobium-doped strontium titanates as SOFC anodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Kammer Hansen, Kent; Wallenberg, L. Reine

    2008-01-01

    been synthesized with a recently developed modified glycine-nitrate process. The synthesized powders have been calcined and sintered in air or in 9% H(2) / N(2) between 800 - 1400 degrees C. After calcination the samples were single phase Nb-doped strontium titanate with grain sizes of less than 100 nm...... in diameter on average. The phase purity, defect structure, and microstructure of the materials have been analyzed with SEM, XRD, and TGA. The electrical conductivity of the Nb-doped titanate decreased with increasing temperature and showed a phonon scattering conduction mechanism with sigma > 120 S...... ability of the Nb-doped titanates to be used as a part of a SOFC anode. However, the catalytic activity of the materials was not sufficient and it needs to be improved if titanate based materials are to be realized as constituents in SOFC anodes....

  12. In-Situ Optical Studies of Oxidation/Reduction Kinetics on SOFC Cermet Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    DATES COVERED (From - To) 1/29/10-9/30/10 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE In situ optical studies of oxidation/reduction kinetics on SOFC cermet anodes 5a...0572 In-situ Optical Studies of Oxidation/Reduction Kinetics on SOFC Cermet Anodes Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Montana State University...of Research In-situ Optical Studies of Oxidation/Reduction Kinetics on SOFC Cermet Anodes Principal Investigator Robert Walker Organization

  13. Gradient composite metal-ceramic foam as supportive component for planar SOFCs and MIEC membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smorygo, Oleg; Mikutski, Vitali; Marukovich, Alexander; Sadykov, Vladislav; Usoltsev, Vladimir; Mezentseva, Natalia; Borodinecs, Anatolijs; Bobrenok, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach to the design of planar gradient porous supports for the thin-film SOFCs and MIEC membranes is described. The support's thermal expansion is controlled by the creation of a two-component composite metal-ceramic foam structure. Thin MIEC membranes and SOFCs were prepared on the composite supports by the layerwise deposition of composite functional layers including complex fluorites and perovskites. Lab-scale studies demonstrated promising performance of both MIEC membrane and SOFC.

  14. Gradient composite metal-ceramic foam as supportive component for planar SOFCs and MIEC membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorygo, Oleg; Mikutski, Vitali; Marukovich, Alexander; Sadykov, Vladislav; Usoltsev, Vladimir; Mezentseva, Natalia; Borodinecs, Anatolijs; Bobrenok, Oleg

    2011-06-01

    A novel approach to the design of planar gradient porous supports for the thin-film SOFCs and MIEC membranes is described. The support's thermal expansion is controlled by the creation of a two-component composite metal-ceramic foam structure. Thin MIEC membranes and SOFCs were prepared on the composite supports by the layerwise deposition of composite functional layers including complex fluorites and perovskites. Lab-scale studies demonstrated promising performance of both MIEC membrane and SOFC.

  15. Thermal plasma spraying for SOFCs: Applications, potential advantages, and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Rob; Wang, Zhenwei; Jankovic, Jasna; Yick, Sing; Maric, Radenka; Ghosh, Dave [National Research Council Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5 (Canada); Kesler, Olivera [National Research Council Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2054-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Rose, Lars [National Research Council Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5 (Canada); Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, 309-6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2007-07-10

    In this article, the applications, potential advantages, and challenges of thermal plasma spray (PS) processing for nanopowder production and cell fabrication of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are reviewed. PS processing creates sufficiently high temperatures to melt all materials fed into the plasma. The heated material can either be quenched into oxide powders or deposited as coatings. This technique has been applied to directly deposit functional layers as well as nanopowder for SOFCs application. In particularly, low melting point and highly active electrodes can be directly fabricated on zirconia-based electrolytes. This is a simple processing technique that does not require the use of organic solvents, offering the opportunity for flexible adjustment of process parameters, and significant time saving in production of the cell and cost reduction compared with tape casting, screen printing and sintering processing steps. Most importantly, PS processing shows strong potential to enable the deposition of metal-supported SOFCs through the integrated fabrication of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEA) on porous metallic substrates with consecutive deposition steps. On the other hand, the application of PS processing to produce SOFCs faces some challenges, such as insufficient porosity of the electrodes, the difficulty of obtaining a thin (<10 {mu}m) and dense electrolyte layer. Fed with H{sub 2} as the fuel gas and oxygen as the oxidant gas, the plasma sprayed cell reached high power densities of 770 mW cm{sup -2} at 900 C and 430 mW cm{sup -2} at 800 C at a cell voltage of 0.7 V. (author)

  16. Manufacture of SOFC electrodes by wet powder spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkenhoener, R.; Mallener, W.; Buchkremer, H.P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The reproducible and commercial manufacturing of electrodes with enhanced electrochemical performance is of central importance for a successful technical realization of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) systems. The route of electrode fabrication for the SOFC by Wet Powder Spraying (WPS) is presented. Stabilized suspensions of the powder materials for the electrodes were sprayed onto a substrate by employing a spray gun. After drying of the layers, binder removal and sintering are performed in one step. The major advantage of this process is its applicability for a large variety of materials and its flexibility with regard to layer shape and thickness. Above all, flat or curved substrates of any size can be coated, thus opening up the possibility of {open_quotes}up-scaling{close_quotes} SOFC technology. Electrodes with an enhanced electrochemical performance were developed by gradually optimizing the different process steps. For example an optimized SOFC cathode of the composition La{sub 0.65}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} with 40% 8YSZ showed a mean overpotential of about -50 mV at a current density of -0.8 A/cm{sup 2}, with a standard deviation amounting to 16 mV (950{degrees}C, air). Such optimized electrodes can be manufactured with a high degree of reproducibility, as a result of employing a computer-controlled X-Y system for moving the spray gun. Several hundred sintered composites, comprising the substrate anode and the electrolyte, of 100x 100 mm{sup 2} were coated with the cathode by WPS and used for stack integration. The largest manufactured electrodes were 240x240 mm{sup 2}, and data concerning their thickness homogeneity and electrochemical performance are given.

  17. Study on durability for thermal cycle of planar SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Motoo; Nakata, Kei-ichi; Wakayama, Sin-ichi [Tonen Corp., Saitama (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    TONEN CORPORATION has developed planar type SOFC since 1986. We demonstrated the output of 1.3 kW in 1991 and 5.1 kW in 1995. Simultaneously we have studied how to raise electric efficiency and reliability utilizing hydrogen and propane as fuel. Durability for thermal cycle is one of the most important problems of planar SOFC to make it more practical. The planar type SOFC is made up of separator, zirconia electrolyte and glass sealant. The thermal expansion of these components are expected to be the same value, however, they still possess small differences. In this situation, a thermal cycle causes a thermal stress due to the difference of the cell components and is often followed by a rupture in cell components, therefore, the analysis of the thermal stress should give us much useful information. The thermal cycle process consists of a heating up and cooling down procedure. Zirconia electrolyte is not bonded to the separator under the condition of the initial heating up procedure, and glass sealant becomes soft or melts and glass seals spaces between the zirconia and separator. The glass sealant becomes harder with the cooling down procedure. Moreover, zirconia is tightly bonded with separator below a temperature which is defined as a constraint temperature and thermal stress also occurs. This indicates that the heating up process relaxes the thermal stress and the cooling down increases it. In this paper, we simulated dependence of the stress on the sealing configuration, thermal expansion of sealant and constraint temperature of sealant glass. Furthermore, we presented SOFC electrical properties after a thermal cycle.

  18. Transient performance of integrated SOFC system including spatial temperature control

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, F; Fardadi, M; Shaffer, B; Brouwer, J; Jabbari, F

    2010-01-01

    Spatial temperature feedback control has been developed for a simulated integrated non-pressurized simple cycle solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. The fuel cell spatial temperature feedback controller is based on (1) feed-forward set-points that minimize temperature variation in the fuel cell electrode-electrolyte solid temperature profile for the system operating power range, and (2) decentralized proportional-integral based feedback to maintain the fuel cell spatial temperature profile du...

  19. Innovative Seals for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Raj

    2008-06-30

    A functioning SOFC requires different type of seals such as metal-metal, metal-ceramic, and ceramic-ceramic. These seals must function at high temperatures between 600--900{sup o}C and in oxidizing and reducing environments of the fuels and air. Among the different type of seals, the metal-metal seals can be readily fabricated using metal joining, soldering, and brazing techniques. However, the metal-ceramic and ceramic-ceramic seals require significant research and development because the brittle nature of ceramics/glasses can lead to fracture and loss of seal integrity and functionality. Consequently, any seals involving ceramics/glasses require a significant attention and technology development for reliable SOFC operation. This final report is prepared to describe the progress made in the program on the needs, approaches, and performance of high temperature seals for SOFC. In particular, a new concept of self-healing glass seals is pursued for making seals between metal-ceramic material combinations, including some with a significant expansion mismatch.

  20. Continued research, development and test of SOFC Technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-09-15

    The aim of the project was to further develop the SOFC cell and stack technology and drive down manufacturing costs in order to accomplish the performance and economic targets set forward in the SOFC road map, which has been developed in collaboration with the national Danish SOFC Strategy group. The project was divided into four parts. Part 1, Continued cell development covered the successful development of larger cells with a 500 cm2 footprint. Part 2, Cell manufacturing covered the production of 9.859 equivalents (12x12 cm2 standard cells) that were used in the stacks for demonstration projects (EFP 33033-0050)and for in-house research, development and testing in this project. Part 3, Continued stack development covered the successful test of a 3 kW{sub e} stack as well as the planning of a >8.000 hours stack test with new stack technology. The >8.000 hours test that started after the end date for this project will last for 12 months and be reported in the PSO 2008-1-010049 project. Part 4, Stack manufacturing covered a number of small stacks for in-house research, development and testing. (auther)

  1. Recent activities of SOFC research development and demonstration in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokokawa, Harumi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Tokyo City Univ. (Japan). Advanced Research Labs.

    2010-07-01

    Currently Japanese efforts in developing the SOFC systems have two major targets; one is small SOFC cogeneration systems for residential houses or small business sites, the other being the SOFC-GT hybrid systems with an aim at larger stationary applications. The former activity exhibits impressively rapid progress in system development and demonstration in actual residential environment. On the other hand, the development of hybrid systems is not so rapid but successfully has continued to test the operation of the hybrid system in a 200 kW class. The common requirement for both applications is high durability such as 40,000-100,000 of life. To achieve a long life simultaneously with reasonably low price and high efficiency the NEDO project is going on to promote the cooperation among the stack developers, national institute and universities. To achieve well organized cooperation, it is highly required to create mutual reliance between industry and academic organizations. After several years' experience, progress has been made in maturing cooperation and in leading to many new insights into physicochemical understanding of degradation phenomena. Some of them will be reported. (orig.)

  2. Realisation of an anode supported planar SOFC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchkremer, H.P.; Stoever, D. [Institut fuer Werkstoffe der Energietechnik, Juelich (Germany); Diekmann, U. [Zentralabteilung Technologie, Juelich (Germany)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Lowering the operating temperature of S0FCs to below 800{degrees}C potentially lowers production costs of a SOFC system because of a less expensive periphery and is able to guarantee sufficient life time of the stack. One way of achieving lower operating temperatures is the development of new high conductive electrolyte materials. The other way, still based on state-of-the-art material, i.e. yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, is the development of a thin film electrolyte concept. In the Forschungszentrum Julich a program was started to produce a supported planar SOFC with an YSZ electrolyte thickness between 10 to 20 put. One of the electrodes, i.e. the anode, was used as support, in order not to increase the number of components in the SOFC. The high electronic conductivity of the anode-cermet allows the use of relatively thick layers without increasing the cell resistance. An additional advantage of the supported planar concept is the possibility to produce single cells larger than 10 x 10 cm x cm, that is with an effective electrode cross area of several hundred cm{sup 2}.

  3. LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberman, Ben [LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc., North Canton, OH (United States); Martinez-Baca, Carlos [LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc., North Canton, OH (United States); Rush, Greg [LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc., North Canton, OH (United States)

    2013-05-31

    This report presents a summary of the work performed by LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. during the project LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development (DOE Award Number: DE-FE0000773) which commenced on October 1, 2009 and was completed on March 31, 2013. The aim of this project is for LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (LGFCS) to develop a multi-physics solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) computer code (MPC) for performance calculations of the LGFCS fuel cell structure to support fuel cell product design and development. A summary of the initial stages of the project is provided which describes the MPC requirements that were developed and the selection of a candidate code, STAR-CCM+ (CD-adapco). This is followed by a detailed description of the subsequent work program including code enhancement and model verification and validation activities. Details of the code enhancements that were implemented to facilitate MPC SOFC simulations are provided along with a description of the models that were built using the MPC and validated against experimental data. The modeling work described in this report represents a level of calculation detail that has not been previously available within LGFCS.

  4. Comparison of DNBR estimation methods in the Westinghouse and KWU reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, C.T.M.; Pontedeiro, A.C.

    1984-11-01

    A method for foreseeing departure from nucleate boiling phenomenon in Westinghouse reator cores (OTΔT- signal for reator shut down) is described. The results from investigations done with the OTΔT system and in the efficiency of different methods used in the Westinghouse and KWU nuclear power plants to estimate thermohydraulic conditions of the PWR reactor cores, are presented. The investigations were done, by support of computer codes. The modifications, purposed by Westinghouse, in the original project of Angra-1 OTΔT system are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Mane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To share our experience of doing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with modifications. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon personal series from 2004 to 2009. One hundred patients of distal hypospadias were subjected for Snodgrass urethroplasty with preputioplasty. The age range was 1 to 5 year with mean age of 2.7 years. Selection criteria were good urethral plate, without chordee and torsion needing complete degloving. Main technical modification from original Snodgrass procedure was spongioplasty, preputioplasty, and dorsal slit when inability to retract prepuce during surgery. Results: Average follow-up period is 23 months. Seven (7% patients developed fistula and one patient had complete preputial dehiscence. Phimosis developed in three (3% patients and required circumcision. Dorsal slit was required in seven patients. One patient developed meatal stenosis in postoperative period. All other patients are passing single urinary stream and have cosmesis that is acceptable. Conclusions: Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with preputioplasty effectively gives cosmetically normal looking penis with low complications.

  6. Manufacturing development of the Westinghouse Nb3Sn coil for the Large Coil Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.L.; Vota, T.L.; Singh, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    The Westinghouse Nb 3 Sn Magnet for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Large Coil Program (LCP) is currently well into the manufacturing phase. This paper identifies the manufacturing processes and development tasks for his unique, advanced coil

  7. Review of Reliability Assessment of Westinghouse SSPS Using SPC by WEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H. T.; Chung, H. Y.

    2007-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company (WEC) has accomplished the reliability assessment of Westinghouse Solid State Protection System (SSPS) in KORI no. 2, 3, 4, and YGN no. 1, 2. In their studies, it is reported that creating a cost-effective plan for improving the reliability of the SSPS and at KORI no. 2, 3 and 4, and YGN no. 1, 2 should be needed while reducing their maintenance cost. In this paper, we reviewed the reliability assessment of Westinghouse SSPS analyzed in two performance standards, availability, and the maintenance expense using Statistic Process Control (SPC). As a result, it is concluded all plants have several failures reported but no effect on the system's availability, and the maintenance expense analysis did not reduce the current maintenance expense by 30%. Therefore, overall review for the reliability assessment is that a new strategy for cost-effective plan and/or upgrade approach for improving the reliability of the aging Westinghouse SSPS should be needed

  8. Validating Westinghouse atom 16 x 16 and 18 x 18 PWR fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Gustafson, J.; Jourdain, P.; Lindstroem, L.; Hallstadius, L.; Hofling, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Westinghouse Atom designs and fabricates PWR fuel for all major European fuel types: 17 x 17 standard (12 ft) and 17 x 17 XL (14 ft) for Westinghouse type PWRs, and 16 x 16 and 18 x 18 fuel for Siemens type PWRs. The W Atom PWR fuel designs are based on the extensive Westinghouse CE PWR fuel experience from combustion engineering type PWRs. The W atom designs utilise basic design features from the W CE fuel tradition, such as all-Zircaloy mid grids and the proven ( 6 rod years) Guardian TM debris catcher, which is integrated in the bottom Inconel grid. Several new features have been developed to meet with stringent European requirements originating from requirements on very high burnup, in combination with low-leakage core operating strategies and high coolant temperatures. The overall reliability of the Westinghouse Atom PWR fuel is very high; no fuel failure has been detected since 1997. (orig.)

  9. A Westinghouse designed distributed mircroprocessor based protection and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Reid, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    For approximately five years, Westinghouse has been involved in the design and licensing of a distributed microprocessor based system for the protection and control of a pressurized water reactor nuclear steam supply system. A 'top-down' design methodology was used, in which the system global performance objectives were specified, followed by increasingly more detailed design specifications which ultimately decomposed the system into its basic hardware and software elements. The design process and design decisions were influenced by the recognition that the final product would have to be verified to ensure its capability to perform the safety-related functions of a class 1E protection system. The verification process mirrored the design process except that it was 'bottom-up' and thus started with the basic elements and worked upwards through the system in increasingly complex blocks. A number of areas which are of interest in a distributed system are disucssed, with emphasis on two systems. The first, the Integrated Protection System is primarily responsible for processing signals from field mounted sensors to provide for reactor trips and the initiation of the Engineered Safety Features. The Integrated Control System, which is organized in a parallel manner, processes other sensor signals and generates the necessary analog and on-off signals to maintain the plant parameters within specified limits. Points covered include system structure, systems partitioning strategies, communications techniques, software design concepts, reliability and maintainability, commercial component availability, interference susceptibility, licensing issues, and applicability. (LL)

  10. The Westinghouse BEACON on-line core monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechel, Robert J.; Boyd, William A.; Casadei, Alberto L.

    1995-01-01

    BEACON (Best Estimate Analysis of Core Operations - Nuclear), a core monitoring and operational support package developed by Westinghouse, has been installed at many operating PWRs worldwide. The BEACON system is a real-time monitoring system which can be used in plants with both fixed and movable incore detector systems and utilizes an on-line nodal model combined with core instrumentation data to provide continuous core power distribution monitoring. In addition, accurate core-predictive capabilities utilizing a full core nodal model updated according to plant operating history can be made to provide operational support. Core history information is kept and displayed to help operators anticipate core behavior and take pro-active control actions. The BEACON system has been licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for direct, continuous monitoring of DNBR and peak linear heat rate. This allows BEACON to be integrated into the plant technical specifications to permit significant relaxation of operating limitations defined by conventional technical specifications. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  11. Westinghouse Hanford Company Operational Environmental Monitoring. Annual report, CY 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.W.; Johnson, A.R.; Markes, B.M.; McKinney, S.M.; Perkins, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    This document presents the results of the Westinghouse Hanford Company near-facility operational environmental monitoring for 1993 in the 100, 200/600, and 300/400 Areas of the Hanford Site, in south-central Washington State. Surveillance activities included sampling and analyses of ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sediments, soil, and biota. Also, external radiation measurements and radiological surveys were taken at waste disposal sites, radiologically controlled areas, and roads. These activities were conducted to assess and control the effects of nuclear facilities and waste sites on the local environment. In addition, diffuse sources were monitored to determine compliance with Federal, State, and/or local regulations. In general, although effects from nuclear facilities are still seen on the Hanford Site and radiation levels are slightly elevated when compared to offsite conditions, the differences are less than in previous years. At certain locations on or directly adjacent to nuclear facilities and waste sites, levels can be several times higher than offsite conditions

  12. Safety features and research needs of westinghouse advanced reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.; Winters, J.W.; Cummins, W.E.; Bruschi, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The three Westinghouse advanced reactors - AP600, AP1000 and IRIS - are at different levels of readiness. AP600 has received a Design Certification, its larger size version AP1000 is currently in the design certification process and IRIS has just completed its conceptual design and will initiate soon a licensing pre-application. The safety features of the passive designs AP600/AP1000 are presented, followed by the features of the more revolutionary IRIS, a small size modular integral reactor. A discussion of the IRIS safety by design approach is given. The AP600/AP1000 design certification is backed by completed testing and development which is summarized, together with a research program currently in progress which will extend AP600 severe accident test data to AP1000 conditions. While IRIS will of course rely on applicable AP600/1000 data, a very extensive testing campaign is being planned to address all the unique aspects of its design. Finally, IRIS plans to use a risk-informed approach in its licensing process. (authors)

  13. A Study on Dismantling of Westinghouse Type Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Woo-Tae; Lee, Sang-Guk

    2014-01-01

    KHNP started a research project this year to develop a methodology to dismantle nuclear reactors and internals. In this paper, we reviewed 3D design model of the reactor and suggested feasible cutting scheme.. Using 3-D CAD model of Westinghouse type nuclear reactor and its internals, we reviewed possible options for disposal. Among various options of dismantling the nuclear reactor, plasma cutting was selected to be the best feasible and economical method. The upper internals could be segmented by using a band saw. It is relatively fast, and easily maintained. For cutting the lower internals, plasma torch was chosen to be the best efficient tool. Disassembling the baffle and the former plate by removing the baffle former bolts was also recommended for minimizing storage volume. When using plasma torch for cutting the reactor vessel and its internal, installation of a ventilation system for preventing pollution of atmosphere was recommended. For minimizing radiation exposure during the cutting operation, remotely controlled robotic tool was recommended to be used

  14. Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) approach to nuclear facility maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina is a 300+ square mile facility owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), the prime contractor; Bechtel Savannah River, Incorporated (BSRI) is a major subcontractor. The site has used all of the five nuclear reactors and it has the necessary nuclear materials processing facilities, as well as waste management and research facilities. The site has produced materials for the US nuclear arsenal and various isotopes for use in space research and nuclear medicine for more than 30 years. In 1989, WSRC took over as prime contractor, replacing E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. At this time, a concentrated effort began to more closely align the operating standards of this site with those accepted by the commercial nuclear industry of the United States. Generally, this meant acceptance of standards of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) for nuclear-related facilities at the site. The subject of this paper is maintenance of nuclear facilities and, therefore, excludes discussion of the maintenance of non-nuclear facilities and equipment

  15. Standard technical specifications for Westinghouse pressurized water reactors (revision issued Fall 1981). Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgilio, M.J.

    1981-11-01

    The Standard Technical Specifications for Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors (W-STS) is a generic document prepared by the U.S. NRC for use in the licensing process of current Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors. The W-STS sets forth the Limits, Operating Conditions and other requirements applicable to nuclear reactor facility operation as set forth in Section 50.36 of 10 CFR Part 50 for the protection of the health and safety of the public

  16. Diesel CPO for SOFC. Development of a cold-flame assisted CPO reactor coupled to a SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dijk, H.A.J.; Ouweltjes, J.P.; Nyqvist, R.G. [ECN Hydrogen and Clean Fossil Fuels, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-07-15

    Within the research program 'Reforming of liquid fuels for fuel-cells', ECN started a project on the development of a diesel CPO (catalytic partial oxidation) reformer for SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) in 2005. The application in mind is a small scale (5kWe) diesel fed auxiliary power unit (APU). The goal of the project is to develop the technology required to transform a liquid logistic fuel into a reformat suitable for the operation of a SOFC. The emphasis of this work is on the development of a cold-flame assisted evaporator/mixer coupled to a catalytic CPO reformer. The application of cold-flame evaporation and mixing allows the reformat to be directly fed to the SOFC without further heating or cooling. Moreover, once cold-flames are ignited and stabilized, pre-heating of the air and fuel becomes obsolete. These aspects justify the development described in this report. In the cold-flame evaporator/mixer, the cold-flames are stabilized by means of a recirculation tube. The momentum of the fuel spray of the nozzle induces the required recirculation. The cold flame evaporator/mixer was coupled to a catalytic reformer reactor, transforming the hydrocarbon+air feed into a CO+H2 rich reformate. The reformer was coupled to a SOFC to be able to verify the quality of the reformat obtained with this reformer. The SOFC therefore served as an analysis tool. Characteristically, the reformat was held at 800C all the way towards the SOFC. For this, high temperature flange connections and steel-ceramic expansion connections were successfully applied. It is demonstrated that cold-flame evaporation of liquid fuels is a feasible means of feed preparation for a catalytic reforming reactor. The quality of the resulting reformat is adequate to be fed to the SOFC. The reformat quality, however, decreased with time-on-stream due to fouling of the reformer by carbon-depositions. These carbon-depositions were essentially located on the fuel injector, which is the coldest part

  17. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  18. Computer experimental analysis of the CHP performance of a 100 kW e SOFC Field Unit by a factorial design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calì, M.; Santarelli, M. G. L.; Leone, P.

    Gas Turbine Technologies (GTT) and Politecnico di Torino, both located in Torino (Italy), have been involved in the design and installation of a SOFC laboratory in order to analyse the operation, in cogenerative configuration, of the CHP 100 kW e SOFC Field Unit, built by Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC), which is at present (May 2005) starting its operation and which will supply electric and thermal power to the GTT factory. In order to take the better advantage from the analysis of the on-site operation, and especially to correctly design the scheduled experimental tests on the system, we developed a mathematical model and run a simulated experimental campaign, applying a rigorous statistical approach to the analysis of the results. The aim of this work is the computer experimental analysis, through a statistical methodology (2 k factorial experiments), of the CHP 100 performance. First, the mathematical model has been calibrated with the results acquired during the first CHP100 demonstration at EDB/ELSAM in Westerwoort. After, the simulated tests have been performed in the form of computer experimental session, and the measurement uncertainties have been simulated with perturbation imposed to the model independent variables. The statistical methodology used for the computer experimental analysis is the factorial design (Yates' Technique): using the ANOVA technique the effect of the main independent variables (air utilization factor U ox, fuel utilization factor U F, internal fuel and air preheating and anodic recycling flow rate) has been investigated in a rigorous manner. Analysis accounts for the effects of parameters on stack electric power, thermal recovered power, single cell voltage, cell operative temperature, consumed fuel flow and steam to carbon ratio. Each main effect and interaction effect of parameters is shown with particular attention on generated electric power and stack heat recovered.

  19. Tubular inverse opal scaffolds for biomimetic vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ze; Wang, Jie; Lu, Jie; Yu, Yunru; Fu, Fanfan; Wang, Huan; Liu, Yuxiao; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2016-07-01

    There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially oriented elliptical pattern microstructures on their surfaces. It is demonstrated that these tailored tubular scaffolds can effectively make endothelial cells to form an integrated hollow tubular structure on their inner surface and induce smooth muscle cells to form a circumferential orientation on their outer surface. These features of our tubular scaffolds make them highly promising for the construction of biomimetic blood vessels.There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered blood vessels that can be used to replace or bypass damaged arteries. The success of such grafts depends strongly on their ability to mimic native arteries; however, currently available artificial vessels are restricted by their complex processing, controversial integrity, or uncontrollable cell location and orientation. Here, we present new tubular scaffolds with specific surface microstructures for structural vessel mimicry. The tubular scaffolds are fabricated by rotationally expanding three-dimensional tubular inverse opals that are replicated from colloidal crystal templates in capillaries. Because of the ordered porous structure of the inverse opals, the expanded tubular scaffolds are imparted with circumferentially

  20. Full Ceramic Fuel Cells Based on Strontium Titanate Anodes, An Approach Towards More Robust SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Peter; Irvine, J.T.S.; Iwanschitz, B.

    2013-01-01

    The persistent problems with Ni-YSZ cermet based SOFCs, with respect to redox stability and tolerance towards sulfur has stimulated the development of a full ceramic cell based on strontium titanate(ST)- based anodes and anode support materials, within the EU FCH JU project SCOTAS-SOFC. Three...

  1. A Zero-Dimensional Model of a 2nd Generation Planar SOFC Using Calibrated Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Frank

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a zero-dimensional mathematical model of a planar 2nd generation co-flow SOFC developed for simulation of power systems. The model accounts for the electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen as well as the methane reforming reaction and the water-gas shift reaction. An important part...... SOFC-based power systems....

  2. Modeling and Analysis of Transport Processes and Efficiency of Combined SOFC and PEMFC Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbani, Raja Abid; Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid fuel cell system (~10 kWe) for an average family house including heating is proposed. The investigated system comprises a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) on top of a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC). Hydrogen produced from the off-gases of the SOFC can be fed directly to the PEFC. Simul...

  3. 78 FR 14361 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, PA; Notice of Initiation of Investigation To Terminate Certification of Eligibility Pursuant to... Tubular Products, McKeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation...

  4. In-Operando Raman Characterization of Carbon Deposition on SOFC Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Maher, R. C.

    2013-10-06

    Carbon formation within nickel-based solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes exposed to carbonaceous fuels typically leads to reduced operational lifetimes and performance, and can eventually lead to catastrophic failure through cracking and delamination. In-situ Raman spectroscopy has been shown to be a powerful characterization tool for the investigation of the dynamics of physical processes occurring within operational SOFCs in real time. Here we investigate the dynamics of carbon formation on a variety of nickel-based SOFC anodes as a function of temperature, fuel and electrical loading using Raman spectroscopy. We show that the rate of carbon formation throughout the SOFC anode can be significantly reduced through a careful consideration of the SOFC anode material, design and operational conditions. © The Electrochemical Society.

  5. In-Operando Raman Characterization of Carbon Deposition on SOFC Anodes

    KAUST Repository

    Maher, R. C.; Duboviks, V.; Offer, G.; Cohen, L. F.; Brandon, N. P.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon formation within nickel-based solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes exposed to carbonaceous fuels typically leads to reduced operational lifetimes and performance, and can eventually lead to catastrophic failure through cracking and delamination. In-situ Raman spectroscopy has been shown to be a powerful characterization tool for the investigation of the dynamics of physical processes occurring within operational SOFCs in real time. Here we investigate the dynamics of carbon formation on a variety of nickel-based SOFC anodes as a function of temperature, fuel and electrical loading using Raman spectroscopy. We show that the rate of carbon formation throughout the SOFC anode can be significantly reduced through a careful consideration of the SOFC anode material, design and operational conditions. © The Electrochemical Society.

  6. Modeling work of a small scale gasifier/SOFC CHP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M.; Aravind, P.V.; Qu, Z.; Woudstra, N.; Verkooijen, A.H.M. [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: ming.liu@tudelft.nl, p.v.aravind@tudelft.nl, z.qu@tudelft.nl, n.woudstra@tudelft.nl, a. h. m. verkooijen@tudelft.nl; Cobas, V.R.M. [Federal University of Itajuba (UNIFEI), Pinheirinhos, MG (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: vlad@unifei.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    For a highly efficient biomass gasification/Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation system, the gasifier, the accompanying gas cleaning technologies and the CHP unit must be carefully designed as an integrated unit. This paper describes such a system involving a two-stage fixed-bed down draft gasifier, a SOFC CHP unit and a gas cleaning system. A gas cleaning system with both low temperature and high temperature sections is proposed for coupling the gasifier and the SOFC. Thermodynamic modeling was carried out for the gasifier/SOFC system with the proposed gas cleaning system. The net AC electrical efficiency of this system is around 30% and the overall system efficiency is around 60%. This paper also describes various exergy losses in the system and the future plans for integrated gasifier-GCU-SOFC experiments from which the results will be used to validate the modeling results of this system. (author)

  7. Improvement of SOFC electrodes using mixed ionic-electronic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, Y.; Hishinuma, M. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Since the electrode reaction of SOFC is limited to the proximity of a triple phase boundary (TPB), the local current density at the electrode and electrolyte interface is larger than mean current density, which causes large ohmic and electrode polarization. This paper describes an application of mixed ionic-electronic conductors to reduce such polarization by means of (1) enhancing ionic conductivity of the electrolyte surface layer by coating a high ionic conductors, and (2) reducing the local current density by increasing the electrochemically active sites.

  8. High Performance Infiltrated Backbones for Cathode-Supported SOFC's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Vanesa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    The concept of using highly ionic conducting backbones with subsequent infiltration of electronically conducting particles has widely been used to develop alternative anode-supported SOFC's. In this work, the idea was to develop infiltrated backbones as an alternative design based on cathode......, microstructural characterization and electrochemical testing are discussed. Data on polarization resistance, Rp, are obtained from impedance spectra recorded on quasi-symmetrical cells (YSZ backbones/YSZ/LSM-YSZ (screen printed)). The backbones are infiltrated with LSM and compared to a standard LSM-YSZ screen...

  9. Progress in the planar CPn SOFC system design verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elangovan, S.; Hartvigsen, J.; Khandkar, A. [SOFCo, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-04-01

    SOFCo is developing a high efficiency, modular and scaleable planar SOFC module termed the CPn design. This design has been verified in a 1.4 kW module test operated directly on pipeline natural gas. The design features multistage oxidation of fuel wherein the fuel is consumed incrementally over several stages. High efficiency is achieved by uniform current density distribution per stage, which lowers the stack resistance. Additional benefits include thermal regulation and compactness. Test results from stack modules operating in pipeline natural gas are presented.

  10. Age-related degradation of Westinghouse 480-volt circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; MacDougall, E.; Kochis, S.; Wilhelm, W.; Lee, B.S.

    1990-11-01

    After the McGuire event in 1987 relating to failure of the center pole weld in one of its reactor trip breakers, activities were initiated by the NRC to investigate the probable causes. A review of operating experience suggested that the burning of coils, jamming of the operating mechanism, and deterioration of the contacts dominated the breakers failures. Although failures of the pole shaft weld were not included as one of the generic problems, the NRC augmented inspection team had suspected that these welds were substandard which led them to crack prematurely. A DS-416 low voltage air circuit breaker manufactured by Westinghouse was mechanically cycled to identify age-related degradations. This accelerated aging test was conducted for over 36,000 cycles during nine months. Three separate pole shafts, one with a 60 degree weld, one with a 120 degree and one with a 180 degree were used to characterize the cracking in the pole level welds. In addition, three different operating mechanisms and several other parts were replaced as they became inoperable. The testing yielded many useful results. The burning of the closing coils was found to be the effect of binding in the linkages that are connected to this device. Among the seven welds on the pole shaft, number-sign 1 and number-sign 3 were the critical ones which cracked first to cause misalignment of the pole levers, which, in turn, had led to many problems with the operating mechanism including the burning of coils, excessive wear in certain parts, and overstressed linkages. Based on these findings, a maintenance program is suggested to alleviate the age-related degradations that occur due to mechanical cycling of this type of breaker. 3 refs., 39 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Westinghouse modular grinding process - improvement for follow on processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrmann, Henning

    2013-01-01

    In nuclear power plants (NPP) ion exchange (IX) resins are used in several systems for water treatment. The resins can be in bead or powdered form. For waste treatment of spent IX resins, two methods are basically used: Direct immobilization (e.g. with cement, bitumen, polymer or High Integrity Container (HIC)); Thermal treatment (e.g. drying, oxidation or pyrolysis). Bead resins have some properties (e.g. particle size and density) that can have negative impacts on following waste treatment processes. Negative impacts could be: Floatation of bead resins in cementation process; Sedimentation in pipeline during transportation; Poor compaction properties for Hot Resin Supercompaction (HRSC). Reducing the particle size of the bead resins can have beneficial effects enhancing further treatment processes and overcoming prior mentioned effects. Westinghouse Electric Company has developed a modular grinding process to crush/grind the bead resins. This modular process is designed for flexible use and enables a selective adjustment of particle size to tailor the grinding system to the customer needs. The system can be equipped with a crusher integrated in the process tank and if necessary a colloid mill. The crusher reduces the bead resins particle size and converts the bead resins to a pump able suspension with lower sedimentation properties. With the colloid mill the resins can be ground to a powder. Compared to existing grinding systems this equipment is designed to minimize radiation exposure of the worker during operation and maintenance. Using the crushed and/or ground bead resins has several beneficial effects like facilitating cementation process and recipe development, enhancing oxidation of resins, improving the Hot Resin Supercompaction volume reduction performance. (authors)

  12. Westinghouse modular grinding process - improvement for follow on processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrmann, Henning [Westinghouse Germany GmbH, Mannheim, State (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In nuclear power plants (NPP) ion exchange (IX) resins are used in several systems for water treatment. The resins can be in bead or powdered form. For waste treatment of spent IX resins, two methods are basically used: Direct immobilization (e.g. with cement, bitumen, polymer or High Integrity Container (HIC)); Thermal treatment (e.g. drying, oxidation or pyrolysis). Bead resins have some properties (e.g. particle size and density) that can have negative impacts on following waste treatment processes. Negative impacts could be: Floatation of bead resins in cementation process; Sedimentation in pipeline during transportation; Poor compaction properties for Hot Resin Supercompaction (HRSC). Reducing the particle size of the bead resins can have beneficial effects enhancing further treatment processes and overcoming prior mentioned effects. Westinghouse Electric Company has developed a modular grinding process to crush/grind the bead resins. This modular process is designed for flexible use and enables a selective adjustment of particle size to tailor the grinding system to the customer needs. The system can be equipped with a crusher integrated in the process tank and if necessary a colloid mill. The crusher reduces the bead resins particle size and converts the bead resins to a pump able suspension with lower sedimentation properties. With the colloid mill the resins can be ground to a powder. Compared to existing grinding systems this equipment is designed to minimize radiation exposure of the worker during operation and maintenance. Using the crushed and/or ground bead resins has several beneficial effects like facilitating cementation process and recipe development, enhancing oxidation of resins, improving the Hot Resin Supercompaction volume reduction performance. (authors)

  13. Westinghouse Hanford Company Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, B.C.

    1994-10-01

    This plan documents Westinghouse Hanford Company's (WHC) Pollution Prevention (P2) (formerly Waste Minimization) program. The program includes WHC; BCS Richland, Inc. (BCSR); and ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICF KH). The plan specifies P2 program activities and schedules for implementing the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness (WMin/P2) Program Plan requirements (DOE 1994a). It is intended to satisfy the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in both the Hanford Site WMin/P2 plan and paragraph C of this plan. As such, the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program required by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988) is included in the WHC P2 program. WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH are committed to implementing an effective P2 program as identified in the Hanford Site WMin/P2 Plan. This plan provides specific information on how the WHC P2 program will develop and implement the goals, activities, and budget needed to accomplish this. The emphasis has been to provide detailed planning of the WHC P2 program activities over the next 3 years. The plan will guide the development and implementation of the program. The plan also provides background information on past program activities. Because the plan contains greater detail than in the past, activity scope and implementation schedules may change as new priorities are identified and new approaches are developed and realized. Some activities will be accelerated, others may be delayed; however, all of the general program elements identified in this plan and contractor requirements identified in the Site WMin/P2 plan will be developed and implemented during the next 3 years. This plan applies to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH organizations and subcontractors. It will be distributed to those with defined responsibilities in this plan; and the policy, goals, objectives, and strategy of the program will be communicated to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH employees

  14. Westinghouse Advanced Doped Pellet - Characteristics and irradiation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backman, K.; Hallstadius, L.; Roennberg, G.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: There are a number of trends in the nuclear power industry, which put additional requirements on the operational flexibility and reliability of nuclear fuel, for example power uprates and longer cycles in order to increase production, higher burnup levels in order to reduce the backend cost of the fuel cycle, and lower goals for activity release from power plant operation. These additional requirements can be addressed by increasing the fuel density, improving the FG retention, improving the PCI resistance and improving the post-failure performance. In order to achieve that, Westinghouse has developed ADOPT (Advanced Doped Pellet Technology) UO 2 fuel containing additions of chromium and aluminium oxides. The additives facilitate pellet densification during sintering, enlarge the pellet grain size, and increase the creep rate. The final manufactured doped pellets reach about 0.5 % higher density within a shorter sintering time and a five times larger grain size compared with standard UO 2 fuel pellets. Fuel rods with ADOPT pellets have been irradiated in several light water reactors (LWRs) since 1999, including two full SVEA Optima2 reloads in 2005. ADOPT pellets has been investigated in pool-side and hot cell Post Irradiation Examinations (PIEs), as well as in a ramp test and a fuel washout test in the Studsvik R2 test reactor. The investigations have identified three areas of improved operational behaviour: Reduced Fission Gas Release (FGR), improved Pellet Cladding Interaction (PCI) performance thanks to increased pellet plasticity and higher resistance against post-failure degradation. The better FGR behaviour of ADOPT has been verified with a pool side FGR gamma measurement performed at 55 MWd/kgU, as well as transient tests in the Studsvik R2 reactor. Creep measurements performed on fresh pellets show that ADOPT has a higher creep rate which is beneficial for the PCI performance. ADOPT has also been part of a high power Halden test (IFA-677). The

  15. Age-related degradation of Westinghouse 480-volt circuit breakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Shier, W.; MacDougall, E.

    1990-07-01

    An aging assessment of Westinghouse DS-series low-voltage air circuit breakers was performed as part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program. The objectives of this study are to characterize age-related degradation within the breaker assembly and to identify maintenance practices to mitigate their effect. Since this study has been promulgated by the failures of the reactor trip breakers at the McGuire Nuclear Station in July 1987, results relating to the welds in the breaker pole lever welds are also discussed. The design and operation of DS-206 and DS-416 breakers were reviewed. Failure data from various national data bases were analyzed to identify the predominant failure modes, causes, and mechanisms. Additional operating experiences from one nuclear station and two industrial breaker-service companies were obtained to develop aging trends of various subcomponents. The responses of the utilities to the NRC Bulletin 88-01, which discusses the center pole lever welds, were analyzed to assess the final resolution of failures of welds in the reactor trips. Maintenance recommendations, made by the manufacturer to mitigate age-related degradation were reviewed, and recommendations for improving the monitoring of age-related degradation are discussed. As described in Volume 2 of this NUREG, the results from a test program to assess degradation in breaker parts through mechanical cycling are also included. The testing has characterized the cracking of center-pole lever welds, identified monitoring techniques to determine aging in breakers, and provided information to augment existing maintenance programs. Recommendations to improve breaker reliability using effective maintenance, testing, and inspection programs are suggested. 13 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor balance of plant and supporting systems design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memmott, M. J.; Stansbury, C.; Taylor, C. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 600 Cranberry Woods Drive, Cranberry Twp. PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), in which all of the components typically associated with the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear power plant are incorporated within a single reactor pressure vessel. This paper is the second in a series of four papers which describe the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR. It focuses, in particular, upon the supporting systems and the balance of plant (BOP) designs of the Westinghouse SMR. Several Westinghouse SMR systems are classified as safety, and are critical to the safe operation of the Westinghouse SMR. These include the protection and monitoring system (PMS), the passive core cooling system (PXS), and the spent fuel cooling system (SFS) including pools, valves, and piping. The Westinghouse SMR safety related systems include the instrumentation and controls (I and C) as well as redundant and physically separated safety trains with batteries, electrical systems, and switch gears. Several other incorporated systems are non-safety related, but provide functions for plant operations including defense-in-depth functions. These include the chemical volume control system (CVS), heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) systems, component cooling water system (CCS), normal residual heat removal system (RNS) and service water system (SWS). The integrated performance of the safety-related and non-safety related systems ensures the safe and efficient operation of the Westinghouse SMR through various conditions and transients. The turbine island consists of the turbine, electric generator, feedwater and steam systems, moisture separation systems, and the condensers. The BOP is designed to minimize assembly time, shipping challenges, and on-site testing requirements for all structures, systems, and components. (authors)

  17. Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor balance of plant and supporting systems design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memmott, M. J.; Stansbury, C.; Taylor, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), in which all of the components typically associated with the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear power plant are incorporated within a single reactor pressure vessel. This paper is the second in a series of four papers which describe the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR. It focuses, in particular, upon the supporting systems and the balance of plant (BOP) designs of the Westinghouse SMR. Several Westinghouse SMR systems are classified as safety, and are critical to the safe operation of the Westinghouse SMR. These include the protection and monitoring system (PMS), the passive core cooling system (PXS), and the spent fuel cooling system (SFS) including pools, valves, and piping. The Westinghouse SMR safety related systems include the instrumentation and controls (I and C) as well as redundant and physically separated safety trains with batteries, electrical systems, and switch gears. Several other incorporated systems are non-safety related, but provide functions for plant operations including defense-in-depth functions. These include the chemical volume control system (CVS), heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) systems, component cooling water system (CCS), normal residual heat removal system (RNS) and service water system (SWS). The integrated performance of the safety-related and non-safety related systems ensures the safe and efficient operation of the Westinghouse SMR through various conditions and transients. The turbine island consists of the turbine, electric generator, feedwater and steam systems, moisture separation systems, and the condensers. The BOP is designed to minimize assembly time, shipping challenges, and on-site testing requirements for all structures, systems, and components. (authors)

  18. Tubular bioreactor and its application; Tubular bioreactor to sono tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, I.; Nagamune, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yuki, K. [Nikka Whisky Distilling Co. Ltd. Tokyo (Japan); Inaba, H. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-09-05

    The loop type tubular bioreactor (TBR) was developed where biocatalysts are trapped in the reactor by membrane module. A UF membrane or MF membrane and crossflow filtration were adopted for the membrane module, and the reactor loop was composed of four membrane modules. The reactor was operated at 2-4 m/s in membrane surface velocity and 300-400 kPa in filtration pressure. As the result of the high-density culture of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, a biomass concentration was more than 10 times that in batch culture, suggesting the remarkable enhancement of a production efficiency. As the result of the continuous fermentation of cider, the fast fermentation more than 60 times that in conventional ones was obtained together with the same quality as conventional ones. Such a fast fermentation was probably achieved by yeast suspended in the fermenter of TBR, by yeast hardly affected physico-chemically as compared with immobilized reactors, and by small effect of mass transfer on reaction systems. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Liquid-fueled SOFC power sources for transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, K. M.; Doshi, R.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    Traditionally, fuel cells have been developed for space or stationary terrestrial applications. As the first commercial 200-kW systems were being introduced by ONSI and Fuji Electric, the potentially much larger, but also more challenging, application in transportation was beginning to be addressed. As a result, fuel cell-powered buses have been designed and built, and R&D programs for fuel cell-powered passenger cars have been initiated. The engineering challenge of eventually replacing the internal combustion engine in buses, trucks, and passenger cars with fuel cell systems is to achieve much higher power densities and much lower costs than obtainable in systems designed for stationary applications. At present, the leading fuel cell candidate for transportation applications is, without question, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Offering ambient temperature start-up and the potential for a relatively high power density, the polymer technology has attracted the interest of automotive manufacturers worldwide. But the difficulties of fuel handling for the PEFC have led to a growing interest in exploring the prospects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating on liquid fuels for transportation applications. Solid oxide fuel cells are much more compatible with liquid fuels (methanol or other hydrocarbons) and are potentially capable of power densities high enough for vehicular use. Two SOFC options for such use are discussed in this report.

  20. Tracking Oxygen Vacancies in Thin Film SOFC Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Donovan; Kumar, Amit; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei; Shao-Horn, Yang; Crumlin, Ethan; Mutoro, Eva; Biegalski, Michael; Christen, Hans; Pennycook, Stephen; Borisevich, Albina

    2011-03-01

    Oxygen vacancies have been proposed to control the rate of the oxygen reduction reaction and ionic transport in complex oxides used as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes [1,2]. In this study oxygen vacancies were tracked, both dynamically and statically, with the combined use of scanned probe microscopy (SPM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Epitaxial films of La 0.8 Sr 0.2 Co O3 (L SC113) and L SC113 / LaSrCo O4 (L SC214) on a GDC/YSZ substrate were studied, where the latter showed increased electrocatalytic activity at moderate temperature. At atomic resolution, high angle annular dark field STEM micrographs revealed vacancy ordering in L SC113 as evidenced by lattice parameter modulation and EELS studies. The evolution of oxygen vacancy concentration and ordering with applied bias and the effects of bias cycling on the SOFC cathode performance will be discussed. Research is sponsored by the of Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, U.S. DOE.

  1. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 115, enhancement of the reliability of the Westinghouse Solid State Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basdekas, D.L.

    1989-05-01

    Generic Issue 115 addresses a concern related to the reliability of the Westinghouse reactor protection system for plants using the Westinghouse Solid State Protection System (SSPS). Several options for improving the reliability of the Westinghouse reactor trip function for these plants and their effect on core damage frequency (CDF) and overall risk were evaluated. This regulatory analysis includes a quantitative assessment of the costs and benefits associated with the various options for enhancing the reliability of the Westinghouse SSPS and provides insights for consideration and industry initiatives. No new regulatory requirements are proposed. 25 refs., 11 tabs

  2. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  3. Manufacturing of Electrolyte and Cathode Layers SOFC Using Atmospheric Spraying Method and Its Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sulistyo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC has created various interest in many parties, due to its capability to convert gases into electricity. The main requirement of SOFC cell components is to be produced as thin as possible to minimize the losses of electrical resistance, as well as able to support internal and external loads. This paper discusses the procedure of making a thin electrolyte layer, as well as a porous thin layer cathode using atmospheric spraying technique. The procedure of spraying was in room temperature with the process of sintering at temperature of 13500 C held for 3 hours. The SOFC characterization of electrolyte and cathode microstructure was determined by using the SEM, FESEM, XRD and impedance spectroscopy, to measure the impedance of SOFC cells. The results show that the thickness of thin layer electrolyte and porous cathode obtained of about 20 µm and 4 µm, respectively. Also the SOFC cell impedance was measured of 2.3726 x 106 Ω at room temperature. The finding also demonstrated that although the materials (anode, cathode and electrolyte possess different coefficient thermal expansion, there was no evidence of flaking layers which seen the materials remain intact. Thus, the atmospheric spraying method can offer an alternative method to manufacturing of SOFC thin layer electrolyte and cathode. [Key words: SOFC; spraying method; electrolyte; cathode

  4. Iatrogenic Digital Compromise with Tubular Dressings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corre, Kenneth A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This case report describes a digit amputation resulting from an improperly applied tubular dressing. The safe application of digital tubular dressings, and the rationale behind it, is detailed to raise emergency physician (EP awareness.Methods: We present a case report of a recent iatrogenic-induced digit ischemia caused by improperly applied tube gauze. We review the literature on the subject and the likely sources of poor outcomes presented. The proper application of tubular gauze dressings is then outlined.Conclusion: EPs and emergency department personnel must be educated on the safe application of tubular gauze dressings to avoid dire outcomes associated with improper applications.[WestJEM. 2009;10:190-192.

  5. Renal Tubular Function in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    immune' diseases such as. Sjogren's syndrome,'" systemic lupus erythematosus. (SLE),3 alveolitis' and chronic active hepatitis.' The reported abnormalities of renal tubular function include impairment of acid excretion and urinary concentration.

  6. Westinghouse Hanford Company waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, P.A.; Nichols, D.H.; Lindsey, D.W.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of this plan is to establish the Westinghouse Hanford Company's Waste Minimization Program. The plan specifies activities and methods that will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of waste generated at Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). It is designed to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in Subsection C of the section. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is included with the Waste Minimization Program as permitted by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This plan is based on the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, which directs DOE Field Office, Richland contractors to develop and maintain a waste minimization program. This waste minimization program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce waste generation. The Westinghouse Hanford Waste Minimization Program is designed to prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all aspects of Westinghouse Hanford operations and offers increased protection of public health and the environment. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. Fabrication and characterization of anode-supported micro-tubular solide oxide fuel cell by phase inversion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Cong

    Nowadays, the micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFCs), especially the anode supported MT-SOFCs have been extensively developed to be applied for SOFC stacks designation, which can be potentially used for portable power sources and vehicle power supply. To prepare MT-SOFCs with high electrochemical performance, one of the main strategies is to optimize the microstructure of the anode support. Recently, a novel phase inversion method has been applied to prepare the anode support with a unique asymmetrical microstructure, which can improve the electrochemical performance of the MT-SOFCs. Since several process parameters of the phase inversion method can influence the pore formation mechanism and final microstructure, it is essential and necessary to systematically investigate the relationship between phase inversion process parameters and final microstructure of the anode supports. The objective of this study is aiming at correlating the process parameters and microstructure and further preparing MT-SOFCs with enhanced electrochemical performance. Non-solvent, which is used to trigger the phase separation process, can significantly influence the microstructure of the anode support fabricated by phase inversion method. To investigate the mechanism of non-solvent affecting the microstructure, water and ethanol/water mixture were selected for the NiO-YSZ anode supports fabrication. The presence of ethanol in non-solvent can inhibit the growth of the finger-like pores in the tubes. With the increasing of the ethanol concentration in the non-solvent, a relatively dense layer can be observed both in the outside and inside of the tubes. The mechanism of pores growth and morphology obtained by using non-solvent with high concentration ethanol was explained based on the inter-diffusivity between solvent and non-solvent. Solvent and non-solvent pair with larger Dm value is benefit for the growth of finger-like pores. Three cells with different anode geometries was

  8. WEOD-S: Westinghouse expanded operating domain stability solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotander, C.; Blaisdell, J.; Anderson, D.; Kumar, V.; Stier, D.; Chu, E.

    2014-01-01

    As Extended Power up-rates (EPUs) are implemented in BWR plants, the flow window at full power decreases due to the extension of the rod line. It is thus desirable to raise load line limits to realize increased power generation at a wider flow range offering operational flexibility and fuel cycle efficiency. However, when load lines are raised, the power/flow operating map is changed in a direction that can cause core power instability at its lower left corner (high power/low flow) if a flow reduction transient (i.e. pump trip) occurs. Unstable operation of the reactor core can result in diverging neutron flux (and power) oscillations, and through the thermal hydraulic/neutronic feedback challenge the Safety Limit Minimum Critical Power Ratio (SLMCPR). In many BWRs the SLMCPR in a power oscillation event is already protected by a detect and suppress system. The methodology to determine the set point of this system, the DIVOM methodology (Delta CPR over Initial MCPR versus Oscillation Magnitude), is defined and applicable up to, but not beyond, the thermal hydraulic stability limit. The DIVOM methodology is used to determine the channel power oscillation magnitude that will challenge the SLMCPR. It is defined as the relationship between ΔCPR/ICPR and the Hot Channel Oscillation Magnitude (HCOM). The DIVOM calculations are typically performed at the end state following a design basis two pump trip from rated power and minimum flow. When approaching the thermal hydraulic (T/H) instability limit, the DIVOM curve can become chaotic and the DIVOM approach breaks down. At T/H-instability, small power fluctuations give rise to large flow oscillations and the non-linear dynamic properties emerge. The newly developed Westinghouse Expanded Operating Domain Stability (WEOD-S) solution proactively prevents entry into the regions of the power/flow map that are vulnerable to thermal hydraulic instability. This is achieved automatically, without any dependence on operator action

  9. A neglected case of Renal Tubular Acidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derakhshan, A.; Basiratnia, M.; Fallahzadeh, M.H.; Al-Hashemi, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we present a case of a child with distal renal tubular acidosis, severe failure to thrive and profound rickets, who was only 7.8 Kg when presented at 6 years of age. His response to treatment and his follow up for four years is discussed. Although failure to thrive is a common finding in renal tubular acidosis but the physical and x-ray findings in our case were unique. (author)

  10. Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant Integrated With SOFC and Gas Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellomare, Filippo; Rokni, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    An interesting source of producing energy with low pollutants emission and reduced environmental impact are the biomasses; particularly using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) as fuel, can be a competitive solution not only to produce energy with negligible costs but also to decrease the storage...... in landfills. A Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant Integrated with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) has been studied and the plant is called IGSG (Integrated Gasification SOFC and GT). Gasification plant is fed by MSW to produce syngas by which the anode side of a SOFC is fed wherein...

  11. Oxidation behavior of a Ni-Fe support in SOFC anode atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Na; Chen, Ming; Han, Minfang

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the long-term oxidation behavior of a Ni-Fe (1:1 weight ratio) support for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. Ni-Fe supports were obtained through tape casting, high temperature sintering and pre-reducing in 97% H2/N2 (9/91)-3% H2O at 750 and 1000 °C, respect...... annealed in the two atmospheres maintained sufficiently high conductivity. The results from the current work demonstrate that the porous Ni-Fe support can be well employed in SOFCs, especially metal-supported SOFCs....

  12. SOFC/TEG hybrid mCHP system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-15

    The starting point for this project have been the challenge has been to develop a cost effective solution with long term stability. This is where a focused effort in a strong consortium covering material research, module development and manufacture as well as device design and optimization can make a real difference. In March 2010 the SOFTEG phase II project was initiated and a cooperation organization was established to implement the project as a development and demonstration project involving the staff from all project partners. The project is now completed with excellent and documented outcome. The final results by Alpcon have been demonstration as a TEG-based mCHP system calls CHP Dual Engine Power System, which will be applicable as both a standalone TEG-CHP hybrid system, but also as an auxiliary power unit and power booster for the SOFC system. However the SOFC system cannot cover the household's heat demand alone so it is necessary to combine a SOFC system together with a water heater/boiler system to cover the peak heat demand of a residential house or a complex building. The SOFTEG project partners achieved significant results that mainly can be outlined as following: 1) University of Aarhus has improved the thermal stability of ZnSb by optimizing the concentration of Nano composite material. 2) The grain size and its influence on the sintering process by spark plasma method are investigated by Aarhus University, but further work seems to be necessary. 3) The TE material is going to commercialization by Aarhus University. 4) Aalborg University has prepared simulation tools for complex thermoelectric simulation in non-steady state condition. 5) The new type DCDC interleaved converter using the MPPT system for optimal power tracing is designed, build and tested by Aalborg University in cooperation with Alpcon. This task is included overall system design, control system implementation and power electronic control design. 6) Full scale practical

  13. Implementation of the Westinghouse nuclear design system for incore fuel management analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, K.C.; Kichty, M.J.; Liu, Y.S.; Nguyen, T.Q.

    1990-01-01

    Development of the Westinghouse Advanced Nuclear Design System, which includes PHOENIX-P and ANC, has been continued to improve the efficiency, reliability, accuracy, and flexibility of models. The new codes ALPHA and PHIRE provide complete automation and interface functions for PHOENIX-P, ANC, and other codes. PHOENIX-P has been modified to generate data for ANC based on single or multi-assembly calculations. ANC has several enhancements, including improved pin power reconstruction, automated 2D model generation, and rod burnup prediction capability. The excellent performance of PHOENIX-P/ANC models is demonstrated by the results of over 30 models covering the range of Westinghouse designs. This Nuclear Design System is now the standard Westinghouse methodology for core design and analysis

  14. Westinghouse corporate development of a decision software program for Radiological Evaluation Decision Input (REDI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, T.S.

    1995-01-01

    In December 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) implemented the DOE Radiological Control Manual (RCM). Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) submitted an implementation plan showing how compliance with the manual would be achieved. This implementation plan was approved by DOE in November 1992. Although WINCO had already been working under a similar Westinghouse RCM, the DOE RCM brought some new and challenging requirements. One such requirement was that of having procedure writers and job planners create the radiological input in work control procedures. Until this time, that information was being provided by radiological engineering or a radiation safety representative. As a result of this requirement, Westinghouse developed the Radiological Evaluation Decision Input (REDI) program

  15. Westinghouse corporate development of a decision software program for Radiological Evaluation Decision Input (REDI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, T.S. [Westinghosue Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In December 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) implemented the DOE Radiological Control Manual (RCM). Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) submitted an implementation plan showing how compliance with the manual would be achieved. This implementation plan was approved by DOE in November 1992. Although WINCO had already been working under a similar Westinghouse RCM, the DOE RCM brought some new and challenging requirements. One such requirement was that of having procedure writers and job planners create the radiological input in work control procedures. Until this time, that information was being provided by radiological engineering or a radiation safety representative. As a result of this requirement, Westinghouse developed the Radiological Evaluation Decision Input (REDI) program.

  16. Feedback from Westinghouse experience on segmentation of reactor vessel internals - 59013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitman, Paul J.; Boucau, Joseph; Segerud, Per; Fallstroem, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    With more than 25 years of experience in the development of reactor vessel internals segmentation and packaging technology, Westinghouse has accumulated significant know-how in the reactor dismantling market. Building on tooling concepts and cutting methodologies developed decades ago for the successful removal of nuclear fuel from the damaged Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor (TMI-2), Westinghouse has continuously improved its approach to internals segmentation and packaging by incorporating lessons learned and best practices into each successive project. Westinghouse has developed several concepts to dismantle reactor internals based on safe and reliable techniques, including plasma arc cutting (PAC), abrasive water-jet cutting (AWJC), metal disintegration machining (MDM), or mechanical cutting. Westinghouse has applied its technology to all types of reactors covering Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR's), Boiling Water Reactors (BWR's), Gas Cooled Reactors (GCR's) and sodium reactors. The primary challenges of a segmentation and packaging project are to separate the highly activated materials from the less-activated materials and package them into appropriate containers for disposal. Since space is almost always a limiting factor it is therefore important to plan and optimize the available room in the segmentation areas. The choice of the optimum cutting technology is important for a successful project implementation and depends on some specific constraints like disposal costs, project schedule, available areas or safety. Detailed 3-D modeling is the basis for tooling design and provides invaluable support in determining the optimum strategy for component cutting and disposal in waste containers, taking account of the radiological and packaging constraints. Westinghouse has also developed a variety of special handling tools, support fixtures, service bridges, water filtration systems, video-monitoring systems and customized rigging, all of which are required for a

  17. Sensitivity Analysis on LOCCW of Westinghouse typed Reactors Considering WOG2000 RCP Seal Leakage Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Jang-Hwan; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Hwang, Seok-Won

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on risk insights of Westinghouse typed reactors. We identified that Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) seal integrity is the most important contributor to Core Damage Frequency (CDF). As we reflected the latest technical report; WCAP-15603(Rev. 1-A), 'WOG2000 RCP Seal Leakage Model for Westinghouse PWRs' instead of the old version, RCP seal integrity became more important to Westinghouse typed reactors. After Fukushima accidents, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) decided to develop Low Power and Shutdown (LPSD) Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) models and upgrade full power PSA models of all operating Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). As for upgrading full power PSA models, we have tried to standardize the methodology of CCF (Common Cause Failure) and HRA (Human Reliability Analysis), which are the most influential factors to risk measures of NPPs. Also, we have reviewed and reflected the latest operating experiences, reliability data sources and technical methods to improve the quality of PSA models. KHNP has operating various types of reactors; Optimized Pressurized Reactor (OPR) 1000, CANDU, Framatome and Westinghouse. So, one of the most challengeable missions is to keep the balance of risk contributors of all types of reactors. This paper presents the method of new RCP seal leakage model and the sensitivity analysis results from applying the detailed method to PSA models of Westinghouse typed reference reactors. To perform the sensitivity analysis on LOCCW of the reference Westinghouse typed reactors, we reviewed WOG2000 RCP seal leakage model and developed the detailed event tree of LOCCW considering all scenarios of RCP seal failures. Also, we performed HRA based on the T/H analysis by using the leakage rates for each scenario. We could recognize that HRA was the sensitive contributor to CDF, and the RCP seal failure scenario of 182gpm leakage rate was estimated as the most important scenario

  18. Sensitivity Analysis on LOCCW of Westinghouse typed Reactors Considering WOG2000 RCP Seal Leakage Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Jang-Hwan; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Hwang, Seok-Won [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we focus on risk insights of Westinghouse typed reactors. We identified that Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) seal integrity is the most important contributor to Core Damage Frequency (CDF). As we reflected the latest technical report; WCAP-15603(Rev. 1-A), 'WOG2000 RCP Seal Leakage Model for Westinghouse PWRs' instead of the old version, RCP seal integrity became more important to Westinghouse typed reactors. After Fukushima accidents, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) decided to develop Low Power and Shutdown (LPSD) Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) models and upgrade full power PSA models of all operating Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). As for upgrading full power PSA models, we have tried to standardize the methodology of CCF (Common Cause Failure) and HRA (Human Reliability Analysis), which are the most influential factors to risk measures of NPPs. Also, we have reviewed and reflected the latest operating experiences, reliability data sources and technical methods to improve the quality of PSA models. KHNP has operating various types of reactors; Optimized Pressurized Reactor (OPR) 1000, CANDU, Framatome and Westinghouse. So, one of the most challengeable missions is to keep the balance of risk contributors of all types of reactors. This paper presents the method of new RCP seal leakage model and the sensitivity analysis results from applying the detailed method to PSA models of Westinghouse typed reference reactors. To perform the sensitivity analysis on LOCCW of the reference Westinghouse typed reactors, we reviewed WOG2000 RCP seal leakage model and developed the detailed event tree of LOCCW considering all scenarios of RCP seal failures. Also, we performed HRA based on the T/H analysis by using the leakage rates for each scenario. We could recognize that HRA was the sensitive contributor to CDF, and the RCP seal failure scenario of 182gpm leakage rate was estimated as the most important scenario.

  19. Development of an integrated system for a SOFC for combined heat and power generation; Entwicklung eines integrierten Systems fuer eine SOFC mit Kraft-Waerme-Stoffkopplung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stichtenoth, J.; Meyer-Pittroff, R.

    2002-06-01

    The feasibility of CO2 removal from the exhaust of a 250 kW{sub e} SOFC module, with recirculation of the liquefied CO2 is discussed for the example of a German brewery (Bayerische Staatsbrauerei Weihenstephan). An electric efficiency of 50% can be achieved provided that the liquefied CO2 is utilized to substitute CO2 liquefaction in another point of the process. The high-temperature waste heat of the 250 kW SOFC is fed into the brewer's copper via feedwater preheating. [German] In dieser Studie werden die Moeglichkeiten einer technischen Rueckgewinnung von CO{sub 2} aus dem Abgasstrom eines SOFC-Moduls mit 250 kW elektrischer Leistung und Rueckfuehrung des verfluessigten CO{sub 2} in den Wertschoepfungsprozess am Beispiel der Bayerischen Staatsbrauerei Weihenstephan untersucht. Unter der Voraussetzung, dass dieses verfluessigte CO{sub 2} als Produkt Verwendung findet und die CO{sub 2}-Verfluessigung an anderer Stelle substituiert, kann der von der SOFC gelieferte Energiebeitrag zur CO{sub 2}-Verfluessigung dem Gesamtsystem gutgeschrieben werden, so dass der elektrische Wirkungsgrad bei 50% bleibt. Die Hochtemperaturabwaerme der 250 kW-SOFC wird ueber eine Speisewasservorwaermung in den Dampfkessel der Brauerei eingekoppelt.

  20. Westinghouse calls for rethink on Europe's treatment of nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraev, Kamen [NucNet The Independent Global Nuclear News Agency, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-12-15

    US-based nuclear equipment manufacturer Westinghouse Electric Company has called on European Union legislators to adopt a technology-neutral approach when discussing the future of the bloc's low-carbon energy policies. In its 'Clean Energy for All Europeans' legislative package, released in November 2016, the European Commission made no mention of nuclear energy, said Michael Kirst, Westinghouse's vice-president of strategy for the Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA) region at a media briefing in Brussels. He said the package did not offer ''a real investment signal'' to developers.

  1. 1992 Environmental Summer Science Camp Program evaluation. The International Environmental Institute of Westinghouse Hanford Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the 1992 Westinghouse Hanford Company/US Department of Energy Environmental Summer Science Camp. The objective of the ``camp`` was to motivate sixth and seventh graders to pursue studies in math, science, and the environment. This objective was accomplished through hands-on fun activities while studying the present and future challenges facing our environment. The camp was funded through Technical Task Plan, 424203, from the US Department of Energy-Headquarters, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Technology Development,to Westinghouse Hanford Company`s International Environmental Institute, Education and Internship Performance Group.

  2. Fabrication and characteristics of unit cell for SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwi-Yeol; Eom, Seung-Wook; Moon, Seong-In [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Kyongnam (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Research and development on solid oxide fuel cells in Korea have been mainly focused on unit cell and small stack. Fuel cell system is called clean generation system which not cause NOx or SOx. It is generation efficiency come to 50-60% in contrast to 40% of combustion generation system. Among the fuel cell system, solid oxide fuel cell is constructed of ceramics, so stack construction is simple, power density is very high, and there are no corrosion problems. The object of this study is to develop various composing material for SOFC generation system, and to test unit cell performance manufactured. So we try to present a guidance for developing mass power generation system. We concentrated on development of manufacturing process for cathode, anode and electrolyte.

  3. Development of planar SOE/SOFC reversible cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, A.; Matsubara, H.; Kikuoka, Y.; Yanagi, C.; Kugimiya, K.; Yoshino, M.; Tokura, M.; Watanabe, K.; Ueda, S.; Sumi, M.; Miyamoto, H.; Tokunaga, S.

    1993-01-01

    A new energy storage system using SOE/SOFC (solid oxide electrolysis-solid oxide fuel cells) reversible cells is presented, where a unit cell works as a fuel cell during a period of high electric power demand and alternately works as an electrolysis cell during a period of low power demand. A planar cell configuration is used which allows for a compact and low cost energy storage and load leveling system for power stations. Tests were performed to verify the reversibility of the planar cell, at 1000 deg C, with YSZ (Yttria stabilized zirconia) as the solid electrolyte, to improve the cell performance by reducing the overvoltage in electrolysis, and to obtain fundamental characteristics of a reversible cell. 3 figs

  4. Overview of SOFC/SOEC development at DTU Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke

    2014-01-01

    According to a broad political agreement in Denmark, the Danish energy system should become independent on fossil fuels like oil, coal and natural gas by the year 2050. This aim requires expansion of electricity production from renewable sources, in particular wind mills. In order to balance...... the fluctuating power production and to cope with the discrepancies between demand and supply of power, solid oxide fuel cells and electrolysis are considered key technologies. DTU Energy Conversion has a strong record in SOFC/SOEC research, with a close collaboration with industry, in particular with Danish...... Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S. Recent achievements will be presented ranging from development of new cell generations, manufacturability, up to testing under realistic operating conditions including degradation studies and high pressure testing. A strong focus will be on development of methodologies, e...

  5. Development of innovative metal-supported IT-SOFC technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The results of tests on a solid oxide fuel cell developed by Ceres Power Ltd are reported. The fabrication and construction of the thick film ceramic fuel cell on porous stainless steel substrate is described. Tests were conducted under constant load and under recycling. In stack development, the cells were interconnected by laser-welding the steel substrates to the plates. Possible concepts for an IT-SOFC based on a small CHP system were evaluated by computer modelling. The performance levels of the cell at various temperatures, and the cost estimates, are given as evidence of suitability for development towards commercialisation. The study was conducted as part of a UK DTI programme on New and Renewable Energy Sources.

  6. Frictional forces in an SOFC stack with sliding seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, T; Oishi, N; Namikawa, T; Yamazaki, Y [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-05

    The detrimental thermal stresses in planar SOFC stacks can be reduced using sliding seals. In the proposal planar stack the electrolyte film is sandwiched by YSZ support rings to release the thermal stresses. In order to estimate the strength of the support ring, the frictional forces between heat resistant alloy and YSZ were measured at 900{degree}C. The coefficient of friction between Hastelloy X and YSZ increased when they were measured lifter 144h heating. However, the coefficient of friction between HA-214 and YSZ did not increase. The measurement and a calculation of the stresses in the support rings led the result that a thickness of 0.6mm was necessary for 200mm diameter support rings under a stack pressure of 0.1kgcm{sup -2}. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Relaxation of stresses during reduction of anode supported SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2016-01-01

    To assess the reliability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks during operation, the stress field in the stack must be known. During operation the stress field will depend on time as creep processes relax stresses. This work reports further details on a newly discovered creep phenomenon......, accelerated creep, taking place during the reduction of a Ni-YSZ anode. This relaxes stresses at a much higher rate (~×104) than creep during operation. Thus, the phenomenon of accelerated creep during reduction has to be considered both in the production of stacks and in the analysis of the stress field...... of reduction should decrease significantly over minutes. In this work these internal stresses are measured in-situ before and after the reduction by use of X-ray diffraction. This is done by determining the elastic micro-strains (correlating to the stresses), which are assessed from the widening of the Bragg...

  8. Description of SOFC anode behavior by a mathematical modelling procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ielo, I.; Maggio, G.; Antonucci, V.; Giordano, N.

    1993-01-01

    One of the principal objectives in the development of SOFC is the identification of a stable Ni-cermet anode material with low polarization at high current density. In this respect, a mathematical approach, based on theoretical considerations, has been made in order to identify the optimal combination of geometrical and morphological characteristics of the system. The two limiting cases of diffusion-controlled and kinetic-controlled mechanisms are taken into account. Results in terms of limiting current have been treated by substituting into the related equations morphological parameters (surface area and pore size distribution of the support, metal content and surface area, electrode film thickness). Results are compared to existing experimental data and the influence of various parameters on the overall anode performance is evaluated. 2 tabs., 24 refs

  9. Avances en el desarrollo de interconectores metálicos de celdas SOFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado-Flores, J.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Interest in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC stems from their higher efficiencies and lower levels of emitted pollutants, compared to traditional power production methods. Interconnects are a critical part in SOFC stacks, which connect cells in series electrically, and also separate air or oxygen at the cathode side from fuel at the anode side. Therefore, the requirements of interconnects are the most demanding, i.e., to maintain high electrical conductivity, good stability in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and close thermal expansion coefficient (TEC match and good compatibility with other SOFC ceramic components. This paper reviewed the interconnect materials, and coatings for metallic interconnect materials in a SOFC cell.El interés en las celdas de combustible de óxido sólido (SOFC, se deriva de su alta eficiencia y la capacidad de tener un bajo nivel de emisiones contaminantes, en comparación con los métodos tradicionales de producción de energía. Los interconectores, son parte crítica del ordenamiento de una celda SOFC, debido a que conecta en serie las celdas y además, separa el aire u oxígeno (cátodo del combustible (ánodo. Por lo tanto, los requisitos del interconector son muy exigentes, por ejemplo, es necesario mantener conductividad eléctrica elevada, óptima estabilidad tanto en atmósferas reductoras como oxidantes y el coeficiente de expansión térmica (TEC, debe ser compatible con los otros componentes cerámicos de la celda SOFC. Este artículo, revisa los materiales de interconexión, y materiales de revestimiento para interconectores metálicos en una celda SOFC.

  10. Heat and mass transfer analysis intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timurkutluk, B.; Mat, M. M.; Kaplan, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been considered as next generation energy conversion system due to their high efficiency, clean and quite operation with fuel flexibility. To date, yittria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes have been mainly used for SOFC applications at high temperatures around 1000 degree C because of their high ionic conductivity, chemical stability and good mechanical properties. However, such a high temperature is undesirable for fuel cell operations in the viewpoint of stability. Moreover, high operation temperature necessitates high cost interconnect and seal materials. Thus, the reduction in the operation temperature of SOFCs is one of the key issues in the aspects of the cost reduction and the long term operation without degradation as well as commercialization of the SOFC systems. With the reducing temperature, not only low cost stainless steels and glass materials can be used as interconnect and sealing materials respectively but the manufacturing technology will also extend. Therefore, the design of complex geometrical SOFC component will also be possible. One way to reduce the operation temperature of SOFC is use of an alternative electrolyte material to YSZ showing acceptable properties at intermediate temperatures (600-800 degree C). As being one of IT-SOFC electrolyte materials, gadolinium doped ceria (GDC) has been taken great deals. In this study, a mathematical model for mass and heat transfer for a single cell GDC electrolyte SOFC system was developed and numerical solutions were evaluated. In order to verify the mathematical model, set of experiments were performed by taking species from four different samples randomly and five various temperature measurements. The numerical results reasonably agree with experimental data

  11. Thermodynamic modeling of the power plant based on the SOFC with internal steam reforming of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Mathematical model based on the thermodynamic modeling of gaseous mixtures is developed for SOFC with internal steam reforming of methane. Macroscopic porous-electrode theory, including non-linear kinetics and gas-phase diffusion, is used to calculate the reforming reaction and the concentration polarization. Provided the data concerning properties and costs of materials the model is fit for wide range of parametric analysis of thermodynamic cycles including SOFC

  12. Design, Operation and Control Modelling of SOFC/GT Hybrid Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Stiller, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on modelling-based design, operation and control of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and gas turbine (GT) hybrid systems. Fuel cells are a promising approach to high-efficiency power generation, as they directly convert chemical energy to electric work. High-temperature fuel cells such as the SOFC can be integrated in gas turbine processes, which further increases the electrical efficiency to values up to 70%. However, there are a number of obstacles for safe operation of such...

  13. Development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC); Desenvolvimento de celulas a combustivel do tipo oxido solido (SOFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, F.M.B. de; Carvalho, L.F.V. de; Alencar, M.G de; Boaventura, J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DFQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept de Fisico-Quimica. Grupo de energia e Ciencias dos Materiais], e-mail: bventura@ufba.br

    2008-07-01

    The most promising technology for generating electric power, with reduced environmental impact, is the fuel cell. This technology is virtually non-polluting and the fuel supplies can be renewable. Therefore is necessary to study the technique of preparing the entire anode / electrolyte / cathode to optimize its operation. There are still major challenges to making the SOFC economically viable. The key is the improvement of manufacturing of its components and use of materials that can simultaneously reduce costs and reduce the temperature of operation. Among the properties of the cell, was shown the dependence of the efficiency of the device on the properties of the electrolyte, particularly its thickness. The mixture of YSZ with GDC in the composition of the anode and electrolyte aims to obtain a material with greater ionic conductivity. After sintering the cell was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). (author)

  14. Thermal CFD Analysis of Tubular Light Guides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Šikula

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tubular light guides are applicable for daylighting of windowless areas in buildings. Despite their many positive indoor climate aspects they can also present some problems with heat losses and condensation. A computer CFD model focused on the evaluation of temperature distribution and air flow inside tubular light guides of different dimensions was studied. The physical model of the tested light guides of lengths more than 0.60 m proves shows that Rayleigh numbers are adequate for a turbulent air flow. The turbulent model was applied despite the small heat flux differences between the turbulent and laminar model. The CFD simulations resulted into conclusions that the growing ratio of length/diameter increases the heat transmission loss/linear transmittance as much as by 50 percent. Tubular light guides of smaller diameters have lower heat transmission losses compared to the wider ones of the same lengths with the same outdoor temperature being taken into account. The simulation results confirmed the thermal bridge effect of the tubular light guide tube inside the insulated flat roof details. The thermal transmittance of the studied light guides in the whole roof area was substituted with the point thermal bridges. This substitution gives possibility for simple thermal evaluation of the tubular light pipes in roof constructions.

  15. Manufacturing of cells and stacks for SOFC development, test and demonstration projects and SOFC hotbox design development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this project is to support the continued SOFC development through manufacturing process optimization and manufacturing of SOFC cells and stacks. These cells and stacks will serve as a necessary base for the development activities and for the establishment of a number of test and demonstration activities. The manufacture will also help provide operating experience and reduce manufacturing cost. Another main focus of the manufacturing is to assure technical improvements and reliability. It is imperative to the eventual success of the technology that test and demonstration is carried out in the pre-market conditions that will exist for the next years in the three market segments targeted by TOFC (Distributed generation, micro CHP and APU incl. marine APU). Finally, the project also includes development activities focusing on the stack-system interface (hotbox design development) and on dealing with transients and start up and shut down times, which is of particular importance for APU and micro CHP applications. Three topics are addressed:1) Cell manufacture, including production development, capacity lift and manuf. of cells for test and demonstration; 2) Stack manufacture and test, including a test facility, stack manuf. and test of stacks in a system at HCV; 3) Hotbox design development, including design, prototype construction and testing. The progress of this project is documented. Major achievements are successful manufacture of adequate amounts of cells and stacks according to the application. Furthermore significant over-performance in design, construction and test of a methanol based hotbox prototype as well as publication of this. (au)

  16. Information storage and retrieval system at Westinghouse Hanford Company Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theo, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    The information storage and retrieval system developed at Westinghouse--Hanford is described. It will be able to store over two million documents on line. The system uses an interactive minicomputer to search for keyworded documents. Documents of interest can be displayed on CRTs or printed on microfilm reader--printers. 31 figures

  17. Instructional skills training - the Westinghouse program to insure competence of nuclear training instructors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widen, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear training engineer as well as being competent technically must be able to teach effectively. Westinghouse have developed a course for training instructors which aims to improve their teaching skills. The course, which has both theoretical and practical content covers the role of the instructor, the learning process, communications, test construction and analysis and stress identification and analysis. (U.K.)

  18. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) standards/requirements identification document (S/RID)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    This Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) set forth the Environmental Safety and Health (ES ampersand amp;H) standards/requirements for Westinghouse Hanford Company Level Programs, where implementation and compliance is the responsibility of these organizations. These standards/requirements are adequate to ensure the protection of the health and safety of workers, the public, and the environment

  19. The Westinghouse approach - an I and C modernization program for WWERs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, C.L.; Wassel, W.W.; Novak, V.

    1993-01-01

    When entering into a design program that is a marriage between two designs it is very difficult to separate self imposed design criteria from the requirements of the program. Therefore, the criteria of and the requirements for the Westinghouse modernization program will be discussed as one. These are outlined below: 1) The OSART Mission that was conducted by the IAEA at the Temelin Plant in 1990 identified the need to provide a new comprehensive Safety Analysis to verify the various aspects of the WWER safety system design. This recommendation is one that Westinghouse will provide as part of the WWER I and C Modernization Program. The design, no matter how well proven or verified from a hardware design point of view, is only as good as the basis for the system design; 2) Minimize the impact on the civil design aspects of the plant where possible and where this requirements do not affect the safety features of the design; 3) Ensure compatibility of the design to meet the latest US NRC requirements and those of the implementing country, applicable to the systems functional and hardware designs. This is a Westinghouse standard corporate requirement for all nuclear plant and systems design whether they be foreign or domestic; 4) Provide the most modern, proven design for the I and C systems. Application of the Westinghouse Instrumentation and Control microprocessor based design to the WWER Modernization Program will provide the basis for upgrading plants to meet western standards. (author) 6 figs., 1 ref

  20. 76 FR 73720 - Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Westinghouse AP1000...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0272] Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power...) is issuing for public comment a draft NUREG, NUREG-2103, Revision 0, ``Knowledge and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Westinghouse AP1000 Pressurized-Water Reactors. DATES: Submit...

  1. WIMSD4 calculations of the Westinghouse 'EDASA' lattices with plutonium dioxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsall, M.J.

    1977-03-01

    A series of Westinghouse critical PuO 2 /UO 2 pin-cell assemblies is analysed using the lattice code WIMSD4. The results are presented in terms of computed k-effective values, with comment on the choice of method for calculating high leakage systems and on the adequacy of WIMSD4 for evaluating plutonium enriched lattices. (author)

  2. Westinghouse employs advanced robotics in a state-of-the-art LWR line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    To increase productivity while maintaining quality, Westinghouse's new Manufacturing Automation Process for oxide fuel features Integrated Dry Route conversion technology, a fully-integrated management information system, advanced robotics and enhanced materials handling practices. The new line is expected to begin operating in 1985. (author)

  3. Westinghouse employs advanced robotics in a state-of-the-art LWR line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-01

    To increase productivity while maintaining quality, Westinghouse's new Manufacturing Automation Process for oxide fuel features Integrated Dry Route conversion technology, a fully-integrated management information system, advanced robotics and enhanced materials handling practices. The new line is expected to begin operating in 1985.

  4. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) standards/requirements identification document (S/RID)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, G.L.

    1996-03-15

    This Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) set forth the Environmental Safety and Health (ES&H) standards/requirements for Westinghouse Hanford Company Level Programs, where implementation and compliance is the responsibility of these organizations. These standards/requirements are adequate to ensure the protection of the health and safety of workers, the public, and the environment.

  5. Transition piece for joining together tubular pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holko, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    A transition piece for joining together tubular pieces formed respectively from a low alloy or carbon steel and a high temperature alloy containing at least 16% chromium includes a plurality of tubular parts welded together and formed from materials of selected composition with a maximum chromium content difference of 5% between adjacent parts when the chromium content of each part is below 10% and a maximum chromium difference of 7% between adjacent parts when the chromium content of either part is above 10%. The transition parts are also graded as to such characteristics as thermal expansion coefficient. The transition parts at opposite ends of the transition joint have chromium percentages similar to the tubular pieces to which they are to be joined. The parts may be joined by fusion and/or friction welding and parts may be formed by fusion weld deposition. (author)

  6. Tubular membrane bioreactors for biotechnological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Christoph; Beutel, Sascha; Scheper, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    This article is an overview of bioreactors using tubular membranes such as hollow fibers or ceramic capillaries for cultivation processes. This diverse group of bioreactor is described here in regard to the membrane materials used, operational modes, and configurations. The typical advantages of this kind of system such as environments with low shear stress together with high cell densities and also disadvantages like poor oxygen supply are summed up. As the usage of tubular membrane bioreactors is not restricted to a certain organism, a brief overview of various applications covering nearly all types of cells from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells is also given here.

  7. The Westinghouse AP600 an advanced nuclear option for small or medium electricity grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, H. J.; Novak, V.

    1996-01-01

    During the early days of commercial nuclear power, many countries looking to add nuclear power to their energy mix required large plants to meet the energy needs of rapidly growing populations and large industrial complexes. The majority of plants worldwide are in the range of 100 megawatts and beyond. During the 1970s, it became apparent that a smaller nuclear plants would appeal to utilities looking to add additional power capacity to existing grids, or to utilities in smaller countries which were seeking efficient, new nuclear generation capacity for the first time. For instance, the Westinghouse-designed 600 megawatt Krsko plant in Slovenia began operation in 1980, providing electricity to inhabitants of relatively small, yet industrial populations of Slovenia and Croatia. This plant design incorporated the best, proven technology available at that time, based on 20 years of Westinghouse PWR pioneering experience. Beginning in the early 1980s, Westinghouse began to build further upon that experience - in part through the advanced light water reactor programs established by the Electric Power Research institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - to design a simplified, advanced nuclear reactor in the 600 megawatt range. Originally, Westinghouse's development of its AP600 (advanced, passive 600-megawatt) plants was geared towards the needs of U.S. utilities which specified smaller, simplified nuclear options for the decades ahead. It soon became evident that the small and medium sized electricity grids of international markets could benefit from this new reactor. From the earliest days of Westinghouse's AP600 development, the corporation invited members of the international nuclear community to take part in the design, development and testing of the AP600 - with the goal of designing a reactor that would meet the diverse needs of an international industry composed of countries with similar, yet different, concerns. (author)

  8. Studies on Perovskite-Based Electrodes for Symmetrical SOFCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dos Santos García, A. J.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of the same material as anode and cathode in symmetrical solid oxide fuel cells (SFCs promises notable benefits as easier fabrication, hence lower cost production and resistance to carbon formation upon fuel cracking. Although chromites and chromo-manganites have been proposed as candidate electrode materials for this novel SOFC configuration, demonstrating promising performances, further work is required to develop compositions exhibiting higher efficiencies. In the present work we evaluate the structural evolution from cubic to orthorhombic unit cells with increasing the Fe content and the performance of La4Sr8Ti12-xFexO38-δ (LSTF phases and compare their response with other symmetrical electrodes. The electrochemical performance is 20% higher when using graded LSTF electrodes than in other perovskite-based systems.

    La utilización simultánea de un mismo material cerámico como ánodo y cátodo en pilas de combustible de óxido sólido simétricas (SFCs aporta una serie de beneficios entre los que figura una fabricación más sencilla, reducción de los costes de producción, así como resistencia a la formación de depósitos de carbón por craqueo del combustible. Recientemente, cromitas y cromomanganitas han sido propuestos como materiales capaces de adoptar esta novedosa configuración SOFC y, si bien los resultados obtenidos son prometedores, se requiere de una mayor investigación para el desarrollo de nuevas composiciones que presenten eficiencias más elevadas. En el presente trabajo, se evalúan la evolución de la estructura desde celdas cúbicas a ortorrómbicas al aumentar el contenido en Fe y las prestaciones del sistema La4Sr8Ti12-xFexO38-δ (LSTF y se compara su respuesta con otros electrodos simétricos, observándose que el rendimiento es hasta un 20% mayor en el caso de emplear electrodos LSTF que en

  9. Mesoporous zirconia-ceria for anodes of SOFC and catalyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantini, Marcia Carvalho de Abreu; Cassimiro, Vinicius Roberto de Sylos; Monteiro, Rafael Cartoni, E-mail: mfantini@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The ceria (CeO{sub 2}) and zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) based materials are present in several technological applications, mainly as Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) anodes and catalysts, for hydrogen production and automotive converter (Three-Way Catalysis). The solid solution Zr{sub x}Ce{sub 1-x}O{sub 2-δ} has attracted special attention, since it shows better thermal stability and higher oxygen storage capacity (OSC), if compared to the non-doped oxides. The mesoporous materials (pores of 2 to 50 nm) show high surface area and gas permeability, important properties for SOFCs and catalysts efficiency. In this work, mesoporous ceria-zirconia (Zr{sub 0.1}Ce{sub 0.9}O{sub 2-δ}) was synthesized by a sol-gel route using inorganic chlorides (ZrCl{sub 4} e CeCl{sub 3.7}H{sub 2}O) as precursors, block copolymer P123 (PEO{sub 20}PPO{sub 70}PEO{sub 20}) as template and TIPB (triisopropyl- benzene) as swelling agent. The solution was submitted to hydrothermal treatment for 48h at 80°C and calcined at 400°C to remove the template, resulting in the crystallized oxide. The characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction at high angles (XRD), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), nitrogen adsorption isotherms (NAI) and transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM). The results showed that the material has high surface area (≈ 110 m{sup 2}g{sup -1}), a wide pore size distribution with mean values around 30 nm, predominant cubic phase Fm3m and, in less quantity, tetragonal P4{sub 2}/nmc. The micrographs revealed that the oxide is totally nano-crystallized, having pores with slit shape and a secondary smaller mesoporosity with a narrow size distribution. The amount of P123 in the synthesis was also varied in order to produce pores with different shapes. Four samples were produced with different TIPB/P123 mass rate (0, 1, 2, 4), therefore was possible to verify the pore size expansion due to the swelling addition. The structural and morphological properties

  10. Ranitidine has no influence on tubular creatinine secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J. G.; Koopman, M. G.; Arisz, L.

    1996-01-01

    Oral cimetidine competitively inhibits tubular secretion of creatinine. We investigated the potential of oral ranitidine, a comparable H2-receptor antagonist, to block tubular creatinine secretion. In 10 healthy subjects, clearances of inulin and endogenous creatinine were simultaneously measured

  11. Measurement of residual stresses in deposited films of SOFC component materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T.; Momma, A.; Nagata, S.; Kasuga, Y. [Electrotechnical Lab., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The stress induced in Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)s has important influence on the lifetime of SOFC. But the data on stress in SOFC and mechanical properties of SOW component materials have not been accumulated enough to manufacture SOFC. Especially, the data of La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} cathode and La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CrO{sub 3} interconnection have been extremely limited. We have estimated numerically the dependences of residual stress in SOFC on the material properties, the cell structure and the fabrication temperatures of the components, but these unknown factors have caused obstruction to simulate the accurate behavior of residual stress. Therefore, the residual stresses in deposited La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} and La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CrO{sub 3} films are researched by the observation of the bending behavior of the substrate strips. The films of SOFC component materials were prepared by the RF sputtering method, because: (1) It can fabricate dense films of poor sinterable material such as La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CrO{sub 3} compared with sintering or plasma spray method. (2) For the complicated material such as perovskite materials, the difference between the composition of a film and that of a target material is generally small. (3) It can fabricate a thick ceramics film by improving of the deposition rate. For example, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thick films of 50{mu}m can be fabricated with the deposition rate of approximately 5{mu}m/h industrially. In this paper, the dependence of residual stress on the deposition conditions is defined and mechanical properties of these materials are estimated from the results of the experiments.

  12. Drill pipes and casings utilizing multi-conduit tubulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlett, H.B.

    1989-01-24

    A seal adapted for use with a multi-conduit well tubular, or the like, is described which consists of: a plate with fluid passages, each passage corresponding to an opening of a conduit of the multiconduit tubular, and a groove on the plate around each passage; and elastomer means partially embeddable into each groove for sealing each conduit of a tubular to a corresponding conduit of another similar tubular.

  13. Development of Partial Tubular Flat Knitting Fabric Composite Preform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wei Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After building some structures of partial tubular flat knitting fabric composite preform, the influencing factor on tubular section was analyzed and the fabric was knitted selectively. The partial tubular flat knitting fabric composite preform were Knitted by changing different yarn, row number and two-sided partial tubular flat knitting fabric. Multilayer sheet would be got after hot pressing and it has big market prospects and good application value.

  14. Tubular permanent magnet actuators: cogging forces characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulides, J.J.H.; Janssen, J.L.G.; Encica, L.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Tubular permanent magnet actuators are evermore used in demanding industrial and automotive applications. However, these actuators can suffer from large cogging forces, which have a destabilizing effect on the servo control system and compromise position and speed control accuracy. This paper

  15. Work tool in a tubular element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffaton, J.

    1991-01-01

    The stand, which is positioned in relation with the tubular element, has clutch disengagement means for a working rod in rotation, with at least two positioning regions on the rod. Application for laser welding a sleeve into PWR steam generator tubes [fr

  16. Boron--epoxy tubular structure members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, W. B. J.; Nelson, P. T.; Lindkvist, E. C.

    1973-01-01

    Composite materials fabricate thin-walled tubular members which have same load-carrying capabilities as aluminum, titanium, or other metals, but are lighter. Interface between stepped end fitting and tube lends itself to attachments by primary as well as secondary bonding. Interlaminar shear and hoop stress buildup in attachment at end fitting is avoided.

  17. Pointlike Inclusion Interactions in Tubular Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vahid Belarghou, A.; Idema, T.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane tubes and tubular networks are ubiquitous in living cells. Inclusions like proteins are vital for both the stability and the dynamics of such networks. These inclusions interact via the curvature deformations they impose on the membrane. We analytically study the resulting membrane

  18. Capability of a SOFC-APU to optimise the fuel consumption of motor vehicles; Potenzial einer SOFC-APU bei der Verbrauchsoptimierung von Kraftfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diegelmann, Christian B.

    2008-04-28

    While the energy system motor vehicle is analysed in this work different application possibilities of a SOFC-Auxiliary Power Unit for reducing the fuel consumption are identified. Apart from the pure electric power supply the APU can support functions like the engine-stop automatism or electric driving (hybrid vehicle). In addition the SOFC-APU generates waste heat at a high temperature level. The waste heat can be used for heating the passenger cabin or for preheating the combustion engine. Several methods are used for evaluating the conservation potentials. A simple estimate of the fuel consumption by means of medium efficiency and power already suffices to identify and evaluate the major impacts. The conservation potential of a SOFC-APU mainly depends on three factors, the start-up consumption of the APU, the operating period and the required electric power. A cold APU must first be heated-up to an operational temperature between 700 and 800 degrees Celsius. The heat-up process requires energy resulting in an excess consumption first. This excess consumption will only be compensated by the high efficiency of the SOFC-APU after a longer operating period. The operating period strongly depends on the electric power. In case of higher electric power the APU achieves a higher conservation rate. An APU is particularly interesting in standard applications with high energy demand. The APU avoids an operation of the combustion engine in the extreme underload range. In case of an air-conditioning at idling speed lasting for 30 minutes a fuel conservation of approx. 36% can be achieved including the start-up consumption. Conservation potentials in fuel consumption can only be achieved in the driving mode if the APU is operational and in case of a longer operating period. The difference in consumption compared to vehicles without APU was determined at vehicles with different basic operating strategies (current vehicle, vehicle with engine-stop automatism, vehicle with

  19. Reliability Analysis of Tubular Joints in Offshore Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1987-01-01

    Reliability analysis of single tubular joints and offshore platforms with tubular joints is" presented. The failure modes considered are yielding, punching, buckling and fatigue failure. Element reliability as well as systems reliability approaches are used and illustrated by several examples....... Finally, optimal design of tubular.joints with reliability constraints is discussed and illustrated by an example....

  20. Discrete modelling of the electrochemical performance of SOFC electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, L.C.R.; Martin, C.L.; Bultel, Y.; Bouvard, D.; Siebert, E.

    2006-01-01

    The composite anode and cathode of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are modelled as sintered mixtures of electrolyte and electrocatalyst particles. A particle packing is first created numerically by the discrete element method (DEM) from a loose packing of 40 000 spherical, monosized, homogeneously mixed, and randomly positioned particles. Once the microstructure is sintered numerically, the effective electrode conductivity is determined by discretization of the particle packing into a resistance network. Each particle contact is characteristic of a bond resistance that depends on contact geometry and particle properties. The network, which typically consists of 120 000 bond resistances in total, is solved using Kirchhoff's current law. Distributions of local current densities and particle potentials are then performed. We investigate how electrode performance depends on parameters such as electrode composition, thickness, density and intrinsic material conductivities that are temperature dependent. The simulations show that the best electrode performance is obtained for compositions close to the percolation threshold of the electronic conductor. Depending on particle conductivities, the electrode performance is a function of its thickness. Additionally, DEM simulations generate useful microstructural information such as: coordination numbers, triple phase boundary length and percolation thresholds

  1. High Performance Fe-Co Based SOFC Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent; Hansen, Karin Vels; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2010-01-01

    With the aim of reducing the temperature of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), a new high-performance perovskite cathode has been developed. An area-specific resistance (ASR) as low as 0.12 Ωcm2 at 600 °C was measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on symmetrical cells. The cathode...... is a composite between (Gd0.6Sr0.4)0.99Fe0.8Co0.2O3-δ (GSFC) and Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO10). Examination of the microstructure of the cathodes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a possibility of further optimisation of the microstructure in order to increase the performance of the cathodes. It also...... seems that an adjustment of the sintering temperature will make a lowering of the ASR value possible. The cathodes were compatible with ceria-based electrolytes but reacted to some extent with zirconia-based electrolytes depending on the sintering temperature....

  2. Lanthanum germanate-based apatites as electrolyte for SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero-Lopez, D.; Diaz-Carrasco, P.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Pena-Martinez, J. [Instituto de Energias Renovables, Parque Tecnologico, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Ruiz-Morales, J.C. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Germanate apatites with composition La{sub 10-x}Ge{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.75-3x/2} have been evaluated for the first time as possible electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Different electrode materials have been considered in this study, i.e. manganite, ferrite, nickelates and cobaltite as cathode materials; and NiO-CGO composite and chromium-manganite as anodes. The chemical compatibility and electrochemical performance of these electrodes with La{sub 9.8}Ge{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.45} have been studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and impedance spectroscopy. The XRPD analysis did not reveal appreciable bulk reactivity with the formation of reaction products between the germanate electrolyte and these electrodes up to 1,200 C. However, a significant cation interdiffusion was observed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) at the electrode/electrolyte interface, which leads to a significant decrease of the performance of these electrodes. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Performance analysis of a SOFC under direct internal reforming conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janardhanan, Vinod M.; Deutschmann, Olaf [Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Engesserstr 20, D-76131 Karlsruhe, University of Karlsruhe (Germany); Heuveline, Vincent [Institute for Applied and Numerical Mathematics, Kaiserstr. 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-10-11

    This paper presents the performance analysis of a planar solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) under direct internal reforming conditions. A detailed solid-oxide fuel cell model is used to study the influences of various operating parameters on cell performance. Significant differences in efficiency and power density are observed for isothermal and adiabatic operational regimes. The influence of air number, specific catalyst area, anode thickness, steam to carbon (s/c) ratio of the inlet fuel, and extend of pre-reforming on cell performance is analyzed. In all cases except for the case of pre-reformed fuel, adiabatic operation results in lower performance compared to isothermal operation. It is further discussed that, though direct internal reforming may lead to cost reduction and increased efficiency by effective utilization of waste heat, the efficiency of the fuel cell itself is higher for pre-reformed fuel compared to non-reformed fuel. Furthermore, criteria for the choice of optimal operating conditions for cell stacks operating under direct internal reforming conditions are discussed. (author)

  4. Performance analysis of a SOFC under direct internal reforming conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Vinod M.; Heuveline, Vincent; Deutschmann, Olaf

    This paper presents the performance analysis of a planar solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) under direct internal reforming conditions. A detailed solid-oxide fuel cell model is used to study the influences of various operating parameters on cell performance. Significant differences in efficiency and power density are observed for isothermal and adiabatic operational regimes. The influence of air number, specific catalyst area, anode thickness, steam to carbon (s/c) ratio of the inlet fuel, and extend of pre-reforming on cell performance is analyzed. In all cases except for the case of pre-reformed fuel, adiabatic operation results in lower performance compared to isothermal operation. It is further discussed that, though direct internal reforming may lead to cost reduction and increased efficiency by effective utilization of waste heat, the efficiency of the fuel cell itself is higher for pre-reformed fuel compared to non-reformed fuel. Furthermore, criteria for the choice of optimal operating conditions for cell stacks operating under direct internal reforming conditions are discussed.

  5. System requirements of diesel reforming for the SOFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harasti, P.T.; Amphlett, J.C.; Mann, R.F.; Peppley, B.A.; Thurgood, C.P.

    2003-01-01

    Diesel fuels are currently a very attractive source of hydrogen due to the global infrastructure for production and distribution that exists today. In order to extract the hydrogen, the hydrocarbon molecules must be chemically reformed into manageable, hydrogen-rich product gases that can be directly used in electrochemical energy conversion devices such as fuel cells. High temperature fuel cells are particularly attractive for diesel-fuelled systems due to the possibility of thermal integration with the high temperature reformer. The methods available for diesel fuel processing are: Steam Reforming, Partial Oxidation, and Auto-Thermal Reforming. The latter two methods introduce air into the process in order to cause exothermic oxidation reactions, which complement the endothermic heating requirement of the reforming reactions. This helps to achieve the high temperature required, but also introduces nitrogen, which can yield unwanted NO x emissions. The components of the reformer should include: an injection system to mix and vaporize the diesel fuel and steam while avoiding the formation of carbon deposits inside the reactor; a temperature and heat management system; and a method of sulphur removal. This presentation will discuss the operating conditions and design requirements of a diesel fuel processor for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. (author)

  6. Diffraction patterns from 7-Angstroms tubular halloysite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleton, T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The diffraction patterns from 7-Angstroms tubular halloysite are superficially like those from kaolinite. Diffraction from a tubular aggregate of atoms, however, differs from that from a crystal because there is no linear repetition in two of the three conventional crystallographic directions. In tubular halloysite, the tube axis is [010] or [110] and in this direction the unit cell repeats in the normal linear fashion. The x-axis, by contrast, changes direction tangentially around the tube circumference, and there can be no true z-axis, because unit cells in the radial direction do not superimpose, since each successive tubular layer has a larger radius than its predecessor and therefore must contain more unit cells than its predecessor. Because tubular 'crystals' do not have a lattice repeat, use of Bragg 'hkl' indices is not appropriate. In the xy plane, a small area of the structure approximates a flat layer silicate, and hk indices may been used to label diffraction maxima. Similarly, successive 1:1 layers tangential to the tube walls yield a series of apparent 001 diffraction maxima. Measurement of these shows that the d-spacings do not form an exact integral series. The reason for this lies in the curvature of the structure. Calculated electron and powder X-ray diffraction patterns, based on a model of concentric 1:1 layers with no regular relation between them other than the 7.2 Angstroms spacing, closely simulate the observed data. Evidence for the 2-layer structure that is generally accepted may need to be reassessed in the light of these results

  7. Reversible solid oxide fuel cells (R-SOFCs) with chemically stable proton-conducting oxides

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei

    2015-07-01

    Proton-conducting oxides offer a promising way of lowering the working temperature of solid oxide cells to the intermediate temperate range (500 to 700. °C) due to their better ionic conductivity. In addition, the application of proton-conducting oxides in both solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and sold oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) provides unique advantages compared with the use of conventional oxygen-ion conducting conductors, including the formation of water at the air electrode site. Since the discovery of proton conduction in some oxides about 30. years ago, the development of proton-conducting oxides in SOFCs and SOECs (the reverse mode of SOFCs) has gained increased attention. This paper briefly summarizes the development in the recent years of R-SOFCs with proton-conducting electrolytes, focusing on discussing the importance of adopting chemically stable materials in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes. The development of electrode materials for proton-conducting R-SOFCs is also discussed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Modeling and Analysis of Transport Processes and Efficiency of Combined SOFC and PEMFC Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Rabbani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid fuel cell system (~10 kWe for an average family house including heating is proposed. The investigated system comprises a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC on top of a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC. Hydrogen produced from the off-gases of the SOFC can be fed directly to the PEFC. Simulations for the proposed system were conducted using different fuels. Here, results for natural gas (NG, dimethyl ether (DME and ethanol as a fuel are presented and analysed. Behaviour of the proposed system is further investigated by comparing the effects of key factors such as utilisation factor, operating conditions, oxygen-to-carbon (O/C ratios and fuel preheating effects on these fuels. The combined system improves the overall electrical conversion efficiency compared with standalone PEFC or SOFC systems. For the combined SOFC and PEFC system, the overall power production was increased by 8%–16% and the system efficiency with one of the fuels is found to be 12% higher than that of the standalone SOFC system.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell)–Stirling hybrid plants using alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    A novel hybrid power system (∼10 kW) for an average family home is proposed. The system investigated contains a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) on top of a Stirling engine. The off-gases produced in the SOFC cycle are fed to a bottoming Stirling engine, at which additional power is generated. Simulations of the proposed system were conducted using different fuels, which should facilitate the use of a variety of fuels depending on availability. Here, the results for natural gas (NG), ammonia, di-methyl ether (DME), methanol and ethanol are presented and analyzed. The system behavior is further investigated by comparing the effects of key factors, such as the utilization factor and the operating conditions under which these fuels are used. Moreover, the effect of using a methanator on the plant efficiency is also studied. The combined system improves the overall electrical efficiency relative to that of a stand-alone Stirling engine or SOFC plant. For the combined SOFC and Stirling configuration, the overall power production was increased by approximately 10% compared to that of a stand-alone SOFC plant. System efficiencies of approximately 60% are achieved, which is remarkable for such small plant sizes. Additionally, heat is also produced to heat the family home when necessary. - Highlights: • Integrating a solid oxide fuel with a Stirling engine • Design of multi-fuel hybrid plants • Plants running on alternative fuels; natural gas, methanol, ethanol, DME and ammonia • Thermodynamic analysis of hybrid SOFC–Stirling engine plants

  10. Electro-catalysts for hydrogen production from ethanol for use in SOFC anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcos Aurelio da; Paz Fiuza, Raigenis da; Guedes, Bruna C.; Pontes, Luiz A.; Boaventura, Jaime Soares [UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil). Energy and Materials Science Group

    2010-07-01

    Nickel and cobalt catalysts, supported on YSZ, were prepared by wet impregnation, with and without citric acid; the metal load was 10 and 35% by weight. The catalyst composition was studied by XRF, XPS and SEM-EDS. At low metal concentration, the results of these techniques presented comparables figures; at high concentration, SEM-EDS suggested a non-uniform distribution. The analysis showed that the solids were mixed oxides and formed an alloy after reduction. The surface passivation was possible under controlled conditions. The catalytic test with the steam reforming of ethanol indicated that the metal load had almost no effect on the catalytic activity, but decreased its selectivity. Afterwards, a unitary SOFC was prepared with deposition of the cathode layer. AFM and EIS were used for the characterization of SOFC components. They showed that the electro-catalyst surface was almost all covered with the metal phase, including the large pore walls of the anode. The YSZ phase dominates the material conductance of the complete SOFC assembly (anode/electrolyte/cathode). The unitary SOFC was tested with hydrogen, gaseous ethanol or natural gas; the SOFC operating with ethanol and hydrogen fuel presented virtually no over-potential. (orig.)

  11. Development of solid oxide fuel cells; Desenvolvimento de celulas a combustivel do tipo oxido solido (SOFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaventura, Jaime S.; Alencar, Marcelo Goncalves F. de; Amaral, Alexandre Alves do; Benedicto, Joao Paulo Santos; Silva, Marcos A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Fisico-Quimica

    2006-07-01

    Fuel cells allow the energy production without the thermodynamic restriction of the conversion of heat into work. Among their various types, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), operating at high temperatures, allow the methane conversion into electricity directly on the anode. The main element of the SOFC is the structure A/E/C: anode/electrolyte/cathode, all sintered at high temperature as resistant ceramic materials. Dense electrolyte (YSZ: zirconia stabilized for Yttria) separates the anode (Ni+Co/YSZ: cobalt promoted nickel, supported on YSZ) and cathode (LSM: strontium-doped lanthanum manganite), both with porosity obtained by graphite addition. To obtain suitable A/E/C pellets, the layer sintering with appropriate mechanical and textural characteristics is essential, requiring excellent electric junctions between them. The cell performance has been evaluated between 850 and 950 degree C, using hydrogen or methane fuel; the tension and current for different resistance values in the electrical circuit have been measured. The cobalt addition to the cell anode significantly increased its activity for the reform reaction. The beneficial effect was probably due to the easier nickel reduction in cobalt presence. This work had the objectives of developing and evaluating electro-catalysts, as well as the solid oxide fuel cells using these catalysts as anode. Five SOFC models (SOFC 1 to SOFC 5) are described; all of them were developed aiming at improving the preparation of the anode/electrolyte/cathode structure (A/E/C). (author)

  12. Pressurisation of IP-SOFC technology for second generation hybrid application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L.

    2005-07-01

    The Integrated Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (IP-SOFC) technology developed by Rolls-Royce plc is a hybrid fuel cell technology considered highly suitable for the distributed power generation market. This report presents the results of a project to examine the technical viability of the IP-SOFC technology and some of the associated hybrid system component technologies under pressurised conditions and to investigate the validity of the predicted pressurisation phenomena. The work included: identification of critical material specifications, construction processes, control parameters, etc; the design and commissioning of two pressurised IP-SOFC test rigs at Rolls Royce in Derby; testing two multi-bundle strips at high temperature and atmospheric pressure; testing an active IP-SOFC bundle at high temperature and pressure; testing an experimental steam reforming unit at high temperature and pressure; testing a novel low pressure drop, off-gas combustor concept under atmospheric and pressurised conditions; design studies to identify key parameters affecting the successful integration and packaging of the fuel cell stack with certain associated hybrid components; and designing a hybrid system experimental verification rig. Significant progress was made in addressing the development challenges associated with the IP-SOFC of leakage, performance, durability, yield and geometry, the reaction rate of steam reforming and emissions from the off-gas combustor. Recommendations for future work are made.

  13. Cold start dynamics and temperature sliding observer design of an automotive SOFC APU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Hsu; Hong, Che-Wun

    This paper presents a dynamic model for studying the cold start dynamics and observer design of an auxiliary power unit (APU) for automotive applications. The APU is embedded with a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack which is a quiet and pollutant-free electric generator; however, it suffers from slow start problem from ambient conditions. The SOFC APU system equips with an after-burner to accelerate the start-up transient in this research. The combustion chamber burns the residual fuel (and air) left from the SOFC to raise the exhaust temperature to preheat the SOFC stack through an energy recovery unit. Since thermal effect is the dominant factor that influences the SOFC transient and steady performance, a nonlinear real-time sliding observer for stack temperature was implemented into the system dynamics to monitor the temperature variation for future controller design. The simulation results show that a 100 W APU system in this research takes about 2 min (in theory) for start-up without considering the thermal limitation of the cell fracture.

  14. 78 FR 37584 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... make the following certification: All workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport Tubular... Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, Pennsylvania; Notice of Amended Certification Pursuant to Section 221 of the Trade Act of 1974...

  15. Corporate science education: Westinghouse and the value of science in mid-twentieth century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzian, Sevan G; Shapiro, Leigh

    2015-02-01

    This study examines a largely neglected aspect of the history of science popularization in the United States: corporate depictions of the value of science to society. It delineates the Westinghouse Electric Corporation's portrayals of science to its shareholders, employees and consumers, and schoolchildren and educators during World War Two and the postwar era. Annual reports to shareholders, in-house news publications, publicity records, advertising campaigns, and educational pamphlets distributed to schools reveal the company's distinct, but complementary, messages for different stakeholders about the importance of science to American society. Collectively, Westinghouse encouraged these audiences to rely on scientists' expert leadership for their nation's security and material comforts. In an era of military mobilization, the company was able to claim that industry-led scientific research would fortify the nation and create unbounded prosperity. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Westinghouse-GOTHIC comparisons to AP600 passive containment cooling tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, M.D.; Woodcock, J.; Gresham, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse-GOTHIC is a thermal-hydraulics code well suited to analyzing passively cooled containments which depend on heat removal primarily through the containment shell. The code includes boundary layer heat and mass transfer correlations. A liquid film convective energy transport model has been added to the Westinghouse-GOTHIC code to account for the sensible heat change of the applied exterior water. The objective of this paper is to compare the code's predictions of the AP600 large scale test facility with and without the liquid film convective energy transport model. The predicted vessel pressure and integrated heat rate with and without the film convective energy transport model will be compared to the measured data. (author)

  17. Infiltration of SOFC Stacks: Evaluation of the Electrochemical Performance Enhancement and the Underlying Changes in the Microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiebach, Wolff-Ragnar; Zielke, Philipp; Høgh, Jens Valdemar Thorvald

    2016-01-01

    Experimental SOFC stacks with 10 SOFCs (LSM-YSZ/YSZ/Ni-YSZ) were infiltrated with CGO and Ni-CGO on the air and fuel side, respectively in an attempt to counter degradation and improve the output. The electrochemical performance of each cell was characterized (i) before infiltration, (ii) after i...

  18. Westinghouse Hanford Company effluent releases and solid waste management report for 1987: 200/600/1100 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coony, F.M.; Howe, D.B.; Voigt, L.J.

    1988-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to fulfill the reporting requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5484.1, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements. Quantities of airborne and liquid wastes discharged by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) in the 200 Areas, 600 Area, and 1100 Area in 1987 are presented in this report. Also, quantities of solid wastes stored and buried by Westinghouse Hanford in the 200 Areas are presented in this report. The report is also intended to demonstrate compliance with Westinghouse Hanford administrative control limit (ACL) values for radioactive constituents and with applicable guidelines and standards for nonradioactive constituents. The summary of airborne release data, liquid discharge data, and solid waste management data for calendar year (CY) 1987 and CY 1986 are presented in Table ES-1. Data values for 1986 are cited in Table ES-1 to show differences in releases and waste quantities between 1986 and 1987. 19 refs., 3 figs., 19 tabs

  19. High pressure operation of tubular solid oxide fuel cells and their intergration with gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, C.; Wepfer, W.J. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fossil fuels continue to be used at a rate greater than that of their natural formation, and the current byproducts from their use are believed to have a detrimental effect on the environment (e.g. global warming). There is thus a significant impetus to have cleaner, more efficient fuel consumption alternatives. Recent progress has led to renewed vigor in the development of fuel cell technology, which has been shown to be capable of producing high efficiencies with relatively benign exhaust products. The tubular solid oxide fuel cell developed by Westinghouse Electric Corporation has shown significant promise. Modeling efforts have been and are underway to optimize and better understand this fuel cell technology. Thus far, the bulk of modeling efforts has been for operation at atmospheric pressure. There is now interest in developing high-efficiency integrated gas turbine/solid oxide fuel cell systems. Such operation of fuel cells would obviously occur at higher pressures. The fuel cells have been successfully modeled under high pressure operation and further investigated as integrated components of an open loop gas turbine cycle.

  20. Westinghouse AP1000® PWR: Meeting Customer Commitments and Market Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulyak, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company once again sets a new industry standard with the AP1000 reactor. Historically, Westinghouse plant designs and technology have forged the cutting edge of worldwide nuclear technology. Today, about 50 percent of the world's 440 nuclear plants are based on Westinghouse technology. The AP1000 is the safest and most economical nuclear power plant available in the worldwide commercial marketplace, and is the only Generation III+ reactor to receive Design Certification from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The AP1000 features proven technology, innovative passive safety systems and offers: Unequalled safety, Economic competitiveness, Improved and more efficient operations. The AP1000 builds and improves upon the established technology of major components used in current Westinghouse-designed plants with proven, reliable operating experience over the past 50 years. These components include: Steam generators, Digital instrumentation and controls, Fuel, Pressurizers, Reactor vessels. Simplification was a major design objective for the AP1000. The simplified plant design includes overall safely systems, normal operating systems, the control room, construction techniques, and instrumentation and control systems. The result is a plant that is easier and less expensive to build, operate and maintain. The AP1000 design saves money and time with an accelerated construction time period of approximately 36 months, from the pouring of first concrete to the loading of fuel. Also, the innovative AP1000 features: 50% fewer safety-related valves, 80% less safety-related piping, 85% less control cable, 35% fewer pumps , 45% less seismic building volume. Eight AP1000 units under construction worldwide-Four units in China-Four units in the United States. (author)

  1. INEL design studies in support of the Westinghouse EPRI small plant study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtt, J.D.; Kullberg, C.M.

    1986-03-01

    In support of the design effort of a Westinghouse EPRI small plant study, several analyses were performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. An analysis was performed to study fuel behavior under conditions of a limiting flow coastdown transient. Depressurization capabilities for the reactor coolant system were studied. The post-accident heat removal for the current containment design was studied. The results of all three studies are reported. 31 figs

  2. SOFC LSM:YSZ cathode degradation induced by moisture: An impedance spectroscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2011-01-01

    The cause of the degradation effect of moisture during operation of LSM cathode based SOFCs has been investigated by means of a detailed impedance characterization on LSM:YSZ composite cathode based SOFCs. Further the role of YSZ as cathode composite material was studied by measurements on SOFCs...... with a LSM:CGO composite cathode on a CGO interdiffusion barrier layer. It was found that both types of cathodes showed similar electrochemical characteristics towards the presence of moisture during operation. Upon addition and removal of moisture in the fed air the impedance study showed a change...... in the high frequency cathode arc, which is associated with the charge transport/transfer at the LSM/YSZ interface. On prolonged operation with the presence of moisture an ongoing increase in the high frequency cathode arc resulted in a permanent loss of cathode/electrolyte contact and thus increase...

  3. Development of Long-Term Stable and High-Performing Metal-Supported SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemensø, Trine; Nielsen, Jimmi; Blennow Tullmar, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Metal-supported SOFCs are believed to have high potential for commercialization due to lower material costs and higher robustness in fabrication and operation. However, the development of the cell is challenged by the metal properties during fabrication, and the necessary lower operating temperat......Metal-supported SOFCs are believed to have high potential for commercialization due to lower material costs and higher robustness in fabrication and operation. However, the development of the cell is challenged by the metal properties during fabrication, and the necessary lower operating...... temperatures, while retaining both the energy output and the stability. The metal-supported SOFC design developed at Risø DTU has been optimized to an ASR value of 0.62 cm2 at 650 °C, and a steady degradation rate of 1.0% kh-1 demonstrated for 3000 h on a 16 cm2 active cell level. Additional improvement...

  4. Development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) automotive auxiliary power unit (APU) fueled by gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMinco, C.; Mukerjee, S.; Grieve, J.; Faville, M.; Noetzel, J.; Perry, M.; Horvath, A.; Prediger, D.; Pastula, M.; Boersma, R.; Ghosh, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the development progress of a 3 to 5 auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a gasoline fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This fuel cell was supplied reformate gas (reactant) by a partial oxidation (POx) catalytic reformer utilizing liquid gasoline and designed by Delphi Automotive Systems. This reformate gas consists mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrogen and was fed directly in to the SOFC stack without any additional fuel reformer processing. The SOFC stack was developed by Global Thermoelectric and operates around 700 o C. This automotive APU produces power to support future 42 volt vehicle electrical architectures and loads. The balance of the APU, designed by Delphi Automotive Systems, employs a packaging and insulation design to facilitate installation and operation on-board automobiles. (author)

  5. Robust automatic high resolution segmentation of SOFC anode porosity in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Bowen, Jacob R.

    2008-01-01

    Routine use of 3D characterization of SOFCs by focused ion beam (FIB) serial sectioning is generally restricted by the time consuming task of manually delineating structures within each image slice. We apply advanced image analysis algorithms to automatically segment the porosity phase of an SOFC...... anode in 3D. The technique is based on numerical approximations to partial differential equations to evolve a 3D surface to the desired phase boundary. Vector fields derived from the experimentally acquired data are used as the driving force. The automatic segmentation compared to manual delineation...... reveals and good correspondence and the two approaches are quantitatively compared. It is concluded that the. automatic approach is more robust, more reproduceable and orders of magnitude quicker than manual segmentation of SOFC anode porosity for subsequent quantitative 3D analysis. Lastly...

  6. Performance and life time test on a 5 kW SOFC system for distributed cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Rosa; De Biase, Sabrina; Ginocchio, Stefano [Edison S.p.A, Via Giorgio La Pira, 2, 10028 Trofarello (Italy); Bedogni, Stefano; Montelatici, Lorenzo [Edison S.p.A, Foro Bonaparte 31, 20121 Milano (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    Edison R and D Centre is committed to test a wide range of commercial and prototypal fuel cell systems. The activities aim to evaluate the available state of the art of these technologies and their maturity for the relevant market. The laboratory is equipped with ad hoc test benches designed to study single cells, stacks and systems. The characterization of commercial and new generation PEMFC, also for high temperatures (160 C), together with the analysis of the behaviour of SOFC represent the core activities of the laboratory. On January 2007 a new 5 kW SOFC system supplied by Acumentrics was installed. The claimed electrical power output is 5 kW and thermal power is 3 kW. The aim of the test is the achievement of technical and economical assessment for future applications of small SOFC plants for distributed cogeneration. Performance and life time test of the system are shown. (author)

  7. The role of Quality Oversight in nuclear and hazardous waste management and environmental restoration at Westinghouse Hanford Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, H.Y.

    1994-05-01

    The historical factors that led to the waste at Hanford are outlined. Westinghouse Hanford Company mission and organization are described. The role of the Quality Oversight organization in nuclear hazardous waste management and environmental restoration at Westinghouse Hanford Company is delineated. Tank Waste Remediation Systems activities and the role of the Quality Oversight organization are described as they apply to typical projects. Quality Oversight's role as the foundation for implementation of systems engineering and operation research principles is pointed out

  8. Oxygen reduction kinetics on mixed conducting SOFC model cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, F.S.

    2006-07-01

    The kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction at the surface of mixed conducting solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes is one of the main limiting factors to the performance of these promising systems. For ''realistic'' porous electrodes, however, it is usually very difficult to separate the influence of different resistive processes. Therefore, a suitable, geometrically well-defined model system was used in this work to enable an unambiguous distinction of individual electrochemical processes by means of impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical measurements were performed on dense thin film microelectrodes, prepared by PLD and photolithography, of mixed conducting perovskite-type materials. The first part of the thesis consists of an extensive impedance spectroscopic investigation of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3 (LSCF) microelectrodes. An equivalent circuit was identified that describes the electrochemical properties of the model electrodes appropriately and enables an unambiguous interpretation of the measured impedance spectra. Hence, the dependencies of individual electrochemical processes such as the surface exchange reaction on a wide range of experimental parameters including temperature, dc bias and oxygen partial pressure could be studied. As a result, a comprehensive set of experimental data has been obtained, which was previously not available for a mixed conducting model system. In the course of the experiments on the dc bias dependence of the electrochemical processes a new and surprising effect was discovered: It could be shown that a short but strong dc polarisation of a LSCF microelectrode at high temperature improves its electrochemical performance with respect to the oxygen reduction reaction drastically. The electrochemical resistance associated with the oxygen surface exchange reaction, initially the dominant contribution to the total electrode resistance, can be reduced by two orders of magnitude. This &apos

  9. Generic risk insights for Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, R.; Taylor, J.; Fresco, A.; Chung, J.

    1990-11-01

    A methodology has been developed to extract generic risk-based information from probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) of Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering (CE) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and apply the insights gained to Westinghouse and Ce plants have not been subjected to a PRA. The available PRAs (five Westinghouse plants and one CE plant) were examined to identify the most probable, i.e., dominant accident sequences at each plant. The goal was to include all sequences which represented at least 80% of core damage frequency. If the same plant specific dominant accident sequence appeared within this boundary in at least two plant PRAs, the sequence was considered to be a representative sequence. Eleven sequences met this definition. From these sequences, the most important component failures and human errors that contributed to each sequence have been prioritized. Guidance is provided to prioritize the representative sequences and modify selected basic events that have been shown to be sensitive to the plant specific design or operating variations of the contributing PRAs. This risk-based guidance can be used for utility and NRC activities including operator training maintenance, design review, and inspections

  10. Aging mechanisms in the Westinghouse PWR [Pressurized Water Reactor] Control Rod Drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, W.; Sullivan, K.

    1991-01-01

    An aging assessment of the Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Control Rod System (CRD) has been completed as part of the US NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research, (NPAR) Program. This study examined the design, construction, maintenance, and operation of the system to determine its potential for degradation as the plant ages. Selected results from this study are presented in this paper. The operating experience data were evaluated to identify the predominant failure modes, causes, and effects. From our evaluation of the data, coupled with an assessment of the materials of construction and the operating environment, we conclude that the Westinghouse CRD system is subject to degradation which, if unchecked, could affect its safety function as a plant ages. Ways to detect and mitigate the effects of aging are included in this paper. The current maintenance for the control rod drive system at fifteen Westinghouse PWRs was obtained through a survey conducted in cooperation with EPRI and NUMARC. The results of the survey indicate that some plants have modified the system, replaced components, or expanded preventive maintenance. Several of these activities have effectively addressed the aging issue. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Thermodynamic Model of a Very High Efficiency Power Plant based on a Biomass Gasifier, SOFCs, and a Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P V Aravind

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations with a power plant based on a biomass gasifier, SOFCs and a gas turbine are presented. The SOFC anode off-gas which mainly consists of steam and carbon dioxides used as a gasifying agent leading to an allothermal gasification process for which heat is required. Implementation of heat pipes between the SOFC and the gasifier using two SOFC stacks and intercooling the fuel and the cathode streams in between them has shown to be a solution on one hand to drive the allothermal gasification process and on the other hand to cool down the SOFC. It is seen that this helps to reduce the exergy losses in the system significantly. With such a system, electrical efficiency around 73% is shown as achievable.

  12. Advanced Measurement and Modeling Techniques for Improved SOFC Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Adler; L. Dunyushkina; S. Huff; Y. Lu; J. Wilson

    2006-12-31

    The goal of this project was to develop an improved understanding of factors governing performance and degradation of mixed-conducting SOFC cathodes. Two new diagnostic tools were developed to help achieve this goal: (1) microelectrode half-cells for improved isolation of cathode impedance on thin electrolytes, and (2) nonlinear electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (NLEIS), a variant of traditional impedance that allows workers to probe nonlinear rates as a function of frequency. After reporting on the development and efficacy of these tools, this document reports on the use of these and other tools to better understand performance and degradation of cathodes based on the mixed conductor La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSC) on gadolinia or samaria-doped ceria (GDC or SDC). We describe the use of NLEIS to measure O{sub 2} exchange on thin-film LSC electrodes, and show that O{sub 2} exchange is most likely governed by dissociative adsorption. We also describe parametric studies of porous LSC electrodes using impedance and NLEIS. Our results suggest that O{sub 2} exchange and ion transport co-limit performance under most relevant conditions, but it is O{sub 2} exchange that is most sensitive to processing, and subject to the greatest degradation and sample-to-sample variation. We recommend further work that focuses on electrodes of well-defined or characterized geometry, and probes the details of surface structure, composition, and impurities. Parallel work on primarily electronic conductors (LSM) would also be of benefit to developers, and to improved understanding of surface vs. bulk diffusion.

  13. Thermodynamic and Thermoeconomic investigation of an Integrated Gasification SOFC and Stirling Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic investigation of a small scale Integrated Gasification Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power (CHP) with a net electric capacity of 120kW have been performed. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas which......-product and the cost of hot water was found to be 0.0214$/kWh. When compared to other renewable systems at similar scale, it shows that if both SOFC and Stirling engine technology emerges enter commercialization phase, then they can deliver electricity at a cost rate which is competitive with corresponding renewable...

  14. Quality Assurance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Electrolyser (SOEC) Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Michael; Auer, Corinna; Couturier, Karine

    2017-01-01

    In the EU-funded project “Solid oxide cell and stack testing and quality assurance” (SOCTESQA) standardized and industry wide test modules and programs for high temperature solid oxide cells and stacks are being developed. These test procedures can be applied for the fuel cell (SOFC......), the electrolysis (SOEC) and in the combined SOFC/SOEC mode. In order to optimize the test modules the project partners have tested identical SOC stacks with the same test programs in several testing campaigns. Altogether 10 pre-normative test modules were developed: Start-up, current-voltage characteristics...

  15. Binary co-generative plants with height temperature SOFC fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, D; Dimitrov, K.; Armenski, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a field of binary co-generative plants with height temperature SOFC fuel cells is presented. Special attention of application of height temperature SOFC fuel cells and binary co-generative units has been given. These units made triple electricity and heat. Principle of combination of fuel cells with binary cycles has been presented. A model and computer programme for calculation of BKPFC, has been created. By using the program, all the important characteristic-results are calculated: power, efficiency, emission, dimension and economic analysis. On base of results, conclusions and recommendations has been given. (Author)

  16. Binary co-generative plants with height temperature SOFC fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, D; Dimitrov, K.; Armenski, S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a field of binary co-generative plants with height temperature SOFC fuel cells is presented. Special attention of application of height temperature SOFC fuel cells and binary co-generative units has been given. These units made triple electricity and heat. Principle of combination of fuel cells with binary cycles has been presented. A model and computer programme for calculation of BKPFC, has been created. By using the program, all the important characteristic-results are calculated: power, efficiency, emission, dimension and economic analysis. On base of results, conclusions and recommendations has been given. (Author)

  17. Current progress in the design and setup of a SOFC/GT hybrid power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Schnegelberger, Christian; Henke, Moritz; Tomberg, Marius; Heddrich, Marc; Friedrich, K. Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The German Aerospace Center (DLR) is setting up a hybrid power plant with 30 kW electrical power output. It consists of a SOFC and a micro gas turbine (MGT). The hybrid power plant can reach electrical system efficiencies greater than 60 % throughout a wide operating range. Due to the SOFC’s high operation temperature and incomplete fuel utilisation, the exhaust gas will always contain usable energy. The MGT will use this energy to provide compressed and preheated air for the SOFC and ge...

  18. Vaporization of materials in the operation of high temperature fuel cells (SOFCs); Verdampfung von Werkstoffen beim Betrieb von Hochtemperaturbrennstoffzellen (SOFCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislowski, M.

    2006-07-01

    One of the main problems concerning the development of state of the art planar SOFCs are the occurrence of ageing effects in long term application. To a great deal these effects are caused by the release of volatile Cr-species from metallic interconnects which leads to an inhibition of the electrochemical processes at the cathode resulting in a rapid degradation of the cell performance. A goal in further development of SOFC-systems is the reduction of the operation temperature of the cell from currently 800 C to 700 C and below. For this purpose alternative electrolyte materials with higher oxygen ion conductivities have to be developed. Doped lanthanum gallates have been identified as promising materials. However for these materials a depletion of Ga by vaporization has been observed under anodic conditions which may lead to a destruction of their electrolyte properties. The aim of this work is the study of the vaporization processes leading to the mentioned degradation effects. For this purpose an experimental setup according to the transpiration method has been developed. Concerning the vaporization of chromium the Cr release rates of the main ferritic interconnect alloys, namely Crofer 22 APU, ZMG 232, E-Brite, IT-10, IT-11, IT-14 and Ducrolloy as well as a variety of Ni- and Co-base superalloys and stainless steels with different contents of Al, Si, Ti, Mn, W, Ni and Co were measured at 800 C in air and compared to each other. The alloys that form an upper layer of Cr-Mn-spinel on top of the grown chromia scale showed a reduction of the Cr release by 61-75 % compared to pure chromia scales whereas alloys with an outer Co3O4(s) scale had a by more than 90 % reduced Cr release. For the former alloys a significant vaporization of Mn under anodic conditions could be detected. Concerning the vaporization of doped lanthanum gallates the vaporization rates of the elements Ga, Mg, Sr and La were measured as function time, temperature, gas flow rate and stoichiometry

  19. Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor passive safety system response to postulated events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M. C.; Wright, R. F.

    2012-01-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor. This paper is part of a series of four describing the design and safety features of the Westinghouse SMR. This paper focuses in particular upon the passive safety features and the safety system response of the Westinghouse SMR. The Westinghouse SMR design incorporates many features to minimize the effects of, and in some cases eliminates the possibility of postulated accidents. The small size of the reactor and the low power density limits the potential consequences of an accident relative to a large plant. The integral design eliminates large loop piping, which significantly reduces the flow area of postulated loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs). The Westinghouse SMR containment is a high-pressure, compact design that normally operates at a partial vacuum. This facilitates heat removal from the containment during LOCA events. The containment is submerged in water which also aides the heat removal and provides an additional radionuclide filter. The Westinghouse SMR safety system design is passive, is based largely on the passive safety systems used in the AP1000 R reactor, and provides mitigation of all design basis accidents without the need for AC electrical power for a period of seven days. Frequent faults, such as reactivity insertion events and loss of power events, are protected by first shutting down the nuclear reaction by inserting control rods, then providing cold, borated water through a passive, buoyancy-driven flow. Decay heat removal is provided using a layered approach that includes the passive removal of heat by the steam drum and independent passive heat removal system that transfers heat from the primary system to the environment. Less frequent faults such as loss of coolant accidents are mitigated by passive injection of a large quantity of water that is readily available inside containment. An automatic depressurization system is used to

  20. Sealing of ceramic SOFC-components with glass seals; Fuegen von keramischen Komponenten der Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen mittels Glas- und Glaskeramikloten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillig, Cora

    2012-07-10

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) converts chemical energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy. However, for the implementation of SOFC-technology in competition to conventional power plants costs have to be reduced. The use of an alternative tubular cell design without closed end would allow reducing costs during cell manufacturing. However, this change in design makes a gastight sealing inside the generator near the gas inlet necessary. Different ceramic materials with varying coefficients of thermal expansion have to be sealed gastight and electrical insulating at temperatures between 850 C and 1000 C to prevent the gases from mixing and an electrical shortcut between the cells. This work comprises analysis of commercially available glass and glass-ceramic systems manufactured by Schott Electronic Packaging, Areva T and D and Ferro Corporation. Additionally new developed sealing glass and glass-ceramic systems were investigated and all systems were characterized fundamentally for the use as sealing material in SOFC generators. Therefore different test assemblies and series were conducted. Essential characteristics of a suitable sealing system are a thermal expansion coefficient between 9,5 and 12 . 10{sup -6}K{sup -1}, a viscosity in the range between 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 6} dPa{sup *}s and a wetting angle smaller than 90 during the sealing process. Also unwanted chemical side reactions between the sealing partners must be prevented, because a change in the phase composition or the creation of new phases in the sealing material could endanger the stability of the seal. Heat cycles, particularly those during generator operation, cause deterioration of the sealing material and subsequent reduction in its ability to prevent mixing of the gases. Sealant leaks can drastically impact efficiency of the generator. In order to ensure optimum operation low leak rates around 2,3 . 10{sup -4} mbar l/sec/cm{sup 2} must be maintained. Especially glass and glass

  1. Feasibility study for SOFC-GT hybrid locomotive power: Part I. Development of a dynamic 3.5 MW SOFC-GT FORTRAN model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Andrew S.; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    2012-09-01

    This work presents the development of a dynamic SOFC-GT hybrid system model applied to a long-haul freight locomotive in operation. Given the expectations of the rail industry, the model is used to develop a preliminary analysis of the proposed system's operational capability on conventional diesel fuel as well as natural gas and hydrogen as potential fuels in the future. It is found that operation of the system on all three of these fuels is feasible with favorable efficiencies and reasonable dynamic response. The use of diesel fuel reformate in the SOFC presents a challenge to the electrochemistry, especially as it relates to control and optimization of the fuel utilization in the anode compartment. This is found to arise from the large amount of carbon monoxide in diesel reformate that is fed to the fuel cell, limiting the maximum fuel utilization possible. This presents an opportunity for further investigations into carbon monoxide electrochemical oxidation and/or system integration studies where the efficiency of the fuel reformer can be balanced against the needs of the SOFC.

  2. Preliminary LOCA analysis of the westinghouse small modular reactor using the WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 thermal-hydraulics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, J.; Kucukboyaci, V. N.; Nguyen, L.; Frepoli, C. [Westinghouse Electric Company, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (> 225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR) with all primary components, including the steam generator and the pressurizer located inside the reactor vessel. The reactor core is based on a partial-height 17x17 fuel assembly design used in the AP1000{sup R} reactor core. The Westinghouse SMR utilizes passive safety systems and proven components from the AP1000 plant design with a compact containment that houses the integral reactor vessel and the passive safety systems. A preliminary loss of coolant accident (LOCA) analysis of the Westinghouse SMR has been performed using the WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 code, simulating a transient caused by a double ended guillotine (DEG) break in the direct vessel injection (DVI) line. WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 is a new generation Westinghouse LOCA thermal-hydraulics code evolving from the US NRC licensed WCOBRA/TRAC code. It is designed to simulate PWR LOCA events from the smallest break size to the largest break size (DEG cold leg). A significant number of fluid dynamics models and heat transfer models were developed or improved in WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2. A large number of separate effects and integral effects tests were performed for a rigorous code assessment and validation. WCOBRA/TRAC-TF2 was introduced into the Westinghouse SMR design phase to assist a quick and robust passive cooling system design and to identify thermal-hydraulic phenomena for the development of the SMR Phenomena Identification Ranking Table (PIRT). The LOCA analysis of the Westinghouse SMR demonstrates that the DEG DVI break LOCA is mitigated by the injection and venting from the Westinghouse SMR passive safety systems without core heat up, achieving long term core cooling. (authors)

  3. Combining science and practice in the Danish DK-SOFC program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, P.; Bagger, C.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    1994-01-01

    A three-year solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) development program completed in 1992 has produced 10 cm2 cells with area-specific resistances in the range 0.25 to 0.40 OMEGA cm2 at 1000-degrees-C. Cathode and interconnect materials were produced in the program. Sintering of electrodes, electrolyte...

  4. Progress of SOFC/SOEC Development at DTU Energy: From Materials to Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2017-01-01

    DTU Energy has over the past 20 years had a very substantial effort on SOFC/SOEC development. The current project volume corresponds to ~40 man years per year. Activities span over a broad range in the value chain, from materials to cells, stacks and analyses at energy system level. In addition...

  5. SOFC anode. Hydrogen oxidation at porous nickel and nickel/zirconia electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.

    1998-01-01

    In the ongoing search for alternative and environmental friendly power generation facilities, the fuel cell is a good candidate. There are several types of fuel cells with large differences in application, size, cost and operating range. The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is a high temperature fuel

  6. Operation of real landfill gas fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using internal dry reforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langnickel, Hendrik; Hagen, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Biomass is one renewable energy source, which is independent from solar radiation and wind effect. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC’s) are able to convert landfill gas derived from landfill directly into electricity and heat with a high efficiency. In the present work a planar 16cm2 SOFC cell...... was necessary to prevent poisoning and thereby to decrease the degradation rate....

  7. The Effect of H2S on the Performance of SOFCs using Methane Containing Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens Foldager Bregnballe; Hagen, Anke

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the interest for using biogas derived from biomass as fuel in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has increased. To maximise the biogas to electrical energy output, it is important to study the effects of the main biogas components (CH4 and CO2), minor ones and traces (e.g. H2S...

  8. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of IT-SOFC-based integrated coal gasification fuel cell power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, M.C.; Campanari, S.; Spallina, V.; Lozza, G.

    2011-01-01

    This work discusses the thermodynamic analysis of integrated gasification fuel cell plants, where a simple cycle gas turbine works in a hybrid cycle with a pressurized intermediate temperature–solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), integrated with a coal gasification and syngas cleanup island and a bottoming

  9. The financial viability of an SOFC cogeneration system in single-family dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanne, Kari; Saari, Arto; Ugursal, V. Ismet; Good, Joel

    In the near future, fuel cell-based residential micro-CHP systems will compete with traditional methods of energy supply. A micro-CHP system may be considered viable if its incremental capital cost compared to its competitors equals to cumulated savings during a given period of time. A simplified model is developed in this study to estimate the operation of a residential solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. A comparative assessment of the SOFC system vis-à-vis heating systems based on gas, oil and electricity is conducted using the simplified model for a single-family house located in Ottawa and Vancouver. The energy consumption of the house is estimated using the HOT2000 building simulation program. A financial analysis is carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of the maximum allowable capital cost with respect to system sizing, acceptable payback period, energy price and the electricity buyback strategy of an energy utility. Based on the financial analysis, small (1-2 kW e) SOFC systems seem to be feasible in the considered case. The present study shows also that an SOFC system is especially an alternative to heating systems based on oil and electrical furnaces.

  10. Study of Internal and External Leaks in Tests of Anode-Supported SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens Foldager Bregnballe; Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Hagen, Anke

    2008-01-01

    A planar anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has been tested to investigate gas tightness of the electrolyte and the applied seals. Gas leaks reduce the efficiency of the SOFC and it is thus important to determine and minimise them. Probe gases (He and Ar) and a Quadrupole Mass Spectrome......A planar anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has been tested to investigate gas tightness of the electrolyte and the applied seals. Gas leaks reduce the efficiency of the SOFC and it is thus important to determine and minimise them. Probe gases (He and Ar) and a Quadrupole Mass...... Spectrometer were used to detect both internal (through electrolyte) and external (through seals) gas leaks. The internal gas leak through the electrolyte was quantified under different conditions, as was the external leak from the surroundings to the anode. The internal gas leak did not depend on the pressure...... difference between the anode and the cathode gas compartment, and can thus be described as diffusion driven. External leaks between the surroundings and the anode, but not the cathode gas compartment was observed. They were influenced by the pressure difference and are thus driven by both concentration...

  11. Control-relevant modeling and simulation of a SOFC-GT hybrid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambabu Kandepu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, control-relevant models of the most important components in a SOFC-GT hybrid system are described. Dynamic simulations are performed on the overall hybrid system. The model is used to develop a simple control structure, but the simulations show that more elaborate control is needed.

  12. Control-relevant modeling and simulation of a SOFC-GT hybrid system

    OpenAIRE

    Rambabu Kandepu; Lars Imsland; Christoph Stiller; Bjarne A. Foss; Vinay Kariwala

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, control-relevant models of the most important components in a SOFC-GT hybrid system are described. Dynamic simulations are performed on the overall hybrid system. The model is used to develop a simple control structure, but the simulations show that more elaborate control is needed.

  13. SOFC regulation at constant temperature: Experimental test and data regression study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Cinti, G.; Ottaviano, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SOFC operating temperature impacts strongly on its performance and lifetime. • Experimental tests were carried out varying electric load and feeding mixture gas. • Three different anodic inlet gases were tested maintaining constant temperature. • Cathodic air flow rate was used to maintain constant its operating temperature. • Regression law was defined from experimental data to regulate the air flow rate. - Abstract: The operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cell stack (SOFC) is an important parameter to be controlled, which impacts the SOFC performance and its lifetime. Rapid temperature change implies a significant temperature differences between the surface and the mean body leading to a state of thermal shock. Thermal shock and thermal cycling introduce stress in a material due to temperature differences between the surface and the interior, or between different regions of the cell. In this context, in order to determine a control law that permit to maintain constant the fuel cell temperature varying the electrical load and the infeed fuel mixture, an experimental activity were carried out on a planar SOFC short stack to analyse stack temperature. Specifically, three different anodic inlet gas compositions were tested: pure hydrogen, reformed natural gas with steam to carbon ratio equal to 2 and 2.5. By processing the obtained results, a regression law was defined to regulate the air flow rate to be provided to the fuel cell to maintain constant its operating temperature varying its operating conditions.

  14. Thermo-mechanical properties of SOFC components investigated by a combined method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teocoli, Francesca; Esposito, Vincenzo; Ramousse, Severine

    , and differential thermo-mechanical behavior at each layer. The combination of such factors can have a critical effect on the final shape and microstructure, and on the mechanical integrity. Thermo-mechanical properties and sintering mechanisms of important SOFC materials (CGO, YSZ, ScYSZ) were systematically...

  15. Cr-tolerance of the IT-SOFC La(Ni,Fe)O3 material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stodolny, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with a study on the Cr-tolerance of the LaNi0.6Fe0.4O3 (LNF) material. LNF is being considered for use as a current collecting layer, an interconnect protective coating and/or an electrochemically active solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode layer in an intermediate temperature

  16. A SOFC-based integrated gasification fuel cell cycle with CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spallina, V.; Romano, M.C.; Campanari, S.; Lozza, G.

    2011-01-01

    The application of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) in gasification-based power plants would represent a turning point in the power generation sector, allowing to considerably increase the electric efficiency of coal-fired power stations. Pollutant emissions would also be significantly reduced in

  17. Distal renal tubular acidosis and hepatic lipidosis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S A; Spyridakis, L K; Crowell, W A

    1986-11-15

    Clinical and laboratory evidence of hepatic failure was found in a chronically anorectic cat. Simultaneous blood and urine pH determinations established a diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis. The cat did not respond to treatment. Necropsy revealed distal tubular nephrosis and hepatic lipidosis. The finding of distal renal tubular acidosis in a cat with hepatic lipidosis emphasizes the importance of complete evaluation of acid-base disorders in patients.

  18. Safety Evaluation Report related to the renewal of the operating license for the Westinghouse research reactor at Zion, Illinois (Docket No. 50-87)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report, for the application filed by the Westinghouse Electric Company, for renewal of operating license number R-119 to continue to operate the research reactor, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is operated by Westinghouse and is located in Zion, Illinois. The staff concludes that the reactor facility can continue to be operated by Westinghouse without endangering the health and safety of the public

  19. Effect of Samarium Oxide on the Electrical Conductivity of Plasma-Sprayed SOFC Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, S. N.; Samadi, H.; Nemati, A.

    2016-10-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are rapidly becoming recognized as a new alternative to traditional energy conversion systems because of their high energy efficiency. From an ecological perspective, this environmentally friendly technology, which produces clean energy, is likely to be implemented more frequently in the future. However, the current SOFC technology still cannot meet the demands of commercial applications due to temperature constraints and high cost. To develop a marketable SOFC, suppliers have tended to reduce the operating temperatures by a few hundred degrees. The overall trend for SOFC materials is to reduce their service temperature of electrolyte. Meanwhile, it is important that the other components perform at the same temperature. Currently, the anodes of SOFCs are being studied in depth. Research has indicated that anodes based on a perovskite structure are a more promising candidate in SOFCs than the traditional system because they possess more favorable electrical properties. Among the perovskite-type oxides, SrTiO3 is one of the most promising compositions, with studies demonstrating that SrTiO3 exhibits particularly favorable electrical properties in contrast with other perovskite-type oxides. The main purpose of this article is to describe our study of the effect of rare-earth dopants with a perovskite structure on the electrical behavior of anodes in SOFCs. Sm2O3-doped SrTiO3 synthesized by a solid-state reaction was coated on substrate by atmospheric plasma spray. To compare the effect of the dopant on the electrical conductivity of strontium titanate, different concentrations of Sm2O3 were used. The samples were then investigated by x-ray diffraction, four-point probe at various temperatures (to determine the electrical conductivity), and a scanning electron microscope. The study showed that at room temperature, nondoped samples have a higher electrical resistance than doped samples. As the temperature was increased, the electrical

  20. Performance analysis of a co-generation system using solar energy and SOFC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akikur, R.K.; Saidur, R.; Ping, H.W.; Ullah, K.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new concept of a cogeneration system is proposed and investigated. • The system comprises solar collector, PV, SOFC and heat exchanger. • 83.6% Power and heat generation efficiency has been found at fuel cell mode. • 85.1% Efficiency of SOSE has been found at H2 production mode. • The heat to power ratio of SOFC mode has been found about 0.917. - Abstract: Due to the increasing future energy demands and global warming, the renewable alternative energy sources and the efficient power systems have been getting importance over the last few decades. Among the renewable energy technologies, the solar energy coupling with fuel cell technology will be the promising possibilities for the future green energy solutions. Fuel cell cogeneration is an auspicious technology that can potentially reduce the energy consumption and environmental impact associated with serving building electrical and thermal demands. In this study, performance assessment of a co-generation system is presented to deliver electrical and thermal energy using the solar energy and the reversible solid oxide fuel cell. A mathematical model of the co-generation system is developed. To illustrate the performance, the system is considered in three operation modes: a solar-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) mode, which is low solar radiation time when the solar photovoltaic (PV) and SOFC are used for electric and heat load supply; a solar-solid oxide steam electrolyzer (SOSE) mode, which is high solar radiation time when PV is used for power supply to the electrical load and to the steam electrolyzer to generate hydrogen (H 2 ); and a SOFC mode, which is the power and heat generation mode of reversible SOFC using the storage H 2 at night time. Also the effects of solar radiation on the system performances and the effects of temperature on RSOFC are analyzed. In this study, 100 kW electric loads are considered and analyzed for the power and heat generation in those three modes to evaluate

  1. TUBULAR DISORDERS WITH RICKETS-LIKE SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Kartamysheva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Often under the guise of «ordinary» Rickets are more severe kidney diseases, developing as a result of inherited or acquired, primary or secondary defects in the renal tubules. Incorrect diagnosis leads to an inadequate therapy, rapid progression of disease and renal failure. The article describes the main approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of tubular rachitis similar syndrome, presents a number of clinical cases in author's practice.Key words: tubulopathy, acidosis, electrolyte disorders, rickets, rickets-like syndrome, diagnostics, treatment, children.

  2. Fractal solutions of recirculation tubular chemical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezowski, Marek

    2003-01-01

    Three kinds of fractal solutions of model of recirculation non-adiabatic tubular chemical reactors are presented. The first kind concerns the structure of Feigenbaum's diagram on the limit of chaos. The second kind and the third one concern the effect of initial conditions on the dynamic solutions of models. In the course of computations two types of recirculation were considered, viz. the recirculation of mass (return of a part of products' stream) and recirculation of heat (heat exchange in the external heat exchanger)

  3. Design of a SOFC/GT/SCs hybrid power system to supply a rural isolated microgrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camblong, Haritza; Baudoin, Sylvain; Vechiu, Ionel; Etxeberria, Aitor

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel SOFC/GT/SCs HPS is connected to a rural microgrid through a 3LNPC inverter. • An operating strategy that maintains the SOFC power at its rated value is defined. • A robust digital controller that damps current oscillations is designed. • The efficiency, power quality, lifetime, and robustness of the HPS are considered. • An experimental test on an original HPS emulator validates the proposed solutions. - Abstract: The aim of this research study has been to design a Hybrid Power System (HPS) which works with biogas and whose main components are a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC), a Gas microTurbine (GT), and a module of SuperCapacities (SCs). The HPS is the only power source of a rural isolated microgrid. Its structure, operating strategy, and controller have been designed considering the following criteria: efficiency, power quality, SOFC lifetime and robustness in stability and performance. The HPS structure includes a unique power converter, a 3-Level Neutral Point Clamped (3LNPC) inverter that connects the HPS to the AC microgrid. Regarding the selected operating strategy, it consists in regulating the SOFC power output to its rated value. Thus, the SCs and the GT must respond to the power demand variations. On the other hand, a study of the HPS shows that its dynamic behavior is not linear. Therefore, a special attention is put on designing a robust HPS controller. The control model is identified and the robust digital controller is designed using the “Tracking and Regulation with Independent Objectives” method. Simulation and experimental results show how the proposed structure, operating strategy, and controller allow ensuring a good behavior of the HPS from the point of view of the abovementioned four criteria.

  4. Pneumatic transport system development: residuals and releases program at Westinghouse Cheswick site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larouere, P.J.; Shoulders, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Plutonium oxide and uranium oxide powders are processed within glove boxes or within confinement systems during the fabrication of mixed oxide (MOX) pellets for recycle fuel. The release of these powders to the glove box or to the confinement results in some airborne material that is deposited in the enclosure or is carried in the air streams to the effluent air filtration system. Release tests on simulated leaks in pneumatic transport equipment and release tests on simulated failures with powder blending equipment were conducted. A task to develop pneumatic transport for the movement of powders within an MOX fabrication plant has been underway at the Westinghouse Research Laboratories. While testing and evaluating selected pneumatic transport components on a full scale were in progress, it was deemed necessary that final verification of the technology would have to be performed with plutonium-bearing powders because of the marked differences in certain properties of plutonium from those of uranium oxides. A smaller was designed and constructed for the planned installation in glove boxes at the Westinghouse Plutonium Fuel Development Laboratory. However, prior to use with plutonium it was agreed that this system be set up and tested with uranium oxide powder. The test program conducted at the Westinghouse Cheswick site was divided into two major parts. The first of these examined the residuals left as a result of the pneumatic transport of nuclear fuel powders and verified the operability of this one-third scale system. The second part of the program studied the amount of powder released to the air when off-standard process procedures or maintenance operations were conducted on the pneumatic transport system. Air samplers located within the walk-in box housing the transport loop were used to measure the solids concentration in the air. From this information, the total amount of airborne powder was determined

  5. Westinghouse Hanford Company environmental surveillance annual report -- 200/600 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.W.; Huckfeldt, C.R.; Johnson, A.R.; McKinney, S.M.

    1990-06-01

    This document presents the results of near-field environmental surveillance as performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1989 for the Operations Area of the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. These activities were conducted in the 200 and 600 Areas to assess operational control on the work environment. Surveillance activities included external radiation measurements and radiological surveys of waste disposal sites, radiological control areas, and roads, as well as sampling and analysis of ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sediments, soil, and biota. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Effects of natural phenomena on the Westinghouse Electric Corporation Plutonium Fuels Development Laboratory at Cheswick, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    One aim of the analysis is to examine the plant with the objective of improving its ability to withstand adverse natural phenomena without loss of capability to protect the public. The relatively small risk to the public from the unlikely events discussed (earthquake, flood, tornado) would indicate that the public is not seriously threatened by the presence of the Westinghouse PFDL. Thus, it is the judgment of the staff that the benefits to be gained by substantial plant improvements to further mitigate against adverse natural phenomena are not cost effective

  7. Effects of the reactor coolant pumps following a small break in a Westinghouse PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, J.E.

    1983-10-01

    Numerical simulations of the thermal-hydraulic events following a small cold-leg break in a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor were performed to address the pumps-on/off issue. The mode of pump operation was varied in each calculation to ascertain the optimum mode. It was found that pump operation was not critical for this break size and location because the fuel rods remained cool in all accidents analyzed. In terms of system mass, however, it was preferable to leave the pumps in operation

  8. Detection and mitigating rod drive control system degradation in Westinghouse PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, W.; Sullivan, K.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the effects of aging on the Westinghouse Control Rod Drive (CRD) System was performed as part of the US NRC's Nuclear Plant aging Research (NPAR) Program. For the study, the CRD system boundary includes the power and logic cabinets associated with the manual control rod movement, and the control rod mechanism itself. The aging-related degradation of the interconnecting cables and connectors and the rod position indicating system also were considered. This paper presents the results of that study pertaining to the electrical and instrumentation portions of the CRD system including ways to detect and mitigate system degradation

  9. Westinghouse Hanford Company Environmental surveillance annual report--200/600 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.W.; Huckfeldt, C.R.; Johnson, A.R.; McKinney, S.M.

    1991-06-01

    This document presents the results of near-field environmental surveillance in 1990 of the Operations Area of the Hanford Site, in south central Washington State, as performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. These activities are conducted in the 200 and 600 Areas to assess and control the impacts of operations on the workers and the local environment. Surveillance activities include sampling and analyses of ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sediments, soil, and biota. Also, external radiation measurements and radiological surveys are taken of waste disposal sites, radiological control areas, and roads. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. Evaluation of selected parameters on exposure rates in Westinghouse designed nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    During the past ten years, Westinghouse under EPRI contract and independently, has performed research and evaluation of plant data to define the trends of ex-core component exposure rates and the effects of various parameters on the exposure rates. The effects of the parameters were evaluated using comparative analyses or empirical techniques. This paper updates the information presented at the Fourth Bournemouth Conference and the conclusions obtained from the effects of selected parameters namely, coolant chemistry, physical changes, use of enriched boric acid, and cobalt input on plant exposure rates. The trends of exposure rates and relationship to doses is also presented. (author)

  11. WESTINGHOUSE 17X17 MOX PWR ASSEMBLY - WASTE PACKAGE CRITICALITY ANALYSIS (SCPB: N/A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.W. Davis

    1996-01-01

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to compare the criticality potential of Westinghouse 17 x 17 mixed oxide (MOX) PWR fuel with the Design Basis spent nuclear fuel (SNF) analyzed previously (Ref. 5.1, 5.2). The basis of comparison will be the conceptual design Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) PWR waste package concepts. The objectives of this evaluation are to show that the criticality potential of the MOX fuel is equal to or lower than the DBF or, if necessary, indicate what additional measures are required to make it so

  12. Tubular fluoropolymer arrays with high piezoelectric response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Sergey; Eder-Goy, Dagmar; Biethan, Corinna; Fedosov, Sergey; Xu, Bai-Xiang; von Seggern, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    Polymers with electrically charged internal air cavities called ferroelectrets exhibit a pronounced piezoelectric effect and are regarded as soft functional materials suitable for sensor and actuator applications. In this work, a simple method for fabricating piezoelectret arrays with open-tubular channels is introduced. A set of individual fluoroethylenepropylene (FEP) tubes is compressed between two heated metal plates. The squeezed FEP tubes are melted together at +270 °C. The resulting structure is a uniform, multi-tubular, flat array that reveals a strong piezoelectric response after a poling step. The fabricated arrays have a high ratio between piezoelectrically active and non-active areas. The optimal charging voltage and stability of the piezoelectric coefficients with pressures and frequency were experimentally investigated for two specific array structures with wall thickness of 50 and 120 μm. The array fabricated from 50 μm thick FEP tubes reveals a stable and high piezoelectric coefficient of {d}33 = 120-160 pC N-1 with a flat frequency response between 0.1 Hz and 10 kHz for pressures between 1 and 100 kPa. An increase of wall thickness to 120 μm is accompanied by a more than twofold decrease in the piezoelectric coefficient as a result of a simultaneously higher effective array stiffness and lower remanent polarization. The obtained experimental results can be used to optimize the array design with regard to the electromechanical performance.

  13. Characterization of a novel, highly integrated tubular solid oxide fuel cell system using high-fidelity simulation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattke, K. J.; Braun, R. J.

    2011-08-01

    A novel, highly integrated tubular SOFC system intended for small-scale power is characterized through a series of sensitivity analyses and parametric studies using a previously developed high-fidelity simulation tool. The high-fidelity tubular SOFC system modeling tool is utilized to simulate system-wide performance and capture the thermofluidic coupling between system components. Stack performance prediction is based on 66 anode-supported tubular cells individually evaluated with a 1-D electrochemical cell model coupled to a 3-D computational fluid dynamics model of the cell surroundings. Radiation is the dominate stack cooling mechanism accounting for 66-92% of total heat loss at the outer surface of all cells at baseline conditions. An average temperature difference of nearly 125 °C provides a large driving force for radiation heat transfer from the stack to the cylindrical enclosure surrounding the tube bundle. Consequently, cell power and voltage disparities within the stack are largely a function of the radiation view factor from an individual tube to the surrounding stack can wall. The cells which are connected in electrical series, vary in power from 7.6 to 10.8 W (with a standard deviation, σ = 1.2 W) and cell voltage varies from 0.52 to 0.73 V (with σ = 81 mV) at the simulation baseline conditions. It is observed that high cell voltage and power outputs directly correspond to tubular cells with the smallest radiation view factor to the enclosure wall, and vice versa for tubes exhibiting low performance. Results also reveal effective control variables and operating strategies along with an improved understanding of the effect that design modifications have on system performance. By decreasing the air flowrate into the system by 10%, the stack can wall temperature increases by about 6% which increases the minimum cell voltage to 0.62 V and reduces deviations in cell power and voltage by 31%. A low baseline fuel utilization is increased by decreasing the

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of Onsite Atmospheric Dispersion Factor in Westinghouse type NPP in KOREA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Chan; Yoon, Duk Joo; Song, Dong Soo

    2016-01-01

    ARCON96 is a NRC licensed air dispersion model to evaluate onsite atmospheric relative concentration X/Q. The purpose of this paper is to provide some results for checking and testing the functionalities of ARCON96. Specially, this code is optimized to estimate a habitability of control room. Since NUREG 0737 issue, the control room habitability has been studied for a FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report). Some assumptions and methodology is used in this paper. Some methodology is introduced in this paper. The reason of the selection of 2-loop Westinghouse NPP is because of carrying out the study project for the 2-loop Westinghouse NPP in the condition of the defueled NPP condition. Onsite atmospheric dispersion factor sensitivity is performed. Key impact factor is reviewed. Some results are below: a. Time averaged effect of X/Q is timely increased. b. ARCON96 code is more conservative at the low wind speed conditions. c. Building wake impact is significant in the condition of unstable atmospheric class with more than 7m/sec of wind speed. d. Plume meander effect is strong when the distance from the release point is small. e. The other plume meander effect is strong when the meander duration time is accumulated Finally, these results show that the appropriate conservation of ARCON96 is appeared in some conditions. Also these results seem to be in good agreement with NRC Regulatory Guide and positions

  15. Sensitivity Analysis of Onsite Atmospheric Dispersion Factor in Westinghouse type NPP in KOREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Chan; Yoon, Duk Joo; Song, Dong Soo [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    ARCON96 is a NRC licensed air dispersion model to evaluate onsite atmospheric relative concentration X/Q. The purpose of this paper is to provide some results for checking and testing the functionalities of ARCON96. Specially, this code is optimized to estimate a habitability of control room. Since NUREG 0737 issue, the control room habitability has been studied for a FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report). Some assumptions and methodology is used in this paper. Some methodology is introduced in this paper. The reason of the selection of 2-loop Westinghouse NPP is because of carrying out the study project for the 2-loop Westinghouse NPP in the condition of the defueled NPP condition. Onsite atmospheric dispersion factor sensitivity is performed. Key impact factor is reviewed. Some results are below: a. Time averaged effect of X/Q is timely increased. b. ARCON96 code is more conservative at the low wind speed conditions. c. Building wake impact is significant in the condition of unstable atmospheric class with more than 7m/sec of wind speed. d. Plume meander effect is strong when the distance from the release point is small. e. The other plume meander effect is strong when the meander duration time is accumulated Finally, these results show that the appropriate conservation of ARCON96 is appeared in some conditions. Also these results seem to be in good agreement with NRC Regulatory Guide and positions.

  16. Standard technical specifications, Westinghouse Plants: Bases (Sections 3.4--3.9). Volume 3, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This NUREG contains the improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Westinghouse plants. Revision 1 incorporates the cumulative changes to Revision 0, which was published in September 1992. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, specifically the Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG), NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993 (58 FR 39132). Licensees are encouraged to upgrade their technical specifications consistent with those criteria and conforming, to the extent practical and consistent with the licensing basis for the facility, to Revision 1 to the improved STS. The Commission continues to place the highest priority on requests for complete conversions to the improved STS. Licensees adopting portions of the improved STS to existing technical specifications should adopt all related requirements, as applicable, to achieve a high degree of standardization and consistency

  17. Advantages of Westinghouse BWR control rod drop accidents methodology utilizing integrated POLCA-T code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayotov, Dobromir

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on the activities pursued by Westinghouse in the development and licensing of POLCA-T code Control Rod Drop Accident (CRDA) Methodology. The comprehensive CRDA methodology that utilizes PHOENIX4/POLCA7/POLCA-T calculation chain foresees complete cycle-specific analysis. The methodology consists of determination of candidates of control rods (CR) that could cause a significant reactivity excursion if dropped throughout the entire fuel cycle, selection of limiting initial conditions for CRDA transient simulation and transient simulation itself. The Westinghouse methodology utilizes state-of-the-art methods. Unnecessary conservatisms in the methodology have been avoided to allow the accurate prediction of margin to design bases. This is mainly achieved by using the POLCA-T code for dynamic CRDA evaluations. The code belongs to the same calculation chain that is used for core design. Thus the very same reactor, core, cycle and fuel data base is used. This allows also reducing the uncertainties of input data and parameters that determine the energy deposition in the fuel. Uncertainty treatment, very selective use of conservatisms, selection of the initial conditions for limiting case analyses, incorporation into POLCA-T code models of the licensed fuel performance code are also among the means of performing realistic CRDA transient analyses. (author)

  18. Initial performance assessment of the Westinghouse AP600 containment design and related safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolette, V.F.; Washington, K.E.; Tills, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This work summarizes the Westinghouse AP600 advanced reactor design assessment calculations performed to date with the CONTAIN code. Correlations for modeling the important heat transfer phenomena are discussed as well. A CONTAIN model of the AP600 was constructed for design basis accident (DBA) calculations. Insights gained from modeling of the smaller-scale Westinghouse Integral Test Facility were incorporated in the development of the AP600 model. The results of the DBA calculations are compared to the results of other researchers to serve as a point of reference for future severe accident calculations. The CONTAIN calculations are reviewed to examine several parameters/phenomena of interest. The results of the calculations are also used to identify limitations of the CONTAIN code regarding application to advanced reactor containment designs. The most recent heat transfer correlations available in the literature are assessed for use in the flow regimes and geometries applicable to the AP600. Use of one of these correlations in CONTAIN may allow for a more accurate assessment of the AP600

  19. Standard technical specifications, Westinghouse Plants: Bases (Sections 2.0--3.3). Volume 2, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This NUREG contains the improved Standard Technical Specifications (STS) for Westinghouse plants. Revision 1 incorporates the cumulative changes to Revision 0, which was published in September 1992. The changes reflected in Revision 1 resulted from the experience gained from license amendment applications to convert to these improved STS or to adopt partial improvements to existing technical specifications. This NUREG is the result of extensive public technical meetings and discussions between the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff and various nuclear power plant licensees, Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) Owners Groups, specifically the Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG), NSSS vendors, and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). The improved STS were developed based on the criteria in the Final Commission Policy Statement on Technical Specifications Improvements for Nuclear Power Reactors, dated July 22, 1993 (58 FR 39132). Licensees are encouraged to upgrade their technical specifications consistent with those criteria and conforming, to the extent practical and consistent with the licensing basis for the facility, to Revision 1 to the improved STS. The Commission continues to place the highest priority on requests for complete conversions to the improved STS. Licensees adopting portions of the improved STS to existing technical specifications should adopt all related requirements, as applicable, to achieve a high degree of standardization and consistency

  20. Effects of RCP trip when recovering HPSI during LOCA in a Westinghouse PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero-Mayorga, Javier, E-mail: fj.montero@alumnos.upm.es; Queral, César; Rivas-Lewicky, Julio; González-Cadelo, Juan

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • If HPSI is recovered during SBLOCA and RCPs are tripped core damage can be reached. • If the RCPs are tripped once the accumulators have injected the damage can be avoided. • If only 2 out of 3 RCPs are tripped the damage can be also avoided. • Improvements are proposed to the EOPs in order to avoid possible damage. - Abstract: Current Westinghouse Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) indicate initially that the operator must keep the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) running during a Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) if there is unavailability of high pressure safety injection (HPSI) system in order to cool the core by forced convection. However, the crew must follow different EOPs along the transient depending on its evolution. In these EOPs there are several conditions which indicate the necessity of tripping one or more RCPs when HPSI is recovered. In this paper the occurrence of a SBLOCA with unavailability of HPSI has been analyzed with a model of Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant (Westinghouse 3 Loop) for TRACE code V5.0 patch 1. Two different approaches have been considered: the first one, taking into account Optimal Recovery Guidelines (ORGs) and in the second approach, the transition to Function Restoration Guidelines (FRGs) due to inadequate core cooling (ICC) conditions is considered. Results of this paper lead to the implementation of an improvement in current EOPs regarding how many RCPs should be tripped during SBLOCA sequences.

  1. Westinghouse power distribution monitoring experience at Duke Power's McGuire Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobmyer, L.R.; Cash, M.T.; Kitlan, M.S.; Impink, A.J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In the evolution of the Westinghouse methodology of assuring safe core power distributions, emphasis was placed on analysis and not on continuous detailed core monitoring. Power distribution monitoring is currently achieved by periodic surveillances using the movable in-core detector system (MIDS) and by continuous observations of the two-section excore power range detectors. Control of the power distribution is regulated by limits on the indications from these systems, by limits on control rod insertion, and by operational constraints on the position indication systems. As more plants come on line and as more utilities take over the fuel design function for themselves, the desire for better core monitoring becomes evident. Also, the need and desire by the utilities to have more control over their operating margin has motivated the industry to offer and/or upgrade core monitoring systems. Westinghouse and Duke Power are participants in a joint development program to finalize the development of the core on-line surveillance monitoring and operations system (COSMOS). This final stage of development consists of prototype field trials at the McGuire Nuclear Plant. The purpose of the prototype program is to determine how well the design objectives are met and how to improve the system based on the operating experience at McGuire. Another purpose of this prototype program is to generate the necessary experience and information to develop a topical report for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to obtain a licensing basis for technical specification relaxation

  2. Westinghouse experience over the past 10 years in negotiating and constructing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Reason for delays in delivery times for nuclear plant are discussed in the light of Westinghouse experience. Today the lead time for the construction of the plant is no longer dictated by the lead time of the nuclear steam supply system. The increased complexity of contract negotiations and of standards and specifications contributes to the delays. Site work is constantly subject to delays due to various labour problems. The main delays stem from regulatory authorities, environmentalists and political considerations. Lateness on the plant causes problems of warranty, storage of equipment and of finance. Westinghouse procedures for alleviating delays during erection are outlined. As the start-up schedule dictates erection, purchasing and design, it should be established as early as possible. A typical overall schedule for a PWR is outlined. It is concluded that completion of plant within schedule requires decisions on basic principles and sufficient detailed planning and organisational structures to be established before the start of the project followed by strong project management. The discussion following the conference is also recorded. (U.K.)

  3. Rectosigmoid tubular duplication presenting as perineal sepsis in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Huang, Ying; Wang, Dajia; Su, Pengjun

    2010-03-01

    Tubular rectal duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly. We report a case of tubular rectal duplication in a newborn baby who presented with perianal sepsis. The diagnosis was confirmed by barium enema, magnetic resonance imaging, and at operation. We performed total mucosectomy through a posterior sagittal incision combined with laparotomy. The patient was doing quite well at 17-month follow-up examination.

  4. Cyclosporine A induces senescence in renal tubular epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jennings, Paul; Koppelstaetter, Christian; Aydin, Sonia; Abberger, Thomas; Wolf, Anna Maria; Mayer, Gert; Pfaller, Walter

    The nephrotoxic potential of the widely used immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine A (CsA) is well recognized. However, the mechanism of renal tubular toxicity is not yet fully elucidated. Chronic CsA nephropathy and renal organ aging share some clinical features, such as renal fibrosis and tubular

  5. Intrarenal purinergic signaling in the control of renal tubular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prætorius, Helle; Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2010-01-01

    -reaching advances indicate that ATP is often used as a local transmitter for classical sensory transduction. This transmission apparently also applies to sensory functions in the kidney. Locally released ATP is involved in sensing of renal tubular flow or in detecting the distal tubular load of NaCl at the macula...

  6. Westinghouse experience in using mechanical cutting for reactor vessel internals segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucau, Joseph; Fallstroem, Stefan; Segerud, Per; Kreitman, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Some commercial nuclear power plants have been permanently shut down to date and decommissioned using dismantling methods. Other operating plants have decided to undergo an upgrade process that includes replacement of reactor internals. In both cases, there is a need to perform a segmentation of the reactor vessel internals with proven methods for long term waste disposal. Westinghouse has developed several concepts to dismantle reactor internals based on safe and reliable techniques. Mechanical cutting has been used by Westinghouse since 1999 for both PWRs and BWRs and its process has been continuously improved over the years. Detailed planning is essential to a successful project, and typically a 'Segmentation and Packaging Plan' is prepared to document the effort. The usual method is to start at the end of the process, by evaluating the waste disposal requirements imposed by the waste disposal agency, what type and size of containers are available for the different disposal options, and working backwards to select the best cutting tools and finally the cut geometry required. These plans are made utilizing advanced 3-D CAD software to model the process. Another area where the modelling has proven invaluable is in determining the logistics of component placement and movement in the reactor cavity, which is typically very congested when all the internals are out of the reactor vessel in various stages of segmentation. The main objective of the segmentation and packaging plan is to determine the strategy for separating the highly activated components from the less activated material, so that they can be disposed of in the most cost effective manner. Usually, highly activated components cannot be shipped off-site, so they must be packaged such that they can be dry stored with the spent fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Less activated components can be shipped to an off-site disposal site depending on space availability. Several of the

  7. Development of an advanced 16x165 Westinghouse type PWR fuel assembly for Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, M. L.; King, S. J.; Pulver, E. F.; Jeon, K.-L.; Esteves, R.; Kurincic, B.

    2004-01-01

    Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Company, Ltd. (KNFC), and Westinghouse Electric Company (Westinghouse) have jointly designed an advanced 16x16 Westinghouse type PWR fuel assembly. This advanced 16x16 Westinghouse type PWR fuel assembly, which will be implemented in both Kori Unit 2 (in Korea) and Angra Unit 1 (in Brazil) in January and March 2005, respectively, is an integral part of the utilities fuel management strategy. This same fuel design has also been developed for future use in Krsko Unit 1 (in Slovenia). In this paper we will describe the front-end nuclear fuel management activities utilized by the joint development team and describe how these activities played an integral part in defining the direction of the advanced 16x16 Westinghouse type PWR fuel assembly design. Additionally, this paper will describe how this design demonstrates improved margins under high duty plant operating conditions. The major reason for initiating this joint development program was to update the current 16x16 fuel assembly, which is also called 16STD. The current 16STD fuel assembly contains a non-optimized fuel rod diameter for the fuel rod pitch (i.e. 9.5 mm OD fuel rods at a 0.485 inch pitch), non-neutronic efficient components (i.e. Inconel Mid grids), no Intermediate Flow Mixer (IFM) grids, and other mechanical features. The advanced 16x16 fuel assembly is being designed for peak rod average burnups of up to 75 MWd/kgU and will use an optimized fuel rod diameter (i.e. 9.14 mm OD ZIRLO TM fuel rods), neutronic efficient components (i.e. ZIRLO TM Mid grids), ZIRLO TM Intermediate Flow Mixer (IFM) grids to improve Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB) margin, and many other mechanical features that improve design margins. Nuclear design activities in the areas of fuel cycle cost and fuel management were performed in parallel to the fuel assembly design efforts. As the change in reactivity due to the change in the fuel rod diameter influences directly

  8. Experimental prediction of tube support interaction characteristics in steam generators: Volume 2, Westinghouse Model 51 flow entrance region: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haslinger, K.H.

    1988-06-01

    Tube-to-tube support interaction characterisitics were determined experimentally on a single tube, multi-span geometry, representative of the Westinghouse Model 51 steam generator economizer design. Results, in part, became input for an autoclave type wear test program on steam generator tubes, performed by Kraftwerk Union (KWU). More importantly, the test data reported here have been used to validate two analytical wear prediction codes; the WECAN code, which was developed by Westinghouse, and the ABAQUS code which has been enhanced for EPRI by Foster Wheeler to enable simulation of gap conditions (including fluid film effects) for various support geometries

  9. Reversibility of the SOFC for the hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis; Reversibilite des SOFC pour la production d'hydrogene par electrolyse haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisse, A.; Marrony, M.; Perednis, D.; Schefold, J.; Jose-Garcia, M.; Zahid, M. [Institut Europeen de Recherche sur l' Energie (EIFER), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The behaviour of two SOFC cells in electrolysis mode is studied. The performances of these solid oxide cells, reversible at 800 C and for current densities between 0 and -0.42 A/cm{sup 2}, are presented. A weaker polarisation resistance has been measured for the cell containing a mixed conductor as oxygen electrode. For each cell, a limitation by gaseous diffusion has been observed under current. This phenomenon appears for current densities which are higher for the mixed conductor cell as oxygen electrode. (O.M.)

  10. Feasibility study for SOFC-GT hybrid locomotive power: Part I. Development of a dynamic 3.5 MW SOFC-GT FORTRAN model

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, AS; Brouwer, J; Samuelsen, GS

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the development of a dynamic SOFC-GT hybrid system model applied to a long-haul freight locomotive in operation. Given the expectations of the rail industry, the model is used to develop a preliminary analysis of the proposed system's operational capability on conventional diesel fuel as well as natural gas and hydrogen as potential fuels in the future. It is found that operation of the system on all three of these fuels is feasible with favorable efficiencies and reasonabl...

  11. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3), Westinghouse Elevator Company Plant, Operable Unit 2, Cumberland Township, Adams County, Gettysburg, PA, March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 2 (Soils) at the Westinghouse Elevator Company Plant Site in Adams County, Pennsylvania. The selected remedy for the soils at the Westinghouse Elevator Plant is No Additional Action for this Operable Unit. The other alternatives evaluated would produce little or no environmental benefit at substantial cost.

  12. Forming of Polymeric Tubular Micro-components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Yi; Zhao, Jie; Anyasodor, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    platform for the production of functional polymeric tubular micro-components. The chapter gives background on the current market and process development trends, followed by description of materials, process configuration, tool design and machine development for each processing technology as well......This chapter is intended to provide an overview of three nontraditional shaping technologies for the forming of polymeric micro-tubes, which are hot embossing, blow molding, and cross rolling, as well as realization of a process chain and the integration of a modular machine-based manufacturing...... as strategy for integration of the technologies and equipment into a common platform. Finally, potential applications of the technologies and facilities developed are highlighted....

  13. Sunscope natural light systems : tubular skylights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This brochure described a tubular skylight designed by Sunscope Natural Light Systems. The Sunscope is a super-reflective light system in which daylight is reflected down a cylinder to a translucent ceiling fixture that diffuses natural light throughout the room in which it is placed. The Sunscope requires no structure changes, is installed in less than 3 hours, and requires no drywall repairs or repainting. The system eliminates the need for daytime electric lighting, and causes no winter heat losses or summer heat gains. Available in 3 sizes, the Sunscope has no moving parts and is fully maintenance-free. The system was designed for use in commercial and residential applications. 7 figs.

  14. Inherited renal tubular defects with hypokalemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukrishnan J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bartter′s and Gitelman′s syndrome are two ends of a spectrum of inherited renal tubular disorders that present with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis of varying severity. Clinical features and associated calcium and magnesium ion abnormalities are used to diagnose these cases after excluding other commoner causes. We report on two cases, the first being a young boy, born of pregnancy complicated by polyhydramnios, who had classical dysmorphic features, polyuria, hypokalemia and hypercalciuria and was diagnosed as having Bartter′s syndrome. The second patient is a lady who had recurrent tetany as the only manifestation of Gitelman′s syndrome, which is an unusual presentation. Potassium replacement with supplementation of other deficient ions led to satisfactory clinical and biochemical response.

  15. An ultrasonic inspection tool for production tubulars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, K; Martin, R; Ravenscroft, F [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1994-06-01

    Advances in ultrasonic technology, high temperature techniques and remote processing power are enabling a new generation of inspection tools to be developed. This paper describes a particular new ultrasonic caliper system, developed by AEA Technology, with the aim of providing improved information about the condition of production tubulars of oil and gas wells. The system is designed to provide enhanced surface area coverage compared to the current devices, which are typically mechanical 'finger' calipers. It also provides a non-contacting measure of corrosion and wear together with direct on-line output and automated data analysis. The new tool is designed to operate in oil and gas, vertical or deviated wells and has the potential for modification to inspect small diameter pipes in topside or other plant. (author)

  16. Cytocompatibility of a silk fibroin tubular scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiannan; Wei, Yali; Yi, Honggen; Liu, Zhiwu; Sun, Dan; Zhao, Huanrong

    2014-01-01

    Regenerated silk fibroin (SF) materials are increasingly used for tissue engineering applications. In order to explore the feasibility of a novel biomimetic silk fibroin tubular scaffold (SFTS) crosslinked by poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEG-DE), biocompatibility with cells was evaluated. The novel biomimetic design of the SFTS consisted of three distinct layers: a regenerated SF intima, a silk braided media and a regenerated SF adventitia. The SFTS exhibited even silk fibroin penetration throughout the braid, forming a porous layered tube with superior mechanical, permeable and cell adhesion properties that are beneficial to vascular regeneration. Cytotoxicity and cell compatibility were tested on L929 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926). DNA content analysis, scanning electron and confocal microscopies and MTT assay showed no inhibitory effects on DNA replication. Cell morphology, viability and proliferation were good for L929 cells, and satisfactory for EA.hy926 cells. Furthermore, the suture retention strength of the SFTS was about 23 N and the Young's modulus was 0.2–0.3 MPa. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PEG-DE crosslinked SFTS possesses the appropriate cytocompatibility and mechanical properties for use as vascular scaffolds as an alternative to vascular autografts. - Highlights: • A PEG-DE cross-linked small caliber porous silk fibroin tubular scaffold (SFTS) • PEG-DE cross-linked SF film had no inhibitory effect on DNA replication of cells. • Cells cultured on the SFTS showed good morphology, cell viability and proliferative activity. • SFTS would be beneficial to endothelialization. • SFTS had good suture retention strength and flexibility

  17. Infiltrated SrTiO3:FeCr-based anodes for metalsupported SOFC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Persson, Åsa Helen; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2012-01-01

    The concept of using highly electronically conducting backbones with subsequent infiltration of electrocatalytic active materials, has recently been used to develop an alternative SOFC design based on a ferritic stainless steel support. The metal-supported SOFC is comprised of porous and highly e...... changes occurring in the anode layer during testing. The results indicate that the STN component in the anode seems to have a positive effect on the corrosion stability of the FeCr-particles in the anode layer.......) and FeCr. Electrochemical characterization and post test SEM analysis have been used to get an insight into the possible degradation mechanisms of this novel electrode infiltrated with Gd-doped CeO2 and Ni. Accelerated oxidation/corrosion experiments have been conducted to evaluate the microstructural...

  18. The Design of Connection Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Integrated Grid with Three-Phase Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darjat; Sulistyo; Triwiyatno, Aris; Thalib, Humaid

    2018-03-01

    Fuel cell technology is a relatively new energy-saving technology that has the potential to replace conventional energy technologies. Among the different types of generation technologies, fuel cells is the generation technologies considered as a potential source of power generation because it is flexible and can be placed anywhere based distribution system. Modeling of SOFC is done by using Nernst equation. The output power of the fuel cell can be controlled by controlling the flow rate of the fuels used in the process. Three-phase PWM inverter is used to get the form of three-phase voltage which same with the grid. In this paper, the planning and design of the SOFC are connected to the grid.

  19. Preparation of cathode materials for solid oxide solid fuel (SOFC) using gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.M.; Aquino, F. de M.; Macedo, D.A. de; Sa, A.M.; Galvao, G.O.

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy into electrical energy. These devices are basically divided into interconnectors, electrolyte, anode, and cathode. Recently, studies of improvements in microstructural and morphological properties of calcium cobaltate (Ca_3Co_4O_9, C349) has been made regarding its potential use as SOFC cathode for intermediate temperature. Gelatin has proven to be effective as a polymerizing agent in the synthesis of nanocrystalline materials. This work reports the synthesis and characterization of the C349 cathode using commercial gelatin. The structural properties of the material were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Morphological characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed the formation of the crystalline phase at 900 °C, indicating the effectiveness of the gelatin in the preparation of cathodes for SOFC. (author)

  20. Ag as an alternative for Ni in direct hydrocarbon SOFC anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantos-Gomez, A.; Van Duijn, J. [Instituto de Energias Renovables, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, Paseo de la Investigacion 1, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Ruiz-Bustos, R. [Instituto de Energias Renovables, Parque Cientifico y Tecnologico de Albacete, Paseo de la Investigacion 1, 02006 Albacete (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Ag has been shown to be a good metal for SOFC anode cermets using CO fuel. Here we have expanded on the work reported by testing Ag-YSZ cermets against different hydrocarbon based fuel (H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}). This study shows that while Ag is a good current collector, it alone does not have the required catalytic activity for the direct oxidation of hydrocarbon based fuels needed to be used in SOFC anodes. As such an additional catalytic material (e.g. CeO{sub 2}) needs to be present when using fuels other then CO. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Effect of load transients on SOFC operation—current reversal on loss of load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmen, Randall S.; Johnson, Christopher D.

    The dynamics of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operation have been considered previously, but mainly through the use of one-dimensional codes applied to co-flow fuel cell systems. In this paper several geometries are considered, including cross-flow, co-flow, and counter-flow. The details of the model are provided, and the model is compared with some initial experimental data. For parameters typical of SOFC operation, a variety of transient cases are investigated, including representative load increase and decrease and system shutdown. Of particular note for large load decrease conditions (e.g., shutdown) is the occurrence of reverse current over significant portions of the cell, starting from the moment of load loss up to the point where equilibrated conditions again provide positive current. Consideration is given as to when such reverse current conditions might most significantly impact the reliability of the cell.

  2. Hydrogen consumption and power density in a co-flow planar SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Moussa, Hocine; Zitouni, Bariza [Laboratoire d' etude des systemes energetiques industriels (LESEI), Universite de Batna, Batna (Algeria); Oulmi, Kafia [Laboratoire de chimie et de chimie de l' environnement, Universite de Batna, Batna (Algeria); Mahmah, Bouziane; Belhamel, Maiouf [CDER, BP. 62 Route de l' Observatoire. Bouzareah. Alger (Algeria); Mandin, Philippe [Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables (CDER), LECA, UMR 7575 CNRS-ENSCP Paris 6 (France)

    2009-06-15

    In the present work, power density and hydrogen consumption in a co-flow planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) are studied according to the inlet functional parameters; such as the operational temperature, the operational pressure, the flow rates and the mass fractions of the species. Furthermore, the effect of the cell size is investigated. The results of a zero and a one-dimensional numerical electro-dynamic model predict the remaining quantity of the fed hydrogen at the output of the anode flow channel. The remaining hydrogen quantities and the SOFC's power density obtained are discussed as a function of the inlet functional parameters, the geometrical configuration of the cell and several operating cell voltages values. (author)

  3. Preparation of thin layer materials with macroporous microstructure for SOFC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero-Lopez, D.; Ruiz-Morales, J.C.; Pena-Martinez, J.; Canales-Vazquez, J.; Nunez, P.

    2008-01-01

    A facile and versatile method using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microspheres as pore formers has been developed to prepare thin layer oxide materials with controlled macroporous microstructure. Several mixed oxides with fluorite and perovskite-type structures, i.e. doped zirconia, ceria, ferrites, manganites, and NiO-YSZ composites have been prepared and characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption and mercury porosimetry. The synthesised materials are nanocrystalline and present a homogeneous pore distribution and relatively high specific surface area, which makes them interesting for SOFC and catalysis applications in the intermediate temperature range. - Graphical abstract: Thin films materials of mixed oxides with potential application in SOFC devices have been prepared with macroporous microstructure using PMMA microspheres as pore formers. Display Omitted

  4. Solution of closing of the columns of thermocouples in Asco reactors 1 and 2 with Cetna of Westinghouse; Solucion de cierre de las columnas de termopares en reactores Asco 1 and 2 con Cetna de Westinghouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunjic, B.; Reichenbach, M.; Llibre, E.

    2014-10-01

    Occasionally, small leaks have been discovered in operating PWRs in the Thermo Couple columns Penetrations. In order to mitigate this issue, Westinghouse has designed and developed the CETNA element, which does not use cono-seals. This article shows the CETNA supply for Asco NPP to prevent potential leaks in the penetrations. (Author)

  5. Best estimate probabilistic safety assessment results for the Westinghouse Advanced Loop Tester (WALT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guoqiang; Xu, Yiban; Oelrich, Robert L. Jr.; Byers, William A.; Young, Michael Y.; Karoutas, Zeses E.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear industry uses the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) technique to improve safety decision making and operation. The methodology evaluates the system reliability, which is defined as the probability of system success, and the postulated accident/problematic scenarios of systems for the nuclear power plants or other facilities. The best estimate probabilistic safety assessment (BE-PSA) method of evaluating system reliability and postulated problematic scenarios will produce more detailed results of interest, such as best estimated reliability analysis and detailed thermal hydraulic calculations using a sub-channel or Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code. The methodology is typically applied to reactors, but can also be applied to any system such as a test facility. In this paper, a BE-PSA method is introduced and used for evaluating the Westinghouse Advanced Loop Tester (WALT). The WALT test loop at the George Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (STC), which was completed in October 2005, is designed to be utilized to model the top grid span of a hot rod in a fuel assembly under the Pressurizer Water Reactor (PWR) normal operating conditions. In order to safely and successfully operate the WALT test loop and correctly use the WALT experimental data, it is beneficial to perform a probabilistic safety assessment and analyze the thermal hydraulic results for the WALT loop in detail. Since October 2005, a number of test runs have been performed on the WALT test facility designed and fabricated by Westinghouse Electric Company LLC. This paper briefly describes the BE-PSA method and performs BE-PSA for the WALT loop. Event trees linked with fault trees embedding thermal hydraulic analysis models, such as sub-channel and/or CFD models, were utilized in the analyses. Consequently, some selected useful experimental data and analysis results are presented for future guidance on WALT and/or other similar test facilities. For example, finding and

  6. LaCrO{sub 3}-dispersed Cr for metallic interconnect of planar SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Rak-Hyun; Shin, Dong Ryul [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dokiya, Masayuki [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In the planar SOFC, the interconnect materials plays two roles as an electrical connection and as a gas separation plate in a cell stack. The interconnect materials must be chemically stable in reducing and oxidizing environments, and have high electronic conductivity, high thermal conductivity, matching thermal expansion with an electrolyte, high mechanical strength, good fabricability, and gas tightness. Lanthanum chromite so far has been mainly used as interconnect materials in planar SOFC. However, the ceramic materials are very weak in mechanical strength and have poor machining property as compared with metal. Also the metallic materials have high electronic conductivity and high thermal conductivity. Recently some researchers have studied metallic interconnects such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Inconel 600 cermet, Ni-20Cr coated with (LaSr)CoO{sub 3}, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3-} or La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-dispersed Cr alloy. These alloys have still some problems because Ni-based alloys have high thermal expansion, the added Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and La{sub 2}O{sub 3} to metals have no electronic conductivity, and the oxide formed on the surface of Cr alloy has high volatility. To solve these problems, in this study, LaCrO{sub 3}-dispersed Cr for metallic interconnect of planar SOFC was investigated. The LaCrO{sub 3}-dispersed Cr can be one candidate of metallic interconnect because LaCrO{sub 3} possesses electronic conductivity and Cr metal has relatively low thermal expansion. The content of 25 vol.% LaCrO{sub 3} Was selected on the basis of a theoretically calculated thermal expansion. The thermal expansion, electrical and oxidation properties were examined and the results were discussed as related to SOFC requirements.

  7. Design, integration and demonstration of a 50 W JP8/kerosene fueled portable SOFC power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheekatamarla, Praveen K.; Finnerty, Caine M.; Robinson, Charles R.; Andrews, Stanley M.; Brodie, Jonathan A.; Lu, Y.; DeWald, Paul G.

    A man-portable solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system integrated with desulfurized JP8 partial oxidation (POX) reformer was demonstrated to supply a continuous power output of 50 W. This paper discusses some of the design paths chosen and challenges faced during the thermal integration of the stack and reformer in aiding the system startup and shutdown along with balance of plant and power management solutions. The package design, system capabilities, and test results of the prototype unit are presented.

  8. Total cost of ownership of CHP SOFC systems: Effect of installation context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arduino, Francesco; Santarelli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are one of the most interesting between the emerging technologies for energy production. Although some information about the production cost of these devices are already known, their operational cost has not been studied yet with sufficient accuracy. This paper presents a life cycle cost (LCC) analysis of CHP (combined heat and power) SOFC systems performed in hospitals located in various cities of the US and one in Italy. In this study the strong effects of the installation context will be analyzed using a customized use phase model for each location. The cost effectiveness of these devices has been proved without credits in Mondovi (IT), New York (NY) and Minneapolis (MN) where the payback time goes from 10 to 7 years. Considering the credits, it is possible to obtain economic feasibility also in Chicago (IL) and reduce the payback for other cities to values from 4 to 6 years. In other cities like Phoenix (AZ) and Houston (TX) the payback can’t be reached in any case. The life cycle impact assessment analysis has shown how, even in the cities with cleaner electricity grid, there is a reduction in the emissions of both greenhouse gases and pollutants. - Highlights: •Life cycle cost analysis has been performed for CHP SOFC systems. •The strong effects of the installation context have been analyzed. •Economic feasibility has been proven in new york, Minneapolis and Mondovi. •Economic feasibility can’t be reached in phoenix and Houston. •SOFC always provide a reduction in the emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutant.

  9. Development of Robust Metal-Supported SOFCs and Stack Components in EU METSAPP Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Nielsen, Jimmi; Persson, Åsa Helen

    2017-01-01

    -SOFCs to enhance their robustness. In addition, the manufacturing of metal-supported cells with different geometries, scalability of the manufacturing process was demonstrated and more than 200 cells with an area of ∼150 cm2 were produced. The electrochemical performance of different cell generations was evaluated...... in 90% reduction in Cr evaporation, three times lower Cr2O3 scale thickness and increased lifetime. The possibility of assembling these cells into two radically different stack designs was demonstrated....

  10. Effect of interlayer on structure and performance of anode-supported SOFC single cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Tae Wook; Yang, Hae Kwang; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Yoon, Hyon Hee; Kim, Jong Sung; Park, Sang Joon

    2008-01-01

    To lower the operating temperatures in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operations, anode-supported SOFC single cells with a single dip-coated interlayer were fabricated and the effect of the interlayer on the electrolyte structure and the electrical performance was investigated. For the preparation of SOFC single cells, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, NiO-YSZ anode, and 50% YSZ-50% strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) cathode were used. In order to characterize the cells, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were utilized and the gas (air) permeability measurements were conducted for gas tightness estimation. When the interlayer was inserted onto NiO-YSZ anode, the surface roughness of anode was diminished by about 40% and dense crack-free electrolytes were obtained. The electrical performance was enhanced remarkably and the maximum power density was 0.57 W/cm 2 at 800 deg. C and 0.44 W/cm 2 at 700 deg. C. On the other hand, the effect of interlayer on the gas tightness was negligible. The characterization study revealed that the enhancement in the electrical performance was mainly attributed to the increase of ion transmission area of anode/electrolyte interface and the increase of ionic conductivity of dense crack-free electrolyte layer

  11. Interfacial layers in tape cast anode-supported doped lanthanum gallate SOFC elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maffei, N.; De Silveira, G. [Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources Canada, CANMET, 405 Rochester Street, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada) K1A OG3

    2003-04-01

    Lanthanum gallate doped with strontium and magnesium (LSGM) is a promising electrolyte system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The reported formation of interfacial layers in monolithic type SOFCs based on lanthanum gallate is of concern because of its impact on the performance of the fuel cell. Planar anode-supported SOFC elements (without the cathode) were prepared by the tape casting technique in order to determine the nature of the anode/electrolyte interface after sintering. Two anode systems were studied, one a NiO-CeO{sub 2} cermet, and the other, a modified lanthanum gallate anode containing manganese. Sintering studies were conducted at 1250, 1300, 1350, 1400 and 1450 C to determine the effect of temperature on the interfacial characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a significant diffusion of Ni from the NiO-CeO{sub 2} anode resulting in the formation of an interfacial layer regardless of sintering temperature. Significant La diffusion from the electrolyte into the anode was also observed. In the case of the modified lanthanum gallate anode containing manganese, there was no interfacial layer formation, but a significant diffusion of Mn into the electrolyte was observed.

  12. Full load synthesis/design optimization of a hybrid SOFC-GT power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, F.; Dentice d' Accadia, M.; Vanoli, L.; Spakovsky, Michael R. von

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the optimization of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine (SOFC-GT) power plant is presented. The plant layout is based on an internal reforming SOFC stack; it also consists of a radial gas turbine, centrifugal compressors and plate-fin heat exchangers. In the first part of the paper, the bulk-flow model used to simulate the plant is presented. In the second part, a thermoeconomic model is developed by introducing capital cost functions. The whole plant is first simulated for a fixed configuration of the most important synthesis/design (S/D) parameters in order to establish a reference design configuration. Next a S/D optimization of the plant is carried out using a traditional single-level approach, based on a genetic algorithm. The optimization determined a set of S/D decision variable values with a capital cost significantly lower than that of the reference design, even though the net electrical efficiency for the optimal configuration was very close to that of the initial one. Furthermore, the optimization procedure dramatically reduced the SOFC active area and the compact heat exchanger areas

  13. Optimal integration strategies for a syngas fuelled SOFC and gas turbine hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingru; Sadhukhan, Jhuma; Lanzini, Andrea; Brandon, Nigel; Shah, Nilay

    This article aims to develop a thermodynamic modelling and optimization framework for a thorough understanding of the optimal integration of fuel cell, gas turbine and other components in an ambient pressure SOFC-GT hybrid power plant. This method is based on the coupling of a syngas-fed SOFC model and an associated irreversible GT model, with an optimization algorithm developed using MATLAB to efficiently explore the range of possible operating conditions. Energy and entropy balance analysis has been carried out for the entire system to observe the irreversibility distribution within the plant and the contribution of different components. Based on the methodology developed, a comprehensive parametric analysis has been performed to explore the optimum system behavior, and predict the sensitivity of system performance to the variations in major design and operating parameters. The current density, operating temperature, fuel utilization and temperature gradient of the fuel cell, as well as the isentropic efficiencies and temperature ratio of the gas turbine cycle, together with three parameters related to the heat transfer between subsystems are all set to be controllable variables. Other factors affecting the hybrid efficiency have been further simulated and analysed. The model developed is able to predict the performance characteristics of a wide range of hybrid systems potentially sizing from 2000 to 2500 W m -2 with efficiencies varying between 50% and 60%. The analysis enables us to identify the system design tradeoffs, and therefore to determine better integration strategies for advanced SOFC-GT systems.

  14. Dynamic Analysis of Load Operations of Two-Stage SOFC Stacks Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Pianko-Oprych

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to develop a complete dynamic model of a power generation system based on two serially connected solid oxide fuel cell stacks. The uniqueness of this study lies in a different number of fuel cells in the stacks. The model consists of the electrochemical model, mass and energy balance equations implemented in MATLAB Simulink environment. Particular attention has been paid to the analysis of the transient response of the reformers, fuel cells and the burner. The dynamic behavior of the system during transient conditions was investigated by load step changing. The model evaluates electrical and thermal responses of the system at variable drawn current. It was found that a decrease of 40% in the 1st stage and 2nd solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC stacks drawn current caused both stacks temperature to drop by 2%. An increase of the cell voltage for the 1st and 2nd SOFC stacks led to very fast steam reformer response combined with a slight decrease in reformer temperature, while a considerable burner temperature increase of 70 K can be observed. Predictions of the model provide the basic insight into the operation of the power generation-based SOFC system during various transients and support its further design modifications.

  15. Probing Temperature Inside Planar SOFC Short Stack, Modules, and Stack Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Guan, Wanbing; Zhou, Xiao-Dong

    2017-02-01

    Probing temperature inside a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack lies at the heart of the development of high-performance and stable SOFC systems. In this article, we report our recent work on the direct measurements of the temperature in three types of SOFC systems: a 5-cell short stack, a 30-cell stack module, and a stack series consisting of two 30-cell stack modules. The dependence of temperature on the gas flow rate and current density was studied under a current sweep or steady-state operation. During the current sweep, the temperature inside the 5-cell stack decreased with increasing current, while it increased significantly at the bottom and top of the 30-cell stack. During a steady-state operation, the temperature of the 5-cell stack was stable while it was increased in the 30-cell stack. In the stack series, the maximum temperature gradient reached 190°C when the gas was not preheated. If the gas was preheated and the temperature gradient was reduced to 23°C in the stack series with the presence of a preheating gas and segmented temperature control, this resulted in a low degradation rate.

  16. Simulation and Parametric Analysis of a Hybrid SOFC-Gas Turbine Power Generation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.M.; Fahmy

    2004-01-01

    Combined SOFC-Gas Turbine Power Generation Systems are aimed to increase the power and efficiency obtained from the technology of using high temperature fuel cells by integrating them with gas turbines. Hybrid systems are considered in the last few years as one of the most promising technologies to obtain electric energy from the natural gas at very high efficiency with a serious potential for commercial use. The use of high temperature allows internal reforming for natural gas and thus disparity of fuel composition is allowed. Also air preheating is performed thanks to the high operating cell temperature as a task of energy integration. In this paper a modeling approach is presented for the fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid power generation systems, to obtain the sofc output voltage, power, and the overall hybrid system efficiency. The system has been simulated using HYSYS, the process simulation software to help improving the process understanding and provide a quick system solution. Parametric analysis is also presented in this paper to discuss the effect of some important SOFC operating parameters on the system performance and efficiency

  17. Thermoeconomic Modeling and Parametric Study of Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell â Gas Turbine â Steam Turbine Power Plants Ranging from 1.5 MWe to 10 MWe

    OpenAIRE

    Arsalis, Alexandros

    2007-01-01

    Detailed thermodynamic, kinetic, geometric, and cost models are developed, implemented, and validated for the synthesis/design and operational analysis of hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) â gas turbine (GT) â steam turbine (ST) systems ranging in size from 1.5 MWe to 10 MWe. The fuel cell model used in this thesis is based on a tubular Siemens-Westinghouse-type SOFC, which is integrated with a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) integrated in turn with a steam turbi...

  18. "A Highly Selected Strain of Guinea Pigs": The Westinghouse Science Talent Search and Educational Meritocracy, 1942-1958

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzian, Sevan G.; Rury, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Overview: This article examines the Westinghouse Science Talent Search over the first sixteen years of its operation. A national contest involving thousands of high school seniors annually, it reflected a growing national concern with developing scientific manpower in the midst of global conflict, the Cold War, and a growing military-industrial…

  19. Demonstration of retrieval methods for Westinghouse Hanford Corporation October 20, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Corporation has been pursuing strategies to break up and retrieve the radioactive waste material in single shell storage tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, by working with non-radioactive ''saltcake'' and sludge material that simulate the actual waste. It has been suggested that the use of higher volumes of water than used in the past (10 gpm nozzles at 10,000 psi) might be successful in breaking down the hard waste simulants. Additionally, the application of these higher volumes of water might successfully be applied through commercially available tooling using methods similar to those used in the deslagging of large utility boilers. NMW Industrial Services, Inc., has proposed a trial consisting of three approaches each to dislodging both the solid (saltcake) simulant and the sludge simulant

  20. Demonstration of retrieval methods for Westinghouse Hanford Corporation October 20, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Corporation has been pursuing strategies to break up and retrieve the radioactive waste material in single shell storage tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, by working with non-radioactive ``saltcake`` and sludge material that simulate the actual waste. It has been suggested that the use of higher volumes of water than used in the past (10 gpm nozzles at 10,000 psi) might be successful in breaking down the hard waste simulants. Additionally, the application of these higher volumes of water might successfully be applied through commercially available tooling using methods similar to those used in the deslagging of large utility boilers. NMW Industrial Services, Inc., has proposed a trial consisting of three approaches each to dislodging both the solid (saltcake) simulant and the sludge simulant.

  1. Mixcore safety analysis approach used for introduction of Westinghouse fuel assemblies in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullayev, A.; Baidullin, V.; Maryochin, A.; Sleptsov, S.; Kulish, G.

    2008-01-01

    Six Westinghouse Lead Test Assemblies (LTA) were installed in 2005 and are currently operated in Unit 3 of the South Ukraine NPP (SUNPP) under the Ukraine Nuclear Fuel Qualification Project. At the early stages of the LTAs implementation in Ukraine, there was no experience of licensing of new fuel types, which explains the need to develop approaches for safety substantiation of LTAs. This presentation considers some approaches for performing of safety analysis of the design basis Initiating Events (IE) for the LTA fuel cycles. These approaches are non-standard in terms of the established practices for obtaining the regulatory authorities' permission for the core operation. The analysis was based on the results of the FA and reactor core thermal hydraulic and nuclear design

  2. Assessment of ISLOCA risk: Methodology and application to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, D.L.; Auflick, J.L.; Haney, L.N. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Inter-system loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs) have been identified as important contributors to offsite risk for some nuclear power plants. A methodology has been developed for identifying and evaluating plant-specific hardware designs, human factors issues, and accident consequence factors relevant to the estimation of ISLOCA core damage frequency and risk. This report presents a detailed description of the application of this analysis methodology to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant. This document also includes appendices A through I which provide: System descriptions; ISLOCA event trees; human reliability analysis; thermal hydraulic analysis; core uncovery timing calculations; calculation of system rupture probability; ISLOCA consequences analysis; uncertainty analysis; and component failure analysis.

  3. cmpXLatt: Westinghouse automated testing tool for nodal cross section models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Petri Forslund; Rönnberg, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    The procedure for evaluating the merits of different nodal cross section representation models is normally both cumbersome and time consuming, and includes many manual steps when preparing appropriate benchmark problems. Therefore, a computer tool called cmpXLatt has been developed at Westinghouse in order to facilitate the process of performing comparisons between nodal diffusion theory results and corresponding transport theory results on a single node basis. Due to the large number of state points that can be evaluated by cmpXLatt, a systematic and comprehensive way of performing verification and validation of nodal cross section models is provided. This paper presents the main features of cmpXLatt and demonstrates the benefits of using cmpXLatt in a real life application. (author)

  4. Assessment of ISLOCA risk: Methodology and application to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.L.; Auflick, J.L.; Haney, L.N.

    1992-04-01

    Inter-system loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs) have been identified as important contributors to offsite risk for some nuclear power plants. A methodology has been developed for identifying and evaluating plant-specific hardware designs, human factors issues, and accident consequence factors relevant to the estimation of ISLOCA core damage frequency and risk. This report presents a detailed description of the application of this analysis methodology to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant. This document also includes appendices A through I which provide: System descriptions; ISLOCA event trees; human reliability analysis; thermal hydraulic analysis; core uncovery timing calculations; calculation of system rupture probability; ISLOCA consequences analysis; uncertainty analysis; and component failure analysis

  5. TPDWR2: thermal power determination for Westinghouse reactors, Version 2. User's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczynski, G.M.; Woodruff, R.W.

    1985-12-01

    TPDWR2 is a computer program which was developed to determine the amount of thermal power generated by any Westinghouse nuclear power plant. From system conditions, TPDWR2 calculates enthalpies of water and steam and the power transferred to or from various components in the reactor coolant system and to or from the chemical and volume control system. From these results and assuming that the reactor core is operating at constant power and is at thermal equilibrium, TPDWR2 calculates the thermal power generated by the reactor core. TPDWR2 runs on the IBM PC and XT computers when IBM Personal Computer DOS, Version 2.00 or 2.10, and IBM Personal Computer Basic, Version D2.00 or D2.10, are stored on the same diskette with TPDWR2

  6. Westinghouse Hanford Company operational environmental monitoring annual report, calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J.; Fassett, J.W.; Johnson, A.R.; Johnson, V.G.; Markes, B.M.; McKinney, S.M.; Moss, K.J.; Perkins, C.J.; Richterich, L.R.

    1995-08-01

    This document presents the results of the Westinghouse Hanford Company near-facility operational environmental monitoring for 1994 in the 100, 200/600, and 300/400 Areas of the Hanford Site, in south-central Washington State. Surveillance activities included sampling and analyses of ambient air surface water, groundwater, soil, sediments, and biota. Also, external radiation measurements and radiological surveys were taken at waste disposal sites, radiologically controlled areas, and roads. These activities were conducted to assess and control the effects of nuclear facilities and waste sites on the local environment. In addition, diffuse sources were monitored to determine compliance with Federal, State, and/or local regulations. In general, although effects from nuclear facilities are still seen on the Hanford Site and radiation levels are slightly elevated when compared to offsite locations, the differences are less than in previous years.

  7. Westinghouse Hanford Company operational environmental monitoring annual report - calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-30

    This document summarizes the results of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) near-facility operational environmental monitoring for 1995 in the 100, 200/600, and 300/400 Areas of the Hanford Site, in south-central Washington State. Surveillance activities included sampling and analyses of ambient air, surface water,groundwater, soil, sediments, and biota. Also, external radiation measurements and radiological surveys were taken at waste disposal sites, radiologically controlled areas, and roads. These activities were conducted to assess and control the effects of nuclear facilities and waste sites on the local environment. In addition, diffuse sources were monitored to determine compliance with Federal, State, and/or local regulations. In general, although effects from nuclear facilities can still be observed on the Hanford Site and radiation levels are slightly elevated when compared to offsite locations, the differences are less than in previous years.

  8. Westinghouse Electric Company experiences in chemistry on-line monitoring in Eastern European nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balavage, J.

    2001-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company has provided a number of Chemistry On-Line Monitoring (OLM) Systems to Nuclear Power Plants in Eastern Europe. Eleven systems were provided to the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant in the south of the Czech Republic. Four systems were provided to the Russian NPP at Novovoronezh. In addition, a system design was developed for primary side chemistry monitoring for units 5 and 6 of another eastern European VVER. The status of the Temelin OLM systems is discussed including updates to the Temelin designs, and the other Eastern European installations and designs are also described briefly. Some of the problems encountered and lessons learned from these projects are also discussed. (R.P.)

  9. Application of quality assurance to scientific activities at Westinghouse Hanford Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvin, W.L.; Farwick, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The application of quality assurance to scientific activities has been an ongoing subject of review, discussion, interpretation, and evaluation within the nuclear community for the past several years. This paper provides a discussion on the natures of science and quality assurance and presents suggestions for integrating the two successfully. The paper shows how those actions were used at the Westinghouse Hanford Company to successfully apply quality assurance to experimental studies and materials testing and evaluation activities that supported a major project. An important factor in developing and implementing the quality assurance program was the close working relationship that existed between the assigned quality engineers and the scientists. The quality engineers, who had had working experience in the scientific disciplines involved, were able to bridge across from the scientists to the more traditional quality assurance personnel who had overall responsibility for the project's quality assurance program

  10. Discrete rod burnup analysis capability in the Westinghouse advanced nodal code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechel, R.J.; Fetterman, R.J.; Petrunyak, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Core design analysis in the last several years has evolved toward the adoption of nodal-based methods to replace traditional fine-mesh models as the standard neutronic tool for first core and reload design applications throughout the nuclear industry. The accuracy, speed, and reduction in computation requirements associated with the nodal methods have made three-dimensional modeling the preferred approach to obtain the most realistic core model. These methods incorporate detailed rod power reconstruction as well. Certain design applications such as confirmation of fuel rod design limits and fuel reconstitution considerations, for example, require knowledge of the rodwise burnup distribution to avoid unnecessary conservatism in design analyses. The Westinghouse Advanced Nodal Code (ANC) incorporates the capability to generate the intra-assembly pin burnup distribution using an efficient algorithm

  11. Environmental programs for grades K-12 sponsored by the Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division Educational Programs Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikel, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) created its educational programs department in 1990 as a result of the Secretary of Energy's focus on education stated in SEN-23-90. This Secretary of Energy Notice reflects the focus for US Department of Energy facilities to enhance education through their resources (both human and financial) with an emphasis on math and science. The mission of the Westinghouse Waste Isolation Division (WID) educational programs department is to enhance education at all levels and to promote educational experiences that give students the opportunity to make decisions and develop skills for productive lives. Programs have been developed around the environmental monitoring department, to give students from different grade levels hands on experiences in the environmental sciences field to stimulate their interest in the natural sciences

  12. Intrarenal purinergic signaling in the control of renal tubular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prætorius, Helle; Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2010-01-01

    Renal tubular epithelial cells receive hormonal input that regulates volume and electrolyte homeostasis. In addition, numerous intrarenal, local signaling agonists have appeared on the stage of renal physiology. One such system is that of intrarenal purinergic signaling. This system involves all......-reaching advances indicate that ATP is often used as a local transmitter for classical sensory transduction. This transmission apparently also applies to sensory functions in the kidney. Locally released ATP is involved in sensing of renal tubular flow or in detecting the distal tubular load of NaCl at the macula...

  13. Perfis tubulares : aspectos arquitetônicos e estruturais.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerken, Fernanda de Sousa

    2003-01-01

    Programa de Pós Graduação em Engenharia Civil. Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Escola de Minas, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar uma visão geral da utilização das estruturas tubulares no contexto da evolução das estruturas metálicas em geral, com destaque para o estudo de obras que mostram o estado da arte da construção tubular no Brasil. A utilização dos perfis tubulares estruturais é abordada tanto do ponto de vista da ...

  14. Verification test of advanced LWR fuel components of Westinghouse type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Lee, Young Ho

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this project is to independently conduct the performance test of the spacer grids and the cladding material of the 16x16 and 17x17 advanced fuels for Westinghouse type plants, and to improve the relevant test technology. Major works and results of the present research are as follows. 1. The design and structural features of the spacer grids were investigated, especially the finally determined I-spring was thoroughly analyzed in the point of the mechanical damage and characteristic. 2. As for the mechanical tests of the space grids, the characterization, the impact and the fretting wear tests were carried out. The block as well as the in-grid tests were conducted for the spring/dimple characterization, from which a simple method was developed that simulated the boundary conditions of the assembled grid straps. The impact tester was modified and improved to accommodate a full size grid assembly. The impact result showed that the grid assembly fulfilled the design criteria. As for the fretting wear tests, a sliding test under the room temperature air/water, a sliding/impact test under the room temperature air and a sliding/impact tests under the high temperature and pressure environments were carried out. To this end, a high temperature and pressure fretting wear tester was newly developed. The wear characteristic and the resistibility of the advanced grid spring/dimple were analyzed in detail. The test results were verified through comparing those with the test results by the Westinghouse company. 3. The properties and performance of the newly adopted material for the cladding, Low Sn Zirlo was investigated by a room and high temperature tensile tests and a corrosion tests under the environments of 360 .deg. C water, 400 steam and 360 .deg. C 70ppm LiOH. Through the present project, all the test equipment and technologies for the fuel components were procured, which will be used for future domestic development of a new fuel

  15. Westinghouse-GOTHIC distributed parameter modelling for HDR test E11.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narula, J.S.; Woodcock, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Westinghouse-GOTHIC (WGOTHIC) code is a sophisticated mathematical computer code designed specifically for the thermal hydraulic analysis of nuclear power plant containment and auxiliary buildings. The code is capable of sophisticated flow analysis via the solution of mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations. Westinghouse has investigated the use of subdivided noding to model the flow patterns of hydrogen following its release into a containment atmosphere. For the investigation, several simple models were constructed to represent a scale similar to the German HDR containment. The calculational models were simplified to test the basic capability of the plume modeling methods to predict stratification while minimizing the number of parameters. A large empty volume was modeled, with the same volume and height as HDR. A scenario was selected that would be expected to stably stratify, and the effects of noding on the prediction of stratification was studied. A single phase hot gas was injected into the volume at a height similar to that of HDR test E11.2, and there were no heat sinks modeled. Helium was released into the calculational models, and the resulting flow patterns were judged relative to the expected results. For each model, only the number of subdivisions within the containment volume was varied. The results of the investigation of noding schemes has provided evidence of the capability of subdivided (distributed parameter) noding. The results also showed that highly inaccurate flow patterns could be obtained by using an insufficient number of subdivided nodes. This presents a significant challenge to the containment analyst, who must weigh the benefits of increased noding with the penalties the noding may incur on computational efficiency. Clearly, however, an incorrect noding choice may yield erroneous results even if great care has been taken in modeling accurately all other characteristics of containments. (author). 9 refs., 9 figs

  16. The Westinghouse AP1000®: Passive, Proven Technology to Meet European Energy Demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haspel, N.

    2015-01-01

    Even though several years ago nuclear power was merely considered to be an “optimistic future assessment”, the world-wide renaissance of nuclear power has become reality! The economical and climate-friendly nuclear power generation is internationally regarded to be in an evident upturn. The 435 nuclear power plants in operation worldwide are being modernized and the capacity is increased continuously. Furthermore, to date, 42 power plants are under construction, another 81 are already being applied for and or definitely planned. The global total net capacity out of nuclear power will increase accordingly in the upcoming years from currently 372 to more than 500 GWe, which presents an increase of more than one third. Westinghouse’s contribution hereto is considerable: At the present time, 4 power plants of the series AP1000 ® are under construction. To begin with, 2 units each are under construction at the Chinese sites Sanmen and Haiyang, another 4 per site are being planned. In the USA, Westinghouse has been contracted with a Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) project for a total of 4 power plant units at the Vogtle and V.C. Summer. Also in Europe, the plans to construct new plants are meanwhile very specific and many countries have formally established the marginal conditions for new nuclear projects. The AP1000 ® , with its medium output capacity, is ideally positioned for many markets and can – as a twin unit – also cover large capacity demands. At the present time, Westinghouse, with its AP1000 ® , participates in the so-called GDA (Generic Design Assessment) process in Great Britain, where the British regulatory authorities conduct an assessment and evaluation of the safety aspects of this plant design in a defined multilevel process. The successful conclusion of this process ultimately leads to a “Design Acceptance Confirmation”, which will basically make the construction of the plant in Great Britain possible. (author)

  17. Techno-Economic Feasibility of Highly Efficient Cost-Effective Thermoelectric-SOFC Hybrid Power Generation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jifeng Zhang; Jean Yamanis

    2007-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems have the potential to generate exhaust gas streams of high temperature, ranging from 400 to 800 C. These high temperature gas streams can be used for additional power generation with bottoming cycle technologies to achieve higher system power efficiency. One of the potential candidate bottoming cycles is power generation by means of thermoelectric (TE) devices, which have the inherent advantages of low noise, low maintenance and long life. This study was to analyze the feasibility of combining coal gas based SOFC and TE through system performance and cost techno-economic modeling in the context of multi-MW power plants, with 200 kW SOFC-TE module as building blocks. System and component concepts were generated for combining SOFC and TE covering electro-thermo-chemical system integration, power conditioning system (PCS) and component designs. SOFC cost and performance models previously developed at United Technologies Research Center were modified and used in overall system analysis. The TE model was validated and provided by BSST. The optimum system in terms of energy conversion efficiency was found to be a pressurized SOFC-TE, with system efficiency of 65.3% and cost of $390/kW of manufacturing cost. The pressurization ratio was approximately 4 and the assumed ZT of the TE was 2.5. System and component specifications were generated based on the modeling study. The major technology and cost barriers for maturing the system include pressurized SOFC stack using coal gas, the high temperature recycle blowers, and system control design. Finally, a 4-step development roadmap is proposed for future technology development, the first step being a 1 kW proof-of-concept demonstration unit.

  18. Scenario analysis of large scale algae production in tubular photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Beveren, van P.J.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae productivity in tubular photobioreactors depends on algae species, location, tube diameter, biomass concentration, distance between tubes and for vertically stacked systems, the number of horizontal tubes per stack. A simulation model for horizontal and vertically stacked horizontal

  19. Hot Firing of a Full Scale Copper Tubular Combustion Chamber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooley, C

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the chamber design and hot firing test results for a full-scale copper tubular combustion chamber that has future application in a high-thrust, upper-stage expander cycle engine...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: renal tubular acidosis with deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults with renal tubular acidosis with deafness have short stature, and many develop kidney stones. The metabolic acidosis ... enlarged vestibular aqueduct, can be seen with medical imaging. The vestibular aqueduct is a bony canal that ...

  1. Solar Heating Systems with Evacuated Tubular Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Recently different designed evacuated tubular solar collectors were introduced on the market by different Chinese companies. In the present study, investigations on the performance of four different Chinese evacuated tubular collectors and of solar heating systems using these collectors were...... carried out, employing both laboratory test and theoretical calculations. The collectors were tested in a small solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system in a laboratory test facility under realistic conditions. The yearly thermal performance of solar heating systems with these evacuated tubular collectors......, as well as with normal flat-plate collectors was calculated under Danish weather conditions. It is found that, for small SDHW systems with a combi tank design, an increase of 25% -55% net utilized solar energy can be achieved by using these evacuated tubular collectors instead of normal flat...

  2. Tubular forms of papova viruses in human laryngeal papilloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W

    1979-01-01

    In two cases of recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis tubular forms of papova viruses could be observed. The same material revealed the close relation between nuclear chromatine and the release of particles, as well as a capsomere like substructure of the virions.

  3. The Fourier transform of tubular densities

    KAUST Repository

    Prior, C B

    2012-05-18

    We consider the Fourier transform of tubular volume densities, with arbitrary axial geometry and (possibly) twisted internal structure. This density can be used to represent, among others, magnetic flux or the electron density of biopolymer molecules. We consider tubes of both finite radii and unrestricted radius. When there is overlap of the tube structure the net density is calculated using the super-position principle. The Fourier transform of this density is composed of two expressions, one for which the radius of the tube is less than the curvature of the axis and one for which the radius is greater (which must have density overlap). This expression can accommodate an asymmetric density distribution and a tube structure which has non-uniform twisting. In addition we give several simpler expressions for isotropic densities, densities of finite radius, densities which decay at a rate sufficient to minimize local overlap and finally individual surfaces of the tube manifold. These simplified cases can often be expressed as arclength integrals and can be evaluated using a system of first-order ODEs. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. A tubular electrode for radiofrequency ablation therapy

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Carlos Lemos Lemos Lemos

    2012-07-06

    Purpose – Due to its good mechanical and biocompatibility characteristics, nitinol SEMS is a popular endoprothesis used for relieving stricture problems in hollow organs due to carcinomas. Besides its mechanical application, SEMS can be regarded as well as potential electrode for performing RF ablation therapy on the tumor. The purpose of this work is to perform numerical and experimental analyses in order to characterize the lesion volume induced in biological tissue using this kind of tubular electrode. Design/methodology/approach – Data concerning electrical conductivity and dimension of the damaged tissue after RF ablation procedure were obtained from ex vivo samples. Next, numerical models using 3D finite element method were obtained reassembling the conditions considered at experimentation setup and results were compared. Findings – Numerical and experimental results show that a regular volume of damaged tissue can be obtained considering this type of electrode. Also, results obtained from numerical simulation are close to those obtained by experimentation. Originality/value – SEMSs, commonly used as devices to minimize obstruction problems due to the growth of tumors, may still be considered as an active electrode for RF ablation procedures. A method considering this observation is presented in this paper. Also, numerical simulation can be regarded in this case as a tool for determining the lesion volume.

  5. The Fourier transform of tubular densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, C B; Goriely, A

    2012-01-01

    We consider the Fourier transform of tubular volume densities, with arbitrary axial geometry and (possibly) twisted internal structure. This density can be used to represent, among others, magnetic flux or the electron density of biopolymer molecules. We consider tubes of both finite radii and unrestricted radius. When there is overlap of the tube structure the net density is calculated using the super-position principle. The Fourier transform of this density is composed of two expressions, one for which the radius of the tube is less than the curvature of the axis and one for which the radius is greater (which must have density overlap). This expression can accommodate an asymmetric density distribution and a tube structure which has non-uniform twisting. In addition we give several simpler expressions for isotropic densities, densities of finite radius, densities which decay at a rate sufficient to minimize local overlap and finally individual surfaces of the tube manifold. These simplified cases can often be expressed as arclength integrals and can be evaluated using a system of first-order ODEs. (paper)

  6. Inflatable Tubular Structures Rigidized with Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Michael L.; Schnell, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    Inflatable tubular structures that have annular cross sections rigidized with foams, and the means of erecting such structures in the field, are undergoing development. Although the development effort has focused on lightweight structural booms to be transported in compact form and deployed in outer space, the principles of design and fabrication are also potentially applicable to terrestrial structures, including components of ultralightweight aircraft, lightweight storage buildings and shelters, lightweight insulation, and sales displays. The use of foams to deploy and harden inflatable structures was first proposed as early as the 1960s, and has been investigated in recent years by NASA, the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, industry, and academia. In cases of deployable booms, most of the investigation in recent years has focused on solid cross sections, because they can be constructed relatively easily. However, solid-section foam-filled booms can be much too heavy for some applications. In contrast, booms with annular cross sections according to the present innovation can be tailored to obtain desired combinations of stiffness and weight through choice of diameters, wall thicknesses, and foam densities. By far the most compelling advantage afforded by this innovation is the possibility of drastically reducing weights while retaining or increasing the stiffnesses, relative to comparable booms that have solid foamfilled cross sections. A typical boom according to this innovation includes inner and outer polyimide film sleeves to contain foam that is injected between them during deployment.

  7. Tubular Initial Conditions and Ridge Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Borysova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2D azimuth and rapidity structure of the two-particle correlations in relativistic A+A collisions is altered significantly by the presence of sharp inhomogeneities in superdense matter formed in such processes. The causality constraints enforce one to associate the long-range longitudinal correlations observed in a narrow angular interval, the so-called (soft ridge, with peculiarities of the initial conditions of collision process. This study's objective is to analyze whether multiform initial tubular structures, undergoing the subsequent hydrodynamic evolution and gradual decoupling, can form the soft ridges. Motivated by the flux-tube scenarios, the initial energy density distribution contains the different numbers of high density tube-like boost-invariant inclusions that form a bumpy structure in the transverse plane. The influence of various structures of such initial conditions in the most central A+A events on the collective evolution of matter, resulting spectra, angular particle correlations and vn-coefficients is studied in the framework of the hydrokinetic model (HKM.

  8. Hereditary Hypokalemic salt-losing tubular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, M.; Konard, M.; Seyberth, H.W.

    2003-01-01

    The inherited hypokalemic tubular disorders are frequently summarized under the heading Bartter Syndrome since they share several clinical and biochemical findings such as renal salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, normal blood pressure despite hypereninemic hyperaldosteronism and hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. However, careful characterization of the clinical phenotype and correlation with the clinical phenotype and the correlation with the underlying molecular basis justifies the differentiation into at least four distinct disease entities: (i) the hyperprostaglandin E syndrome or antenatal variant of Bartter syndrome (HPS/aBS), which is caused by mutations in either the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter or the potassium channel of the medullary thick ascending limb of Henle's loop; (ii) the HPS/aBS with sensorineural deafness which results from inactivating mutation in the Barttin beta-subunit of the renal chloride channels; (iii) the classic Bartter syndrome caused by mutations in the chloride channel of the distal nephron; and (iv)Gitelman's variant of Bartter syndrome which is caused by mutations of the Na-Cl cotransporter of the distal convoluted tubule. This review will summarize the clinical characteristics of these diseases and progress recently made in the identification of the underlying molecular defects that will hopefully add to the current knowledge of the pathogenesis of these diseases. (author)

  9. Modeling constrained sintering of bi-layered tubular structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan; Ni, De Wei

    2015-01-01

    Constrained sintering of tubular bi-layered structures is being used in the development of various technologies. Densification mismatch between the layers making the tubular bi-layer can generate stresses, which may create processing defects. An analytical model is presented to describe the densi...... and thermo-mechanical analysis. Results from the analytical model are found to agree well with finite element simulations as well as measurements from sintering experiment....

  10. Electrolyte composition of renal tubular cells in gentamicin nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, O.; Beck, F.X.; Doerge, A.T.; Thurau, K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of long-term gentamicin administration on sodium, potassium, chloride and phosphorus concentrations was studied in individual rat renal tubular cells using electron microprobe analysis. Histological damage was apparent only in proximal tubular cells. The extent of damage was only mild after 7 days of gentamicin administration (60 mg/kg body wt/day) but much more pronounced after 10 days. GFR showed a progressive decline during gentamicin treatment. In non-necrotic proximal tubular cells, sodium was increased from 14.6 +/- 0.3 (mean +/- SEM) in controls to 20.6 +/- 0.4 after 7 and 22.0 +/- 0.8 mmol/kg wet wt after 10 days of gentamicin administration. Chloride concentration was higher only after 10 days (20.6 +/- 0.6 vs. 17.3 +/- 0.2 mmol/kg wet wt). Both cell potassium and phosphorus concentrations were diminished by 6 and 15, and by 8 and 25 mmol/kg wet wt after 7 and 10 days of treatment, respectively. In contrast, no major alterations in distal tubular cell electrolyte concentrations could be observed after either 7 or 10 days of gentamicin administration. As in proximal tubular cells, distal tubular cell phosphorus concentrations were, however, lowered by gentamicin treatment. These results clearly indicate that gentamicin exerts its main effect on proximal tubular cells. Decreased potassium and increased sodium and chloride concentrations were observed in proximal tubular cells exhibiting only mild histological damage prior to the onset of advanced tissue injury. Necrotic cells, on the other hand, showed widely variable intracellular electrolyte concentration patterns

  11. Danish strategy for developing SOFC fuel cells 2010-2020; Dansk strategi for udvikling af SOFC-braendselsceller 2010-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.; Linderoth, S. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Themsen, J. (Dantherm Power A/S, Hobro (Denmark)); Richter, A.B.; Hansen, Hakon J.; Holm-Larsen, H.; Andersen, Claus V. (Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S, Lyngby (Denmark))

    2010-09-15

    SOFC fuel cells are a promising technology for efficient production of electricity. The technology is expected to contribute very significantly to climate and environmental goals, security of supply of energy, increased employment and exports. Denmark has a very strong technology position within the SOFC area based on years of cooperation between Topsoe Fuel Cell and Risoe DTU as well as a later developed relationship with Dantherm Power. The Danish players have received more than DKK 250 million in public funding. With this support and the players' own funding (approx. two times higher than public support), the players managed over the past 10 years to bring development of SOFC technology significantly closer to the market. This strategy has been prepared by the Danish players in the field and gives a picture of the required overall development needs in the coming years. Technology development has reached the stage where in the coming years demonstrations on a larger scale have to be launched. The focus is basically on three valuable market segments: micro power and heat, auxiliary power for mobile applications, and decentralized power and CHP, which all have a great potential for market penetration internationally. When the market is established in one or more of these segments, other business opportunities must be explored for other applications based on the established technological platform. The road to commercialization is a long process that begins with demonstrations and later introduction of commercial products. The primary actors are currently the largest companies and institutions but as the number of produced fuel cell units increases, job creation with subcontractors and other directly related businesses and research centres will increase. A conservative estimate of market size worldwide is 2-4 GW of installed capacity per. year representing an annual turnover of 15-30 billion DKK and 10.000-20.000 more jobs. The export ratio is expected to exceed

  12. Luminal nucleotides are tonic inhibitors of renal tubular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipziger, Jens Georg

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extracellular ATP is an essential local signaling molecule in all organ systems. In the kidney, purinergic signaling is involved in an array of functions and this review highlights those of relevance for renal tubular transport. RECENT FINDINGS: Purinergic receptors are express...... discovered as an important signaling compartment in which local purinergic signaling determines an inhibitory tone for renal tubular transport. Blocking components of this system leads to tubular hyper-absorption, volume retention and elevated blood pressure.......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extracellular ATP is an essential local signaling molecule in all organ systems. In the kidney, purinergic signaling is involved in an array of functions and this review highlights those of relevance for renal tubular transport. RECENT FINDINGS: Purinergic receptors are expressed...... in all renal tubular segments and their stimulation generally leads to transport inhibition. Recent evidence has identified the tubular lumen as a restricted space for purinergic signaling. The concentrations of ATP in the luminal fluids are sufficiently high to inflict a tonic inhibition of renal...

  13. Impedance of SOFC electrodes: A review and a comprehensive case study on the impedance of LSM:YSZ cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Hjelm, Johan

    2014-01-01

    It was shown through a comprehensive impedance spectroscopy study that the impedance of the classic composite LSM:YSZ (lanthanum strontium manganite and yttria stabilized zirconia) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode can be described well with porous electrode theory. Furthermore, it was illustr......It was shown through a comprehensive impedance spectroscopy study that the impedance of the classic composite LSM:YSZ (lanthanum strontium manganite and yttria stabilized zirconia) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode can be described well with porous electrode theory. Furthermore......, it was illustrated through a literature review on SOFC electrodes that porous electrode theory not only describes the classic LSM:YSZ SOFC cathode well, but SOFC electrodes in general. The extensive impedance spectroscopy study of LSM:YSZ cathodes consisted of measurements on cathodes with three different sintering...... temperatures and hence different microstructures and varying degrees of LSM/YSZ solid state interactions. LSM based composite cathodes, where YSZ was replaced with CGO was also studied in order to acquire further knowledge on the chemical compatibility between LSM and YSZ. All impedance measurements were...

  14. Synthesis of modified calcium aluminate with lanthanum manganite (LSM) for possible use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); Sintese de aluminato de calcio modificado com manganita de lantanio (LSM) para possivel utilizacao em celula combustivel de oxido solido (SOFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, F.C.T.; Jurado, J.; Sousa, V.C. de, E-mail: faili.cintia@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Departamento de Materiais; Cava, S.S. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The fuel cells solid oxide (SOFC) is made up of three basic elements: two electrodes, the anode and cathode and a conductive electrolyte ions. The objective of this work consists of calcium aluminate synthesis modified LSM in a 1: 1 by combustion synthesis method with a view to its use as a cathode in SOFC. The characterization of the post was carried out by the methods of XRD, TEM and EIS. After heat treatment at 1200°C/4 hours it was possible to obtain Ca0.5Sr1.5MnO4 and CaMnO2.56 phases. The material showed a semiconductor characteristics because with increasing temperature the electrical resistance value tends to decrease obtaining electrical conductivity greater than 10-6S / cm featuring an extrinsic semiconductor with an activation energy of 0.12. Therefore, with an activation energy value within the range of materials used for a SOFC cathodes. (author)

  15. SOFC solid oxide fuel cell power plants for the decentralised electric energy supply; SOFC-Brennstoffzellen-Kraftwerke fuer die dezentrale elektrische Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogang Tchonla, Etienne

    2012-07-01

    To use the fuel cell economically, the efficiency of the system must still be raised so that it can be set up in the market. Within the scope of analysis on this topic, a 120-kW-SOFC-demonstration power plant was to be considered. Since not enough information about the demonstration power plant from the operator was available for the investigation, we had to calculate with the help of the known technical data of similar power plants. After that a model was build and simulated by means of MATLAB/Simulink. Before that the single power plant components were being described. Two of them (the boost converter as well as the inverter) were looked at more thoroughly. As a result of the analysis, it was found that a standard inverter which had been conceived for other applications, for example, Photovoltaic or Wind Power can also be used for fuel cells. Unfortunately, this was not the case for the added boost converter. It had to be precisely conceived for the used fuel cell type. After this discovery information was won for the realization of a 1-MW-Fuel Cell Power Plant. The topology of the 1-MW-power plant was fixed on the basis of the 120-kW-system. A parallel connection of eight 120-kW SOFC-fuel cell aggregates is intended, as well as a connection at the outlet side 120-kW boost converters. A standard inverter with 1 MW electrical power as well as a 1-MVA-transformer could be used for the realization of the 1-MW-power plant. The binding of the power plant in the three-phase current network was examined in view of the norms, laws and connection conditions. Beside the distinction of the operating forms of the power plant (parallel or isolated operation) the security of the plant was emphasized with regard to quick fault recognition, safe supply line isolation in the fault case as well as a compliance of the prescribed regulations. To verify the calculated results as well as the provided models, a 10-kW-labor sample was built and examined in the lab. This experimental

  16. Fracture-mechanical analysis of metal/ceramic composites for applications in high-temperature fuel cells (SOFC); Bruchmechanische Untersuchung von Metall/Keramik-Verbunsystemen fuer die Anwendung in der Hochtemperaturbrennstoffzelle (SOFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Bernd Josef

    2008-08-25

    The author investigated the deformation and damage behaviour of soldered ceramic/metal joints in SOFC stacks, using thermochemical methods. Methods for analyzing sandwich systems and for mechanical characterization of joints were adapted and modified in order to provide fundamental understanding of the mechanical properties of soldered joints. [German] In dieser Arbeit wurde das Verformungs- und Schaedigungsverhalten von Keramik/ Metall-Loetverbindungen fuer SOFC-Stacks thermomechanisch untersucht. Verfahren zur Analyse von Schichtsystemen und fuer die mechanische Charakterisierung von Fuegeverbindungen wurden adaptiert und weiterentwickelt, um zu einem grundlegenden Verstaendnis der mechanischen Eigenschaften von Loetverbindungen zu gelangen.

  17. Synthesis of modified calcium aluminate with lanthanum manganite (LSM) for possible use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, F.C.T.; Jurado, J.; Sousa, V.C. de

    2016-01-01

    The fuel cells solid oxide (SOFC) is made up of three basic elements: two electrodes, the anode and cathode and a conductive electrolyte ions. The objective of this work consists of calcium aluminate synthesis modified LSM in a 1: 1 by combustion synthesis method with a view to its use as a cathode in SOFC. The characterization of the post was carried out by the methods of XRD, TEM and EIS. After heat treatment at 1200°C/4 hours it was possible to obtain Ca0.5Sr1.5MnO4 and CaMnO2.56 phases. The material showed a semiconductor characteristics because with increasing temperature the electrical resistance value tends to decrease obtaining electrical conductivity greater than 10-6S / cm featuring an extrinsic semiconductor with an activation energy of 0.12. Therefore, with an activation energy value within the range of materials used for a SOFC cathodes. (author)

  18. Direct Utilization of Liquid Fuels in SOFC for Portable Applications: Challenges for the Selection of Alternative Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Cimenti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC have the advantage of being able to operate with fuels other than hydrogen. In particular, liquid fuels are especially attractive for powering portable applications such as small power generators or auxiliary power units, in which case the direct utilization of the fuel would be convenient. Although liquid fuels are easier to handle and transport than hydrogen, their direct use in SOFC can lead to anode deactivation due to carbon formation, especially on traditional nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ anodes. Significant advances have been made in anodic materials that are resistant to carbon formation but often these materials are less electrochemically active than Ni/YSZ. In this review the challenges of using liquid fuels directly in SOFC, in terms of gas-phase and catalytic reactions within the anode chamber, will be discussed and the alternative anode materials so far investigated will be compared.

  19. Fabrication of Sr- and Co-doped lanthanum chromite interconnectors for SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setz, L.F.G. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos - DEMa/UFSCar (Brazil); Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN (Brazil); Santacruz, I. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Cristalografia y Mineralogia, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Colomer, M.T., E-mail: tcolomer@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, ICV (CSIC), 28049 Madrid (Spain); Mello-Castanho, S.R.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN (Brazil); Moreno, R. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, ICV (CSIC), 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Graphical abstract: FESEM micrographs of the fresh fracture surfaces for the La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}Cr{sub 0.92}Co{sub 0.08}O{sub 3} sintered specimens cast from optimised suspensions with 13.5, 15 and 17.5 vol.% solids loading. Aqueous suspensions were prepared using ammonium polyacrylate (PAA) as dispersant and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to assure a basic pH and providing stabilization. Sintering of the green discs was performed in air at 1600 {sup o}C for 4 h. Highlights: {yields} Optimum casting slips were achieved with 3 wt.% of ammonium polyacrylate and 1 wt.% of tetramethylammonium hydroxide. -- Abstract: Many studies have been performed dealing with the processing conditions of electrodes and electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, the processing of the interconnector material has received less attention. Lanthanum chromite (LaCrO{sub 3}) is probably the most studied material as SOFCs interconnector. This paper deals with the rheology and casting behaviour of lanthanum chromite based materials to produce interconnectors for SOFCs. A powder with the composition La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}Cr{sub 0.92}Co{sub 0.08}O{sub 3} was obtained by combustion synthesis. Aqueous suspensions were prepared to solids loading ranging from 8 to 17.5 vol.%, using ammonium polyacrylate (PAA) as dispersant and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to assure a basic pH and providing stabilization. The influence of the additives concentrations and suspension ball milling time were studied. Suspensions prepared with 24 h ball milling, with 3 wt.% and 1 wt.% of PAA and TMAH, respectively, yielded the best conditions for successful slip casting. Sintering of the green discs was performed in air at 1600 {sup o}C for 4 h leading to relatively dense materials.

  20. Effect of ionic conductivity of zirconia electrolytes on polarization properties of various electrodes in SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Manabu [Yamanashi Univ., Kofu (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been intensively investigated because, in principle, their energy conversion efficiency is fairly high. Lowering the operating temperature of SOFCs from 1000{degrees}C to around 800{degrees}C is desirable for reducing serious problems such as physical and chemical degradation of the constructing materials. The object of a series of the studies is to find a clue for achieving higher electrode performances at a low operating temperature than those of the present level. Although the polarization loss at electrodes can be reduced by using mixed-conducting ceria electrolytes, or introducing the mixed-conducting (reduced zirconia or ceria) laver on the conventional zirconia electrolyte surface, no reports are available on the effect of such an ionic conductivity of electrolytes on electrode polarizations. High ionic conductivity of the electrolyte, of course, reduces the ohmic loss. However, we have found that the IR-free polarization of a platinum anode attached to zirconia electrolytes is greatly influenced by the ionic conductivity, {sigma}{sub ion}, of the electrolytes used. The higher the {sigma}{sub ion}, the higher the exchange current density, j{sub 0}, for the Pt anode in H{sub 2} at 800 {approximately} 1000{degrees}C. It was indicated that the H{sub 2} oxidation reaction rate was controlled by the supply rate of oxide ions through the Pt/zirconia interface which is proportional to the {sigma}{sub ion}. Recently, we have proposed a new concept of the catalyzed-reaction layers which realizes both high-performances of anodes and cathodes for medium-temperature operating SOFCs. We present the interesting dependence of the polarization properties of various electrodes (the SDC anodes with and without Ru microcatalysts, Pt cathode, La(Sr)MnO{sub 3} cathodes with and without Pt microcatalysts) on the {sigma}{sub ion} of various zirconia electrolytes at 800 {approximately} 1000{degrees}C.

  1. Technical development and economic valuation of new cooling methods for planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thom, F.

    2002-02-01

    A great potential exists for the use of the solid oxide fuel cell technology based on the planar cell design concept. Besides its application as power provider there is a need to supply process heat in the temperature range of 200 to 1200 C for commercial and industrial decentralized facilities. The present study is concerned with the technical development and economic valuation of plant concepts of new fuel cell cooling methods. They can be considered as an alternative to the normal convective cell cooling with air. Besides experimental studies on the natural gas reforming with the SOFC special attention is paid to the process analysis of the power plant carried out with the simulating program PROII. The 200 kWe SOFC is linked with peripheral components such as prereformer, heat exchangers, compressors etc. Developed program subroutine serve to calculate the electrical power output of the fuel cell, the investment costs and the costs of electricity. The study shows clearly that a radiative cell cooling device on basis of an external arranged vaporizer has economic benefits in comparison with the normal air cooling. In this case the possibility is given to run the fuel cell with completely prereformed natural gas. When the internal methane reforming is carried out in excess of the electrochemical demand for hydrogen and carbon monoxide respectively a further cost reduction potential is given. The produced synthesis gas can be used in alternative to the production of power in a gas turbine to supply process steam in the temperature range of 200 to 1200 C. Sensitivity analyses show that a successive use of optimization potentials (e.g. anode structure and operating parameters of the SOFC) leads to a further reduction of the costs of electricity. In the best case the achieved costs of 12 to 13 Pf/kWh are in a range achieved by CHP plants based on engines. (orig.) [de

  2. Evaluation of nickel and copper catalysts in biogas reforming for hydrogen production in SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Leonardo Alves; Martins, Andre Rosa; Rangel, Maria do Carmo, E-mail: mcarmov@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos em Cinetica e Catalise; Ballarini, Adriana; Maina, Silvia [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis Y Petroquimica Ing. Jose Miguel Parera (INCAPE), Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2017-01-15

    The solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) enable the efficient generation of clean energy, fitting the current requirements of the growing demand for electricity and for the environment preservation. When powered with biogas (from digesters of municipal wastes), the SOFCs also contribute to reduce the environmental impact of these wastes. The most suitable route to produce hydrogen inside SOFC from biogas is through dry reforming but the catalyst is easily deactivated by coke, because of the high amounts of carbon in the stream. A promising way to overcome this drawback is by adding a second metal to nickel-based catalysts. Aiming to obtain active, selective and stable catalysts for biogas dry reforming, solids based on nickel (15%) and copper (5%) supported on aluminum and magnesium oxide were studied in this work. Samples were prepared by impregnating the support with nickel and copper nitrate, followed by calcination at 500, 600 and 800 deg C. It was noted that all solids were made of nickel oxide, nickel aluminate and magnesium aluminate but no copper compound was found. The specific surface areas did not changed with calcination temperature but the nickel oxide average particles size increased. The solids reducibility decreased with increasing temperature. All catalysts were active in methane dry reforming, leading to similar conversions but different selectivities to hydrogen and different activities in water gas shift reaction (WGSR). This behavior was assigned to different interactions between nickel and copper, at different calcination temperatures. All catalysts were active in WGSR, decreasing the hydrogen to carbon monoxide molar ratio and producing water. The catalyst calcined at 500 deg C was the most promising one, leading to the highest hydrogen yield, besides the advantage of being produced at the lowest calcination temperature, requiring less energy in its preparation. (author)

  3. Evaluation of nickel and copper catalysts in biogas reforming for hydrogen production in SOFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Leonardo Alves; Martins, Andre Rosa; Rangel, Maria do Carmo

    2017-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) enable the efficient generation of clean energy, fitting the current requirements of the growing demand for electricity and for the environment preservation. When powered with biogas (from digesters of municipal wastes), the SOFCs also contribute to reduce the environmental impact of these wastes. The most suitable route to produce hydrogen inside SOFC from biogas is through dry reforming but the catalyst is easily deactivated by coke, because of the high amounts of carbon in the stream. A promising way to overcome this drawback is by adding a second metal to nickel-based catalysts. Aiming to obtain active, selective and stable catalysts for biogas dry reforming, solids based on nickel (15%) and copper (5%) supported on aluminum and magnesium oxide were studied in this work. Samples were prepared by impregnating the support with nickel and copper nitrate, followed by calcination at 500, 600 and 800 deg C. It was noted that all solids were made of nickel oxide, nickel aluminate and magnesium aluminate but no copper compound was found. The specific surface areas did not changed with calcination temperature but the nickel oxide average particles size increased. The solids reducibility decreased with increasing temperature. All catalysts were active in methane dry reforming, leading to similar conversions but different selectivities to hydrogen and different activities in water gas shift reaction (WGSR). This behavior was assigned to different interactions between nickel and copper, at different calcination temperatures. All catalysts were active in WGSR, decreasing the hydrogen to carbon monoxide molar ratio and producing water. The catalyst calcined at 500 deg C was the most promising one, leading to the highest hydrogen yield, besides the advantage of being produced at the lowest calcination temperature, requiring less energy in its preparation. (author)

  4. Aluminosilicate-based sealants for SOFCs and other electrochemical applications - A brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulyaganov, Dilshat U.; Reddy, Allu Amarnath; Kharton, Vladislav V.; Ferreira, José M. F.

    2013-11-01

    Among different designs of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), planar design is the most promising due to easier fabrication, improved performance and relatively high power density. In planar SOFCs and other solid-electrolyte devices, gas-tight seals must be formed along the edges of each cell and between the stack and gas manifolds. For a sealant to work effectively in high-temperature SOFC environment, equilibrium needs to be achieved amid its mechanical properties and flow behavior so that it does not only maintain its hermeticity at high temperature but is also able to reduce mechanical stresses generated in the seal during thermal cycling. The most common sealants based on glass or glass-ceramic materials have been shown to operate in fuel cells for more than 1000 h with no significant degradation. Analysis of the current literature sources demonstrated that from thermal and chemical stability points of view, silicate based glass systems are more suitable than borate and borosilicate glass systems. In this work, different glass-ceramic (GC) compositions based on alkaline- and alkaline-earth aluminosilicate-based glass systems are reviewed with a special emphasis on their thermal, chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties. Based on these considerations, glass composition design approaches are provided that aid in search of the best seal glasses satisfying the rigid functional requirements. Among all the glass systems studied, a pyroxene based CaO-MgO-SrO-BaO-La2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 seal GC compositions have been specifically discussed because those have achieved appropriate thermal and chemical properties along with high stability. Approaches for further developments and optimization of GC sealants are briefly discussed.

  5. Shape distortion and thermo-mechanical properties of SOFC components from green tape to sintering body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teocoli, Francesca; Ni, De Wei; Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye

    due to binder burn out, differential shrinkage behavior and to a potential interfacial reaction between the two materials. To analyze the phenomena, shrinkage of SOFC components single layers and bilayered samples were measured insitu by optical dilatometer. The densification mismatch stress, due...... to the strain rate difference between materials, was calculated using Cai’s model. Camber (curvature) development for in situ co-firing of a bi-layer ceramic green tape has been investigated. Analysis of shape evolution from green to sintered body can be carried out by the thermo-mechanical analysis techniques....

  6. Thermoeconomic Analysis Of a Gasification Plant Fed By Woodchips And Integrated With SOFC And STIG Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    of the influence of SOFC stack cost on the generation cost is also presented. In order to discuss the investment cost, an economic analysis has been carried out by involving main parameters such as Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Time of Return of Investment (TIR) are calculated...... above 53% and 43% respectively which are significantly greater than conventional 10 MWe plants fed by biomass. Thermo-economic analysis provides an average cost of electricity for best performing layouts close to 6.4 and 9.4 c€/kWe which is competitive within the market. A sensitivity analysis...

  7. The mechanism behind redox instability of anodes in high-temperature SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemensø, Trine; Chung, Charissa; Larsen, Peter Halvor

    2005-01-01

    Bulk expansion of the anode upon oxidation is considered to be responsible for the lack of redox stability in high-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The bulk expansion of nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode materials was measured by dilatometry as a function of sample geometry......, ceramic component, temperature, and temperature cycling. The strength of the ceramic network and the degree of Ni redistribution appeared to be key parameters of the redox behavior. A model of the redox mechanism in nickel-YSZ anodes was developed based on the dilatometry data and macro...

  8. Reversibility of the SOFC for the hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisse, A.; Marrony, M.; Perednis, D.; Schefold, J.; Jose-Garcia, M.; Zahid, M.

    2007-01-01

    The behaviour of two SOFC cells in electrolysis mode is studied. The performances of these solid oxide cells, reversible at 800 C and for current densities between 0 and -0.42 A/cm 2 , are presented. A weaker polarisation resistance has been measured for the cell containing a mixed conductor as oxygen electrode. For each cell, a limitation by gaseous diffusion has been observed under current. This phenomenon appears for current densities which are higher for the mixed conductor cell as oxygen electrode. (O.M.)

  9. Safety evaluation report on Westinghouse Electric Company ECCS evaluation model for plants equipped with upper head injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauben, G.N.; Wagner, N.H.; Israel, S.L.; McPherson, G.D.; Hodges, M.W.

    1978-04-01

    For plants which include an ice condenser containment concept, Westinghouse has planned an additional safety system known as the upper head injection (UHI) system to augment the emergency core cooling system. This system is comprised of additional accumulator tanks and piping arranged to supply cooling water to the top of the core during the blowdown period following a postulated large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The objective of UHI is to add to the core cooling provided by the conventional emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and so permit operation at linear heat rates comparable to those permitted in plants utilizing the dry containment concept. In this way, plants which include the UHI system would have greater operating flexibility while still meeting the acceptance criteria as defined in paragraph 50.46 of 10 CFR Part 50. This review is concerned with those changes to the Westinghouse ECCS evaluation model that have been proposed for the UHI-LOCA model

  10. Core damage frequency prespectives for BWR 3/4 and Westinghouse 4-loop plants based on IPE results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingman, S.; Camp, S.; LaChance, J.; Mary Drouin

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the core damage frequency (CDF) insights gained by analyzing the results of the Individual Plant Examinations (IPES) for two groups of plants: boiling water reactor (BWR) 3/4 plants with Reactor Core Isolation Cooling systems, and Westinghouse 4-loop plants. Wide variability was observed for the plant CDFs and for the CDFs of the contributing accident classes. On average, transients-with loss of injection, station blackout sequences, and transients with loss of decay heat removal are important contributors for the BWR 3/4 plants, while transients, station blackout sequences, and loss-of-coolant accidents are important for the Westinghouse 4-loop plants. The key factors that contribute to the variability in the results are discussed. The results are often driven by plant-specific design and operational characteristics, but differences in modeling approaches are also important for some accident classes

  11. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford retrievable storage from Westinghouse Advanced Reactors and Nuclear Fuels Divisions, Cheswick, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Dicenso, K.D.; DeLorenzo, D.S.

    1994-04-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Sits in southeastern Washington State is to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Approximately 5.7 percent of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to WIPP was generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division (WARD) and the Westinghouse Nuclear Fuels Division (WNFD) in Cheswick, Pennsylvania and shipped to the Hanford Sits for storage. This report characterizes these radioactive solid wastes using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews

  12. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analysis of a system with biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic investigations of a small-scale integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power (CHP) with a net electric capacity of 120kWe have been performed. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas......Wh. Furthermore, hot water is considered as a by-product, and the cost of hot water is found to be 0.0214$/kWh. When compared to other renewable systems of similar scales, this result shows that if both SOFC and Stirling engine technology enter the commercialization phase, then they can deliver electricity...

  13. NiO/YSZ Reduction for SOFC/SOEC Studied In Situ by Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Agersted, Karsten; Hansen, Karin Vels

    2014-01-01

    SOFCs/SOECs are typically composed of ceramic materials, which are highly complex at the nano-scale. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) are routinely applied for studying these nano-scaled structures post mortem, but only few SOFC/SOEC studies have applied environmental T...... and constant temperature ramping rate of 1°C/min. The NiO observed in the first image at 320°C is dense. From the lower left corner a front of porous Ni is progressing until full reduction at 340°C. [Formula]...

  14. Electrochemical performances of proton-conducting SOFC with La-Sr-Fe-O cathode fabricated by electrophoretic deposition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asamoto, Makiko; Miyake, Shinji; Yonei, Yuka; Yamaura, Hiroyuki; Yahiro, Hidenori

    2009-01-01

    The electrochemical performances of Proton-conducting SOFC with La 0.7 Sr 0.3 FeO 3 (LSF) cathode fabricated by the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique were investigated. The EPD technique provided the uniform layer of LSF cathode with constant thickness and can easily control the thickness by changing an applied voltage. The power density of the SOFC cell was dependent on the thickness of LSF cathode. The activation energy was measured to elucidate the rate-determining step for LSF cathode reaction. (author)

  15. Current status of generation III nuclear power and assessment of AP1000 developed by Westinghouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingchang

    2005-01-01

    In order to make greater contributions to the environment, new nuclear power systems will be needed to meet the increase of electricity demand and to replace plants to be decommissioned. A series of new designs, so called Generation III and Generation III +, are being developed to ensure their deployment in a Near-Term Deployment Road-map in US by 2010 and in Europe by 2015. The AP1000, developed by Westinghouse, is a two-loop 1000 MWe PWR with passive safety features and extensive simplifications to enhance its competitiveness in cost and tariff. It is the first Generation III + plant receiving the Final Design Approval by the US NRC. This paper briefly describes AP1000 design features and technical specifications, and presents a more detailed design evaluation with reference to relevant literatures. Both the opportunity and challenges for nuclear power development in China during the first decade of the 21 st century in a historic transition from Gen II to Gen III are analyzed. The key is to balance risks and benefits if the first AP1000 to be settled down in China. (author)

  16. Stability tests of the Westinghouse coil in the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.; Fehling, D.T.; Lubell, M.S.; Lue, J.W.; Luton, J.N.; McManamy, T.J.; Shen, S.S.; Wilson, C.T.

    1987-09-01

    The Westinghouse coil is one of three forced-flow coils in the six-coil toroidal array of the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is wound with an 18-kA, Nb 3 Sn/Cu, cable-in-conduit superconductor structurally supported by aluminum plates and cooled by 4-K, 15-atm supercritical helium. The coil is instrumented to permit measurement of helium temperature, pressure, and flow rate; structure temperature and strain; field; and normal zone voltage. A resistive heater has been installed to simulate nuclear heating, and inductive heaters have been installed to facilitate stability testing. The coil has been tested both individually and in the six-coil array. The tests covered charging to full design current and field, measuring the current-sharing threshold temperature using the resistive heaters, and measuring the stability margin using the pulsed inductive heaters. At least one section of the conductor exhibits a very broad resistive transition (resistive transition index = 4). The broad transition, though causing the appearance of voltage at relatively low temperatures, does not compromise the stability margin of the coil, which was greater than 1.1 J/cm 3 of strands. In another, nonresistive location, the stability margin was between 1.7 and 1.9 J/cm 3 of strands. The coil is completely stable in operation at 100% design current in both the single- and six-coil modes

  17. Station Blackout Analysis for a 3-Loop Westinghouse PWR Reactor Using Trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sahlamy, N.M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the main concerns in the area of severe accidents in nuclear reactors is that of station blackout (SBO). The loss of offsite electrical power concurrent with the unavailability of the onsite emergency alternating current (AC) power system can result in loss of decay heat removal capability, leading to a potential core damage which may lead to undesirable consequences to the public and the environment. To cope with an SBO, nuclear reactors are provided with protection systems that automatically shut down the reactor, and with safety systems to remove the core residual heat. This paper provides a best estimate assessment of the SBO scenario in a 3-loop Westinghouse PWR reactor. The evaluation is performed using TRACE, a best estimate computer code for thermal-hydraulic calculations. Two sets of scenarios for SBO analyses are discussed in the current work. The first scenario is the short term SBO where it is assumed that in addition to the loss of AC power, there is no DC power; i.e., no batteries are available. In the second scenario, a long term SBO is considered. For this scenario, DC batteries are available for four hours. The aim of the current SBO analyses for the 3-loop pressurized water reactor presented in this paper is to focus on the effect of the availability of a DC power source to delay the time to core uncovers and heatup

  18. Westinghouse integrated protection system. An overview of the software design and maintenance features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Westinghouse Integrated Protection System was designed with the goal of providing a system which can be easily verified, validated, and maintained. The software design and structure promote the ease of translation from functional requirements to applications function software while also improving the ability to verify and maintain the applications function software. The use of independent, reusable, common functions software modules focuses the design, verification, and validation of the software and reduces the likelihood of errors occurring during the application and maintenance of the software. The simple continuous loop method of operation used throughout the IPS provides a standard deterministic method of operation. The IPS design also incorporates the use of embedded self-diagnostics to perform continuous hardware oriented tests of the system and the use of an independent subsystem to automatically perform a functional test of the system. Maintenance interfaces also exist to readily identify and locate faults as well as providing other maintenance capabilities. These testing and maintenance features enhance the overall reliability and availability of the system. (orig.) (2 refs., 2 figs.)

  19. Signal validation of SPDS variables for Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering plants - an EPRI project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Signal validation in the context of this project is the process of combining information from multiple plant sensors to produce highly reliable information about plant conditions. High information reliability is achieved by the use of redundant sources of information and by the inherent detection, identification, and isolation of faulty signals. The signal validation methodology that has been developed in previous EPRI-sponsored projects has been enhanced and applied toward validation of critical safety-related SPDS signals in the Northeast Utilities Millstone 3 Westinghouse PWR plant and the Millstone 2 Combustion Engineering PWR plant. The designs were implemented in FORTRAN software and tested off-line using recorded plant sensor data, RETRAN-generated simulation data, and data to exercise software logic branches and the integration of software modules. Designs and software modules have been developed for 15 variables to support six PWR SPDS critical safety functions as required by a utility advisory group attached to the project. The signal validation process automates a task currently performed by plant operators and does so with consistent, verified logic regardless of operator stress and training level. The methodology uses a simple structure of generic software blocks, a modular implementation, and it performs effectively within the processor and memory constraints of modern plant process computers. The ability to detect and isolate sensor failures with greater sensitivity, robustness, and coverage of common-cause failures should ultimately lead to improved plant availability, efficiency, and productivity

  20. Westinghouse experience in Kozloduy NPP units 5 and 6 I and C modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sechensky, B.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the background, current implementation approach and experience on the largest ever modernization program on operating units WWER 1000 (PWR) at Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant in Bulgaria. The Modernization Program itself includes more than 212 measures. Westinghouse is modernizing the major I and C systems at WWER 1000. The major topics of the modernization program and specific approach described in this paper are as follows: 1) Design Approach and Feature; 2) Installation Approach; 3) Test Strategy; 4) Licensing Strategy, applicable codes and standards. At the end author summarized that: 1) Specific design solutions were required and developed in order to address the specific plant features. At each stage, representatives of the Client are being involved in the process of designing and testing of the equipment and systems; 2) Phase-by-phase installation efforts were developed and extensive installation design documentation was prepared to fit in the limited outage window and to successfully complete the installation activities; 3) Well-prepared, multi-phase testing strategy was developed and is being implemented to assure the proper and adequate operation of the equipment at the factory and at the real plant

  1. Westinghouse Modular Grinding Process - Enhancement of Volume Reduction for Hot Resin Supercompaction - 13491

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrmann, Henning [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Dudenstr. 44, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Aign, Joerg [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH, Global D and D and Waste Management, Tarpenring 6, D-22419 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In nuclear power plants (NPP) ion exchange (IX) resins are used in several systems for water treatment. Spent resins can contain a significant amount of contaminates which makes treatment for disposal of spent resins mandatory. Several treatment processes are available such as direct immobilization with technologies like cementation, bitumisation, polymer solidification or usage of a high integrity container (HIC). These technologies usually come with a significant increase in final waste volume. The Hot Resin Supercompaction (HRSC) is a thermal treatment process which reduces the resin waste volume significantly. For a mixture of powdered and bead resins the HRSC process has demonstrated a volume reduction of up to 75 % [1]. For bead resins only the HRSC process is challenging because the bead resins compaction properties are unfavorable. The bead resin material does not form a solid block after compaction and shows a high spring back effect. The volume reduction of bead resins is not as good as for the mixture described in [1]. The compaction properties of bead resin waste can be significantly improved by grinding the beads to powder. The grinding also eliminates the need for a powder additive.Westinghouse has developed a modular grinding process to grind the bead resin to powder. The developed process requires no circulation of resins and enables a selective adjustment of particle size and distribution to achieve optimal results in the HRSC or in any other following process. A special grinding tool setup is use to minimize maintenance and radiation exposure to personnel. (authors)

  2. Westinghouse-GOTHIC modeling of NUPEC's hydrogen mixing and distribution test M-4-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofstun, R.P.; Woodcock, J.; Paulsen, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    NUPEC (NUclear Power Engineering Corporation) ran a series of hydrogen mixing and distribution tests which were completed in April 1992. These tests were performed in a 1/4 linearly scaled model containment and were specifically designed to be used for computer code validation. The results of test M-4-3, along with predictions from several computer codes, were presented to the participants of ISP-35 (a blind test comparison of code calculated results with data from NUPEC test M-7-1) at a meeting in March 1993. Test M-4-3, which was similar to test M-7-1, released a mixture of steam and helium into a steam generator compartment located on the lower level of containment. The majority of codes did well at predicting the global pressure and temperature trends, however, some typical lumped parameter modeling problems were identified at that time. In particular, the models had difficulty predicting the temperature and helium concentrations in the so called 'dead ended volumes' (pressurizer compartment and in-core chase region). Modeling of the dead-ended compartments using a single lumped parameter volume did not yield the appropriate temperature and helium response within that volume. The Westinghouse-GOTHIC (WGOTHIC) computer code is capable of modeling in one, two or three dimensions (or any combination thereof). This paper describes the WGOTHIC modeling of the dead-ended compartments for NUPEC test M-4-3 and gives comparisons to the test data. 1 ref., 1 tab., 14 figs

  3. Recent improvements and new features in the Westinghouse lattice physics codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huria, H.C.; Buechel, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Westinghouse has been using the ANC three-dimensional, two-energy-group nodal model for nuclear analysis and fuel management calculations for standard pressurized water reactor (PWR) reload design analysis since 1988. The cross sections are obtained from PHOENIX-P, a modified version of the PHOENIX lattice physics code for all square-assembly PWR cores. The PHOENIX-H code was developed for modeling both the VVER-1000 and VVER-440 fuel lattice configurations. The PHOENIX-H code has evolved from PHOENIX-P, the primary difference being in the neutronic solution modules. The PHOENIX-P code determines the assembly flux distribution using integral transport theory-based pin-cell nodal coupling followed by two-dimensional discrete ordinates solution in x-y geometry. The PHOENIX-H code uses the two-dimensional heterogeneous response method. The other infrastructure is identical in both the codes, and they share the same 42-group cross-section library

  4. Los Alamos MAWST software layered on Westinghouse Savannah River Company's nuclear materials accountability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty, W.J.; Smith, J.E.; Davis, J.M. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Los Alamos Safeguards Systems Group's Materials Accounting With Sequential Testing (MAWST) computer program was developed to fulfill DOE Order 5633.3B requiring that inventory-difference control limits be based on variance propagation or any other statistically valid technique. Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) developed a generic computerized accountability system, NucMAS, to satisfy accounting and reporting requirements for material balance areas. NucMAS maintains the calculation methods and the measurement information required to compute nuclear material transactions in elemental and isotopic masses by material type code. The Safeguards Systems Group designed and implemented to WSRC's specifications a software interface application, called NucMASloe. It is a layered product for NucMAS that automatically formats a NucMAS data set to a format compatible with MAWST and runs MAWST. This paper traces the development of NucMASloe from the Software Requirements through the testing and demonstration stages. The general design constraints are described as well as the difficulties encountered on interfacing an external software product (MAWST) with an existing classical accounting structure (NucMAS). The lessons learned from this effort, the design, and some of the software are directly applicable to the Local Area Network Material Accountability System (LANMAS) being sponsored by DOE

  5. Ichthyoplankton entrainment study at the SRS Savannah River water intakes for Westinghouse Savannah River Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paller, M.

    1992-01-01

    Cooling water for L and K Reactors and makeup water for Par Pond is pumped from the Savannah River at the 1G, 3G, and 5G pump houses. Ichthyoplankton (drifting fish larvae and eggs) from the river are entrained into the reactor cooling systems with the river water and passed through the reactor's heat exchangers where temperatures may reach 70 degrees C during full power operation. Ichthyoplankton mortality under such conditions is assumed to be 100 percent. The number of ichthyoplankton entrained into the cooling system depends on a variety of variables, including time of year, density and distribution of ichthyoplankton in the river, discharge levels in the river, and the volume of water withdrawn by the pumps. Entrainment at the 1 G pump house, which is immediately downstream from the confluence of Upper Three Runs Creek and the Savannah River, is also influenced by discharge rates and ichthyoplankton densities in Upper Three Runs Creek. Because of the anticipated restart of several SRS reactors and the growing concern surrounding striped bass and American shad stocks in the Savannah River, the Department of Energy requested that the Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory sample ichthyoplankton at the SRS Savannah River intakes. Dams ampersand Moore, Inc., under a contract with Westinghouse Savannah River Company performed the sampling and data analysis for the ESS

  6. Westinghouse Hanford Company safety analysis reports and technical safety requirements upgrade program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busche, D.M.

    1995-09-01

    During Fiscal Year 1992, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) separately transmitted the following US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for compliance: DOE 5480.21, ''Unreviewed Safety Questions,'' DOE 5480.22, ''Technical Safety Requirements,'' and DOE 5480.23, ''Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.'' WHC has proceeded with its impact assessment and implementation process for the Orders. The Orders are closely-related and contain some requirements that are either identical, similar, or logically-related. Consequently, WHC has developed a strategy calling for an integrated implementation of the three Orders. The strategy is comprised of three primary objectives, namely: Obtain DOE approval of a single list of DOE-owned and WHC-managed Nuclear Facilities, Establish and/or upgrade the ''Safety Basis'' for each Nuclear Facility, and Establish a functional Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process to govern the management and preservation of the Safety Basis for each Nuclear Facility. WHC has developed policy-revision and facility-specific implementation plans to accomplish near-term tasks associated with the above strategic objectives. This plan, which as originally submitted in August 1993 and approved, provided an interpretation of the new DOE Nuclear Facility definition and an initial list of WHC-managed Nuclear Facilities. For each current existing Nuclear Facility, existing Safety Basis documents are identified and the plan/status is provided for the ISB. Plans for upgrading SARs and developing TSRs will be provided after issuance of the corresponding Rules

  7. Aging assessment of Westinghouse PWR and General Electric BWR containment isolation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.S.; Travis, R.; Grove, E.; DiBiasio, A.

    1996-03-01

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the Containment Isolation (CI) functions of Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors and General Electric Boiling Water Reactors. This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of this program are to provide an understanding of the aging process and how it affects plant safety so that it can be properly managed. This is one of a number of studies performed under the NPAR program which provide a technical basis for the identification and evaluation of degradation caused by age. Failure data from two national databases, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) and Licensee Event Reports (LERs), as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to understand the effects of aging on the CI functions. This study provided information on the effects of aging on component failure frequency, failure modes, and failure causes. Current inspection, surveillance, and monitoring practices were also reviewed.

  8. Aging assessment of Westinghouse PWR and General Electric BWR containment isolation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.S.; Travis, R.; Grove, E.; DiBiasio, A.

    1996-03-01

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the Containment Isolation (CI) functions of Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors and General Electric Boiling Water Reactors. This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program, sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of this program are to provide an understanding of the aging process and how it affects plant safety so that it can be properly managed. This is one of a number of studies performed under the NPAR program which provide a technical basis for the identification and evaluation of degradation caused by age. Failure data from two national databases, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) and Licensee Event Reports (LERs), as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to understand the effects of aging on the CI functions. This study provided information on the effects of aging on component failure frequency, failure modes, and failure causes. Current inspection, surveillance, and monitoring practices were also reviewed

  9. Collections and Analyses of Common Cause Failure Data for the Korea Standard and Westinghouse Type NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Han, S. H.

    2007-04-01

    The analyses of the CCF events for domestic NPPs were performed to establish the domestic database for the CCF events and to deliver supply them to the operation office of the international common cause failure data exchange (ICDE) project. We collected and analyzed the CCF events of emergency diesel generators, centrifugal pumps, motor-operated valves, check valves, circuit breakers for the Korean Standard Type nuclear power plants (NPPs), Yonggwang Units 3 and 4 and Ulchin Units 3 and 4, and the Westinghouse type NPPs, Kori Unit 3 and 4 and Yonggwang Units 1 and 2. First, the components to be collected and analyzed were classified into the common cause component groups (CCCGs) according to the ICDE coding guidelines. Next, the CCF events were identified based on reviews of the component database for the PSA and its related documents, and consultations with NPP staff. Fourteen CCF events were identified. The ratio of the number of CCF events to that of individual failure events was identified as approximately 10 percentages. However, an in depth review of the CCF events showed that most failure severities of them were identified as partial CCF events, which can be interpreted as some component failures within the CCCGs. Root causes of the CCF events were identified as 9 internal part failures, 2 human errors, 2 design deficiencies, 1 procedure inadequacy. It could be concluded that the major root causes of the CCF events were internal piece part failures

  10. Evaluation of the rod ejection accident in Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors using spatial kinetics methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risher, D.H. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The consequences of a rod ejection accident are investigated in relation to the latest, high power density Westinghouse reactors. Limiting criteria are presented, based on experimental evidence, and if not exceeded these criteria will ensure that there will be no interference with core cooling capability, and radiation releases, if any, will be within the guidelines of 10CFR100. A basis is presented for the conservative selection of plant parameters to be used in the analysis, such that the analysis is applicable to a wide range of past, present, and future reactors. The calculational method employs a one-dimensional spatial kinetics computer code and a transient fuel heat transfer computer code to determine the hot spot fuel temperature versus time following a rod ejection. Using these computer codes, the most limiting hot channel factor (which does not cause the fuel damage limit criteria to be exceeded) has been determined as a function of the ejected rod worth. By this means, the limit criteria have been translated into ejected rod worths and hot channel factors which can be used effectively by the nuclear designer and safety analyst. The calculational method is shown to be conservative, compared to the results of a three-dimensional spatial kinetics analysis

  11. Identification of items and activities important to waste form acceptance by Westinghouse GoCo sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Marra, S.L.; Dempster, J.; Randklev, E.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy has established specifications (Waste Acceptance Product Specifications for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms, or WAPS) for canistered waste forms produced at Hanford, Savannah River, and West Valley. Compliance with these specifications requires that each waste form producer identify the items and activities which must be controlled to ensure compliance. As part of quality assurance oversight activities, reviewers have tried to compare the methodologies used by the waste form producers to identify items and activities important to waste form acceptance. Due to the lack of a documented comparison of the methods used by each producer, confusion has resulted over whether the methods being used are consistent. This confusion has been exacerbated by different systems of nomenclature used by each producer, and the different stages of development of each project. The waste form producers have met three times in the last two years, most recently on June 28, 1993, to exchange information on each producer's program. These meetings have been sponsored by the Westinghouse GoCo HLW Vitrification Committee. This document is the result of this most recent exchange. It fills the need for a documented comparison of the methodologies used to identify items and activities important to waste form acceptance. In this document, the methodology being used by each waste form producer is summarized, and the degree of consistency among the waste form producers is determined

  12. Calculation of particulate dispersion in a design-basis tornadic storm from Westinghouse PFDL, Cheswick, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, D.W.

    1978-07-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model is used to calculate ground-level air concentration and deposition (due to precipitation scavenging) after a hypothetical tornado strike at the Westinghouse Plutonium Fuel Development Laboratory (PFDL) at Cheswick, Pennsylvania. Plutonium particles less than 20 μm in diameter are assumed to be lifted into the tornadic storm cell by the vortex. The rotational characteristics of the tornadic storm are embedded within the larger mesoscale flow of the storm system. The design-basis translational wind values are based on probabilities associated with existing records of tornado strikes in the vicinity of the plant site. Turbulence exchange coefficients are based on empirical values deduced from experimental data in severe storms and from theoretical assumptions obtained from the literature. The method of moments is used to incorporate subgrid-scale resolution of the concentration within a grid cell volume. This method is a quasi-Lagrangian scheme which minimizes numerical error associated with advection. In all case studies, the effects of updrafts and downdrafts, coupled with scavenging of the particulates by precipitation, account for most of the material being deposited within 20-45 km downwind of the plant site. Ground-level isopleths in the x-y plane show that most of the material is deposited behind and slightly to the left of the centerline trajectory of the storm. Approximately 5% of the material is dispersed into the stratosphere and anvil section of the storm

  13. Quantification of severe accident source terms of a Westinghouse 3-loop plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Min; Ko, Y.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Integrated severe accident analysis codes are used to quantify the source terms of the representative sequences identified in PSA study. The characteristics of these source terms depend on the detail design of the plant and the accident scenario. A historical perspective of radioactive source term is provided. The grouping of radionuclides in different source terms or source term quantification tools based on TID-14844, NUREG-1465, and WASH-1400 is compared. The radionuclides release phenomena and models adopted in the integrated severe accident analysis codes of STCP and MAAP4 are described. In the present study, the severe accident source terms for risk quantification of Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant of Taiwan Power Company are quantified using MAAP 4.0.4 code. A methodology is developed to quantify the source terms of each source term category (STC) identified in the Level II PSA analysis of the plant. The characteristics of source terms obtained are compared with other source terms. The plant analyzed employs a Westinghouse designed 3-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) with large dry containment

  14. Westinghouse Hanford Company plan for certifying newly generated contact -- handled transuranic waste. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, R.M.; Backlund, E.G.

    1995-09-01

    All transuranic (TRU) waste generators are required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A to package their TRU waste in order to comply wit the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) -- Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) or keep non-certifiable containers segregated. The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Transuranic Waste Certification Plan was developed to ensure that TRU newly generated waste at WHC meets the DOE Order 5820.2A and the WHC-WAC which includes the State of Washington Department of Ecology -- Washington Administrative Code (DOE-WAC). The metho used at WHC to package TRU waste are described in sufficient detail to meet the regulations. This document is organized to provide a brief overview of waste generation operations at WHC. The methods used to implement this plan are discussed briefly along with the responsibilities and authorities of applicable organizations. This plan describes how WHC complies with all applicable regulations and requirements set forth in the latest approved revision of WHC-EP-0063-4

  15. Application of MSHIM core control strategy for westinghouse AP1000 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoue, Masaaki; Kawanishi, Tomohiro; Carlson, William R.; Morita, Toshio

    2003-01-01

    Westinghouse has developed a new core control strategy, in which two independently moving Rod Cluster Control Assembly (RCCA) groups are utilized for core control; one group for reactivity/temperature control, the other for axial power distribution (Axial Offset) control. This control procedure eliminates the need for Chemical Shim adjustments during power maneuvers, such as load follow, and is designated MSHIM (Mechanical Shim). This core control strategy is utilized in the AP1000. In the AP1000, it is possible to perform MSHIM load follow maneuvers for up to 95% of cycle life without changing the soluble boron concentration in the moderator. This core control strategy has been evaluated, via computer simulations, to provide appropriate margins to core and fuel design limits during normal operation maneuvers (including load follow operations) and also during anticipated Condition II accident transients. The primary benefits of MSHIM as a control strategy are as follows; Power change operation can be totally automated due to the elimination of boron concentration adjustments. Full load follow capability is achievable for up to more than 95% of cycle life. Load follow operations performed solely by mechanical devices results in a significant reduction in the boron system requirements and a significant reduction in daily effluent to be processed. (author)

  16. Assessment of the TASS 1-D neutronics model for the westinghouse and ABB-CE type PWR reactivity induced transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.D.; Yoon, H.Y.; Um, K.S.; Kim, H.C.; Sim, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    Best estimate transient analysis code, TASS, has been developed for the normal and transient simulation of the Westinghouse and ABB-CE type PWRs. TASS thermal hydraulic model is based on the non-homogeneous, non-equilibrium two-phase continuity, energy and mixture momentum equations with constitutive relations for closure. Core neutronics model employs both the point kinetics and one-dimensional neutron diffusion model. Semi-implicit numerical scheme is used to solve the discretized finite difference equations. TASS one dimensional neutronics core model has been assessed through the reactivity induced transient analyses for the KORI-3, three loop Westinghouse PWR, and Younggwang-3 (YGN-3), two-loop ABB-CE PWR, nuclear power plants currently operating in Korea. The assessment showed that the TASS one dimensional neutronics core model can be applied for the Westinghouse and ABB-CE type PWRs to gain thermal margin which is necessary for a potential use of the high fuel burnup, extended fuel cycle, power upgrading and for the plant life extension

  17. Plan for fully decontaminating and decommissioning of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Fuel Laboratories at Cheswick, Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The project scope of work included the complete decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Westinghouse ARD Fuel Laboratories at the Cheswick Site in the shortest possible time. This has been accomplished in the following four phases: (1) preparation of documents and necessary paperwork; packaging and shipping of all special nuclear materials in an acceptable form to a reprocessing agency; (2) decontamination of all facilities, glove boxes and equipment; loading of generated waste into bins, barrels and strong wooden boxes; (3) shipping of all bins, barrels and boxes containing waste to the designated burial site; removal of all utility services from the laboratories; (4) final survey of remaining facilities and certification for nonrestricted use; preparation of final report. This volume contains the following 3 attachments: (1) Plan for Fully Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Fuel Laboratories at Cheswick; (2) Environmental Assessment for Decontamination and Decommissioning the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, PA; and (3) WARD-386, Quality Assurance Program Description for Decontamination and Decommissioning Activities

  18. Notes on the Implementation of Non-Parametric Statistics within the Westinghouse Realistic Large Break LOCA Evaluation Model (ASTRUM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frepoli, Cesare; Oriani, Luca

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, non-parametric or order statistics methods have been widely used to assess the impact of the uncertainties within Best-Estimate LOCA evaluation models. The bounding of the uncertainties is achieved with a direct Monte Carlo sampling of the uncertainty attributes, with the minimum trial number selected to 'stabilize' the estimation of the critical output values (peak cladding temperature (PCT), local maximum oxidation (LMO), and core-wide oxidation (CWO A non-parametric order statistics uncertainty analysis was recently implemented within the Westinghouse Realistic Large Break LOCA evaluation model, also referred to as 'Automated Statistical Treatment of Uncertainty Method' (ASTRUM). The implementation or interpretation of order statistics in safety analysis is not fully consistent within the industry. This has led to an extensive public debate among regulators and researchers which can be found in the open literature. The USNRC-approved Westinghouse method follows a rigorous implementation of the order statistics theory, which leads to the execution of 124 simulations within a Large Break LOCA analysis. This is a solid approach which guarantees that a bounding value (at 95% probability) of the 95 th percentile for each of the three 10 CFR 50.46 ECCS design acceptance criteria (PCT, LMO and CWO) is obtained. The objective of this paper is to provide additional insights on the ASTRUM statistical approach, with a more in-depth analysis of pros and cons of the order statistics and of the Westinghouse approach in the implementation of this statistical methodology. (authors)

  19. Definition of thermal-hydraulics parameters of a naval PWR via energy balance of a Westinghouse PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Luiz C.; Curi, Marcos F., E-mail: marcos.curi@cefet-rj.br [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we used the operational parameters of the Angra 1 nuclear power plant, designed by Westinghouse, to estimate the thermal-hydraulic parameters for naval nuclear propulsion, focusing on the analysis of the reactor and steam generator. A thermodynamics analysis was made to reach the operational parameters of primary circuit such as pressure, temperature, power generated among others. Previous studies available in literature of 2-loop Westinghouse Nuclear Power Plants, which is based on a PWR and similar to Angra-1, support this analysis in the sense of a correct procedure to deal with many complex processes to energy generation from a nuclear source. Temperature profiles in reactor and steam generator were studied with concepts of heat transfer, fluid mechanics and also some concepts of nuclear systems, showing the behavior into them. In this simulation, the Angra 1 primary circuit was reduced on a scale of 1: 3.5 to fit in a Scorpène-class submarine. The reactor generates 85.7 MW of total thermal power. The maximum power and temperatures reached were lower than the operational safe limits established by Westinghouse. The number of tubes of the steam generator was determined in 990 U-tubes with 6.3 m of average length. (author)

  20. Fatigue Life of High-Strength Steel Offshore Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Ingomar; Agerskov, Henning; Lopez Martinez, Luis

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, the fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore steel structures is studied. Two test series on full-scale tubular joints have been carried through. One series was on joints in conventional offshore structural steel, and the other series was on joints in high-strength......In the present investigation, the fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore steel structures is studied. Two test series on full-scale tubular joints have been carried through. One series was on joints in conventional offshore structural steel, and the other series was on joints in high......-strength steel with a yield stress of 820-830 MPa and with high weldability and toughness properties. The test specimens of both series had the same geometry. The present report concentrates on the results obtained in the investigation on the high-strength steel tubular joints.The test specimens were fabricated...... from Ø 324-610 mm tubes, and the joints were loaded in in-plane bending. Both fatigue tests under constant amplitude loading and tests with a stochastic loading that is realistic in relation to offshore structures, are included in the investigation.A comparison between constant amplitude and variable...